Science.gov

Sample records for run through trains

  1. Pressure Fluctuation Characteristics of Narrow Gauge Train Running Through Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Sakuma, Yutaka

    Pressure fluctuations on the sides of narrow (1067 mm) gauge trains running in tunnels are measured for the first time to investigate the aerodynamic force acting on the trains. The present measurements are compared with earlier measurements obtained with the Shinkansen trains. The results are as follows: (1) The aerodynamic force, which stems from pressure fluctuations on the sides of cars, puts the energy into the vibration of the car body running through a tunnel. (2) While the pressure fluctuations appear only on one of the two sides of the trains running in double-track tunnels, the fluctuations in opposite phase on both sides in single-track tunnels. (3) The on-track test data of the narrow gauge trains show the same tendency as those of the Shinkansen trains, although it is suggested that the pressure fluctuations develop faster along the narrow gauge trains than the Shinkansen trains.

  2. The Effects of Backwards Running Training on Forward Running Economy in Trained Males.

    PubMed

    Ordway, Jason D; Laubach, Lloyd L; Vanderburgh, Paul M; Jackson, Kurt J

    2016-03-01

    Backwards running (BR) results in greater cardiopulmonary response and muscle activity compared with forward running (FR). BR has traditionally been used in rehabilitation for disorders such as stroke and lower leg extremity injuries, as well as in short bursts during various athletic events. The aim of this study was to measure the effects of sustained backwards running training on forward running economy in trained male athletes. Eight highly trained, male runners (26.13 ± 6.11 years, 174.7 ± 6.4 cm, 68.4 ± 9.24 kg, 8.61 ± 3.21% body fat, 71.40 ± 7.31 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) trained with BR while harnessed on a treadmill at 161 m·min(-1) for 5 weeks following a 5-week BR run-in period at a lower speed (134 m·min(-1)). Subjects were tested at baseline, postfamiliarized, and post-BR training for body composition, a ramped VO2max test, and an economy test designed for trained male runners. Subjects improved forward running economy by 2.54% (1.19 ± 1.26 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), p = 0.032) at 215 m·min(-1). VO2max, body mass, lean mass, fat mass, and % body fat did not change (p > 0.05). Five weeks of BR training improved FR economy in healthy, trained male runners without altering VO2max or body composition. The improvements observed in this study could be a beneficial form of training to an already economical population to improve running economy.

  3. Teaching Bank Runs through Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, David T.

    2009-01-01

    The author advocates the use of films to supplement textbook treatments of bank runs and panics in money and banking or general banking classes. Modern students, particularly those in developed countries, tend to be unfamiliar with potential fragilities of financial systems such as a lack of deposit insurance or other safety net mechanisms. Films…

  4. [Running through the liver transplantation].

    PubMed

    Grecu, F

    2003-01-01

    An overview of the organization, timing and developing of the liver transplantation is difficult to be made in terms of multiple sequences and a great variety of activities during the developing of such activity. A well-trained transplant team must carry out the potential donor, the liver grafts manipulation and the graft receptor, in the condition of a competitive medical system. A summary presentation, showing the essentials of the proceedings in liver transplantation could be assimilated as a guide of multidisciplinary sequences that leads to the completion of the liver grafting. The common feature of all that means the liver transplantation and generally in organ transplantation is the performance and exactingness.

  5. Effects of Heavy Strength Training on Running Performance and Determinants of Running Performance in Female Endurance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Vikmoen, Olav; Raastad, Truls; Seynnes, Olivier; Bergstrøm, Kristoffer; Ellefsen, Stian; Rønnestad, Bent R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training to normal endurance training on running performance and running economy in well-trained female athletes. We hypothesized that the added strength training would improve performance and running economy through altered stiffness of the muscle-tendon complex of leg extensors. Methods Nineteen female endurance athletes [maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): 53±3 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, 5.8 h weekly endurance training] were randomly assigned to either normal endurance training (E, n = 8) or normal endurance training combined with strength training (E+S, n = 11). The strength training consisted of four leg exercises [3 x 4–10 repetition maximum (RM)], twice a week for 11 weeks. Muscle strength, 40 min all-out running distance, running performance determinants and patellar tendon stiffness were measured before and after the intervention. Results E+S increased 1RM in leg exercises (40 ± 15%) and maximal jumping height in counter movement jump (6 ± 6%) and squat jump (9 ± 7%, p < 0.05). This was accompanied by increased muscle fiber cross sectional area of both fiber type I (13 ± 7%) and fiber type II (31 ± 20%) in m. vastus lateralis (p < 0.05), with no change in capillary density in m. vastus lateralis or the stiffness of the patellar tendon. Neither E+S nor E changed running economy, fractional utilization of VO2max or VO2max. There were also no change in running distance during a 40 min all-out running test in neither of the groups. Conclusion Adding heavy strength training to endurance training did not affect 40 min all-out running performance or running economy compared to endurance training only. PMID:26953893

  6. Running free: embracing a healthy lifestyle through distance running.

    PubMed

    Shipway, Richard; Holloway, Immy

    2010-11-01

    Sport and leisure activity contribute to both health and quality of life. There is a dearth of qualitative studies on the lived experiences of active people, so the aim of this paper is to develop a deeper understanding of the experiences of one particular group of active leisure participants, distance runners, and to highlight the associated health and well-being benefits that result from participating in this increasingly popular form of active leisure. In doing so, this paper will briefly explore the potential opportunities and implications for sport and leisure policy and provision, and highlight examples of how distance running could positively contribute towards government objectives linked to tackling obesity levels, healthy living and physical well-being. It is suggested that similar benefits also exist across other forms of physical activity, exercise and sport. Qualitative methods of enquiry were adopted to understand the nature of the social world of long distance runners through interviews and observations, which were thematically analyzed. One of the key themes emerging from the data was the desire to embrace a healthy lifestyle, which then led to the emergence of four main sub-themes. The first was linked to the importance of seeking self-esteem and confirmation through running; second, an investigation of a selection of negative aspects associated with exercise addiction; third, the need to exercise among sport and leisure participants; and finally, an understanding of the concept of the 'running body'. Cautionary notes also identified negative aspects associated with exercise and physical activity. The findings highlight the potential role that distance running can play as an easily accessible and enjoyable leisure activity, one that can help facilitate increased participation in exercise and physical activity as an integral part of an active and healthy lifestyle.

  7. The Effect of Training in Minimalist Running Shoes on Running Economy.

    PubMed

    Ridge, Sarah T; Standifird, Tyler; Rivera, Jessica; Johnson, A Wayne; Mitchell, Ulrike; Hunter, Iain

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of minimalist running shoes on oxygen uptake during running before and after a 10-week transition from traditional to minimalist running shoes. Twenty-five recreational runners (no previous experience in minimalist running shoes) participated in submaximal VO2 testing at a self-selected pace while wearing traditional and minimalist running shoes. Ten of the 25 runners gradually transitioned to minimalist running shoes over 10 weeks (experimental group), while the other 15 maintained their typical training regimen (control group). All participants repeated submaximal VO2 testing at the end of 10 weeks. Testing included a 3 minute warm-up, 3 minutes of running in the first pair of shoes, and 3 minutes of running in the second pair of shoes. Shoe order was randomized. Average oxygen uptake was calculated during the last minute of running in each condition. The average change from pre- to post-training for the control group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 3.1 ± 15.2% and 2.8 ± 16.2%, respectively. The average change from pre- to post-training for the experimental group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 8.4 ± 7.2% and 10.4 ± 6.9%, respectively. Data were analyzed using a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA. There were no significant interaction effects, but the overall improvement in running economy across time (6.15%) was significant (p = 0.015). Running in minimalist running shoes improves running economy in experienced, traditionally shod runners, but not significantly more than when running in traditional running shoes. Improvement in running economy in both groups, regardless of shoe type, may have been due to compliance with training over the 10-week study period and/or familiarity with testing procedures. Key pointsRunning in minimalist footwear did not result in a change in running economy compared to running in traditional footwear

  8. [Running and the association with anthropometric and training characteristics].

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Stiefel, Michael; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph; Zingg, Matthias

    2015-05-01

    Running can be performed as a sprint discipline on the track over a few meters up to 10 km to the marathon and ultramarathon running distances over hundreds to thousands of kilometers. Running performance is influenced by a variety of anthropometric and training factors. Morphological features such as skin fold thickness, body fat percentage, circumferences and length of limbs, body weight, body height and body mass index (BMI) seem to have an influence on the running performance. The training volume and running speed during training are also correlated with running performance. When all variables were investigated comparatively, body fat and running speed during training were usually the most important influencing factors. For longer running performances (over 6 hours or 100 km, respectively), the aspects of experience (number of successfully finished races) and personal best times were, however, far more important than training volume or morphological characteristics such as body fat. It was also shown that ultra runners prepare differently (lower running speed and higher running volume) as runners competing over shorter distances such as half-marathon and marathon.

  9. Expedition 31 Qualification Training Simulation Runs

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 31 Flight Engineers Gennady Padalka, Sergei Revin and Joe Acaba, along with backup crew members Kevin Ford, Oleg Novitskiy and Evgeny Tarelkin, complete qualification training simulation...

  10. Preventing Running Injuries through Barefoot Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Priscilla M.; Smith, Darla R.

    2008-01-01

    Running has become a very popular lifetime physical activity even though there are numerous reports of running injuries. Although common theories have pointed to impact forces and overpronation as the main contributors to chronic running injuries, the increased use of cushioning and orthotics has done little to decrease running injuries. A new…

  11. 12. A LONG RUN OF EXPOSED TOP SURFACE, NORTH TRAINING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. A LONG RUN OF EXPOSED TOP SURFACE, NORTH TRAINING WALL, ABOUT 1,500 FEET EAST OF THE FEDERAL CHANNEL MOUTH. VIEW TO WEST, TOWARD SAN FRANCISCO. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  12. Drive-Through Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Margie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how the early childhood field's approach to staff training reflects the drive-through, fast-food culture. Year after year directors send their teachers to workshops to get some quick refresher techniques. The author suggests that rather than focusing professional development on topics, focus on observing…

  13. Acute effects of intense interval training on running mechanics.

    PubMed

    Collins, M H; Pearsall, D J; Zavorsky, G S; Bateni, H; Turcotte, R A; Montgomery, D L

    2000-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if there are significant kinematic changes in running pattern after intense interval workouts, whether duration of recovery affects running kinematics, and whether changes in running economy are related to changes in running kinematics. Seven highly trained male endurance runners (VO2max = 72.3+/-3.3 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1); mean +/- s) performed three interval running workouts of 10 x 400 m at a speed of 5.94+/-0.19 m x s(-1) (356+/-11.2 m x min(-1)) with a minimum of 4 days recovery between runs. Recovery of 60, 120 or 180 s between each 400 m repetition was assigned at random. Before and after each workout, running economy and several kinematic variables were measured at speeds of 3.33 and 4.47 m x s(-1) (200 and 268 m x min(-1)). Speed was found to have a significant effect on shank angle, knee velocity and stride length (P < 0.05). Correlations between changes pre- and post-test for VO2 (ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and several kinematic variables were not significant (P > 0.05) at both speeds. In general, duration of recovery was not found to adversely affect running economy or the kinematic variables assessed, possibly because of intra-individual adaptations to fatigue.

  14. TRAINING ERRORS AND RUNNING RELATED INJURIES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Buist, Ida; Sørensen, Henrik; Lind, Martin; Rasmussen, Sten

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the link between training characteristics (volume, duration, frequency, and intensity) and running related injuries. Methods: A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and SportDiscus. Studies were included if they examined novice, recreational, or elite runners between the ages of 18 and 65. Exposure variables were training characteristics defined as volume, distance or mileage, time or duration, frequency, intensity, speed or pace, or similar terms. The outcome of interest was Running Related Injuries (RRI) in general or specific RRI in the lower extremity or lower back. Methodological quality was evaluated using quality assessment tools of 11 to 16 items. Results: After examining 4561 titles and abstracts, 63 articles were identified as potentially relevant. Finally, nine retrospective cohort studies, 13 prospective cohort studies, six case-control studies, and three randomized controlled trials were included. The mean quality score was 44.1%. Conflicting results were reported on the relationships between volume, duration, intensity, and frequency and RRI. Conclusion: It was not possible to identify which training errors were related to running related injuries. Still, well supported data on which training errors relate to or cause running related injuries is highly important for determining proper prevention strategies. If methodological limitations in measuring training variables can be resolved, more work can be conducted to define training and the interactions between different training variables, create several hypotheses, test the hypotheses in a large scale prospective study, and explore cause and effect relationships in randomized controlled trials. Level of evidence: 2a PMID:22389869

  15. The effects of specific athletic training on path selection while running.

    PubMed

    Hackney, Amy L; Zakoor, Allison; Cinelli, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Apertures that are smaller than 1.3 times the shoulder width (SW) require that individuals make an adjustment to their normal walking behavior [6]. When given a choice, individuals will choose to avoid apertures smaller than this ratio, rather than rotate their shoulders and walk through [7]. Research has yet to determine whether this choice in path selection can be influenced by the speed at which one approaches the aperture or by experience/training. Therefore, the current study investigated whether approach speed and/or specific athletic training influences the choice in path selection. Specifically-trained athletes (n=6) and non-trained (n=6) young adults ran toward a visible goal placed at the end of the path and avoided an aperture (created by two poles) placed along the midline of the path. The separation between the poles ranged between 0.6 and 1.8 times each participant's SW, in increments of 0.2. Participants were permitted to either run through or around the aperture to get to the end goal. Results demonstrated that regardless of training experience, participants ran around apertures smaller than 1.4× the SW and ran through apertures larger than this ratio. Increased approach speed (i.e., running) therefore appears to elicit similar aperture crossing behaviors as walking [2,3,6,7]. Additionally, when faced with the choice to run around or to run through apertures, individuals who are specifically-training to run through small spaces chose similar paths as individuals who are not trained to do so. Therefore, specific training does not appear to influence voluntary path selection.

  16. The effects of specific athletic training on path selection while running.

    PubMed

    Hackney, Amy L; Zakoor, Allison; Cinelli, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Apertures that are smaller than 1.3 times the shoulder width (SW) require that individuals make an adjustment to their normal walking behavior [6]. When given a choice, individuals will choose to avoid apertures smaller than this ratio, rather than rotate their shoulders and walk through [7]. Research has yet to determine whether this choice in path selection can be influenced by the speed at which one approaches the aperture or by experience/training. Therefore, the current study investigated whether approach speed and/or specific athletic training influences the choice in path selection. Specifically-trained athletes (n=6) and non-trained (n=6) young adults ran toward a visible goal placed at the end of the path and avoided an aperture (created by two poles) placed along the midline of the path. The separation between the poles ranged between 0.6 and 1.8 times each participant's SW, in increments of 0.2. Participants were permitted to either run through or around the aperture to get to the end goal. Results demonstrated that regardless of training experience, participants ran around apertures smaller than 1.4× the SW and ran through apertures larger than this ratio. Increased approach speed (i.e., running) therefore appears to elicit similar aperture crossing behaviors as walking [2,3,6,7]. Additionally, when faced with the choice to run around or to run through apertures, individuals who are specifically-training to run through small spaces chose similar paths as individuals who are not trained to do so. Therefore, specific training does not appear to influence voluntary path selection. PMID:25448638

  17. Running sprint interval training induces fat loss in women.

    PubMed

    Hazell, Tom J; Hamilton, Craig D; Olver, T Dylan; Lemon, Peter W R

    2014-08-01

    Data on whether sprint interval training (SIT) (repeated supermaximal intensity, short-duration exercise) affects body composition are limited, and the data that are available suggest that men respond more favourably than do women. Moreover, most SIT data involve cycling exercise, and running may differ because of the larger muscle mass involved. Further, running is a more universal exercise type. This study assessed whether running SIT can alter body composition (air displacement plethysmography), waist circumference, maximal oxygen consumption, peak running speed, and (or) the blood lipid profile. Fifteen recreationally active women (age, 22.9 ± 3.6 years; height, 163.9 ± 5.1 cm; mass, 60.8 ± 5.2 kg) completed 6 weeks of running SIT (4 to 6, 30-s "all-out" sprints on a self-propelled treadmill separated by 4 min of rest performed 3 times per week). Training decreased body fat mass by 8.0% (15.1 ± 3.6 to 13.9 ± 3.4 kg, P = 0.002) and waist circumference by 3.5% (80.1 ± 4.2 to 77.3 ± 4.4 cm, P = 0.048), whereas it increased fat-free mass by 1.3% (45.7 ± 3.5 to 46.3 ± 2.9 kg, P = 0.05), maximal oxygen consumption by 8.7% (46 ± 5 to 50 ± 6 mL/(kg·min), P = 0.004), and peak running speed by 4.8% (16.6 ± 1.7 to 17.4 ± 1.4 km/h, P = 0.026). There were no differences in food intake assessed by 3-day food records (P > 0.329) or in blood lipids (P > 0.595), except for a slight decrease in high-density lipoprotein concentration (1.34 ± 0.28 to 1.24 ± 0.24 mmol/L, P = 0.034). Running SIT is a time-efficient strategy for decreasing body fat while increasing aerobic capacity, peak running speed, and fat-free mass in healthy young women.

  18. Any Way to Run a Railroad: Implications of Dedicated Trains

    SciTech Connect

    Dilger, F.C.; Halstead, R. J.

    2006-07-01

    The DOE recently issued a policy statement that it would use dedicated trains for most waste shipments to Yucca Mountain. Prior uncertainty about use of dedicated trains for Yucca Mountain rail shipments prevented an assessment of the likely impacts. This paper examines the controversy over the use of dedicated trains and evaluates the national impacts of shipping waste to Yucca Mountain using dedicated trains on the Union Pacific's preferred rail system. The national impacts of the routing are reported as route miles through three land use types: Rural, Urban and Census Places. (authors)

  19. Running training and adaptive strategies of locomotor-respiratory coordination.

    PubMed

    McDermott, William J; Van Emmerik, Richard E A; Hamill, Joseph

    2003-06-01

    It has been suggested that stronger coupling between locomotory and breathing rhythms may occur as a result of training in the particular movement pattern and also may reduce the perceived workload or metabolic cost of the movement. Research findings on human locomotor-respiratory coordination are equivocal, due in part to the fact that assessment techniques range in sensitivity to important aspects of coordination (e.g. temporal ordering of patterns, half-integer couplings and changes in frequency and phase coupling). An additional aspect that has not received much attention is the adaptability of this coordination to changes in task constraints. The current study investigated the effect of running training on the locomotor-respiratory coordination and the adaptive strategies observed across a wide range of walking and running speeds. Locomotor-respiratory coordination was evaluated by the strength and variability of both frequency and phase coupling patterns that subjects displayed within and across the speed conditions. Male subjects (five runners, five non-runners) locomoted at seven different treadmill speeds. Group results indicated no differences between runners and non-runners with respect to breathing parameters, stride parameters, as well as the strength and variability of the coupling at each speed. Individual results, however, showed that grouping subjects masks large individual differences and strategies across speeds. Coupling strategies indicated that runners show more stable dominant couplings across locomotory speeds than non-runners do. These findings suggest that running training does not change the strength of locomotor-respiratory coupling but rather how these systems adapt to changing speeds.

  20. Influence of Strength, Sprint Running, and Combined Strength and Sprint Running Training on Short Sprint Performance in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Marques, M C; Gabbett, T J; Marinho, D A; Blazevich, A J; Sousa, A; van den Tillaar, R; Izquierdo, M

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of transference of 6 weeks of full squat vs. full squat plus sprint running training to short (ranged from 0-10 to 0-30 m) sprint running performance in non-athletes. We hypothesized that a speed-full-squat training regimen could enhance squat strength and power with simultaneous improvements in short sprint performance. 122 physically active adults (age: 20.5±2.5 years; body mass: 65.8±6.1 kg; height: 1.71±0.08 m) were randomly divided into 4 groups: full squat training (n=36), combined full squat and sprint training (n=32), speed training only (n=34) and non-training control group (n=20). Each training group completed 2 sessions per week over 6 weeks, while the control group performed only their normal physical activity. Sprint performance was improved after sprint running or full squat training alone (1.7% and 1.8% P<0.05, respectively), however larger enhancements (2.3%; P<0.01) were observed after the combined full squat plus sprint training intervention. These results suggest that in recreationally active adults, combined full squat and sprint training provides a greater stimulus for improving sprint performance than either modality alone.

  1. The Acute Effect of Concurrent Training on Running Performance over 6 Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doma, Kenji; Deakin, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of strength training on alternating days and endurance training on consecutive days on running performance for 6 days. Methods: Sixteen male and 8 female moderately trained individuals were evenly assigned into concurrent-training (CCT) and strength-training (ST) groups. The CCT group undertook strength…

  2. Bovine Colostrum Supplementation During Running Training Increases Intestinal Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Jonathan D.; Butler, Ross N.; Southcott, Emma; Brinkworth, Grant D.

    2009-01-01

    Endurance exercise training can increase intestinal permeability which may contribute to the development of gastrointestinal symptoms in some athletes. Bovine colostrum (BC) supplementation reduces intestinal permeability induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This study aimed to determine whether BC could also reduce intestinal permeability induced by endurance exercise. Thirty healthy adult males (25.0 ± 4.7 yr; mean ± SD) completed eight weeks of running three times per week for 45 minutes at their lactate threshold while consuming 60 g/day of BC, whey protein (WP) or control (CON). Intestinal permeability was assessed at baseline and after eight weeks by measuring the ratio of urinary lactulose (L) and rhamnose (R) excretion. After eight weeks the L/R ratio increased significantly more in volunteers consuming BC (251 ± 140%) compared with WP (21 ± 35%, P < 0.05) and CON (−7 ± 13%, P < 0.02). The increase in intestinal permeability with BC may have been due to BC inducing greater leakiness of tight junctions between enterocytes or by increasing macromolecular transport as it does in neonatal gut. Further research should investigate the potential for BC to increase intestinal macromolecular transport in adults. PMID:22253980

  3. Maximum Power Training and Plyometrics for Cross-Country Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebben, William P.

    2001-01-01

    Provides a rationale for maximum power training and plyometrics as conditioning strategies for cross-country runners, examining: an evaluation of training methods (strength training and maximum power training and plyometrics); biomechanic and velocity specificity (role in preventing injury); and practical application of maximum power training and…

  4. Effects of a concurrent strength and endurance training on running performance and running economy in recreational marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Ferrauti, Alexander; Bergermann, Matthias; Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a concurrent strength and endurance training program on running performance and running economy of middle-aged runners during their marathon preparation. Twenty-two (8 women and 14 men) recreational runners (mean ± SD: age 40.0 ± 11.7 years; body mass index 22.6 ± 2.1 kg·m⁻²) were separated into 2 groups (n = 11; combined endurance running and strength training program [ES]: 9 men, 2 women and endurance running [E]: 7 men, and 4 women). Both completed an 8-week intervention period that consisted of either endurance training (E: 276 ± 108 minute running per week) or a combined endurance and strength training program (ES: 240 ± 121-minute running plus 2 strength training sessions per week [120 minutes]). Strength training was focused on trunk (strength endurance program) and leg muscles (high-intensity program). Before and after the intervention, subjects completed an incremental treadmill run and maximal isometric strength tests. The initial values for VO2peak (ES: 52.0 ± 6.1 vs. E: 51.1 ± 7.5 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) and anaerobic threshold (ES: 3.5 ± 0.4 vs. E: 3.4 ± 0.5 m·s⁻¹) were identical in both groups. A significant time × intervention effect was found for maximal isometric force of knee extension (ES: from 4.6 ± 1.4 to 6.2 ± 1.0 N·kg⁻¹, p < 0.01), whereas no changes in body mass occurred. No significant differences between the groups and no significant interaction (time × intervention) were found for VO2 (absolute and relative to VO2peak) at defined marathon running velocities (2.4 and 2.8 m·s⁻¹) and submaximal blood lactate thresholds (2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 mmol·L⁻¹). Stride length and stride frequency also remained unchanged. The results suggest no benefits of an 8-week concurrent strength training for running economy and coordination of recreational marathon runners despite a clear improvement in leg strength, maybe because of an insufficient sample size or a short

  5. 2. Aerial view turnpike running through center of photograph along ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Aerial view turnpike running through center of photograph along the row of trees withing the bare spot on the landscape. Harriman Heights Road is the road located at the lower center of the photograph. View looking west. - Orange Turnpike, Parallel to new Orange Turnpike, Monroe, Orange County, NY

  6. 5. Aerial view of turnpike path running through center of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Aerial view of turnpike path running through center of photograph along row of trees. 1917 realignment visible along left edge of photograph along edge of forest. Modernized alignment resumes at top right of photograph. View looking north. - Orange Turnpike, Parallel to new Orange Turnpike, Monroe, Orange County, NY

  7. 4. Aerial view of turnpike path running through center of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Aerial view of turnpike path running through center of photograph along row of trees. South edge of original alignment visible at left at cluster of white trailers. North edge of original alignment visible at right at the W.K. Smith house (HABS No. NY-6356-A) at the top right corner. Migel mansion visible on ridgetop at right-center of photograph, surrounded by trees. View looking west. - Orange Turnpike, Parallel to new Orange Turnpike, Monroe, Orange County, NY

  8. Blood lactate thresholds and walking/running economy are determinants of backpack-running performance in trained soldiers.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Richard J; Graham, Scott M; Connaboy, Christopher; Clement, Richard; Pollonini, Luca; Florida-James, Geraint D

    2017-01-01

    We developed a standardized laboratory treadmill protocol for assessing physiological responses to a simulated backpack load-carriage task in trained soldiers, and assessed the efficacy of blood lactate thresholds (LTs) and economy in predicting future backpack running success over an 8-mile course in field conditions. LTs and corresponding physiological responses were determined in 17 elite British soldiers who completed an incremental treadmill walk/run protocol to exhaustion carrying 20 kg backpack load. Treadmill velocity at the breakpoint (r = -0.85) and Δ 1 mmol l(-1) (r = -0.80) LTs, and relative V˙O2 at 4 mmol l(-1) (r = 0.76) and treadmill walk/run velocities of 6.4 (r = 0.76), 7.4 (r = 0.80), 11.4 (r = 0.66) and 12.4 (r = 0.65) km h(-1) were significantly associated with field test completion time. We report for the first time that LTs and backpack walk/run economy are major determinants of backpack load-carriage performance in trained soldiers.

  9. Shuttle-run sprint training in hypoxia for youth elite soccer players: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gatterer, Hannes; Philippe, Marc; Menz, Verena; Mosbach, Florian; Faulhaber, Martin; Burtscher, Martin

    2014-12-01

    The purposes of the present study were to investigate if a) shuttle-run sprint training performed in a normobaric hypoxia chamber of limited size (4.75x2.25m) is feasible, in terms of producing the same absolute training load, when compared to training in normoxia, and b) if such training improves the repeated sprint ability (RSA) and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery (YYIR) test outcome in young elite soccer players. Players of an elite soccer training Centre (age: 15.3 ± 0.5 years, height: 1.73 ± 0.07 m, body mass: 62.6 ± 6.6 kg) were randomly assigned to a hypoxia or a normoxia training group. Within a 5-week period, players, who were not informed about the hypoxia intervention, performed at least 7 sessions of identical shuttle-run sprint training either in a normal training room (FiO2 = 20.95%) or in a hypoxic chamber (FiO2 = 14.8%; approximately 3300m), both equipped with the same floor. Each training session comprised 3 series of 5x10s back and forth sprints (4.5m) performed at maximal intensity. Recovery time between repetitions was 20s and between series 5min. Before and after the training period the RSA (6 x 40m shuttle sprint with 20 s rest between shuttles) and the YYIR test were performed. The size of the chamber did not restrict the training intensity of the sprint training (both groups performed approximately 8 shuttles during 10s). Training in hypoxia resulted in a lower fatigue slope which indicates better running speed maintenance during the RSA test (p = 0.024). YYIR performance increased over time (p = 0.045) without differences between groups (p > 0.05). This study showed that training intensity of the shuttle-run sprint training was not restricted in a hypoxic chamber of limited size which indicates that such training is feasible. Furthermore, hypoxia compared to normoxia training reduced the fatigue slope during the RSA test in youth soccer players. Key PointsShuttle-run sprint training is feasible in hypoxic chambers of limited size (i

  10. Thermographic Assessment of Eccentric Overload Training Within Three Days of a Running Session.

    PubMed

    Sanz-López, Fernando; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Valero-Campo, Carlos; Berzosa, César

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in patellar and Achilles tendons between a group trained using eccentric overload and an untrained group within 3 days of a running session. To this end, infrared thermography (IRT) will be used. Twenty healthy male subjects were divided into 2 groups. One group performed a 6-week squat training in the flywheel before the running session. During the running intervention, both groups ran in 3 different days, for 1 hour each, at 80% maximal heart rate. Before, just after, and after 10 minutes of the running intervention, participants were assessed using IRT. Eccentrically trained groups showed a statistically significant difference (analysis of variance, p = 0.0049) expressed as a smaller bilateral increase in temperature in the patellar tendon just before the first running day (right side, 0.11 °C; left side, 0.29 °C). On the other days of running and in the Achilles tendon groups, similar changes were observed: an increase in the temperature after running and no significant difference between contralateral limbs. Our results point at eccentric overload training providing a better adaptation for the first day of running. IRT is an easy-to-apply noninvasive tool to analyze and compare the effects of performance on tendon tissues.

  11. Thermographic Assessment of Eccentric Overload Training Within Three Days of a Running Session.

    PubMed

    Sanz-López, Fernando; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Valero-Campo, Carlos; Berzosa, César

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in patellar and Achilles tendons between a group trained using eccentric overload and an untrained group within 3 days of a running session. To this end, infrared thermography (IRT) will be used. Twenty healthy male subjects were divided into 2 groups. One group performed a 6-week squat training in the flywheel before the running session. During the running intervention, both groups ran in 3 different days, for 1 hour each, at 80% maximal heart rate. Before, just after, and after 10 minutes of the running intervention, participants were assessed using IRT. Eccentrically trained groups showed a statistically significant difference (analysis of variance, p = 0.0049) expressed as a smaller bilateral increase in temperature in the patellar tendon just before the first running day (right side, 0.11 °C; left side, 0.29 °C). On the other days of running and in the Achilles tendon groups, similar changes were observed: an increase in the temperature after running and no significant difference between contralateral limbs. Our results point at eccentric overload training providing a better adaptation for the first day of running. IRT is an easy-to-apply noninvasive tool to analyze and compare the effects of performance on tendon tissues. PMID:26110350

  12. Mental Training for the Distance Athlete: "The Running Values Auction"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osteen, Deborah E.; Phillips, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    Coaches and sports psychologists often say that it is the mind that controls the body, and that once a race begins, it is 90 percent mental and 10 percent physical training. Teaching young athletes to use mental strategies is a skill they will continue to use throughout their athletic career, and best of all, throughout their everyday lives, even…

  13. Repeated sprint training improves intermittent peak running speed in team-sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Jayden R; O'Brien, Brendan J; Mooney, Mitchell G; Berry, Jason; Young, Warren B; Down, Neville

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of 2 repeated sprint training interventions on an intermittent peak running speed (IPRS) test designed for Australian Rules football. The test required participants to perform 10 × 10-m maximal efforts on an 80-m course every 25 seconds, for each of which the mean peak speed (kilometers per hour) was recorded to determine IPRS. The training interventions were performed twice weekly for 4 weeks immediately before regular football training. In the constant volume intervention (CVol), sprint repetition number remained at 10 (n = 9), and in the linear increase in volume (LIVol) intervention, repetition number increased linearly each week by 2 repetitions (n = 12). Intermittent peak running speed, 300-m shuttle test performance, and peak running speed were assessed before and upon completion of training. All measures were compared to a control group (CON; n = 8) in which players completed regular football training exclusively. Intermittent peak running speed performance in CVol and LIVol improved significantly (p < 0.01) by 5.2 and 3.8%, respectively, with no change in IPRS for CON. There were no differences in IPRS changes between CVol and LIVol. Additionally, peak running speed improved significantly (p < 0.01) by 5.1% for CVol, whereas 300-m shuttle performance improved significantly (p < 0.01) by 2.6% for LIVol only. Intermittent peak running speed, 300-m shuttle performance and peak running speed were improved after 4 weeks of training; however, progressively increasing sprint repetition number had no greater advantage on IPRS adaptation. Additionally, exclusive regular football training over a 4-week period is unlikely to improve IPRS, peak running speed, or 300-m shuttle performance.

  14. Running characteristics of the magnetically levitated train in a curved track section

    SciTech Connect

    Ohashi, S.; Ohsaki, H.; Masada, E.

    1997-09-01

    A three-dimensional running simulation program of the train motion which includes both electromagnetic and mechanical systems has been developed. For verification of running stability, the motion of the Maglev train with four bogies and three cars running into the curved section was calculated. Because the spring strength of the secondary suspension between bogies and cabins was much smaller than that of the electrodynamic suspension, interaction among bogies was small. The lateral displacement reached 0.045m, which is about 50% of the lateral air gap. Therefore train can run without touching the wall of the guideway. As this lateral air gap caused roll torque, total roll angle of the bogie became 12.5% larger than the cant angle of the curved section.

  15. Effects of Cycling Versus Running Training on Sprint and Endurance Capacity in Inline Speed Skating.

    PubMed

    Stangier, Carolin; Abel, Thomas; Mierau, Julia; Hollmann, Wildor; Strüder, Heiko K

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of running versus cycling training on sprint and endurance capacity in inline speed skating. Sixteen elite athletes (8 male, 8 female, 24 ± 8 yrs) were randomly assigned into 2 training groups performing either 2 session per week of treadmill running or ergometer cycling in addition to 3 skating specific sessions (technique, plyometrics, parkour) for 8 weeks. Training intensity was determined within non-specific (cycling or running) and effects on specific endurance capacity within a specific incremental exercise test. Before and after the intervention all athletes performed a specific (300m) and one non-specific (30s cycling or 200m running) all-out sprint test according to the group affiliation. To determine the accumulation of blood lactate (BLa) and glucose (BGL) 20 μl arterialized blood was drawn at rest, as well as in 1 min intervals for 10 min after the sprint test. The sport-specific peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) was significantly increased (+17%; p = 0.01) in both groups and highly correlated with the sprint performance (r = -0.71). BLa values decreased significantly (-18%, p = 0.02) after the specific sprint test from pre to post-testing without any group effect. However, BGL values only showed a significant decrease (-2%, p = 0.04) in the running group. The close relationship between aerobic capacity and sprint performance in inline speed skating highlights the positive effects of endurance training. Although both training programs were equally effective in improving endurance and sprint capacities, the metabolic results indicate a faster recovery after high intensity efforts for all athletes, as well as a higher reliance on the fat metabolism for athletes who trained in the running group. Key pointsIn addition to a highly developed aerobic performance inline speed skaters also require a highly trained anaerobic capacity to be effective in the sprint sections such as the mass start, tactical attacks

  16. Effects of Cycling Versus Running Training on Sprint and Endurance Capacity in Inline Speed Skating

    PubMed Central

    Stangier, Carolin; Abel, Thomas; Mierau, Julia; Hollmann, Wildor; Strüder, Heiko K.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of running versus cycling training on sprint and endurance capacity in inline speed skating. Sixteen elite athletes (8 male, 8 female, 24 ± 8 yrs) were randomly assigned into 2 training groups performing either 2 session per week of treadmill running or ergometer cycling in addition to 3 skating specific sessions (technique, plyometrics, parkour) for 8 weeks. Training intensity was determined within non-specific (cycling or running) and effects on specific endurance capacity within a specific incremental exercise test. Before and after the intervention all athletes performed a specific (300m) and one non-specific (30s cycling or 200m running) all-out sprint test according to the group affiliation. To determine the accumulation of blood lactate (BLa) and glucose (BGL) 20 μl arterialized blood was drawn at rest, as well as in 1 min intervals for 10 min after the sprint test. The sport-specific peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) was significantly increased (+17%; p = 0.01) in both groups and highly correlated with the sprint performance (r = -0.71). BLa values decreased significantly (-18%, p = 0.02) after the specific sprint test from pre to post-testing without any group effect. However, BGL values only showed a significant decrease (-2%, p = 0.04) in the running group. The close relationship between aerobic capacity and sprint performance in inline speed skating highlights the positive effects of endurance training. Although both training programs were equally effective in improving endurance and sprint capacities, the metabolic results indicate a faster recovery after high intensity efforts for all athletes, as well as a higher reliance on the fat metabolism for athletes who trained in the running group. Key points In addition to a highly developed aerobic performance inline speed skaters also require a highly trained anaerobic capacity to be effective in the sprint sections such as the mass start, tactical attacks

  17. Effects of Cycling Versus Running Training on Sprint and Endurance Capacity in Inline Speed Skating.

    PubMed

    Stangier, Carolin; Abel, Thomas; Mierau, Julia; Hollmann, Wildor; Strüder, Heiko K

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of running versus cycling training on sprint and endurance capacity in inline speed skating. Sixteen elite athletes (8 male, 8 female, 24 ± 8 yrs) were randomly assigned into 2 training groups performing either 2 session per week of treadmill running or ergometer cycling in addition to 3 skating specific sessions (technique, plyometrics, parkour) for 8 weeks. Training intensity was determined within non-specific (cycling or running) and effects on specific endurance capacity within a specific incremental exercise test. Before and after the intervention all athletes performed a specific (300m) and one non-specific (30s cycling or 200m running) all-out sprint test according to the group affiliation. To determine the accumulation of blood lactate (BLa) and glucose (BGL) 20 μl arterialized blood was drawn at rest, as well as in 1 min intervals for 10 min after the sprint test. The sport-specific peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) was significantly increased (+17%; p = 0.01) in both groups and highly correlated with the sprint performance (r = -0.71). BLa values decreased significantly (-18%, p = 0.02) after the specific sprint test from pre to post-testing without any group effect. However, BGL values only showed a significant decrease (-2%, p = 0.04) in the running group. The close relationship between aerobic capacity and sprint performance in inline speed skating highlights the positive effects of endurance training. Although both training programs were equally effective in improving endurance and sprint capacities, the metabolic results indicate a faster recovery after high intensity efforts for all athletes, as well as a higher reliance on the fat metabolism for athletes who trained in the running group. Key pointsIn addition to a highly developed aerobic performance inline speed skaters also require a highly trained anaerobic capacity to be effective in the sprint sections such as the mass start, tactical attacks

  18. Effect of cycling cadence on subsequent 3 km running performance in well trained triathletes

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, T; Vercruyssen, F; Grego, F; Hausswirth, C; Lepers, R; Vallier, J; Brisswalter, J; Vleck, V

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of three cycling cadences on a subsequent 3000 m track running performance in well trained triathletes. Methods: Nine triathletes completed a maximal cycling test, three cycle-run succession sessions (20 minutes of cycling + a 3000 m run) in random order, and one isolated run (3000 m). During the cycling bout of the cycle-run sessions, subjects had to maintain for 20 minutes one of the three cycling cadences corresponding to 60, 80, and 100 rpm. The metabolic intensity during these cycling bouts corresponded approximately to the cycling competition intensity of our subjects during a sprint triathlon (> 80% O2max). Results: A significant effect of the prior cycling exercise was found on middle distance running performance without any cadence effect (625.7 (40.1), 630.0 (44.8), 637.7 (57.9), and 583.0 (28.3) seconds for the 60 rpm run, 80 rpm run, 100 rpm run, and isolated run respectively). However, during the first 500 m of the run, stride rate and running velocity were significantly higher after cycling at 80 or 100 rpm than at 60 rpm (p<0.05). Furthermore, the choice of 60 rpm was associated with a higher fraction of O2max sustained during running compared with the other conditions (p<0.05). Conclusions: The results confirm the alteration in running performance completed after the cycling event compared with the isolated run. However, no significant effect of the cadence was observed within the range usually used by triathletes. PMID:12663359

  19. Interval Running Training Improves Cognitive Flexibility and Aerobic Power of Young Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Venckunas, Tomas; Snieckus, Audrius; Trinkunas, Eugenijus; Baranauskiene, Neringa; Solianik, Rima; Juodsnukis, Antanas; Streckis, Vytautas; Kamandulis, Sigitas

    2016-08-01

    Venckunas, T, Snieckus, A, Trinkunas, E, Baranauskiene, N, Solianik, R, Juodsnukis, A, Streckis, V, and Kamandulis, S. Interval running training improves cognitive flexibility and aerobic power of young healthy adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2114-2121, 2016-The benefits of regular physical exercise may well extend beyond the reduction of chronic diseases risk and augmentation of working capacity, to many other aspects of human well-being, including improved cognitive functioning. Although the effects of moderate intensity continuous training on cognitive performance are relatively well studied, the benefits of interval training have not been investigated in this respect so far. The aim of the current study was to assess whether 7 weeks of interval running training is effective at improving both aerobic fitness and cognitive performance. For this purpose, 8 young dinghy sailors (6 boys and 2 girls) completed the interval running program with 200 m and 2,000 m running performance, cycling maximal oxygen uptake, and cognitive function was measured before and after the intervention. The control group consisted of healthy age-matched subjects (8 boys and 2 girls) who continued their active lifestyle and were tested in the same way as the experimental group, but did not complete any regular training. In the experimental group, 200 m and 2,000 m running performance and cycling maximal oxygen uptake increased together with improved results on cognitive flexibility tasks. No changes in the results of short-term and working memory tasks were observed in the experimental group, and no changes in any of the measured indices were evident in the controls. In conclusion, 7 weeks of interval running training improved running performance and cycling aerobic power, and were sufficient to improve the ability to adjust behavior to changing demands in young active individuals.

  20. Effects of Whole-body Vibration Training on Sprint Running Kinematics and Explosive Strength Performance.

    PubMed

    Giorgos, Paradisis; Elias, Zacharogiannis

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 6 wk of whole body vibration (WBV) training on sprint running kinematics and explosive strength performance. Twenty-four volunteers (12 women and 12 men) participated in the study and were randomised (n = 12) into the experimental and control groups. The WBV group performed a 6-wk program (16-30 min·d(-1), 3 times a week) on a vibration platform. The amplitude of the vibration platform was 2.5 mm and the acceleration was 2.28 g. The control group did not participate in any training. Tests were performed Pre and post the training period. Sprint running performance was measured during a 60 m sprint where running time, running speed, step length and step rate were calculated. Explosive strength performance was measured during a counter movement jump (CMJ) test, where jump height and total number of jumps performed in a period of 30 s (30CVJT). Performance in 10 m, 20 m, 40 m, 50 m and 60 m improved significantly after 6 wk of WBV training with an overall improvement of 2.7%. The step length and running speed improved by 5.1% and 3.6%, and the step rate decreased by 3.4%. The countermovement jump height increased by 3.3%, and the explosive strength endurance improved overall by 7.8%. The WBV training period of 6 wk produced significant changes in sprint running kinematics and explosive strength performance. Key pointsWBV training.Sprint running kinematics.Explosive strength performance.

  1. Promoting safety through effective training

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, B.

    1994-12-31

    A number of regulatory agencies have imposed required training upon the crop protection industry. Hazard Communication Programs, written respirator programs, emergency response training, and new DOT training requirements are but a few examples. This is perhaps only the beginning of Right To Know Legislation. It is clear that this industry will have to get more involved with the training of its employees. This will include manufacturers, distributors, dealers, and growers. No company, whether large or small, will be able to escape the consequences of not providing training. There are many things that employee training can do for a company. Obviously, it can prevent accidents and deaths at the workplace, and this is of paramount importance. But, often overlooked is the fact that it can increase morale, which can lead to higher productivity. Finally, safe workers tend to have fewer accidents which can lead to savings on workers compensation insurance.

  2. Physiological Responses to On-Court vs Running Interval Training in Competitive Tennis Players.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Sanz-Rivas, David; Sanchez-Muñoz, Cristobal; de la Aleja Tellez, Jose Gonzalez; Buchheit, Martin; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare heart rate (HR), blood lactate (LA) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) responses to a tennis-specific interval training (i.e., on-court) session with that of a matched-on-time running interval training (i.e., off-court). Eight well-trained, male (n = 4) and female (n = 4) tennis players (mean ± SD; age: 16.4 ± 1.8 years) underwent an incremental test where peak treadmill speed, maximum HR (HRmax) and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) were determined. The two interval training protocols (i.e., off- court and on-court) consisted of 4 sets of 120 s of work, interspersed with 90 s rest. Percentage of HRmax (95.9 ± 2.4 vs. 96.1 ± 2.2%; p = 0.79), LA (6.9 ± 2.5 vs. 6.2 ± 2.4 mmol·L(-1); p = 0.14) and RPE (16.7 ± 2.1 vs. 16.3 ± 1.8; p = 0.50) responses were similar for off-court and on-court, respectively. The two interval training protocols used in the present study have equivalent physiological responses. Longitudinal studies are still warranted but tennis-specific interval training sessions could represent a time-efficient alternative to off-court (running) interval training for the optimization of the specific cardiorespiratory fitness in tennis players. Key pointsOn-court interval training protocol can be used as an alternative to running interval trainingTechnical/tactical training should be performed under conditions that replicate the physical and technical demands of a competitive matchDuring the competitive season tennis on-court training might be preferred to off-court training.

  3. Learning Enhancement through Visual Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getz, Donald J.

    1980-01-01

    A study involving 120 second-grade students with deficiencies in visual perceptual skills was designed to determine the effects of a vision training program on reading test performance. Students receiving vision training did significantly better in tests measuring reading comprehension and word recognition skills than did students who did not…

  4. Effects of high-intensity running training on soccer-specific fitness in professional male players.

    PubMed

    Wells, Carl; Edwards, Andrew; Fysh, Mary; Drust, Barry

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not physiological and performance gains could be achieved with the addition of high-intensity running to an existing training programme in a group of well trained professional male soccer players. Sixteen professional male players (21.3 ± 2.1 years, stature 177.4 ± 4.2 cm, body mass 73.1 ± 8.1 kg) were randomised in training (TRA, n = 8) and control (CON, n = 8) groups. All players performed physiological assessments before and after a 6-week intervention. Outcome measures were: (i) V̇O2peak, (ii) V̇O2 kinetics during very heavy-intensity exercise, (iii) a maximal anaerobic running test, and (iv) Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 2 (YIRT2). The only aerobic parameter to change after the intervention was the phase III time constant at exercise onset for CON, which lengthened (p = 0.012) to a value similar to that of the TRA group. However, TRA showed gains in anaerobic performance (p = 0.021), time to exhaustion (p = 0.019), and maximal running speed (p = 0.023). In the YIRT2, distance run increased for TRA over time (p = 0.015), and the TRA group were also capable of running further in the YIRT2 after the intervention compared with CON (p = 0.011). This study shows it is possible to improve the soccer-specific high-intensity running capacity of professional players when high-intensity intermittent training is added to the normal training load and that this effect is only detectable in anaerobic capabilities. The observed effects are meaningful to the training practices of elite athletes seeking a competitive edge in team sports when otherwise well matched. PMID:24971676

  5. Acute Effect of Dynamic Stretching on Endurance Running Performance in Well-Trained Male Runners.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Taichi; Takizawa, Kazuki; Shibata, Keisuke

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the acute effect of dynamic stretching (DS) on relative high-intensity endurance running performance. The endurance running performances of 7 well-trained middle- or long-distance male runners were assessed on a treadmill after 2 types of pretreatment. The pretreatments were nonstretching (NS) and DS treatment. In the DS treatment, DS was performed as 1 set of 10 repetitions as quickly as possible for the 5 muscle groups in lower extremities. The endurance running performances were evaluated by time to exhaustion (TTE) and total running distance (TRD) during running at a velocity equivalent to 90% maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in each subject. The oxygen uptake (VO2) during running was measured as an index of running economy (RE). The TTE (928.6 ± 215.0 seconds) after DS treatment was significantly (p < 0.01) more prolonged compared with that (785.3 ± 206.2 seconds) after NS. The TRD (4,301.2 ± 893.8 m) after DS treatment was also significantly (p < 0.01) longer than that (3,616.9 ± 783.3 m) after NS. The changes in the VO2 during running, however, did not significantly (p > 0.05) differ between the pretreatments. The results demonstrated that the DS treatment improved the endurance performance of running at a velocity equivalent to 90% VO2max in well-trained male runners, although it did not change the RE. This running velocity is equivalent to that for a 3,000- or 5,000-m race. Our finding suggests that performing DS during warm-up before a race is effective for improving performance.

  6. "Functional" Inspiratory and Core Muscle Training Enhances Running Performance and Economy.

    PubMed

    Tong, Tomas K; McConnell, Alison K; Lin, Hua; Nie, Jinlei; Zhang, Haifeng; Wang, Jiayuan

    2016-10-01

    Tong, TK, McConnell, AK, Lin, H, Nie, J, Zhang, H, and Wang, J. "Functional" inspiratory and core muscle training enhances running performance and economy. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2942-2951, 2016-We compared the effects of two 6-week high-intensity interval training interventions. Under the control condition (CON), only interval training was undertaken, whereas under the intervention condition (ICT), interval training sessions were followed immediately by core training, which was combined with simultaneous inspiratory muscle training (IMT)-"functional" IMT. Sixteen recreational runners were allocated to either ICT or CON groups. Before the intervention phase, both groups undertook a 4-week program of "foundation" IMT to control for the known ergogenic effect of IMT (30 inspiratory efforts at 50% maximal static inspiratory pressure [P0] per set, 2 sets per day, 6 days per week). The subsequent 6-week interval running training phase consisted of 3-4 sessions per week. In addition, the ICT group undertook 4 inspiratory-loaded core exercises (10 repetitions per set, 2 sets per day, inspiratory load set at 50% post-IMT P0) immediately after each interval training session. The CON group received neither core training nor functional IMT. After the intervention phase, global inspiratory and core muscle functions increased in both groups (p ≤ 0.05), as evidenced by P0 and a sport-specific endurance plank test (SEPT) performance, respectively. Compared with CON, the ICT group showed larger improvements in SEPT, running economy at the speed of the onset of blood lactate accumulation, and 1-hour running performance (3.04% vs. 1.57%, p ≤ 0.05). The changes in these variables were interindividually correlated (r ≥ 0.57, n = 16, p ≤ 0.05). Such findings suggest that the addition of inspiratory-loaded core conditioning into a high-intensity interval training program augments the influence of the interval program on endurance running performance and that this may be

  7. High-intensity cycle interval training improves cycling and running performance in triathletes.

    PubMed

    Etxebarria, Naroa; Anson, Judith M; Pyne, David B; Ferguson, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Effective cycle training for triathlon is a challenge for coaches. We compared the effects of two variants of cycle high-intensity interval training (HIT) on triathlon-specific cycling and running. Fourteen moderately-trained male triathletes ([Formula: see text]O2peak 58.7 ± 8.1 mL kg(-1) min(-1); mean ± SD) completed on separate occasions a maximal incremental test ([Formula: see text]O2peak and maximal aerobic power), 16 × 20 s cycle sprints and a 1-h triathlon-specific cycle followed immediately by a 5 km run time trial. Participants were then pair-matched and assigned randomly to either a long high-intensity interval training (LONG) (6-8 × 5 min efforts) or short high-intensity interval training (SHORT) (9-11 × 10, 20 and 40 s efforts) HIT cycle training intervention. Six training sessions were completed over 3 weeks before participants repeated the baseline testing. Both groups had an ∼7% increase in [Formula: see text]O2peak (SHORT 7.3%, ±4.6%; mean, ±90% confidence limits; LONG 7.5%, ±1.7%). There was a moderate improvement in mean power for both the SHORT (10.3%, ±4.4%) and LONG (10.7%, ±6.8%) groups during the last eight 20-s sprints. There was a small to moderate decrease in heart rate, blood lactate and perceived exertion in both groups during the 1-h triathlon-specific cycling but only the LONG group had a substantial decrease in the subsequent 5-km run time (64, ±59 s). Moderately-trained triathletes should use both short and long high-intensity intervals to improve cycling physiology and performance. Longer 5-min intervals on the bike are more likely to benefit 5 km running performance.

  8. Effects of running training on in vitro brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozu, Tsukasa; Kikuchi, Kazue; Ogawa, Koji; Kuroshima, Akihiro

    1992-06-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a major site of nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) during cold acclimation for most mammals. Repetitive nonthermal stress such as immobilization has been shown to enhance the capacity of NST as cold acclimation. In the present study, the effects of running training, another type of nonthermal stress, were investigated on in vitro thermogenesis and the cellularity of interscapular BAT in rats. The rats were subjected to treadmill running for 30 min daily at 30 m/min under 8° inclination for 4 5 weeks. In vitro thermogenesis was then measured in minced tissue blocks incubated in a Krebs-Ringer phosphate buffer containing glucose and albumin at 37° C, using a Clark type oxygen electrode. The trained rats showed less body weight gain during the experiment. The weights of BAT and epididymal white adipose tissue were smaller in the trained rats. Noradrenaline- and glucagon-stimulated oxygen consumption were also significantly smaller in the trained rats. The tissue DNA level was greater in the trained rats, but the DNA content per tissue pad did not significantly differ. The results indicate that running training reduces BAT thermogenesis, possibly as an adaptation to conserve energy substrates for physical work.

  9. Effect on Oxygen Cost of Transport from 8-Weeks of Progressive Training with Barefoot Running.

    PubMed

    Tam, N; Tucker, R; Astephen Wilson, J L; Santos-Concejero, J

    2015-11-01

    Popular interest in barefoot running has emerged as a result of its alleged performance and injury prevention benefits. Oxygen cost of transport (COT) improvements from barefoot running, however, remains equivocal. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of an 8-week progressive barefoot training program on COT and associated spatiotemporal variables. 15 male runners participated in this study. Variables such as oxygen uptake, biomechanical and spatiotemporal characteristics of gait, including ground contact (GC) and swing time; stride length and frequency and ankle plantar-dorsiflexion were measured pre- and post-intervention. The COT did not differ between barefoot and shod running either pre- or post-training. Improved barefoot COT (p<0.05) but not shod was found between pre- and post-training. Biomechanical differences between barefoot and shod conditions persisted over the training period. A decrease in barefoot COT was associated with a decrease in GC time (p=0.003, r=0.688) and a small increase in stride frequency (p=0.030; r=0.569). Ground contact time and stride frequency, previously associated with COT, only partly contribute (32% - Stride frequency and 47% - GC time) to a decrease in COT after barefoot training. Thus other physiological and biomechanical variables must influence the improvement in COT after a barefoot training intervention.

  10. EFFECTS OF A MOVEMENT TRAINING PROGRAM ON HIP AND KNEE JOINT FRONTAL PLANE RUNNING MECHANICS

    PubMed Central

    Wouters, Isaac; Almonroeder, Thomas; DeJarlais, Bryan; Laack, Andrew; Kernozek, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Purpose: Frontal plane running mechanics may contribute to the etiology or exacerbation of common running related injuries. Hip strengthening alone may not change frontal plane hip and knee joint running mechanics. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate whether a training program including visual, verbal, and tactile feedback affects hip and knee joint frontal plane running mechanics among females with evidence of altered weight bearing kinematics. Methods: The knee frontal plane projection angle of 69 apparently healthy females was determined during a single leg squat. The twenty females from this larger sample who exhibited the most acute frontal plane projection angle (medial knee position) during this activity were chosen to participate in this study (age = 20 ± 1.6 years, height = 167.9 ± 6.0 cm, mass = 63.2 ± 8.3 kg, Tegner Activity Rating mode = 7.0). Participants engaged in a 4‐week movement training program using guided practice during weight bearing exercises with visual, verbal, and tactile feedback regarding lower extremity alignment. Paired t‐tests were used to compare frontal plane knee and hip joint angles and moments before and after the training program. Results: After training, internal hip and knee abduction moments during running decreased by 23% (P=0.007) and 29% (P=0.033) respectively. Knee adduction and abduction excursion decreased by 2.1° (P = 0.050) and 2.7° (P=0.008) respectively, suggesting that less frontal plane movement of the knee occurred during running after training. Peak knee abduction angle decreased 1.8° after training (P=0.051) although this was not statistically significant. Contralateral peak pelvic drop, pelvic drop excursion, peak hip adduction angle, hip adduction excursion, and peak knee adduction angle were unchanged following training. Conclusions: A four week movement training program may reduce frontal plane hip and knee joint mechanics thought to contribute to the etiology and

  11. "Running a Train": Adolescent Boys' Accounts of Sexual Intercourse Involving Multiple Males and One Female

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Emily F.; Decker, Michele R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay G.; Miller, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    The authors used qualitative research methods to explore the context and sexual risk behavior associated with sexual intercourse involving multiple males and one female, commonly called "running a train." Participants were 20 adolescent males aged 14 to 22 years who were either perpetrators of dating violence or perceived by teachers to be at risk…

  12. Different training status may alter the continuous blood glucose kinetics in self-paced endurance running

    PubMed Central

    SUZUKI, YOSHIO; SHIMIZU, TOMOMI; OTA, MAKOTO; HIRATA, RYUZO; SATO, KENJI; TAMURA, YOSHIFUMI; IMANISHI, AKIO; WATANABE, MASAYUKI; SAKURABA, KEISHOKU

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of the systemic energy metabolism is to provide a source of energy, mainly glucose, for the brain; therefore, blood glucose levels would be expected to correlate with exercise performance. The individual training status may also affect the blood glucose levels. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between blood glucose levels and running velocity during prolonged running in athletes with different training statuses. Two female college athletes, a triathlete and a tennis player, ran a course that was 247.4 m in circumference for 5 h while wearing a continuous glucose monitoring system. Blood was obtained at time-points of −1, 1, 3 and 5 h. The athletes had free access to food and fluids throughout the run. The athletes ran at almost the same pace without a sudden decrease in pace. The blood glucose levels increased and remained high in the triathlete, whereas the tennis player remained hypoglycemic throughout the run. Carbohydrate ingestion did not affect the blood glucose levels. The magnitude of hormonal changes, e.g. insulin, adrenaline and cortisol, was greater in the tennis player. The blood glucose concentration did not correlate with the running velocity or the carbohydrate ingestion; however, a discrepancy in blood glucose transition was observed between the triathlete and the tennis player, indicating a possible association between the adaptation to endurance exercise and the blood glucose kinetics during prolonged running. PMID:26622425

  13. Concurrent speed endurance and resistance training improves performance, running economy, and muscle NHE1 in moderately trained runners.

    PubMed

    Skovgaard, Casper; Christensen, Peter M; Larsen, Sonni; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Thomassen, Martin; Bangsbo, Jens

    2014-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether speed endurance training (SET, repeated 30-s sprints) and heavy resistance training (HRT, 80-90% of 1 repetition maximum) performed in succession are compatible and lead to performance improvements in moderately trained endurance runners. For an 8-wk intervention period (INT) 23 male runners [maximum oxygen uptake (V̇O(2max)) 59 ± 1 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1); values are means ± SE] either maintained their training (CON, n = 11) or performed high-intensity concurrent training (HICT, n = 12) consisting of two weekly sessions of SET followed by HRT and two weekly sessions of aerobic training with an average reduction in running distance of 42%. After 4 wk of HICT, performance was improved (P < 0.05) in a 10-km run (42:30 ± 1:07 vs. 44:11 ± 1:08 min:s) with no further improvement during the last 4 wk. Performance in a 1,500-m run (5:10 ± 0:05 vs. 5:27 ± 0:08 min:s) and in the Yo-Yo IR2 test (706 ± 97 vs. 491 ± 65 m) improved (P < 0.001) only following 8 wk of INT. In HICT, running economy (189 ± 4 vs. 195 ± 4 ml·kg(-1)·km(-1)), muscle content of NHE1 (35%) and dynamic muscle strength was augmented (P < 0.01) after compared with before INT, whereas V̇O(2max), muscle morphology, capillarization, content of muscle Na(+)/K(+) pump subunits, and MCT4 were unaltered. No changes were observed in CON. The present study demonstrates that SET and HRT, when performed in succession, lead to improvements in both short- and long-term running performance together with improved running economy as well as increased dynamic muscle strength and capacity for muscular H(+) transport in moderately trained endurance runners.

  14. Concurrent speed endurance and resistance training improves performance, running economy, and muscle NHE1 in moderately trained runners.

    PubMed

    Skovgaard, Casper; Christensen, Peter M; Larsen, Sonni; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Thomassen, Martin; Bangsbo, Jens

    2014-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether speed endurance training (SET, repeated 30-s sprints) and heavy resistance training (HRT, 80-90% of 1 repetition maximum) performed in succession are compatible and lead to performance improvements in moderately trained endurance runners. For an 8-wk intervention period (INT) 23 male runners [maximum oxygen uptake (V̇O(2max)) 59 ± 1 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1); values are means ± SE] either maintained their training (CON, n = 11) or performed high-intensity concurrent training (HICT, n = 12) consisting of two weekly sessions of SET followed by HRT and two weekly sessions of aerobic training with an average reduction in running distance of 42%. After 4 wk of HICT, performance was improved (P < 0.05) in a 10-km run (42:30 ± 1:07 vs. 44:11 ± 1:08 min:s) with no further improvement during the last 4 wk. Performance in a 1,500-m run (5:10 ± 0:05 vs. 5:27 ± 0:08 min:s) and in the Yo-Yo IR2 test (706 ± 97 vs. 491 ± 65 m) improved (P < 0.001) only following 8 wk of INT. In HICT, running economy (189 ± 4 vs. 195 ± 4 ml·kg(-1)·km(-1)), muscle content of NHE1 (35%) and dynamic muscle strength was augmented (P < 0.01) after compared with before INT, whereas V̇O(2max), muscle morphology, capillarization, content of muscle Na(+)/K(+) pump subunits, and MCT4 were unaltered. No changes were observed in CON. The present study demonstrates that SET and HRT, when performed in succession, lead to improvements in both short- and long-term running performance together with improved running economy as well as increased dynamic muscle strength and capacity for muscular H(+) transport in moderately trained endurance runners. PMID:25190744

  15. An Innovative Running Wheel-based Mechanism for Improved Rat Training Performance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi-Chun; Yang, Chin-Lung; Chang, Ching-Ping

    2016-01-01

    This study presents an animal mobility system, equipped with a positioning running wheel (PRW), as a way to quantify the efficacy of an exercise activity for reducing the severity of the effects of the stroke in rats. This system provides more effective animal exercise training than commercially available systems such as treadmills and motorized running wheels (MRWs). In contrast to an MRW that can only achieve speeds below 20 m/min, rats are permitted to run at a stable speed of 30 m/min on a more spacious and high-density rubber running track supported by a 15 cm wide acrylic wheel with a diameter of 55 cm in this work. Using a predefined adaptive acceleration curve, the system not only reduces the operator error but also trains the rats to run persistently until a specified intensity is reached. As a way to evaluate the exercise effectiveness, real-time position of a rat is detected by four pairs of infrared sensors deployed on the running wheel. Once an adaptive acceleration curve is initiated using a microcontroller, the data obtained by the infrared sensors are automatically recorded and analyzed in a computer. For comparison purposes, 3 week training is conducted on rats using a treadmill, an MRW and a PRW. After surgically inducing middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo), modified neurological severity scores (mNSS) and an inclined plane test were conducted to assess the neurological damages to the rats. PRW is experimentally validated as the most effective among such animal mobility systems. Furthermore, an exercise effectiveness measure, based on rat position analysis, showed that there is a high negative correlation between the effective exercise and the infarct volume, and can be employed to quantify a rat training in any type of brain damage reduction experiments. PMID:27684092

  16. An Innovative Running Wheel-based Mechanism for Improved Rat Training Performance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi-Chun; Yang, Chin-Lung; Chang, Ching-Ping

    2016-01-01

    This study presents an animal mobility system, equipped with a positioning running wheel (PRW), as a way to quantify the efficacy of an exercise activity for reducing the severity of the effects of the stroke in rats. This system provides more effective animal exercise training than commercially available systems such as treadmills and motorized running wheels (MRWs). In contrast to an MRW that can only achieve speeds below 20 m/min, rats are permitted to run at a stable speed of 30 m/min on a more spacious and high-density rubber running track supported by a 15 cm wide acrylic wheel with a diameter of 55 cm in this work. Using a predefined adaptive acceleration curve, the system not only reduces the operator error but also trains the rats to run persistently until a specified intensity is reached. As a way to evaluate the exercise effectiveness, real-time position of a rat is detected by four pairs of infrared sensors deployed on the running wheel. Once an adaptive acceleration curve is initiated using a microcontroller, the data obtained by the infrared sensors are automatically recorded and analyzed in a computer. For comparison purposes, 3 week training is conducted on rats using a treadmill, an MRW and a PRW. After surgically inducing middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo), modified neurological severity scores (mNSS) and an inclined plane test were conducted to assess the neurological damages to the rats. PRW is experimentally validated as the most effective among such animal mobility systems. Furthermore, an exercise effectiveness measure, based on rat position analysis, showed that there is a high negative correlation between the effective exercise and the infarct volume, and can be employed to quantify a rat training in any type of brain damage reduction experiments.

  17. Rivers Run Through It: Discovering the Interior Columbia River Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Shelley; Wojtanik, Brenda Lincoln; Rieben, Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    Explores the Columbia River Basin, its ecosystems, and challenges faced by natural resource managers. By studying the basin's complexity, students can learn about common scientific concepts such as the power of water and effects of rain shadows. Students can also explore social-scientific issues such as conflicts between protecting salmon runs and…

  18. The Effect of Cycling Cadence on Subsequent 10km Running Performance in Well-Trained Triathletes

    PubMed Central

    Tew, Garry

    2005-01-01

    by triathletes. Key PointsCompared with an isolated run, completion of a cycling event impairs the performance of a subsequent run independently of the pedalling cadence.The choice of cadence within triathletes’ usual range does not seem to influence the performance of a 10km run.The results reinforce the necessity for triathletes to practice multi-block training in order to simulate the physiological responses experienced by the cycle-run transition.Further research into the effects of cycling cadence on subsequent running performance is required. PMID:24453539

  19. A protocol of intermittent exercise (shuttle runs) to train young basketball players.

    PubMed

    Zadro, Ivan; Sepulcri, Luigino; Lazzer, Stefano; Fregolent, Rudy; Zamparo, Paola

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to set up a protocol of intermittent exercise to train young basketball players. Twenty-one players were asked to complete (a) an incremental test to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), the speed at the ventilatory threshold (vthr) and the energy cost of "linear" running (Cr) and (b) an intermittent test composed of 10 shuttle runs of 10-second duration and 30-seconds of recovery (total duration: about 6 minutes). The exercise intensity (the running speed, vi) was set at 130% of vthr. During the intermittent tests, oxygen uptake (VO2) and blood lactate concentration (Lab) were measured. The average pretraining VO2 calculated for a single bout (131 ± 9 ml · min(-1) kg(-1)) was about 2.4 times greater than the subjects' measured VO2max (54.7 ± 4.6 ml · min(-1) · kg(-1)). The net energy cost of running (9.2 ± 0.9 J · m(-1) · kg(-1)) was about 2.4 times higher than that measured at constant "linear" speed (3.9 ± 0.3 J · m(-1) · kg(-1)). The intermittent test was repeated after 7 weeks of training: 9 subjects (control group [CG]) maintained their traditional training schedule, whereas for 12 subjects (experimental group [EG]) part of the training was replaced by intermittent exercise (the same shuttle test as described above). After training, the VO2 measured during the intermittent test was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in both groups (-10.9% in EG and - 4.6 in CG %), whereas Lab decreased significantly only for EG (-31.5%). These data suggest that this training protocol is effective in reducing lactate accumulation in young basketball players.

  20. Effects of Strength Training Associated With Whole-Body Vibration Training on Running Economy and Vertical Stiffness.

    PubMed

    Roschel, Hamilton; Barroso, Renato; Tricoli, Valmor; Batista, Mauro A B; Acquesta, Fernanda M; Serrão, Júlio C; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    Running economy (RE) is defined as the energy cost to maintain a submaximal running velocity and seems to be affected by individual's neuromuscular characteristics, such as stiffness level. Both resistance training (RT) and whole-body vibration training added to RT (WBV + RT) have been shown to influence those characteristics. Thus, it is conceivable that RT and WBV + RT could also affect RE. The objective of this study was to investigate if a 6-week training period of RT and WBV + RT influences RE and vertical stiffness (VS). Fifteen recreational runners were divided into RT or WBV + RT groups. Running economy, VS, and lower-limb maximum dynamic strength (1 repetition maximum [1RM] half-squat) were assessed before and after the 6-week training period. There was a main time effect for 1RM, but no other statistically significant difference was observed. Neither conventional RT nor RT performed on a WBV platform improved VS and RE in recreational long distance runners. It is possible that movement velocity was rather low, and utilization of stretch-shortening cycle might have been compromised, impairing any expected improvement in RE. PMID:25627640

  1. The effects of incline and level-grade high-intensity interval treadmill training on running economy and muscle power in well-trained distance runners.

    PubMed

    Ferley, Derek D; Osborn, Roy W; Vukovich, Matthew D

    2014-05-01

    Despite a paucity of evidence, uphill running has been touted as a sport-specific resistance-to-movement training tactic capable of enhancing metabolic, muscular, and neuromuscular processes in distance runners in ways similar to previously established resistance-to-movement training methods, such as heavy and/or explosive strength training and plyometric training. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation included documenting the effects of incline and level-grade interval treadmill training on indices of running economy (RE) (i.e., oxygen consumption [VO2] and blood lactate [BLa] responses of submaximal running) and muscle power. Thirty-two well-trained distance runners (age, 27.4 ± 3.8 years; body mass, 64.8 ± 8.9 kg; height, 173.6 ± 6.4 cm; and VO2max, 60.9 ± 8.5 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1)) received assignment to an uphill (GHill = 12), level-grade (GFlat = 12), or control (GCon = 8) group. GHill and GFlat completed 12 interval and 12 continuous run sessions over 6 weeks, whereas GCon maintained their normal training. Dependent variables measured before and after training were VO2 and BLa at 2 separate velocities associated with lactate threshold (VLT) (VO2-60% and VO2-80%; and BLa-60% and BLa-80%, respectively); percentage of VO2max at lactate threshold (%VO2max at VLT); muscle power as assessed through a horizontal 5-jump test (5Jmax); and isokinetic knee extension and flexion at 3 angular velocities (90, 180, and 300°·s(-1)). Statistical significance was set to p ≤ 0.05. All groups significantly improved 5Jmax, VO2-60%, VO2-80%, BLa-60%, and BLa-80%. Additionally, GHill and GFlat significantly improved %VO2max at VLT. Other indices of RE and muscle power did not improve. We conclude incline treadmill training effective for improving the components of RE, but insufficient as a resistance-to-movement exercise for enhancing muscle power output.

  2. Influence of training, sex, age and body mass on the energy cost of running.

    PubMed

    Bourdin, M; Pastene, J; Germain, M; Lacour, J R

    1993-01-01

    To highlight the influences of age, sex, body mass (mb) and running training on the energy cost of running (Cr) young basketball players [38 boys (BB) and 14 girls (BG), aged 14.2 (SD 0.3) and 12.2 (SD 1.9) years, respectively] were selected to be compared to middle-distance runners [27 men (MR) and 14 women (FR) aged 23.7 (SD 3.4) and 23.9 (SD 4.1) years, respectively]. The Cr was measured during a maximal treadmill test. In each group Cr and body mass (mb) and body height were negatively and significantly correlated. A stepwise regression showed that among both the body dimensions measured, mb was the most important factor in determining the variations of Cr. For the whole group (n = 93) the correlation coefficient was 0.72 (P < 0.0001). For a given mb, there was no significant difference between the Cr of BG, BB and MR: this result would support the hypothesis that the differences in Cr currently attributed to age, running training or sex differences are mainly related to mb. On the other hand, for a given mb, FR showed a significantly lower Cr than the basketball players (P < 0.01 for BG and BB) and than MR (P < 0.05), thus suggesting that women decrease their Cr as a response to running training more efficiently than do men.

  3. Oxidative Capacity and Fatigability in Run Trained Malignant Hyperthermia Susceptible Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rouviere, Clement; Corona, Benjamin T.; Ingalls, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that Malignant Hyperthermia model mice (RyR1Y522S/wt) are more vulnerable to exercise-induced muscle injury and fatigability and adapt less to run training. Methods Following 6 weeks of voluntary wheel running, we measured anterior crural muscle fatigability, muscle injury, and cytochrome oxidase (COX) and citrate synthase (CS). Results Although RyR1Y522S/wt mice ran without experiencing MH episodes, they ran 42% less distance than wild type (WT) mice. Muscles from WT mice exhibited increased fatigue resistance and COX content after training. Muscles from RyR1Y522S/wt mice demonstrated no significant change in fatigability or COX and CS after training. However, muscles from RyR1Y522S/wt mice displayed less intrinsic fatigability and greater COX/CS content and muscle damage than WT mice. Discussion RyR1Y522S/wt mice can run without experiencing rhabdomyolysis, and their inability to adapt to training appears to stem from intrinsic enhancement of mitochondrial enzymes and fatigue resistance. PMID:22431093

  4. Stride angle as a novel indicator of running economy in well-trained runners.

    PubMed

    Santos-Concejero, Jordan; Tam, Nicholas; Granados, Cristina; Irazusta, Jon; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Zabala-Lili, Jon; Gil, Susana M

    2014-07-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between a novel biomechanical variable, the stride angle, and running economy (RE) in a homogeneous group of long-distance athletes. Twenty-five well-trained male runners completed 4-minute running stages on a treadmill at different set velocities. During the test, biomechanical variables such as stride angle, swing time, ground contact time, stride length, stride frequency, and the different sub-phases of ground contact were recorded using an optical measurement system. VO2 values at velocities below the lactate threshold were measured to calculate RE. Stride angle was negatively correlated with RE at every speed (p < 0.001, large effect sizes). Running economy was also negatively correlated with swing phase and positively correlated with ground contact time and running performance according to the best 10-km race time (p ≤ 0.05, moderate and large effect sizes). Last, stride angle was correlated with ground contact time at every speed (p < 0.001, large effect sizes). In conclusion, it seems that optimal execution of stride angle allows runners to minimize contact time during ground contact, whereby facilitating a better RE. Coaches and/or athletes may find stride angle a useful and easily obtainable measure to track and make alterations to running technique, because changes in stride angle may influence the energy cost of running and lead to improved performance.

  5. Safety through Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorburn, S.

    1990-01-01

    Addresses the need for safety education as a continuous process through elementary and secondary phases of education in the context of human risk within modern society. Discusses the teaching of safety subjects in civil engineering curriculum. (YP)

  6. Effects of running wheel training on adult obese rats programmed by maternal prolactin inhibition.

    PubMed

    Boaventura, G; Casimiro-Lopes, G; Pazos-Moura, C C; Oliveira, E; Lisboa, P C; Moura, E G

    2013-10-01

    The inhibition of maternal prolactin production in late lactation leads to metabolic syndrome and hypothyroidism in adult offspring. Physical training is a therapeutic strategy that could prevent or reverse this condition. We evaluated the effects of a short-duration low-intensity running wheel training program on the metabolic and hormonal alterations in rats. Lactating Wistar rats were treated with bromocriptine (Bro, 1 mg twice a day) or saline on days 19, 20, and 21 of lactation, and the training of offspring began at 35 days of age. Offspring were divided into sedentary and trained controls (C-Sed and C-Ex) and sedentary and trained Bro-treated rats (Bro-Sed and Bro-Ex). Chronic exercise delayed the onset of weight gain in Bro-Ex offspring, and the food intake did not change during the experimental period. At 180 days, visceral fat mass was higher (+46%) in the Bro-Sed offspring than in C-Sed and Bro-Ex rats. As expected, running capacity was higher in trained animals. Most parameters observed in the Bro-Sed offspring were consistent with hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome and were reversed in the Bro-Ex group. Chronic exercise did not influence the muscle glycogen in the C-Ex group; however, liver glycogen was higher (+30%) in C-Ex group and was unchanged in both Bro offspring groups. Bro-Ex animals had higher plasma lactate dehydrogenase levels, indicating skeletal muscle damage and intolerance of the training program. Low-intensity chronic training is able to normalize many clinical aspects in Bro animals; however, these animals might have had a lower threshold for exercise adaptation than the control rats. PMID:23863192

  7. Effect of run training and cold-water immersion on subsequent cycle training quality in high-performance triathletes.

    PubMed

    Rowsell, Greg J; Reaburn, Peter; Toone, Rebecca; Smith, Mitchell; Coutts, Aaron J

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of cold-water immersion (CWI) on physiological, psychological, and biochemical markers of recovery and subsequent cycling performance after intensive run training. Seven high-performance male triathletes (age: 28.6 ± 7.1 years; cycling VO2peak: 73.4 ± 10.2 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)) completed 2 trials in a randomized crossover design consisting of 7 × 5-minute running intervals at 105% of individual anaerobic threshold followed by either CWI (10 ± 0.5° C) or thermoneutral water immersion (TNI; 34 ± 0.5° C). Subjects immersed their legs in water 5 times for 60 seconds with 60-second passive rest between each immersion. Nine hours after immersion, inflammatory and muscle damage markers, and perceived recovery measures were obtained before the subjects completed a 5-minute maximal cycling test followed by a high-quality cycling interval training set (6 × 5-minute intervals). Power output, heart rate, blood lactate (La), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were also recorded during the cycling time-trial and interval set. Performance was enhanced (change, ± 90% confidence limits) in the CWI condition during the cycling interval training set (power output [W · kg(-1)], 2.1 ± 1.7%, La [mmol · L(-1)], 18 ± 18.1%, La:RPE, 19.8 ± 17.5%). However, there was an unclear effect of CWI on 5-minute maximal cycling time-trial performance, and there was no significant influence on perceptual measures of fatigue/recovery, despite small to moderate effects. The effect of CWI on the biochemical markers was mostly unclear, however, there was a substantial effect for interleukin-10 (20 ± 13.4%). These results suggest that compared with TNI, CWI may be effective for enhancing cycling interval training performance after intensive interval-running training.

  8. Effect of run training and cold-water immersion on subsequent cycle training quality in high-performance triathletes.

    PubMed

    Rowsell, Greg J; Reaburn, Peter; Toone, Rebecca; Smith, Mitchell; Coutts, Aaron J

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of cold-water immersion (CWI) on physiological, psychological, and biochemical markers of recovery and subsequent cycling performance after intensive run training. Seven high-performance male triathletes (age: 28.6 ± 7.1 years; cycling VO2peak: 73.4 ± 10.2 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)) completed 2 trials in a randomized crossover design consisting of 7 × 5-minute running intervals at 105% of individual anaerobic threshold followed by either CWI (10 ± 0.5° C) or thermoneutral water immersion (TNI; 34 ± 0.5° C). Subjects immersed their legs in water 5 times for 60 seconds with 60-second passive rest between each immersion. Nine hours after immersion, inflammatory and muscle damage markers, and perceived recovery measures were obtained before the subjects completed a 5-minute maximal cycling test followed by a high-quality cycling interval training set (6 × 5-minute intervals). Power output, heart rate, blood lactate (La), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were also recorded during the cycling time-trial and interval set. Performance was enhanced (change, ± 90% confidence limits) in the CWI condition during the cycling interval training set (power output [W · kg(-1)], 2.1 ± 1.7%, La [mmol · L(-1)], 18 ± 18.1%, La:RPE, 19.8 ± 17.5%). However, there was an unclear effect of CWI on 5-minute maximal cycling time-trial performance, and there was no significant influence on perceptual measures of fatigue/recovery, despite small to moderate effects. The effect of CWI on the biochemical markers was mostly unclear, however, there was a substantial effect for interleukin-10 (20 ± 13.4%). These results suggest that compared with TNI, CWI may be effective for enhancing cycling interval training performance after intensive interval-running training. PMID:24626137

  9. Effects of hip flexor training on sprint, shuttle run, and vertical jump performance.

    PubMed

    Deane, Russell S; Chow, John W; Tillman, Mark D; Fournier, Kim A

    2005-08-01

    Although hip flexion is integral in sports, hip flexion exercises are seldom emphasized in strength and conditioning for sports performance. This study aimed to determine whether a hip flexor resistance-training program could improve performance on a variety of tasks. Thirteen men and 11 women completed an 8-week hip flexion resistance-training program. Eleven men and 13 women served as controls. Isometric hip flexion strength, 40-yd dash time and the time for the first 10-yds, 4 x 5.8-m shuttle run time, and vertical jump height were evaluated at the beginning and end of the training and control period. Improvements were observed in the training group but not in the control group. Individuals in the training group improved hip flexion strength by 12.2% and decreased their 40-yd and shuttle run times by 3.8% and 9.0%, respectively. An increase in hip flexion strength can help to improve sprint and agility performance for physically active, untrained individuals.

  10. Concurrent strength and endurance training effects on running economy in master endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Piacentini, Maria Francesca; De Ioannon, Giulia; Comotto, Stefania; Spedicato, Alessandro; Vernillo, Gianluca; La Torre, Antonio

    2013-08-01

    Running economy (RE) has been seen to improve with concurrent strength and endurance training in young and elite endurance athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 2 different strength training protocols on RE and strength parameters in a group of regularly training master marathon runners. Sixteen participants were randomly assigned to a maximal strength training program (MST; n = 6; 44.2 ± 3.9 years), a resistance training (n = 5; 44.8 ± 4.4 years), and a control group (n = 5; 43.2 ± 7.9 years). Before and after the experimental period, resting metabolic rate, body composition, 1 repetition maximum (1RM), squat jump, countermovement jump, and RE were evaluated. The MST group showed significant increases (p < 0.05) in 1RM (+16.34%) and RE (+6.17 %) at marathon pace. No differences emerged for the other groups (p > 0.05). Anthropometric data were unchanged after the training intervention (p > 0.05). Taken together, the results of this preliminary study indicate that master endurance athletes seem to benefit from concurrent strength and endurance training because the rate of force development may be crucial for RE improvement, one of the major determinants of endurance performance. PMID:23207882

  11. "Run, Jane, run": central tensions in the current debate about enhancing women's health through exercise.

    PubMed

    Vertinsky, P

    1998-01-01

    The advancement of access and opportunities for girls and women in health enhancing physical activity in recent decades is a matter of record. Yet despite burgeoning interest and increased female participation in sport and recreational physical activity, few women are active enough to benefit their health. Even after extensive government campaigns are repeatedly used to educate the public, fewer women than men participate in every age group. Something is drastically wrong when exercise is said to be associated with so many health benefits, yet only a small portion of the female population exercises sufficiently to accrue these benefits. It is important to critically evaluate the challenges inherent in achieving social equity in opportunities for healthy physical activity for all women. As we gain new understandings about how health gains can be achieved by reducing social inequality rather than providing more medical care, we can see how involvement in healthy exercise is closely entwined with the social and economic status of women, disempowering stereotypes of the female body and the issue of control over women's bodies. This paper explores central tensions in the current debate about promoting female health through physical activity across the lifespan by focusing upon (i) the continued medicalization of the female body; (ii) adolescence and the tyranny of physical appearance over health and physical activity choices; (iii) menopause and the perpetuation of disempowering stereotypes into old age; and (iv) issues of diversity and the impact of 'race' and ethnicity upon female health and physical activity. These issues are then examined in light of the discourses of recent population health strategies in Canada and the U.S. Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health (1996) which both (in differing degrees) demonstrate a continued preoccupation with individual lifestyle change and cautious medical prescription for exercise as recipes for better female

  12. Effect of ethanol on metabolic responses to treadmill running in well-trained men.

    PubMed

    Kendrick, Z V; Affrime, M B; Lowenthal, D T

    1993-02-01

    The metabolic effects of ethanol on treadmill performance were determined in four trained runners. Ethanol in doses of 25 mL in 150 mL of grapefruit juice (total volume) or grapefruit juice was randomly administered 10 minutes before and at 30 minutes of a 60-minute treadmill run. The speed and grade of the treadmill was adjusted to elicit an average oxygen consumption (VO2) of 80 to 85% of the subjects' VO2max. Three of the four subjects could not complete the treadmill run after the administration of ethanol. Administration of ethanol resulted in significant increases in the heart rate responses to treadmill running above those for the placebo grapefruit treatment. VO2 was higher after ethanol administration than the placebo grapefruit juice treatment, but these values were not significant. Blood glucose content rose significantly between 0 and 30 minutes of treadmill running for both the ethanol and placebo grapefruit juice treatments. Between 30 minutes of treadmill running and the termination of the exercise, the blood glucose level decreased significantly by 24% after the second ethanol treatment at 30 minutes of exercise. Plasma fatty acid, triglyceride, creatine phosphokinase, and renin contents followed expected exercise changes. It was concluded that the administration of ethanol adversely influenced treadmill exercise performance by eliciting a hypoglycemic effect between 30 minutes and the termination of the exercise. PMID:8440761

  13. Implementing Creativity Training of Students through Teacher Inservice Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, John A.

    1981-01-01

    The efficacy of an applied behavior analysis model for enhancing creativity is reported. The model was implemented through teacher inservice training. Results indicate the positive effects at a much more time- and resource-economical level than methods previously demonstrated. (Author/GK)

  14. Online Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Software Training through the Behavioral Modeling Approach: A Longitudinal Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Charlie C.; Shaw, Ruey-shiang

    2006-01-01

    The continued and increasing use of online training raises the question of whether the most effective training methods applied in live instruction will carry over to different online environments in the long run. Behavior Modeling (BM) approach--teaching through demonstration--has been proven as the most effective approach in a face-to-face (F2F)…

  15. The correlation between running economy and maximal oxygen uptake: cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships in highly trained distance runners.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Andrew J; Ingham, Stephen A; Atkinson, Greg; Folland, Jonathan P

    2015-01-01

    A positive relationship between running economy and maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) has been postulated in trained athletes, but previous evidence is equivocal and could have been confounded by statistical artefacts. Whether this relationship is preserved in response to running training (changes in running economy and V̇O2max) has yet to be explored. This study examined the relationships of (i) running economy and V̇O2max between runners, and (ii) the changes in running economy and V̇O2max that occur within runners in response to habitual training. 168 trained distance runners (males, n = 98, V̇O2max 73.0 ± 6.3 mL∙kg-1∙min-1; females, n = 70, V̇O2max 65.2 ± 5.9 mL kg-1∙min-1) performed a discontinuous submaximal running test to determine running economy (kcal∙km-1). A continuous incremental treadmill running test to volitional exhaustion was used to determine V̇O2max 54 participants (males, n = 27; females, n = 27) also completed at least one follow up assessment. Partial correlation analysis revealed small positive relationships between running economy and V̇O2max (males r = 0.26, females r = 0.25; P<0.006), in addition to moderate positive relationships between the changes in running economy and V̇O2max in response to habitual training (r = 0.35; P<0.001). In conclusion, the current investigation demonstrates that only a small to moderate relationship exists between running economy and V̇O2max in highly trained distance runners. With >85% of the variance in these parameters unexplained by this relationship, these findings reaffirm that running economy and V̇O2max are primarily determined independently.

  16. The Correlation between Running Economy and Maximal Oxygen Uptake: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Relationships in Highly Trained Distance Runners

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Andrew J.; Ingham, Stephen A.; Atkinson, Greg; Folland, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    A positive relationship between running economy and maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) has been postulated in trained athletes, but previous evidence is equivocal and could have been confounded by statistical artefacts. Whether this relationship is preserved in response to running training (changes in running economy and V̇O2max) has yet to be explored. This study examined the relationships of (i) running economy and V̇O2max between runners, and (ii) the changes in running economy and V̇O2max that occur within runners in response to habitual training. 168 trained distance runners (males, n = 98, V̇O2max 73.0 ± 6.3 mL∙kg-1∙min-1; females, n = 70, V̇O2max 65.2 ± 5.9 mL kg-1∙min-1) performed a discontinuous submaximal running test to determine running economy (kcal∙km-1). A continuous incremental treadmill running test to volitional exhaustion was used to determine V̇O2max 54 participants (males, n = 27; females, n = 27) also completed at least one follow up assessment. Partial correlation analysis revealed small positive relationships between running economy and V̇O2max (males r = 0.26, females r = 0.25; P<0.006), in addition to moderate positive relationships between the changes in running economy and V̇O2max in response to habitual training (r = 0.35; P<0.001). In conclusion, the current investigation demonstrates that only a small to moderate relationship exists between running economy and V̇O2max in highly trained distance runners. With >85% of the variance in these parameters unexplained by this relationship, these findings reaffirm that running economy and V̇O2max are primarily determined independently. PMID:25849090

  17. Stabilizing mechanism and running behavior of couplers on heavy haul trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ziqiang; Wu, Qing; Luo, Shihui; Ma, Weihua; Dong, Xiaoqing

    2014-11-01

    Published studies in regard to coupler systems have been mainly focused on the manufacturing process or coupler strength issues. With the ever increasing of tonnage and length of heavy haul trains, lateral in-train forces generated by longitudinal in-train forces and coupler rotations have become a more and more significant safety issue for heavy haul train operations. Derailments caused by excessive lateral in-train forces are frequently reported. This article studies two typical coupler systems used on heavy haul locomotives. Their structures and stabilizing mechanism are analyzed before the corresponding models are developed. Coupler systems models are featured by two distinct stabilizing mechanism models and draft gear models with hysteresis considered. A model set which consists of four locomotives and three coupler systems is developed to study the rotational behavior of different coupler systems and their implications for locomotive dynamics. Simulated results indicate that when the locomotives are equipped with the type B coupler system, locomotives can meet the dynamics standard on tangent tracks; while the dynamics performance on curved tracks is very poor. The maximum longitudinal in-train force for locomotives equipped with the type B coupler system is 2000 kN. Simulations revealed a distinct trend for the type A coupler system. Locomotive dynamics are poorer for the type A case when locomotives are running on tangent tracks, while the dynamics are better for the type A case when locomotives are running on curved tracks. Theoretical studies and simulations carried out in this article suggest that a combination of the two types of stabilizing mechanism can result in a good design which can significantly decrease the relevant derailments.

  18. TRAIN: Training through Research Application Italian iNitiative.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Claudio; Bottero, Sergio; d'Alessandro, Francesca; Giacomini, Mauro; Guderzo, Angela; Moretti, Franca; Marincola, Margherita; Pesce, Giorgia; Pierotti, Marco A; Spagnoli, Luigi Giusto; Belardelli, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    Training through Research Application Italian iNitiative (TRAIN) is a mobility program financed under the EU action called "Cofinancing of regional, national and international programs" (COFUND) of the European Commission Seventh Framework Program (FP7) - People, and has been designed to encourage the promotion and development of international programs of research through mobility at various stages of research careers. The aim of TRAIN is to improve translational skills in the field of cancer by promoting a three-year international mobility program assigning a total of 51 fellowships subdivided into incoming, outgoing and reintegration fellowships.?The TRAIN proposal has been submitted in February 2009 to the European Commission in reply to the 2008 FP7-PEOPLE-COFUND call and has been successfully evaluated. TRAIN is addressed to postdoctoral scientists or scientists who have at least four years' full-time equivalent research experience and who wish to improve their careers spending one year abroad. The mobility program is open also to non-Italian experienced scientists wishing to spend one year in an Italian research center or private company. Part of the scheme is targeted to experienced Italian scientists who have completed at least three years of research in a foreign country and are interested in returning to Italy.?TRAIN is part of an overall Italian strategy outlined by the International Program of the Italian Cancer Network "Alleanza Contro il Cancro" to promote Italian participation in the building of the European Area for translational cancer research and to enhance the interaction between academy and industry.

  19. Freely chosen stride frequencies during walking and running are not correlated with freely chosen pedalling frequency and are insensitive to strength training.

    PubMed

    Sardroodian, Mahta; Madeleine, Pascal; Voigt, Michael; Hansen, Ernst A

    2015-06-01

    Despite biomechanical differences between walking, running, and cycling, these types of movement are supposedly generated by shared neural networks. According to this hypothesis, we investigated relationships between movement frequencies in these tasks as well as effects of strength training on locomotion behaviour. The movement frequencies during walking, running, and cycling were 58.1±2.6 strides min(-1), 81.3±4.4 strides min(-1), and 77.2±11.5 revolutions min(-1), respectively (n=27). Stride frequencies in walking and running correlated positively (r=0.72, p<0.001) while no significant correlations were found between stride frequencies during walking and running, respectively, and pedalling frequency (r=0.16, p=0.219 and r=0.04, p=0.424). Potential changes in the freely chosen stride frequencies and stride phase characteristics were also investigated during walking and running through 4 weeks of (i) hip extension strength training (n=9), (ii) hip flexion strength training (n=9), and (iii) no intervention (n=9). Results showed that stride characteristics were unaffected by strength training. That is in contrast to previous observations of decreased pedalling frequency following strength training. In total, these results are proposed to indicate that walking and running movements are robustly generated due to an evolutionary consolidation of the interaction between the musculoskeletal system and neural networks. Further, based on the present results, and the fact that cycling is a postnatally developed task that likely results in a different pattern of descending and afferent input to rhythm generating neural networks than walking and running, we propose pedalling to be generated by neural networks mainly consolidated for locomotion.

  20. Endurance treadmill running training benefits the biomaterial quality of bone in growing male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tsang-Hai; Chang, Feng-Ling; Lin, Shang-Chih; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Hsieh, Sandy S; Yang, Rong-Sen

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of endurance running training on the bones of growing rats. Thirty-two male Wistar rats (7 weeks old) were assigned to a sedentary control group (CON, n = 10), a continuous endurance running group (CEN, n = 10), or an intermittent endurance running group (IEN, n = 12). After an 8-week training period, both exercise groups had significantly less body weight (BW) gain but higher aerobic capacity, shown by increased muscle citrate synthase (CS) activity. Bone area (BA), areal bone mineral density (aBMD), and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured by dual-energy Xray absorptiometry (DXA) in the total femur and sections of femora. Except for showing a significantly higher aBMD in total femora, the CON group was only slightly and nonsignificantly higher in other DXA measurements. In tissue weight measurements, the CON group showed a nonsignificantly higher tissue dry weight (P = 0.146), but a significantly lower tissue water content ratio (WCR, %) as compared to the exercise group. Despite having nonsignificantly lower long bone cross-sectional parameters, both exercise groups showed significantly better biomaterial properties, as measured by a three-point bending test. In extrinsic analysis, femora of the two exercise groups showed no difference in bending load and stiffness, but were significantly higher in post-yield bending energy and total ultimate bending energy (P < 0.05). Similar phenomena were revealed in tissue-level measurements; the CEN and IEN groups were significantly higher in ultimate toughness and post-yield toughness (P < 0.05). Higher post-yield energy shown by two exercise groups implied a change in bone matrix organization. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that two endurance treadmill training modes benefit bone, with subjects showing better tissue biomaterial properties without significantly increasing aBMD, BMC, or bone dimension. Further study would be valuable to investigate the effects of endurance

  1. A video based run-off-road training program with practice and evaluation in a simulator.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Paul; Neyens, David M; Wagner, John; Switzer, Fred; Alexander, Kim; Pidgeon, Philip

    2015-09-01

    A run-off-road (ROR) event occurs when one or more of a vehicle's wheels leaves the roadway and begins to travel on the surface or shoulder adjacent to the road. Despite various countermeasures, ROR crashes continue to yield a large number of fatalities and injuries. Infrastructure-based solutions do not directly address the critical factor of driver performance preceding and during an ROR event. In this study, a total of 75 individuals participated in a pre-post experiment to examine the effect of a training video on improving driver performance during a set of simulated ROR scenarios (e.g., on a high speed highway, a horizontal curve, and a residential rural road). In each scenario, the vehicle was unexpectedly forced into an ROR scenario for which the drivers were instructed to recover as safely as possible. The treatment group then watched a custom ROR training video while the control group viewed a placebo video. The participants then drove the same simulated ROR scenarios. The results suggest that the training video had a significant positive effect on drivers' steering response on all three roadway conditions as well as improvements in vehicle stability, subjectively rated demand on the driver, and self-evaluated performance in the highway scenario. Under the highway conditions, the treatment group reduced the frequency of spinouts from 70% in the pre-training events to 16% in the post-training events (χ(2)(1)=23.32, p<0.001) with no significant improvement found for the control group. In the horizontal curve, spinouts were reduced for the treatment group from 50% in the pre-training events to 30% in the post-training events (χ(2)(1)=8.45, p=0.004) with the control group also not showing any significant improvement. The results of this study suggest that even a short video about recovering from ROR events can significantly influence a driver's ability to recover. It is possible that additional training may have further benefits in recovering from ROR

  2. A video based run-off-road training program with practice and evaluation in a simulator.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Paul; Neyens, David M; Wagner, John; Switzer, Fred; Alexander, Kim; Pidgeon, Philip

    2015-09-01

    A run-off-road (ROR) event occurs when one or more of a vehicle's wheels leaves the roadway and begins to travel on the surface or shoulder adjacent to the road. Despite various countermeasures, ROR crashes continue to yield a large number of fatalities and injuries. Infrastructure-based solutions do not directly address the critical factor of driver performance preceding and during an ROR event. In this study, a total of 75 individuals participated in a pre-post experiment to examine the effect of a training video on improving driver performance during a set of simulated ROR scenarios (e.g., on a high speed highway, a horizontal curve, and a residential rural road). In each scenario, the vehicle was unexpectedly forced into an ROR scenario for which the drivers were instructed to recover as safely as possible. The treatment group then watched a custom ROR training video while the control group viewed a placebo video. The participants then drove the same simulated ROR scenarios. The results suggest that the training video had a significant positive effect on drivers' steering response on all three roadway conditions as well as improvements in vehicle stability, subjectively rated demand on the driver, and self-evaluated performance in the highway scenario. Under the highway conditions, the treatment group reduced the frequency of spinouts from 70% in the pre-training events to 16% in the post-training events (χ(2)(1)=23.32, p<0.001) with no significant improvement found for the control group. In the horizontal curve, spinouts were reduced for the treatment group from 50% in the pre-training events to 30% in the post-training events (χ(2)(1)=8.45, p=0.004) with the control group also not showing any significant improvement. The results of this study suggest that even a short video about recovering from ROR events can significantly influence a driver's ability to recover. It is possible that additional training may have further benefits in recovering from ROR

  3. Cytokine response to acute running in recreationally-active and endurance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jonathan P R; Sale, Craig; Greeves, Julie P; Casey, Anna; Dutton, John; Fraser, William D

    2013-07-01

    To compare the cytokine response to exhaustive running in recreationally-active (RA) and endurance-trained (ET) men. Eleven RA men (VO2max 55 ± 7 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) and 10 ET men (VO₂max 68 ± 7 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) followed a controlled diet and refrained from volitional exercise for 8 days. On the fourth day, participants completed 60 min of treadmill running (65 % VO₂max), followed by intermittent running to exhaustion (70 % VO₂max). Fasting blood was obtained at baseline, after 20, 40 and 60 min of exercise, at the end of intermittent exercise, during 2 h of recovery and on four follow-up days (FU1-FU4). Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) and creatine kinase (CK) were measured. Exercise increased the concentrations of all cytokines and CK, but there were no significant differences between groups. IL-1β increased (2.2-2.5-fold, P < 0.001) during exercise, while TNF-α was increased (1.6-2.0-fold, P < 0.001) during exercise and for 2 h post-exercise. IL-6 (71-84-fold, P < 0.001) and IL-1ra (52-64-fold, P < 0.001) were increased throughout exercise and up to FU1, peaking immediately after exercise and at 1.5-2 h post-exercise, respectively. CK concentrations were increased (P < 0.001) throughout exercise and up to FU4, peaking at FU1, but were not associated with changes in any cytokines. Exhaustive running resulted in modest and transient increases in TNF-α and IL-1β, and more marked and prolonged increases in IL-6 and IL-1ra, but improved training status did not affect this response. Increased CK might indicate either exercise-induced muscle cell disruption or increased cell permeability, although neither appears to have contributed to the increased cytokine concentrations. PMID:23463480

  4. Physiological and biomechanical adaptations to the cycle to run transition in Olympic triathlon: review and practical recommendations for training

    PubMed Central

    Millet, G.; Vleck, V.

    2000-01-01

    Current knowledge of the physiological, biomechanical, and sensory effects of the cycle to run transition in the Olympic triathlon (1.5 km, 10 km, 40 km) is reviewed and implications for the training of junior and elite triathletes are discussed. Triathlon running elicits hyperventilation, increased heart rate, decreased pulmonary compliance, and exercise induced hypoxaemia. This may be due to exercise intensity, ventilatory muscle fatigue, dehydration, muscle fibre damage, a shift in metabolism towards fat oxidation, and depleted glycogen stores after a 40 km cycle. The energy cost (CR) of running during the cycle to run transition is also increased over that of control running. The increase in CR varies from 1.6% to 11.6% and is a reflection of triathlete ability level. This increase may be partly related to kinematic alterations, but research suggests that most biomechanical parameters are unchanged. A more forward leaning trunk inclination is the most significant observation reported. Running pattern, and thus running economy, could also be influenced by sensorimotor perturbations related to the change in posture. Technical skill in the transition area is obviously very important. The conditions under which the preceding cycling section is performed—that is, steady state or stochastic power output, drafting or non-drafting—are likely to influence the speed of adjustment to transition. The extent to which a decrease in the average 10 km running speed occurs during competition must be investigated further. It is clear that the higher the athlete is placed in the field at the end of the bike section, the greater the importance to their finishing position of both a quick transition area time and optimal adjustment to the physiological demands of the cycle to run transition. The need for, and current methods of, training to prepare junior and elite triathletes for a better transition are critically reviewed in light of the effects of sequential cycle to run

  5. Acclimatization to altitude and normoxic training improve 400-m running performance at sea level.

    PubMed

    Nummela, A; Rusko, H

    2000-06-01

    To investigate the benefits of 'living high and training low' on anaerobic performance at sea level, eight 400-m runners lived for 10 days in normobaric hypoxia in an altitude house (oxygen content = 15.8%) and trained outdoors in ambient normoxia at sea level. A maximal anaerobic running test and 400-m race were performed before and within 1 week of living in the altitude house to determine the maximum speed and the speeds at different submaximal blood lactate concentrations (3, 5, 7, 10 and 13 mmol x l(-1)) and 400-m race time. At the same time, ten 400-m runners lived and trained at sea level and were subjected to identical test procedures. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that the altitude house group but not the sea-level group improved their 400-m race time during the experimental period (P < 0.05). The speeds at blood lactate concentrations of 5-13 mmol x l(-1) tended to increase in the altitude house group but the response was significant only at 5 and 7 mmol x l(-1) (P < 0.05). Furthermore, resting blood pH was increased in six of the eight altitude house athletes from 0.003 to 0.067 pH unit (P < 0.05). The results of this study demonstrate improved 400-m performance after 10 days of living in normobaric hypoxia and training at sea level. Furthermore, the present study provides evidence that changes in the acid-base balance and lactate metabolism might be responsible for the improvement in sprint performance.

  6. Acclimatization to altitude and normoxic training improve 400-m running performance at sea level.

    PubMed

    Nummela, A; Rusko, H

    2000-06-01

    To investigate the benefits of 'living high and training low' on anaerobic performance at sea level, eight 400-m runners lived for 10 days in normobaric hypoxia in an altitude house (oxygen content = 15.8%) and trained outdoors in ambient normoxia at sea level. A maximal anaerobic running test and 400-m race were performed before and within 1 week of living in the altitude house to determine the maximum speed and the speeds at different submaximal blood lactate concentrations (3, 5, 7, 10 and 13 mmol x l(-1)) and 400-m race time. At the same time, ten 400-m runners lived and trained at sea level and were subjected to identical test procedures. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that the altitude house group but not the sea-level group improved their 400-m race time during the experimental period (P < 0.05). The speeds at blood lactate concentrations of 5-13 mmol x l(-1) tended to increase in the altitude house group but the response was significant only at 5 and 7 mmol x l(-1) (P < 0.05). Furthermore, resting blood pH was increased in six of the eight altitude house athletes from 0.003 to 0.067 pH unit (P < 0.05). The results of this study demonstrate improved 400-m performance after 10 days of living in normobaric hypoxia and training at sea level. Furthermore, the present study provides evidence that changes in the acid-base balance and lactate metabolism might be responsible for the improvement in sprint performance. PMID:10902676

  7. A Comparison of Stride Length and Lower Extremity Kinematics during Barefoot and Shod Running in Well Trained Distance Runners

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Peter; Ledingham, James; Clarke, Sarah; Collins, DJ; Jakeman, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Stride length, hip, knee and ankle angles were compared during barefoot and shod running on a treadmill at two speeds. Nine well-trained (1500m time: 3min:59.80s ± 14.7 s) male (22 ±3 years; 73 ±9 kg; 1.79 ±0.4 m) middle distance (800 m – 5,000 m) runners performed 2 minutes of running at 3.05 m·s-1 and 4.72 m·s-1 on an treadmill. This approach allowed continuous measurement of lower extremity kinematic data and calculation of stride length. Statistical analysis using a 2X2 factorial ANOVA revealed speed to have a main effect on stride length and hip angle and footwear to have a main effect on hip angle. There was a significant speed*footwear interaction for knee and ankle angles. Compared to shod running at the lower speed (3.05 m·s-1), well trained runners have greater hip, knee and ankle angles when running barefoot. Runners undertake a high volume (~75%) of training at lower intensities and therefore knowledge of how barefoot running alters running kinematics at low and high speeds may be useful to the runner. Key points Barefoot and shod kinematics are examined in competitive track runners with a mean 1500m personal best of 3:59:80. Previous literature has not investigated competitive track runners. Compared to amateur runners, competitive track runners demonstrate a smaller reduction in stride length during barefoot running at ~3 m·s-1. There is no difference in stride length or lower extremity kinematics when running at 4.72 m·s-1. Given that competitive runners spend a large (~75%) amount of time training at lower speeds, interventions which favourably alter running kinematics may be advantageous for the prevention of injury. PMID:27803620

  8. Solar Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure of South African Marathon Runners During Competition Marathon Runs and Training Sessions: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Nurse, Victoria; Wright, Caradee Y; Allen, Martin; McKenzie, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Marathon runners spend considerable time in outdoor training for and participating in marathons. Outdoor runners may experience high solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure. South Africa, where running is popular, experiences high ambient solar UVR levels that may be associated with adverse health effects. This feasibility study explores the use of personal dosimeters to determine solar UVR exposure patterns and possible related acute health risks of four marathon runners during marathons and training sessions in Cape Town and Pretoria. Runners running marathons that started early in the day, and that did not exceed 4 hours, yielded low total solar UVR exposure doses (mean 0.093 SED per exposure period run, median 0.088 SED, range 0.062-0.136 SED; average of 16.54% of ambient solar UVR). Training sessions run during early morning and late afternoon presented similar results. Several challenges hindered analysis including accounting for anatomical position of personal dosimeter and natural shade. To assess health risks, hazard quotients (HQs) were calculated using a hypothetical runner's schedule. Cumulative, annual solar UVR exposure-calculated acute health risks were low (HQ = 0.024) for training sessions and moderate (HQ = 4.922) for marathon runs. While these data and calculations are based on 18 person-days, one can measure marathon runners' personal solar UVR exposure although several challenges must be overcome.

  9. Physiological and biomechanical adaptations to the cycle to run transition in Olympic triathlon: review and practical recommendations for training.

    PubMed

    Millet, G P; Vleck, V E

    2000-10-01

    Current knowledge of the physiological, biomechanical, and sensory effects of the cycle to run transition in the Olympic triathlon (1.5 km, 10 km, 40 km) is reviewed and implications for the training of junior and elite triathletes are discussed. Triathlon running elicits hyperventilation, increased heart rate, decreased pulmonary compliance, and exercise induced hypoxaemia. This may be due to exercise intensity, ventilatory muscle fatigue, dehydration, muscle fibre damage, a shift in metabolism towards fat oxidation, and depleted glycogen stores after a 40 km cycle. The energy cost (CR) of running during the cycle to run transition is also increased over that of control running. The increase in CR varies from 1.6% to 11.6% and is a reflection of triathlete ability level. This increase may be partly related to kinematic alterations, but research suggests that most biomechanical parameters are unchanged. A more forward leaning trunk inclination is the most significant observation reported. Running pattern, and thus running economy, could also be influenced by sensorimotor perturbations related to the change in posture. Technical skill in the transition area is obviously very important. The conditions under which the preceding cycling section is performed-that is, steady state or stochastic power output, drafting or non-drafting-are likely to influence the speed of adjustment to transition. The extent to which a decrease in the average 10 km running speed occurs during competition must be investigated further. It is clear that the higher the athlete is placed in the field at the end of the bike section, the greater the importance to their finishing position of both a quick transition area time and optimal adjustment to the physiological demands of the cycle to run transition. The need for, and current methods of, training to prepare junior and elite triathletes for a better transition are critically reviewed in light of the effects of sequential cycle to run exercise

  10. Effects of simultaneous training for strength and endurance on upper and lower body strength and running performance.

    PubMed

    Hortobágyi, T; Katch, F I; Lachance, P F

    1991-03-01

    This study examined simultaneous training for strength and endurance during a 13-week, 3-day a week program of hydraulic resistive circuit training and running. Eighteen college males (U.S. Army ROTC) were placed into low resistance (LR; n = 10) or high resistance (HR; n = 8) groups, and 10 college males were controls and did not train. There were 20 exercise stations (7 upper and lower body, and 6 supplementary). LR and HR performed 2 circuits with a work/rest ratio of 20 to 40 s during the 40 min workout. LR trained at two low resistances (approximately 100 cm.s-1), while HR trained at a higher resistance (approximately 50 cm.s-1). Following the workout, subjects ran 2 miles. Pre and post tests included strength, physical fitness, and anthropometry. Strength was assessed with (1) hydraulic resistance dynamometry for 4 exercises at 2 speeds using a computerized dynamometer (Hydra-Fitness, Belton, TX); (2) isokinetic and isotonic upright squat and supine bench press using the Ariel Exerciser (Trabuco Canyon, CA); (3) concentric and eccentric arm flexion/extension at 60 and 120 degrees.s-1 on the Biodex dynamometer (Shirley, NY), and (4) 1-RM free weight concentric and eccentric arm flexion and extension. The fitness tests included 2-mile run, sit-ups, and push-ups. Anthropometry included 3 fatfolds, 6 girths, and arm and leg volume. There were no significant changes in body composition or interactions between the fitness test measures and the 2 training groups (p greater than 0.05). Improvements averaged 15% (run time), 30% (push-ups), and 19% (sit-ups; p less than 0.05). Significant improvements also occurred in 3 of 8 measures for hydraulic testing (overall change 8.8%), in 3 of 4 1-RM tests (9.4%), and in 2 of 8 Biodex tests (6%), but no significant changes for isokinetic and isotonic squat and bench press (1.9%). The change in overall strength averaged 6.5% compared to 16% in a prior study that used hydraulic resistive training without concomitant running. We

  11. The Effect of Extra-Curricular Mental Training with Biofeedback on Short Running Performance of Adolescent Physical Education Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar-Eli, Michael; Blumenstein, Boris

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between mental training with biofeedback and performance was investigated. An adapted version of the Wingate five-step approach was used as a mental preparation technique for enhancing the short-running performance among 16-18-year-old adolescent physical education pupils. Participants (n = 79) were randomly…

  12. High intensity interval training vs. high-volume running training during pre-season conditioning in high-level youth football: a cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Faude, Oliver; Schnittker, Reinhard; Schulte-Zurhausen, Roman; Müller, Florian; Meyer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    We aimed at comparing the endurance effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with high-volume running training (HVT) during pre-season conditioning in 20 high-level youth football players (15.9 (s 0.8) years). Players either conducted HVT or HIIT during the summer preparation period. During winter preparation they performed the other training programme. Before and after each training period several fitness tests were conducted: multi-stage running test (to assess the individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) and maximal running velocity (Vmax)), vertical jumping height, and straight sprinting. A significant increase from pre- to post-test was observed in IAT velocity (P < 0.001) with a greater increase after HVT (+0.8 km · h(-1) vs. +0.5 km · h(-1) after HIIT, P = 0.04). Maximal velocity during the incremental exercise test also slightly increased with time (P = 0.09). Forty per cent (HIIT) and 15% (HVT) of all players did not improve IAT beyond baseline variability. The players who did not respond to HIIT were significantly slower during 30 m sprinting than responders (P = 0.02). No further significant differences between responders and non-responders were observed. Jump heights deteriorated significantly after both training periods (P < 0.003). Both training programmes seem to be promising means to improve endurance capacity in high-level youth football players during pre-season conditioning.

  13. Effects of continuous and interval running training on serum growth and cortisol hormones in junior male basketball players.

    PubMed

    Büyükyazi, G; Karamizrak, S O; Islegen, C

    2003-01-01

    Effects of two different eight-week aerobic training programs consisting of continuous (CR) or extensive interval running (IR) on serum growth (GH) and cortisol hormones in 33 male basketball players aged 15-16 were assessed. The CR group ran 4.8 km and the IR group ran 4 x 1.2 km, using equal work-to-rest ratio, three times per week. Aerobic power scores of all subjects and anaerobic power marks of the training subjects increased (p<0.01). Upon exertion, though serum GH levels increased in both exercise groups (p<0.01) prior to and following training; cortisol levels increased only in the IR group prior to training, and in both exercise groups following training (p<0.05). Following the eight week period, resting cortisol levels rose in the training (p<0.05) and control (p<0.01) groups. To conclude, an 8-week training program consisting of continuous or extensive interval running has been effective on acute GH and cortisol secretion in 15-16 year-old male athletes.

  14. Learning Basic Surgical Skills through Simulator Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvennoinen, Minna; Helfenstein, Sacha; Ruoranen, Minna; Saariluoma, Pertti

    2012-01-01

    Computer-based surgical training simulators are instrumental in skill-based training and performance measurement. However, to date, the educational employment of these tools lacks empirically founded insights and effective practical guidelines. This study examined surgical residents during computer-based simulator training of basic laparoscopic…

  15. Training Continued through Plant Phase-Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, James H.

    1976-01-01

    Even when one of its plants was phased out, the Union Carbide Corp. Program continued with regular training programs and also put two additional programs into motion: Training for employees who would be re-entering the job market and training for employees eligible for retirement benefits. (ABM)

  16. Cost-Effective Training through Job Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Charles D.

    Whether an organization has its own facilities and programs to teach people to perform the jobs necessary to accomplish its purpose, or sends its prospective employees to schools outside its own confines to receive that training, occupational education and training is big business. One problem with occupational training programs is that such…

  17. The effects of creatine and glycerol hyperhydration on running economy in well trained endurance runners

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ingestion of creatine (Cr) and glycerol (Gly) has been reported to be an effective method in expanding water compartments within the human body, attenuating the rise in heart rate (HR) and core temperature (Tcore) during exercise in the heat. Despite these positive effects, a substantial water retention could potentially impair endurance performance through increasing body mass (BM) and consequently impacting negatively on running economy (RE). The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of a combined Cr and Gly supplementation on thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses and RE during running for 30 min at speed corresponding to 60% of maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) in hot and cool conditions. Methods Cr·H2O (11.4 g), Gly (1 g·kg-1 BM) and Glucose polymer (75 g) were administered twice daily to 15 male endurance runners during a 7-day period. Exercise trials were conducted pre- and post-supplementation at 10 and 35°C and 70% relative humidity. Results BM and total body water increased by 0.90 ± 0.40 kg (P < 0.01; mean ± SD) and 0.71 ± 0.42 L (P < 0.01), respectively following supplementation. Despite the significant increase in BM, supplementation had no effect on V˙O2 and therefore RE. Both HR and Tcore were attenuated significantly after supplementation (P < 0.05, for both). Nevertheless, thermal comfort and rating of perceived exertion was not significantly different between pre- and post-supplementation. Similarly, no significant differences were found in sweat loss, serum osmolality, blood lactate and in plasma volume changes between pre- and post-supplementation. Conclusions Combining Cr and Gly is effective in reducing thermal and cardiovascular strain during exercise in the heat without negatively impacting on RE. PMID:22176668

  18. The effect of strength training, recreational soccer and running exercise on stretch-shortening cycle muscle performance during countermovement jumping.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Kjær, Michael; Andersen, Lars L; Krustrup, Peter; Aagaard, Per

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of contrasting training modalities on mechanical muscle performance and neuromuscular activity during maximal SSC (stretch-shortening cycle) countermovement jumps (CMJ). Bilateral countermovement jumping, surface electromyography (EMG) and muscle fiber size (CSA) were studied in untrained individuals (n=49, 21-45 yrs) pre and post 12 weeks of progressive heavy-resistance strength training (ST, n=8), recreational soccer training (SOC, n=15), high-intensity interval running (INT, n=7), continuous running (RUN, n=9) or continuation of an inactive life-style (CON, n=10). ST displayed shortened CMJ take-off time (p<.05) and increased (p<.05) maximal CMJ jump height, peak down- and upward velocity of center of mass (COM), rate of vertical force development (RFD: ΔF(Z)/Δt), peak power production, rate of power development (RPD), mean plantar flexor EMG and peak hamstring rate of EMG rise (RER). Peak quadriceps EMG rate of rise increased in SOC (p<.05). Moreover, ST and SOC demonstrated increased quadriceps muscle fiber CSA and lean leg mass. Positive relationships (r>.70) were observed following ST between training-induced changes in CMJ SSC muscle performance, neuromuscular activity and muscle fiber CSA, respectively. ST induced a more rapid CMJ take-off phase and elevated muscle power production, indicating a more explosive-type SSC muscle performance. No effects were detected in CMJ performance after continuous running, high-intensity interval running and recreational soccer, despite an increased muscle fiber CSA and quadriceps muscle activity in SOC. Enhanced neuromuscular activity in the hip extensors (hamstrings) and plantar flexors, and increased myofiber fiber size were responsible for the enhanced CMJ SSC muscle performance with ST.

  19. The effects of the overline running model of the high-speed trains on the existing lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Yong-Sheng; Zeng, Jun-Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Long; Wang, Jia-Yuan; Lv, Ting-Ting

    2016-09-01

    This paper studies the effect on the existing railway which is made by the train with 216 km/h high-speed when running across over the existing railway. The influence on the railway carrying capacity which is made by the transportation organization mode of the existing railway is analyzed under different parking modes of high-speed trains as well. In order to further study the departure intervals of the train, the average speed and the delay of the train, an automata model under these four-aspects is established. The results of the research in this paper could serve as the theoretical references to the newly built high-speed railways.

  20. Four weeks of running sprint interval training improves cardiorespiratory fitness in young and middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Taura N; Thomas, Matthew P L; Schmale, Matthew S; Copeland, Jennifer L; Hazell, Tom J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 4-week running sprint interval training protocol to improve both aerobic and anaerobic fitness in middle-aged adults (40-50 years) as well as compare the adaptations to younger adults (20-30 years). Twenty-eight inactive participants - 14 young 20-30-year-olds (n = 7 males) and 14 middle-aged 40-50-year-olds (n = 5 males) - completed 4 weeks of running sprint interval training (4 to 6, 30-s "all-out" sprints on a curved, self-propelled treadmill separated by 4 min active recovery performed 3 times per week). Before and after training, all participants were assessed for maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), 2000 m time trial performance, and anaerobic performance on a single 30-s sprint. There were no interactions between group and time for any tested variable, although training improved relative VO2max (young = 3.9, middle-aged = 5.2%; P < 0.04), time trial performance (young = 5.9, middle-aged = 8.2%; P < 0.001), peak sprint speed (young = 9.3, middle-aged = 2.2%; P < 0.001), and average sprint speed (young = 6.8, middle-aged = 11.6%; P < 0.001) in both young and middle-aged groups from pre- to post-training on the 30-s sprint test. The current study demonstrates that a 4-week running sprint interval training programme is equally effective at improving aerobic and anaerobic fitness in younger and middle-aged adults.

  1. Quality Self-Reflection through Reflection Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gun, Bahar

    2011-01-01

    This research study discusses the importance of "reflection training" in teacher education programmes. The main premise of the study is that although teachers are constantly encouraged to "reflect" on their teaching, they are unable to do so effectively unless they are specifically trained in how to reflect (they tend to "react" rather than…

  2. Retaining through Training Even for Older Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picchio, Matteo; van Ours, Jan C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates whether on-the-job training has an effect on the employability of workers. Using data from the Netherlands we disentangle the true effect of training incidence from the spurious one determined by unobserved individual heterogeneity. We also take into account that there might be feedback from shocks in the employment status…

  3. Developing ICT Competency for Thai Teachers through Blended Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akarawang, Chaiya; Kidrakran, Pachoen; Nuangchalerm, Prasart

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study aims to enhance teachers' ICT competency. Three hundred and thirty seven teachers are surveyed through a questionnaire to identify training problems and training needs. Then the blended training model is implemented with teachers. The result showed that it can increase score in cognitive and attitude tests. The post-test…

  4. Health and economic burden of running-related injuries in runners training for an event: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hespanhol Junior, L C; van Mechelen, W; Postuma, E; Verhagen, E

    2016-09-01

    Prospective running-related injury (RRI) data from runners training for an event are scarce, especially with regard to RRI-associated costs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and economic burden of RRIs in runners participating in an organized training program preparing them for an event. This was a prospective cohort study with 18 weeks of follow-up. Individuals aged 18 or older and registered to participate in an organized running program were eligible. Follow-up surveys were sent every 2 weeks to collect data about running exposure, RRIs, and costs. Of the 161 potential participants, 53 (32.9%) were included in this study. A total of 32 participants reported 41 RRIs. The mean prevalence during follow-up was 30.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 25.6-36.0%]. Overuse was the main mechanism of RRI (85.4%, n = 35). An RRI was estimated to have an economic burden of €57.97 (95% CI €26.17-94.00) due to healthcare utilization (direct costs) and €115.75 (95% CI €10.37-253.73) due to absenteeism from paid work (indirect costs). These results indicate that the health and economic burden of RRIs may be considered significant for public health. Therefore, prevention programs are needed for runners participating in organized training programs.

  5. Prediction and mitigation analysis of ground vibration caused by running high-speed trains on rigid-frame viaducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Liangming; Xie, Weiping; He, Xingwen; Hayashikawa, Toshiro

    2016-03-01

    In this study a 3D numerical analysis approach is developed to predict the ground vibration around rigid-frame viaducts induced by running high-speed trains. The train-bridge-ground interaction system is divided into two subsystems: the train-bridge interaction and the soil-structure interaction. First, the analytical program to simulate bridge vibration with consideration of train-bridge interaction is developed to obtain the vibration reaction forces at the pier bottoms. The highspeed train is described by a multi-DOFs vibration system and the rigid-frame viaduct is modeled with 3D beam elements. Second, applying these vibration reaction forces as input external excitations, the ground vibration is simulated by using a general-purpose program that includes soil-structure interaction effects. The validity of the analytical procedure is confirmed by comparing analytical and experimental results. The characteristics of high-speed train-induced vibrations, including the location of predominant vibration, are clarified. Based on this information a proposed vibration countermeasure using steel strut and new barrier is found effective in reducing train-induced vibrations and it satisfies environmental vibration requirements. The vibration screening efficiency is evaluated by reduction VAL based on 1/3 octave band spectral analysis.

  6. Realistic Communication through Assertiveness Training Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Joel C.

    1980-01-01

    Self-help activities designed to practice and improve communication are outlined. Sixteen learning activities are proposed that are based on assertiveness training. They can be used on all language levels to develop all four skills. (Author/AMH)

  7. Treadmill exercise training and estradiol differentially modulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortical responses to acute running and immobilization.

    PubMed

    White-Welkley, J E; Bunnell, B N; Mougey, E H; Meyerhoff, J L; Dishman, R K

    1995-03-01

    It is generally believed that physical fitness promotes health by attenuating responsiveness to other stressors. The experimental evidence for this belief is limited and does not extend to interactions between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortical (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes. We tested the hypothesis that treadmill exercise training would lead to an estrogen-dependent hyporesponsiveness of the HPA axis that would generalize to immobilization stress. Ovariectomized female Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 74) that had been treadmill trained (TT) or sedentary for 6 weeks received intramuscular injections of estradiol benzoate (Eb) or sesame oil on each of 3 days prior to 15 min of acute treadmill running or immobilization. Plasma (adrenocorticotrophin) (ACTH), (corticosterone) (B) and (prolactin) (PRL) were determined from trunk blood by radioimmunoassay and compared in a 2 group (TT vs. sedentary)-by-2 treatment (Eb vs. oil)-by-2 acute stressor (running vs. immobilization) design. Home-cage (HC) animals (N = 24) provided baseline hormone levels. ACTH and B levels were elevated after stressors in animals treated with either Eb or oil compared to HC, but increases in PRL after stressors were dependent on Eb. Treadmill exercise training led to an attenuation of ACTH and prolactin to running, but the attenuation did not generalize to immobilization. In contrast, treadmill exercise training led to a hyperresponsiveness of ACTH. Treadmill training did not modulate prolactin responses to immobilization. The modulating effects of the estradiol treatment are consistent with an interaction of the HPA and HPG axes in response to stress.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Run-Through Stabilization: An MPI Proposal for Process Fault Tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Hursey, Joshua J; Graham, Richard L; Bronevetsky, Greg; Butinas, Darius; Pritchard, Howard; Solt, David G.

    2011-01-01

    The MPI standard lacks semantics and interfaces for sustained application execution in the presence of process failures. Exascale HPC systems may require scalable, fault resilient MPI applications. The mission of the MPI Forum's Fault Tolerance Working Group is to enhance the standard to enable the development of scalable, fault tolerant HPC applications. This paper presents an overview of the Run-Through Stabilization proposal. This proposal allows an application to continue execution even if MPI processes fail during execution. The discussion introduces the implications on point-to-point and collective operations over communicators, though the full proposal addresses all aspects of the MPI standard.

  9. Nanosecond-Timescale Intra-Bunch-Train Feedback for the Linear Collider: Results of the FONT2 Run

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, R.; Dufau, M.; Kalinin, A.; Myatt, G.; Perry, C.; Burrows, P.N.; Hartin, T.; Hussain, S.M.; Molloy, S.; White, G.R.; Adolphsen, C.; Frisch, J.C.; Hendrickson, L.; Jobe, R.K.; Markiewicz, T.; McCormick, D.J.; Nelson, J.; Ross, M.C.; Smith, S.; Smith, T.J.; /SLAC

    2005-05-11

    We report on experimental results from the December 2003/January 2004 data run of the Feedback On Nanosecond Timescales (FONT) experiment at the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator at SLAC. We built a second-generation prototype intra-train beam-based feedback system incorporating beam position monitors, fast analogue signal processors, a feedback circuit, fast-risetime amplifiers and stripline kickers. We applied a novel real-time charge-normalization scheme to account for beam current variations along the train. We used the system to correct the position of the 170-nanosecond-long bunchtrain at NLCTA. We achieved a latency of 53 nanoseconds, representing a significant improvement on FONT1 (2002), and providing a demonstration of intra-train feedback for the Linear Collider.

  10. Enhancing the Flight Safety Culture Through Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    In the 1970's, flight safety professionals became profoundly concerned about the prevalence of crew-caused accidents and incidents, and the role of human error in flight operations. As result, they initiated a change in the flight safety culture which has grown to significant proportions today. At the heart of the evolution were crew concepts such as flightdeck management, crew coordination, and cockpit resource management, concepts which seemed to target critical deficiencies. In themselves, the concepts were not new but their incorporation into training as a direct means of changing the flight safety culture was an untried, almost 'grassroots' approach. The targeted crew concepts and skills were not an integral part of the typical training program; the methods, curriculum, media, and even course content itself, would have to be developed and implemented from the bottom up. A familiar truism in the pilot culture is that you should 'Train the way you fly; Fly the way you train'. In short, training was expected to provide the pilot with practical operational skills that were consistent with the performance standards they were required to maintain and the operational demands they met on a daily basis. In short, one could not simply command crews to use good CRM; one would have to research and define these skills operationally as well as develop and implement a consistent and effective training program. Furthermore, one would need active support and collaboration among the research, industry and government communities in order to ensure acceptance and continued commitment. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. Rainfall Trends through Time: A Running Trend Analysis of Hawaiian Rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, A. G.; Giambelluca, T. W.

    2015-12-01

    Significant declines in rainfall have been observed in Hawai'i since 1920. However, these trends have not been uniform in space or time. It is important to understand past rainfall variations to provide the context for future changes. This is especially important for isolated oceanic islands where resources are limited, and understanding the potential impacts of climate change on freshwater supplies is crucial. Maps of seasonal and annual rainfall trends have been produced for the State of Hawai'i for the period 1920-2012. However, since rainfall time series can be highly variable and these trend values may be sensitive to the time period chosen, a running trend analysis was performed to assess the stability of these trends through time. Running trend plots were generated for selected stations chosen to represent unique climate regions based on exposure (windward or leeward) and elevation (low, mid or high). The running trend analysis indicates that in many areas, these drying trends are only significant when the last few years of the record are included in the trend period. The only region with persistent trends through time is the Kona region of the Island of Hawai'i, with significant long-term drying trends, particularly in the dry season. This analysis also highlights the influence of natural variability in short-term trends. These results support previous studies that indicate drying across the state, and reveal the timing of upward and downward trends as well as important spatial details for water resource managers in Hawai'i.

  12. Air Pollution Training Courses July 1972 through June 1973 and University Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC.

    Responding to the demands of the Clean Air Act of 1970, the Manpower Development Staff of the Office of Air Programs has acted to provide more and better-trained practitioners in the field of air pollution control. Numerous courses are conducted through the Institute for Air Pollution Training, while university training programs are administered…

  13. Effects of plyometric training on achilles tendon properties and shuttle running during a simulated cricket batting innings.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Laurence A; Dawson, Brian T; Rubenson, Jonas

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether intermittent shuttle running times (during a prolonged, simulated cricket batting innings) and Achilles tendon properties were affected by 8 weeks of plyometric training (PLYO, n = 7) or normal preseason (control [CON], n = 8). Turn (5-0-5-m agility) and 5-m sprint times were assessed using timing gates. Achilles tendon properties were determined using dynamometry, ultrasonography, and musculoskeletal geometry. Countermovement and squat jump heights were also assessed before and after training. Mean 5-0-5-m turn time did not significantly change in PLYO or CON (pre vs. post: 2.25 ± 0.08 vs. 2.22 ± 0.07 and 2.26 ± 0.06 vs. 2.25 ± 0.08 seconds, respectively). Mean 5-m sprint time did not significantly change in PLYO or CON (pre vs. post: 0.85 ± 0.02 vs. 0.84 ± 0.02 and 0.85 ± 0.03 vs. 0.85 ± 0.02 seconds, respectively). However, inferences from the smallest worthwhile change suggested that PLYO had a 51-72% chance of positive effects but only 6-15% chance of detrimental effects on shuttle running times. Jump heights only increased in PLYO (9.1-11.0%, p < 0.050). Achilles tendon mechanical properties (force, stiffness, elastic energy, strain, modulus) did not change in PLYO or CON. However, Achilles tendon cross-sectional area increased in PLYO (pre vs. post: 70 ± 7 vs. 79 ± 8 mm, p < 0.01) but not CON (77 ± 4 vs. 77 ± 5 mm, p > 0.050). In conclusion, plyometric training had possible benefits on intermittent shuttle running times and improved jump performance. Also, plyometric training increased tendon cross-sectional area, but further investigation is required to determine whether this translates to decreased injury risk.

  14. Improving Organizational Learning through Leadership Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasson, Henna; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Holmstrom, Stefan; Karanika-Murray, Maria; Tafvelin, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to evaluate whether training of managers at workplaces can improve organizational learning. Managers play a crucial role in providing opportunities to employees for learning. Although scholars have called for intervention research on the effects of leadership development on organizational learning, no such research is…

  15. The development of social capital through football and running: studying an intervention program for inactive women.

    PubMed

    Ottesen, L; Jeppesen, R S; Krustrup, B R

    2010-04-01

    This article examines the development of social capital through the use and dynamics of different types of stories ("I,"we" and "they") as described by Robert D. Putnam. The data come from a research project in which inactive women participated in a 16-week intervention program of physical exercise, either in the form of football or running. The study shows a positive development of social capital in the two different types of physical activity. The I-stories show themselves to be central to bonding within the two groups and bridging outside the groups (developing and/or creating networks). The study also points to the importance of the activity itself for internal bonding illustrated through we- and they-stories. Our data indicate that team sports, such as football, may have an advantage over individual sports in the development of social capital. PMID:20546546

  16. Carbohydrate ingestion does not influence the change in energy cost during a 2-h run in well-trained triathletes.

    PubMed

    Brisswalter, J; Hausswirth, C; Vercruyssen, F; Collardeau, M; Vallier, J M; Lepers, R; Goubault, C

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether the increase in the energy cost of running (C(r)), previously reported to occur at the end of a prolonged run, could be influenced by the ingestion of either an artificially sweetened placebo (Pl) or a 5.5% carbohydrate (CHO) solution. Ten well-trained triathletes completed three testing sessions within a 3-week period. The aim of the first session was to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)(max)) and the velocity associated with ventilatory threshold (nu(VT)). The second and the third sessions were composed of two submaximal treadmill runs (20 min long, 0% grade, performed at nu(VT)), before and after an 80-min overground run, also conducted at nu(VT). During these submaximal tests, the subjects ingested (in a random order) either a Pl or CHO solution prior to the first submaximal run and every 20 min after that. During the first session, ventilatory threshold (VT) occurred at [mean (SD)] 81.2 (2.5)% VO(2)(max) and 16.5 (0.6) km. h(-1). A significant effect of exercise duration was found on C(r) (DeltaC(r)) at the end of the run, whatever the solution ingested (DeltaC(r) = 5.7% and 7.01% for CHO and Pl, respectively). A reduction in the respiratory exchange ratio (from 0.98 to 0.90) was observed only at the end of the Pl trial. In this study, C(r) seems to be affected only to a minor extent by substrate turnover. Moreover, the increase in the demand for oxygen, estimated from the increase in ventilation, accounted for only a minor proportion of the increase in C(r) (11% and 17% for CHO and Pl, respectively). No correlation was found between the changes in C(r) and the changes in the other physiological parameters recorded. These results suggest, indirectly, that C(r) increases during a 2-h run at 80% VO(2)(max) in well-trained subjects can be explained mainly by alterations in neuromuscular performance, which lead to a decrease in muscle efficiency. PMID:10552274

  17. Soccer vs. running training effects in young adult men: which programme is more effective in improvement of body composition? Randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Pantelić, S; Kostić, R; Trajković, N; Sporiš, G

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were: 1) To determine the effects of a 12-week recreational soccer training programme and continuous endurance running on body composition of young adult men and 2) to determine which of these two programmes was more effective concerning body composition. Sixty-four participants completed the randomized controlled trial and were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a soccer training group (SOC; n=20), a running group (RUN; n=21) or a control group performing no physical training (CON; n=23). Training programmes for SOC and RUN lasted 12-week with 3 training sessions per week. Soccer sessions consisted of 60 min ordinary five-a-side, six-a-side or seven-a-side matches on a 30-45 m wide and 45-60 m long plastic grass pitch. Running sessions consisted of 60 min of continuous moderate intensity running at the same average heart rate as in SOC (~80% HRmax). All participants, regardless of group assignment, were tested for each of the following dependent variables: body weight, body height, body mass index, percent body fat, body fat mass, fat-free mass and total body water. In the SOC and RUN groups there was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in body composition parameters from pre- to post-training values for all measures with the exception of fat-free mass and total body water. Body mass index, percent body fat and body fat mass did not differ between groups at baseline, but by week 12 were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the SOC and RUN groups compared to CON. To conclude, recreational soccer training provides at least the same changes in body composition parameters as continuous running in young adult men when the training intensity is well matched. PMID:26681832

  18. Soccer vs. running training effects in young adult men: which programme is more effective in improvement of body composition? Randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Milanović, Z; Pantelić, S; Kostić, R; Trajković, N; Sporiš, G

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this study were: 1) To determine the effects of a 12-week recreational soccer training programme and continuous endurance running on body composition of young adult men and 2) to determine which of these two programmes was more effective concerning body composition. Sixty-four participants completed the randomized controlled trial and were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a soccer training group (SOC; n=20), a running group (RUN; n=21) or a control group performing no physical training (CON; n=23). Training programmes for SOC and RUN lasted 12-week with 3 training sessions per week. Soccer sessions consisted of 60 min ordinary five-a-side, six-a-side or seven-a-side matches on a 30-45 m wide and 45-60 m long plastic grass pitch. Running sessions consisted of 60 min of continuous moderate intensity running at the same average heart rate as in SOC (~80% HRmax). All participants, regardless of group assignment, were tested for each of the following dependent variables: body weight, body height, body mass index, percent body fat, body fat mass, fat-free mass and total body water. In the SOC and RUN groups there was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in body composition parameters from pre- to post-training values for all measures with the exception of fat-free mass and total body water. Body mass index, percent body fat and body fat mass did not differ between groups at baseline, but by week 12 were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the SOC and RUN groups compared to CON. To conclude, recreational soccer training provides at least the same changes in body composition parameters as continuous running in young adult men when the training intensity is well matched. PMID:26681832

  19. Effects of Strength Training on Running Economy in Highly Trained Runners: A Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis of Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Santos-Concejero, Jordan; Grivas, Gerasimos V

    2016-08-01

    Balsalobre-Fernández, C, Santos-Concejero, J, and Grivas, GV. Effects of strength training on running economy in highly trained runners: a systematic review with meta-analysis of controlled trials. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2361-2368, 2016-The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials to determine the effect of strength training programs on the running economy (RE) of high-level middle- and long-distance runners. Four electronic databases were searched in September 2015 (PubMed, SPORTDiscus, MEDLINE, and CINAHL) for original research articles. After analyzing 699 resultant original articles, studies were included if the following criteria were met: (a) participants were competitive middle- or long-distance runners; (b) participants had a V[Combining Dot Above]O2max >60 ml·kg·min; (c) studies were controlled trials published in peer-reviewed journals; (d) studies analyzed the effects of strength training programs with a duration greater than 4 weeks; and (e) RE was measured before and after the strength training intervention. Five studies met the inclusion criteria, resulting in a total sample size of 93 competitive, high-level middle- and long-distance runners. Four of the 5 included studies used low to moderate training intensities (40-70% one repetition maximum), and all of them used low to moderate training volume (2-4 resistance lower-body exercises plus up to 200 jumps and 5-10 short sprints) 2-3 times per week for 8-12 weeks. The meta-analyzed effect of strength training programs on RE in high-level middle- and long-distance runners showed a large, beneficial effect (standardized mean difference [95% confidence interval] = -1.42 [-2.23 to -0.60]). In conclusion, a strength training program including low to high intensity resistance exercises and plyometric exercises performed 2-3 times per week for 8-12 weeks is an appropriate strategy to improve RE in highly trained middle- and long-distance runners

  20. Effects of Strength Training on Running Economy in Highly Trained Runners: A Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis of Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Santos-Concejero, Jordan; Grivas, Gerasimos V

    2016-08-01

    Balsalobre-Fernández, C, Santos-Concejero, J, and Grivas, GV. Effects of strength training on running economy in highly trained runners: a systematic review with meta-analysis of controlled trials. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2361-2368, 2016-The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials to determine the effect of strength training programs on the running economy (RE) of high-level middle- and long-distance runners. Four electronic databases were searched in September 2015 (PubMed, SPORTDiscus, MEDLINE, and CINAHL) for original research articles. After analyzing 699 resultant original articles, studies were included if the following criteria were met: (a) participants were competitive middle- or long-distance runners; (b) participants had a V[Combining Dot Above]O2max >60 ml·kg·min; (c) studies were controlled trials published in peer-reviewed journals; (d) studies analyzed the effects of strength training programs with a duration greater than 4 weeks; and (e) RE was measured before and after the strength training intervention. Five studies met the inclusion criteria, resulting in a total sample size of 93 competitive, high-level middle- and long-distance runners. Four of the 5 included studies used low to moderate training intensities (40-70% one repetition maximum), and all of them used low to moderate training volume (2-4 resistance lower-body exercises plus up to 200 jumps and 5-10 short sprints) 2-3 times per week for 8-12 weeks. The meta-analyzed effect of strength training programs on RE in high-level middle- and long-distance runners showed a large, beneficial effect (standardized mean difference [95% confidence interval] = -1.42 [-2.23 to -0.60]). In conclusion, a strength training program including low to high intensity resistance exercises and plyometric exercises performed 2-3 times per week for 8-12 weeks is an appropriate strategy to improve RE in highly trained middle- and long-distance runners.

  1. Continuous and interval training programs using deep water running improves functional fitness and blood pressure in the older adults.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Thaís; Kanitz, Ana Carolina; Delevatti, Rodrigo Sudatti; Bagatini, Natália Carvalho; Barroso, Bruna Machado; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of two periodized training programs of deep water running on functional fitness and blood pressure in the older adults. Thirty-six individuals were divided into continuous group (CONT) and interval group (INT). Both groups were trained for 28 weeks (twice weekly). Measures were performed before the training period, after 12 weeks and training period. Two-way ANOVA and post hoc of Bonferroni were used (α = 0.05). There were no differences between groups in functional tests, with the exception of the flexibility of the upper limbs, in which the INT group showed the highest values. There was a significant improvement in both groups of foot up-and-go test (CONT 6.45 to 5.67; INT 6.59 to 5.78, in seconds), flexibility of lower limbs (CONT -4.76 to -0.61; INT 0.54 to 4.63, in centimeters), strength of upper (CONT 18.76 to 27.69; INT 18.66 to 26.58, in repetitions) and lower limbs (CONT 14.46 to 21.23; INT 14.40 to 21.58, in repetitions), and 6-min walk (CONT 567.50 to 591.16; INT 521.41 to 582.77, in meters). No differences were shown between groups for systolic blood pressure; however, diastolic blood pressure remained higher in CONT during all training. The blood pressure decreased significantly in both groups after the training (CONT 142 ± 16/88 ± 3 to 125 ± 14/77 ± 7 mmHg; INT 133 ± 15/75 ± 7 to 123 ± 17 and 69 ± 11 mmHg). Both programs of deep water running training promoted improvements of similar magnitude in all parameters of functional fitness, with the exception of flexibility of upper limbs, and decreased blood pressure in the older individuals.

  2. Continuous and interval training programs using deep water running improves functional fitness and blood pressure in the older adults.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Thaís; Kanitz, Ana Carolina; Delevatti, Rodrigo Sudatti; Bagatini, Natália Carvalho; Barroso, Bruna Machado; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of two periodized training programs of deep water running on functional fitness and blood pressure in the older adults. Thirty-six individuals were divided into continuous group (CONT) and interval group (INT). Both groups were trained for 28 weeks (twice weekly). Measures were performed before the training period, after 12 weeks and training period. Two-way ANOVA and post hoc of Bonferroni were used (α = 0.05). There were no differences between groups in functional tests, with the exception of the flexibility of the upper limbs, in which the INT group showed the highest values. There was a significant improvement in both groups of foot up-and-go test (CONT 6.45 to 5.67; INT 6.59 to 5.78, in seconds), flexibility of lower limbs (CONT -4.76 to -0.61; INT 0.54 to 4.63, in centimeters), strength of upper (CONT 18.76 to 27.69; INT 18.66 to 26.58, in repetitions) and lower limbs (CONT 14.46 to 21.23; INT 14.40 to 21.58, in repetitions), and 6-min walk (CONT 567.50 to 591.16; INT 521.41 to 582.77, in meters). No differences were shown between groups for systolic blood pressure; however, diastolic blood pressure remained higher in CONT during all training. The blood pressure decreased significantly in both groups after the training (CONT 142 ± 16/88 ± 3 to 125 ± 14/77 ± 7 mmHg; INT 133 ± 15/75 ± 7 to 123 ± 17 and 69 ± 11 mmHg). Both programs of deep water running training promoted improvements of similar magnitude in all parameters of functional fitness, with the exception of flexibility of upper limbs, and decreased blood pressure in the older individuals. PMID:26841888

  3. Downhill Running Excessive Training Inhibits Hypertrophy in Mice Skeletal Muscles with Different Fiber Type Composition.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Alisson L; Pereira, Bruno C; Pauli, José R; de Souza, Claudio T; Teixeira, Giovana R; Lira, Fábio S; Cintra, Dennys E; Ropelle, Eduardo R; Júnior, Carlos R B; da Silva, Adelino S R

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of running overtraining protocols performed in downhill, uphill, and without inclination on the proteins related to hypertrophy signaling pathway in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus of C57BL/6 mice. We also performed histological and stereological analyses. Rodents were divided into control (CT; sedentary mice), overtrained by downhill running (OTR/down), overtrained by uphill running (OTR/up), and overtrained by running without inclination (OTR). The incremental load, exhaustive, and grip force tests were used as performance evaluation parameters. 36 h after the grip force test, EDL and soleus were removed and immediately used for immunoblotting analysis or stored at -80°C for histological and stereological analyses. For EDL, OTR/down decreased the protein kinase B (Akt) and tuberous sclerosis protein 2 (TSC2) phosphorylation (p), and increased myostatin, receptor-activated Smads (pSMAD2-3), and insulin receptor substrate-1 (pIRS-1; Ser307/636). OTR/down also presented low and high relative proportions of cytoplasm and connective tissue, respectively. OTR/up increased the mammalian target of rapamycin (pmTOR), 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (pS6K1) and pSMAD2-3, and decreased pTSC2. OTR decreased pTSC2 and increased pIRS-1 (Ser636). For soleus, OTR/down increased S6 ribosomal protein (pS6RP) and pSMAD2-3, and decreased pIRS-1 (Ser639). OTR/up decreased pS6K1, pS6RP and pIRS-1 (Ser639), and increased pTSC2 (Ser939), and pSMAD2-3. OTR increased pS6RP, 4E-binding protein-1 (p4E-BP1), pTSC2 (Ser939), and pSMAD2-3, and decreased pIRS-1 (Ser639). In summary, OTR/down inhibited the skeletal muscle hypertrophy with concomitant signs of atrophy in EDL. The effects of OTR/up and OTR depended on the analyzed skeletal muscle type.

  4. Dynamic sensitivity analysis of long running landslide models through basis set expansion and meta-modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohmer, Jeremy

    2016-04-01

    Predicting the temporal evolution of landslides is typically supported by numerical modelling. Dynamic sensitivity analysis aims at assessing the influence of the landslide properties on the time-dependent predictions (e.g., time series of landslide displacements). Yet two major difficulties arise: 1. Global sensitivity analysis require running the landslide model a high number of times (> 1000), which may become impracticable when the landslide model has a high computation time cost (> several hours); 2. Landslide model outputs are not scalar, but function of time, i.e. they are n-dimensional vectors with n usually ranging from 100 to 1000. In this article, I explore the use of a basis set expansion, such as principal component analysis, to reduce the output dimensionality to a few components, each of them being interpreted as a dominant mode of variation in the overall structure of the temporal evolution. The computationally intensive calculation of the Sobol' indices for each of these components are then achieved through meta-modelling, i.e. by replacing the landslide model by a "costless-to-evaluate" approximation (e.g., a projection pursuit regression model). The methodology combining "basis set expansion - meta-model - Sobol' indices" is then applied to the La Frasse landslide to investigate the dynamic sensitivity analysis of the surface horizontal displacements to the slip surface properties during the pore pressure changes. I show how to extract information on the sensitivity of each main modes of temporal behaviour using a limited number (a few tens) of long running simulations. In particular, I identify the parameters, which trigger the occurrence of a turning point marking a shift between a regime of low values of landslide displacements and one of high values.

  5. Visual Articulatory Training through Dynamic Orometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Samuel G.

    1989-01-01

    The paper describes dynamic orometric instrumentation and procedures developed to measure, display, and guide changes in vowel and consonant production through visual articulatory modeling and feedback routines. Sensors are placed in the mouth to detect tongue shapes, positions, and actions during speech of hearing-impaired talkers, and online…

  6. Marathon Running, Accreditation of Study Programmes and Professional Development in Consultancies: Are They All about the Same? A Cognitive Perspective on Transfer of Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Three challenges are presented which address problems of transfer of training: running marathon, accreditation of study programmes, professional development in consultancies. It is discussed in-how-far and why different approaches to transfer of training stress commonalities or differences between these challenges. The results are used to analyse…

  7. Sprint running with a body-weight supporting kite reduces ground contact time in well-trained sprinters.

    PubMed

    Kratky, Sascha; Müller, Erich

    2013-05-01

    It is well founded that ground contact time is the crucial part of sprinting because the available time window to apply force to the ground diminishes with growing running velocity. In view of this knowledge, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of body-weight support during full-effort sprints on ground contact time and selected stride parameters in 19 Austrian male elite sprinters. A kite with a lifting effect combined with a towing system to erase drag was used. The subjects performed flying 20-m sprints under 3 conditions: (a) free sprint; (b) body-weight supported sprint-normal speed (BWS-NS); and (c) body-weight supported sprint-overspeed (BWS-OS). Sprint cycle characteristics were recorded during the high-speed phase by an optical acquisition system. Additionally, running velocity was derived from the 20-m sprint time. Compared with the fastest free sprint, running velocity, step length, and step frequency remained unchanged during BWS-NS, whereas ground contact time decreased (-5.80%), and air time increased (+5.79%) (both p < 0.001). Throughout, BWS-OS ground contact time (-7.66%) was reduced, whereas running velocity (+2.72%), air time (+4.92%), step length (+1.98%) (all p < 0.001), and step frequency (+1.05%; p < 0.01) increased. Compared with BWS-NS, BWS-OS caused an increase in running velocity (+3.33%), step length (+1.92%) (both p < 0.001), and step frequency (+1.37%; p < 0.01), whereas ground contact time was diminished (-1.97%; p < 0.001). In summary, sprinting with a body-weight supporting kite appeared to be a highly specific method to simulate an advanced performance level, indicated by higher running velocities requiring reduced ground contact times. The additional application of an overspeed condition led to a further reduction of ground contact time. Therefore, we recommend body-weight supported sprinting as an additional tool in sprint training.

  8. Trends in Spending on Training: An Analysis of the 1982 through 2008 Training Annual Industry Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carliner, Saul; Bakir, Ingy

    2010-01-01

    This article explores long-term trends in spending using data compiled from the "Training" magazine Annual Industry Survey from 1982 through 2008. It builds on literature that proposes spending on training is an investment that yields benefits--and that offers methods for demonstrating it. After adjusting for inflation, aggregate spending on…

  9. Running away from stress: How regulatory modes prospectively affect athletes' stress through passion.

    PubMed

    Lucidi, F; Pica, G; Mallia, L; Castrucci, E; Manganelli, S; Bélanger, J J; Pierro, A

    2016-06-01

    A prospective field study conducted with runners training for an upcoming marathon (Marathon of Rome 2013) examined the relation between regulatory modes, locomotion and assessment, and stress. Integrating regulatory mode theory and the dualistic model of passion, we hypothesized that the relation between regulatory modes (evaluated 3 months before the race) and the experience of stress approaching the marathon, is mediated by the type of passion (harmonious vs obsessive) athletes experience with regard to marathoning. Results revealed that (a) locomotion positively predicted harmonious passion, which in turn reduced athletes' experience of stress; and (b) assessment positively predicted obsessive passion, which in turn enhanced athletes' experience of stress. Overall, the present results suggest that proximal psychological mechanisms such as basic regulatory mode orientations can predict distal outcomes such as stress indirectly through their relation with motivational phenomena such as passion.

  10. Formation of spatial thinking skills through different training methods.

    PubMed

    Kornkasem, Sorachai; Black, John B

    2015-09-01

    Spatial training can be durable and transferable if the training involves cognitive process-based tasks. The current study explored different spatial training methods and investigated the sequences of process-based mental simulation that was facilitated by various structures of external spatial representation, 3D technology, spatial cues, and/or technical languages. A total of 115 Columbia University's students were conducted through three experiments using a between-subjects design to examine the effects of spatial training methods on spatial ability performance. The conditions for training environments included 3D-virtual and 3D-physical interactions with abstract (nonsense-geometric) and concrete (everyday-object) contents. Overall, learners in the treatment conditions improved in their spatial skills significantly more than those in the control conditions. Particularly, 3D-direct-manipulation conditions in the third experiment added promising results about the specific sequences during spatial thinking formation processes.

  11. Optoelectronic Systems Trained With Backpropagation Through Time.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Michiel; Dambre, Joni; Bienstman, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Delay-coupled optoelectronic systems form promising candidates to act as powerful information processing devices. In this brief, we consider such a system that has been studied before in the context of reservoir computing (RC). Instead of viewing the system as a random dynamical system, we see it as a true machine-learning model, which can be fully optimized. We use a recently introduced extension of backpropagation through time, an optimization algorithm originally designed for recurrent neural networks, and use it to let the network perform a difficult phoneme recognition task. We show that full optimization of all system parameters of delay-coupled optoelectronics systems yields a significant improvement over the previously applied RC approach.

  12. Allosteric Regulation of DNA Cleavage and Sequence-Specificity through Run-On Oligomerization

    PubMed Central

    Lyumkis, Dmitry; Talley, Heather; Stewart, Andrew; Shah, Santosh; Park, Chad K.; Tama, Florence; Potter, Clinton S.; Carragher, Bridget; Horton, Nancy C.

    2014-01-01

    SgrAI is a sequence specific DNA endonuclease that functions through an unusual enzymatic mechanism that is allosterically activated 200-500 fold by effector DNA, with a concomitant expansion of its DNA sequence specificity. Using single-particle transmission electron microscopy to reconstruct distinct populations of SgrAI oligomers, we show that, in the presence of allosteric, activating DNA, the enzyme forms regular, repeating helical structures that are characterized by the addition of DNA-binding dimeric SgrAI subunits in a run-on manner. We also present the structure of oligomeric SgrAI at 8.6 Å resolution, demonstrating a novel conformational state of SgrAI in its activated form. Activated and oligomeric SgrAI displays key protein-protein interactions near the helix axis between its N-termini, as well as allosteric protein-DNA interactions that are required for enzymatic activation. The hybrid approach reveals an unusual mechanism of enzyme activation that explains SgrAI’s oligomerization and allosteric behavior. PMID:24055317

  13. A Basic Study on Countermeasure Against Aerodynamic Force Acting on Train Running Inside Tunnel Using Air Blowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Nakade, Koji

    A basic study of flow controls using air blowing was conducted to reduce unsteady aerodynamic force acting on trains running in tunnels. An air blowing device is installed around a model car in a wind tunnel. Steady and periodic blowings are examined utilizing electromagnetic valves. Pressure fluctuations are measured and the aerodynamic force acting on the car is estimated. The results are as follows: a) The air blowing allows reducing the unsteady aerodynamic force. b) It is effective to blow air horizontally at the lower side of the car facing the tunnel wall. c) The reduction rate of the unsteady aerodynamic force relates to the rate of momentum of the blowing to that of the uniform flow. d) The periodic blowing with the same frequency as the unsteady aerodynamic force reduces the aerodynamic force in a manner similar to the steady blowing.

  14. Control entropy identifies differential changes in complexity of walking and running gait patterns with increasing speed in highly trained runners.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Stephen J; Busa, Michael A; Skufca, Joseph; Yaggie, James A; Bollt, Erik M

    2009-06-01

    Regularity statistics have been previously applied to walking gait measures in the hope of gaining insight into the complexity of gait under different conditions and in different populations. Traditional regularity statistics are subject to the requirement of stationarity, a limitation for examining changes in complexity under dynamic conditions such as exhaustive exercise. Using a novel measure, control entropy (CE), applied to triaxial continuous accelerometry, we report changes in complexity of walking and running during increasing speeds up to exhaustion in highly trained runners. We further apply Karhunen-Loeve analysis in a new and novel way to the patterns of CE responses in each of the three axes to identify dominant modes of CE responses in the vertical, mediolateral, and anterior/posterior planes. The differential CE responses observed between the different axes in this select population provide insight into the constraints of walking and running in those who may have optimized locomotion. Future comparisons between athletes, healthy untrained, and clinical populations using this approach may help elucidate differences between optimized and diseased locomotor control. PMID:19566269

  15. Control entropy identifies differential changes in complexity of walking and running gait patterns with increasing speed in highly trained runners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGregor, Stephen J.; Busa, Michael A.; Skufca, Joseph; Yaggie, James A.; Bollt, Erik M.

    2009-06-01

    Regularity statistics have been previously applied to walking gait measures in the hope of gaining insight into the complexity of gait under different conditions and in different populations. Traditional regularity statistics are subject to the requirement of stationarity, a limitation for examining changes in complexity under dynamic conditions such as exhaustive exercise. Using a novel measure, control entropy (CE), applied to triaxial continuous accelerometry, we report changes in complexity of walking and running during increasing speeds up to exhaustion in highly trained runners. We further apply Karhunen-Loeve analysis in a new and novel way to the patterns of CE responses in each of the three axes to identify dominant modes of CE responses in the vertical, mediolateral, and anterior/posterior planes. The differential CE responses observed between the different axes in this select population provide insight into the constraints of walking and running in those who may have optimized locomotion. Future comparisons between athletes, healthy untrained, and clinical populations using this approach may help elucidate differences between optimized and diseased locomotor control.

  16. Control entropy identifies differential changes in complexity of walking and running gait patterns with increasing speed in highly trained runners.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Stephen J; Busa, Michael A; Skufca, Joseph; Yaggie, James A; Bollt, Erik M

    2009-06-01

    Regularity statistics have been previously applied to walking gait measures in the hope of gaining insight into the complexity of gait under different conditions and in different populations. Traditional regularity statistics are subject to the requirement of stationarity, a limitation for examining changes in complexity under dynamic conditions such as exhaustive exercise. Using a novel measure, control entropy (CE), applied to triaxial continuous accelerometry, we report changes in complexity of walking and running during increasing speeds up to exhaustion in highly trained runners. We further apply Karhunen-Loeve analysis in a new and novel way to the patterns of CE responses in each of the three axes to identify dominant modes of CE responses in the vertical, mediolateral, and anterior/posterior planes. The differential CE responses observed between the different axes in this select population provide insight into the constraints of walking and running in those who may have optimized locomotion. Future comparisons between athletes, healthy untrained, and clinical populations using this approach may help elucidate differences between optimized and diseased locomotor control.

  17. High-Intensity Cycling Training: The Effect of Work-to-Rest Intervals on Running Performance Measures.

    PubMed

    Kavaliauskas, Mykolas; Aspe, Rodrigo R; Babraj, John

    2015-08-01

    The work-to-rest ratio during cycling-based high-intensity interval training (HIT) could be important in regulating physiological and performance adaptations. We sought to determine the effectiveness of cycling-based HIT with different work-to-rest ratios for long-distance running. Thirty-two long-distance runners (age: 39 ± 8 years; sex: 14 men, 18 women; average weekly running training volume: 25 miles) underwent baseline testing (3-km time-trial, V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak and time to exhaustion, and Wingate test) before a 2-week matched-work cycling HIT of 6 × 10-second sprints with different rest periods (30 seconds [R30], 80 seconds [R80], 120 seconds [R120], or control). Three-kilometer time trial was significantly improved in the R30 group only (3.1 ± 4.0%, p = 0.04), whereas time to exhaustion was significantly increased in the 2 groups with a lower work-to-rest ratio (R30 group 6.4 ± 6.3%, p = 0.003 vs. R80 group 4.4 ± 2.7%, p = 0.03 vs. R120 group 1.9 ± 5.0%, p = 0.2). However, improvements in average power production were significantly greater with a higher work-to-rest ratio (R30 group 0.3 ± 4.1%, p = 0.8 vs. R80 group 4.6 ± 4.2%, p = 0.03 vs. R120 group 5.3 ± 5.9%, p = 0.02), whereas peak power significantly increased only in the R80 group (8.5 ± 8.2%, p = 0.04) but not in the R30 group (4.3 ± 6.1%, p = 0.3) or in the R120 group (7.1 ± 7.9%, p = 0.09). Therefore, cycling-based HIT is an effective way to improve running performance, and the type and magnitude of adaptation is dependent on the work-to-rest ratio. PMID:26203737

  18. Effects of a Body-Weight Supporting Kite on Sprint Running Kinematics in Well-Trained Sprinters.

    PubMed

    Kratky, Sascha; Buchecker, Michael; Pfusterschmied, Jürgen; Szekely, Csaba; Müller, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Data of elite sprinters indicate that faster athletes realize shorter ground contact times compared with slower individuals. Furthermore, the importance of the so-called "front side mechanics" for elite sprint performance is frequently emphasized by researchers and coaches. Recently, it was demonstrated that using a body-weight supporting kite during full-effort sprints in highly trained sprinters leads to a reduction in ground contact time. The aim of this study was to investigate possible negative effects of this body-weight supporting device on sprint running kinematics, which was not clarified in previous studies. Eleven well-trained Austrian sprinters performed flying 20-m sprints under 2 conditions: (a) free sprint (FS); and (b) body-weight supported sprint (BWS). Sprint cycle characteristics were recorded during the high-speed phase by a 16 camera 3D-system (Vicon), an optical acquisition system (Optojump-next), and a high-speed camera. Paired sample t-tests and Cohen's d effect size were used to determine differences between sprinting conditions. Compared with FS, BWS caused a decrease in ground contact time by 5.6% and an increase in air time by 5.5% (both p < 0.001), whereas stride length and rate remained unchanged. Furthermore, a reduced hip joint extension at and after take-off, an increased maximal hip joint flexion (i.e., high knee position), and a smaller horizontal distance of the touchdown to the center of gravity could be observed (all p < 0.01). These results indicate no negative effects on front side mechanics during BWS and that sprinting with a body-weight supporting kite seems to be a highly specific method to reduce ground contact time in well-trained sprinters.

  19. The Effects of a 6-Week Strength Training on Critical Velocity, Anaerobic Running Distance, 30-M Sprint and Yo-Yo Intermittent Running Test Performances in Male Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Karsten, Bettina; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Kandemir, Gokhan; Hazir, Tahir; Klose, Andreas; Naclerio, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of a moderate intensity strength training on changes in critical velocity (CV), anaerobic running distance (D'), sprint performance and Yo-Yo intermittent running test (Yo-Yo IR1) performances. Methods: two recreational soccer teams were divided in a soccer training only group (SO; n = 13) and a strength and soccer training group (ST; n = 13). Both groups were tested for values of CV, D', Yo-Yo IR1 distance and 30-m sprint time on two separate occasions (pre and post intervention). The ST group performed a concurrent 6-week upper and lower body strength and soccer training, whilst the SO group performed a soccer only training. Results: after the re-test of all variables, the ST demonstrated significant improvements for both, YoYo IR1 distance (p = 0.002) and CV values (p<0.001) with no significant changes in the SO group. 30-m sprint performance were slightly improved in the ST group with significantly decreased performance times identified in the SO group (p<0.001). Values for D' were slightly reduced in both groups (ST -44.5 m, 95% CI = -90.6 to 1.6; SO -42.6 m, 95% CI = -88.7 to 3.5). Conclusions: combining a 6-week moderate strength training with soccer training significantly improves CV, Yo-Yo IR1 whilst moderately improving 30-m sprint performances in non-previously resistance trained male soccer players. Critical Velocity can be recommended to coaches as an additional valid testing tool in soccer. PMID:27015418

  20. Chasing Personal Meaning: Pedagogical Lessons through Luis Rodriguez's "Always Running"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theisen-Homer, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    In this autobiographical narrative, the author recounts her experiences teaching the novel "Always Running" by Luis Rodriguez with her English classes at a high school in a gang-heavy area. When she first started teaching, this teacher struggled to engage students. One particularly disruptive student requested to read "Always…

  1. Learning Surgically Oriented Anatomy in a Student-Run Extracurricular Club: An Education through Recreation Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullah, Shahnoor M.; Bodrogi, Andrew; Cristea, Octav; Johnson, Marjorie; McAlister, Vivian C.

    2012-01-01

    Didactic and laboratory anatomical education have seen significant reductions in the medical school curriculum due, in part, to the current shift from basic science to more clinically based teaching in North American medical schools. In order to increase medical student exposure to anatomy, with clinical applicability, a student-run initiative…

  2. Effect of Maturation on Hemodynamic and Autonomic Control Recovery Following Maximal Running Exercise in Highly Trained Young Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Buchheit, Martin; Al Haddad, Hani; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Quod, Marc J.; Bourdon, Pitre C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of maturation on post-exercise hemodynamic and autonomic responses. Fifty-five highly trained young male soccer players (12–18 years) classified as pre-, circum-, or post-peak height velocity (PHV) performed a graded running test to exhaustion on a treadmill. Before (Pre) and after (5th–10th min, Post) exercise, heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), arterial pressure (AP), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were monitored. Parasympathetic (high frequency [HFRR] of HR variability (HRV) and baroreflex sensitivity [Ln BRS]) and sympathetic activity (low frequency [LFSAP] of systolic AP variability) were estimated. Post-exercise blood lactate [La]b, the HR recovery (HRR) time constant, and parasympathetic reactivation (time-varying HRV analysis) were assessed. In all three groups, exercise resulted in increased HR, CO, AP, and LFSAP (P < 0.001), decreased SV, HFRR, and Ln BRS (all P < 0.001), and no change in TPR (P = 0.98). There was no “maturation × time” interaction for any of the hemodynamic or autonomic variables (all P > 0.22). After exercise, pre-PHV players displayed lower SV, CO, and [La]b, faster HRR and greater parasympathetic reactivation compared with circum- and post-PHV players. Multiple regression analysis showed that lean muscle mass, [La]b, and Pre parasympathetic activity were the strongest predictors of HRR (r2 = 0.62, P < 0.001). While pre-PHV players displayed a faster HRR and greater post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation, maturation had little influence on the hemodynamic and autonomic responses following maximal running exercise. HRR relates to lean muscle mass, blood acidosis, and intrinsic parasympathetic function, with less evident impact of post-exercise autonomic function. PMID:22013423

  3. Barefoot Running

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Scott; Cotton, Jon; Bechtold, Megan; Toby, E. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Background: It has been proposed that running barefoot can lead to improved strength and proprioception. However, the duration that a runner must train barefoot to observe these changes is unknown. Hypothesis: Runners participating in a barefoot running program will have improved proprioception, increased lower extremity strength, and an increase in the volume or size of the intrinsic musculature of the feet. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: In this 8-week study, 29 runners with a mean age of 36.34 years were randomized into either a control group (n = 10) who completed training in their regular running shoes or to an experimental barefoot group (n = 14). Pretraining tests consisted of a volumetric measurement of the foot followed by a strength and dynamic balance assessment. Five subjects completed the pretests but did not complete the study for reasons not related to study outcomes. Participants then completed 8 weeks of training runs. They repeated the strength and dynamic balance assessment after 8 weeks. Results: Significant changes from baseline to 8 weeks were observed within the barefoot group for single-leg hop (right, P = .0121; left, P = .0430) and reach and balance (right, P = .0029) and within the control group for single–left leg hop (P = .0286) and reach and balance (right, P = .0096; left, P = .0014). However, when comparing the differences in changes from baseline to 8 weeks between the barefoot and control groups, the improvements were not significant at the .05 level for all measures. Conclusion: Although statistically significant changes were not observed between the pre- and posttest evaluations in strength and proprioception with the 8-week low-intensity barefoot running regimen, this does not necessarily mean that these changes do not occur. It is possible that it may take months or years to observe these changes, and a short course such as this trial is insufficient. PMID:26535308

  4. Body composition changes affect energy cost of running during 12 months of specific diet and training in amateur athletes.

    PubMed

    Ghiani, Giovanna; Marongiu, Elisabetta; Melis, Franco; Angioni, Giuseppina; Sanna, Irene; Loi, Andrea; Pusceddu, Matteo; Pinna, Virginia; Crisafulli, Antonio; Tocco, Filippo

    2015-09-01

    Considering the relation between body weight composition and energy cost of running, we tested the hypothesis that by modifying body composition by means of a combined protocol of specific diet and training, the energy cost of motion (Cr) may be reduced. Forty-five healthy and normal-weight subjects were divided into 3 groups that performed a different treatment: the first group attended a dietary protocol (D), the second group participated in a running program (R), and the third group followed both the dietary and running protocols (R&D). Each subject underwent 3 anthropometric and exercise evaluation tests during 1 year (at entry (T0), month 6 (T6), and month 12 (T12)) to assess body composition and Cr adjustments. The mean fat mass (FM) values were reduced in R&D from 12.0 ± 4.0 to 10.4 ± 3.0 kg (p < 0.05 T0 vs. T12) and in the D group from 14.2 ± 5.8 to 11.6 ± 4.7 kg (p < 0.05 T0 vs. T12). Conversely, the mean fat free mass values increased in R&D (from 56.3 ± 8.8 to 58.3 ± 9.8 kg, p < 0.05 T0 vs. T12) and in the D group (from 50.6 ± 13.2 to 52.9 ± 13.6 kg, p < 0.05 T0 vs. T12). The mean Cr values of the 2 groups were significantly modified throughout the 1-year protocol (1.48 ± 0.16 and 1.40 ± 0.15 kcal·kg(-b)·km(-1) in the R&D group at T0 and T12, respectively; 1.83 ± 0.17 and 1.76 ± 0.23 kcal·kg(-b)·km(-1) in D group at T0 to T12, respectively). The R&D and D groups that underwent the diet protocol had a positive change in body composition during the year (FM/fat free mass ratio decline), which determined a Cr reduction. PMID:26307518

  5. Learning through service: student perceptions on volunteering at interprofessional hepatitis B student-run clinics.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Leslie C; Zheng, Patricia; Coelho, Anabelle D; Lin, Lisa D; O'Sullivan, Patricia S; O'Brien, Bridget C; Yu, Albert Y; Lai, Cindy J

    2011-06-01

    Student-run clinics (SRCs) are widespread, but studies on their educational impact are limited. We surveyed preclinical medical, nursing, and pharmacy students about their experiences in a hepatitis B elective which provided opportunities to they could volunteer at hepatitis B screening and vaccination SRCs. Student responses revealed positive perceptions of the volunteer experience. Benefits included interacting with patients, developing clinical skills, providing service to disadvantaged populations, and collaborating with health professional peers. Students who participated in clinic reported enhanced skills compared to those who did not attend. SRCs play a valuable role in instilling positive attitudes and improving skills.

  6. Training the inspiratory muscles improves running performance when carrying a 25 kg thoracic load in a backpack.

    PubMed

    Faghy, Mark A; Brown, Peter I

    2016-08-01

    Load carriage (LC) exercise in physically demanding occupations is typically characterised by periods of low-intensity steady-state exercise and short duration, high-intensity exercise while carrying an external mass in a backpack; this form of exercise is also known as LC exercise. This induces inspiratory muscle fatigue and reduces whole-body performance. Accordingly we investigated the effect of inspiratory muscle training (IMT, 50% maximal inspiratory muscle pressure (PImax) twice daily for six week) upon running time-trial performance with thoracic LC. Nineteen healthy males formed a pressure threshold IMT (n = 10) or placebo control group (PLA; n = 9) and performed 60 min LC exercise (6.5 km h(-1)) followed by a 2.4 km running time trial (LCTT) either side of a double-blind six week intervention. Prior to the intervention, PImax was reduced relative to baseline, post-LC and post-LCTT in both groups (pooled data: 13 ± 7% and 16 ± 8%, respectively, p < .05) and similar changes were observed post-PLA. Post-IMT only, resting PImax increased +31% (p < .05) and relative to pre-IMT was greater post-LC (+19%) and post-LCTT (+18%, p < .05), however, the relative reduction in PImax at each time point was unchanged (13 ± 11% and 17 ± 9%, respectively, p > .05). In IMT only, heart rate and perceptual responses were reduced post-LC (p < .05). Time-trial performance was unchanged post-PLA and improved 8 ± 4% after IMT (p < .05). In summary, when wearing a 25 kg backpack, IMT attenuated the cardiovascular and perceptual responses to steady-state exercise and improved high-intensity time-trial performance which we attribute in part to reduced relative work intensity of the inspiratory muscles due to improved inspiratory muscle strength. These findings have real-world implications for occupational contexts. PMID:26274785

  7. Enhanced learning of proportional math through music training and spatial-temporal training.

    PubMed

    Graziano, A B; Peterson, M; Shaw, G L

    1999-03-01

    It was predicted, based on a mathematical model of the cortex, that early music training would enhance spatial-temporal reasoning. We have demonstrated that preschool children given six months of piano keyboard lessons improved dramatically on spatial-temporal reasoning while children in appropriate control groups did not improve. It was then predicted that the enhanced spatial-temporal reasoning from piano keyboard training could lead to enhanced learning of specific math concepts, in particular proportional math, which is notoriously difficult to teach using the usual language-analytic methods. We report here the development of Spatial-Temporal Math Video Game software designed to teach fractions and proportional math, and its strikingly successful use in a study involving 237 second-grade children (age range six years eight months-eight years five months). Furthermore, as predicted, children given piano keyboard training along with the Math Video Game training scored significantly higher on proportional math and fractions than children given a control training along with the Math Video Game. These results were readily measured using the companion Math Video Game Evaluation Program. The training time necessary for children on the Math Video Game is very short, and they rapidly reach a high level of performance. This suggests that, as predicted, we are tapping into fundamental cortical processes of spatial-temporal reasoning. This spatial-temporal approach is easily generalized to teach other math and science concepts in a complementary manner to traditional language-analytic methods, and at a younger age. The neural mechanisms involved in thinking through fractions and proportional math during training with the Math Video Game might be investigated in EEG coherence studies along with priming by specific music. PMID:10100200

  8. Enhanced learning of proportional math through music training and spatial-temporal training.

    PubMed

    Graziano, A B; Peterson, M; Shaw, G L

    1999-03-01

    It was predicted, based on a mathematical model of the cortex, that early music training would enhance spatial-temporal reasoning. We have demonstrated that preschool children given six months of piano keyboard lessons improved dramatically on spatial-temporal reasoning while children in appropriate control groups did not improve. It was then predicted that the enhanced spatial-temporal reasoning from piano keyboard training could lead to enhanced learning of specific math concepts, in particular proportional math, which is notoriously difficult to teach using the usual language-analytic methods. We report here the development of Spatial-Temporal Math Video Game software designed to teach fractions and proportional math, and its strikingly successful use in a study involving 237 second-grade children (age range six years eight months-eight years five months). Furthermore, as predicted, children given piano keyboard training along with the Math Video Game training scored significantly higher on proportional math and fractions than children given a control training along with the Math Video Game. These results were readily measured using the companion Math Video Game Evaluation Program. The training time necessary for children on the Math Video Game is very short, and they rapidly reach a high level of performance. This suggests that, as predicted, we are tapping into fundamental cortical processes of spatial-temporal reasoning. This spatial-temporal approach is easily generalized to teach other math and science concepts in a complementary manner to traditional language-analytic methods, and at a younger age. The neural mechanisms involved in thinking through fractions and proportional math during training with the Math Video Game might be investigated in EEG coherence studies along with priming by specific music.

  9. Characteristics of urban run-off derived sediments captured by proprietary flow-through stormwater interceptors.

    PubMed

    Faram, M G; Iwugo, K O; Andoh, R Y G

    2007-01-01

    Sediment entrained in urban run-off is acknowledged as being an important carrier of pollutants. The paper reports on the physical and chemical characteristics of sediments captured by six installations of a proprietary interceptor device. The sites, located in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, were selected to represent a range of urban contexts. Particle D(50) values were found to range from 7 to 112 mum, corresponding with ranges reported for stormwater ponds. Heavy metal and hydrocarbon concentrations were also found to vary, with the highest corresponding to the most established and heavily trafficked sites. Further to confirming the ability of the interceptor to remove contaminated sediments, useful insights are provided into the interrelation between sediment characteristics and site conditions.

  10. A forced running wheel system with a microcontroller that provides high-intensity exercise training in an animal ischemic stroke model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, C.C.; Chang, M.W.; Chang, C.P.; Chan, S.C.; Chang, W.Y.; Yang, C.L.; Lin, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    We developed a forced non-electric-shock running wheel (FNESRW) system that provides rats with high-intensity exercise training using automatic exercise training patterns that are controlled by a microcontroller. The proposed system successfully makes a breakthrough in the traditional motorized running wheel to allow rats to perform high-intensity training and to enable comparisons with the treadmill at the same exercise intensity without any electric shock. A polyvinyl chloride runway with a rough rubber surface was coated on the periphery of the wheel so as to permit automatic acceleration training, and which allowed the rats to run consistently at high speeds (30 m/min for 1 h). An animal ischemic stroke model was used to validate the proposed system. FNESRW, treadmill, control, and sham groups were studied. The FNESRW and treadmill groups underwent 3 weeks of endurance running training. After 3 weeks, the experiments of middle cerebral artery occlusion, the modified neurological severity score (mNSS), an inclined plane test, and triphenyltetrazolium chloride were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed platform. The proposed platform showed that enhancement of motor function, mNSS, and infarct volumes was significantly stronger in the FNESRW group than the control group (P<0.05) and similar to the treadmill group. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed platform can be applied to test the benefit of exercise-preconditioning-induced neuroprotection using the animal stroke model. Additional advantages of the FNESRW system include stand-alone capability, independence of subjective human adjustment, and ease of use. PMID:25140816

  11. A forced running wheel system with a microcontroller that provides high-intensity exercise training in an animal ischemic stroke model.

    PubMed

    Chen, C C; Chang, M W; Chang, C P; Chan, S C; Chang, W Y; Yang, C L; Lin, M T

    2014-10-01

    We developed a forced non-electric-shock running wheel (FNESRW) system that provides rats with high-intensity exercise training using automatic exercise training patterns that are controlled by a microcontroller. The proposed system successfully makes a breakthrough in the traditional motorized running wheel to allow rats to perform high-intensity training and to enable comparisons with the treadmill at the same exercise intensity without any electric shock. A polyvinyl chloride runway with a rough rubber surface was coated on the periphery of the wheel so as to permit automatic acceleration training, and which allowed the rats to run consistently at high speeds (30 m/min for 1 h). An animal ischemic stroke model was used to validate the proposed system. FNESRW, treadmill, control, and sham groups were studied. The FNESRW and treadmill groups underwent 3 weeks of endurance running training. After 3 weeks, the experiments of middle cerebral artery occlusion, the modified neurological severity score (mNSS), an inclined plane test, and triphenyltetrazolium chloride were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed platform. The proposed platform showed that enhancement of motor function, mNSS, and infarct volumes was significantly stronger in the FNESRW group than the control group (P<0.05) and similar to the treadmill group. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed platform can be applied to test the benefit of exercise-preconditioning-induced neuroprotection using the animal stroke model. Additional advantages of the FNESRW system include stand-alone capability, independence of subjective human adjustment, and ease of use.

  12. The effect of sprinting after each set of heavy resistance training on the running speed and jumping performance of young basketball players.

    PubMed

    Tsimahidis, Konstantinos; Galazoulas, Christos; Skoufas, Dimitrios; Papaiakovou, Georgios; Bassa, Eleni; Patikas, Dimitrios; Kotzamanidis, Christos

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a 10-week heavy resistance combined with a running training program on the strength, running speed (RS), and vertical jump performance of young basketball players. Twenty-six junior basketball players were equally divided in 2 groups. The control (CON) group performed only technical preparation and the group that followed the combined training program (CTP) performed additionally 5 sets of 8-5 repetition maximum (RM) half squat with 1 30-m sprint after each set. The evaluation took place before training and after the 5th and 10th weeks of training. Apart from the 1RM half squat test, the 10- and 30-m running time was measured using photocells and the jump height (squat, countermovement jump, and drop jump) was estimated taking into account the flight time. The 1RM increased by 30.3 +/- 1.5% at the 10th week of training for the CTP group (p < 0.05), whereas the CON group showed no significant increase (1.1 +/- 1.6%, p > 0.05). In general, all measured parameters showed a statistically significant increase after the 5th and 10th weeks (p < 0.05), in contrast to the CON group (p > 0.05). This suggests that the applied CTP is beneficial for the strength, RS, and jump height of young basketball players. The observed adaptations in the CTP group could be attributed to learning factors and to a more optimal transfer of the strength gain to running and jumping performance.

  13. It's Money! Real-World Grant Experience through a Student-Run, Peer-Reviewed Program

    PubMed Central

    Dumanis, Sonya B.; Ullrich, Lauren; Washington, Patricia M.; Forcelli, Patrick A.

    2013-01-01

    Grantsmanship is an integral component of surviving and thriving in academic science, especially in the current funding climate. Therefore, any additional opportunities to write, read, and review grants during graduate school may have lasting benefits on one's career. We present here our experience with a small, student-run grant program at Georgetown University Medical Center. Founded in 2010, this program has several goals: 1) to give graduate students an opportunity to conduct small, independent research projects; 2) to encourage graduate students to write grants early and often; and 3) to give graduate students an opportunity to review grants. In the 3 yr since the program's start, 28 applications have been submitted, 13 of which were funded for a total of $40,000. From funded grants, students have produced abstracts and manuscripts, generated data to support subsequent grant proposals, and made new professional contacts with collaborators. Above and beyond financial support, this program provided both applicants and reviewers an opportunity to improve their writing skills, professional development, and understanding of the grants process, as reflected in the outcome measures presented. With a small commitment of time and funding, other institutions could implement a program like this to the benefit of their graduate students. PMID:24006391

  14. Periodic spring-mass running over uneven terrain through feedforward control of landing conditions.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Luther R; Eaton, Caitrin E

    2014-09-01

    This work pursues a feedforward control algorithm for high-speed legged locomotion over uneven terrain. Being able to rapidly negotiate uneven terrain without visual or a priori information about the terrain will allow legged systems to be used in time-critical applications and alongside fast-moving humans or vehicles. The algorithm is shown here implemented on a spring-loaded inverted pendulum model in simulation, and can be configured to approach fixed running height over uneven terrain or self-stable terrain following. Offline search identifies unique landing conditions that achieve a desired apex height with a constant stride period over varying ground levels. Because the time between the apex and touchdown events is directly related to ground height, the landing conditions can be computed in real time as continuous functions of this falling time. Enforcing a constant stride period reduces the need for inertial sensing of the apex event, which is nontrivial for physical systems, and allows for clocked feedfoward control of the swing leg.

  15. Running WRF on various distributed computing infrastructures through a standard-based Science Gateway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbera, Roberto; Bruno, Riccardo; La Rocca, Giuseppe; Markussen Lunde, Torleif; Pehrson, Bjorn

    2014-05-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modelling system is a widely used meso-scale numerical weather prediction system designed to serve both atmospheric research and operational forecasting needs. WRF has a large worldwide community counting more than 20,000 users in 130 countries and it has been specifically designed to be the state-of-the-art atmospheric simulation system being portable and running efficiently on available parallel computing platforms. Although WRF can be executed in many different environments ranging form the single core inside a stand-alone machine up to the most sophisticated HPC platforms, there are no solutions yet to match the e-Science paradigm where software, data and users are "linked" together by the network as components of distributed computing infrastructures. The topmost component of the typical e-Science model consists of Science Gateways, defined as community-developed sets of tools, applications, and data collections that normally are integrated via a portal to get access to a distributed infrastructure. One of the many available Science Gateway solutions is the Catania Science Gateway Framework (CSGF - www.catania-science-gateways.it) whose most descriptive keywords are: standard adoption, interoperability and standard adoption. The support of standards such as SAGA and SAML allows any CSGF user to seamlessly access and use both Grid and Cloud-based resources. In this work we present the CSGF and how it has been used in the context of the eI4frica project (www.ei4africa.eu) to implement the Africa Grid Science Gateway (http://sgw.africa-grid.org), which allows to execute WRF simulations on various kinds of distributed computing infrastructures at the same time, including the EGI Federated Cloud.

  16. Importing Quality Higher Educational Resources through Chinese-Foreign Cooperation in Running Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-hui; Liu, Zhi-ping

    2007-01-01

    Importing quality higher education resources is the core mission of a Chinese-foreign joint initiative in higher education as well as the key to improving the level of the cooperation initiatives. The paper reviews the history and current situation of the introduction of quality higher education resources through Sino-foreign cooperation in…

  17. Running Away

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Running Away KidsHealth > For Kids > Running Away Print A ... life on the streets. continue The Reality of Running Away When you think about running away, you ...

  18. Technology Transfer through Training: Emerging Roles for the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergsma, Harold M.

    The importance of training in the technology transfer process is discussed, with special consideration to conditions in developing countries. Also considered is the role universities can play in training to promote technology transfer. Advisors on training and curriculum development are needed to introduce a new technology. Training farmers to…

  19. Water Resources Division Training Bulletin, July 1973 Through June 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, R. O.; Brown, D. W.

    This bulletin provides information about available training as well as information to assist supervisors and training officers in developing a coordinated, efficient training program in hydrology and other subjects related to water-resources investigations. Most of the training is presented at the Center at Lakewood, Colorado. Information is given…

  20. Influence of ingesting a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution before and during a 1-hour run in fed endurance-trained runners.

    PubMed

    Rollo, Ian; Williams, Clyde

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the ingestion of a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution would improve 1-h running performance in runners who had consumed a meal 3 h before exercise. Ten endurance-trained male runners completed two trials that required them to run as far as possible in 1 h on an automated treadmill that allowed changes in running speed without manual input. Following the consumption of the pre-exercise meal, which provided 2.5 g carbohydrate per kilogram body mass (BM), runners ingested either a 6.4% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution or placebo solution (i.e. 8 ml x kg BM(-1)) 30 min before and 2 ml x kg BM(-1) at 15-min intervals throughout the 1-h run. There were no differences in total distance covered (placebo: 13,680 m, s = 1525; carbohydrate: 13,589 m, s = 1635) (P > 0.05). Blood glucose and lactate concentration, respiratory exchange ratio, and carbohydrate oxidation during exercise were not different between trials (P > 0.05). There were also no differences in ratings of perceived exertion, felt arousal or pleasure-displeasure between trials (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the ingestion of a 6.4% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution did not improve 1-h running performance when a high carbohydrate meal was consumed 3 h before exercise.

  1. Fixed-bed gasifier and cleanup system engineering summary report through Test Run No. 100

    SciTech Connect

    Pater, K. Jr.; Headley, L.; Kovach, J.; Stopek, D.

    1984-06-01

    The state-of-the-art of high-pressure, fixed-bed gasification has been advanced by the many refinements developed over the last 5 years. A novel full-flow gas cleanup system has been installed and tested to clean coal-derived gases. This report summarizes the results of tests conducted on the gasifier and cleanup system from its inception through 1982. Selected process summary data are presented along with results from complementary programs in the areas of environmental research, process simulation, analytical methods development, and component testing. 20 references, 32 figures, 42 tables.

  2. Configuring a Graphical User Interface for Managing Local HYSPLIT Model Runs Through AWIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, mark M.; Blottman, Peter F.; Sharp, David W.; Hoeth, Brian; VanSpeybroeck, Kurt M.

    2009-01-01

    Responding to incidents involving the release of harmful airborne pollutants is a continual challenge for Weather Forecast Offices in the National Weather Service. When such incidents occur, current protocol recommends forecaster-initiated requests of NOAA's Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model output through the National Centers of Environmental Prediction to obtain critical dispersion guidance. Individual requests are submitted manually through a secured web site, with desired multiple requests submitted in sequence, for the purpose of obtaining useful trajectory and concentration forecasts associated with the significant release of harmful chemical gases, radiation, wildfire smoke, etc., into local the atmosphere. To help manage the local HYSPLIT for both routine and emergency use, a graphical user interface was designed for operational efficiency. The interface allows forecasters to quickly determine the current HYSPLIT configuration for the list of predefined sites (e.g., fixed sites and floating sites), and to make any necessary adjustments to key parameters such as Input Model. Number of Forecast Hours, etc. When using the interface, forecasters will obtain desired output more confidently and without the danger of corrupting essential configuration files.

  3. The Running Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Henning, P. Troy

    2014-01-01

    Context: Pelvic stress fractures, osteitis pubis, and snapping hip syndrome account for a portion of the overuse injuries that can occur in the running athlete. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed searches were performed for each entity using the following keywords: snapping hip syndrome, coxa sultans, pelvic stress fracture, and osteitis pubis from 2008 to 2013. Topic reviews, case reports, case series, and randomized trials were included for review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: Collectively, 188 articles were identified. Of these, 58 were included in this review. Conclusion: Based on the available evidence, the majority of these overuse injuries can be managed non-operatively. Primary treatment should include removal from offending activity, normalizing regional muscle strength/length imbalances and nutritional deficiencies, and mitigating training errors through proper education of the athlete and training staff. Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy: C PMID:24587861

  4. FUNCTIONAL CARTILAGE MRI T2 MAPPING: EVALUATING THE EFFECT OF AGE AND TRAINING ON KNEE CARTILAGE RESPONSE TO RUNNING

    PubMed Central

    Mosher, Timothy J.; Liu, Yi; Torok, Collin M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To characterize effects of age and physical activity level on cartilage thickness and T2 response immediately after running. Design Institutional review board approval was obtained and all subjects provided informed consent prior to study participation. Cartilage thickness and MRI T2 values of 22 marathon runners and 15 sedentary controls were compared before and after 30 minutes of running. Runner and control groups were stratified by age ≤ 45 and ≥ 46 years. Multi-echo (TR/TE 1500 ms/9 –109 ms) MR images obtained using a 3.0 T scanner were used to calculate thickness and T2 values from the central femoral and tibial cartilage. Baseline cartilage T2 values, and change in cartilage thickness and T2 values after running were compared between the four groups using 1-way ANOVA. Results After running MRI T2 values decreased in superficial femoral (2 ms to 4 ms) and tibial (1 ms to 3 ms) cartilage along with a decrease in cartilage thickness: (femoral: 4% to 8%, tibial: 0% to 12%). Smaller decrease in cartilage t2 values were observed in the middle zone of cartilage, and no change was observed in the deepest layer. There was no difference cartilage deformation or T2 response to running as a function of age or level of physical activity. Conclusions Running results in a measurable decrease in cartilage thickness and MRI T2 values of superficial cartilage consistent with greater compressibility of the superficial cartilage layer. Age and level of physical activity did not alter the T2 response to running. PMID:19948266

  5. Running the gauntlet: regional movement patterns of Manta alfredi through a complex of parks and fisheries.

    PubMed

    Germanov, Elitza S; Marshall, Andrea D

    2014-01-01

    Manta rays (Genus Manta) are economically important for fisheries and tourism in Indonesia. These species have been listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List as Vulnerable to extinction; therefore, human exploitation of manta rays must be regulated. A better understanding of the habitat use and movement patterns of manta rays in Indonesia is needed in order to employ effective conservation measures. To gain better insight into the movements of Manta alfredi we used 'Manta Matcher', an online database with an integrated automated matching algorithm, to compare photographs from 2,604 encounters of M. alfredi collected by recreational divers and dive operators throughout Indonesia over a nine-year period. This photographic comparison revealed that manta rays migrated between regional sanctuaries such as Nusa Penida, the Gili Islands, and the Komodo National Park (up to 450 km straight-line distance). The areas between these sanctuaries are heavily fished and trafficked by ships, and when manta rays travel through these regions they risk being fished and injured by ship strikes. These long-range manta ray movements suggest connectivity between M. alfredi populations in neighboring islands and raise concerns about the future management of regional populations. It is recommended that a national conservation strategy be developed to protect the remaining populations in the country.

  6. Running the Gauntlet: Regional Movement Patterns of Manta alfredi through a Complex of Parks and Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Germanov, Elitza S.; Marshall, Andrea D.

    2014-01-01

    Manta rays (Genus Manta) are economically important for fisheries and tourism in Indonesia. These species have been listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List as Vulnerable to extinction; therefore, human exploitation of manta rays must be regulated. A better understanding of the habitat use and movement patterns of manta rays in Indonesia is needed in order to employ effective conservation measures. To gain better insight into the movements of Manta alfredi we used ‘Manta Matcher’, an online database with an integrated automated matching algorithm, to compare photographs from 2,604 encounters of M. alfredi collected by recreational divers and dive operators throughout Indonesia over a nine-year period. This photographic comparison revealed that manta rays migrated between regional sanctuaries such as Nusa Penida, the Gili Islands, and the Komodo National Park (up to 450 km straight-line distance). The areas between these sanctuaries are heavily fished and trafficked by ships, and when manta rays travel through these regions they risk being fished and injured by ship strikes. These long-range manta ray movements suggest connectivity between M. alfredi populations in neighboring islands and raise concerns about the future management of regional populations. It is recommended that a national conservation strategy be developed to protect the remaining populations in the country. PMID:25337865

  7. Introduction to the medical professions through an innovative medical student-run pipeline program.

    PubMed

    Nair, Navya; Marciscano, Ariel E; Vivar, Karina L; Schaeffer, Sarah; LaMont, Elizabeth; Francois, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    Underrepresented minorities (URMs) make up a disproportionately small percentage of medical school applicants, matriculants, and physicians relative to the general US population. Preprofessional pipeline programs may help introduce URMs to careers in the medical field. MiniMeds was developed as a paracurricular enrichment program that targeted URM students. The curriculum was designed and administered by medical students, and 2 trials of this program were conducted. Data were collected pre and post program through a survey that assessed knowledge of medical concepts and knowledge of and interest in careers in medicine. Attendance at program sessions correlated with baseline knowledge about medical professions. Knowledge about medical concepts increased significantly from baseline to follow-up for boys, a group significantly represented by URMs in our cohort. Median scores for knowledge of medical careers increased significantly from baseline to followup for URMs as well as for boys and girls. Preprofessional pipeline programs such as MiniMeds are able to engage and develop medical knowledge in URM students at a critical developmental age. Further evaluation and implementation of programs that incorporate medical students to actively develop and lead pipeline programs are warranted.

  8. Running the gauntlet: regional movement patterns of Manta alfredi through a complex of parks and fisheries.

    PubMed

    Germanov, Elitza S; Marshall, Andrea D

    2014-01-01

    Manta rays (Genus Manta) are economically important for fisheries and tourism in Indonesia. These species have been listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List as Vulnerable to extinction; therefore, human exploitation of manta rays must be regulated. A better understanding of the habitat use and movement patterns of manta rays in Indonesia is needed in order to employ effective conservation measures. To gain better insight into the movements of Manta alfredi we used 'Manta Matcher', an online database with an integrated automated matching algorithm, to compare photographs from 2,604 encounters of M. alfredi collected by recreational divers and dive operators throughout Indonesia over a nine-year period. This photographic comparison revealed that manta rays migrated between regional sanctuaries such as Nusa Penida, the Gili Islands, and the Komodo National Park (up to 450 km straight-line distance). The areas between these sanctuaries are heavily fished and trafficked by ships, and when manta rays travel through these regions they risk being fished and injured by ship strikes. These long-range manta ray movements suggest connectivity between M. alfredi populations in neighboring islands and raise concerns about the future management of regional populations. It is recommended that a national conservation strategy be developed to protect the remaining populations in the country. PMID:25337865

  9. A tunnel runs through it: an inside view of the Tualatin Mountains, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Ken; Peterson, Gary L.; Beeson, Marvin H.; Wells, Ray E.; Fleck, Robert J.; Evarts, Russell C.; Duvall, Alison; Blakely, Richard J.; Burns, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The Tualatin Mountains form a northwest-striking ridge about 350 m high that separates Portland, Oregon, from the cities of the Tualatin Valley to the west. Known informally as the Portland Hills, the ridge is a late Cenozoic anticline, bounded by reverse faults that dip toward the anticlinal axis. The anticline is a broad, open fold consisting chiefly of Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group, with remnants of Miocene-Pliocene Troutdale Formation and Pleistocene basalt of the Boring Volcanic Field on the flanks of the anticline. Anticlinal structures similar to the Tualatin Mountains are characteristic of the northern Willamette Valley, where the structures accommodate margin-parallel shortening of the Cascadia fore arc. Global Positioning System (GPS) results indicate that the shortening is due to the northward motion of Oregon at several millimeters per year with respect to stable North America. Some of the uplifts may contain active faults, but the structures are poorly exposed and are overlain by thick Pleistocene loess and Missoula flood deposits. Between 1993 and 1998, construction of the 3-mile-long (4500-m-long) TriMet MAX Light Rail tunnel through the Tualatin Mountains provided an unusual opportunity to investigate the geological structure and history of the Tualatin Mountains. This report is a collaborative effort among the tunnel geologists and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to document the geologic story and quantify late Cenozoic and Quaternary deformation rates of the Tualatin Mountains.

  10. Serving Parenting Teens through the Job Training Partnership Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, G. Ray; Pruitt, Katy

    Job Training Partnership Act funds were provided for the Options for Young Mothers project in a mid-sized Texas community. The program was developed and 14 clients were selected. The main components of the program were life skills, General Educational Development (GED) training, counseling, and basic skills training and job placement (Jobs). The…

  11. Communication Runs through It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landrum, Tom S.

    2012-01-01

    Effective writing is every bit as important in alumni and development communications as it is in the public affairs shop. A poorly written donor proposal, awkward or grammatically incorrect thank-you letter, and ambiguous, jargon-filled copy have no place in a professional advancement operation. Good communication is especially important for…

  12. Decreased birefringence of the superficial zone collagen network in the canine knee (stifle) articular cartilage after long distance running training, detected by quantitative polarised light microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Arokoski, J P; Hyttinen, M M; Lapveteläinen, T; Takács, P; Kosztáczky, B; Módis, L; Kovanen, V; Helminen, H

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of a one year programme of running training (up to 40 km/day for 15 weeks) on the spatial orientation pattern of collagen and glycosaminoglycans in articular cartilage in different parts of the knee (stifle) and shoulder joints of young beagle dogs. METHODS: Area specific measurements of the optical path difference (= retardation, gamma) and the cartilage zone thickness were performed using conventional procedures and a new computer based quantitative polarised light microscopy method. Transmission electron microscopy was used to determine the zonal volume density of collagen fibrils. The concentrations of collagen and hydroxypyridinium crosslinks were investigated biochemically. RESULTS: Running training decreased gamma by 24-34% (p < 0.05) in the superficial zone of the lateral femoral condyle articular cartilage and at the centre of the tibial condyles. Gamma of glycosaminoglycans decreased by 26% (p < 0.05) in the superficial zone of the lateral condyle of the femur, but at the same site the volume density of collagen fibrils was unchanged. Neither the collagen concentration nor the concentration of hydroxypyridinium crosslinks was altered as a result of running. In both control and runner dogs, the thickness and gamma values of the superficial zone were greater in the humerus and the femur than in the tibia. CONCLUSION: Endurance type running exercise in beagles caused a reduction in the superficial zone birefringence of the articular cartilage, which indicates either a disorganisation or a reorientation of the superficial zone collagen network. Articular cartilage showed marked variability of collagen network organisation over the different knee (stifle) joint articular surfaces. Images PMID:8733443

  13. Softening of the lateral condyle articular cartilage in the canine knee joint after long distance (up to 40 km/day) running training lasting one year.

    PubMed

    Arokoski, J; Jurvelin, J; Kiviranta, I; Tammi, M; Helminen, H J

    1994-07-01

    The effects of long distance running training (up to 40km/day) on the biomechanical properties of young canine articular cartilage were investigated using in situ indentation creep technique. The stiffness of articular cartilage was determined in the form of instantaneous and equilibrium shear moduli. The rate of cartilage deformation was also computed. Microspectrophotometric and polarized light microscopic analyses were made for determination of local glycosaminoglycan content and collagen organization, respectively. During a period of one year, the runner dogs (n = 10) underwent a gradually increased treadmill exercise up to 40 km/day, while the littermate control dogs (n = 10) lived normally in their cages. The equilibrium shear modulus of articular cartilage decreased significantly by 12 to 14% (p < 0.05) in the lateral, but not in the medial, condyles of femur and tibia. In the lateral condyles of the runner dogs, the deformation rate of cartilage increased by 16% (p < 0.05). Consequently, the articular cartilage response to running training was site-dependent. The simultaneous changes of the equilibrium shear modulus or the retardation time spectrum and the glycosaminoglycan content confirm the key role of proteoglycans in modulating the cartilage equilibrium stiffness and creep rate. The changes in the instant shear modulus appeared to be predominantly related to the alterations in the organization of the superficial collagen network. Although the running training did not create cartilage damage, we assume that the softening of the cartilage may with time jeopardize the ability of articular cartilage to maintain its normal structural and functional properties.

  14. Developing management capacity through training: the Mulago Hospital experience.

    PubMed

    Kibwika-Muyinda, A B

    1995-01-01

    As part of its rehabilitation, Mulago Hospital, Uganda's national referral, teaching and research hospital, is undertaking a training programme for its staff both in-country and overseas. The focus of the in-country programme has been to develop the hospital's management capacity to cope with increasing responsibilities as a self-accounting unity due to develop its autonomy. Hitherto, the majority of the hospital's senior and middle-level managers are health professionals who have to carry out management functions without relevant training. The programme is managed by a hospital committee and training is conducted by staff who have themselves undergone training overseas or locally. The training programme has resulted in a number of positive changes such as improved teamwork and organizational cohesion. However, as the training is mainly donor funded, its sustainability is not assured.

  15. High Resolution MEMS Accelerometers to Estimate VO2 and Compare Running Mechanics between Highly Trained Inter-Collegiate and Untrained Runners

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Stephen J.; Busa, Michael A.; Yaggie, James A.; Bollt, Erik M.

    2009-01-01

    Background The purposes of this study were to determine the validity and reliability of high resolution accelerometers (HRA) relative to VO2 and speed, and compare putative differences in HRA signal between trained (T) and untrained (UT) runners during treadmill locomotion. Methodology Runners performed 2 incremental VO2max trials while wearing HRA. RMS of high frequency signal from three axes (VT, ML, AP) and the Euclidean resultant (RES) were compared to VO2 to determine validity and reliability. Additionally, axial rms relative to speed, and ratio of axial accelerations to RES were compared between T and UT to determine if differences in running mechanics could be identified between the two groups. Principal Findings Regression of RES was strongly related to VO2, but T was different than UT (r = 0.96 vs 0.92; p<.001) for walking and running. During walking, only the ratio of ML and AP to RES were different between groups. For running, nearly all acceleration parameters were lower for T than UT, the exception being ratio of VT to RES, which was higher in T than UT. All of these differences during running were despite higher VO2, O2 cost, and lower RER in T vs UT, which resulted in no significant difference in energy expenditure between groups. Conclusions/Signficance These results indicate that HRA can accurately and reliably estimate VO2 during treadmill locomotion, but differences exist between T and UT that should be considered when estimating energy expenditure. Differences in running mechanics between T and UT were identified, yet the importance of these differences remains to be determined. PMID:19806216

  16. Spatial Reasoning Training Through Light Curves Of Model Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziffer, Julie; Nakroshis, Paul A.; Rudnick, Benjamin T.; Brautigam, Maxwell J.; Nelson, Tyler W.

    2015-11-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that spatial reasoning skills, long known to be crucial to math and science success, are teachable. Even short stints of training can improve spatial reasoning skills among students who lack them (Sorby et al., 2006). Teaching spatial reasoning is particularly valuable to women and minorities who, through societal pressure, often doubt their spatial reasoning skill (Hill et al., 2010). We have designed a hands on asteroid rotation lab that provides practice in spatial reasoning tasks while building the student’s understanding of photometry. For our tool, we mount a model asteroid, with any shape of our choosing, on a slowly rotating motor shaft, whose speed is controlled by the experimenter. To mimic an asteroid light curve, we place the model asteroid in a dark box, shine a movable light source upon our asteroid, and record the light reflected onto a moveable camera. Students may then observe changes in the light curve that result from varying a) the speed of rotation, b) the model asteroid’s orientation with respect to the motor axis, c) the model asteroid’s shape or albedo, and d) the phase angle. After practicing with our tool, students are asked to pair new objects to their corresponding light curves. To correctly pair objects to their light curves, students must imagine how light scattering off of a three dimensional rotating object is imaged on a ccd sensor plane, and then reduced to a series of points on a light curve plot. Through the use of our model asteroid, the student develops confidence in spatial reasoning skills.

  17. Salivary and plasma cortisol and testosterone responses to interval and tempo runs and a bodyweight-only circuit session in endurance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Amy Vivien; Nielsen, Birthe Vejby; Allgrove, Judith

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the acute response to plasma and salivary cortisol and testosterone to three training protocols. Ten trained endurance athletes participated in three experimental trials, such as interval training (INT), tempo run (TEMP) and bodyweight-only circuit training (CIR), on separate days. Blood and saliva samples were collected pre- and 0, 15, 30 and 60 min post-exercise. Peak post-exercise salivary cortisol was higher than pre-exercise in all trials (P < 0.01). After INT, salivary cortisol remained elevated above pre-exercise than 60 min post-exercise. Salivary testosterone also increased post-exercise in all trials (P < 0.05). Plasma and salivary cortisol were correlated between individuals (r = 0.81, 0.73-0.88) and within individuals (r = 0.81, 0.73-0.87) (P < 0.01). Plasma and salivary testosterone was also correlated between (r = 0.57, 0.43-0.69) and within individuals (r = 0.60, 0.45-0.72), (P < 0.01). Peak cortisol and testosterone levels occurred simultaneously in plasma and saliva, but timing of post-exercise hormone peaks differed between trials and individuals. Further investigation is required to identify the mechanisms eliciting an increase in hormones in response to CIR. Furthermore, saliva is a valid alternative sampling technique for measurement of cortisol, although the complex, individual and situation dependent nature of the hormone response to acute exercise should be considered.

  18. Teach beyond Your Reach: An Instructor's Guide to Developing and Running Successful Distance Learning Classes, Workshops, Training Sessions and More

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neidorf, Robin

    2006-01-01

    Distance learning is enabling individuals to earn college and graduate degrees, professional certificates, and a wide range of skills and credentials. In addition to the rapidly expanding role of distance learning in higher education, all types of organizations now offer Web-based training courses to employees, clients, and other associates. In…

  19. Effectiveness of Start to Run, a 6-week training program for novice runners, on increasing health-enhancing physical activity: a controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of the organized sports sector as a setting for health-promotion is a relatively new strategy. In the past few years, different countries have been investing resources in the organized sports sector for promoting health-enhancing physical activity. In the Netherlands, National Sports Federations were funded to develop and implement “easily accessible” sporting programs, aimed at the least active population groups. Start to Run, a 6-week training program for novice runners, developed by the Dutch Athletics Organization, is one of these programs. In this study, the effects of Start to Run on health-enhancing physical activity were investigated. Methods Physical activity levels of Start to Run participants were assessed by means of the Short QUestionnaire to ASsess Health-enhancing physical activity (SQUASH) at baseline, immediately after completing the program and six months after baseline. A control group, matched for age and sex, was assessed at baseline and after six months. Compliance with the Dutch physical activity guidelines was the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures were the total time spent in physical activity and the time spent in each physical activity intensity category and domain. Changes in physical activity within groups were tested with paired t-tests and McNemar tests. Changes between groups were examined with multiple linear and logistic regression analyses. Results In the Start to Run group, the percentage of people who met the Dutch Norm for Health-enhancing Physical Activity, Fit-norm and Combi-norm increased significantly, both in the short- and longer-term. In the control group, no significant changes in physical activity were observed. When comparing results between groups, significantly more Start to Run participants compared with control group participants were meeting the Fit-norm and Combi-norm after six months. The differences in physical activity between groups in favor of the Start to Run group

  20. The Return on Investment from Indiana's Training Programs Funded through the Job Training Partnership Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, David

    A study was conducted to determine the net impact of Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) training. (A measure of net impact expresses only those gains due to training and not those due to other reasons.) Job Service applicants were chosen as a comparison group whose recent labor market experiences would parallel those of JTPA participants. All…

  1. Training Insight Problem Solving through Focus on Barriers and Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walinga, Jennifer; Cunningham, J. Barton; MacGregor, James N.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has reported successful training interventions that improve insight problem solving. In some ways this is surprising, because the processes involved in insight solutions are often assumed to be unconscious, whereas the training interventions focus on conscious cognitive strategies. We propose one mechanism that may help to explain…

  2. Enhancing the benefits of written emotional disclosure through response training.

    PubMed

    Konig, Andrea; Eonta, Alison; Dyal, Stephanie R; Vrana, Scott R

    2014-05-01

    Writing about a personal stressful event has been found to have psychological and physical health benefits, especially when physiological response increases during writing. Response training was developed to amplify appropriate physiological reactivity in imagery exposure. The present study examined whether response training enhances the benefits of written emotional disclosure. Participants were assigned to either a written emotional disclosure condition (n=113) or a neutral writing condition (n=133). Participants in each condition wrote for 20 minutes on 3 occasions and received response training (n=79), stimulus training (n=84) or no training (n=83). Heart rate and skin conductance were recorded throughout a 10-minute baseline, 20-minute writing, and a 10-minute recovery period. Self-reported emotion was assessed in each session. One month after completing the sessions, participants completed follow-up assessments of psychological and physical health outcomes. Emotional disclosure elicited greater physiological reactivity and self-reported emotion than neutral writing. Response training amplified physiological reactivity to emotional disclosure. Greater heart rate during emotional disclosure was associated with the greatest reductions in event-related distress, depression, and physical illness symptoms at follow-up, especially among response trained participants. Results support an exposure explanation of emotional disclosure effects and are the first to demonstrate that response training facilitates emotional processing and may be a beneficial adjunct to written emotional disclosure. PMID:24680230

  3. Improving Preceptor Behavior through Formative Feedback in Preceptor Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groh, Nancy; Gill, Diane; Henning, Jolene; Stevens, Susan W.; Dondanville, Abbey

    2013-01-01

    Context: Clinical instructor educators (CIEs) prepare athletic trainers (ATs) to serve as preceptors. Structured performance observation and supervisory conferencing is a well-established method to improve teaching practice that may prove effective for training preceptors. Objective: To explore the impact of a systematic preceptor training program…

  4. Partnering through Training and Practice to Achieve Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a partnership effort among managers, trainers, and employees to spring to life performance improvement using the performance templates (P-T) approach. P-T represents a process model as well as a method of training leading to performance improvement. Not only does it add to our repertoire of training and performance management…

  5. Decreasing Students' Stress through Time Management Training: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Häfner, Alexander; Stock, Armin; Oberst, Verena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a time management training program on perceived control of time and perceived stress in the context of higher education. Twenty-three undergraduate students attended a time management training intervention and reported demands, perceived stress and perceived control of time directly before 2 and…

  6. Developing Meaningfulness at Work through Emotional Intelligence Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thory, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    To date, there remains a significant gap in the human resource development (HRD) literature in understanding how training and development contributes to meaningful work. In addition, little is known about how individuals proactively make their work more meaningful. This article shows how emotional intelligence (EI) training promotes learning about…

  7. 20 CFR 638.600 - Applied vocational skills training (VST) through work projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) The Job Corps Director shall establish procedures for administering applied vocational skills training... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applied vocational skills training (VST) through work projects. 638.600 Section 638.600 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING...

  8. Training through Apprenticeship--The Singapore System. An APEC-HURDIT Network Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sam, Sui Chee

    The Institute of Technical Education (ITE) in Singapore provides skills training to school leavers through the institutional training and apprenticeship modes. The strengths of apprenticeship training are: provision of more occupational choices; greater effectiveness in meeting specific needs of industries; and opportunities for young people to…

  9. Rapid and long-lasting reduction of crowding through training.

    PubMed

    Yashar, Amit; Chen, Jiageng; Carrasco, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    Crowding is the failure to identify an object in the peripheral visual field in the presence of nearby objects. Recent studies have shown that crowding can be alleviated after several days of training, but the processes underlying this improvement are still unclear. Here we tested whether a few hundred trials within a short period of training can alleviate crowding, whether the learning is location specific, and whether the improvement reflects facilitation by target enhancement or flankers suppression. Observers were asked to identify the orientation of a letter in the periphery surrounded by two flanker letters. Observers were tested before (pretest) and after (posttest) training (600 trials). In Experiment 1 we tested whether learning is location specific or can transfer to a different location; the training and test occurred at the same or different hemifields. In a control experiment, we ruled out alternative explanations for the learning effect in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, we assessed different components of feature selection by training with either the same flanker polarity as the pre/posttest but opposite polarity group (flanker polarity group) or the same target polarity as the pre/posttest but opposite flanker polarity (target polarity group). Following training, overall performance increased in all four conditions, but only the same-location group (Experiment 1) and the same flanker polarity (Experiment 2) showed a significant reduction in crowding as assessed by the distance at which the flankers no longer interfere with target identification, that is, the critical spacing. These results show that training can rapidly reduce crowding and that improvement primarily reflects learning to ignore the irrelevant flankers. Remarkably, in the two conditions in which training significantly reduced crowding, the benefit of short training persisted for up to a year.

  10. Rapid and long-lasting reduction of crowding through training

    PubMed Central

    Yashar, Amit; Chen, Jiageng; Carrasco, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    Crowding is the failure to identify an object in the peripheral visual field in the presence of nearby objects. Recent studies have shown that crowding can be alleviated after several days of training, but the processes underlying this improvement are still unclear. Here we tested whether a few hundred trials within a short period of training can alleviate crowding, whether the learning is location specific, and whether the improvement reflects facilitation by target enhancement or flankers suppression. Observers were asked to identify the orientation of a letter in the periphery surrounded by two flanker letters. Observers were tested before (pretest) and after (posttest) training (600 trials). In Experiment 1 we tested whether learning is location specific or can transfer to a different location; the training and test occurred at the same or different hemifields. In a control experiment, we ruled out alternative explanations for the learning effect in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, we assessed different components of feature selection by training with either the same flanker polarity as the pre/posttest but opposite polarity group (flanker polarity group) or the same target polarity as the pre/posttest but opposite flanker polarity (target polarity group). Following training, overall performance increased in all four conditions, but only the same-location group (Experiment 1) and the same flanker polarity (Experiment 2) showed a significant reduction in crowding as assessed by the distance at which the flankers no longer interfere with target identification, that is, the critical spacing. These results show that training can rapidly reduce crowding and that improvement primarily reflects learning to ignore the irrelevant flankers. Remarkably, in the two conditions in which training significantly reduced crowding, the benefit of short training persisted for up to a year. PMID:26583278

  11. Best Practices for Improving Capacity Building Outcomes through Professional Training: Insights from NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training (ARSET) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blevins, B.; Mehta, A. V.; Gupta, P.; Prados, A. I.; McCullum, A. J. K.; Schmidt, C.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training Program (ARSET), http://arset.gsfc.nasa.gov, has been providing applied remote sensing training since 2008. To date, the program has reached over 3500 participants, with 1600 stakeholders from 100 countries in 2015 alone. The goals of the program are to develop the technical and analytical skills necessary to utilize NASA resources for decision-support, and to help end-users navigate through the vast, freely available and open data resources. We discuss ARSET's best practices and training approach to improved data access and application of NASA satellite and model data for air quality, water resources, disasters, land, and wildfire management. ARSET follows an iterative approach where the end user community is engaged and data needs input is solicited throughout the training process. End-user data needs and feedback are also incorporated into current and future training content and communicated to NASA Applied Sciences Program principal investigators and data centers responsible for developing NASA tools, portals, data formats, and other data delivery structures. ARSET's success has relied upon 1) targeting outreach to applied science professionals both as training participants and collaborators in developing training activities 2) developing training content tailored to a specific to community's decision support activities and unique environmental challenges 3) promoting interactive forums during trainings to capture and assess end-user needs 4) training scientists within the program in science communication 5) adopting a contextualized gradual learning approach through online and hands-on instruction, and 6) conducting program evaluation, used to assess the benefit of ARSET to program participants and to plan and adapt future training content, methods, and outreach activities.

  12. Triathlon: running injuries.

    PubMed

    Spiker, Andrea M; Dixit, Sameer; Cosgarea, Andrew J

    2012-12-01

    The running portion of the triathlon represents the final leg of the competition and, by some reports, the most important part in determining a triathlete's overall success. Although most triathletes spend most of their training time on cycling, running injuries are the most common injuries encountered. Common causes of running injuries include overuse, lack of rest, and activities that aggravate biomechanical predisposers of specific injuries. We discuss the running-associated injuries in the hip, knee, lower leg, ankle, and foot of the triathlete, and the causes, presentation, evaluation, and treatment of each.

  13. Running to Achieve: Engaging Students in Literacy and Physical Activity through an After-School Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanzandt, Christina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this participant-observation study is to describe rural, southern, 3rd-5th grade children's engagement in running and writing in an after-school learning community called "Running to Achieve." This study provides insights into links between physical activity and writing by using one to engage students in the other. Three…

  14. Enhancing Icing Training for Pilots Through Web-Based Multimedia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, William; Nolan, Gary; Adanich, Emery; Bond, Thomas H.

    2006-01-01

    The Aircraft Icing Project of the NASA Aviation Safety Program has developed a number of in-flight icing education and training aids designed to increase pilot awareness about the hazards associated with various icing conditions. The challenges and advantages of transitioning these icing training materials to a Web-based delivery are discussed. Innovative Web-based delivery devices increased course availability to pilots and dispatchers while increasing course flexibility and utility. These courses are customizable for both self-directed and instructor-led learning. Part of our goal was to create training materials with enough flexibility to enable Web-based delivery and downloadable portability while maintaining a rich visual multimedia-based learning experience. Studies suggest that using visually based multimedia techniques increases the effectiveness of icing training materials. This paper describes these concepts, gives examples, and discusses the transitional challenges.

  15. The effects of 8-week speed training program on the acceleration ability and maximum speed running at 11 years athletes.

    PubMed

    Gevat, Cecilia; Taskin, Halil; Arslan, Fatma; Larion, Alin; Stanculescu, George

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an 8-week speed training program on the acceleration ability and maximum speed at 11 years athletes. A total of 30 healthy female athletes volunteered to participate in this study. They were divided randomly into 1 of 2 groups: Experimental group (EG; N = 15) and control group (CG; N = 15). The mean (SD) age was 11.20 +/- 0.32 years, height was 1.44 +/- 0.08 m, and weight was 35.20 +/- 2.02 kg for the experimental group; the mean (SD) age was 11.40 +/- 0.39 years, height was 1.45 +/- 0.05 m, and weight was 36.06 +/- 1.15 kg for the control group. A speed training program was applied to the subjects 3 days a week for 8 weeks. Testing was conducted before and after 8 weeks of training. Acceleration and maximum speed was evaluated for 15-m and 30-m, respectively, involving sprinting 15 m and 30 m as fast as possible from a stationary start position that was ascertained during a 50-m. Electronic timekeeping was conducted by the facility--Brower Timing System--made in Utah, USA., consisting of 4 components. Paired t-tests detected significant differences in pre- and posttests for clearance time of 5 m during 50 m in the experimental and control groups (p < 0.05). Therefore, acceleration phase was significantly reduce at 15 m distance interval for the experimental group and control groups posttraining than pretraining (0-15 m, p < 0.05). Acceleration improvement was 12.6% for the experimental group posttraining, on the other hand, acceleration improvement was 5% for the control groups posttraining. we did not find significant difference between pretest and posttest in 10-15 m, 15-20 m, and 20-25 m for the experimental group (p > 0.05). On the other hand, we did find significant difference between pretest and posttest values of other clearance times of consecutively each 5m during 50 m for the experimental and control groups (p < 0.05). Also, this study observed that athletes reached maximum speed in 30 m. In conclusion

  16. A Study of Supplementary Training Available to Follow Through Parents and Aides. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehab Group, Inc., Arlington, VA.

    This report documents the planning, implementation, and outcomes of a study of the supplementary training available to Follow Through parents and aides. The first chapters outline the history and rationale of Follow Through Supplementary Training Programs and discuss the purpose, limitations, and methodology of the study. Detailed information is…

  17. Improving classroom behavior in mentally retarded children through correspondence training.

    PubMed

    Whitman, T L; Scibak, J W; Butler, K M; Richter, R; Johnson, M R

    1982-01-01

    Except for a few studies, most research investigating correspondence training procedures has been more analogue in nature. The purpose of the present set of studies was to examine whether a "say-do" correspondence training technique could be used with children in special education classes to improve classroom behavior. The specific behaviors targeted for change included: out-of-seat behavior (Experiment 1), sitting posture (Experiment 2), and on-task behavior (Experiment 3). The say-do procedure used in Experiment 1 resembled that of previous studies, whereas that in Experiment 2 was more elaborate in the specificity of verbal statements required from the children and the feedback given them. The training procedure in Experiment 3 used a format similar to the say-do approach, but stressed visual rather than verbal cuing because it was used with nonverbal children. All three studies used single-subject designs and examined maintenance and/or generalization questions. Experiments 2 and 3 also evaluated whether concomitant changes in performance on academic tasks occurred. The results of the three studies provide strong evidence that correspondence training can be effectively used with educationally handicapped children. Moreover, the successful modification of the "say-do" to a "show-do" procedure in Experiment 3 points out the flexibility of the correspondence training approach.

  18. Improving classroom behavior in mentally retarded children through correspondence training.

    PubMed Central

    Whitman, T L; Scibak, J W; Butler, K M; Richter, R; Johnson, M R

    1982-01-01

    Except for a few studies, most research investigating correspondence training procedures has been more analogue in nature. The purpose of the present set of studies was to examine whether a "say-do" correspondence training technique could be used with children in special education classes to improve classroom behavior. The specific behaviors targeted for change included: out-of-seat behavior (Experiment 1), sitting posture (Experiment 2), and on-task behavior (Experiment 3). The say-do procedure used in Experiment 1 resembled that of previous studies, whereas that in Experiment 2 was more elaborate in the specificity of verbal statements required from the children and the feedback given them. The training procedure in Experiment 3 used a format similar to the say-do approach, but stressed visual rather than verbal cuing because it was used with nonverbal children. All three studies used single-subject designs and examined maintenance and/or generalization questions. Experiments 2 and 3 also evaluated whether concomitant changes in performance on academic tasks occurred. The results of the three studies provide strong evidence that correspondence training can be effectively used with educationally handicapped children. Moreover, the successful modification of the "say-do" to a "show-do" procedure in Experiment 3 points out the flexibility of the correspondence training approach. PMID:7153191

  19. Air Pollution Training Courses July 1971 Through June 1972 and University Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC.

    The courses, seminars and workshops given at the ten regional centers of the Institute for Air Pollution Training and university air pollution training programs sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency are described in this directory. The Institute's primary objective is to develop and improve the skills and knowledge of individuals in air…

  20. Increasing mathematical problem-solving performance through relaxation training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Conni; Coltharp, Hazel; Hurford, David; Cole, Amykay

    2000-04-01

    Two intact classes of 30 undergraduate students enrolled in the same general education mathematics course were each administered the IPSP Mathematics Problem Solving Test and the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale at the beginning and end of the semester. Both groups experienced the same syllabus, lectures, course requirements, and assessment techniques; however, one group received relaxation training during an initial class meeting and during the first 5 to 7 minutes of each subsequent class. The group which had received relaxation training had significantly lower mathematics anxiety and significantly higher mathematics performance at the end of the course. The results suggest that relaxation training may be a useful tool for treating anxiety in undergraduate general education mathematics students.

  1. Improving resistance and resiliency through crisis intervention training.

    PubMed

    Chan, Angelina O M; Chan, Yiong Huak; Kee, Jass P C

    2012-01-01

    To our knowledge no research has been done on the impact of crisis intervention training programs on resistance and resiliency. This paper describes the use of a localized crisis intervention course and its impact on resistance and resiliency in the participants after 2 days of training. Participants attending the localized version of ICISF Individual Crisis Intervention and Peer Support courses participated in a pre-course quiz and a post-course quiz. The overall resistance and resiliency scores improved at the end of the localized 2-Day Individual Crisis Intervention and Peer Support course. Organizations should view the training of employees in mental health and crisis intervention as contributing to the overall resiliency of the organization, in addition to providing services that facilitate the resilience and recovery of employees affected by personal or workplace stress or critical incidents.

  2. Break through to success with training and teamwork.

    PubMed

    Williams, M K

    1999-08-01

    This is a case study on the effect of training and teamwork in two different divisions within the same company. One division consisted of a nonunion manufacturing plant; the second was a unionized distribution operation. In both operations, serious problems existed--poor customer service levels, inadequate inventory turns, and insufficient profitability. These are the kinds of problems that, left untreated, can cause the death of any manufacturing or distribution operation. However, by implementing training and teamwork at both operations, impressive benefits were achieved, including customer service levels exceeding 90 percent, dramatic improvements in the inventory turnover rate, and profitability that exceeded corporate goals. PMID:10662444

  3. Voluntary wheel running reduces voluntary consumption of ethanol in mice: identification of candidate genes through striatal gene expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Darlington, T M; McCarthy, R D; Cox, R J; Miyamoto-Ditmon, J; Gallego, X; Ehringer, M A

    2016-06-01

    Hedonic substitution, where wheel running reduces voluntary ethanol consumption, has been observed in prior studies. Here, we replicate and expand on previous work showing that mice decrease voluntary ethanol consumption and preference when given access to a running wheel. While earlier work has been limited mainly to behavioral studies, here we assess the underlying molecular mechanisms that may account for this interaction. From four groups of female C57BL/6J mice (control, access to two-bottle choice ethanol, access to a running wheel, and access to both two-bottle choice ethanol and a running wheel), mRNA-sequencing of the striatum identified differential gene expression. Many genes in ethanol preference quantitative trait loci were differentially expressed due to running. Furthermore, we conducted Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis and identified gene networks corresponding to each effect behavioral group. Candidate genes for mediating the behavioral interaction between ethanol consumption and wheel running include multiple potassium channel genes, Oprm1, Prkcg, Stxbp1, Crhr1, Gabra3, Slc6a13, Stx1b, Pomc, Rassf5 and Camta2. After observing an overlap of many genes and functional groups previously identified in studies of initial sensitivity to ethanol, we hypothesized that wheel running may induce a change in sensitivity, thereby affecting ethanol consumption. A behavioral study examining Loss of Righting Reflex to ethanol following exercise trended toward supporting this hypothesis. These data provide a rich resource for future studies that may better characterize the observed transcriptional changes in gene networks in response to ethanol consumption and wheel running. PMID:27063791

  4. Voluntary wheel running reduces voluntary consumption of ethanol in mice: identification of candidate genes through striatal gene expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Darlington, T M; McCarthy, R D; Cox, R J; Miyamoto-Ditmon, J; Gallego, X; Ehringer, M A

    2016-06-01

    Hedonic substitution, where wheel running reduces voluntary ethanol consumption, has been observed in prior studies. Here, we replicate and expand on previous work showing that mice decrease voluntary ethanol consumption and preference when given access to a running wheel. While earlier work has been limited mainly to behavioral studies, here we assess the underlying molecular mechanisms that may account for this interaction. From four groups of female C57BL/6J mice (control, access to two-bottle choice ethanol, access to a running wheel, and access to both two-bottle choice ethanol and a running wheel), mRNA-sequencing of the striatum identified differential gene expression. Many genes in ethanol preference quantitative trait loci were differentially expressed due to running. Furthermore, we conducted Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis and identified gene networks corresponding to each effect behavioral group. Candidate genes for mediating the behavioral interaction between ethanol consumption and wheel running include multiple potassium channel genes, Oprm1, Prkcg, Stxbp1, Crhr1, Gabra3, Slc6a13, Stx1b, Pomc, Rassf5 and Camta2. After observing an overlap of many genes and functional groups previously identified in studies of initial sensitivity to ethanol, we hypothesized that wheel running may induce a change in sensitivity, thereby affecting ethanol consumption. A behavioral study examining Loss of Righting Reflex to ethanol following exercise trended toward supporting this hypothesis. These data provide a rich resource for future studies that may better characterize the observed transcriptional changes in gene networks in response to ethanol consumption and wheel running.

  5. Designing Simulations for Athletic Training Students through Interprofessional Teaching Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tivener, Kristin Ann; Gloe, Donna Sue

    2015-01-01

    Context: While multidisciplinary team approaches to education and practice have been promoted for decades, literature on collaborative efforts in athletic training and nursing remains sparse. Objective: The goal of this article is to provide an example of an interprofessional teaching collaboration in which a simulation scenario was developed…

  6. Cultivating Mind Fitness through Mindfulness Training: Applied Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heydenfeldt, Jo Ann; Herkenhoff, Linda; Coe, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Mindfulness reduces distress, promotes optimal health, improves attentional control, mental agility, emotional intelligence, and situational awareness. Stress management and cognitive performance in Marines who spent more hours practicing Mindfulness Based Mind Fitness Training were superior to those soldiers who practiced fewer hours. Students…

  7. Increasing Student Mathematics Self-Efficacy through Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegle, Del; McCoach, D. Betsy

    2007-01-01

    Teachers can modify their instructional strategies with minimal training and effort, and this can result in increases in their students' self-efficacy. Self-efficacy judgments are based on four sources of information: an individual's own past performance, vicarious experiences of observing the performances of others, verbal persuasion that one…

  8. Enhancing Employability through Industrial Training in the Malaysian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillai, Stefanie; Khan, Mahmud H.; Ibrahim, Ida Syahirah; Raphael, Sharmane

    2012-01-01

    This study discusses the industrial training programme at the University of Malaya in Malaysia, specifically the issues that need to be addressed in order to enhance the employability skills of graduates. Findings from the feedback obtained from trainees and organizations in the 2008/2009 academic session were examined in terms of the extent to…

  9. Transfer of Training: Adding Insight through Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van den Bossche, Piet; Segers, Mien

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews studies which apply a social network perspective to examine transfer of training. The theory behind social networks focuses on the interpersonal mechanisms and social structures that exist among interacting units such as people within an organization. A premise of this perspective is that individual's behaviors and outcomes…

  10. Maximize the Return on Your Training Investment through Needs Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgenson, Dave; Del Gaizo, Edward

    1984-01-01

    Six steps to successful needs analysis are (1) collect information about the organization, (2) identify potential training opportunities, (3) conduct a performance audit, (4) select and test content areas, (5) determine the required skills, knowledge, and abilities, and (6) verify this information against the organization's issues and goals. (SK)

  11. Temporal Persistence of Attitudes Induced Through Required Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tansik, David A.; Driskill, John D.

    1977-01-01

    A posttest-only control group design procedure was used with a semantic differential questionnaire to examine the persistence of changes in racial attitudes induced via a required training course for supervisors at a large military installation. There was an immediate, small, positive change which decayed, and a short "sleeper effect". (Author)

  12. Disaster Medicine Training Through Simulations for Fourth-Year Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloutier, Marc G.; Cowan, Michael L.

    1986-01-01

    The use of a six-day multiple-simulation exercise in the military disaster medical services training program of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences is described. It is the second part of a clerkship that includes a classroom/laboratory phase using a disaster problem-solving board game. (MSE)

  13. Increasing Accurate Preference Assessment Implementation through Pyramidal Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pence, Sacha T.; St. Peter, Claire C.; Tetreault, Allison S.

    2012-01-01

    Preference assessments directly evaluate items that may serve as reinforcers, and their implementation is an important skill for individuals who work with children. This study examined the effectiveness of pyramidal training on teachers' implementation of preference assessments. During Experiment 1, 3 special education teachers taught 6 trainees…

  14. The Prevention of Learning Disability through Deficit Centered Classroom Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapir, Selma G.

    This document describes the development of an instrument to identify and diagnose developmental deficits at age 5 and the planning of a deficit centered training curriculum to prevent learning disabilities. An evaluation of the effectiveness of this curriculum, based on measures of the children's developmental growth and their academic achievement…

  15. Power in Staff Development through Research on Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Bruce R.; Showers, Beverly

    Mastering alternative models of teaching helps build competence and effectiveness in the repertoire of classroom teachers. However, because the attainment of new skills does not by itself ensure transfer to classroom use, teacher training programs should incorporate study of the transfer process itself, reinforced by team effort. Accordingly,…

  16. Training communication abilities in Rett Syndrome through reading and writing

    PubMed Central

    Fabio, Rosa Angela; Castelli, Ilaria; Marchetti, Antonella; Antonietti, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this clinical case study is to investigate the possibility of training communication abilities in people with Rett Syndrome (RS). Usually, girls with RS never exceed the sensorimotor stage of development, but the inter-individual variability typical of RS may lead us to doubt the irrevocability of that developmental limit, especially for those girls who are engaged in cognitive rehabilitation. The case study reported here concerns a 21-year-old girl with RS who was engaged in cognitive rehabilitation training based upon the principles of Feuerstein's modificability and mediated learning theory. The training aimed to teach her basic concepts and enhance reading-writing abilities. Statistical analyses showed that the girl reached adequate reading-writing abilities, proving the validity of the cognitive intervention which allowed her to communicate by composing words with her forefinger on an alphabetic table. Although these results need to be cautiously considered as they derive from a single case study, they have implications for future cognitive rehabilitation for deeply impaired clinical conditions as in the case of RS. PMID:24367345

  17. Improving a Bimanual Motor Skill Through Unimanual Training

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Takuji; Nozaki, Daichi

    2016-01-01

    When we learn a bimanual motor skill (e.g., rowing a boat), we often break it down into unimanual practices (e.g., a rowing drill with the left or right arm). Such unimanual practice is thought to be useful for learning bimanual motor skills efficiently because the learner can concentrate on learning to perform a simpler component. However, it is not so straightforward to assume that unimanual training (UT) improves bimanual performance. We have previously demonstrated that motor memories for reaching movements consist of three different parts: unimanual-specific, bimanual-specific, and overlapping parts. According to this scheme, UT appears to be less effective, as its training effect is only partially transferred to the same limb for bimanual movement. In the present study, counter-intuitively, we demonstrate that, even after the bimanual skill is almost fully learned by means of bimanual training (BT), additional UT could further improve bimanual skill. We hypothesized that this effect occurs because UT increases the memory content in the overlapping part, which might contribute to an increase in the memory for bimanual movement. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether the UT performed after sufficient BT could improve the bimanual performance. Participants practiced performing bimanual reaching movements (BM) in the presence of a novel force-field imposed only on their left arm. As an index for the motor performance, we used the error-clamp method (i.e., after-effect of the left arm) to evaluate the force output to compensate for the force-field during the reaching movement. After sufficient BT, the training effect reached a plateau. However, UT performed subsequently improved the bimanual performance significantly. In contrast, when the same amount of BT was continued, the bimanual performance remained unchanged, highlighting the beneficial effect of UT on bimanual performance. Considering memory structure, we also expected that BT could improve unimanual

  18. Improving a Bimanual Motor Skill Through Unimanual Training.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takuji; Nozaki, Daichi

    2016-01-01

    When we learn a bimanual motor skill (e.g., rowing a boat), we often break it down into unimanual practices (e.g., a rowing drill with the left or right arm). Such unimanual practice is thought to be useful for learning bimanual motor skills efficiently because the learner can concentrate on learning to perform a simpler component. However, it is not so straightforward to assume that unimanual training (UT) improves bimanual performance. We have previously demonstrated that motor memories for reaching movements consist of three different parts: unimanual-specific, bimanual-specific, and overlapping parts. According to this scheme, UT appears to be less effective, as its training effect is only partially transferred to the same limb for bimanual movement. In the present study, counter-intuitively, we demonstrate that, even after the bimanual skill is almost fully learned by means of bimanual training (BT), additional UT could further improve bimanual skill. We hypothesized that this effect occurs because UT increases the memory content in the overlapping part, which might contribute to an increase in the memory for bimanual movement. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether the UT performed after sufficient BT could improve the bimanual performance. Participants practiced performing bimanual reaching movements (BM) in the presence of a novel force-field imposed only on their left arm. As an index for the motor performance, we used the error-clamp method (i.e., after-effect of the left arm) to evaluate the force output to compensate for the force-field during the reaching movement. After sufficient BT, the training effect reached a plateau. However, UT performed subsequently improved the bimanual performance significantly. In contrast, when the same amount of BT was continued, the bimanual performance remained unchanged, highlighting the beneficial effect of UT on bimanual performance. Considering memory structure, we also expected that BT could improve unimanual

  19. It's Money! Real-World Grant Experience through a Student-Run, Peer-Reviewed Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumanis, Sonya B.; Ullrich, Lauren; Washington, Patricia M.; Forcelli, Patrick A.

    2013-01-01

    Grantsmanship is an integral component of surviving and thriving in academic science, especially in the current funding climate. Therefore, any additional opportunities to write, read, and review grants during graduate school may have lasting benefits on one's career. We present here our experience with a small, student-run grant program at…

  20. Building a culture of safety through team training and engagement.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Lily; Galla, Catherine

    2013-05-01

    Medical errors continue to occur despite multiple strategies devised for their prevention. Although many safety initiatives lead to improvement, they are often short lived and unsustainable. Our goal was to build a culture of patient safety within a structure that optimised teamwork and ongoing engagement of the healthcare team. Teamwork impacts the effectiveness of care, patient safety and clinical outcomes, and team training has been identified as a strategy for enhancing teamwork, reducing medical errors and building a culture of safety in healthcare. Therefore, we implemented Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS), an evidence-based framework which was used for team training to create transformational and/or incremental changes; facilitating transformation of organisational culture, or solving specific problems. To date, TeamSTEPPS (TS) has been implemented in 14 hospitals, two Long Term Care Facilities, and outpatient areas across the North Shore LIJ Health System. 32 150 members of the healthcare team have been trained. TeamSTEPPS was piloted at a community hospital within the framework of the health system's organisational care delivery model, the Collaborative Care Model to facilitate sustainment. AHRQ's Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture, (HSOPSC), was administered before and after implementation of TeamSTEPPS, comparing the perception of patient safety by the heathcare team. Pilot hospital results of HSOPSC show significant improvement from 2007 (pre-TeamSTEPPS) to 2010. System-wide results of HSOPSC show similar trends to those seen in the pilot hospital. Valuable lessons for organisational success from the pilot hospital enabled rapid spread of TeamSTEPPS across the rest of the health system. PMID:23211280

  1. KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS ENHANCEMENT THROUGH PERIOPERATIVE NURSING SIMULATION LAB TRAINING.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Trish; Shi, Xinzhe; Yorke, Sue; Andony, Keith; Andony, Keith; McKenzie, Mary Lou

    2016-06-01

    In Edmonton Zone, the attrition rate among new perioperative nursing staff is an issue of concern and many ORs are facing noticeable staffing challenges. In the Edmonton area there are approximately 79 surgical suites. A series of simulation labs were established in 2015 to provide perioperative nurses in order to increase their comfort on the job and to help build confidence levels. The expectations for this simulation are an overall improvement in perioperative nurses' competency, a reduction in OR orientation and training time, and a decrease in the attrition rates among OR nurses. PMID:27509765

  2. Preceptor development in residency training through a faculty facilitator.

    PubMed

    Stuart, M R; Orzano, A J; Eidus, R

    1980-10-01

    To address the demand for training preceptors, a community hospital-based residency program is using a part-time preceptor in a consultative capacity as a faculty facilitator to model, assess skills, and generally improve the level of teaching. Direct observation of resident-patient interactions and subsequent preceptor critiques are followed by feedback to the preceptor on the cogency and effectiveness of comments made. Goals, objectives, and teaching style are jointly examined by the preceptor and faculty facilitator. Evaluation of videotaped resident-preceptor interactions before and after six months' experience with the faculty facilitator shows significant increases in preceptor skills. Greatest improvement is in comments related to resident's clinical assessments, the resident-patient relationship, and in the quality of the resident-preceptor interaction. Scores by the faculty facilitator are significantly lower but parallel those of an independent, blind evaluator. Preceptor, resident, and administration reactions to the project are all positive. This ongoing program assures the continued upgrading of preceptor skills and provides for faculty attrition. A faculty facilitator providing direct feedback in the clinical setting is a low-cost and viable alternative to workshops and conferences for training effective teachers of family medicine.

  3. Training in Socio-Emotional Skills through On-Site Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talavera, Elvira Repetto; Perez-Gonzalez, Juan Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Socio-emotional skills are highly prized on the labour market these days; many writers say that competencies of this type help to increase individuals' employability, but educational institutions consistently forget their responsibility for providing training in them. Most jobs call not only for knowledge and specific technical competencies, but…

  4. Accomplishing Europe through Education and Training. Report. Study Group on Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education, Training, and Youth.

    If Europe is to remain at the driving edge, economic and political progress must be complemented by offering a "European vision" to Europe's young people. All young Europeans must be guaranteed access to education and training culminating in acquisition of a foundation of recognized basic knowledge and skills and access to guidance and counseling…

  5. A case study of interior low-frequency noise from box-shaped bridge girders induced by running trains: Its mechanism, prediction and countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xun; Li, Xiaozhen; Hao, Hong; Wang, Dangxiong; Li, Yadong

    2016-04-01

    A side effect of high-speed railway and urban rail transit systems is the associated vibration and noise. Since the use of concrete viaducts is predominant in railway construction due to scarce land resources, low-frequency (20-200 Hz) structure-radiated noise from concrete bridges is a principal concern. Although it is the most commonly used bridge type, the mechanism of noise emission from box-shaped bridge girders when subjected to impact forces from moving trains, which sounds like beating a drum, has not been well studied. In this study, a field measurement was first made on a simply-supported box-shaped bridge to record the acceleration of the slabs and the associated sound pressures induced by running trains. These data indicated that a significant beat-wave noise occurred in the box-shaped cavity when the train speed was around 340 km/h, which arose from the interference between two sound waves of 75.0 Hz and 78.8 Hz. The noise leakage from the bridge expansion joint was serious and resulted in obvious noise pollution near the bridge once the beat-wave noise was generated in the cavity. The dominant frequency of the interior noise at 75.0 Hz was confirmed from the spectrum of the data and the modal analysis results, and originated from the peak vibration of the top slab due to resonance and the first-order vertical acoustic mode, which led to cavity resonance, amplifying the corresponding noise. The three-dimensional acoustic modes and local vibration modes of the slab were calculated by using the finite element method. A simplified vehicle-track-bridge coupling vibration model was then developed to calculate the wheel-rail interaction force in a frequency range of 20-200 Hz. Numerical simulations using the boundary element method confirmed the cavity resonance effect and the numerical results agreed well with the data. Based on the calibrated numerical model, three noise reduction measures, i.e., adding a horizontal baffle in the interior cavity, narrowing

  6. Listening level of music through headphones in train car noise environments.

    PubMed

    Shimokura, Ryota; Soeta, Yoshiharu

    2012-09-01

    Although portable music devices are useful for passing time on trains, exposure to music using headphones for long periods carries the risk of damaging hearing acuity. The aim of this study is to examine the listening level of music through headphones in the noisy environment of a train car. Eight subjects adjusted the volume to an optimum level (L(music)) in a simulated noisy train car environment. In Experiment I, the effects of noise level (L(train)) and type of train noise (rolling, squealing, impact, and resonance) were examined. Spectral and temporal characteristics were found to be different according to the train noise type. In Experiment II, the effects of L(train) and type of music (five vocal and five instrumental music) were examined. Each music type had a different pitch strength and spectral centroid, and each was evaluated by φ(1) and W(φ(0)), respectively. These were classified as factors of the autocorrelation function (ACF) of the music. Results showed that L(music) increased as L(train) increased in both experiments, while the type of music greatly influenced L(music). The type of train noise, however, only slightly influenced L(music). L(music) can be estimated using L(train) and the ACF factors φ(1) and W(φ(0)).

  7. The Effects of Different Training Backgrounds on VO2 Responses to All-Out and Supramaximal Constant-Velocity Running Bouts

    PubMed Central

    de Aguiar, Rafael Alves; Lisbôa, Felipe Domingos; Turnes, Tiago; Cruz, Rogério Santos de Oliveira; Caputo, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the impact of different training backgrounds on pulmonary oxygen uptake (V̇O2) responses during all-out and supramaximal constant-velocity running exercises, nine sprinters (SPRs) and eight endurance runners (ENDs) performed an incremental test for maximal aerobic velocity (MAV) assessment and two supramaximal running exercises (1-min all-out test and constant-velocity exercise). The V̇O2 responses were continuously determined during the tests (K4b2, Cosmed, Italy). A mono-exponential function was used to describe the V̇O2 onset kinetics during constant-velocity test at 110%MAV, while during 1-min all-out test the peak of V̇O2 (V̇O2peak), the time to achieve the V̇O2peak (tV̇O2peak) and the V̇O2 decrease at last of the test was determined to characterize the V̇O2 response. During constant-velocity exercise, ENDs had a faster V̇O2 kinetics than SPRs (12.7 ± 3.0 vs. 19.3 ± 5.6 s; p < 0.001). During the 1-min all-out test, ENDs presented slower tV̇O2peak than SPRs (40.6 ± 6.8 and 28.8 ± 6.4 s, respectively; p = 0.002) and had a similar V̇O2peak relative to the V̇O2max (88 ± 8 and 83 ± 6%, respectively; p = 0.157). Finally, SPRs was the only group that presented a V̇O2 decrease in the last half of the test (-1.8 ± 2.3 and 3.5 ± 2.3 ml.kg-1.min-1, respectively; p < 0.001). In summary, SPRs have a faster V̇O2 response when maximum intensity is required and a high maximum intensity during all-out running exercise seems to lead to a higher decrease in V̇O2 in the last part of the exercise. PMID:26252001

  8. Training at the Gym, Training for Life: Creating Better Versions of the Self Through Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Doğan, Ceren

    2015-01-01

    The present study draws on Scott’s (2011) notion of the Re-Inventive Institution and explores how gym members make sense and give meaning to their exercise regime. Overall, it is argued that for many participants gym exercise is more than physical training; it is also training for life. Based on a thematic analysis of 32 semi-structured interviews it is argued that gym workout is a means to create better versions of the self on mainly three levels. First, gym participants perceive themselves to be efficient and productive in general. Second, gym training is believed to increase the control they have over their lives. Third, gym members associate their gym workout with amplified emotional resilience, believing that fitness workout makes them not only fitter in a physical sense but also fitter and better equipped in a psychological sense. Surprisingly, a small group of regular gym users displayed more critical sentiments and distanced themselves from the images and values the gym stands for. The results of this study can be linked to broader political discourses on health and fitness that make use of corporate managerial vocabularies and are based on ideals of rationalization and efficiency. PMID:27247669

  9. Training at the Gym, Training for Life: Creating Better Versions of the Self Through Exercise.

    PubMed

    Doğan, Ceren

    2015-08-01

    The present study draws on Scott's (2011) notion of the Re-Inventive Institution and explores how gym members make sense and give meaning to their exercise regime. Overall, it is argued that for many participants gym exercise is more than physical training; it is also training for life. Based on a thematic analysis of 32 semi-structured interviews it is argued that gym workout is a means to create better versions of the self on mainly three levels. First, gym participants perceive themselves to be efficient and productive in general. Second, gym training is believed to increase the control they have over their lives. Third, gym members associate their gym workout with amplified emotional resilience, believing that fitness workout makes them not only fitter in a physical sense but also fitter and better equipped in a psychological sense. Surprisingly, a small group of regular gym users displayed more critical sentiments and distanced themselves from the images and values the gym stands for. The results of this study can be linked to broader political discourses on health and fitness that make use of corporate managerial vocabularies and are based on ideals of rationalization and efficiency.

  10. Reducing teachers' psychological distress through a mindfulness training program.

    PubMed

    Franco, Clemente; Mañas, Israel; Cangas, Adolfo J; Moreno, Emilio; Gallego, José

    2010-11-01

    Teachers constitute one of the professional collectives most affected by psychological problems. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study is to examine the efficacy of a mindfulness training programme to reduce psychological distress in a group of teachers. The sample comprised 68 teachers of Secondary School Education, from various public schools; half of them formed the experimental group, and the another half the control group. The levels of psychological distress were measured, in both groups, by the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) before and after the application of the programme. Statistical analysis shows the significant reduction of three general measures of psychological distress (Global Severity Index, Positive Symptom Distress Index, and Positive Symptom Total), as well in all its dimensions (somatization, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensibility, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism), in the experimental group compared with the control group. Follow-up measures show that these results were maintained for four months after termination of the intervention in the experimental group.

  11. Changing Instructional Practices through Technology Training, Part 2 of 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seamon, Mary

    2001-01-01

    This second of a two-part article introducing the steps in a school district's teacher professional development model discusses steps three through six: Web page or project; Internet Discovery (with its five phases-question, search, interpretation, composition, sharing); Cyberinquiry; and WebQuests. Three examples are included: Web Page…

  12. Building Community through Social Partnerships around Vocational Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billett, Stephen; Seddon, Terri

    2004-01-01

    Social partnerships that respond to and address local needs are becoming an increasingly significant feature of public policy, particularly in Europe and more recently Australia. The trend is also being actively promoted through the development planning agencies such as the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, UNESCO and World…

  13. Community Capacity Building as a vital mechanism for enhancing the growth and efficacy of a sustainable scientific software ecosystem: experiences running a real-time bi-coastal "Open Science for Synthesis" Training Institute for young Earth and Environmental scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schildhauer, M.; Jones, M. B.; Bolker, B.; Lenhardt, W. C.; Hampton, S. E.; Idaszak, R.; Rebich Hespanha, S.; Ahalt, S.; Christopherson, L.

    2014-12-01

    Continuing advances in computational capabilities, access to Big Data, and virtual collaboration technologies are creating exciting new opportunities for accomplishing Earth science research at finer resolutions, with much broader scope, using powerful modeling and analytical approaches that were unachievable just a few years ago. Yet, there is a perceptible lag in the abilities of the research community to capitalize on these new possibilities, due to lacking the relevant skill-sets, especially with regards to multi-disciplinary and integrative investigations that involve active collaboration. UC Santa Barbara's National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS), and the University of North Carolina's Renaissance Computing Institute (RENCI), were recipients of NSF OCI S2I2 "Conceptualization awards", charged with helping define the needs of the research community relative to enabling science and education through "sustained software infrastructure". Over the course of our activities, a consistent request from Earth scientists was for "better training in software that enables more effective, reproducible research." This community-based feedback led to creation of an "Open Science for Synthesis" Institute— a innovative, three-week, bi-coastal training program for early career researchers. We provided a mix of lectures, hands-on exercises, and working group experience on topics including: data discovery and preservation; code creation, management, sharing, and versioning; scientific workflow documentation and reproducibility; statistical and machine modeling techniques; virtual collaboration mechanisms; and methods for communicating scientific results. All technologies and quantitative tools presented were suitable for advancing open, collaborative, and reproducible synthesis research. In this talk, we will report on the lessons learned from running this ambitious training program, that involved coordinating classrooms among two remote sites, and

  14. Investigating the relationship between run-off-the-road crash frequency and traffic flow through different functional forms.

    PubMed

    Roque, Carlos; Cardoso, João Lourenço

    2014-02-01

    Crash prediction models play a major role in highway safety analysis. These models can be used for various purposes, such as predicting the number of road crashes or establishing relationships between these crashes and different covariates. However, the appropriate choice for the functional form of these models is generally not discussed in research literature on road safety. In case of run-off-the-road crashes, empirical evidence and logical considerations lead to conclusion that the relationship between expected frequency and traffic flow is not monotonously increasing.

  15. Improving human capabilities for combined manual handling tasks through a short and intensive physical training program.

    PubMed

    Genaidy, A M; Gupta, T; Alshedi, A

    1990-11-01

    The primary objectives of this study were to test whether the muscular endurance, muscular strength, cardiovascular endurance, and workload perception of individuals engaged in combined manual handling tasks could be improved through a short and intensive physical training program. Three groups were formed to achieve the objectives of this study, and five subjects participated in each group. Two groups were trained using the concept of progressive resistance exercise; one group used the concept of six-repetition maximum (6 RM) while the other group followed the ten-repetition maximum (10 RM) protocol. The third group was used as a control group to monitor the effectiveness of the training groups. The training groups required subjects' attendance at 16 sessions for a period of 6 weeks. The control group performed the same tests given to the training group twice, separated by a period of 6 weeks. Endurance time, heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion, and static and dynamic strength were the response variables. Based on the results of this study, the following conclusions could be made: (1) it is possible to significantly improve muscular endurance, muscular strength, and cardiovascular endurance through the short and intensive training protocols examined in this investigation (the 10 RM training protocol, however, yielded better improvement in human physical capability than the 6 RM training protocol); and (2) for a fixed work load, endurance time can increase without changing job demand perception. PMID:2085166

  16. Effects of Training on Recognition of Musical Instruments Presented through Cochlear Implant Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Virginia D.; Oleson, Jacob; Jiang, Dingfeng; Gfeller, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Background The simulation of the CI (cochlear implant) signal presents a degraded representation of each musical instrument, which makes recognition difficult. Purpose To examine the efficiency and effectiveness of three types of training on recognition of musical instruments as presented through simulations of the sounds transmitted through a CI. Research Design Participants were randomly assigned to one of three training conditions: repeated exposure, feedback, and direct instruction. Study Sample Sixty-six adults with normal hearing. Intervention Each participant completed three training sessions per week, over a five-week time period, in which they listened to the CI simulations of eight different musical instruments. Data Collection and Analysis Analyses on percent of instruments identified correctly showed statistically significant differences between recognition accuracy of the three training conditions (p< .01). Results those assigned to the direct instruction group showed the greatest improvement over the five-week training period as well as sustained improvement after training. The feedback group achieved the next highest level of recognition accuracy. The repeated exposure group showed modest improvement during the first three-week time period, but no subsequent improvements. Conclusions These results indicate that different types of training are differentially effective with regard to improving recognition of musical instruments presented through a degraded signal, which has practical implications for the auditory rehabilitation of persons who use cochlear implants. PMID:19927684

  17. Citizenship Development through Vocational Training: British Columbia Rural Youth Training School, 1947-1959

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mclean, Scott; Gondek, Jyoti

    2012-01-01

    This article inspires critical and creative thinking about the promotion of citizenship development through programmes of study designed primarily to enhance adults' vocational skills. It does so through presenting an empirical case study of an important adult education programme delivered by the Department of University Extension at the…

  18. Running for Your Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, George M.

    1979-01-01

    One way of coping with stress is through regular exercise. The author suggests jogging, or running, and presents some basic rules and suggestions for anyone who is about to take up this method of exercise. (KC)

  19. Reducing the size of the human physiological blind spot through training.

    PubMed

    Miller, Paul A; Wallis, Guy; Bex, Peter J; Arnold, Derek H

    2015-08-31

    The physiological blind spot refers to a zone of functional blindness all normally sighted people have in each eye, due to an absence of photoreceptors where the optic nerve passes through the surface of the retina. Here we report that the functional size of the physiological blind spot can be shrunk through training to distinguish direction signals at the blind spot periphery. Training on twenty successive weekdays improved sensitivity to both direction and colour, suggesting a generalizable benefit. Training on one blind spot, however, did not transfer to the blind spot in the untrained eye, ruling out mediation via a generic practice effect; nor could training benefits be attributed to eye movements, which were monitored to ensure stable fixation. These data suggest that training enhances the response gains of neurons with receptive fields that partially overlap, or abut, the physiological blind spot, thereby enhancing sensitivity to weak signals originating primarily from within the functionally-defined region of blindness [1-3]. Our results have important implications for situations where localised blindness has been acquired through damage to components of the visual system [4,5], and support proposals that these situations might be improved through perceptual training [5-7]. PMID:26325131

  20. Reducing the size of the human physiological blind spot through training.

    PubMed

    Miller, Paul A; Wallis, Guy; Bex, Peter J; Arnold, Derek H

    2015-08-31

    The physiological blind spot refers to a zone of functional blindness all normally sighted people have in each eye, due to an absence of photoreceptors where the optic nerve passes through the surface of the retina. Here we report that the functional size of the physiological blind spot can be shrunk through training to distinguish direction signals at the blind spot periphery. Training on twenty successive weekdays improved sensitivity to both direction and colour, suggesting a generalizable benefit. Training on one blind spot, however, did not transfer to the blind spot in the untrained eye, ruling out mediation via a generic practice effect; nor could training benefits be attributed to eye movements, which were monitored to ensure stable fixation. These data suggest that training enhances the response gains of neurons with receptive fields that partially overlap, or abut, the physiological blind spot, thereby enhancing sensitivity to weak signals originating primarily from within the functionally-defined region of blindness [1-3]. Our results have important implications for situations where localised blindness has been acquired through damage to components of the visual system [4,5], and support proposals that these situations might be improved through perceptual training [5-7].

  1. Myocardial work during endurance training and resistance training: a daily comparison, from workout session 1 through completion of cardiac rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jenny; Hubbard, Matthew; McCullough-Shock, Tiffany; Simms, Kay; Cheng, Dunlei; Hartman, Julie; Strauss, Danielle; Anderson, Valerie; Lawrence, Anne; Malorzo, Emily

    2010-04-01

    Patients in cardiac rehabilitation are typically advised to complete a period of supervised endurance training before beginning resistance training. In this study, however, we compared the peak rate-pressure product (RPP, a calculated indicator of myocardial work) of patients during two types of exercise-treadmill walking and chest press-from workout session 1 through completion of cardiac rehabilitation. Twenty-one patients (4 women and 17 men, aged 35 to 70 years) were enrolled in the study; they were referred for cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial infarction, percutaneous coronary intervention, or both. The participants did treadmill walking and chest press exercises during each workout session. Peak values for heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were recorded, and the peak RPP was calculated (peak HR multiply sign in box peak SBP). Paired t tests were used to compare the data collected during the two types of exercise across 19 workout sessions. The mean peak values for HR, SBP, and RPP were lower during resistance training than during endurance training; the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05), with only one exception (the SBP for session 1). Across all 19 workout sessions, the participants performed more myocardial work, as indicated by the peak RPP, during treadmill walking than during the chest press.

  2. Revitalizing Young Adults through Leadership Training at Victory Presbyterian Church, Ilsan, Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noh, Kyeong Cheon

    2009-01-01

    This study has the aim of examining the effects obtained mainly through the leadership development process through small group dynamics for the purpose of making the youth group church, vitalized. The church reached the conclusion that the important problem for continuous church development was how to find a trained leader and to help the…

  3. Knowledge Is Power: Empowering the Autism Community through Parent-Professional Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Mary M.; Ackerman-Spain, Karen; Williams, Ellen U.; Ryley, Anderia T.

    2011-01-01

    Partnerships for Autism through Collaborative Community Choice and Empowerment (Project PACE) was developed to empower parents and professionals (e.g., general or special education teachers, therapists, social workers, school counselors, psychologists) through training and education. Project PACE was designed to provide participants with basic…

  4. Enhancing Digital Fluency through a Training Program for Creative Problem Solving Using Computer Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, SugHee; Chung, KwangSik; Yu, HeonChang

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a training program for creative problem solving based on computer programming. The proposed program will encourage students to solve real-life problems through a creative thinking spiral related to cognitive skills with computer programming. With the goal of enhancing digital fluency through this proposed…

  5. Estimation of Recent and Ancient Inbreeding in a Small Endogamous Tunisian Community Through Genomic Runs of Homozygosity.

    PubMed

    Ben Halim, Nizar; Nagara, Majdi; Regnault, Béatrice; Hsouna, Sana; Lasram, Khaled; Kefi, Rym; Azaiez, Hela; Khemira, Laroussi; Saidane, Rachid; Ammar, Slim Ben; Besbes, Ghazi; Weil, Dominique; Petit, Christine; Abdelhak, Sonia; Romdhane, Lilia

    2015-11-01

    Runs of homozygosity (ROHs) are extended genomic regions of homozygous genotypes that record populations' mating patterns in the past. We performed microarray genotyping on 15 individuals from a small isolated Tunisian community. We estimated the individual and population genome-wide level of homozygosity from data on ROH above 0.5 Mb in length. We found a high average number of ROH per individual (48.2). The smallest ROH category (0.5-1.49 Mb) represents 0.93% of the whole genome, while medium-size (1.5-4.99 Mb) and long-size ROH (≥5 Mb) cover 1.18% and 0.95%, respectively. We found that genealogical individual inbreeding coefficients (Fped ) based on three- to four-generation pedigrees are not reliable indicators of the current proportion of genome-wide homozygosity inferred from ROH (FROH ) either for 0.5 or 1.5 Mb ROH length thresholds, while identity-by-descent sharing is a function of shared coancestry. This study emphasizes the effect of reproductive isolation and a prolonged practice of consanguinity that limits the genetic heterogeneity. It also provides evidence of both recent and ancient parental relatedness contribution to the current level of genome-wide homozygosity in the studied population. These findings may be useful for evaluation of long-term effects of inbreeding on human health and for future applications of ROHs in identifying recessive susceptibility genes.

  6. Estimation of Recent and Ancient Inbreeding in a Small Endogamous Tunisian Community Through Genomic Runs of Homozygosity.

    PubMed

    Ben Halim, Nizar; Nagara, Majdi; Regnault, Béatrice; Hsouna, Sana; Lasram, Khaled; Kefi, Rym; Azaiez, Hela; Khemira, Laroussi; Saidane, Rachid; Ammar, Slim Ben; Besbes, Ghazi; Weil, Dominique; Petit, Christine; Abdelhak, Sonia; Romdhane, Lilia

    2015-11-01

    Runs of homozygosity (ROHs) are extended genomic regions of homozygous genotypes that record populations' mating patterns in the past. We performed microarray genotyping on 15 individuals from a small isolated Tunisian community. We estimated the individual and population genome-wide level of homozygosity from data on ROH above 0.5 Mb in length. We found a high average number of ROH per individual (48.2). The smallest ROH category (0.5-1.49 Mb) represents 0.93% of the whole genome, while medium-size (1.5-4.99 Mb) and long-size ROH (≥5 Mb) cover 1.18% and 0.95%, respectively. We found that genealogical individual inbreeding coefficients (Fped ) based on three- to four-generation pedigrees are not reliable indicators of the current proportion of genome-wide homozygosity inferred from ROH (FROH ) either for 0.5 or 1.5 Mb ROH length thresholds, while identity-by-descent sharing is a function of shared coancestry. This study emphasizes the effect of reproductive isolation and a prolonged practice of consanguinity that limits the genetic heterogeneity. It also provides evidence of both recent and ancient parental relatedness contribution to the current level of genome-wide homozygosity in the studied population. These findings may be useful for evaluation of long-term effects of inbreeding on human health and for future applications of ROHs in identifying recessive susceptibility genes. PMID:26420437

  7. Maximizing lipocalin prediction through balanced and diversified training set and decision fusion.

    PubMed

    Nath, Abhigyan; Subbiah, Karthikeyan

    2015-12-01

    Lipocalins are short in sequence length and perform several important biological functions. These proteins are having less than 20% sequence similarity among paralogs. Experimentally identifying them is an expensive and time consuming process. The computational methods based on the sequence similarity for allocating putative members to this family are also far elusive due to the low sequence similarity existing among the members of this family. Consequently, the machine learning methods become a viable alternative for their prediction by using the underlying sequence/structurally derived features as the input. Ideally, any machine learning based prediction method must be trained with all possible variations in the input feature vector (all the sub-class input patterns) to achieve perfect learning. A near perfect learning can be achieved by training the model with diverse types of input instances belonging to the different regions of the entire input space. Furthermore, the prediction performance can be improved through balancing the training set as the imbalanced data sets will tend to produce the prediction bias towards majority class and its sub-classes. This paper is aimed to achieve (i) the high generalization ability without any classification bias through the diversified and balanced training sets as well as (ii) enhanced the prediction accuracy by combining the results of individual classifiers with an appropriate fusion scheme. Instead of creating the training set randomly, we have first used the unsupervised Kmeans clustering algorithm to create diversified clusters of input patterns and created the diversified and balanced training set by selecting an equal number of patterns from each of these clusters. Finally, probability based classifier fusion scheme was applied on boosted random forest algorithm (which produced greater sensitivity) and K nearest neighbour algorithm (which produced greater specificity) to achieve the enhanced predictive performance

  8. Public health laboratory systems development in East Africa through training in laboratory management and field epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Mosha, Fausta; Oundo, Joseph; Mukanga, David; Njenga, Kariuki; Nsubuga, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Laboratories are integral to the delivery of quality health care and for public health functions; however laboratory systems and services are often neglected in resource-poor settings such as the East African region. In order to sustainably strengthen national laboratory systems in resource-poor countries, there is a need to train laboratory personnel to work in clinical as well as public health laboratories. In 2004,Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, and South Sudan began training public health laboratory workers jointly with field epidemiologists in the Kenya Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP), and later through the Tanzania FELTP, as a strategy to strengthen public health laboratories. These programs train laboratory epidemiologists through a two-year public health leadership development course, and also offer various types of short course training for frontline staff. The FELTP laboratory graduates in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and South Sudan are working in their respective countries to strengthen public health laboratory systems while the short course participants provide a pool of frontline implementers with the capacity to support the lower tiers of health systems, as well as serve as surge capacity for the regions and the national level. Through training competent public health laboratory workers, the East African ministries of health, in collaboration with other regional partners and stakeholders are now engaged in developing and implementing a holistic approach that will guarantee an overall strengthening of the health system by using well-trained public health laboratory leaders to drive the process. Strengthening public health laboratory medicine in East Africa is critical to improve health-care systems. The experience with the FELTP model in East Africa is a step in the right direction towards ensuring a stronger role for the laboratory in public health. PMID:22359702

  9. The water that runs within us - how Geography can be learned through volcanic calderas, fumaroles and hot springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Ana; Luís Gaspar, João

    2014-05-01

    "Look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better." Albert Einstein Teaching Geography within the classroom walls is always a challenge, especially if it is done in S. Miguel Island. Its breath-taking scenery invites us to dive into the wilderness and learn from it directly! Located in the Atlantic Ocean, the Azorean Archipelago is a privileged volcanic region, which makes it an open and unique resource for geosciences lesson to anyone, especially for 10th grade students whose curricula is not based on Geography as the main subject. The challenge, for their Geography teacher is, therefore, greater. Being an islander makes us sometimes forget the importance of one of the most basic resources - water. My students asked me "It's everywhere we look, so why should we bother?" when they were told the theme of our project was water. The more obvious it is, the harder it gets - making them aware of how privileged they are by living in a region where rare natural phenomena occur, such as hot springs and geothermal spring. Moreover, water is a content of their two-year curricula. Being a major topic on the 10th grade curricula, with me as their Geography teacher, and engaging in the poster session "Science in tomorrow's classroom" (during the GIFT 2014 Workshop), as well as the choice of our main theme "The water that runs within us", seem like natural stages that had to happen, as in the cycle of water. Therefore, for two years, experimental activities will take place both inside and outside of the classroom in order to study the availability of water in lakes, streams, underwater and hydrothermal reservoirs, as well as to enhance its importance for geothermal centrals, but also to local tourism as a main income of the economy of the region. Natural hazards associated with water will be studied on the second year of this project. Nothing of this would be possible without the cooperation of certain local agents, such as the Centre for Volcanology and

  10. Megathrust Slip and the Care and Feeding of the Subduction Channel Through which the Seismogenic Zone Runs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, D. W.; Kirby, S. H.; Keranen, K. M.; Wells, R. E.; Blakely, R. J.; Michael, F.; von Huene, R.

    2007-12-01

    HABITATS OF GREAT OFFSHORE EARTHQUAKES: High-magnitude earthquakes (Mw = or >8.5) and trans- oceanic tsunamis commonly nucleate along subduction zones (SZ) bordered by laterally continuous, sediment- flooded trenches. Examples include: south-central Chile (1960 Mw=9.5), eastern Alaska (1964 Mw=9.2), Sumatra (2004, Mw=9.1), Cascadia (historic 1700 Mw=9.0), Colombia (1906 Mw=8.8), Sumatra (historic 1883, Mw=8.8), west-central Aleutian (1965 Mw=8.7), central Aleutian (1986, Mw=8.7), Sumatra (2005 Mw=8.6), and Nankai (historic 1707, Mw=8.5). In thickness, sediment entering these SZ ranges from 2 to 3 km and the column is axially continuous for more than 800 km. The depositional pile is typically the clastic beds of a trench-axis turbidite wedge and underlying fan and abyssal plain deposits that accrued seaward of the trench axis. Great rupture events also occur at subduction zones receiving little sediment, for example the Kamchatka (1952, Mw=9.0) and the north Chile SZs (historic 1868 Mw=8.9). Both SZs are areas of rapid upper plate thinning, subsidence, and truncation effected by subduction erosion. WORKINGS OF THE SUBDUCTION CHANNEL (SC): Beneath the submerged forearc, the SC functions to transport subducted ocean floor sediment and tectonically eroded forearc debris toward and into the mantle. The SC is the lowest structural unit containing upper plate crustal material. It hosts the seismogenic zone, which probably runs along the SC's upper boundary commonly referred to as the interplate decollement. A thick, laterally continuous SC structurally smoothes or simplifies the surface of the interplate decollement and sets up conditions for lengthy, high moment-release ruptures. Maximum slip is commonly concentrated beneath the thinned crust underlying forearc basins. These structures, in positive feed-back, are likely deepened co- seismically by high-slip-rate enhanced basal subduction erosion. The detached material lowers the effective stress on the decollement and

  11. Megathrust Slip and the Care and Feeding of the Subduction Channel Through which the Seismogenic Zone Runs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, D. W.; Kirby, S. H.; Keranen, K. M.; Wells, R. E.; Blakely, R. J.; Michael, F.; von Huene, R.

    2004-12-01

    HABITATS OF GREAT OFFSHORE EARTHQUAKES: High-magnitude earthquakes (Mw = or >8.5) and trans- oceanic tsunamis commonly nucleate along subduction zones (SZ) bordered by laterally continuous, sediment- flooded trenches. Examples include: south-central Chile (1960 Mw=9.5), eastern Alaska (1964 Mw=9.2), Sumatra (2004, Mw=9.1), Cascadia (historic 1700 Mw=9.0), Colombia (1906 Mw=8.8), Sumatra (historic 1883, Mw=8.8), west-central Aleutian (1965 Mw=8.7), central Aleutian (1986, Mw=8.7), Sumatra (2005 Mw=8.6), and Nankai (historic 1707, Mw=8.5). In thickness, sediment entering these SZ ranges from 2 to 3 km and the column is axially continuous for more than 800 km. The depositional pile is typically the clastic beds of a trench-axis turbidite wedge and underlying fan and abyssal plain deposits that accrued seaward of the trench axis. Great rupture events also occur at subduction zones receiving little sediment, for example the Kamchatka (1952, Mw=9.0) and the north Chile SZs (historic 1868 Mw=8.9). Both SZs are areas of rapid upper plate thinning, subsidence, and truncation effected by subduction erosion. WORKINGS OF THE SUBDUCTION CHANNEL (SC): Beneath the submerged forearc, the SC functions to transport subducted ocean floor sediment and tectonically eroded forearc debris toward and into the mantle. The SC is the lowest structural unit containing upper plate crustal material. It hosts the seismogenic zone, which probably runs along the SC's upper boundary commonly referred to as the interplate decollement. A thick, laterally continuous SC structurally smoothes or simplifies the surface of the interplate decollement and sets up conditions for lengthy, high moment-release ruptures. Maximum slip is commonly concentrated beneath the thinned crust underlying forearc basins. These structures, in positive feed-back, are likely deepened co- seismically by high-slip-rate enhanced basal subduction erosion. The detached material lowers the effective stress on the decollement and

  12. Social Skills Training in Natural Play Settings: Educating through the Physical Theory to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aljadeff-Abergel, Elian; Ayvazo, Shiri; Eldar, Eitan

    2012-01-01

    Social skills are prerequisite to academic performance and success in school. Training of these skills is particularly important for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) who have social deficits and struggle maintaining appropriate and accepted behavior in and outside of the classroom. Educating through the "physical" model is a…

  13. Workforce Skills Development and Engagement in Training through Skill Sets: Literature Review. Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, John; Bowman, Kaye; Crean, David; Ranshaw, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    This literature review examines the available research on skill sets. It provides background for a larger research project "Workforce skills development and engagement in training through skill sets," the report of which will be released early next year. This paper outlines the origin of skill sets and explains the difference between skill sets…

  14. Bulletin of Air Pollution Training Courses, July 1970 through June 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Issued by the National Air Pollution Control Administration (NAPCA), this directory covers program and course offerings through the Institute for Air Pollution Training (IAPT), Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Officers of the Triangle Universities (Duke, North Carolina, North Carolina State) Consortium on Air Pollution are listed first,…

  15. The Education of Retail Managers through Management Training Programs in Apparel Retail Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Irene M.

    A study was conducted to determine the nature and extent of continuing education and management training programs used by apparel retail companies and to document program content, objectives, methods, assessment techniques, and evaluation procedures. Information was gathered through qualitative research, using the multiple-case study method, with…

  16. 49 CFR 236.326 - Mechanical locking removed or disarranged; requirement for permitting train movements through...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mechanical locking removed or disarranged... § 236.326 Mechanical locking removed or disarranged; requirement for permitting train movements through interlocking. When mechanical locking of interlocking machine is being changed or is removed from the...

  17. 49 CFR 236.326 - Mechanical locking removed or disarranged; requirement for permitting train movements through...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mechanical locking removed or disarranged... § 236.326 Mechanical locking removed or disarranged; requirement for permitting train movements through interlocking. When mechanical locking of interlocking machine is being changed or is removed from the...

  18. 49 CFR 236.326 - Mechanical locking removed or disarranged; requirement for permitting train movements through...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mechanical locking removed or disarranged... § 236.326 Mechanical locking removed or disarranged; requirement for permitting train movements through interlocking. When mechanical locking of interlocking machine is being changed or is removed from the...

  19. 49 CFR 236.326 - Mechanical locking removed or disarranged; requirement for permitting train movements through...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mechanical locking removed or disarranged... § 236.326 Mechanical locking removed or disarranged; requirement for permitting train movements through interlocking. When mechanical locking of interlocking machine is being changed or is removed from the...

  20. 49 CFR 236.326 - Mechanical locking removed or disarranged; requirement for permitting train movements through...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mechanical locking removed or disarranged... § 236.326 Mechanical locking removed or disarranged; requirement for permitting train movements through interlocking. When mechanical locking of interlocking machine is being changed or is removed from the...

  1. Gaining Insight to Transfer of Training through the Lens of Social Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisweiler, Silke; Nikitopoulos, Alexandra; Netzel, Janine; Frey, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with the question under which conditions people change their behavior through vocational trainings or not. Following the demand of more theory-driven investigations in transfer research (Blume, Ford, Baldwin, & Huang, 2010) we wish to add the perspective of social psychology. We therefore illustrate how well-known concepts from…

  2. Beyond Parental Control and Authoritarian Parenting Style: Understanding Chinese Parenting through the Cultural Notion of Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Ruth K.

    1994-01-01

    Examined the child-rearing practices of immigrant Chinese and European American mothers of preschool children through questionnaires that measured parental control, authoritative-authoritarian parenting style, and the Chinese concept of child training. Chinese mothers scored significantly higher than European American mothers on the training…

  3. Promoting Self-Regulation through School-Based Martial Arts Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakes, Kimberley D.; Hoyt, William T.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of school-based Tae Kwon Do training on self-regulatory abilities was examined. A self-regulation framework including three domains (cognitive, affective, and physical) was presented. Children (N = 207) from kindergarten through Grade 5 were randomly assigned by homeroom class to either the intervention (martial arts) group or a…

  4. STS-6 crewmembers go through a training exercise in the shuttle mock-up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    STS-6 crew members go through a training exercise in the full-scale engineering Shuttle mockup. Their seating configuration reflects that of launch and landing phases aboard the shuttle Challenger. The front stations are occupied by Astronauts Paul J. Weitz (left), commander, and Karol J. Bobko, pilot. In the rear seats are Astronauts Story Musgrave and Donald H. Peterson, both mission specialists.

  5. Visions 2020.2: Student Views on Transforming Education and Training through Advanced Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Departments of Commerce and Education (who co-chair the NSTC Working Group) and NetDay formed a partnership aimed at analyzing K-12 student views about technology for learning. These views are analyzed in this second report, "Visions 2020.2: Student Views on Transforming Education and Training Through Advanced Technologies." In…

  6. Enhancing Connectedness Through Peer Training for Community-Dwelling Older People: A Person Centred Approach.

    PubMed

    Burmeister, Oliver K; Bernoth, Maree; Dietsch, Elaine; Cleary, Michelle

    2016-06-01

    Social interaction and connectedness is important to the mental health and wellbeing of older people. The aim of this research study was to facilitate and increase opportunities for social connectedness for older people living in regional areas through the use of technology training. Weekly technology training sessions were conducted at a Seniors Citizen's Club with a peer trainer (an experienced, retired computer teacher) and sessions were attended not only by the six study participants, but also by other club members, with up to 15 club members participating in sessions. Data analysis involved all documents generated by the project, including the individual interviews, researcher observations of training sessions, reports from the peer trainer and weekly diaries maintained by participants. Findings demonstrated that computer training at the Senior Citizens Club helped participants build group cohesion and to form tiered connections with partners, family, and friends with whom they no longer live. When the trainer is seen as a peer, and training is person-centred, older people are more receptive to learning, exploring, and experimenting with technology. Although only six people were involved in the in-depth evaluation part of the study, voluntary training with the trainer in the absence of any funding continues even to this present time. The outcome of this research reinforces the potential for technology facilitated tiered connectivity to enhance the quality of life for older people living in regional and rural Australia. PMID:27050818

  7. A river runs through it: how autophagy, senescence, and phagocytosis could be linked to phospholipase D by Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Cambronero, Julian; Kantonen, Samuel

    2014-11-01

    Neutrophils and macrophages are professional phagocytic cells, extremely efficient at the process of engulfing and killing bacteria. Autophagy is a similar process, by which phagosomes recycle internal cell structures during nutrient shortages. Some pathogens are able to subvert the autophagy process, funneling nutrients for their own use and for the host's detriment. Additionally, a failure to mount an efficient autophagy is a deviation on the cell's part from normal cellular function into cell senescence and cessation of the cell cycle. In spite of these reasons, the mechanism of autophagy and senescence in leukocytes has been under studied. We advance here the concept of a common thread underlying both autophagy and senescence, which implicates PLD. Such a PLD-based autophagy mechanism would involve two positive inputs: the generation of PA to help the initiation of the autophagosome and a protein-protein interaction between PLD and PKC that leads to enhanced PA. One negative input is also involved in this process: down-regulation of PLD gene expression by mTOR. Additionally, a dual positive/negative input plays a role in PLD-mediated autophagy, β-catenin increase of autophagy through PLD up-regulation, and a subsequent feedback termination by Dvl degradation in case of excessive autophagy. An abnormal PLD-mTOR-PKC-β-catenin/Wnt network function could lead to faulty autophagy and a means for opportunistic pathogens to survive inside of the cell.

  8. Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice.

    PubMed

    Goh, Jorming; Ladiges, Warren

    2015-12-02

    Voluntary wheel running in the mouse is used to assess physical performance and endurance and to model exercise training as a way to enhance health. Wheel running is a voluntary activity in contrast to other experimental exercise models in mice, which rely on aversive stimuli to force active movement. This protocol consists of allowing mice to run freely on the open surface of a slanted, plastic saucer-shaped wheel placed inside a standard mouse cage. Rotations are electronically transmitted to a USB hub so that frequency and rate of running can be captured via a software program for data storage and analysis for variable time periods. Mice are individually housed so that accurate recordings can be made for each animal. Factors such as mouse strain, gender, age, and individual motivation, which affect running activity, must be considered in the design of experiments using voluntary wheel running.

  9. Training Initiative for Embedded Software Engineers through Collaborative Research Project and Open Educational Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Rieko; Yamamoto, Masaki; Unagami, Tomoaki; Mori, Takao; Hond, Shinya; Ichiba, Toshiyuki; Takase, Hideki; Takada, Hiroaki

    The authors developed two types of human resource development program consisting of a) one-year collaborative research project, and b) open education course, aimed to train embedded software engineers to high technical standards. In the collaborative research oriented approach, the authors train engineers through research project at Nagoya University. In the open education course, the authors reflect and adopt the latest outcome of the aforementioned research project to one or two days open education course to educate engineers. This allowed the authors to design and provide several courses aimed to train engineers with the latest contents that reflect the rapid technical advances in the embedded software industry. The courses were highly evaluated by the participants.

  10. Enhancing nonhuman primate care and welfare through the use of positive reinforcement training.

    PubMed

    Laule, Gail; Whittaker, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are excellent subjects for the enhancement of care and welfare through training. The broad range of species offers tremendous behavioral diversity, and individual primates show varying abilities to cope with the stressors of captivity, which differ depending on the venue. Biomedical facilities include small single cages, pair housing, and breeding corrals with large social groups. Zoos have social groupings of differing sizes, emphasizing public display and breeding. Sanctuaries have nonbreeding groups of varying sizes and often of mixed species. In every venue, the primary objective is to provide good quality care, with minimal stress. Positive reinforcement training improves care and reduces stress by enlisting a primate's voluntary cooperation with targeted activities, including both husbandry and medical procedures. It can also improve socialization, reduce abnormal behaviors, and increase species-typical behaviors. This article reviews the results already achieved with positive reinforcement training and suggests further possibilities for enhancing primate care and welfare.

  11. The Aircraft Simulation Role in Improving Flight Safety Through Control Room Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shy, Karla S.; Hageman, Jacob J.; Le, Jeanette H.; Sitz, Joel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Center uses its six-degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF) fixed-base simulations for mission control room training to improve flight safety and operations. This concept is applied to numerous flight projects such as the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV), the F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS), the X-38 Actuator Control Test (XACT), and X-43A (Hyper-X). The Dryden 6-DOF simulations are typically used through various stages of a project, from design to ground tests. The roles of these simulations have expanded to support control room training, reinforcing flight safety by building control room staff proficiency. Real-time telemetry, radar, and video data are generated from flight vehicle simulation models. These data are used to drive the control room displays. Nominal static values are used to complete information where appropriate. Audio communication is also an integral part of training sessions. This simulation capability is used to train control room personnel and flight crew for nominal missions and emergency situations. Such training sessions are also opportunities to refine flight cards and control room display pages, exercise emergency procedures, and practice control room setup for the day of flight. This paper describes this technology as it is used in the X-43A and F-15 IFCS and XACT projects.

  12. Understanding the Initial Impact of Early Support and Key Working Training through the Voices of Trainers, Training Participants, and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brito, Ana Teresa; Lindsay, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    An exploratory study is reported of the delivery of the Early Support and Key Working (ES&KW) training program in England for multiagency professionals and parents. This qualitative study examined how ES&KW training principles and content relate to contemporary pillars in early childhood intervention; how this training is structured to…

  13. Capacity Building through Focus Group Training in Community-based Participatory Research

    PubMed Central

    Amico, KL; Wieland, ML; Weis, JA; Sullivan, SM; Nigon, JA; Sia, IG

    2014-01-01

    Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR) emphasizes collaborative efforts among communities and academics where all members are equitable contributors. Capacity building through training in research methodology is a potentially important outcome for CBPR partnerships. Objectives To describe the logistics and lessons learned from building community research capacity for focus group moderation in the context of a CBPR partnership. Methods After orientation to CBPR principles, members of a US suburban community underwent twelve hours of interactive learning in focus group moderation by a national focus group expert. An additional eight-hour workshop promoted advanced proficiency and built on identified strengths and weaknesses. Ten focus groups were conducted at an adult education center addressing a health concern previously identified by the center’s largely immigrant and refugee population. Program evaluation was achieved through multiple observations by community and academic-based observers. Results Twenty-seven community and academic members were recruited through established relationships for training in focus group moderation, note-taking, and report compilation. Focus group training led to increased trust among community and research partners while empowering individual community members and increasing research capacity for CBPR. Conclusions Community members were trained in focus group moderation and successfully applied these skills to a CBPR project addressing a health concern in the community. This approach of equipping community members with skills in a qualitative research method promoted capacity building within a socio-culturally diverse community, while strengthening community-academic partnership. In this setting, capacity building efforts may help to ensure the success and sustainability for continued health interventions through CBPR. PMID:22267359

  14. Transforming LEND leadership training curriculum through the maternal and child health leadership competencies.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Betsy P; Couse, Leslie J; Sonnenmeier, Rae M; Kurtz, Alan; Russell, Susan M; Antal, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how the Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Leadership Competencies (v 3.0) were used to examine and improve an MCH Leadership Education in Neurodevelopmental and Related Disabilities (LEND) training curriculum for New Hampshire and Maine. Over 15 % of the nation's children experience neurodevelopmental disabilities or special health care needs and estimates suggest 1 in every 68 children is diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. Across the Unites States critical shortages of qualified MCH professionals exist, particularly in poor and rural areas. A continued investment in training interdisciplinary leaders is critical. The MCH Leadership Competencies provide an effective foundation for leadership training through identification of requisite knowledge, skills, and dispositions required of MCH leaders. This paper describes a three-step process, which began in 2010 and included utilizing the MCH Leadership Competencies as a tool to reflect on, develop, and evaluate the NH LEND leadership curriculum. Curriculum development was further supported through participation in a multi-state learning collaborative. Through a series of intentional decisions, the curriculum design of NH LEND utilized the competencies and evidence-based principles of instruction to engage trainees in the development of specific MCH content knowledge and leadership skills. The LEND network specifically, and MCH leadership programs more broadly, may benefit from the intentional use of the MCH competencies to assist in curriculum development and program evaluation, and as a means to support trainees in identifying specific leadership goals and evaluating their leadership skill development.

  15. Education and Training for Major Incidents Through Medical Response to Major Incidents-MRMI course.

    PubMed

    Samardzic, Josip; Hreckovski, Boris; Hasukic, Ismar

    2015-06-01

    Incidence of major incidents nowadays is in constant growth, especially in last decade. Main goal of all health systems is to minimize and prevent tragic outcomes of major incidents, thus reducing morbidity and mortality and psychological and physical suffering. Lessons learned from Major Incidents throughout the World point out that tragical outcomes could be avoided through adequate preparation and planning. Necessity to plan and to educate to response to Major incident is greater than ever. Finally it is legal obligation that every hospital has plan in case of Major Incident. Effective planning must incorporate: identification of risks, methods of prevention, identification of all recourses, anticipation of errors and detailed protocol of response for each participant. Knowledge and skills needed for Major incident situations must be adopted through interactive training and practical exercise ("learning by doing"). That can be achieved by field exercises and by simulation model. Simulation model has many advantages and enables simultaneous education and training of all participants; scene, transport, hospitals, communication and command which than can be evaluated through objective outcomes. The goal is to train medical staff in real time, on position they are assigned to, with available resources in conditions of Major incident.

  16. Education and Training for Major Incidents Through Medical Response to Major Incidents–MRMI course

    PubMed Central

    Samardzic, Josip; Hreckovski, Boris; Hasukic, Ismar

    2015-01-01

    Incidence of major incidents nowadays is in constant growth, especially in last decade. Main goal of all health systems is to minimize and prevent tragic outcomes of major incidents, thus reducing morbidity and mortality and psychological and physical suffering. Lessons learned from Major Incidents throughout the World point out that tragical outcomes could be avoided through adequate preparation and planning. Necessity to plan and to educate to response to Major incident is greater than ever. Finally it is legal obligation that every hospital has plan in case of Major Incident. Effective planning must incorporate: identification of risks, methods of prevention, identification of all recourses, anticipation of errors and detailed protocol of response for each participant. Knowledge and skills needed for Major incident situations must be adopted through interactive training and practical exercise („learning by doing„). That can be achieved by field exercises and by simulation model. Simulation model has many advantages and enables simultaneous education and training of all participants; scene, transport, hospitals, communication and command which than can be evaluated through objective outcomes. The goal is to train medical staff in real time, on position they are assigned to, with available resources in conditions of Major incident. PMID:26236085

  17. Improving health and safety conditions in agriculture through professional training of Florida farm labor supervisors.

    PubMed

    Morera, Maria C; Monaghan, Paul F; Tovar-Aguilar, J Antonio; Galindo-Gonzalez, Sebastian; Roka, Fritz M; Asuaje, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Because farm labor supervisors (FLSs) are responsible for ensuring safe work environments for thousands of workers, providing them with adequate knowledge is critical to preserving worker health. Yet a challenge to offering professional training to FLSs, many of whom are foreign-born and have received different levels of education in the US and abroad, is implementing a program that not only results in knowledge gains but meets the expectations of a diverse audience. By offering bilingual instruction on safety and compliance, the University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) FLS Training program is helping to improve workplace conditions and professionalize the industry. A recent evaluation of the program combined participant observation and surveys to elicit knowledge and satisfaction levels from attendees of its fall 2012 trainings. Frequency distributions and dependent- and independent-means t-tests were used to measure and compare participant outcomes. The evaluation found that attendees rated the quality of their training experience as either high or very high and scored significantly better in posttraining knowledge tests than in pretraining knowledge tests across both languages. Nonetheless, attendees of the trainings delivered in English had significantly higher posttest scores than attendees of the trainings delivered in Spanish. As a result, the program has incorporated greater standardization of content delivery and staff development. Through assessment of its program components and educational outcomes, the program has documented its effectiveness and offers a replicable approach that can serve to improve the targeted outcomes of safety and health promotion in other states.

  18. Cognitive enhancement through action video game training: great expectations require greater evidence

    PubMed Central

    Bisoglio, Joseph; Michaels, Timothy I.; Mervis, Joshua E.; Ashinoff, Brandon K.

    2014-01-01

    Action video game training may hold promise as a cognitive intervention with the potential to enhance daily functioning and remediate impairments, but this must be more thoroughly evaluated through evidence-based practices. We review current research on the effect of action video game training on visual attention and visuospatial processing, executive functions, and learning and memory. Focusing on studies that utilize strict experimental controls and synthesize behavioral and neurophysiological data, we examine whether there is sufficient evidence to support a causal relationship between action video game training and beneficial changes in cognition. Convergent lines of behavioral and neurophysiological evidence tentatively support the efficacy of training, but the magnitude and specificity of these effects remain obscure. Causal inference is thus far limited by a lack of standardized and well-controlled methodology. Considering future directions, we suggest stringent adherence to evidence-based practices and collaboration modeled after clinical trial networks. Finally, we recommend the exploration of more complex causal models, such as indirect causal relationships and interactions that may be masking true effects. PMID:24600427

  19. Cognitive enhancement through action video game training: great expectations require greater evidence.

    PubMed

    Bisoglio, Joseph; Michaels, Timothy I; Mervis, Joshua E; Ashinoff, Brandon K

    2014-01-01

    Action video game training may hold promise as a cognitive intervention with the potential to enhance daily functioning and remediate impairments, but this must be more thoroughly evaluated through evidence-based practices. We review current research on the effect of action video game training on visual attention and visuospatial processing, executive functions, and learning and memory. Focusing on studies that utilize strict experimental controls and synthesize behavioral and neurophysiological data, we examine whether there is sufficient evidence to support a causal relationship between action video game training and beneficial changes in cognition. Convergent lines of behavioral and neurophysiological evidence tentatively support the efficacy of training, but the magnitude and specificity of these effects remain obscure. Causal inference is thus far limited by a lack of standardized and well-controlled methodology. Considering future directions, we suggest stringent adherence to evidence-based practices and collaboration modeled after clinical trial networks. Finally, we recommend the exploration of more complex causal models, such as indirect causal relationships and interactions that may be masking true effects.

  20. Learning through projects in the training of biomedical engineers: an application experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambi, José Antonio Li; Peme, Carmen

    2011-09-01

    Learning through Projects in the curriculum consists of both the identification and analysis of a problem, and the design of solution, execution and evaluation strategies, with teams of students. The project is conceived as the creation of a set of strategies articulated and developed during a certain amount of time to solve a problem contextualized in situations continually changing, where the constant evaluation provides feedback to make adjustments. In 2009, Learning through Projects was applied on the subject Hospital Facilities and three intervention projects were developed in health centers. This first stage is restricted to the analysis of the aspects that are considered to be basic to the professional training: a) Context knowledge: The future biomedical engineers must be familiarized with the complex health system where they will develop their profession; b) Team work: This is one of the essential skills in the training of students, since Biomedical Engineering connects the knowledge of sciences of life with the knowledge of exact sciences and technology; c) Regulations: The activities related to the profession require the implementation of regulations; therefore, to be aware of and to apply these regulations is a fundamental aspect to be analyzed in this stage; d) Project evaluation: It refers to the elaboration and studying of co-evaluation reports, which helps to find out if Learning through Projects contributes to the training. This new line of investigation has the purpose of discovering if the application of this learning strategy makes changes in the training of students in relation to their future professional career. The findings of this ongoing investigation will allow for the analysis of the possibility of extending its application. Key words: engineering, biomedical, learning, projects, strategies.

  1. Gains in cognition through combined cognitive and physical training: the role of training dosage and severity of neurocognitive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bamidis, Panagiotis D.; Fissler, Patrick; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G.; Zilidou, Vasiliki; Konstantinidis, Evdokimos I.; Billis, Antonis S.; Romanopoulou, Evangelia; Karagianni, Maria; Beratis, Ion; Tsapanou, Angeliki; Tsilikopoulou, Georgia; Grigoriadou, Eirini; Ladas, Aristea; Kyrillidou, Athina; Tsolaki, Anthoula; Frantzidis, Christos; Sidiropoulos, Efstathios; Siountas, Anastasios; Matsi, Stavroula; Papatriantafyllou, John; Margioti, Eleni; Nika, Aspasia; Schlee, Winfried; Elbert, Thomas; Tsolaki, Magda; Vivas, Ana B.; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Physical as well as cognitive training interventions improve specific cognitive functions but effects barely generalize on global cognition. Combined physical and cognitive training may overcome this shortcoming as physical training may facilitate the neuroplastic potential which, in turn, may be guided by cognitive training. This study aimed at investigating the benefits of combined training on global cognition while assessing the effect of training dosage and exploring the role of several potential effect modifiers. In this multi-center study, 322 older adults with or without neurocognitive disorders (NCDs) were allocated to a computerized, game-based, combined physical and cognitive training group (n = 237) or a passive control group (n = 85). Training group participants were allocated to different training dosages ranging from 24 to 110 potential sessions. In a pre-post-test design, global cognition was assessed by averaging standardized performance in working memory, episodic memory and executive function tests. The intervention group increased in global cognition compared to the control group, p = 0.002, Cohen’s d = 0.31. Exploratory analysis revealed a trend for less benefits in participants with more severe NCD, p = 0.08 (cognitively healthy: d = 0.54; mild cognitive impairment: d = 0.19; dementia: d = 0.04). In participants without dementia, we found a dose-response effect of the potential number and of the completed number of training sessions on global cognition, p = 0.008 and p = 0.04, respectively. The results indicate that combined physical and cognitive training improves global cognition in a dose-responsive manner but these benefits may be less pronounced in older adults with more severe NCD. The long-lasting impact of combined training on the incidence and trajectory of NCDs in relation to its severity should be assessed in future long-term trials. PMID:26300772

  2. Gains in cognition through combined cognitive and physical training: the role of training dosage and severity of neurocognitive disorder.

    PubMed

    Bamidis, Panagiotis D; Fissler, Patrick; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G; Zilidou, Vasiliki; Konstantinidis, Evdokimos I; Billis, Antonis S; Romanopoulou, Evangelia; Karagianni, Maria; Beratis, Ion; Tsapanou, Angeliki; Tsilikopoulou, Georgia; Grigoriadou, Eirini; Ladas, Aristea; Kyrillidou, Athina; Tsolaki, Anthoula; Frantzidis, Christos; Sidiropoulos, Efstathios; Siountas, Anastasios; Matsi, Stavroula; Papatriantafyllou, John; Margioti, Eleni; Nika, Aspasia; Schlee, Winfried; Elbert, Thomas; Tsolaki, Magda; Vivas, Ana B; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Physical as well as cognitive training interventions improve specific cognitive functions but effects barely generalize on global cognition. Combined physical and cognitive training may overcome this shortcoming as physical training may facilitate the neuroplastic potential which, in turn, may be guided by cognitive training. This study aimed at investigating the benefits of combined training on global cognition while assessing the effect of training dosage and exploring the role of several potential effect modifiers. In this multi-center study, 322 older adults with or without neurocognitive disorders (NCDs) were allocated to a computerized, game-based, combined physical and cognitive training group (n = 237) or a passive control group (n = 85). Training group participants were allocated to different training dosages ranging from 24 to 110 potential sessions. In a pre-post-test design, global cognition was assessed by averaging standardized performance in working memory, episodic memory and executive function tests. The intervention group increased in global cognition compared to the control group, p = 0.002, Cohen's d = 0.31. Exploratory analysis revealed a trend for less benefits in participants with more severe NCD, p = 0.08 (cognitively healthy: d = 0.54; mild cognitive impairment: d = 0.19; dementia: d = 0.04). In participants without dementia, we found a dose-response effect of the potential number and of the completed number of training sessions on global cognition, p = 0.008 and p = 0.04, respectively. The results indicate that combined physical and cognitive training improves global cognition in a dose-responsive manner but these benefits may be less pronounced in older adults with more severe NCD. The long-lasting impact of combined training on the incidence and trajectory of NCDs in relation to its severity should be assessed in future long-term trials. PMID:26300772

  3. Missed Opportunities for Improving Nutrition Through Institutional Food: The Case for Food Worker Training

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, Jonathan; Patinella, Stefania; Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    The institutional food sector—including food served in schools, child care settings, hospitals, and senior centers—is a largely untapped resource for public health that may help to arrest increasing rates of obesity and diet-related health problems. To make this case, we estimated the reach of a diverse institutional food sector in 1 large municipality, New York City, in 2012, and explored the potential for improving institutional food by building the skills and nutritional knowledge of foodservice workers through training. Drawing on the research literature and preliminary data collected in New York City, we discuss the dynamics of nutritional decision-making in these settings. Finally, we identify opportunities and challenges associated with training the institutional food workforce to enhance nutrition and health. PMID:23865653

  4. Missed opportunities for improving nutrition through institutional food: the case for food worker training.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Emma K; Deutsch, Jonathan; Patinella, Stefania; Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2013-09-01

    The institutional food sector-including food served in schools, child care settings, hospitals, and senior centers-is a largely untapped resource for public health that may help to arrest increasing rates of obesity and diet-related health problems. To make this case, we estimated the reach of a diverse institutional food sector in 1 large municipality, New York City, in 2012, and explored the potential for improving institutional food by building the skills and nutritional knowledge of foodservice workers through training. Drawing on the research literature and preliminary data collected in New York City, we discuss the dynamics of nutritional decision-making in these settings. Finally, we identify opportunities and challenges associated with training the institutional food workforce to enhance nutrition and health.

  5. Enhancing visuospatial performance through video game training to increase learning in visuospatial science domains.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Christopher A

    2012-02-01

    Although previous research has demonstrated that performance on visuospatial assessments can be enhanced through relevant experience, an unaddressed question is whether such experience also produces a similar increase in target domains (such as science learning) where visuospatial abilities are directly relevant for performance. In the present study, participants completed either spatial or nonspatial training via interaction with video games and were then asked to read and learn about the geologic topic of plate tectonics. Results replicate the benefit of playing appropriate video games in enhancing visuospatial performance and demonstrate that this facilitation also manifests itself in learning science topics that are visuospatial in nature. This novel result suggests that visuospatial training not only can impact performance on measures of spatial functioning, but also can affect performance in content areas in which these abilities are utilized. PMID:22037919

  6. Sensitive Training Through Body Awareness to Improve the Writing of Patients with Writer’s Cramp

    PubMed Central

    Waissman, Flavia Quadros Boisson; Orsini, Marco; Nascimento, Osvaldo J.M.; Leite, Marco Antônio A.; Pereira, João Santos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to evaluate if body awareness is important to improve the writing ability before using the splints. Twelve patients with writer’s cramp were evaluated by a specialist in movement disorders. The Burke-Fahn-Marsden Scale (BFM), the Jedynak Protocol and the Analog Pain Scale were used. The rehabilitation training was administered over an eight-week period, in two phases of four weeks each, twice a week. Each session would last 60 minutes. A significant improvement was shown, not only in the motor, but also in the pain perception, through the BFM scale, the Jedynak Protocol and the Analog Pain Scale. Therefore, we conclude that the motor training, thanks to the body awareness and immobilization by splints of the affected dystonic musculature, led to an important improvement in the writer’s cramp writing. PMID:24416488

  7. Enhancing visuospatial performance through video game training to increase learning in visuospatial science domains.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Christopher A

    2012-02-01

    Although previous research has demonstrated that performance on visuospatial assessments can be enhanced through relevant experience, an unaddressed question is whether such experience also produces a similar increase in target domains (such as science learning) where visuospatial abilities are directly relevant for performance. In the present study, participants completed either spatial or nonspatial training via interaction with video games and were then asked to read and learn about the geologic topic of plate tectonics. Results replicate the benefit of playing appropriate video games in enhancing visuospatial performance and demonstrate that this facilitation also manifests itself in learning science topics that are visuospatial in nature. This novel result suggests that visuospatial training not only can impact performance on measures of spatial functioning, but also can affect performance in content areas in which these abilities are utilized.

  8. Tennessee's Statewide Early Childhood Training System (TECTA): Improving the Quality of Early Childhood Services through Coordinated Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mietlicki, Connie

    2010-01-01

    A critical issue facing the nation today stems from the fact that many classroom teachers in Early Childhood Education lack adequate training. This deficit in the professional education of teachers impacts outcomes for children every day. This article discusses the establishment of a training system that has impacted Early Childhood education in…

  9. Transforming the Corporate Training Function through Developing a Training Strategy and Advisory Board: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalman, Howard K.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined use of a strategic planning process to reinvent a corporate training department. The naturalistic case describes how the corporate training function gained credibility and influence with senior management, developed alignment with organizational goals, and began transforming the function into a performance improvement…

  10. A Training Program to Improve IFSP/IEP Goals and Objectives through the Routines-Based Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boavida, Tânia; Aguiar, Cecília; McWilliam, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe a training program designed to improve the knowledge and skills of early childhood interventionists. Within the context of using the Routines-Based Early Intervention approach, this training focused on improving the quality of goals and objectives on individualized plans, through the Routines-Based Interview. We structured the…

  11. Simulation of longitudinal dynamics of a freight train operating through a car dumper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, R.; Sakalo, A.; Yazykov, V.; Shamdani, A.; Bowey, R.; Wakeling, C.

    2016-06-01

    A heavy haul train and car dumper model was created to analyse train longitudinal dynamics during dumping. Influence of such factors as performance curve of draft gears, total free slack in couplers, operating mode of train positioner and braking of last two cars of train on the in-train forces was considered.

  12. Class@Baikal: the Endurance of the UNESCO Training-Through-Research Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzini, A.; Akhmanov, G.; Khlystov, O.; Tokarev, M.; Korost, D. V.; Poort, J.; Fokina, A.; Giliazetdinova, D. R.; Yurchenko, A.; Vodopyanov, S.

    2014-12-01

    In July 2014, by the initiative of the Moscow State University and Limnological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, the first Training-through-Research Class@Baikal was launched in Lake Baikal, Russia. The cruise program focused on seafloor sampling and acoustic investigations of gas seeps, flares, mud volcanoes, slumps and debris flows, canyons and channels in the coastal proximity. A comprehensive multidisciplinary program to train students has been developed to cover sedimentology, fluid geochemistry, biology, geophysics and marine geology in general. Daily lectures were conducted on board by academics presenting pertinent research projects, and cruise planning and preliminary results were discussed with all the scientific crew. A daily blog with updates on the expedition activities, images, and ongoing cruise results, was also completed (i.e. visit the cruise blog: http://baikal.festivalnauki.ru/) and gave the opportunity to interact with experts as well as attract the interest also of a broader audience. This project is a follow up to the well-established UNESCO Training-through-Research (TTR) Floating University Programme (http://floatinguniversity.ru/) that covered large areas on the European and arctic margins since 1991 with 18 research cruises attended by about 1000 BSc, MSc and PhD students from Europe, Asia, Africa and America. The crucial goal of both programmes is the training of new generations of scientists through active research directly on the field. Students can access the collected data and samples for their Master and PhD projects. Typically an extensive set of analyses and data processing is completed in-house and the results and interpretations are presented at post cruise meetings and international conferences. The Baikal lake is 25 million years old rift zone and provides a large variety of active geological features that can be easily reached at daily sailing distance. This represents an extraordinary opportunity to switch and focus

  13. Mindfulness training modulates value signals in ventromedial prefrontal cortex through input from insular cortex.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Ulrich; Gu, Xiaosi; Harvey, Ann H; Fonagy, Peter; Montague, P Read

    2014-10-15

    Neuroimaging research has demonstrated that ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) encodes value signals that can be modulated by top-down cognitive input such as semantic knowledge, price incentives, and monetary favors suggesting that such biases may have an identified biological basis. It has been hypothesized that mindfulness training (MT) provides one path for gaining control over such top-down influences; yet, there have been no direct tests of this hypothesis. Here, we probe the behavioral and neural effects of MT on value signals in vmPFC in a randomized longitudinal design of 8 weeks of MT on an initially naïve subject cohort. The impact of this within-subject training was assessed using two paradigms: one that employed primary rewards (fruit juice) in a simple conditioning task and another that used a well-validated art-viewing paradigm to test bias of monetary favors on preference. We show that MT behaviorally censors the top-down bias of monetary favors through a measurable influence on value signals in vmPFC. MT also modulates value signals in vmPFC to primary reward delivery. Using a separate cohort of subjects we show that 8 weeks of active control training (ACT) generates the same behavioral impact also through an effect on signals in the vmPFC. Importantly, functional connectivity analyses show that value signals in vmPFC are coupled with bilateral posterior insula in the MT groups in both paradigms, but not in the ACT groups. These results suggest that MT integrates interoceptive input from insular cortex in the context of value computations of both primary and secondary rewards.

  14. Mindfulness training modulates value signals in ventromedial prefrontal cortex through input from insular cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Ulrich; Gu, Xiaosi; Harvey, Ann H.; Fonagy, Peter; Montague, P. Read

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging research has demonstrated that ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) encodes value signals that can be modulated by top-down cognitive input such as semantic knowledge, price incentives, and monetary favors suggesting that such biases may have an identified biological basis. It has been hypothesized that mindfulness training (MT) provides one path for gaining control over such top-down influences; yet, there have been no direct tests of this hypothesis. Here, we probe the behavioral and neural effects of MT on value signals in vmPFC in a randomized longitudinal design of 8 weeks of MT on an initially naïve subject cohort. The impact of this within-subject training was assessed using two paradigms: one that employed primary rewards (fruit juice) in a simple conditioning task and another that used a well-validated art-viewing paradigm to test bias of monetary favors on preference. We show that MT behaviorally censors the top-down bias of monetary favors through a measurable influence on value signals in vmPFC. MT also modulates value signals in vmPFC to primary reward delivery. Using a separate cohort of subjects we show that 8 weeks of active control training (ACT) generates the same behavioral impact also through an effect on signals in the vmPFC. Importantly, functional connectivity analyses show that value signals in vmPFC are coupled with bilateral posterior insula in the MT groups in both paradigms, but not in the ACT groups. These results suggest that MT integrates interoceptive input from insular cortex in the context of value computations of both primary and secondary rewards. PMID:24956066

  15. Battling the challenges of training nurses to use information systems through theory-based training material design.

    PubMed

    Galani, Malatsi; Yu, Ping; Paas, Fred; Chandler, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The attempts to train nurses to effectively use information systems have had mixed results. One problem is that training materials are not adequately designed to guide trainees to gradually learn to use a system without experiencing a heavy cognitive load. This is because training design often does not take into consideration a learner's cognitive ability to absorb new information in a short training period. Given the high cost and difficulty of organising training in healthcare organisations, there is an urgent need for information system trainers to be aware of how cognitive overload or information overload affect a trainee's capability to acquire new knowledge and skills, and what instructional techniques can be used to facilitate effective learning. This paper introduces the concept of cognitive load and how it affects nurses when learning to use a new health information system. This is followed by the relevant strategies for instructional design, underpinned by the principles of cognitive load theory, which may be helpful for the development of effective instructional materials and activities for training nurses to use information systems. PMID:25087524

  16. Battling the challenges of training nurses to use information systems through theory-based training material design.

    PubMed

    Galani, Malatsi; Yu, Ping; Paas, Fred; Chandler, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The attempts to train nurses to effectively use information systems have had mixed results. One problem is that training materials are not adequately designed to guide trainees to gradually learn to use a system without experiencing a heavy cognitive load. This is because training design often does not take into consideration a learner's cognitive ability to absorb new information in a short training period. Given the high cost and difficulty of organising training in healthcare organisations, there is an urgent need for information system trainers to be aware of how cognitive overload or information overload affect a trainee's capability to acquire new knowledge and skills, and what instructional techniques can be used to facilitate effective learning. This paper introduces the concept of cognitive load and how it affects nurses when learning to use a new health information system. This is followed by the relevant strategies for instructional design, underpinned by the principles of cognitive load theory, which may be helpful for the development of effective instructional materials and activities for training nurses to use information systems.

  17. 49 CFR 238.319 - Running brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Running brake test. 238.319 Section 238.319... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.319 Running brake test. (a) As soon as conditions safely permit, a running brake test shall be performed on each passenger train after the train has received,...

  18. 49 CFR 238.319 - Running brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Running brake test. 238.319 Section 238.319... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.319 Running brake test. (a) As soon as conditions safely permit, a running brake test shall be performed on each passenger train after the train has received,...

  19. 49 CFR 238.319 - Running brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Running brake test. 238.319 Section 238.319... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.319 Running brake test. (a) As soon as conditions safely permit, a running brake test shall be performed on each passenger train after the train has received,...

  20. 49 CFR 238.319 - Running brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Running brake test. 238.319 Section 238.319... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.319 Running brake test. (a) As soon as conditions safely permit, a running brake test shall be performed on each passenger train after the train has received,...

  1. 49 CFR 238.319 - Running brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Running brake test. 238.319 Section 238.319... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.319 Running brake test. (a) As soon as conditions safely permit, a running brake test shall be performed on each passenger train after the train has received,...

  2. Training Music Teachers through Distance Learning: The Case of Teaching Practice Mentoring at One Primary School Teacher Training College in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhebhe, Sithulisiwe; Runhare, Tawanda; Monobe, Ratau John

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to examine the quality of teaching practice (TP) mentoring in the teaching of music at primary school level through the distance mode of training at one college of education in Zimbabwe. The study examined the experiences and perceptions of lecturers and student teachers on TP mentoring in music within the context of a distance…

  3. Nutrition Improvement through Mixed Gardening in the Humid Tropics. A Trainer's Manual. Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Paul

    This manual is designed to provide Peace Corps trainers with suggested guidelines on the presentation of a nutrition-oriented household food production training program to community-level field workers. The manual describes and discusses simple, low-cost, local resources that may be available to the community. When applied through a home garden,…

  4. Enhancing the application of effective malaria interventions in Africa through training.

    PubMed

    Ijumba, Jasper N; Kitua, Andrew Y

    2004-08-01

    Africa bears more than 90% of the entire global malaria disease burden. Surprisingly, even with the current renewed interest in malaria prevention and control and the enabling environment resulting from the Roll Back Malaria initiative and the political commitment made by the African Presidents at the Abuja Summit, there are still no significant initiatives for strengthening capacity for malaria control through training within the African continent itself. The Center for Enhancement of Effective Malaria Interventions (CEEMI) has been established in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania for results-oriented training. It is intended to provide the needed skills for identifying and solving malaria control problems and providing incentives to malaria control workers in their work performance. The intention is to produce implementers with leadership skills for planning and managing malaria control activities and who can use strategic thinking in improving their work performance. To sustain political commitment and support and to sensitize the community on malaria issues, the CEEMI, in collaboration with the Ministry of Health (National Malaria Control Program), the Institute of Journalism and Mass Communication of the University of Dar es Salaam, and the Commonwealth Broadcasting Association have already conducted malaria seminars for Tanzanian Members of Parliament and journalists from Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda. Additionally, a diploma course in health communication is being developed for journalists and for the same purpose. Also being developed is a training module for "Council Malaria Focal Person." This is aimed at complementing the Roll Back Malaria initiative to meet the Abuja targets of reducing morbidity and mortality due to malaria by 50% by 2010.

  5. Training in outbreak investigation through use of an online discussion group.

    PubMed

    Stehr-Green, Jeanette; Gathany, Nancy

    2005-11-01

    Distance learning has been found to be effective for continuing public health training. The authors undertook a six-week pilot to teach skills in outbreak investigation through the combination of a self-instructional, interactive, computer-based case study and online discussions led by two instructors. Participants were public health practitioners with knowledge of basic epidemiology and public health. Eighteen public health practitioners participated. Overall, participants posted 113 messages to the online discussions, with a median of 5.5 messages per participant (range: 0-16). The number of postings was higher for participants who had taken part in an outbreak investigation before the pilot test than for those who had not. In general, participants enjoyed the experience and believed that the online discussions added value to the self-instructional case study. The authors conclude that the combination of the case study and the online discussions was a positive learning experience. They encourage others to consider this format for training. PMID:16334092

  6. Elimination of malaria risk through integrated combination strategies in a tropical military training island.

    PubMed

    Lee, Vernon J; Ow, Samuel; Heah, Harold; Tan, Meng Yaw; Lam, Patrick; Ng, Lee-Ching; Lam-Phua, Sai Gek; Imran, Abdul Qadir; Seet, Benjamin

    2010-06-01

    On the military training facility of Tekong Island, Singapore, a comprehensive vector-borne disease control program was started in end-2006 to reduce mosquito populations and negate the need for anti-malaria chemoprophylaxis. The program was based on 1) preventing importation of malaria through screening of visitors, 2) preventing human-to-mosquito transmission through early case detection and mosquito control, 3) preventing mosquito-to-human transmission through personal protection, and 4) contingency plans. Systematic environmental works were performed to reduce breeding sites, and insecticide use targeted both adult mosquitoes and larvae. Mosquito populations declined from 103 mosquitoes per sampling site in January 2007 to 6 per site by March 2007 (P < 0.001). The proportion of positive ovitraps declined from 93% in January 2007-2% in March 2007 (P < 0.001). There were no malaria cases on the island despite chemoprophylaxis termination, showing that comprehensive combination vector-control strategies were effective in reducing the risk of malaria.

  7. Elimination of Malaria Risk through Integrated Combination Strategies in a Tropical Military Training Island

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Vernon J.; Ow, Samuel; Heah, Harold; Tan, Meng Yaw; Lam, Patrick; Ng, Lee-Ching; Lam-Phua, Sai Gek; Imran, Abdul Qadir; Seet, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    On the military training facility of Tekong Island, Singapore, a comprehensive vector-borne disease control program was started in end-2006 to reduce mosquito populations and negate the need for anti-malaria chemoprophylaxis. The program was based on 1) preventing importation of malaria through screening of visitors, 2) preventing human-to-mosquito transmission through early case detection and mosquito control, 3) preventing mosquito-to-human transmission through personal protection, and 4) contingency plans. Systematic environmental works were performed to reduce breeding sites, and insecticide use targeted both adult mosquitoes and larvae. Mosquito populations declined from 103 mosquitoes per sampling site in January 2007 to 6 per site by March 2007 (P < 0.001). The proportion of positive ovitraps declined from 93% in January 2007–2% in March 2007 (P < 0.001). There were no malaria cases on the island despite chemoprophylaxis termination, showing that comprehensive combination vector-control strategies were effective in reducing the risk of malaria. PMID:20519595

  8. Improving epidemiologic surveillance and health promoter training in rural Latin America through information and communication technologies.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Andrés; López, Diego M; Sáez, Alberto; Seoane, Joaquín; Rendón, Alvaro; Shoemaker, Richard; Fernández, Ignacio

    2005-08-01

    This paper presents two technological developments oriented to increase the efficiency of the epidemiologic surveillance system and to improve the diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities of the rural establishments with only e-mail connectivity through wireless systems. The Telematics Department of the University of Cauca has developed a computerized epidemiologic surveillance system for the collecting, sending, processing, visualization, and feedback of epidemiologic information at national level. The use of the system in a pilot area has solved the problems of subregister, increasing the volume of data collection in 15%. The complete epidemiologic system is currently being implemented in 22 health care establishments in the Department of Cauca in Colombia. Likewise, the Technical University and Carlos III University of Madrid have developed a distance training system with a high-usability interface both for students and teachers. The system includes authoring, distribution, tracking, and visualization of courses synchronized through electronic mail messages in a clear way for the user. Both systems use a creative combination of e-mail and XML (eXtensible Markup Language)-based technologies, ready to be used through slow, intermittent, and asynchronous communication systems.

  9. CosmoQuest: Training Educators and Engaging Classrooms in Citizen Science through a Virtual Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Bracey, Georgia; Summer, Theresa; Cobb, Whitney; Gay, Pamela L.; Finkelstein, Keely D.; Gurton, Suzanne; Felix-Strishock, Lisa; Kruse, Brian; Lebofsky, Larry A.; Jones, Andrea J.; Tweed, Ann; Graff, Paige; Runco, Susan; Noel-Storr, Jacob; CosmoQuest Team

    2016-10-01

    CosmoQuest is a Citizen Science Virtual Research Facility that engages scientists, educators, students, and the public in analyzing NASA images. Often, these types of citizen science activities target enthusiastic members of the public, and additionally engage students in K-12 and college classrooms. To support educational engagement, we are developing a pipeline in which formal and informal educators and facilitators use the virtual research facility to engage students in real image analysis that is framed to provide meaningful science learning. This work also contributes to the larger project to produce publishable results. Community scientists are being solicited to propose CosmoQuest Science Projects take advantage of the virtual research facility capabilities. Each CosmoQuest Science Project will result in formal education materials, aligned with Next Generation Science Standards including the 3-dimensions of science learning; core ideas, crosscutting concepts, and science and engineering practices. Participating scientists will contribute to companion educational materials with support from the CosmoQuest staff of data specialists and education specialists. Educators will be trained through in person and virtual workshops, and classrooms will have the opportunity to not only work with NASA data, but interface with NASA scientists. Through this project, we are bringing together subject matter experts, classrooms, and informal science organizations to share the excitement of NASA SMD science with future citizen scientists. CosmoQuest is funded through individual donations, through NASA Cooperative Agreement NNX16AC68A, and through additional grants and contracts that are listed on our website, cosmoquest.org.

  10. Biomechanics of Distance Running: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Richard C.; Gregor, Robert J.

    1976-01-01

    Training for distance running over a long period produces meaningful changes in the running mechanics of experienced runners, as revealed in this longitudinal study of the biomechanical components of stride length, stride rate, stride time, and support and nonsupport time. (MB)

  11. Minimum Wage Effects in the Longer Run

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David; Nizalova, Olena

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to minimum wages at young ages could lead to adverse longer-run effects via decreased labor market experience and tenure, and diminished education and training, while beneficial longer-run effects could arise if minimum wages increase skill acquisition. Evidence suggests that as individuals reach their late 20s, they earn less the longer…

  12. Improving Training in Enterprise Resource Planning Systems Implementation through Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Don; Burgess, Kevin J.; Houghton, Luke; Murray, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    The Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) literature suggests that effective training is one of the key reasons for success in ERP implementations. However, limited research has been conducted on what constitutes effective training in an ERP environment. A case study approach was used to explore the effectiveness of traditional training and to…

  13. Promoting Athletic Training through a General Education Course in Psychosocial Aspects of Sports Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardiner-Shires, Alison Marie; Heinerichs, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Context: A general education course taught by athletic training education faculty has the potential to expose the entire student body to the athletic training profession in a unique way while also meeting requirements of the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education. Objective: To introduce a detailed case study of a general…

  14. The Shaping of Managers' Security Objectives through Information Security Awareness Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Information security research states that corporate security policy and information security training should be socio-technical in nature and that corporations should consider training as a primary method of protecting their information systems. However, information security policies and training are predominately technical in nature. In addition,…

  15. Narrative Evaluation Report on the Leadership Training Institute. July 1, 1972 (through) June 30, 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. School of Library Science.

    During the 1972-1973 year the Leadership Training Institute (LTI) implemented a variety of program activities to improve training skills, to assess needs, and to package certain products for dissemination to the profession in general. Specific activities included training sessions, on-site visits, development of instructional materials, and…

  16. The IEDA-CCNY Data Internship Program: Undergraduate Workforce Training Through Immersion in Geoinformatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, K. A.; Goodwillie, A. M.; Cai, Y.; Gonzalez, S.; Mahmud, A.; Haggard, Z.; Wagner, J.; Chao, A. K.; Carbotte, S. M.; Lehnert, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Large NSF-funded facilities have a record of longevity and successful production of research tools that provide convenient access to data holdings, reaching far within the geoscience community. They are therefore natural vehicles for training undergraduates for the workforce. The NSF-funded Interdisciplinary Earth Data Alliance facility (IEDA), based at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, manages diverse geoscience data collections and is running a two-year pilot Data Internship Program with the City College of New York (CCNY). The program matches undergraduate students with senior researchers to compile, process, and analyze data for ingestion in IEDA repositories. The internship provides students with exposure to research areas beyond those currently available at CCNY, giving each student the opportunity to gain experiences and skills in the curation of authentic data. From the facility perspective, the work performed by the interns promotes IEDA data activities and increases awareness of the geoinformatics field amongst tomorrow's potential geoscientists. In the first year, five interns participated in the program: two interns working on geochemistry projects throughout the academic year, and three working on geophysics projects over nine weeks in the summer. The geochemistry interns successfully engaged in the initial development of MoonDB, an archival database of lunar rock chemistry, and the geophysics interns undertook a compilation and analysis of multibeam swath bathymetry data from Japan's JAMSTEC marine agency. Interns were involved with handling research-grade geochemical and geophysical data and maintained notes to allow reproducibility of their methods. They learned the basics of the data management software, how to dissect PhP data processing scripts, and how to track down data-related issues. By working at the Lamont campus, interns were exposed to a wide range of seminars given by in-house and visiting scientists. The IEDA interns completed regular

  17. Differential changes in self-reported aspects of interoceptive awareness through 3 months of contemplative training

    PubMed Central

    Bornemann, Boris; Herbert, Beate M.; Mehling, Wolf E.; Singer, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Interoceptive body awareness (IA) is crucial for psychological well-being and plays an important role in many contemplative traditions. However, until recently, standardized self-report measures of IA were scarce, not comprehensive, and the effects of interoceptive training on such measures were largely unknown. The Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA) questionnaire measures IA with eight different scales. In the current study, we investigated whether and how these different aspects of IA are influenced by a 3-months contemplative intervention in the context of the ReSource project, in which 148 subjects engaged in daily practices of “Body Scan” and “Breath Meditation.” We developed a German version of the MAIA and tested it in a large and diverse sample (n = 1,076). Internal consistencies were similar to the English version (0.56–0.89), retest reliability was high (rs: 0.66–0.79), and the MAIA showed good convergent and discriminant validity. Importantly, interoceptive training improved five out of eight aspects of IA, compared to a retest control group. Participants with low IA scores at baseline showed the biggest changes. Whereas practice duration only weakly predicted individual differences in change, self-reported liking of the practices and degree of integration into daily life predicted changes on most scales. Interestingly, the magnitude of observed changes varied across scales. The strongest changes were observed for the regulatory aspects of IA, that is, how the body is used for self-regulation in daily life. No significant changes were observed for the Noticing aspect (becoming aware of bodily changes), which is the aspect that is predominantly assessed in other IA measures. This differential pattern underscores the importance to assess IA multi-dimensionally, particularly when interested in enhancement of IA through contemplative practice or other mind–body interventions. PMID:25610410

  18. Dr. Sheehan on Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, George A.

    This book is both a personal and technical account of the experience of running by a heart specialist who began a running program at the age of 45. In its seventeen chapters, there is information presented on the spiritual, psychological, and physiological results of running; treatment of athletic injuries resulting from running; effects of diet…

  19. A century after Flexner: the need for reform in medical education from college and medical school through residency training.

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Eddie L.

    2005-01-01

    The last major change in medical education occurred almost 100 years ago following an independent investigation conducted by Dr. Abraham Flexner in 1910. Although individual institutions have implemented drastic changes in their own curriculum and the accrediting agencies have mandated other initiatives intended to maintain medical education at the cutting edge of science and technology, many facets of medical education, from the premedical requirements through medical school and residency training, have not changed in nearly half a century. There are areas that are completely lacking in the process of training physicians, and perhaps the assumption was that physicians were intelligent enough to figure this out on their own. While that may have been true in the past when things were less complicated, this approach offers too many opportunities for misadventure, ultimately to the detriment of physicians and patients. Perhaps what is needed is a more rigorous, didactic training program and more thought put into areas where judgment, morality and ethics converge to create potential hazards that can defeat the finest training, equipment and intent. Although American residency programs produce physicians fully capable of independent practice after their prescribed periods of training, there are elements of these training programs that are outdated, costly and perhaps not the best way to get to the desired endpoint. Perhaps these can be revised to more accurately reflect the changing times. This manuscript addresses some of these issues at all levels of training with recommendations for corrective action. PMID:16296214

  20. Training in Infectious Disease Epidemiology through the Emerging Infections Program Sites

    PubMed Central

    Meek, James I.; Danila, Richard N.; Jones, Timothy F.; Schaffner, William; Baumbach, Joan; Lathrop, Sarah; Farley, Monica M.; Tobin-D’Angelo, Melissa; Miller, Lisa; Harrison, Lee H.; Bennett, Nancy M.; Cieslak, Paul R.; Cartter, Matthew L.; Reingold, Arthur L.

    2015-01-01

    One objective of the Emerging Infections Program (EIP) of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is to provide training opportunities in infectious disease epidemiology. To determine the extent of training performed since the program's inception in 1995, we reviewed training efforts at the 10 EIP sites. By 2015, all sites hosted trainees (most were graduate public health students and physicians) who worked on a variety of infectious disease surveillance and epidemiologic projects. Trainee projects at all sites were used for graduate student theses or practicums. Numerous projects resulted in conference presentations and publications in peer-reviewed journals. Local public health and health care partners have also benefitted from EIP presentations and training. Consideration should be given to standardizing and documenting EIP training and to sharing useful training initiatives with other state and local health departments and academic institutions. PMID:26291924

  1. Workplace Safety and Health Improvements Through a Labor/Management Training and Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Mahan, Bruce; Morawetz, John; Ruttenberg, Ruth; Workman, Rick

    2014-01-01

    Seven hundred thirty-nine workers at Merck's Stonewall plant in Elkton, Virginia, have a safer and healthier workplace because four of them were enthusiastic about health and safety training they received from the union's training center in Cincinnati, Ohio. What emerged was not only that all 739 plant employees received OSHA 10-hour General Industry training, but that it was delivered by “OSHA-authorized” members of the International Chemical Workers Union Council who worked at the plant. Merck created a new fulltime position in its Learning and Development Department and hired one of the four workers who had received the initial training. Strong plant leadership promoted discussions both during the training, in evaluation, and in newly energized joint labor-management meetings following the training. These discussions identified safety and health issues needing attention. Then, in a new spirit of trust and collaboration, major improvements occurred. PMID:24704812

  2. Monitoring volcanic systems through cross-correlation of coincident A-Train satellite data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flower, V. J. B.; Carn, S. A.; Wright, R.

    2014-12-01

    The remote location and inaccessibility of many active volcanic systems around the world hinders detailed investigation of their eruptive dynamics. One methodology for monitoring such locations is through the utilisation of multiple satellite datasets to elucidate underlying eruption dynamics and aid volcanic hazard mitigation. Whilst satellite datasets are often analysed individually, here we exploit the multi-platform NASA A-Train satellite constellation, including the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on Aura and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Aqua. OMI measures volcanic emissions (e.g. sulphur dioxide, ash) whilst MODIS enables monitoring of thermal anomalies (e.g. lava flows, lava lakes, pyroclastic deposits), allowing analysis of a more diverse range of volcanic unrest than is possible using a single measurement technique alone, and permitting cross-correlation between datasets for specific locations to assess cyclic activity. A Multi-taper (MTM) Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis was implemented at an initial sample site (Soufriere Hills volcano [SHV], Montserrat) facilitating cycle identification and subsequent comparison with existing ground-based data. Corresponding cycles at intervals of 8, 12 and ~50 days were identified in both the satellite-based SO2 and thermal infrared signals and ground-based SO2 measurements (Nicholson et al. 2013), validating the methodology. Our analysis confirms the potential for identification of cyclical volcanic activity through synergistic analysis of satellite data, which would be of particular value at poorly monitored volcanic systems. Following our initial test at SHV, further sample sites have been selected in locations with varied eruption dynamics and monitoring capabilities including Ambrym (Vanuatu), Kilauea (Hawaii), Nyiragongo (DR Congo) and Etna (Italy) with the intention of identifying not only cyclic signals that can be attributed to volcanic systems but also those which are

  3. Cultivating Presence in Movement: Student Reflections on the Practice of Feldenkrais "Awareness through Movement[R]" in Dance Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Heidi; Chatfield, Steven J.; Cox, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design, implement, and evaluate an experimental course investigating the effect of Feldenkrais "Awareness Through Movement (ATM)" on students' self-image and its transference to concept related dance phrases, motif based improvisations, outside training and performance, and their daily lives. As a dancer and…

  4. Designing a Model of Vocational Training Programs for Disables through ODL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majid, Shaista; Razzak, Adeela

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to designing a model of vocational training programs for disables. For this purpose desk review was carried out and the vocational training models/programs of Israel, U.K., Vietnam, Japan and Thailand were analyzed to form a conceptual framework of the model. Keeping in view the local conditions/requirements a model of…

  5. Intellectual Acceleration in Normal and Down's Syndrome Children Through Infant Stimulation and Language Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drash, Philip W.; Stolberg, Arnold L.

    The effects of stimulation and language training on the intellectual acceleration of seven normal and Down's Syndrome infants were studied. Intervention consisted of the operant conditioning of linguistic, social, self-help, and motor skills, and the training of parents in child management and child development topics. Among other things, it was…

  6. Stress Prevention through a Time Management Training Intervention: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Häfner, Alexander; Stock, Armin; Pinneker, Lydia; Ströhle, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a short-term time management training programme on perceived control of time and perceived stress. The sample of 177 freshmen was randomly assigned to a time management training (n?=?89) and an active control group (CG) (n?=?88). We expected that an increase in external demands during the…

  7. Health Aide Training Conference: Enhancing Health Services through Auxiliary Personnel; April-May 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Washington, DC. Migrant Health Service.

    The proceedings of a training conference for health aides and professionals from migrant health projects and other programs in California and other states, held April 29-May 1, 1969, includes introductory notes on the objectives of the conference, and accounts of points raised in discussions on the roles, employment, training, and supervision of…

  8. Achieving Human Service Outcomes Through Competency-Based Training: A Guide for Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricciardi, Joseph N.

    2005-01-01

    During the past three decades, empirically supported strategies have been demonstrated for the training of competencies - highly specific skills and behaviors that are needed to complete a critical job task. The present article reviews several examples of competency-based training in human service programs and provides guidelines for the…

  9. The Design of a Shiphandling Training System. Final Report, June 1977 through January 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordell, Curtis C.; And Others

    To improve shiphandlers' training in three surface warfare officers school courses, a study was designed to develop an integrated, career-structured program. Constructing the integrated system involved three tasks: (1) formulate a career-structured shiphandling training unit to enable preparation of curriculum, lesson guides, and measurement…

  10. Moving Beyond the Training Room: Fostering Workplace Learning through Online Journaling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyboran, Vincent L.

    2005-01-01

    A variety of instructional methods have been shown to be effective in fostering employee learning in workplace training. These include problem-based learning, cooperative learning, and situated learning. Despite their success, however, there are at least two important reasons to actively foster learning beyond the training room: The transfer of…

  11. Mitigating Disruptive Effects of Interruptions through Training: What Needs to Be Practiced?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cades, David M.; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A.; Trafton, J. Gregory; Monk, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    It is generally accepted that, with practice, people improve on most tasks. However, when tasks have multiple parts, it is not always clear what aspects of the tasks practice or training should focus on. This research explores the features that allow training to improve the ability to resume a task after an interruption, specifically focusing on…

  12. An Organizational Development Approach to Preventing Sexual Harassment: Developing Shared Commitment through Awareness Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomann, Daniel A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Saint Louis University's efforts to develop and implement a comprehensive sexual harassment training program as the foundation for a cultural influence process is described. The use of the training program as the foundation of a normative-reeducative process of change is described. (MLW)

  13. Operator's Manual: A Guide for Securing Credentials for Training through Illinois Educational Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Frank G.; And Others

    This manual provides guidelines for setting up employment skills training activities for the chronically unemployed, focusing on the establishment of a system to provide credentials for training. Following introductory material on the types and characteristics of credentials and the steps in establishing linkages with appropriate organizations and…

  14. Pathways through the Education and Training System: Do We Need a New Model?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosser, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Analyses conducted by the Education, Science and Skills Development (ESSD) research programme at the Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC) reveal major areas of misalignment in the South African education pathway system. The majority of learners entering Further Education and Training (FET) colleges, nursing training institutions and learnerships…

  15. Learner Orientation through Professional Development of Teachers? Empirical Results from Cascade Training in Anglophone Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of a professional development programme on the attitudes towards the teaching and learning of teachers in the Anglophone part of Cameroon. The development programme combines a multiplier system with school-based in-service training. The research compares the effects that the training had on the attitudes of three…

  16. Renaming Teaching Practice through Teacher Reflection Using Critical Incidents on a Virtual Training Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badia, Antoni; Becerril, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    This study approaches teacher learning from a dialogical viewpoint where lecturers' voices used in a training course context reflect how lecturers generated new professional discourse. The design of the training course considered the analysis of several critical incidents (CIs) in online teaching. An analytical framework based on lecturers'…

  17. Enhancing Users' Participation in Business Process Modeling through Ontology-Based Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macris, A.; Malamateniou, F.; Vassilacopoulos, G.

    Successful business process design requires active participation of users who are familiar with organizational activities and business process modelling concepts. Hence, there is a need to provide users with reusable, flexible, agile and adaptable training material in order to enable them instil their knowledge and expertise in business process design and automation activities. Knowledge reusability is of paramount importance in designing training material on process modelling since it enables users participate actively in process design/redesign activities stimulated by the changing business environment. This paper presents a prototype approach for the design and use of training material that provides significant advantages to both the designer (knowledge - content reusability and semantic web enabling) and the user (semantic search, knowledge navigation and knowledge dissemination). The approach is based on externalizing domain knowledge in the form of ontology-based knowledge networks (i.e. training scenarios serving specific training needs) so that it is made reusable.

  18. Running on age in a 15-km road run: minor influence of age on performance.

    PubMed

    Celie, Floortje; Faes, Miriam; Hopman, Maria; Stalenhoef, Anton F H; Rikkert, Marcel G M Olde

    2010-04-01

    The importance of exercise in the elderly is widely recognized, but data on performances and drop-out in short running contests are lacking. This hinders stimulation and coaching of elderly persons in active aging. The aim of the study was to determine age-related changes in running performance in the most popular Dutch road run, and how this is influenced by gender, training, and increased participation rate over the last decade. This is a retrospective analysis of 194,560 participants of a 15-km run from 1995 to 2007. Multiple regression analysis of running time by age, gender, and training was performed. Trends in participation were examined by chi-square tests and ANOVA. Trends in running time and speed were examined by t tests. With aging, running time increased with 0.20% per year (P < 0.001). Running time was on average 13% (P < 0.001) shorter in men than in women and was 15.7% (P < 0.001) shorter in participants who trained on a regular basis. Decline in performance with age was 5.9% larger for men than women (P < 0.01) and 4.5% larger for trained than untrained participants (P < 0.01). Over the last decade, participation numbers increased most for elderly (≥60 years) and female participants, mean running performance declined with 9.9% (P < 0.001). Drop-out number was low at all ages (0.13-0.29%). It appears that aging has only minor negative influences on running performance, which can even be attenuated by training. Our data suggest that exercise by means of running is a safe and rewarding option for improvement of healthy and active aging. PMID:21124752

  19. On Running and Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukes, Denzel; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Frederic Leer's article "Running as an Adjunct to Psychotherapy" (January 1980 issue of this journal) is criticized by three authors. They focus on the psychological and social effects of running and its usefulness as a treatment for depressed adults. (LAB)

  20. Reducing the threat of in-transit derailments involving dangerous goods through effective placement along the train consist.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Morteza; Saccomanno, Frank; Chenouri, Shojaeddin; Fu, Liping

    2011-05-01

    Train derailments are important safety concerns, and they become increasingly so when dangerous goods (DG) are involved. One way to reduce the risk of DG derailments is through effective DG railway car placement along the train consist. This paper investigates the relationship between DG railway car placement and derailment for different route attributes and DG shipments. A model is presented for estimating the probability of derailment by position, based on the estimated point of derailment (POD) and the number of cars derailing. A DG placement model that considers in-transit derailment risk is shown to provide a sound scientific basis for effective DG marshalling in conventional rail hump yard operations.

  1. Biomechanics of Distance Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Peter R., Ed.

    Contributions from researchers in the field of running mechanics are included in the 13 chapters of this book. The following topics are covered: (1) "The Mechanics of Distance Running: A Historical Perspective" (Peter Cavanagh); (2) "Stride Length in Distance Running: Velocity, Body Dimensions, and Added Mass Effects" (Peter Cavanagh, Rodger…

  2. Innovating Training through Immersive Environments: Generation Y, Exploratory Learning, and Serious Games

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gendron, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Over the next decade, those entering Service and Joint Staff positions within the military will come from a different generation than the current leadership. They will come from Generation Y and have differing preferences for learning. Immersive learning environments like serious games and virtual world initiatives can complement traditional training methods to provide a better overall training program for staffs. Generation Y members desire learning methods which are relevant and interactive, regardless of whether they are delivered over the internet or in person. This paper focuses on a project undertaken to assess alternative training methods to teach special operations staffs. It provides a summary of the needs analysis used to consider alternatives and to better posture the Department of Defense for future training development.

  3. Evaluation through collaboration: a model program of agency-based training in geriatric social work.

    PubMed

    Mills-Dick, Kelly; Geron, Scott Miyake; Erwin, Holly

    2007-01-01

    The Institute for Geriatric Social Work (IGSW), located at Boston University School of Social Work (BUSSW), formed a collaborative partnership with Elder Services of the Merrimack Valley (ESMV), a large urban Area Agency on Aging (AAA) near Boston to design, implement, and evaluate an innovative model program of agency-based training for practicing social workers. The collaboration facilitated and strengthened the development of a program that benefited the university-based program and the community-based agency. The training program comprises a "blended" model of core and elective online courses combined with face-to-face training. Evaluation of the model program is integral to its design, and includes a randomized control trial to test the effectiveness of the training program in increasing practice competencies.

  4. Increasing Mathematics and Science Achievement for Culturally Diverse Students through Teaching Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahon, Lee

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this proposal was to field test and evaluate a Teacher Training program that would prepare teachers to increase the motivation and achievement of culturally diverse students in the areas of science and mathematics. Designed as a three year program, this report covers the first two years of the training program at the Ronald McNair School in the Ravenswood School district, using the resources of the NASA Ames Research Center and the California Framework for Mathematics and Science.

  5. Improving Patient Safety through Simulation Training in Anesthesiology: Where Are We?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    There have been colossal technological advances in the use of simulation in anesthesiology in the past 2 decades. Over the years, the use of simulation has gone from low fidelity to high fidelity models that mimic human responses in a startlingly realistic manner, extremely life-like mannequin that breathes, generates E.K.G, and has pulses, heart sounds, and an airway that can be programmed for different degrees of obstruction. Simulation in anesthesiology is no longer a research fascination but an integral part of resident education and one of ACGME requirements for resident graduation. Simulation training has been objectively shown to increase the skill-set of anesthesiologists. Anesthesiology is leading the movement in patient safety. It is rational to assume a relationship between simulation training and patient safety. Nevertheless there has not been a demonstrable improvement in patient outcomes with simulation training. Larger prospective studies that evaluate the improvement in patient outcomes are needed to justify the integration of simulation training in resident education but ample number of studies in the past 5 years do show a definite benefit of using simulation in anesthesiology training. This paper gives a brief overview of the history and evolution of use of simulation in anesthesiology and highlights some of the more recent studies that have advanced simulation-based training. PMID:26949389

  6. Improving Patient Safety through Simulation Training in Anesthesiology: Where Are We?

    PubMed

    Green, Michael; Tariq, Rayhan; Green, Parmis

    2016-01-01

    There have been colossal technological advances in the use of simulation in anesthesiology in the past 2 decades. Over the years, the use of simulation has gone from low fidelity to high fidelity models that mimic human responses in a startlingly realistic manner, extremely life-like mannequin that breathes, generates E.K.G, and has pulses, heart sounds, and an airway that can be programmed for different degrees of obstruction. Simulation in anesthesiology is no longer a research fascination but an integral part of resident education and one of ACGME requirements for resident graduation. Simulation training has been objectively shown to increase the skill-set of anesthesiologists. Anesthesiology is leading the movement in patient safety. It is rational to assume a relationship between simulation training and patient safety. Nevertheless there has not been a demonstrable improvement in patient outcomes with simulation training. Larger prospective studies that evaluate the improvement in patient outcomes are needed to justify the integration of simulation training in resident education but ample number of studies in the past 5 years do show a definite benefit of using simulation in anesthesiology training. This paper gives a brief overview of the history and evolution of use of simulation in anesthesiology and highlights some of the more recent studies that have advanced simulation-based training.

  7. Running and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Willick, Stuart E; Hansen, Pamela A

    2010-07-01

    The overall health benefits of cardiovascular exercise, such as running, are well established. However, it is also well established that in certain circumstances running can lead to overload injuries of muscle, tendon, and bone. In contrast, it has not been established that running leads to degeneration of articular cartilage, which is the hallmark of osteoarthritis. This article reviews the available literature on the association between running and osteoarthritis, with a focus on clinical epidemiologic studies. The preponderance of clinical reports refutes an association between running and osteoarthritis.

  8. When Running Is the Basic Form of Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kudriavtsev, E. V.

    1974-01-01

    This article discusses running as a universal means of physical training and of developing speed and especially endurance with sections on types of running, time and place for running, methods of exercise, and regulating size of stress load. (Author/JH)

  9. Brain enhancement through cognitive training: a new insight from brain connectome

    PubMed Central

    Taya, Fumihiko; Sun, Yu; Babiloni, Fabio; Thakor, Nitish; Bezerianos, Anastasios

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the recent advances in neurotechnology and the progress in understanding of brain cognitive functions, improvements of cognitive performance or acceleration of learning process with brain enhancement systems is not out of our reach anymore, on the contrary, it is a tangible target of contemporary research. Although a variety of approaches have been proposed, we will mainly focus on cognitive training interventions, in which learners repeatedly perform cognitive tasks to improve their cognitive abilities. In this review article, we propose that the learning process during the cognitive training can be facilitated by an assistive system monitoring cognitive workloads using electroencephalography (EEG) biomarkers, and the brain connectome approach can provide additional valuable biomarkers for facilitating leaners’ learning processes. For the purpose, we will introduce studies on the cognitive training interventions, EEG biomarkers for cognitive workload, and human brain connectome. As cognitive overload and mental fatigue would reduce or even eliminate gains of cognitive training interventions, a real-time monitoring of cognitive workload can facilitate the learning process by flexibly adjusting difficulty levels of the training task. Moreover, cognitive training interventions should have effects on brain sub-networks, not on a single brain region, and graph theoretical network metrics quantifying topological architecture of the brain network can differentiate with respect to individual cognitive states as well as to different individuals’ cognitive abilities, suggesting that the connectome is a valuable approach for tracking the learning progress. Although only a few studies have exploited the connectome approach for studying alterations of the brain network induced by cognitive training interventions so far, we believe that it would be a useful technique for capturing improvements of cognitive functions. PMID:25883555

  10. Improvement of nursing students' learning outcomes through scenario-based skills training

    PubMed Central

    Uysal, Nurcan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: this study analyzed the influence of scenario-based skills training on students' learning skills. Method: the author evaluated the nursing skills laboratory exam papers of 605 sophomores in nursing programs for seven years. The study determined the common mistakes of students and the laboratory work was designed in a scenario-based format. The effectiveness of this method was evaluated by assessing the number of errors the students committed and their achievement scores in laboratory examinations. This study presents the students' common mistakes in intramuscular and subcutaneous injection and their development of intravenous access skills, included in the nursing skills laboratory examination. Results: an analysis of the students' most common mistakes revealed that the most common was not following the principles of asepsis for all three skills (intramuscular, subcutaneous injection, intravenous access) in the first year of the scenario-based training. The students' exam achievement scores increased gradually, except in the fall semester of the academic year 2009-2010. The study found that the scenario-based skills training reduced students' common mistakes in examinations and enhanced their performance on exams. Conclusion: this method received a positive response from both students and instructors. The scenario-based training is available for use in addition to other skills training methods. PMID:27508922

  11. Modifying behavior to improve miner`s hazard recognition skills through training

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalski, K.M.; Fotta, B.; Barrett, E.A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses the application of psychological principles to the critical problem of hazard recognition by miners. The U.S. Bureau of Mines identified fundamental psychological principles that could be employed to enhance the ability of miners to recognize and respond to threats in their dangerous work environment. The goal of this work was to identify concepts that could potentially lead to interventions to improve miners hazard recognition abilities and to modify their behaviors. An innovative training program, adapted from techniques used to train military observers in the identification of camouflaged targets, was developed by Bureau researchers and used in a hazard recognition study. This study, of the effectiveness of such an intervention, is presented to illustrate the feasibility of applying psychological principles to the task of hazard recognition. As researchers hypothesized, underground miners trained using visually degraded (realistically camouflaged representations of mine hazards) instructional materials, performed better on a follow-up hazard recognition performance measure than did miners trained using traditional materials in which hazards are made visually conspicuous for easy recognition. The authors suggest that this type of instructional material and this method of instruction are generally applicable for hazard recognition training in a variety of work environments.

  12. Enhancement of cognitive and neural functions through complex reasoning training: evidence from normal and clinical populations.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Sandra B; Mudar, Raksha A

    2014-01-01

    Public awareness of cognitive health is fairly recent compared to physical health. Growing evidence suggests that cognitive training offers promise in augmenting cognitive brain performance in normal and clinical populations. Targeting higher-order cognitive functions, such as reasoning in particular, may promote generalized cognitive changes necessary for supporting the complexities of daily life. This data-driven perspective highlights cognitive and brain changes measured in randomized clinical trials that trained gist reasoning strategies in populations ranging from teenagers to healthy older adults, individuals with brain injury to those at-risk for Alzheimer's disease. The evidence presented across studies support the potential for Gist reasoning training to strengthen cognitive performance in trained and untrained domains and to engage more efficient communication across widespread neural networks that support higher-order cognition. The meaningful benefits of Gist training provide compelling motivation to examine optimal dose for sustained benefits as well as to explore additive benefits of meditation, physical exercise, and/or improved sleep in future studies.

  13. Optimizing Performance in Adult Cochlear Implant Users through Clinician Directed Auditory Training.

    PubMed

    Plant, Geoff; Bernstein, Claire Marcus; Levitt, Harry

    2015-11-01

    Clinician-directed auditory training using the KTH Speech Tracking Procedure can be a powerful approach for maximizing outcomes with adult cochlear implant (CI) users. This article first reviews prior research findings from an 8-week clinician-directed auditory training (AT) program using speech tracking that yielded significant gains in speech tracking rate and sentence recognition scores following training. The second focus of the article is to illustrate the value of intensive face-to-face long-term AT using speech tracking with adult CI users. A detailed case study report is presented that demonstrates major ongoing and progressive gains in tracking rate, sentence recognition, and improvements in self-perceived competence and confidence over the course of intensive long-term training. Given the potential of both short- and long-term clinician-directed auditory training via KTH speech tracking to help CI users reach their optimal performance level, consideration for more widespread clinical use is proposed in the overall rehabilitation of adult CI users. PMID:27587916

  14. Enhancement of cognitive and neural functions through complex reasoning training: evidence from normal and clinical populations

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Sandra B.; Mudar, Raksha A.

    2014-01-01

    Public awareness of cognitive health is fairly recent compared to physical health. Growing evidence suggests that cognitive training offers promise in augmenting cognitive brain performance in normal and clinical populations. Targeting higher-order cognitive functions, such as reasoning in particular, may promote generalized cognitive changes necessary for supporting the complexities of daily life. This data-driven perspective highlights cognitive and brain changes measured in randomized clinical trials that trained gist reasoning strategies in populations ranging from teenagers to healthy older adults, individuals with brain injury to those at-risk for Alzheimer's disease. The evidence presented across studies support the potential for Gist reasoning training to strengthen cognitive performance in trained and untrained domains and to engage more efficient communication across widespread neural networks that support higher-order cognition. The meaningful benefits of Gist training provide compelling motivation to examine optimal dose for sustained benefits as well as to explore additive benefits of meditation, physical exercise, and/or improved sleep in future studies. PMID:24808834

  15. Beyond parental control and authoritarian parenting style: understanding Chinese parenting through the cultural notion of training.

    PubMed

    Chao, R K

    1994-08-01

    This study addresses a paradox in the literature involving the parenting style of Asians: Chinese parenting has often been described as "controlling" or "authoritarian". These styles of parenting have been found to be predictive of poor school achievement among European-Americans, and yet the Chinese are performing quite well in school. This study suggests that the concepts of authoritative and authoritarian are somewhat ethnocentric and do not capture the important features of Chinese child rearing, especially for explaining their school success. Immigrant Chinese and European-American mothers of preschool-aged children were administered standard measures of parental control and authoritative-authoritarian parenting style as well as Chinese child-rearing items involving the concept of "training." After controlling for their education, and their scores on the standard measures, the Chinese mothers were found to score significantly higher on the "training" ideologies. This "training" concept has important features, beyond the authoritarian concept, that may explain Chinese school success.

  16. Beyond parental control and authoritarian parenting style: understanding Chinese parenting through the cultural notion of training.

    PubMed

    Chao, R K

    1994-08-01

    This study addresses a paradox in the literature involving the parenting style of Asians: Chinese parenting has often been described as "controlling" or "authoritarian". These styles of parenting have been found to be predictive of poor school achievement among European-Americans, and yet the Chinese are performing quite well in school. This study suggests that the concepts of authoritative and authoritarian are somewhat ethnocentric and do not capture the important features of Chinese child rearing, especially for explaining their school success. Immigrant Chinese and European-American mothers of preschool-aged children were administered standard measures of parental control and authoritative-authoritarian parenting style as well as Chinese child-rearing items involving the concept of "training." After controlling for their education, and their scores on the standard measures, the Chinese mothers were found to score significantly higher on the "training" ideologies. This "training" concept has important features, beyond the authoritarian concept, that may explain Chinese school success. PMID:7956468

  17. Emergence of representations through repeated training on pronouncing novel letter combinations leads to efficient reading.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Atsuko; Hulzink, Iris; Wagensveld, Barbara; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-08-01

    Printed text can be decoded by utilizing different processing routes depending on the familiarity of the script. A predominant use of word-level decoding strategies can be expected in the case of a familiar script, and an almost exclusive use of letter-level decoding strategies for unfamiliar scripts. Behavioural studies have revealed that frequently occurring words are read more efficiently, suggesting that these words are read in a more holistic way at the word-level, than infrequent and unfamiliar words. To test whether repeated exposure to specific letter combinations leads to holistic reading, we monitored both behavioural and neural responses during novel script decoding and examined changes related to repeated exposure. We trained a group of Dutch university students to decode pseudowords written in an unfamiliar script, i.e., Korean Hangul characters. We compared behavioural and neural responses to pronouncing trained versus untrained two-character pseudowords (equivalent to two-syllable pseudowords). We tested once shortly after the initial training and again after a four days' delay that included another training session. We found that trained pseudowords were pronounced faster and more accurately than novel combinations of radicals (equivalent to letters). Imaging data revealed that pronunciation of trained pseudowords engaged the posterior temporo-parietal region, and engagement of this network was predictive of reading efficiency a month later. The results imply that repeated exposure to specific combinations of graphemes can lead to emergence of holistic representations that result in efficient reading. Furthermore, inter-individual differences revealed that good learners retained efficiency more than bad learners one month later.

  18. Management Training, Yes! Excellence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Gary E.

    1990-01-01

    Management training programs are a necessity for transportation supervisors. Basic and advanced training programs are available through associations for business officials and university fleet management training programs. (MLF)

  19. Older doctors and progression through specialty training in the UK: a cohort analysis of General Medical Council data

    PubMed Central

    Pyne, Yvette; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether older age at graduation is associated with any difference in outcomes from the annual specialty training progression assessment. Design An open cohort of 38 308 doctors who graduated from a UK medical school with annual assessments of progression in their specialty training programme with data centrally collected by the General Medical Council between 5 August 2009 to 31 July 2012. Results Mature junior doctors (≥29 years at graduation) were more likely to have problems with progression on their annual review of competence progression record of in training assessment (ARCP/RITA) than their younger colleagues (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.49, p<0.001). This association was, if anything, even stronger (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.41 to 1.74, p<0.001) after adjustment for gender, ethnicity, type of University and specialty. The same was true when only looking at the most extreme ARCP outcome (4) which is being asked to leave their specialist programme (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.34 to 2.44, p<0.001). Conclusions Mature doctors are a growing part of the medical workforce and they are likely to broaden the spectrum of doctors by bring different life experience to the profession. These results suggest that they are more likely to have problems with progressing through their specialist training programme. More research is required to determine the reasons behind these associations and how mature doctors can be supported both in choosing the best training programme and in coping with the complex demands of higher training at a later stage in their lives. PMID:25649208

  20. Relationships Between Design Characteristics of Avionics Subsystems and Training Cost, Training Difficulty, and Job Performance. Final Report, Covering Activity from 1 July 1971 Through 1 September 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lintz, Larry M.; And Others

    A study investigated the relationship between avionics subsystem design characteristics and training time, training cost, and job performance. A list of design variables believed to affect training and job performance was established and supplemented with personnel variables, including aptitude test scores and the amount of training and…

  1. Training vegetable parenting practices through a mobile game: Iterative qualitative alpha test

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable consumption protects against chronic diseases, but many young children do not eat vegetables. One quest within the mobile application Mommio was developed to train mothers of preschoolers in effective vegetable parenting practices, or ways to approach getting their child to eat and enjoy v...

  2. Increasing the Attending Behaviors of a Multi-Handicapped Learner Through the Functional Movement Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedl, Michael; And Others

    The study investigated the effects of the overcorrection procedure of functional movement training (in which praise and physical contact are offered for correct positions) on establishing and maintaining the visual attending of a multihandicapped, profoundly retarded learner (20 years old) in a public school program. The effectiveness of positive…

  3. Increasing Job Satisfaction among Child Care Workers through the Training of First-Level Supervisors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonsutto, Angelo

    The high, voluntary turnover of child and youth care staff at a residential treatment center was due primarily to low job satisfaction levels. Since the relationship between employees and supervisors directly affects job satisfaction, it was posited that a training intervention focusing on improving the employee support skills of first-level…

  4. Training Autistic Children to Urinate in the Toilet Through Operant Conditioning Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ando, Haruhiko

    1977-01-01

    Five profoundly retarded males (6 to 9 years old) with clinical manifestations of autism were used to evaluate the use of operant conditioning techniques to toilet train children in an autism ward of a hospital for developmentally disturbed children. (Author/SBH)

  5. Management of Corporate Culture through Local Managers' Training in Foreign Companies in China: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Crystal L.

    2005-01-01

    Corporate culture is a complex phenomenon in foreign companies located in the People's Republic of China. For the management team of an international enterprise, it is a challenging task to manage cultural differences. Education and training provided to local managers might be one of the important solutions. Therefore, this study explores the…

  6. Registered Apprenticeship Training in New York State. Updated through June 1, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvir, Howard P.; Gardner, Elbert L.

    This joint report of the New York Department of Labor and the New York Education Department describes the nature, administration, and extent of registered apprenticeship training in New York State as of December 31, 1979. Part 1 presents a brief historical overview of the evolution of the apprenticeship system and description of what…

  7. Open and Distance Learning for Health: Supporting Health Workers through Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodds, Tony

    2011-01-01

    This case study surveys the growing use of open and distance learning approaches to the provision of support, education and training to health workers over the past few decades. It classifies such uses under four headings, providing brief descriptions from the literature of a few examples of each group. In conclusion, it identifies key lessons…

  8. Texas Nutrition Education and Training Program, October 1984 through September 1985. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Human Services, Austin.

    Six studies were conducted to detect changes in nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of educators and food service personnel in schools and child care facilities participating in the Texas Nutrition Education and Training Program. The KABINS model was used to identify indicators of program effectiveness, assuming that changes in…

  9. Achieving Recognition as a World Class Airport through Education and Training. Sorenson Best Paper Award Recipient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quilty, Stephen M.

    2003-01-01

    The International Civil Aviation Organization has standards for airport certification that require education and training of personnel. The American Association of Airport Executives offers accreditation and certification in airport operations and safety that can meet the needs of world-class airports. (Contains 18 references.) (SK)

  10. Assisting Black and Rural Caregivers of Elders with Dementia: Progressive Training through Trusted Resources. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coogle, Constance L., Ed.; Finley, Ruth B., Ed.

    A program was developed in Virginia to train Black and rural family caregivers of persons with dementia, particularly Alzheimer's disease. This final program report begins with project briefs that summarize major products and findings, program objectives and accomplishments, and dissemination activities. Chapter 1 addresses issues related to…

  11. [Facilitating alphabet knowledge in preschool through training in coding, graphomotor and reading].

    PubMed

    Alfonso Gil, Sonia; Deaño Deaño, Manuel; Almeida, Leandro S; Conde Rodríguez, Ángeles; García-Señorán, Mar

    2012-11-01

    The goal of the present study is to analyze the influence of training in initiation to learning reading. Participants in the study were 144 preschool children from four public schools of Galicia, from a rural area of the Region of Paradanta. Out of the total sample, 72 were assigned to the experimental groups and 72 to the control groups. The design was pretest-posttest with randomized participants. Reading skills were measured with the Visual Recognition and Grapheme-Phoneme Conversion Test (TECOL).The data was analyzed with repeated measures analysis of variance. Training significantly increased the reading skill scores of the experimental groups, compared to the control groups. The program has shown a triple interaction between Measure Training × Level School. This means that there was significant variation in mean scores of reading skills as a result of training and according to the different school levels. It is concluded that the basic reading skill to develop in early childhood education is the identification and naming of letters. PMID:23079354

  12. A New Program for the Inservice Training of Computer Studies Teachers through Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, E. J.

    This paper discusses some of the reasons for the shortage of qualified computer studies teachers in South Africa, as well as problems with current training programs. It then focuses on a new innovative learning program, leading to a degree in science education, being developed at the University of South Africa for the preservice and inservice…

  13. Cultivating Self-Awareness in Counselors-in-Training through Group Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Moro, Ronald R.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated processes, strategies, and frameworks that took place during group supervision classes, which best cultivate the self-awareness of Mental Health and Marriage and Family Counselors-in-Training (CITs). It was designed to explore factors across multiple theoretical models, which contributed to the cultivation of self-awareness…

  14. Helping to Solve the Energy Problem through In-Service Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnsworth, Briant J.; Gardner, Janet

    1978-01-01

    Granite School District has developed energy in-service training for teachers. The goal was to infuse energy concepts into the regular school curriculum. When part of the curriculum, this program provides students with greater understanding of the energy problem and possible solutions. (Author)

  15. Enhancing Discipline-Specific Training across Allied Health Professions through Reflective Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Elaine; Wightman, Barbara; Rosenthal, Harold

    2010-01-01

    The professional preparation of allied health professionals typically focuses on the acquisition of knowledge in a particular area of expertise with less consideration of training on social-emotional development and on how to engage parents in the clinical process, parent-child relationships, or principles of mental health. The authors explore how…

  16. Enhancing the Quality of Tutorials through Peer-Connected Tutor Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calma, Angelito; Eggins, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates how a peer-connected tutor training program can lead to quality enhancement by helping tutors to develop more effective teaching strategies and promoting better learning approaches among business students. It uses 2007-2010 evaluation data from 343 program participants from accounting, economics, finance and management and…

  17. Workforce Skills Development and Engagement in Training through Skill Sets. NCVER Monograph Series 11/2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, John; Crean, David; Ranshaw, Danielle; Bowman, Kaye

    2012-01-01

    There has been some debate over whether skill sets have the capacity to be part of a more flexible skilling solution, one in which vocational education and training (VET) in Australia is enhanced. This proposition is explored using a case study of agrifood students who were enrolled in TAFE NSW Statement of Attainment in Rural Production Studies…

  18. In-Service Training of Elementary School Science Teachers. Advancing Education Through Science-Oriented Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thier, Herbert D.

    In-service training of elementary school science teachers, the topic of the United States-Japan Joint Science Seminar held in Kyoto and Tokyo, Japan in 1975, is presented. Program innovations and their relationship to in-service education in the United States and Japan are discussed. The role of Japanese science centers and schools is included in…

  19. Teacher Training Program in Mental Retardation Initiated Through Support of Project HOPE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiers, Margaret; Alegria, Ana

    A cooperative teacher training program has resulted in graduate preparation of teachers from the varied geographic areas of Peru in the field of mental retardation. With opening for at least 20 teachers in each promotion, with 10 supported by the Ministry of Education, the expansion of services for exceptional children has become a reality.…

  20. Revisiting the Value of Somatic Education in Dance Training through an Inquiry into Practice Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batson, Glenna; Schwartz, Ray Eliot

    2007-01-01

    The practice conditions within dance training have remained essentially unchanged for decades. Those conditions appear to be based largely on a "culture of rigor," a philosophy of which implies that continuous practice is the most beneficial way to improve (motor) skills. Current evidence in motor learning supports the concept of "distributed…

  1. Providing Competency Training to Clinical Supervisors through an Interactional Supervision Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tebes, Jacob Kraemer; Matlin, Samantha L.; Migdole, Scott J.; Farkas, Melanie S.; Money, Roy W.; Shulman, Lawrence; Hoge, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Training in supervisory competencies is essential to effective clinical practice and helps address the current national crisis in the behavioral health workforce. Interactional supervision, the approach used in the current study, is well established in clinical social work and focuses the task of the supervisee on the interpersonal exchanges…

  2. Increasing the Basic Computer Skills of Junior High School Teachers through Inservice Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Outen, Dawn

    Florida junior high school teachers were not using computers to enter course grades, generate referrals, keep attendance and complete other administrative tasks, nor were they attempting to increase their computer skills. To address the problem, an inservice computer training workshop was developed. It was hoped that, as a result of the workshop:…

  3. Improving Fifth Grade Students' Mathematics Self-Efficacy Calibration and Performance through Self-Regulation Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramdass, Darshanand H.

    2009-01-01

    This primary goal of this study was to investigate the effects of strategy training and self-reflection, two subprocesses of Zimmerman's cyclical model of self-regulation, on fifth grade students' mathematics performance, self-efficacy, self-evaluation, and calibration measures of self-efficacy bias, self-efficacy accuracy, self-evaluation bias,…

  4. Individuals with Mental Illness Can Control Their Aggressive Behavior through Mindfulness Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Adkins, Angela D.; Wahler, Robert G.; Sabaawi, Mohamed; Singh, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Verbal and physical aggression are risk factors for community placement of individuals with serious and persistent mental illness. Depending on the motivations involved, treatment typically consists of psychotropic medications and psychosocial interventions, including contingency management procedures and anger management training. Effects of a…

  5. BioInnovate Ireland--fostering entrepreneurial activity through medical device innovation training.

    PubMed

    Bruzzi, M S; Linehan, J H

    2013-09-01

    In the midst of a rich environment for medical device development and manufacturing, universities can play a critical role by developing relevant training programs to produce entrepreneurs who can be efficient and successful in creating early stage companies by understanding deeply the issues involved in creating a useful device, how to raise money, designing early clinical studies and locating manufacturing partners. PMID:23494126

  6. Training Counselors to Work with Complex Clients: Enhancing Emotional Responsiveness through Experiential Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Training counselors to work effectively with complex client presentations requires a variety of methods. These methods not only need to be aimed at developing conceptual understanding but also must assist counselors in managing their own emotional reactivity when working with such clients. The author describes the curriculum and experiential…

  7. Stress Management and Anxiety Reduction Through EMG Biofeedback/Relaxation Training upon Junior High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Darrel

    The effectiveness of electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback/relaxation training on the stress management and anxiety levels of 18 eighth-grade students was tested. Chapter I serves as an introduction and presents information on the need for the study, hypotheses, limitations, and definition of terms. Chapter II contains a review of related…

  8. BioInnovate Ireland--fostering entrepreneurial activity through medical device innovation training.

    PubMed

    Bruzzi, M S; Linehan, J H

    2013-09-01

    In the midst of a rich environment for medical device development and manufacturing, universities can play a critical role by developing relevant training programs to produce entrepreneurs who can be efficient and successful in creating early stage companies by understanding deeply the issues involved in creating a useful device, how to raise money, designing early clinical studies and locating manufacturing partners.

  9. National Survey of Training Services to Business and Industry through Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, William A.; Schmutzler, Mark

    This project was conducted to describe state programs of economic development concerned with state-provided training for industry and to share the results among the states. Surveys were sent to the 50 state directors of vocational education plus the directors in the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Of the surveys…

  10. Cultural Respect Encompassing Simulation Training: Being Heard About Health Through Broadband

    PubMed Central

    Min-Yu Lau, Phyllis; Woodward-Kron, Robyn; Livesay, Karen; Elliott, Kristine; Nicholson, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Background Cultural Respect Encompassing Simulation Training (CREST) is a learning program that uses simulation to provide health professional students and practitioners with strategies to communicate sensitively with culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) patients. It consists of training modules with a cultural competency evaluation framework and CALD simulated patients to interact with trainees in immersive simulation scenarios. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of expanding the delivery of CREST to rural Australia using live video streaming; and to investigate the fidelity of cultural sensitivity – defined within the process of cultural competency which includes awareness, knowledge, skills, encounters and desire – of the streamed simulations. Design and Methods In this mixed-methods evaluative study, health professional trainees were recruited at three rural academic campuses and one rural hospital to pilot CREST sessions via live video streaming and simulation from the city campus in 2014. Cultural competency, teaching and learning evaluations were conducted. Results Forty-five participants rated 26 reliable items before and after each session and reported statistically significant improvement in 4 of 5 cultural competency domains, particularly in cultural skills (P<0.05). Qualitative data indicated an overall acknowledgement amongst participants of the importance of communication training and the quality of the simulation training provided remotely by CREST. Conclusions Cultural sensitivity education using live video-streaming and simulation can contribute to health professionals’ learning and is effective in improving cultural competency. CREST has the potential to be embedded within health professional curricula across Australian universities to address issues of health inequalities arising from a lack of cultural sensitivity training. Significance for public health There are significant health inequalities for migrant

  11. Examining neural plasticity and cognitive benefit through the unique lens of musical training.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Sylvain; Bidelman, Gavin M

    2014-02-01

    Training programs aimed to alleviate or improve auditory-cognitive abilities have either experienced mixed success or remain to be fully validated. The limited benefits of such regimens are largely attributable to our weak understanding of (i) how (and which) interventions provide the most robust and long lasting improvements to cognitive and perceptual abilities and (ii) how the neural mechanisms which underlie such abilities are positively modified by certain activities and experience. Recent studies indicate that music training provides robust, long-lasting biological benefits to auditory function. Importantly, the behavioral advantages conferred by musical experience extend beyond simple enhancements to perceptual abilities and even impact non-auditory functions necessary for higher-order aspects of cognition (e.g., working memory, intelligence). Collectively, preliminary findings indicate that alternative forms of arts engagement (e.g., visual arts training) may not yield such widespread enhancements, suggesting that music expertise uniquely taps and refines a hierarchy of brain networks subserving a variety of auditory as well as domain-general cognitive mechanisms. We infer that transfer from specific music experience to broad cognitive benefit might be mediated by the degree to which a listener's musical training tunes lower- (e.g., perceptual) and higher-order executive functions, and the coordination between these processes. Ultimately, understanding the broad impact of music on the brain will not only provide a more holistic picture of auditory processing and plasticity, but may help inform and tailor remediation and training programs designed to improve perceptual and cognitive benefits in human listeners.

  12. Examining neural plasticity and cognitive benefit through the unique lens of musical training.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Sylvain; Bidelman, Gavin M

    2014-02-01

    Training programs aimed to alleviate or improve auditory-cognitive abilities have either experienced mixed success or remain to be fully validated. The limited benefits of such regimens are largely attributable to our weak understanding of (i) how (and which) interventions provide the most robust and long lasting improvements to cognitive and perceptual abilities and (ii) how the neural mechanisms which underlie such abilities are positively modified by certain activities and experience. Recent studies indicate that music training provides robust, long-lasting biological benefits to auditory function. Importantly, the behavioral advantages conferred by musical experience extend beyond simple enhancements to perceptual abilities and even impact non-auditory functions necessary for higher-order aspects of cognition (e.g., working memory, intelligence). Collectively, preliminary findings indicate that alternative forms of arts engagement (e.g., visual arts training) may not yield such widespread enhancements, suggesting that music expertise uniquely taps and refines a hierarchy of brain networks subserving a variety of auditory as well as domain-general cognitive mechanisms. We infer that transfer from specific music experience to broad cognitive benefit might be mediated by the degree to which a listener's musical training tunes lower- (e.g., perceptual) and higher-order executive functions, and the coordination between these processes. Ultimately, understanding the broad impact of music on the brain will not only provide a more holistic picture of auditory processing and plasticity, but may help inform and tailor remediation and training programs designed to improve perceptual and cognitive benefits in human listeners. PMID:24079993

  13. Enhancing Cognitive Training Through Aerobic Exercise After a First Schizophrenia Episode: Theoretical Conception and Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Nuechterlein, Keith H; Ventura, Joseph; McEwen, Sarah C; Gretchen-Doorly, Denise; Vinogradov, Sophia; Subotnik, Kenneth L

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive training (CT) and aerobic exercise have separately shown promise for improving cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Aerobic exercise releases brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which promotes synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. Thus, aerobic exercise provides a neurotrophic platform for neuroplasticity-based CT. The combination of aerobic exercise and CT may yield more robust effects than CT alone, particularly in the initial course of schizophrenia. In a pilot study, 7 patients with a recent onset of schizophrenia were assigned to Cognitive Training & Exercise (CT&E) and 9 to CT alone for a 10-week period. Posit Science programs were used for CT. Neurocognitive training focused on tuning neural circuits related to perceptual processing and verbal learning and memory. Social cognitive training used the same learning principles with social and affective stimuli. Both groups participated in these training sessions 2d/wk, 2h/d. The CT&E group also participated in an aerobic conditioning program for 30 minutes at our clinic 2d/wk and at home 2d/wk. The effect size for improvement in the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery Overall Composite score for CT&E patients relative to CT patients was large. Functional outcome, particularly independent living skills, also tended to improve more in the CT&E than in the CT group. Muscular endurance, cardiovascular fitness, and diastolic blood pressure also showed relative improvement in the CT&E compared to the CT group. These encouraging pilot study findings support the promise of combining CT and aerobic exercise to improve the early course of schizophrenia. PMID:27460618

  14. Enhancing Cognitive Training Through Aerobic Exercise After a First Schizophrenia Episode: Theoretical Conception and Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Nuechterlein, Keith H; Ventura, Joseph; McEwen, Sarah C; Gretchen-Doorly, Denise; Vinogradov, Sophia; Subotnik, Kenneth L

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive training (CT) and aerobic exercise have separately shown promise for improving cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Aerobic exercise releases brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which promotes synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. Thus, aerobic exercise provides a neurotrophic platform for neuroplasticity-based CT. The combination of aerobic exercise and CT may yield more robust effects than CT alone, particularly in the initial course of schizophrenia. In a pilot study, 7 patients with a recent onset of schizophrenia were assigned to Cognitive Training & Exercise (CT&E) and 9 to CT alone for a 10-week period. Posit Science programs were used for CT. Neurocognitive training focused on tuning neural circuits related to perceptual processing and verbal learning and memory. Social cognitive training used the same learning principles with social and affective stimuli. Both groups participated in these training sessions 2d/wk, 2h/d. The CT&E group also participated in an aerobic conditioning program for 30 minutes at our clinic 2d/wk and at home 2d/wk. The effect size for improvement in the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery Overall Composite score for CT&E patients relative to CT patients was large. Functional outcome, particularly independent living skills, also tended to improve more in the CT&E than in the CT group. Muscular endurance, cardiovascular fitness, and diastolic blood pressure also showed relative improvement in the CT&E compared to the CT group. These encouraging pilot study findings support the promise of combining CT and aerobic exercise to improve the early course of schizophrenia.

  15. Software Training Classes Now Open | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer                                            Data Management Services, Inc. (DMS), has announced the opening of its spring session of software training classes, available to all employees at NCI at Frederick. Classes begin on March 31 and run through June 30.

  16. Individuals with mental illness can control their aggressive behavior through mindfulness training.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nirbhay N; Lancioni, Giulio E; Winton, Alan S W; Adkins, Angela D; Wahler, Robert G; Sabaawi, Mohamed; Singh, Judy

    2007-05-01

    Verbal and physical aggression are risk factors for community placement of individuals with serious and persistent mental illness. Depending on the motivations involved, treatment typically consists of psychotropic medications and psychosocial interventions, including contingency management procedures and anger management training. Effects of a mindfulness procedure, Meditation on the Soles of the Feet , were tested as a cognitive behavioral intervention for verbal and physical aggression in 3 individuals who had frequently been readmitted to an inpatient psychiatric hospital owing to their anger management problems. In a multiple baseline across subjects design, they were taught a simple meditation technique, requiring them to shift their attention and awareness from the anger-producing situation to the soles of their feet, a neutral point on their body. Their verbal and physical aggression decreased with mindfulness training; no physical aggression and very low rates of verbal aggression occurred during 4 years of follow-up in the community.

  17. Detecting dependencies between spike trains of pairs of neurons through copulas.

    PubMed

    Sacerdote, Laura; Tamborrino, Massimiliano; Zucca, Cristina

    2012-01-24

    The dynamics of a neuron are influenced by the connections with the network where it lies. Recorded spike trains exhibit patterns due to the interactions between neurons. However, the structure of the network is not known. A challenging task is to investigate it from the analysis of simultaneously recorded spike trains. We develop a non-parametric method based on copulas, that we apply to simulated data according to different bivariate Leaky Integrate and Fire models. The method discerns dependencies determined by the surrounding network, from those determined by direct interactions between the two neurons. Furthermore, the method recognizes the presence of delays in the spike propagation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Neural Coding". PMID:21981802

  18. Enhancement of children's self-esteem through social support training for youth sport coaches.

    PubMed

    Smoll, F L; Smith, R E; Barnett, N P; Everett, J J

    1993-08-01

    The authors examined the impact of coaching behaviors on players' self-enhancement processes. Eight baseball coaches attended a preseason workshop designed to increase their supportiveness and instructional effectiveness. Behavioral guidelines were presented and modeled. A no-treatment control group had 10 coaches. Boys (N = 152) in both groups were interviewed pre- and postseason. Trained coaches differed from controls in player-perceived behaviors in accordance with the guidelines. They were evaluated more positively by their players, their players had more fun, and their teams exhibited a higher level of attraction among players, despite the fact that their teams did not differ from controls in won-lost records. Consistent with a self-esteem enhancement model, findings showed that boys with low self-esteem who played for the trained coaches exhibited significant increases in general self-esteem; low self-esteem youngsters in the control group did not.

  19. Training autistic children to urinate in the toilet through operant conditioning techniques.

    PubMed

    Ando, H

    1977-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of operant conditioning techniques to toilet train children in an autism ward of a hospital for developmentally disturbed children. Five profoundly retarded males with clear clinical manifestations of autism were selected as subjects. Records of the urination behavior of these subjects were kept during a baseline period and throughout the application of procedures. Appropriate urination behavior was immediately followed by positive reinforcers, such as candy, verbal praise, and physical affection. Inappropriate urination behavior was immediately followed by negative reinforces, verbal as well as physical. The results of this study show that operant conditioning techniques can be used to change the urination behavior of profoundly retarded autistic children even where other methods have failed. Factors requiring further investigation for their possible impact on the effectiveness of these procedures in toilet training autistic children are also discussed.

  20. Who Runs Our Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, David

    2012-01-01

    Inside the academy there is a cultural perspective that it should run itself, in the sense that "business as usual" should be done with no one's hands obviously on the levers. This theory reaches its high point in the "self-government" of Oxford and Cambridge colleges. In this article, the author explores the question, "who runs our…

  1. Recombinative Generalization of Tacts Through Matrix Training with Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Audrey A; Ahearn, William H; Cohen, Stacy J

    2015-10-01

    Foss (Journal of Experimental Psychology, 76, 450-459, 1968a; Journal of Experimental Psychology, 77, 341-344, 1968b) compared overlap and non-overlap instruction to promote recombinative response generalization using a matrix training procedure. In the present study, we used a similar set of procedures to teach tacting of kitchen items and prepositions (i.e., relational autoclitics) to three females ages 13-20, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. We taught some kitchen items/prepositions as tacts (e.g., "the strainer is to the right of the box") according to a non-overlap instructional sequence. Subsequently, we taught more combinations in an overlap instructional sequence. Each training procedure was followed by probes of untrained relations. Two participants demonstrated recombinative generalization of untrained combinations following the first non-overlap phase, while the third participant demonstrated some response generalization of untrained relations after a few additional training sequences. All three participants demonstrated generalized tacting of object components while two participants showed generalized tacting of preposition components. PMID:27606212

  2. Ureteral Obstruction Swine Model through Laparoscopy and Single Port for Training on Laparoscopic Pyeloplasty

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Güemes Martín-Portugués, Idoia; Hernández-Hurtado, Laura; Usón-Casaús, Jesús; Sánchez-Hurtado, Miguel Angel; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco Miguel

    2013-01-01

    This study aims firstly to assess the most adequate surgical approach for the creation of an ureteropelvic juntion obstruction (UPJO) animal model, and secondly to validate this model for laparoscopic pyeloplasty training among urologists. Thirty six Large White pigs (28.29±5.48 Kg) were used. The left ureteropelvic junction was occluded by means of an endoclip. According to the surgical approach for model creation, pigs were randomized into: laparoscopic conventional surgery (LAP) or single port surgery (LSP). Each group was further divided into transperitoneal (+T) or retroperitoneal (+R) approach. Time needed for access, surgical field preparation, wound closure, and total surgical times were registered. Social behavior, tenderness to the touch and wound inflammation were evaluated in the early postoperative period. After ten days, all animals underwent an Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty carried out by 9 urologists, who subsequently assessed the model by means of a subjective validation questionnaire. Total operative time was significantly greater in LSP+R (p=0.001). Tenderness to the touch was significantly increased in both retroperitoneal approaches, (p=0.0001). Surgeons rated the UPJO porcine model for training on laparoscopic pyeloplasty with high or very high scores, all above 4 on a 1-5 point Likert scale. Our UPJO animal model is useful for laparoscopic pyeloplasty training. The model created by retroperitoneal single port approach presented the best score in the subjective evaluation, whereas, as a whole, transabdominal laparoscopic approach was preferred. PMID:23801892

  3. GASIFICATION TEST RUN TC06

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services, Inc.

    2003-08-01

    This report discusses test campaign TC06 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Reactor train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Reactor is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Reactor was operated as a pressurized gasifier during TC06. Test run TC06 was started on July 4, 2001, and completed on September 24, 2001, with an interruption in service between July 25, 2001, and August 19, 2001, due to a filter element failure in the PCD caused by abnormal operating conditions while tuning the main air compressor. The reactor temperature was varied between 1,725 and 1,825 F at pressures from 190 to 230 psig. In TC06, 1,214 hours of solid circulation and 1,025 hours of coal feed were attained with 797 hours of coal feed after the filter element failure. Both reactor and PCD operations were stable during the test run with a stable baseline pressure drop. Due to its length and stability, the TC06 test run provided valuable data necessary to analyze long-term reactor operations and to identify necessary modifications to improve equipment and process performance as well as progressing the goal of many thousands of hours of filter element exposure.

  4. Neurosciences intensive care medicine in initial neurosurgical training.

    PubMed

    Pereira, E A C; Madder, H; Millo, J; Kearns, C F

    2009-04-01

    The authors describe a novel 4-month clinical placement in neurosciences intensive care medicine (NICM) undertaken in the first specialty registrar (ST1) year of neurosurgical training as part of a clinical neurosciences themed training year. Neurosurgery is unique among British surgical specialties in having pioneered themed early years in run-through training to replace basic surgical training in general surgical specialties as part of Modernising Medical Careers. After describing events leading to the new neurosurgical training, the knowledge, skills and attitudes acquired in NICM are highlighted alongside discussion of logistic aspects and future directions from an inaugural experience.

  5. Teaching Astronomy through e-learning in Poland: Astronomical Education in teacher training conducted by the Regional Teacher Training Center in Skierniewice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowska, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    Regional Teacher Training Centre (RTTC) in Skierniewice is one of 49 public, accredited institutions in Poland carrying out it statutory goals at the regional level. It has been operating since 1989 and is responsible for organizing of support of schools, institutions, networks of teachers for cooperation and self-education, organizing various forms of in-service training and disseminating examples of good practice. It also has rich experience in teaching by using modern Interactive Computer Technology (ICT) tools and e-learning platform. I present examples about teaching of Astronomical issues through teacher training both as hands on workshops as well as through e-learning. E-learning is playing an important role in organizing educational activities not only in the field of modern didactic but also in learning Science subjects. Teachers find e-learning as a very economical, easy and convenient way of learning and developing their knowledge and skills. Moreover, they are no longer afraid of using new ICT tools and programs which help them to cooperate with students effectively. Since 2011 RTTC in Skierniewice has been an organizer of many on-line in-service programs for teachers, in learning Science. Some of them are organized as blended-learning programs which allow teachers to participate first in hands on activities then continue learning on the Moodle platform. These courses include two 15 and 30-hours of Astronomical topics. Teachers have the opportunity to gain knowledge and receive materials not only about the Universe and the Solar System but also can learn to use tools like Stellarium, Celestia, WorldWide Telescope, Your Sky and other tools. E-learning modules consist of both publishing learning materials in various forms, eg. PowerPoint Presentations, Word & PDF materials, web sites, publications, working sheets as well as practical duties like participation in chats, forums, tasks, Wiki, group workshop. Teachers use these materials for extending their

  6. Exercise economy in skiing and running.

    PubMed

    Losnegard, Thomas; Schäfer, Daniela; Hallén, Jostein

    2014-01-01

    Substantial inter-individual variations in exercise economy exist even in highly trained endurance athletes. The variation is believed to be determined partly by intrinsic factors. Therefore, in the present study, we compared exercise economy in V2-skating, double poling, and uphill running. Ten highly trained male cross-country skiers (23 ± 3 years, 180 ± 6 cm, 75 ± 8 kg, VO2peak running: 76.3 ± 5.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) participated in the study. Exercise economy and VO2peak during treadmill running, ski skating (V2 technique) and double poling were compared based on correlation analysis. There was a very large correlation in exercise economy between V2-skating and double poling (r = 0.81) and large correlations between V2-skating and running (r = 0.53) and double poling and running (r = 0.58). There were trivial to moderate correlations between exercise economy and the intrinsic factors VO2peak (r = 0.00-0.23), cycle rate (r = 0.03-0.46), body mass (r = -0.09-0.46) and body height (r = 0.11-0.36). In conclusion, the inter-individual variation in exercise economy could be explained only moderately by differences in VO2peak, body mass and body height. Apparently other intrinsic factors contribute to the variation in exercise economy between highly trained subjects.

  7. Exercise economy in skiing and running

    PubMed Central

    Losnegard, Thomas; Schäfer, Daniela; Hallén, Jostein

    2014-01-01

    Substantial inter-individual variations in exercise economy exist even in highly trained endurance athletes. The variation is believed to be determined partly by intrinsic factors. Therefore, in the present study, we compared exercise economy in V2-skating, double poling, and uphill running. Ten highly trained male cross-country skiers (23 ± 3 years, 180 ± 6 cm, 75 ± 8 kg, VO2peak running: 76.3 ± 5.6 mL·kg−1·min−1) participated in the study. Exercise economy and VO2peak during treadmill running, ski skating (V2 technique) and double poling were compared based on correlation analysis. There was a very large correlation in exercise economy between V2-skating and double poling (r = 0.81) and large correlations between V2-skating and running (r = 0.53) and double poling and running (r = 0.58). There were trivial to moderate correlations between exercise economy and the intrinsic factors VO2peak (r = 0.00–0.23), cycle rate (r = 0.03–0.46), body mass (r = −0.09–0.46) and body height (r = 0.11–0.36). In conclusion, the inter-individual variation in exercise economy could be explained only moderately by differences in VO2peak, body mass and body height. Apparently other intrinsic factors contribute to the variation in exercise economy between highly trained subjects. PMID:24478718

  8. Remote Sensing Training for Middle School through the Center of Excellence in Remote Sensing Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, L. B.; Johnson, D.; Baltrop, J.

    2012-12-01

    Remote sensing has steadily become an integral part of multiple disciplines, research, and education. Remote sensing can be defined as the process of acquiring information about an object or area of interest without physical contact. As remote sensing becomes a necessity in solving real world problems and scientific questions an important question to consider is why remote sensing training is significant to education and is it relevant to training students in this discipline. What has been discovered is the interest in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) fields, specifically remote sensing, has declined in our youth. The Center of Excellence in Remote Sensing Education and Research (CERSER) continuously strives to provide education and research opportunities on ice sheet, coastal, ocean, and marine science. One of those continued outreach efforts are Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) Middle School Program. Sponsored by the National Science Foundation CReSIS Middle School Program offers hands on experience for middle school students. CERSER and NSF offer students the opportunity to study and learn about remote sensing and its vital role in today's society as it relate to climate change and real world problems. The CReSIS Middle School Program is an annual two-week effort that offers middle school students experience with remote sensing and its applications. Specifically, participants received training with Global Positioning Systems (GPS) where the students learned the tools, mechanisms, and applications of a Garmin 60 GPS. As a part of the program the students were required to complete a fieldwork assignment where several longitude and latitude points were given throughout campus. The students had to then enter the longitude and latitude points into the Garmin 60 GPS, navigate their way to each location while also accurately reading the GPS to make sure travel was in the right direction. Upon completion of GPS training the

  9. Improving health in the Arctic region through safe and affordable access to household running water and sewer services: an Arctic Council initiative

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Thomas W.; Bressler, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    Important health disparities have been documented among the peoples of the Arctic and subarctic, including those related to limited access to in-home improved drinking water and sanitation services. Although improving water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) has been a focus of the United Nations for decades, the Arctic region has received little attention in this regard. A growing body of evidence highlights inequalities across the region for the availability of in-home drinking WASH services and for health indicators associated with these services. In this review, we highlight relevant data and describe an initiative through the Arctic Council's Sustainable Development Working Group to characterize the extent of WASH services in Arctic nations, the related health indicators and climate-related vulnerabilities to WASH services. With this as a baseline, efforts to build collaborations across the Arctic will be undertaken to promote innovations that can extend the benefits of water and sanitation services to all residents. PMID:27132632

  10. Improving health in the Arctic region through safe and affordable access to household running water and sewer services: an Arctic Council initiative.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Thomas W; Bressler, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    Important health disparities have been documented among the peoples of the Arctic and subarctic, including those related to limited access to in-home improved drinking water and sanitation services. Although improving water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) has been a focus of the United Nations for decades, the Arctic region has received little attention in this regard. A growing body of evidence highlights inequalities across the region for the availability of in-home drinking WASH services and for health indicators associated with these services. In this review, we highlight relevant data and describe an initiative through the Arctic Council's Sustainable Development Working Group to characterize the extent of WASH services in Arctic nations, the related health indicators and climate-related vulnerabilities to WASH services. With this as a baseline, efforts to build collaborations across the Arctic will be undertaken to promote innovations that can extend the benefits of water and sanitation services to all residents. PMID:27132632

  11. Commentary: physician-scientist attrition: stemming the tide through national networks for training and development.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Alan L

    2011-09-01

    Future advances in medicine depend on a reliable pipeline of physician-scientists. However, the changing demographics of physician-scientists, including the advanced age of new MD investigators, and attrition along the physician-scientist developmental pathway are cause for concern. Recently developed National Institutes of Health-funded national networks for physician-scientist training and development-such as the Advanced Research Institute in Geriatric Mental Health and the Pediatric Scientist Development Program-offer valuable approaches to supporting and retaining these trainees.

  12. Interdisciplinary Training in Mathematical Biology through Team-based Undergraduate Research and Courses

    PubMed Central

    Walston, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Inspired by BIO2010 and leveraging institutional and external funding, Truman State University built an undergraduate program in mathematical biology with high-quality, faculty-mentored interdisciplinary research experiences at its core. These experiences taught faculty and students to bridge the epistemological gap between the mathematical and life sciences. Together they created the infrastructure that currently supports several interdisciplinary courses, an innovative minor degree, and long-term interdepartmental research collaborations. This article describes how the program was built with support from the National Science Foundation's Interdisciplinary Training for Undergraduates in Biology and Mathematics program, and it shares lessons learned that will help other undergraduate institutions build their own program. PMID:20810960

  13. Effects of a minimalist shoe on running economy and 5-km running performance.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Joel T; Thewlis, Dominic; Tsiros, Margarita D; Brown, Nicholas A T; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if minimalist shoes improve time trial performance of trained distance runners and if changes in running economy, shoe mass, stride length, stride rate and footfall pattern were related to any difference in performance. Twenty-six trained runners performed three 6-min sub-maximal treadmill runs at 11, 13 and 15 km·h(-1) in minimalist and conventional shoes while running economy, stride length, stride rate and footfall pattern were assessed. They then performed a 5-km time trial. In the minimalist shoe, runners completed the trial in less time (effect size 0.20 ± 0.12), were more economical during sub-maximal running (effect size 0.33 ± 0.14) and decreased stride length (effect size 0.22 ± 0.10) and increased stride rate (effect size 0.22 ± 0.11). All but one runner ran with a rearfoot footfall in the minimalist shoe. Improvements in time trial performance were associated with improvements in running economy at 15 km·h(-1) (r = 0.58), with 79% of the improved economy accounted for by reduced shoe mass (P < 0.05). The results suggest that running in minimalist shoes improves running economy and 5-km running performance.

  14. A Study To Determine the Effect of Resistance Training and Specificity Training on Sprint Times Compared to the Effect of Natural Growth Development of Middle School Age Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havens, Craig M.

    The purpose of this study was to determine how physical education teachers and coaches could best help students/athletes increase sprint speed, investigating whether running speed over short distances could be improved significantly through resistance training or specificity training for middle school age students. A total of 70 7th- and 8th-grade…

  15. Run Anyone?... Everyone!

    PubMed Central

    McInnis, W. P.

    1974-01-01

    Fitness and health have become bywords in the past decade, signifying increased emphasis on these factors as necessary for good psychological and physical health. Reasons are given why we should run and how to do it. There is a discussion of the technique of running, and equipment. Brief mention is made of complications. An attempt is made to interest the individual in the benefits of running as a sport as well as the best method for the average person to achieve fitness and health. PMID:20469054

  16. Impact Accelerations of Barefoot and Shod Running.

    PubMed

    Thompson, M; Seegmiller, J; McGowan, C P

    2016-05-01

    During the ground contact phase of running, the body's mass is rapidly decelerated resulting in forces that propagate through the musculoskeletal system. The repetitive attenuation of these impact forces is thought to contribute to overuse injuries. Modern running shoes are designed to reduce impact forces, with the goal to minimize running related overuse injuries. Additionally, the fore/mid foot strike pattern that is adopted by most individuals when running barefoot may reduce impact force transmission. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of the barefoot running form (fore/mid foot strike & decreased stride length) and running shoes on running kinetics and impact accelerations. 10 healthy, physically active, heel strike runners ran in 3 conditions: shod, barefoot and barefoot while heel striking, during which 3-dimensional motion analysis, ground reaction force and accelerometer data were collected. Shod running was associated with increased ground reaction force and impact peak magnitudes, but decreased impact accelerations, suggesting that the midsole of running shoes helps to attenuate impact forces. Barefoot running exhibited a similar decrease in impact accelerations, as well as decreased impact peak magnitude, which appears to be due to a decrease in stride length and/or a more plantarflexed position at ground contact. PMID:26837933

  17. Planetary Perspectives: Training Teachers about Rocks from Earth and Space Through Project WISER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, S.; Crown, D. A.; Lebofsky, L. A.; Croft, S. K.; Canizo, T.; Baldridge, A. M.; Kortenkamp, S.; Chuang, F.; Pierazzo, E.

    2011-12-01

    Within the exciting context of planetary exploration, the Planetary Science Institute is offering an ongoing series of professional development workshops for elementary and middle school science teachers in Southern Arizona. Each workshop is an opportunity for teachers to learn about current exploration of the Solar System, engage in modeling scientific inquiry, and interact with active planetary science researchers. Current workshops include the Moon-Earth System, Exploring the Terrestrial Planets, Impact Cratering, Asteroid-Meteorite Connection, and Volcanoes of the Solar System. Two more workshops, Deserts of the Solar System and Astrobiology and the Search for Extrasolar Planetary Systems are being developed. Three rock kits have been designed for use during these workshops: the Impact Rock Kit, Meteorite Kit, and Volcanic Rock Kit. Each kit includes supporting materials with scientific background, supporting presentations, and additional ideas for using the kits in the classroom. In response to teachers' request to be able to use these kits in their classrooms, we have created a series of stand-alone workshops to train educators to use the rock kits in their own educational settings. After completing the training, teachers and other community educators are able to check out the kits for use in their classrooms, science fairs, star parties, and educational and social events. This work is supported by NASA EPOESS award NNX10AE56G: Workshops in Science Education and Resources (Wiser): Planetary Perspectives.

  18. Changing cultures: enhancing mental health and wellbeing of refugee young people through education and training.

    PubMed

    Bond, Lyndal; Giddens, Anne; Cosentino, Anne; Cook, Margaret; Hoban, Paul; Haynes, Ann; Scaffidi, Louise; Dimovski, Mary; Cini, Eileen; Glover, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Many refugee people and others entering Australia under the Humanitarian Program, have experienced extremely stressful and disrupted lives prior to arrival. A major difficulty experienced by a significant number of refugee young people is their lack of formal education before arrival. It directly affects their ability to start connecting to their new society and constructing a new life. The level of ease with which young people can move into the education and training system and begin to establish a meaningful career pathway has a huge impact on their successful settlement and stable mental health. This paper describes the Changing Cultures Project, a three-year project, which explored models of appropriate and accessible education and training for refugee and newly arrived young people that would enhance their mental health. The Changing Cultures Project was a partnership between the education, health and settlement sectors. This paper describes the program and system response to the health, settlement, education and vocational issues facing refugee young people using a mental health promotion framework and reflective practice. We discuss how the refugee youth programs met a broad range of needs as well as providing language, literacy and basic education to newly arrived young people. While working in an environment of changing policy and public opinion regarding refugee issues, the Project delivered successful outcomes at the program and organisational levels for refugee young people by addressing issues of program development and delivery, organisational development and capacity building and community development and evaluation. PMID:18154223

  19. Changing cultures: enhancing mental health and wellbeing of refugee young people through education and training.

    PubMed

    Bond, Lyndal; Giddens, Anne; Cosentino, Anne; Cook, Margaret; Hoban, Paul; Haynes, Ann; Scaffidi, Louise; Dimovski, Mary; Cini, Eileen; Glover, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Many refugee people and others entering Australia under the Humanitarian Program, have experienced extremely stressful and disrupted lives prior to arrival. A major difficulty experienced by a significant number of refugee young people is their lack of formal education before arrival. It directly affects their ability to start connecting to their new society and constructing a new life. The level of ease with which young people can move into the education and training system and begin to establish a meaningful career pathway has a huge impact on their successful settlement and stable mental health. This paper describes the Changing Cultures Project, a three-year project, which explored models of appropriate and accessible education and training for refugee and newly arrived young people that would enhance their mental health. The Changing Cultures Project was a partnership between the education, health and settlement sectors. This paper describes the program and system response to the health, settlement, education and vocational issues facing refugee young people using a mental health promotion framework and reflective practice. We discuss how the refugee youth programs met a broad range of needs as well as providing language, literacy and basic education to newly arrived young people. While working in an environment of changing policy and public opinion regarding refugee issues, the Project delivered successful outcomes at the program and organisational levels for refugee young people by addressing issues of program development and delivery, organisational development and capacity building and community development and evaluation.

  20. The LHCb Run Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessio, F.; Barandela, M. C.; Callot, O.; Duval, P.-Y.; Franek, B.; Frank, M.; Galli, D.; Gaspar, C.; Herwijnen, E. v.; Jacobsson, R.; Jost, B.; Neufeld, N.; Sambade, A.; Schwemmer, R.; Somogyi, P.

    2010-04-01

    LHCb has designed and implemented an integrated Experiment Control System. The Control System uses the same concepts and the same tools to control and monitor all parts of the experiment: the Data Acquisition System, the Timing and the Trigger Systems, the High Level Trigger Farm, the Detector Control System, the Experiment's Infrastructure and the interaction with the CERN Technical Services and the Accelerator. LHCb's Run Control, the main interface used by the experiment's operator, provides access in a hierarchical, coherent and homogeneous manner to all areas of the experiment and to all its sub-detectors. It allows for automated (or manual) configuration and control, including error recovery, of the full experiment in its different running modes. Different instances of the same Run Control interface are used by the various sub-detectors for their stand-alone activities: test runs, calibration runs, etc. The architecture and the tools used to build the control system, the guidelines and components provided to the developers, as well as the first experience with the usage of the Run Control will be presented

  1. Training the Millennial learner through experiential evolutionary scaffolding: implications for clinical supervision in graduate education programs.

    PubMed

    Venne, Vickie L; Coleman, Darrell

    2010-12-01

    They are the Millennials--Generation Y. Over the next few decades, they will be entering genetic counseling graduate training programs and the workforce. As a group, they are unlike previous youth generations in many ways, including the way they learn. Therefore, genetic counselors who teach and supervise need to understand the Millennials and explore new ways of teaching to ensure that the next cohort of genetic counselors has both skills and knowledge to represent our profession well. This paper will summarize the distinguishing traits of the Millennial generation as well as authentic learning and evolutionary scaffolding theories of learning that can enhance teaching and supervision. We will then use specific aspects of case preparation during clinical rotations to demonstrate how incorporating authentic learning theory into evolutionary scaffolding results in experiential evolutionary scaffolding, a method that potentially offers a more effective approach when teaching Millennials. We conclude with suggestions for future research. PMID:20844940

  2. Assessment of household preparedness through training exercises--two metropolitan counties, Tennessee, 2011.

    PubMed

    2012-09-14

    Public health emergency preparedness involves improving both workforce and household capacity to manage disasters. To improve preparedness at both levels, the Tennessee Department of Health (TDH) formed a Rapid Assessment of Populations Impacted by Disasters (RAPID) team. In 2011, the team used Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) two-stage cluster sampling methodology to measure household preparedness for disasters or emergencies in two metropolitan counties. In the two counties, 23% and 31% of households reported being "well-prepared" to handle disasters or emergencies, 43% and 44% reported being "somewhat prepared," and 25% and 20% reported being "not at all prepared." As a result of this experience, RAPID teams were able to improve their methods, streamline processes, and create a better community assessment toolkit. To increase preparedness at both the community and workforce levels, public health departments should assess community preparedness to inform the planning process and provide field training and exercise opportunities for public health workers.

  3. STS-38 Pilot Culbertson rolls through CCT side hatch during egress training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-38 Pilot Frank L. Culbertson, wearing launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), rolls through the side hatch of the crew compartment trainer (CCT) located in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. Assisted by technicians, Culbertson practices emergency egress through the side hatch using the crew escape system (CES) pole which extends out the side hatch. The inflated safety cushion breaks Culbertson's fall as he rolls out of the side hatch.

  4. STS-38 MS Springer climbs through CCT side hatch prior to egress training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-38 Mission Specialist (MS) Robert C. Springer, wearing launch and entry suit (LES), climbs through the side hatch of the crew compartment trainer (CCT) located in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. Springer will practice emergency egress through the side hatch using the crew escape system (CES) pole (at Springer's left). The inflated safety cushion under Springer will break his fall as he rolls out of the side hatch.

  5. The profile of middle school students in experimental planning skills through inquiry training model on heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darwis, Rahmiati; Rustaman, Nuryani Y.

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to describe the experimental planning skills in middle school students on the topic of heat transfer through Inquiry Training Model (ITM) with laboratory activity. This research used descriptive method with A number of middle school students (n=21) in Bone was involved as participants in this study. Data was collected through observation sheets on science process skills. Research finding shows that the experimental planning skills of the participants varied in a sense of groups and all was well developed (> 90%) after having experience learning on heat transfer through ITM. It can be shown in the data collected phase through experimentation and filled-in student worksheet, Topic of heat transfer was the last period of the whole heat topic carried out through ITM. The students carried out the investigation without following the experimental design presented in the student' workbook, instead they were active in discussions to determine the tools and materials, as well as setting the pace of work independently based on the agreement in their group, so they have had experience in planning experiments. This activity shows the various students 'creativity in designing an experiment and from that those creations the students' like scientists in proving, discovery and developing invention potency that have been there before.

  6. Physiological assessment of isolated running does not directly replicate running capacity after triathlon-specific cycling.

    PubMed

    Etxebarria, Naroa; Hunt, Julie; Ingham, Steve; Ferguson, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon running is affected by prior cycling and power output during triathlon cycling is variable in nature. We compared constant and triathlon-specific variable power cycling and their effect on subsequent submaximal running physiology. Nine well-trained male triathletes (age 24.6 ± 4.6 years, [Formula: see text] 4.5 ± 0.4 L · min(-1); mean ± SD) performed a submaximal incremental run test, under three conditions: no prior exercise and after a 1 h cycling trial at 65% of maximal aerobic power with either a constant or a variable power profile. The variable power protocol involved multiple 10-90 s intermittent efforts at 40-140% maximal aerobic power. During cycling, pulmonary ventilation (22%, ± 14%; mean; ± 90% confidence limits), blood lactate (179%, ± 48%) and rating of perceived exertion (7.3%, ± 10.2%) were all substantially higher during variable than during constant power cycling. At the start of the run, blood lactate was 64%, ± 61% higher after variable compared to constant power cycling, which decreased running velocity at 4 mM lactate threshold by 0.6, ± 0.9 km · h(-1). Physiological responses to incremental running are negatively affected by prior cycling and, to a greater extent, by variable compared to even-paced cycling. Testing and training of triathletes should account foe higher physiological cost of triathlon-specific cycling and its effect on subsequent running.

  7. Does research through Structured Operational Research and Training (SORT IT) courses impact policy and practice?

    PubMed Central

    Shewade, H. D.; Tripathy, J. P.; Guillerm, N.; Tayler-Smith, K.; Berger, S. Dar; Bissell, K.; Reid, A. J.; Zachariah, R.; Harries, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative (SORT IT) courses are well known for their output, with nearly 90% of participants completing the course and publishing in scientific journals. Objective: We assessed the impact of research papers on policy and practice that resulted from six SORT IT courses initiated between July 2012 and March 2013. Design: This was a cross-sectional study involving e-mail-based, self-administered questionnaires and telephone/skype/in-person responses from first and/or senior co-authors of course papers. A descriptive content analysis of the responses was performed and categorised into themes. Results: Of 72 participants, 63 (88%) completed the course. Course output included 81 submitted papers, of which 76 (94%) were published. Of the 81 papers assessed, 45 (55%) contributed to a change in policy and/or practice: 29 contributed to government policy/practice change (20 at national, 4 at subnational and 5 at hospital level), 11 to non-government organisational policy change and 5 to reinforcing existing policy. The changes ranged from modifications of monitoring and evaluation tools, to redrafting of national guidelines, to scaling up existing policies. Conclusion: More than half of the SORT IT course papers contributed to a change in policy and/or practice. Future assessments should include more robust and independent verification of the reported change(s) with all stakeholders. PMID:27051612

  8. Construction of a reusable, high-fidelity model to enhance extracorporeal membrane oxygenation training through simulation.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jess L; Grisham, Lisa M; Scott, Jeanne; Mogan, Chris; Prescher, Hannes; Biffar, David; Jarred, John; Meyer, Robyn J; Hamilton, Allan J

    2014-04-01

    Initiation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is stressful, especially for inexperienced extracorporeal life support providers. The main objective of this study was to create a novel, reusable mannequin for high-fidelity simulation of ECMO initiation. We modified a Laerdal neonatal mannequin (SimNewB; Stavanger, Norway) so that it could be used to simulate an ECMO initiation. A simulation of a neonatal patient suffering from meconium aspiration was performed in the pediatric intensive care unit, and participants included new extracorporeal life support specialists in addition to the composition of the clinical ECMO team. A total of 17 individuals participated in the neonatal ECMO initiation simulation. Questionnaire results showed that 88% of participants felt better prepared to assist in an ECMO initiation after the simulation. All participants (100%) agreed that the modified mannequin and the environment were realistic and that this simulation helps teamwork and communication in future initiations of ECMO. Simulation can be used for the prevention, identification, and reduction of anxiety-related crisis situations that novice providers may infrequently encounter during routine clinical use of mechanical circulatory support. Use of a reusable, high-fidelity mannequin may be beneficial for effective team training of complex pediatric ECMO-related procedures. PMID:24675629

  9. High-intensity sprint training inhibits mitochondrial respiration through aconitase inactivation.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Filip J; Schiffer, Tomas A; Ørtenblad, Niels; Zinner, Christoph; Morales-Alamo, David; Willis, Sarah J; Calbet, Jose A; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Boushel, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Intense exercise training is a powerful stimulus that activates mitochondrial biogenesis pathways and thus increases mitochondrial density and oxidative capacity. Moderate levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during exercise are considered vital in the adaptive response, but high ROS production is a serious threat to cellular homeostasis. Although biochemical markers of the transition from adaptive to maladaptive ROS stress are lacking, it is likely mediated by redox sensitive enzymes involved in oxidative metabolism. One potential enzyme mediating such redox sensitivity is the citric acid cycle enzyme aconitase. In this study, we examined biopsy specimens of vastus lateralis and triceps brachii in healthy volunteers, together with primary human myotubes. An intense exercise regimen inactivated aconitase by 55-72%, resulting in inhibition of mitochondrial respiration by 50-65%. In the vastus, the mitochondrial dysfunction was compensated for by a 15-72% increase in mitochondrial proteins, whereas H2O2 emission was unchanged. In parallel with the inactivation of aconitase, the intermediary metabolite citrate accumulated and played an integral part in cellular protection against oxidative stress. In contrast, the triceps failed to increase mitochondrial density, and citrate did not accumulate. Instead, mitochondrial H2O2 emission was decreased to 40% of the pretraining levels, together with a 6-fold increase in protein abundance of catalase. In this study, a novel mitochondrial stress response was highlighted where accumulation of citrate acted to preserve the redox status of the cell during periods of intense exercise.

  10. Training Vegetable Parenting Practices Through a Mobile Game: Iterative Qualitative Alpha Test

    PubMed Central

    Beltran, Alicia; Buday, Richard; Hughes, Sheryl; O'Connor, Teresia; Baranowski, Janice; Dadabhoy, Hafza R; Diep, Cassandra S; Baranowski, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Background Vegetable consumption protects against chronic diseases, but many young children do not eat vegetables. One quest within the mobile application Mommio was developed to train mothers of preschoolers in effective vegetable parenting practices, or ways to approach getting their child to eat and enjoy vegetables. A much earlier version of the game, then called Kiddio, was alpha tested previously, but the game has since evolved in key ways. Objective The purpose of this research was to alpha test the first quest, substantiate earlier findings and obtain feedback on new game features to develop an effective, compelling parenting game. Methods Mothers of preschool children (n=20) played a single quest of Mommio 2 to 4 times, immediately after which a semi-structured interview about their experience was completed. Interviews were transcribed and double coded using thematic analysis methods. Results Mothers generally liked the game, finding it realistic and engaging. Some participants had difficulties with mechanics for moving around the 3-D environment. Tips and hints were well received, and further expansion and customization were desired. Conclusions Earlier findings were supported, though Mommio players reported more enjoyment than Kiddio players. Continued development will include more user-friendly mechanics, customization, opportunities for environment interaction, and food parenting scenarios. PMID:26208899

  11. 2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF OVENS ALONG CATS RUN LOOKING NORTHEAST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF OVENS ALONG CATS RUN LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING OVEN NOS. 159 (RIGHT) THROUGH 163 (LEFT) - Griffin No. 1 Coke Works, Along Cats Run, Southeast of Masontown Bourough (Nicholson Township), Masontown, Fayette County, PA

  12. Leadership Skills Training for Youths through the Exploring Program of Boy Scouts of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Brian F.; Willis, A. Sandra

    This paper describes the Leadership Opportunity Forums for high school students sponsored by the Explorer's Post of the Birmingham Area Council of the Boy Scouts of America. The goal of the forum was to increase student leadership behaviors through informational sessions, needs assessment, informal discussions, shared meals, outdoor physical…

  13. Life Skills Training through Situated Learning Experiences: An Alternative Instructional Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Shelly

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the value of situated learning as an alternative to the traditional college course instructional approach for pre-service teachers. The situated learning mode of teaching immerses students in the actual setting, practicing the skills and concepts emphasized in the curriculum. Through a partnership with a college, community…

  14. Networking among young global health researchers through an intensive training approach: a mixed methods exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Networks are increasingly regarded as essential in health research aimed at influencing practice and policies. Less research has focused on the role networking can play in researchers’ careers and its broader impacts on capacity strengthening in health research. We used the Canadian Coalition for Global Health Research (CCGHR) annual Summer Institute for New Global Health Researchers (SIs) as an opportunity to explore networking among new global health researchers. Methods A mixed-methods exploratory study was conducted among SI alumni and facilitators who had participated in at least one SI between 2004 and 2010. Alumni and facilitators completed an online short questionnaire, and a subset participated in an in-depth interview. Thematic analysis of the qualitative data was triangulated with quantitative results and CCGHR reports on SIs. Synthesis occurred through the development of a process model relevant to networking through the SIs. Results Through networking at the SIs, participants experienced decreased isolation and strengthened working relationships. Participants accessed new knowledge, opportunities, and resources through networking during the SI. Post-SI, participants reported ongoing contact and collaboration, although most participants desired more opportunities for interaction. They made suggestions for structural supports to networking among new global health researchers. Conclusions Networking at the SI contributed positively to opportunities for individuals, and contributed to the formation of a network of global health researchers. Intentional inclusion of networking in health research capacity strengthening initiatives, with supportive resources and infrastructure could create dynamic, sustainable networks accessible to global health researchers around the world. PMID:24460819

  15. A River Runs through Math Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Linda L.; Roberge, Martin C.

    2012-01-01

    For students who have difficulty envisioning how the mathematics that they are learning is used outside the classroom, an adventure as field mathematicians can be enlightening. Measuring stream discharge is a field experience that allows students to engage in a hands-on (and boots-on) real-world, problem-solving activity and that integrates…

  16. From Walking to Running

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, Juergen; Blum, Yvonne; Seyfarth, Andre

    The implementation of bipedal gaits in legged robots is still a challenge in state-of-the-art engineering. Human gaits could be realized by imitating human leg dynamics where a spring-like leg behavior is found as represented in the bipedal spring-mass model. In this study we explore the gap between walking and running by investigating periodic gait patterns. We found an almost continuous morphing of gait patterns between walking and running. The technical feasibility of this transition is, however, restricted by the duration of swing phase. In practice, this requires an abrupt gait transition between both gaits, while a change of speed is not necessary.

  17. Fermilab DART run control

    SciTech Connect

    Oleynik, G.; Engelfried, J.; Mengel, L.

    1995-05-01

    DART is the high speed, Unix based data acquisition system being developed by Fermilab in collaboration with seven High Energy Physics Experiments. This paper describes DART run control, which has been developed over the past year and is a flexible, distributed, extensible system for the, control and monitoring of the data acquisition systems. We discuss the unique and interesting concepts of the run control and some of our experiences in developing it. We also give a brief update and status of the whole DART system.

  18. Training Systems Modelers through the Development of a Multi-scale Chagas Disease Risk Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanley, J.; Stevens-Goodnight, S.; Kulkarni, S.; Bustamante, D.; Fytilis, N.; Goff, P.; Monroy, C.; Morrissey, L. A.; Orantes, L.; Stevens, L.; Dorn, P.; Lucero, D.; Rios, J.; Rizzo, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    The goal of our NSF-sponsored Division of Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences grant is to create a multidisciplinary approach to develop spatially explicit models of vector-borne disease risk using Chagas disease as our model. Chagas disease is a parasitic disease endemic to Latin America that afflicts an estimated 10 million people. The causative agent (Trypanosoma cruzi) is most commonly transmitted to humans by blood feeding triatomine insect vectors. Our objectives are: (1) advance knowledge on the multiple interacting factors affecting the transmission of Chagas disease, and (2) provide next generation genomic and spatial analysis tools applicable to the study of other vector-borne diseases worldwide. This funding is a collaborative effort between the RSENR (UVM), the School of Engineering (UVM), the Department of Biology (UVM), the Department of Biological Sciences (Loyola (New Orleans)) and the Laboratory of Applied Entomology and Parasitology (Universidad de San Carlos). Throughout this five-year study, multi-educational groups (i.e., high school, undergraduate, graduate, and postdoctoral) will be trained in systems modeling. This systems approach challenges students to incorporate environmental, social, and economic as well as technical aspects and enables modelers to simulate and visualize topics that would either be too expensive, complex or difficult to study directly (Yasar and Landau 2003). We launch this research by developing a set of multi-scale, epidemiological models of Chagas disease risk using STELLA® software v.9.1.3 (isee systems, inc., Lebanon, NH). We use this particular system dynamics software as a starting point because of its simple graphical user interface (e.g., behavior-over-time graphs, stock/flow diagrams, and causal loops). To date, high school and undergraduate students have created a set of multi-scale (i.e., homestead, village, and regional) disease models. Modeling the system at multiple spatial scales forces recognition that

  19. Guiding the development of family medicine training in Africa through collaboration with the Medical Education Partnership Initiative.

    PubMed

    Mash, Robert J; de Villiers, Marietjie R; Moodley, Kalay; Nachega, Jean B

    2014-08-01

    Africa's health care challenges include a high burden of disease, low life expectancy, health workforce shortages, and varying degrees of commitment to primary health care on the part of policy makers and government officials. One overarching goal of the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) is to develop models of medical education in Sub-Saharan Africa. To do this, MEPI has created a network of universities and other institutions that, among other things, recognizes the importance of supporting training programs in family medicine. This article provides a framework for assessing the stage of the development of family medicine training in Africa, including the challenges that were encountered and how educational organizations can help to address them. A modified "stages of change" model (precontemplation, contemplation, action, maintenance, and relapse) was used as a conceptual framework to understand the various phases that countries go through in developing family medicine in the public sector and to determine the type of assistance that is useful at each phase.

  20. Retaining nurses through conflict resolution. Training staff to confront problems and communicate openly can improve the work climate.

    PubMed

    Fowler, A R; Bushardt, S C; Jones, M A

    1993-06-01

    The way nurses resolve conflict may be leading them to quit their jobs or leave the profession altogether. Conflict is inevitable in a dynamic organization. What is important is not to avoid conflict but to seek its resolution in a constructive manner. Organizational conflict is typically resolved through one of five strategies: withdrawal, force, conciliation, compromise, or confrontation. A recent study of nurses in three different hospitals showed that the approach they use most is withdrawal. This might manifest itself in a request to change shifts or assignments and may lead to a job change and, eventually, abandonment of the field altogether. Given this scenario, changing nurses' conflict resolution style may help administrators combat the nursing shortage. Healthcare organizations must examine themselves to determine why nurses so frequently use withdrawal; then they must restructure work relationships as needed. Next, organizations need to increase nurses' awareness of the problem and train them to use a resolution style more conducive to building stable relationships: confrontation. Staff should also be trained in effective communications skills to develop trust and openness in their relationships. PMID:10126220

  1. Guiding the development of family medicine training in Africa through collaboration with the Medical Education Partnership Initiative.

    PubMed

    Mash, Robert J; de Villiers, Marietjie R; Moodley, Kalay; Nachega, Jean B

    2014-08-01

    Africa's health care challenges include a high burden of disease, low life expectancy, health workforce shortages, and varying degrees of commitment to primary health care on the part of policy makers and government officials. One overarching goal of the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) is to develop models of medical education in Sub-Saharan Africa. To do this, MEPI has created a network of universities and other institutions that, among other things, recognizes the importance of supporting training programs in family medicine. This article provides a framework for assessing the stage of the development of family medicine training in Africa, including the challenges that were encountered and how educational organizations can help to address them. A modified "stages of change" model (precontemplation, contemplation, action, maintenance, and relapse) was used as a conceptual framework to understand the various phases that countries go through in developing family medicine in the public sector and to determine the type of assistance that is useful at each phase. PMID:25072584

  2. Coding of Electric Pulse Trains Presented through Cochlear Implants in the Auditory Midbrain of Awake Rabbit: Comparison with Anesthetized Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, Kenneth E.; Nam, Sung-Il; Delgutte, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) listeners show limits at high frequencies in tasks involving temporal processing such as rate pitch and interaural time difference discrimination. Similar limits have been observed in neural responses to electric stimulation in animals with CI; however, the upper limit of temporal coding of electric pulse train stimuli in the inferior colliculus (IC) of anesthetized animals is lower than the perceptual limit. We hypothesize that the upper limit of temporal neural coding has been underestimated in previous studies due to the confound of anesthesia. To test this hypothesis, we developed a chronic, awake rabbit preparation for single-unit studies of IC neurons with electric stimulation through CI. Stimuli were periodic trains of biphasic pulses with rates varying from 20 to 1280 pulses per second. We found that IC neurons in awake rabbits showed higher spontaneous activity and greater sustained responses, both excitatory and suppressive, at high pulse rates. Maximum pulse rates that elicited synchronized responses were approximately two times higher in awake rabbits than in earlier studies with anesthetized animals. Here, we demonstrate directly that anesthesia is a major factor underlying these differences by monitoring the responses of single units in one rabbit before and after injection of an ultra-short-acting barbiturate. In general, the physiological rate limits of IC neurons in the awake rabbit are more consistent with the psychophysical limits in human CI subjects compared with limits from anesthetized animals. PMID:24381283

  3. From the Green Screen to the Classroom: Training Graduate Students to Communicate Science and Mathematics Effectively through the INSPIRE Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Donna M.; Radencic, Sarah P.; Walker, Ryan M.; Cartwright, John H.; Schmitz, Darrel W.; Bruce, Lori M.; McNeal, Karen S.

    2014-11-01

    Initiating New Science Partnerships in Rural Education (INSPIRE) is a five-year partnership between Mississippi State University and three school districts in Mississippi’s Golden Triangle region. This fellowship program is designed to strengthen the communication and scientific reasoning skills of STEM graduate students by having them design and implement inquiry-based lessons which channel various aspects of their research in our partner classrooms. Fellows are encouraged to explore a diversity of approaches in classroom lesson design and to use various technologies in their lessons, including GIS, SkyMaster weather stations, Celestia, proscopes, benchtop SEM, and others. Prior to entering the classrooms for a full school year, Fellows go through an intense graduate-level training course and work directly with their partner teachers, the program coordinator, and participating faculty, to fold their lessons into the curricula of the classrooms to which they’ve been assigned. Here, we will discuss the various written, oral, and visual exercises that have been most effective for training our Fellows, including group discussions of education literature, role playing and team-building exercises, preparation of written lesson plans for dissemination to other teachers nationwide, the Presentation Boot Camp program, and production of videos made by the Fellows highlighting careers in STEM fields. We will also discuss the changes observed in Fellows’ abilities to communicate science and mathematics over the course of their fellowship year. INSPIRE is funded by the NSF Graduate K-12 (GK-12) STEM Fellowship Program, award number DGE-0947419.

  4. The Art of Running

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jill Harris

    2007-01-01

    Every year, the Parent-Teacher Association of Ferndale Elementary School in Atlanta, Georgia sponsors a fun road race for the students, teachers, families, and community. This annual event has inspired the author to develop the Running and Art project to show off her students' art and squeeze in a little art history, too. In this article, the…

  5. Running Wheel for Earthworms.

    PubMed

    Wilson, W Jeffrey; Johnson, Brandon A

    2016-01-01

    We describe the construction and use of a running wheel responsive to the movement of the earthworm. The wheel employs readily available, inexpensive components and is easily constructed. Movement of the wheel can be monitored visually or via standard behavioral laboratory computer interfaces. Examples of data are presented, and possibilities for use in the teaching classroom are discussed.

  6. Running Wheel for Earthworms.

    PubMed

    Wilson, W Jeffrey; Johnson, Brandon A

    2016-01-01

    We describe the construction and use of a running wheel responsive to the movement of the earthworm. The wheel employs readily available, inexpensive components and is easily constructed. Movement of the wheel can be monitored visually or via standard behavioral laboratory computer interfaces. Examples of data are presented, and possibilities for use in the teaching classroom are discussed. PMID:27385934

  7. Running Wheel for Earthworms

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, W. Jeffrey; Johnson, Brandon A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the construction and use of a running wheel responsive to the movement of the earthworm. The wheel employs readily available, inexpensive components and is easily constructed. Movement of the wheel can be monitored visually or via standard behavioral laboratory computer interfaces. Examples of data are presented, and possibilities for use in the teaching classroom are discussed. PMID:27385934

  8. A dignified approach to improving the patient experience: promoting privacy, dignity and respect through collaborative training.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Angelina

    2012-07-01

    Globally there is a plethora of literature surrounding patients' privacy, dignity and respect, consequently highlighting the need for healthcare professionals to ensure such basic human rights are upheld when delivering care. For qualified practitioners this is further emphasised through the professional bodies and their varying codes of practice. To ensure privacy, dignity and respect move from rhetoric to reality in professional practice many pre-registration programmes promote service user involvement. Evidence suggests that involving service users in the delivery of educational programmes by directly telling their own stories enhances patient centred care. However given a number of recent patient surveys and/or audits reporting the lack of privacy, dignity and respect in health and social care settings there seems to be a growing need to reaffirm practitioners' knowledge, skills and values once qualified and practising in healthcare organisations. This paper reports on a project in a UK NHS Mental health Trust where service users, in collaboration with Trust staff, planned and delivered a series of privacy and dignity workshops to healthcare practitioners with the aim of improving the patient experience. Although the project took place within a Mental Health Trust the issues of privacy, dignity and respect apply to all healthcare sectors.

  9. Internships and UNAVCO: Training the Future Geoscience Workforce Through the NSF GAGE Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, A. R.; MacPherson-Krutsky, C. C.; Charlevoix, D. J.; Bartel, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Facilities are uniquely positioned to both serve a broad, national audience and provide unique workforce experience to students and recent graduates. Intentional efforts dedicated to broadening participation in the future geoscience workforce at the NSF GAGE (Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and EarthScope) Facility operated by UNAVCO, are designed to meet the needs of the next generation of students and professionals. As a university-governed consortium facilitating research and education in the geosciences, UNAVCO is well-situated to both prepare students for geoscience technical careers and advanced research positions. Since 1998, UNAVCO has offered over 165 student assistant or intern positions including engineering, data services, education and outreach, and business support. UNAVCO offers three formal programs: the UNAVCO Student Internship Program (USIP), Research Experiences in Solid Earth Science for Students (RESESS), and the Geo-Launchpad (GLP) internship program. Interns range from community college students up through graduate students and recent Masters graduates. USIP interns gain real-world work experience in a professional setting, collaborate with teams toward a common mission, and contribute their knowledge, skills, and abilities to the UNAVCO community. RESESS interns conduct authentic research with a scientist in the Front Range area as well as participate in a structured professional development series. GLP students are in their first 2 years of higher education and work alongside UNAVCO technical staff gaining valuable work experience and insight into the logistics of supporting scientific research. UNAVCO's efforts in preparing the next generation of scientists largely focuses on increasing diversity in the geosciences, whether continuing academic studies or moving into the workforce. To date, well over half of our interns and student assistants come from backgrounds historically underrepresented in the geosciences. Over 80% of former interns

  10. Technology Training for Older Job-Seeking Adults: The Efficacy of a Program Offered through a University-Community Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taha, Jessica; Czaja, Sara J.; Sharit, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Many older adults who lose their jobs face challenges in finding new employment due to fundamental limitations in their technology skills. While training could give them the skills they need, older workers often have less access to training programs than younger workers. This study examined the feasibility of using an e-learning training program…

  11. Does running strengthen bone?

    PubMed

    Boudenot, Arnaud; Achiou, Zahra; Portier, Hugues

    2015-12-01

    Bone is a living tissue needing mechanical stress to maintain strength. Traditional endurance exercises offer only modest effects on bone. Walking and running produce low impact but lead to bone fatigue. This article is specifically addressed to therapists and explains the mechanisms involved for the effects of exercise on bone. Intermittent exercise limits bone fatigue, and downhill exercises increase ground impact forces and involve eccentric muscle contractions, which are particularly osteogenic. PMID:26562001

  12. Uniqueness of Human Running Coordination: The Integration of Modern and Ancient Evolutionary Innovations.

    PubMed

    Kiely, John; Collins, David J

    2016-01-01

    Running is a pervasive activity across human cultures and a cornerstone of contemporary health, fitness, and sporting activities. Yet for the overwhelming predominance of human existence running was an essential prerequisite for survival. A means to hunt, and a means to escape when hunted. In a very real sense humans have evolved to run. Yet curiously, perhaps due to running's cultural ubiquity and the natural ease with which we learn to run, we rarely consider the uniqueness of human bipedal running within the animal kingdom. Our unique upright, single stance, bouncing running gait imposes a unique set of coordinative difficulties. Challenges demanding we precariously balance our fragile brains in the very position where they are most vulnerable to falling injury while simultaneously retaining stability, steering direction of travel, and powering the upcoming stride: all within the abbreviated time-frames afforded by short, violent ground contacts separated by long flight times. These running coordination challenges are solved through the tightly-integrated blending of primitive evolutionary legacies, conserved from reptilian and vertebrate lineages, and comparatively modern, more exclusively human, innovations. The integrated unification of these top-down and bottom-up control processes bestows humans with an agile control system, enabling us to readily modulate speeds, change direction, negotiate varied terrains and to instantaneously adapt to changing surface conditions. The seamless integration of these evolutionary processes is facilitated by pervasive, neural and biological, activity-dependent adaptive plasticity. Over time, and with progressive exposure, this adaptive plasticity shapes neural and biological structures to best cope with regularly imposed movement challenges. This pervasive plasticity enables the gradual construction of a robust system of distributed coordinated control, comprised of processes that are so deeply collectively entwined that

  13. Uniqueness of Human Running Coordination: The Integration of Modern and Ancient Evolutionary Innovations

    PubMed Central

    Kiely, John; Collins, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Running is a pervasive activity across human cultures and a cornerstone of contemporary health, fitness, and sporting activities. Yet for the overwhelming predominance of human existence running was an essential prerequisite for survival. A means to hunt, and a means to escape when hunted. In a very real sense humans have evolved to run. Yet curiously, perhaps due to running's cultural ubiquity and the natural ease with which we learn to run, we rarely consider the uniqueness of human bipedal running within the animal kingdom. Our unique upright, single stance, bouncing running gait imposes a unique set of coordinative difficulties. Challenges demanding we precariously balance our fragile brains in the very position where they are most vulnerable to falling injury while simultaneously retaining stability, steering direction of travel, and powering the upcoming stride: all within the abbreviated time-frames afforded by short, violent ground contacts separated by long flight times. These running coordination challenges are solved through the tightly-integrated blending of primitive evolutionary legacies, conserved from reptilian and vertebrate lineages, and comparatively modern, more exclusively human, innovations. The integrated unification of these top-down and bottom-up control processes bestows humans with an agile control system, enabling us to readily modulate speeds, change direction, negotiate varied terrains and to instantaneously adapt to changing surface conditions. The seamless integration of these evolutionary processes is facilitated by pervasive, neural and biological, activity-dependent adaptive plasticity. Over time, and with progressive exposure, this adaptive plasticity shapes neural and biological structures to best cope with regularly imposed movement challenges. This pervasive plasticity enables the gradual construction of a robust system of distributed coordinated control, comprised of processes that are so deeply collectively entwined that

  14. Geoscience Perspectives in Carbon Sequestration - Educational Training and Research Through Classroom, Field, and Laboratory Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Wronkiewicz, David; Paul, Varum; Abousif, Alsedik; Ryback, Kyle

    2013-09-30

    The most effective mechanism to limit CO2 release from underground Geologic Carbon Sequestration (GCS) sites over multi-century time scales will be to convert the CO2 into solid carbonate minerals. This report describes the results from four independent research investigations on carbonate mineralization: 1) Colloidal calcite particles forming in Maramec Spring, Missouri, provide a natural analog to evaluate reactions that may occur in a leaking GCS site. The calcite crystals form as a result of physiochemical changes that occur as the spring water rises from a depth of more than 190'. The resultant pressure decrease induces a loss of CO2 from the water, rise in pH, lowering of the solubility of Ca2+ and CO32-, and calcite precipitation. Equilibrium modelling of the spring water resulted in a calculated undersaturated state with respect to calcite. The discontinuity between the observed occurrence of calcite and the model result predicting undersaturated conditions can be explained if bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) are directly involved in precipitation process rather than just carbonate ions (CO32-). 2) Sedimentary rocks in the Oronto Group of the Midcontinent Rift (MCR) system contain an abundance of labile Ca-, Mg-, and Fe-silicate minerals that will neutralize carbonic acid and provide alkaline earth ions for carbonate mineralization. One of the challenges in using MCR rocks for GCS results from their low porosity and permeability. Oronto Group samples were reacted with both CO2-saturated deionized water at 90°C, and a mildly acidic leachant solution in flow-through core-flooding reactor vessels at room temperature. Resulting leachate solutions often exceeded the saturation limit for calcite. Carbonate crystals were also detected in as little as six days of reaction with Oronto Group rocks at 90oC, as well as experiments with forsterite

  15. National Strategies for Developing Human Resources through Technical and Vocational Education and Training. The 2001 KRIVET International Conference on Technical and Vocational Education and Training [Proceedings] (Seoul, South Korea, November 21-23, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korea Research Inst. for Vocational Education and Training, Seoul.

    This document contains 19 papers and case studies, in English and Korean, from a conference on national strategies for developing human resources through technical and vocational education and training. The following are representative: "The Need to Innovate and Optimize Resources [Keynote]" (Wataru Iwamoto); "School to Work Transition in…

  16. Running the Power Station.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeson, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Considers the history of the information technology revolution in education in Britain. Topics include the early ZX80 machine; the development of microcomputers; government support; audio-visual equipment; and problems that current teachers in training still have in using technology appropriately. (LRW)

  17. RUNNING A LANGUAGE LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    REES, ALUN L.W.

    THIS ARTICLE DESCRIBES THE LANGUAGE LABORATORY AT THE NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF TRUJILLO AS IT IS USED IN THE FIVE-YEAR ENGLISH TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAM. THE FIRST TWO YEARS OF THIS COURSE ARE INTENSIVE, BASED ON A STUDY OF ENGLISH USING LADO-FRIES MATERIALS (FOR LATIN AMERICAN LEARNERS) WHICH REQUIRE FIVE HOURS OF CLASSWORK A WEEK SUPPLEMENTED BY…

  18. Metabolic responses and mechanisms during water immersion running and exercise.

    PubMed

    Frangolias, D D; Rhodes, E C

    1996-07-01

    The low impact nature of exercise in the water has increased interest in this form of exercise and specifically in water running as a cross-training modality. It is used as a possible preventative and therapeutic modality for rehabilitation. The high impact nature of land running predisposes the runner to stress of the lower limbs and overuse injuries. The need to reduce impact, as well as provide a low impact or non-weight-bearing condition for rehabilitation, has led runners and their coaches to the water. This increased interest by coaches and their athletes, attending sports medicine physicians and rehabilitative professionals has stimulated research into water immersion to the neck (WI) running. Exercise in the water has long been used by rehabilitative professionals with patients who have physically debilitating conditions (i.e. arthritis, musculoskeletal disorders) as it provides a medium for even those with limited mobility to exercise and relax their muscles. Numerous comparative studies into WI running from a metabolic as well as a training perspective have been published. WI has also long been used to simulate weightlessness for the comparative study of cardiorespiratory function and thermoregulation. WI and the associated cephalad shift in blood volume has implications on exercise responses during WI running exercise. In addition, the non-weight-bearing nature of WI running also raises issues of the cross-training benefits of WI running. WI running style and prior familiarity with the activity have been found to have a direct relationship with the comparability of WI to land running. This review presents current research into WI running, training specificity and comparative physiology.

  19. Biomechanics of sprint running. A review.

    PubMed

    Mero, A; Komi, P V; Gregor, R J

    1992-06-01

    Understanding of biomechanical factors in sprint running is useful because of their critical value to performance. Some variables measured in distance running are also important in sprint running. Significant factors include: reaction time, technique, electromyographic (EMG) activity, force production, neural factors and muscle structure. Although various methodologies have been used, results are clear and conclusions can be made. The reaction time of good athletes is short, but it does not correlate with performance levels. Sprint technique has been well analysed during acceleration, constant velocity and deceleration of the velocity curve. At the beginning of the sprint run, it is important to produce great force/power and generate high velocity in the block and acceleration phases. During the constant-speed phase, the events immediately before and during the braking phase are important in increasing explosive force/power and efficiency of movement in the propulsion phase. There are no research results available regarding force production in the sprint-deceleration phase. The EMG activity pattern of the main sprint muscles is described in the literature, but there is a need for research with highly skilled sprinters to better understand the simultaneous operation of many muscles. Skeletal muscle fibre characteristics are related to the selection of talent and the training-induced effects in sprint running. Efficient sprint running requires an optimal combination between the examined biomechanical variables and external factors such as footwear, ground and air resistance. Further research work is needed especially in the area of nervous system, muscles and force and power production during sprint running. Combining these with the measurements of sprinting economy and efficiency more knowledge can be achieved in the near future.

  20. Run II luminosity progress

    SciTech Connect

    Gollwitzer, K.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron Collider Run II program continues at the energy and luminosity frontier of high energy particle physics. To the collider experiments CDF and D0, over 3 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity has been delivered to each. Upgrades and improvements in the Antiproton Source of the production and collection of antiprotons have led to increased number of particles stored in the Recycler. Electron cooling and associated improvements have help make a brighter antiproton beam at collisions. Tevatron improvements to handle the increased number of particles and the beam lifetimes have resulted in an increase in luminosity.

  1. One Health concept for strengthening public health surveillance and response through Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Wurapa, Frederick; Afari, Ebenezer; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Sackey, Samuel; Clerk, Christine; Kwadje, Simon; Yebuah, Nathaniel; Amankwa, Joseph; Amofah, George; Appiah-Denkyira, Ebenezer

    2011-01-01

    scientific conferences. The Ghana FELTP (GFELTP) has promoted the introduction of the One Health concept into FELTP. It hosted the first USAID–supported workshop in West Africa to further integrate and strengthen collaboration of the animal and human health sectors in the FETP model. GFELTP has also taken the lead in hosting the first AFENET Center for Training in Public Health Leadership and Management, through which the short course on Management for Improving Public Health Interventions was developed for AFENET member countries. The GFELTP pre-tested the Integrated Avian Influenza Outbreak and Pandemic Influenza course in preparation for introducing the materials into the curriculum of other FELTP in the network. The leadership positions to which the graduates of the program have been appointed in the human and animal Public Health Services, improvement in disease surveillance, outbreak investigation and response along with the testimony of the health authorities about their appreciation of the outputs of the graduates at various fora, is a strong indication that the GFELTP is meeting its objectives. PMID:22359694

  2. One Health concept for strengthening public health surveillance and response through Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Wurapa, Frederick; Afari, Ebenezer; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Sackey, Samuel; Clerk, Christine; Kwadje, Simon; Yebuah, Nathaniel; Amankwa, Joseph; Amofah, George; Appiah-Denkyira, Ebenezer

    2011-01-01

    scientific conferences. The Ghana FELTP (GFELTP) has promoted the introduction of the One Health concept into FELTP. It hosted the first USAID-supported workshop in West Africa to further integrate and strengthen collaboration of the animal and human health sectors in the FETP model. GFELTP has also taken the lead in hosting the first AFENET Center for Training in Public Health Leadership and Management, through which the short course on Management for Improving Public Health Interventions was developed for AFENET member countries. The GFELTP pre-tested the Integrated Avian Influenza Outbreak and Pandemic Influenza course in preparation for introducing the materials into the curriculum of other FELTP in the network. The leadership positions to which the graduates of the program have been appointed in the human and animal Public Health Services, improvement in disease surveillance, outbreak investigation and response along with the testimony of the health authorities about their appreciation of the outputs of the graduates at various fora, is a strong indication that the GFELTP is meeting its objectives.

  3. Monitoring Project CANAL Training Activities: Student Training Activities for 70 Project CANAL Schools (October 17, 1990 through June 6, 1991). Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Mary E.; Kurtz, Norman R.

    An evaluation was done to assess the participation of students from the 70 Creating a New Approach to Learning Project (Project CANAL) schools in training activities organized by Project CANAL. Two activities were included. The first, titled "student Workshops," consisted of a series of five 1-day workshops that sought to provide students with…

  4. Training compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, A.N. )

    1989-02-01

    Legally mandated training to effect compliance with environmental regulations came into prominence with RCRA. Training and its associated recordkeeping requirements were to be in place by May 18, 1981, but, for the most part, this deadline went unnoticed. Whether the lack of response reflected that fact that the RCRA regulations were extremely confusing or that the training requirements were not taken seriously is hard to determine. Ironically, while RCRA facilities were frequently deficient in meeting the training requirements, it was this specific aspect of the regulations that inexperienced inspectors often targeted and cited. Over the years, through a combination of citations and, more importantly, an increasing appreciation of the benefits of training, the attitude toward regulatory compliance training slowly improved. This paper reflects the attitudes of both management and the workers receiving the training.

  5. Effect of "developmental speech and language training through music" on speech production in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hayoung A

    2010-01-01

    The study compared the effect of music training, speech training and no-training on the verbal production of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Participants were 50 children with ASD, age range 3 to 5 years, who had previously been evaluated on standard tests of language and level of functioning. They were randomly assigned to one of three 3-day conditions. Participants in music training (n = 18) watched a music video containing 6 songs and pictures of the 36 target words; those in speech training (n = 18) watched a speech video containing 6 stories and pictures, and those in the control condition (n = 14) received no treatment. Participants' verbal production including semantics, phonology, pragmatics, and prosody was measured by an experimenter designed verbal production evaluation scale. Results showed that participants in both music and speech training significantly increased their pre to posttest verbal production. Results also indicated that both high and low functioning participants improved their speech production after receiving either music or speech training; however, low functioning participants showed a greater improvement after the music training than the speech training. Children with ASD perceive important linguistic information embedded in music stimuli organized by principles of pattern perception, and produce the functional speech.

  6. Cardiac Risks Associated With Marathon Running

    PubMed Central

    Day, Sharlene M.; Thompson, Paul D.

    2010-01-01

    Context: A recent cluster of sudden cardiac deaths in marathon runners has attracted considerable media attention and evoked concern over the safety of long-distance running and competition. This review discusses the acute and potential long-term risks associated with marathon running and puts these into perspective with the many health benefits afforded by habitual vigorous exercise. Evidence Acquisition: Data sources included peer-reviewed publications from 1979 to January 2010 as identified via PubMed and popular media. Results: Marathon running is associated with a transient and low risk of sudden cardiac death. This risk appears to be even lower in women and is independent of marathon experience or the presence of previously reported symptoms. Most deaths are due to underlying coronary artery disease. The value of preparticipation screening is limited by its insensitivity and impracticality of widespread implementation. Appropriate preparation and deployment of trained medical personnel and availability of automatic external defibrillators are expected to have a major impact on survival from cardiac arrests during marathons. Cardiac biochemical and functional abnormalities are commonly observed transiently following completion of a marathon, although their clinical significance is unknown. Conclusions: Sudden cardiac deaths associated with marathon running are exceedingly rare events. Prevention should focus on recognition and investigation of prodromal symptoms, if present, and access to rapid defibrillation and trained medical personnel. The robust association of endurance running with improved quality of life and longevity underscores the importance of putting risks into perspective with other well-established health benefits of regular vigorous exercise. PMID:23015951

  7. The Relationship between Running Velocity and the Energy Cost of Turning during Running

    PubMed Central

    Hatamoto, Yoichi; Yamada, Yosuke; Sagayama, Hiroyuki; Higaki, Yasuki; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Ball game players frequently perform changes of direction (CODs) while running; however, there has been little research on the physiological impact of CODs. In particular, the effect of running velocity on the physiological and energy demands of CODs while running has not been clearly determined. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between running velocity and the energy cost of a 180°COD and to quantify the energy cost of a 180°COD. Nine male university students (aged 18–22 years) participated in the study. Five shuttle trials were performed in which the subjects were required to run at different velocities (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 km/h). Each trial consisted of four stages with different turn frequencies (13, 18, 24 and 30 per minute), and each stage lasted 3 minutes. Oxygen consumption was measured during the trial. The energy cost of a COD significantly increased with running velocity (except between 7 and 8 km/h, p = 0.110). The relationship between running velocity and the energy cost of a 180°COD is best represented by a quadratic function (y = −0.012+0.066x +0.008x2, [r = 0.994, p = 0.001]), but is also well represented by a linear (y = −0.228+0.152x, [r = 0.991, p<0.001]). These data suggest that even low running velocities have relatively high physiological demands if the COD frequency increases, and that running velocities affect the physiological demands of CODs. These results also showed that the energy expenditure of COD can be evaluated using only two data points. These results may be useful for estimating the energy expenditure of players during a match and designing shuttle exercise training programs. PMID:24497913

  8. The Establishment of an ISO Compliant Cancer Biobank for Jordan and its Neighboring Countries Through Knowledge Transfer and Training

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Martin; Souan, Lina; MacGabhann, Peadar; Müller, Jeanette; Al Ashhab, Maxim; Jasser, Mohammed; Hamza, Khetam; Al Hassoon, Sallam; Kuhn, Uwe; Infante, Daniela; Lawlor, Denise; Gately, Kathy; Amireh, Eyad; O'Byrne, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Research studies aimed at advancing cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment depend on a number of key resources, including a ready supply of high-quality annotated biospecimens from diverse ethnic populations that can be used to test new drugs, assess the validity of prognostic biomarkers, and develop tailor-made therapies. In November 2011, KHCCBIO was established at the King Hussein Cancer Center (KHCC) with the support of Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) funding from the European Union (khccbio.khcc.jo). KHCCBIO was developed for the purpose of achieving an ISO accredited cancer biobank through the collection, processing, and preservation of high-quality, clinically annotated biospecimens from consenting cancer patients, making it the first cancer biobank of its kind in Jordan. The establishment of a state-of-the-art, standardized biospecimen repository of matched normal and lung tumor tissue, in addition to blood components such as serum, plasma, and white blood cells, was achieved through the support and experience of its European partners, Trinity College Dublin, Biostór Ireland, and accelopment AG. To date, KHCCBIO along with its partners, have worked closely in establishing an ISO Quality Management System (QMS) under which the biobank will operate. A Quality Policy Manual, Validation, and Training plan have been developed in addition to the development of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for consenting policies on ethical issues, data privacy, confidentiality, and biobanking bylaws. SOPs have also been drafted according to best international practices and implemented for the donation, procurement, processing, testing, preservation, storage, and distribution of tissues and blood samples from lung cancer patients, which will form the basis for the procurement of other cancer types. KHCCBIO will be the first ISO accredited cancer biobank from a diverse ethnic Middle Eastern and North African population. It will provide a unique and valuable resource

  9. The establishment of an ISO compliant cancer biobank for Jordan and its neighboring countries through knowledge transfer and training.

    PubMed

    Barr, Martin; Souan, Lina; MacGabhann, Peadar; Müller, Jeanette; Al Ashhab, Maxim; Jasser, Mohammed; Hamza, Khetam; Al Hassoon, Sallam; Kuhn, Uwe; Infante, Daniela; Lawlor, Denise; Gately, Kathy; Amireh, Eyad; O'Byrne, Kenneth; Sughayer, Maher A

    2014-02-01

    Research studies aimed at advancing cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment depend on a number of key resources, including a ready supply of high-quality annotated biospecimens from diverse ethnic populations that can be used to test new drugs, assess the validity of prognostic biomarkers, and develop tailor-made therapies. In November 2011, KHCCBIO was established at the King Hussein Cancer Center (KHCC) with the support of Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) funding from the European Union (khccbio.khcc.jo). KHCCBIO was developed for the purpose of achieving an ISO accredited cancer biobank through the collection, processing, and preservation of high-quality, clinically annotated biospecimens from consenting cancer patients, making it the first cancer biobank of its kind in Jordan. The establishment of a state-of-the-art, standardized biospecimen repository of matched normal and lung tumor tissue, in addition to blood components such as serum, plasma, and white blood cells, was achieved through the support and experience of its European partners, Trinity College Dublin, Biostór Ireland, and accelopment AG. To date, KHCCBIO along with its partners, have worked closely in establishing an ISO Quality Management System (QMS) under which the biobank will operate. A Quality Policy Manual, Validation, and Training plan have been developed in addition to the development of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for consenting policies on ethical issues, data privacy, confidentiality, and biobanking bylaws. SOPs have also been drafted according to best international practices and implemented for the donation, procurement, processing, testing, preservation, storage, and distribution of tissues and blood samples from lung cancer patients, which will form the basis for the procurement of other cancer types. KHCCBIO will be the first ISO accredited cancer biobank from a diverse ethnic Middle Eastern and North African population. It will provide a unique and valuable resource

  10. The NLstart2run study: Incidence and risk factors of running-related injuries in novice runners.

    PubMed

    Kluitenberg, B; van Middelkoop, M; Smits, D W; Verhagen, E; Hartgens, F; Diercks, R; van der Worp, H

    2015-10-01

    Running is a popular form of physical activity, despite of the high incidence of running-related injuries (RRIs). Because of methodological issues, the etiology of RRIs remains unclear. Therefore, the purposes of the study were to assess the incidence of RRIs and to identify risk factors for RRIs in a large group of novice runners. In total, 1696 runners of a 6-week supervised "Start to Run" program were included in the NLstart2run study. All participants were aged between 18 and 65, completed a baseline questionnaire that covered potential risk factors, and completed at least one running diary. RRIs were registered during the program with a weekly running log. An RRI was defined as a musculo-skeletal complaint of the lower extremity or back attributed to running and hampering running ability for three consecutive training sessions. During the running program, 10.9% of the runners sustained an RRI. The multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that a higher age, higher BMI, previous musculo-skeletal complaints not attributed to sports and no previous running experience were related to RRI. These findings indicate that many novice runners participating in a short-term running program suffer from RRIs. Therefore, the identified risk factors should be considered for screening and prevention purposes.

  11. Does Addiction Run in Families?

    MedlinePlus

    ... runs in some families. Addiction runs in ours." Matt's family has a history of addiction. He realizes ... may be more likely to become addicted. Read Matt's story About the National Institute on Drug Abuse ( ...

  12. Making Ends Meet: Midlife and Older Women's Search for Economic Self-Sufficiency through Job Training and Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Vikki

    Midlife and older women are at an economic disadvantage relative to their male counterparts and younger women. Older women should be served by the nation's employment, training, and vocational programs. Interviews with participants and operators of employment and training programs identified six program components needed to serve older women: (1)…

  13. Professional Learning through a Generative Approach to Mentoring: Lessons from a Training School Partnership and Their Wider Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Joan; Fitzgerald, Bernie

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the development of a generative, research-based approach to mentoring initial teacher training students in a Training School/university partnership. Drawing on data from mentors, trainees and pupils it describes two phases of development, both of which use video recordings of participants' classroom practice to stimulate…

  14. Social Competency Training Goes to School: Pupil Involvement in the Classroom through Problem-Solving with People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallarman, Prudence R.; And Others

    The need for a "systems" approach to school-based social competency training has been highlighted by a national commission and the U.S. Department of Education. The Pupil Involvement/Problem-Solving with People (PI/PSP) curriculum has adapted numerous, well-researched social compentency training models targeted for elementary classroom use.…

  15. Community Safety and Recidivism in Australia: Breaking the Cycle of Reoffending to Produce Safer Communities through Vocational Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahn, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    This article links community safety with recidivism and argues that reintegration of offenders is a community responsibility. The paper discusses the role of vocational training for incarcerated offenders as a tool to reduce recidivism. Training and subsequent employment for released offenders are factors that assist them to become contributing…

  16. Increasing School Success through Partnership-Based Family Competency Training: Experimental Study of Long-Term Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoth, Richard; Randall, G. Kevin; Shin, Chungyeol

    2008-01-01

    An expanding body of research suggests an important role for parent or family competency training in children's social-emotional learning and related school success. This article summarizes a test of a longitudinal model examining partnership-based family competency training effects on academic success in a general population. Specifically, it…

  17. Spelling Improvement through Letter-Sound and Whole-Word Training in Two Multilingual Greek- and English-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niolaki, Georgia Z.; Masterson, Jackie; Terzopoulos, Aris R.

    2014-01-01

    Case studies of two children with spelling difficulty are reported. LK was multilingual and ED bilingual. A training programme that targeted phonic decoding (or sublexical) spelling processes was conducted with both children. Immediate and delayed post-training assessments showed improvement in spelling nonwords for LK but not for ED. Training…

  18. Enabling Labour Market Entry for Adults through Non-Formal Education and Training for Employment in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayombe, Celestin

    2016-01-01

    Adult non-formal education and training (NFET) in South Africa was adopted in 1990 to address the problem of unemployment of non-educated and unskilled adults. Public and private NFET centres aim to meet the training needs of adults who were deprived of formal education that would foster access to opportunities for employment. The paper reports on…

  19. Attitudes to Formal Business Training and Learning amongst Entrepreneurs in the Cultural Industries: Situated Business Learning through "Doing with Others."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffo, Carlo; O'Connor, Justin; Lovatt, Andy; Banks, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Presents arguments supporting a social model of learning linked to situated learning and cultural capital. Critiques training methods used in cultural industries (arts, publishing, broadcasting, design, fashion, restaurants). Uses case study evidence to demonstrates inadequacies of formal training in this sector. (Contains 49 references.) (SK)

  20. VOLUNTARY WHEEL RUNNING ENHANCES CONTEXTUAL BUT NOT TRACE FEAR CONDITIONING

    PubMed Central

    Kohman, Rachel A.; Clark, Peter J.; DeYoung, Erin K.; Bhattacharya, Tushar K.; Venghaus, Christine E.; Rhodes, Justin S.

    2011-01-01

    Exercise improves performance on a number of hippocampus involved cognitive tasks including contextual fear conditioning, but whether exercise enhances contextual fear when the retention interval is longer than 1 day is not known. Also unknown is whether exercise improves trace conditioning, a task that requires the hippocampus to bridge the time interval between stimuli. Hence, 4-month-old male C57BL/6J mice were housed with or without running wheels. To assess whether hippocampal neurogenesis was associated with behavioral outcomes, during the initial ten days, mice received Bromodeoxyuridine to label dividing cells. After 30 days, one group of mice was trained in a contextual fear conditioning task. Freezing to context was assessed 1, 7, or 21 days post-training. A separate group was trained on a trace procedure, in which a tone and footshock were separated by a 15, 30, or 45 sec interval. Freezing to the tone was measured 24 hrs later in a novel environment, and freezing to training context was measured 48 hrs later. Running enhanced freezing to context when the retention interval was 1, but not 7 or 21 days. Running had no effect on trace conditioning even though runners displayed enhanced freezing to the training context 48 hrs later. Wheel running increased survival of new neurons in the hippocampus. Collectively, findings indicate that wheel running enhances cognitive performance on some tasks but not others and that enhanced neurogenesis is not always associated with improved performance on hippocampus tasks, one example of which is trace conditioning. PMID:21896289

  1. SAVAGE RUN WILDERNESS, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCallum, M.E.; Kluender, Steven E.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral evaluation and related surveys were conducted in the Savage Run Wilderness in Wyoming and results of these studies indicate probable mineral-resource potential in four areas. Gold and (or) silver mineralization in veins associated with faults was found in two areas; all known occurrences inside the wilderness are very small in size. Slightly anomalous values of platinum, palladium, and nickel were recorded from rock-chip and stream- sediment samples from the southeast portion of the wilderness where layered mafic rocks predominate, and a probable resource potential exists for platinum, palladium, and nickel. An area of sheared rocks in the northeastern corner of the wilderness has a probable resource potential for copper. The nature of the geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of organic fuels.

  2. The future of health promotion in schools goes through the strengthening of teacher training at a global level.

    PubMed

    Jourdan, Didier; Samdal, Oddrun; Diagne, Fatou; Carvalho, Graça S

    2008-09-01

    Schools are considered to be settings for both health education and health promotion. But the core business of schools is actually focused on educational outcomes, not reducing health problems. In most countries, schools give low priority to health promotion, and school staffs, mainly teachers, are not aware of their role in health promotion. Studies show that teachers who have received health promotion training tend to be involved more frequently in health promotion projects and have a more comprehensive approach to health education. Pre-service and in-service staff training is then a main challenge. This is the reason why we have launched an initiative to join international forces to strengthen and advocate for teacher training in health promotion. The main goals are to develop research, affirm and reinforce the work done in teacher training in health promotion, support the institutes/colleges/universities in the provision of pre-service and in-service teacher training and stimulate international partnership work.

  3. Why Does My Nose Run?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Why Does My Nose Run? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Does My Nose Run? Print A A A Text ... smell, you must be upside down! But why does your nose run? Read on to find out ...

  4. A Usability and Learnability Case Study of Glass Flight Deck Interfaces and Pilot Interactions through Scenario-based Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Cino, Thomas J., II

    In the aviation industry, digitally produced and presented flight, navigation, and aircraft information is commonly referred to as glass flight decks. Glass flight decks are driven by computer-based subsystems and have long been a part of military and commercial aviation sectors. Over the past 15 years, the General Aviation (GA) sector of the aviation industry has become a recent beneficiary of the rapid advancement of computer-based glass flight deck (GFD) systems. While providing the GA pilot considerable enhancements in the quality of information about the status and operations of the aircraft, training pilots on the use of glass flight decks is often delivered with traditional methods (e.g. textbooks, PowerPoint presentations, user manuals, and limited computer-based training modules). These training methods have been reported as less than desirable in learning to use the glass flight deck interface. Difficulties in achieving a complete understanding of functional and operational characteristics of the GFD systems, acquiring a full understanding of the interrelationships of the varied subsystems, and handling the wealth of flight information provided have been reported. Documented pilot concerns of poor user experience and satisfaction, and problems with the learning the complex and sophisticated interface of the GFD are additional issues with current pilot training approaches. A case study was executed to explore ways to improve training using GFD systems at a Midwestern aviation university. The researcher investigated if variations in instructional systems design and training methods for learning glass flight deck technology would affect the perceptions and attitudes of pilots of the learnability (an attribute of usability) of the glass flight deck interface. Specifically, this study investigated the effectiveness of scenario-based training (SBT) methods to potentially improve pilot knowledge and understanding of a GFD system, and overall pilot user

  5. [Energy cost of running during a specific transition in duathlon].

    PubMed

    Vallier, Jean-Marc; Mazure, Cyrille; Hausswirth, Christophe; Bernard, Thierry; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2003-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the variability of the energy cost of running (Cr) during a simulated duathlon performed in outdoor conditions by elite duathletes. This duathlon consisted of 5 km of running, 30 km of cycling, and 5 km of running. The main result was the lack of significant difference in Cr between the two running bouts (210 +/- 10 mL d'O2.km-1.kg-1 vs. 217 +/- 10 mL d'O2.km-1.kg-1). This result is different from those observed during a triathlon, where an increase of energy cost of running bout has been reported. Furthermore, during a short-distance duathlon performed by well-trained subjects, none of the physiological (ventilation alteration, metabolic changes, or dehydration) or biomechanical factors that are classically evoked in triathlon research to explain Cr variability seem to be affected by the run-cycle-run transition. These results seem to minimize the negative effect of the cycle-to-run transition during a short-duration event in well-trained subjects. PMID:14710519

  6. Effect of adaptive paced cardiolocomotor synchronization during running: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Bill; Jin, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Cardiolocomotor synchronization (CLS) has been well established for individuals engaged in rhythmic activity, such as walking, running, or cycling. When frequency of the activity is at or near the heart rate, entrainment occurs. CLS has been shown in many cases to improve the efficiency of locomotor activity, improving stroke volume, reducing blood pressure variability, and lowering the oxygen uptake (VO2). Instead of a 1:1 frequency ratio of activity to heart rate, an investigation was performed to determine if different harmonic coupling at other simple integer ratios (e.g. 1:2, 2:3, 3:2) could achieve any performance benefits. CLS was ensured by pacing the stride rate according to the measured heartbeat (i.e., adaptive paced CLS, or forced CLS). An algorithm was designed that determined the simplest ratio (lowest denominator) that, when multiplied by the heart rate will fall within an individualized, predetermined comfortable pacing range for the user. The algorithm was implemented on an iPhone 4, which generated a 'tick-tock' sound through the iPhone's headphones. A sham-controlled crossover study was performed with 15 volunteers of various fitness levels. Subjects ran a 3 mile (4.83 km) simulated training run at their normal pace on two consecutive days (randomized one adaptive pacing, one sham). Adaptive pacing resulted in faster runs run times, with subjects running an average of 26:03 ± 3:23 for adaptive pacing and 26:38 ± 3:31 for sham (F = 5.46, p < 0.05). The increase in heart rate from the start of the race as estimated by an exponential time constant was significantly longer during adaptive pacing, τ = 0.99 ± 0.30, compared to sham, τ = 1.53 ± 0.34 (t = -6.62, p < 0.01). Eighty-seven percent of runners found it easy to adjust their stride length to match the pacing signal with seventy-nine percent reporting that pacing helped their performance. These results suggest that adaptive paced CLS may have a beneficial effect on running performance and

  7. Chronic aerobic exercise training attenuates aortic stiffening and endothelial dysfunction through preserving aortic mitochondrial function in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qi; Wang, Bing; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Ma, Yan-Ping; Liu, Jian-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Ze

    2014-08-01

    Aging leads to large vessel arterial stiffening and endothelial dysfunction, which are important determinants of cardiovascular risk. The aim of present work was to assess the effects of chronic aerobic exercise training on aortic stiffening and endothelial dysfunction in aged rats and investigate the underlying mechanism about mitochondrial function. Chronic aerobic exercise training attenuated aortic stiffening with age marked by reduced collagen concentration, increased elastin concentration and reduced pulse wave velocity (PWV), and prevented aging-related endothelial dysfunction marked by improved endothelium-mediated vascular relaxation of aortas in response to acetylcholine. Chronic aerobic exercise training abated oxidative stress and nitrosative stress in aortas of aged rats. More importantly, we found that chronic aerobic exercise training in old rats preserved aortic mitochondrial function marked by reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and mitochondrial swelling, increased ATP formation and mitochondrial DNA content, and restored activities of complexes I and III and electron-coupling capacity between complexes I and III and between complexes II and III. In addition, it was found that chronic aerobic exercise training in old rats enhanced protein expression of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α), manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH-2), prohibitin (PHB) and AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in aortas. In conclusion, chronic aerobic exercise training preserved mitochondrial function in aortas, which, at least in part, explained the aorta-protecting effects of exercise training in aging.

  8. Tracking at CDF: algorithms and experience from Run I and Run II

    SciTech Connect

    Snider, F.D.; /Fermilab

    2005-10-01

    The authors describe the tracking algorithms used during Run I and Run II by CDF at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider, covering the time from about 1992 through the present, and discuss the performance of the algorithms at high luminosity. By tracing the evolution of the detectors and algorithms, they reveal some of the successful strategies used by CDF to address the problems of tracking at high luminosities.

  9. Implementation of a PACS for radiography training and clinical service in a university setting through a multinational effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Fuk-hay; Law, Yuen Y.; Zhang, Jianguo; Liu, Hai L.; Chang, Tony; Matsuda, Koyo; Cao, Fei

    2001-08-01

    The Hong Kong Polytechnic University has a Radiography Division under the Development of Optometry and Radiography. The Division trains both diagnostic and therapeutic radiographers with 60 students/year and offers a B.Sc. degree. In addition the Division together with the University Health Service operates a radiography clinic with radiology consultation from radiologists from other hospitals and clinics. This paper describers the implementation of a PACS in the Division for radiography training, and for clinical service.

  10. Backward running or absence of running from Creutz ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Giedt, Joel; Weinberg, Evan

    2011-10-01

    We extract the running coupling based on Creutz ratios in SU(2) lattice gauge theory with two Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation. Depending on how the extrapolation to zero fermion mass is performed, either backward running or an absence of running is observed at strong bare coupling. This behavior is consistent with other findings which indicate that this theory has an infrared fixed point.

  11. Collaborative Approaches to Increase the Utility of Spatial Data for the Wildfire Management Community Through NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCullum, A. J. K.; Schmidt, C.; Blevins, B.; Weber, K.; Schnase, J. L.; Carroll, M.; Prados, A. I.

    2015-12-01

    The utility of spatial data products and tools to assess risk and effectively manage wildfires has increased, highlighting the need for communicating information about these new capabilities to decision makers, resource managers, and community leaders. NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training (ARSET) program works directly with agencies and policy makers to develop in-person and online training courses that teach end users how to access, visualize, and apply NASA Earth Science data in their profession. The expansion of ARSET into wildfire applications began in 2015 with a webinar and subsequent in-person training hosted in collaboration with Idaho State University's (ISU) GIS Training and Research Center (TReC). These trainings featured presentations from the USDA Forest Service's Remote Sensing Training and Applications Center, the Land Processes DAAC, Northwest Nazarene University, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, and ISU's GIS TReC. The webinar focused on providing land managers, non-governmental organizations, and international management agencies with an overview of 1) remote sensing platforms for wildfire applications, 2) products for pre- and post-fire planning and assessment, 3) the use of terrain data, 4) new techniques and technologies such as Unmanned Aircraft Systems and the Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission (SMAP), and 5) the RECOVER Decision Support System. This training highlighted online tools that engage the wildfire community through collaborative monitoring and assessment efforts. Webinar attendance included 278 participants from 178 organizations in 42 countries and 33 US states. The majority of respondents (93%) from a post-webinar survey indicated they displayed improvement in their understanding of specific remote-sensing data products appropriate for their work needs. With collaborative efforts between federal, state, and local agencies and academic institutions, increased use of NASA Earth Observations may lead to improved near real

  12. The QCD running coupling

    DOE PAGES

    Deur, Alexandre; Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.

    2016-05-09

    Here, we review present knowledge onmore » $$\\alpha_{s}$$, the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) running coupling. The dependence of $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$ on momentum transfer $Q$ encodes the underlying dynamics of hadron physics --from color confinement in the infrared domain to asymptotic freedom at short distances. We will survey our present theoretical and empirical knowledge of $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$, including constraints at high $Q^2$ predicted by perturbative QCD, and constraints at small $Q^2$ based on models of nonperturbative dynamics. In the first, introductory, part of this review, we explain the phenomenological meaning of the coupling, the reason for its running, and the challenges facing a complete understanding of its analytic behavior in the infrared domain. In the second, more technical, part of the review, we discuss $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$ in the high momentum transfer domain of QCD. We review how $$\\alpha_s$$ is defined, including its renormalization scheme dependence, the definition of its renormalization scale, the utility of effective charges, as well as `` Commensurate Scale Relations" which connect the various definitions of the QCD coupling without renormalization scale ambiguity. We also report recent important experimental measurements and advanced theoretical analyses which have led to precise QCD predictions at high energy. As an example of an important optimization procedure, we discuss the ``Principle of Maximum Conformality" which enhances QCD's predictive power by removing the dependence of the predictions for physical observables on the choice of the gauge and renormalization scheme. In last part of the review, we discuss $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$ in the low momentum transfer domain, where there has been no consensus on how to define $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$ or its analytic behavior. We will discuss the various approaches used for low energy calculations. Among them, we will discuss the light-front holographic approach to QCD in the strongly coupled

  13. An overview of hip injuries in running.

    PubMed

    Paluska, Scott A

    2005-01-01

    Running has steadily gained in worldwide popularity and is the primary exercise modality for many individuals of all ages. Its low cost, versatility, convenience and related health benefits appeal to men and women of broad cultural, ethnic and economic backgrounds. With more children and adults participating in recreational and competitive running, the incidence of injuries has steadily increased. Most running-related injuries affecting the lower extremities are due to preventable training errors, and some may necessitate medical evaluation or a significant reduction in training. Hip injuries in runners are due to interactions of intrinsic and extrinsic factors that adversely affect the complex regional anatomy. Acute or chronic hip pain presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge because the vague, nonspecific symptoms and signs may originate from local, regional or distant foci. Muscle strains and tendonitis are the most common aetiologies of hip pain and typically result from sudden acceleration/deceleration manoeuvres, direction changes or eccentric contractions. Apophysitis and avulsion fractures may affect younger runners and produce localised pain at muscle attachment sites. Iliotibial band syndrome is a common cause of lateral hip and knee symptoms characterised by sharp or burning pain that is exacerbated by activity. Bursitis, due to repetitive activity or acute trauma, may affect the trochanteric, ischial or iliopectineal bursae. Hip osteoarthritis may also produce persistent pain that worsens with running. Stress fractures are potentially serious conditions that affect women more frequently than men. Snapping hip syndrome is a benign condition that results from tight connective tissues' passing repeatedly over the greater trochanter, anterior hip capsule, lesser trochanter, femoral head or iliopectineal eminence. Acetabular labral tears, sports hernias and nerve entrapment syndromes are also potential causes of persistent hip pain in runners

  14. Differential regulation of hippocampal progenitor proliferation by opioid receptor antagonists in running and non-running spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Persson, Anders I; Naylor, Andrew S; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H; Nyberg, Fred; Eriksson, Peter S; Thorlin, Thorleif

    2004-04-01

    Voluntary running in mice and forced treadmill running in rats have been shown to increase the amount of proliferating cells in the hippocampus. Little is known as yet about the mechanisms involved in these processes. It is well known that the endogenous opioid system is affected during running and other forms of physical exercise. In this study, we evaluated the involvement of the endogenous opioids in the regulation of hippocampal proliferation in non-running and voluntary running rats. Nine days of wheel running was compared with non-running in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a rat strain known to run voluntarily. On the last 2 days of the experimental period all rats received two daily injections of the opioid receptor antagonists naltrexone or naltrindole together with injections of bromodeoxyuridine to label dividing cells. Brain sections from the running rats showed approximately a five-fold increase in newly generated cells in the hippocampus, and this increase was partly reduced by naltrexone but not by naltrindole. By contrast, both naltrexone and naltrindole increased hippocampal proliferation in non-running rats. In non-running rats the administration of naltrexone decreased corticosterone levels and adrenal gland weights, whereas no significant effects on these parameters could be detected for naltrindole. However, adrenal gland weights were increased in naltrexone- but not in naltrindole-administered running rats. In addition, in voluntary running rats there was a three-fold increase in the hippocampal levels of Met-enkephalin-Arg-Phe compared with non-runners, indicating an increase in opioid activity in the hippocampus during running. These data suggest an involvement of endogenous opioids in the regulation of hippocampal proliferation in non-running rats, probably through hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis modulation. During voluntary running in SHR naltrexone altered hippocampal proliferation via as yet unknown mechanisms. PMID:15078558

  15. Marathon run: cardiovascular adaptation and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Predel, Hans-Georg

    2014-11-21

    The first marathon run as an athletic event took place in the context of the Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens, Greece. Today, participation in a 'marathon run' has become a global phenomenon attracting young professional athletes as well as millions of mainly middle-aged amateur athletes worldwide each year. One of the main motives for these amateur marathon runners is the expectation that endurance exercise (EE) delivers profound beneficial health effects. However, with respect to the cardiovascular system, a controversial debate has emerged whether the marathon run itself is healthy or potentially harmful to the cardiovascular system, especially in middle-aged non-elite male amateur runners. In this cohort, exercise-induced increases in cardiac biomarkers-troponin and brain natriuretic peptide-and acute functional cardiac alterations have been observed and interpreted as potential cardiac damage. Furthermore, in the cohort of 40- to 65-year-old males engaged in intensive EE, a significant risk for the development of atrial fibrillation has been identified. Fortunately, recent studies demonstrated a normalization of the cardiac biomarkers and the functional alterations within a short time frame. Therefore, these alterations may be perceived as physiological myocardial reactions to the strenuous exercise and the term 'cardiac fatigue' has been coined. This interpretation is supported by a recent analysis of 10.9 million marathon runners demonstrating that there was no significantly increased overall risk of cardiac arrest during long-distance running races. In conclusion, intensive and long-lasting EE, e.g. running a full-distance Marathon, results in high cardiovascular strain whose clinical relevance especially for middle-aged and older athletes is unclear and remains a matter of controversy. Furthermore, there is a need for evidence-based recommendations with respect to medical screening and training strategies especially in male amateur runners over the age of

  16. Jefferson Lab Data Acquisition Run Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Vardan Gyurjyan; Carl Timmer; David Abbott; William Heyes; Edward Jastrzembski; David Lawrence; Elliott Wolin

    2004-10-01

    A general overview of the Jefferson Lab data acquisition run control system is presented. This run control system is designed to operate the configuration, control, and monitoring of all Jefferson Lab experiments. It controls data-taking activities by coordinating the operation of DAQ sub-systems, online software components and third-party software such as external slow control systems. The main, unique feature which sets this system apart from conventional systems is its incorporation of intelligent agent concepts. Intelligent agents are autonomous programs which interact with each other through certain protocols on a peer-to-peer level. In this case, the protocols and standards used come from the domain-independent Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents (FIPA), and the implementation used is the Java Agent Development Framework (JADE). A lightweight, XML/RDF-based language was developed to standardize the description of the run control system for configuration purposes.

  17. Tandem steerable running gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fincannon, O. J.; Glenn, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    Characteristics of steering assembly for vehicle designed to move large components of space flight vehicles are presented. Design makes it possible to move heavy and bulky items through narrow passageways with tight turns. Typical configuration is illustrated to show dimensions of turning radius and minimum distances involved.

  18. The QCD running coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deur, Alexandre; Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.

    2016-09-01

    We review the present theoretical and empirical knowledge for αs, the fundamental coupling underlying the interactions of quarks and gluons in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). The dependence of αs(Q2) on momentum transfer Q encodes the underlying dynamics of hadron physics-from color confinement in the infrared domain to asymptotic freedom at short distances. We review constraints on αs(Q2) at high Q2, as predicted by perturbative QCD, and its analytic behavior at small Q2, based on models of nonperturbative dynamics. In the introductory part of this review, we explain the phenomenological meaning of the coupling, the reason for its running, and the challenges facing a complete understanding of its analytic behavior in the infrared domain. In the second, more technical, part of the review, we discuss the behavior of αs(Q2) in the high momentum transfer domain of QCD. We review how αs is defined, including its renormalization scheme dependence, the definition of its renormalization scale, the utility of effective charges, as well as "Commensurate Scale Relations" which connect the various definitions of the QCD coupling without renormalization-scale ambiguity. We also report recent significant measurements and advanced theoretical analyses which have led to precise QCD predictions at high energy. As an example of an important optimization procedure, we discuss the "Principle of Maximum Conformality", which enhances QCD's predictive power by removing the dependence of the predictions for physical observables on the choice of theoretical conventions such as the renormalization scheme. In the last part of the review, we discuss the challenge of understanding the analytic behavior αs(Q2) in the low momentum transfer domain. We survey various theoretical models for the nonperturbative strongly coupled regime, such as the light-front holographic approach to QCD. This new framework predicts the form of the quark-confinement potential underlying hadron spectroscopy and

  19. Biodiversity conservation in running waters

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, J.D. ); Flecker, A.S. )

    1993-01-01

    In the concerns about biodiversity conservation, fresh waters have received less attention than tropical forests and oceans. However, running waters harbor a diverse panoply of species, habitats, and ecosystems, including some of the most threatened and many having great value to human society. An overview of the biological diversity of running waters and the state of imperilment is presented. Six major factors that threaten destruction of running water species and ecosystems are discussed: habitat loss and degradation; species invasions; overharvesting; secondary extinctions; chemical and organic pollution; global climate change. General measures for recovery and restoration of running waters conclude the article.

  20. A Running Start: Resource Guide for Youth Running Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenny, Seth; Becker, Andrew; Armstrong, Tess

    2016-01-01

    The lack of physical activity is an epidemic problem among American youth today. In order to combat this, many schools are incorporating youth running programs as a part of their comprehensive school physical activity programs. These youth running programs are being implemented before or after school, at school during recess at the elementary…