Science.gov

Sample records for run through trains

  1. Improvement in Running Economy after 6 Weeks of Plyometric Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Amanda M.; Owings, Matt; Schwane, James A.

    2003-01-01

    Investigated whether a 6-week regimen of plyometric training would improve running economy. Data were collected on 18 regular but not highly trained distance runners who participated in either regular running training or plyometric training. Results indicated that 6 weeks of plyometric training improved running economy at selected speeds in this…

  2. Teaching Bank Runs through Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, David T.

    2009-01-01

    The author advocates the use of films to supplement textbook treatments of bank runs and panics in money and banking or general banking classes. Modern students, particularly those in developed countries, tend to be unfamiliar with potential fragilities of financial systems such as a lack of deposit insurance or other safety net mechanisms. Films…

  3. The Effects of Backwards Running Training on Forward Running Economy in Trained Males.

    PubMed

    Ordway, Jason D; Laubach, Lloyd L; Vanderburgh, Paul M; Jackson, Kurt J

    2016-03-01

    Backwards running (BR) results in greater cardiopulmonary response and muscle activity compared with forward running (FR). BR has traditionally been used in rehabilitation for disorders such as stroke and lower leg extremity injuries, as well as in short bursts during various athletic events. The aim of this study was to measure the effects of sustained backwards running training on forward running economy in trained male athletes. Eight highly trained, male runners (26.13 ± 6.11 years, 174.7 ± 6.4 cm, 68.4 ± 9.24 kg, 8.61 ± 3.21% body fat, 71.40 ± 7.31 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) trained with BR while harnessed on a treadmill at 161 m·min(-1) for 5 weeks following a 5-week BR run-in period at a lower speed (134 m·min(-1)). Subjects were tested at baseline, postfamiliarized, and post-BR training for body composition, a ramped VO2max test, and an economy test designed for trained male runners. Subjects improved forward running economy by 2.54% (1.19 ± 1.26 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), p = 0.032) at 215 m·min(-1). VO2max, body mass, lean mass, fat mass, and % body fat did not change (p > 0.05). Five weeks of BR training improved FR economy in healthy, trained male runners without altering VO2max or body composition. The improvements observed in this study could be a beneficial form of training to an already economical population to improve running economy.

  4. A Crack Runs Through It

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D image taken by the microscopic imager on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a close-up of the center of the rock abrasion tool hole, ground into 'Bounce' on the rover's 66th sol on Mars. Features smaller than one-tenth of a millimeter (.004 inches) are visible. The observed area is a little over 3 centimeters (1.2 inches). The canyon-like crack that runs across the bottom half of the image is really only about 2 millimeters (about 0.08 inches) deep. Scientists are currently using a variety of instruments to study the chemical content of the rock.

  5. Ventilatory Threshold, Running Economy and Distance Running Performance of Trained Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Scott K.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    In an attempt to identify physiological factors that account for success in distance running, researchers evaluated relationships among ventilatory threshold, running economy, and distance running performance. Subjects were trained male runners with similar maximal aerobic power. (Authors/PP)

  6. Effects of multicycle-run training on triathlete performance.

    PubMed

    Hue, Olivier; Valluet, Alex; Blonc, Stephen; Hertogh, Claude

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of triathlon training using multiple, short cycle-run sequences (multicycle-run training) on cycle-run performance. Twelve competitive triathletes, randomized into two groups, underwent multicycle-run training or normal training for 6 weeks. During this period, baseline training remained the same for both groups, and only the high-intensity component differed. The differentiated exercises were performed at or above 100% maximal aerobic velocity. The improvements in overall cycle-run performance were similar (3.3 +/- 1.4 % and 6.1 +/- 1.7% rise in Performance in multicycle-run and normal training, respectively). However, the improvement in performance was significantly greater for the multicycle-run training (-11.2 +/- 6.8 s versus -1.2 +/- 7. 7 s for multicycle-run training and normal training, respectively) during both the cycle-run change and the first 333-m lap, which together are termed the cycle-run transition. We concluded that 6 weeks of multicycle-run training did not induce greater improvement in cycle-run performance than did normal training in competitive triathletes. However, it did induce significant improvement in the cycle-run transition. This finding indicates that multicycle-run training may help competitive triathletes to develop greater skill and better physiological adaptations during this critical transition period of the triathlon race.

  7. Effects of Heavy Strength Training on Running Performance and Determinants of Running Performance in Female Endurance Athletes.

    PubMed

    Vikmoen, Olav; Raastad, Truls; Seynnes, Olivier; Bergstrøm, Kristoffer; Ellefsen, Stian; Rønnestad, Bent R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training to normal endurance training on running performance and running economy in well-trained female athletes. We hypothesized that the added strength training would improve performance and running economy through altered stiffness of the muscle-tendon complex of leg extensors. Nineteen female endurance athletes [maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): 53±3 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, 5.8 h weekly endurance training] were randomly assigned to either normal endurance training (E, n = 8) or normal endurance training combined with strength training (E+S, n = 11). The strength training consisted of four leg exercises [3 x 4-10 repetition maximum (RM)], twice a week for 11 weeks. Muscle strength, 40 min all-out running distance, running performance determinants and patellar tendon stiffness were measured before and after the intervention. E+S increased 1RM in leg exercises (40 ± 15%) and maximal jumping height in counter movement jump (6 ± 6%) and squat jump (9 ± 7%, p < 0.05). This was accompanied by increased muscle fiber cross sectional area of both fiber type I (13 ± 7%) and fiber type II (31 ± 20%) in m. vastus lateralis (p < 0.05), with no change in capillary density in m. vastus lateralis or the stiffness of the patellar tendon. Neither E+S nor E changed running economy, fractional utilization of VO2max or VO2max. There were also no change in running distance during a 40 min all-out running test in neither of the groups. Adding heavy strength training to endurance training did not affect 40 min all-out running performance or running economy compared to endurance training only.

  8. Effects of Heavy Strength Training on Running Performance and Determinants of Running Performance in Female Endurance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Vikmoen, Olav; Raastad, Truls; Seynnes, Olivier; Bergstrøm, Kristoffer; Ellefsen, Stian; Rønnestad, Bent R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training to normal endurance training on running performance and running economy in well-trained female athletes. We hypothesized that the added strength training would improve performance and running economy through altered stiffness of the muscle-tendon complex of leg extensors. Methods Nineteen female endurance athletes [maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): 53±3 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, 5.8 h weekly endurance training] were randomly assigned to either normal endurance training (E, n = 8) or normal endurance training combined with strength training (E+S, n = 11). The strength training consisted of four leg exercises [3 x 4–10 repetition maximum (RM)], twice a week for 11 weeks. Muscle strength, 40 min all-out running distance, running performance determinants and patellar tendon stiffness were measured before and after the intervention. Results E+S increased 1RM in leg exercises (40 ± 15%) and maximal jumping height in counter movement jump (6 ± 6%) and squat jump (9 ± 7%, p < 0.05). This was accompanied by increased muscle fiber cross sectional area of both fiber type I (13 ± 7%) and fiber type II (31 ± 20%) in m. vastus lateralis (p < 0.05), with no change in capillary density in m. vastus lateralis or the stiffness of the patellar tendon. Neither E+S nor E changed running economy, fractional utilization of VO2max or VO2max. There were also no change in running distance during a 40 min all-out running test in neither of the groups. Conclusion Adding heavy strength training to endurance training did not affect 40 min all-out running performance or running economy compared to endurance training only. PMID:26953893

  9. Running free: embracing a healthy lifestyle through distance running.

    PubMed

    Shipway, Richard; Holloway, Immy

    2010-11-01

    Sport and leisure activity contribute to both health and quality of life. There is a dearth of qualitative studies on the lived experiences of active people, so the aim of this paper is to develop a deeper understanding of the experiences of one particular group of active leisure participants, distance runners, and to highlight the associated health and well-being benefits that result from participating in this increasingly popular form of active leisure. In doing so, this paper will briefly explore the potential opportunities and implications for sport and leisure policy and provision, and highlight examples of how distance running could positively contribute towards government objectives linked to tackling obesity levels, healthy living and physical well-being. It is suggested that similar benefits also exist across other forms of physical activity, exercise and sport. Qualitative methods of enquiry were adopted to understand the nature of the social world of long distance runners through interviews and observations, which were thematically analyzed. One of the key themes emerging from the data was the desire to embrace a healthy lifestyle, which then led to the emergence of four main sub-themes. The first was linked to the importance of seeking self-esteem and confirmation through running; second, an investigation of a selection of negative aspects associated with exercise addiction; third, the need to exercise among sport and leisure participants; and finally, an understanding of the concept of the 'running body'. Cautionary notes also identified negative aspects associated with exercise and physical activity. The findings highlight the potential role that distance running can play as an easily accessible and enjoyable leisure activity, one that can help facilitate increased participation in exercise and physical activity as an integral part of an active and healthy lifestyle.

  10. The Effect of Training in Minimalist Running Shoes on Running Economy.

    PubMed

    Ridge, Sarah T; Standifird, Tyler; Rivera, Jessica; Johnson, A Wayne; Mitchell, Ulrike; Hunter, Iain

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of minimalist running shoes on oxygen uptake during running before and after a 10-week transition from traditional to minimalist running shoes. Twenty-five recreational runners (no previous experience in minimalist running shoes) participated in submaximal VO2 testing at a self-selected pace while wearing traditional and minimalist running shoes. Ten of the 25 runners gradually transitioned to minimalist running shoes over 10 weeks (experimental group), while the other 15 maintained their typical training regimen (control group). All participants repeated submaximal VO2 testing at the end of 10 weeks. Testing included a 3 minute warm-up, 3 minutes of running in the first pair of shoes, and 3 minutes of running in the second pair of shoes. Shoe order was randomized. Average oxygen uptake was calculated during the last minute of running in each condition. The average change from pre- to post-training for the control group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 3.1 ± 15.2% and 2.8 ± 16.2%, respectively. The average change from pre- to post-training for the experimental group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 8.4 ± 7.2% and 10.4 ± 6.9%, respectively. Data were analyzed using a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA. There were no significant interaction effects, but the overall improvement in running economy across time (6.15%) was significant (p = 0.015). Running in minimalist running shoes improves running economy in experienced, traditionally shod runners, but not significantly more than when running in traditional running shoes. Improvement in running economy in both groups, regardless of shoe type, may have been due to compliance with training over the 10-week study period and/or familiarity with testing procedures. Key pointsRunning in minimalist footwear did not result in a change in running economy compared to running in traditional footwear

  11. [Running and the association with anthropometric and training characteristics].

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Stiefel, Michael; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph; Zingg, Matthias

    2015-05-01

    Running can be performed as a sprint discipline on the track over a few meters up to 10 km to the marathon and ultramarathon running distances over hundreds to thousands of kilometers. Running performance is influenced by a variety of anthropometric and training factors. Morphological features such as skin fold thickness, body fat percentage, circumferences and length of limbs, body weight, body height and body mass index (BMI) seem to have an influence on the running performance. The training volume and running speed during training are also correlated with running performance. When all variables were investigated comparatively, body fat and running speed during training were usually the most important influencing factors. For longer running performances (over 6 hours or 100 km, respectively), the aspects of experience (number of successfully finished races) and personal best times were, however, far more important than training volume or morphological characteristics such as body fat. It was also shown that ultra runners prepare differently (lower running speed and higher running volume) as runners competing over shorter distances such as half-marathon and marathon.

  12. Countermeasure for reducing vibrations of a building for running trains

    SciTech Connect

    Yonekura, Yorio

    1995-12-01

    This paper describes the with vibration reduction effect of a railway station building, by making use of special rail fastening devices and track girders for running trains set on the second floor. To estimate the vibration reduction effect, dynamic interaction between trains, supporting girders and building members was analyzed numerically. In order to make a few corrections for calculated values, correction coefficients were introduced by comparing analytical values with measured ones obtained by running trains.

  13. Expedition 31 Qualification Training Simulation Runs

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Expedition 31 Flight Engineers Gennady Padalka, Sergei Revin and Joe Acaba, along with backup crew members Kevin Ford, Oleg Novitskiy and Evgeny Tarelkin, complete qualification training simulation...

  14. Five training sessions improves 3000 meter running performance.

    PubMed

    Riiser, A; Ripe, S; Aadland, E

    2015-12-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of two weeks of endurance training on 3000-meter running performance. Secondary we wanted to assess the relationship between baseline running performance and change in running performance over the intervention period. We assigned 36 military recruits to a training group (N.=28) and a control group. The training group was randomly allocated to one of three sub-groups: 1) a 3000 meter group (test race); 2) a 4x4-minutes high-intensity interval group; 3) a continuous training group. The training group exercised five times over a two-week period. The training group improved its 3000 meter running performance with 50 seconds (6%) compared to the control group (P=0.003). Moreover, all sub-groups improved their performance by 37 to 73 seconds (4-8%) compared to the control group (P<0.037). There was a significant relationship between pretest performance and improvement from pre- to post-test (ρ=-0.65, P<0.001) in the training group. We conclude that five endurance training sessions improved 3000 meter running performance and the slowest runners achieved the greatest improvement in running performance.

  15. Preventing Running Injuries through Barefoot Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Priscilla M.; Smith, Darla R.

    2008-01-01

    Running has become a very popular lifetime physical activity even though there are numerous reports of running injuries. Although common theories have pointed to impact forces and overpronation as the main contributors to chronic running injuries, the increased use of cushioning and orthotics has done little to decrease running injuries. A new…

  16. Preventing Running Injuries through Barefoot Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Priscilla M.; Smith, Darla R.

    2008-01-01

    Running has become a very popular lifetime physical activity even though there are numerous reports of running injuries. Although common theories have pointed to impact forces and overpronation as the main contributors to chronic running injuries, the increased use of cushioning and orthotics has done little to decrease running injuries. A new…

  17. Astronaut John Glenn running as part of physical training program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Astronaut John H. Glenn Jr., pilot of the Mercury-Atlas 6 mission, participates in a strict physical training program, as he exemplifies by frequent running. Here he pauses during an exercise period on the beach near Cape Canaveral, Florida.

  18. 5K Run: 7-Week Training Schedule for Beginners

    MedlinePlus

    ... Run/walk 2 miles (3.2 km) with Magic Mile* Sunday Rest or walk Week 4 On ... Run/walk 2 miles (3.2 km) with Magic Mile* Sunday Rest or walk Week 6 On ... Meyer & Meyer Sport; 2008. Used with permission. *The Magic Mile is a training tool designed to help ...

  19. 12. A LONG RUN OF EXPOSED TOP SURFACE, NORTH TRAINING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. A LONG RUN OF EXPOSED TOP SURFACE, NORTH TRAINING WALL, ABOUT 1,500 FEET EAST OF THE FEDERAL CHANNEL MOUTH. VIEW TO WEST, TOWARD SAN FRANCISCO. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  20. The effect of endurance running training on asthmatic adults.

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, W; Nute, M G; Williams, C

    1989-01-01

    Nine mild to moderate asthmatic adults (three males, six females) and six non-asthmatics (one male, five females) underwent endurance running training three times per week for five weeks, at self selected running speeds on a motorized treadmill. After training, the asthmatic group had a significantly higher maximum oxygen uptake, significantly lower blood lactate and heart rate in submaximal running, and significantly reduced time to complete a two mile treadmill run, partly attributable to the ability to exercise at a higher % VO2 max after training. These training induced changes of the asthmatic group were generally of a greater magnitude than those shown by the non-asthmatic group. Although seven of the nine asthmatics did show a reduction in the post-exercise fall in FEV1 after the five week training period, this was not statistically significant for the asthmatic group as a whole. The results of this study therefore suggest that endurance running training can improve the aerobic fitness of asthmatic adults, and may reduce the severity of exercise-induced asthma. PMID:2605441

  1. Running-specific, periodized strength training attenuates loss of stride length during intense endurance running.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Lanao, Jonathan; Rhea, Matthew R; Fleck, Steven J; Lucia, Alejandro

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a running-specific, periodized strength training program (performed over the specific period [8 weeks] of a 16-week macrocycle) on endurance-trained runners' capacity to maintain stride length during running bouts at competitive speeds. Eighteen well-trained middle-distance runners completed the study (personal bests for 1500 and 5000 m of 3 minutes 57 seconds +/- 12 seconds and 15 minutes 24 seconds +/- 36 seconds). They were randomly assigned to each of the following groups (6 per group): periodized strength group, performing a periodized strength training program over the 8-week specific (intervention) period (2 sessions per week); nonperiodized strength group, performing the same strength training exercises as the periodized group over the specific period but with no week-to-week variations; and a control group, performing no strength training at all during the specific period. The percentage of loss in the stride length (cm)/speed (m.s) (SLS) ratio was measured by comparing the mean SLS during the first and third (last) group of the total repetitions, respectively, included in each of the interval training sessions performed at race speeds during the competition period that followed the specific period. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in mean percentage of SLS loss between the 3 study groups, with the periodized strength group showing no significant SLS change (0.36 +/- 0.95%) and the 2 other groups showing a moderate or high SLS loss (-1.22 +/- 1.5% and -3.05 +/- 1.2% for the nonperiodized strength and control groups, respectively). In conclusion, periodized, running-specific strength training minimizes the loss of stride length that typically occurs in endurance runners during fatiguing running bouts.

  2. Spinal loading during circuit weight-training and running.

    PubMed Central

    Leatt, P; Reilly, T; Troup, J G

    1986-01-01

    Spinal shrinkage was used as an indicant of loading on the spine in circuit weight-training and running regimes. The loss of stature during two sets of a circuit of weight-training (n = 10), a 6 km run by novices (n = 9) and a 25 km run by trained runners (n = 7) was assessed in male subjects. Shrinkage was not significantly different between the weight-training regime and the 6 km run by novices, mean losses being 5.4 and 3.25 mm respectively. The rate of height loss in the experienced runners was 2.35 mm over 6 km run at 12.2 km.h-1, representing 0.4 mm.km-1 over the 6 km run, this shrinkage rate being continued over the last 19 km run at 14.7 km.h-1. The loss of height could not be predicted from a set of covariates. The magnitude of the circadian variation, mean 14.4 mm, exceeded the change in height during the 25 km run. The diurnal variation conformed to a cosine function, though a better fit was obtained with a power function equation. A marked diurnal pattern was also observed in lumbar extension. Though reversal of spinal shrinkage was observed during a night's sleep, no significant recovery occurred during a 20 min resting period immediately following the exercise regimes. These results have implications for the warm-up and timing of exercise regimes that impose significant loading on the spine. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3779339

  3. Adjustments with running speed reveal neuromuscular adaptations during landing associated with high mileage running training.

    PubMed

    Verheul, Jasper; Clansey, Adam C; Lake, Mark J

    2017-03-01

    It remains to be determined whether running training influences the amplitude of lower limb muscle activations before and during the first half of stance and whether such changes are associated with joint stiffness regulation and usage of stored energy from tendons. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate neuromuscular and movement adaptations before and during landing in response to running training across a range of speeds. Two groups of high mileage (HM; >45 km/wk, n = 13) and low mileage (LM; <15 km/wk, n = 13) runners ran at four speeds (2.5-5.5 m/s) while lower limb mechanics and electromyography of the thigh muscles were collected. There were few differences in prelanding activation levels, but HM runners displayed lower activations of the rectus femoris, vastus medialis, and semitendinosus muscles postlanding, and these differences increased with running speed. HM runners also demonstrated higher initial knee stiffness during the impact phase compared with LM runners, which was associated with an earlier peak knee flexion velocity, and both were relatively unchanged by running speed. In contrast, LM runners had higher knee stiffness during the slightly later weight acceptance phase and the disparity was amplified with increases in speed. It was concluded that initial knee joint stiffness might predominantly be governed by tendon stiffness rather than muscular activations before landing. Estimated elastic work about the ankle was found to be higher in the HM runners, which might play a role in reducing weight acceptance phase muscle activation levels and improve muscle activation efficiency with running training.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Although neuromuscular factors play a key role during running, the influence of high mileage training on neuromuscular function has been poorly studied, especially in relation to running speed. This study is the first to demonstrate changes in neuromuscular conditioning with high mileage training, mainly characterized by

  4. Neuromuscular adaptations to training, injury and passive interventions: implications for running economy.

    PubMed

    Bonacci, Jason; Chapman, Andrew; Blanch, Peter; Vicenzino, Bill

    2009-01-01

    Performance in endurance sports such as running, cycling and triathlon has long been investigated from a physiological perspective. A strong relationship between running economy and distance running performance is well established in the literature. From this established base, improvements in running economy have traditionally been achieved through endurance training. More recently, research has demonstrated short-term resistance and plyometric training has resulted in enhanced running economy. This improvement in running economy has been hypothesized to be a result of enhanced neuromuscular characteristics such as improved muscle power development and more efficient use of stored elastic energy during running. Changes in indirect measures of neuromuscular control (i.e. stance phase contact times, maximal forward jumps) have been used to support this hypothesis. These results suggest that neuromuscular adaptations in response to training (i.e. neuromuscular learning effects) are an important contributor to enhancements in running economy. However, there is no direct evidence to suggest that these adaptations translate into more efficient muscle recruitment patterns during running. Optimization of training and run performance may be facilitated through direct investigation of muscle recruitment patterns before and after training interventions. There is emerging evidence that demonstrates neuromuscular adaptations during running and cycling vary with training status. Highly trained runners and cyclists display more refined patterns of muscle recruitment than their novice counterparts. In contrast, interference with motor learning and neuromuscular adaptation may occur as a result of ongoing multidiscipline training (e.g. triathlon). In the sport of triathlon, impairments in running economy are frequently observed after cycling. This impairment is related mainly to physiological stress, but an alteration in lower limb muscle coordination during running after cycling

  5. Anthropometric and training variables related to 10km running performance.

    PubMed

    Bale, P; Bradbury, D; Colley, E

    1986-12-01

    Sixty male distance athletes were divided into three equal groups according to their personal best time for the 10km run. The runners were measured anthropometrically and each runner completed a detailed questionnaire on his athletic status, training programme and performance. The runners in this study had similar anthropometric and training profiles to other distance runners of a similar standard. The most able runners were shorter and lighter than those in the other two groups and significantly smaller skinfold values (P less than 0.05). There were no significant differences between the groups for either bone widths or circumferences but the elite and good runners had significantly higher ponderal indices (P less than 0.05) than the average runners, indicating that they are more linear. Elite and good runners were also less endomorphic but more ectomorphic than the average runners. The elite runners trained more often, ran more miles per week and had been running longer (P less than 0.05) than good or average runners. A multiple regression and discriminant function analysis indicated that linearity, total skinfold, the type and frequency of training and the number of years running were the best predictors of running performance and success at the 10km distance.

  6. Anthropometric and training variables related to 10km running performance.

    PubMed Central

    Bale, P; Bradbury, D; Colley, E

    1986-01-01

    Sixty male distance athletes were divided into three equal groups according to their personal best time for the 10km run. The runners were measured anthropometrically and each runner completed a detailed questionnaire on his athletic status, training programme and performance. The runners in this study had similar anthropometric and training profiles to other distance runners of a similar standard. The most able runners were shorter and lighter than those in the other two groups and significantly smaller skinfold values (P less than 0.05). There were no significant differences between the groups for either bone widths or circumferences but the elite and good runners had significantly higher ponderal indices (P less than 0.05) than the average runners, indicating that they are more linear. Elite and good runners were also less endomorphic but more ectomorphic than the average runners. The elite runners trained more often, ran more miles per week and had been running longer (P less than 0.05) than good or average runners. A multiple regression and discriminant function analysis indicated that linearity, total skinfold, the type and frequency of training and the number of years running were the best predictors of running performance and success at the 10km distance. PMID:3814989

  7. Astronaut John Glenn running as part of physical training program

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1962-02-20

    S64-14883 (1962) --- Astronaut John H. Glenn Jr., pilot of the Mercury-Atlas 6 mission, participates in a strict physical training program, as he exemplifies by frequent running. Here he pauses during an exercise period on the beach near Cape Canaveral, Florida. Photo credit: NASA

  8. Techniques for Planning--and Running--Better Training Meetings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Eleven tips for planning and running better training meetings are provided. Topics include some of the following: preparing to speak, using visuals more effectively, traveling with film, setting the time of the meeting, using a college campus as a meeting site, and getting going after a break. (JH)

  9. TRAINING ERRORS AND RUNNING RELATED INJURIES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Buist, Ida; Sørensen, Henrik; Lind, Martin; Rasmussen, Sten

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the link between training characteristics (volume, duration, frequency, and intensity) and running related injuries. Methods: A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and SportDiscus. Studies were included if they examined novice, recreational, or elite runners between the ages of 18 and 65. Exposure variables were training characteristics defined as volume, distance or mileage, time or duration, frequency, intensity, speed or pace, or similar terms. The outcome of interest was Running Related Injuries (RRI) in general or specific RRI in the lower extremity or lower back. Methodological quality was evaluated using quality assessment tools of 11 to 16 items. Results: After examining 4561 titles and abstracts, 63 articles were identified as potentially relevant. Finally, nine retrospective cohort studies, 13 prospective cohort studies, six case-control studies, and three randomized controlled trials were included. The mean quality score was 44.1%. Conflicting results were reported on the relationships between volume, duration, intensity, and frequency and RRI. Conclusion: It was not possible to identify which training errors were related to running related injuries. Still, well supported data on which training errors relate to or cause running related injuries is highly important for determining proper prevention strategies. If methodological limitations in measuring training variables can be resolved, more work can be conducted to define training and the interactions between different training variables, create several hypotheses, test the hypotheses in a large scale prospective study, and explore cause and effect relationships in randomized controlled trials. Level of evidence: 2a PMID:22389869

  10. Drive-Through Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Margie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how the early childhood field's approach to staff training reflects the drive-through, fast-food culture. Year after year directors send their teachers to workshops to get some quick refresher techniques. The author suggests that rather than focusing professional development on topics, focus on observing…

  11. Drive-Through Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Margie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how the early childhood field's approach to staff training reflects the drive-through, fast-food culture. Year after year directors send their teachers to workshops to get some quick refresher techniques. The author suggests that rather than focusing professional development on topics, focus on observing…

  12. Factors affecting running economy in trained distance runners.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Philo U; Pyne, David B; Telford, Richard D; Hawley, John A

    2004-01-01

    Running economy (RE) is typically defined as the energy demand for a given velocity of submaximal running, and is determined by measuring the steady-state consumption of oxygen (VO2) and the respiratory exchange ratio. Taking body mass (BM) into consideration, runners with good RE use less energy and therefore less oxygen than runners with poor RE at the same velocity. There is a strong association between RE and distance running performance, with RE being a better predictor of performance than maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in elite runners who have a similar VO2max). RE is traditionally measured by running on a treadmill in standard laboratory conditions, and, although this is not the same as overground running, it gives a good indication of how economical a runner is and how RE changes over time. In order to determine whether changes in RE are real or not, careful standardisation of footwear, time of test and nutritional status are required to limit typical error of measurement. Under controlled conditions, RE is a stable test capable of detecting relatively small changes elicited by training or other interventions. When tracking RE between or within groups it is important to account for BM. As VO2 during submaximal exercise does not, in general, increase linearly with BM, reporting RE with respect to the 0.75 power of BM has been recommended. A number of physiological and biomechanical factors appear to influence RE in highly trained or elite runners. These include metabolic adaptations within the muscle such as increased mitochondria and oxidative enzymes, the ability of the muscles to store and release elastic energy by increasing the stiffness of the muscles, and more efficient mechanics leading to less energy wasted on braking forces and excessive vertical oscillation. Interventions to improve RE are constantly sought after by athletes, coaches and sport scientists. Two interventions that have received recent widespread attention are strength training and

  13. Running sprint interval training induces fat loss in women.

    PubMed

    Hazell, Tom J; Hamilton, Craig D; Olver, T Dylan; Lemon, Peter W R

    2014-08-01

    Data on whether sprint interval training (SIT) (repeated supermaximal intensity, short-duration exercise) affects body composition are limited, and the data that are available suggest that men respond more favourably than do women. Moreover, most SIT data involve cycling exercise, and running may differ because of the larger muscle mass involved. Further, running is a more universal exercise type. This study assessed whether running SIT can alter body composition (air displacement plethysmography), waist circumference, maximal oxygen consumption, peak running speed, and (or) the blood lipid profile. Fifteen recreationally active women (age, 22.9 ± 3.6 years; height, 163.9 ± 5.1 cm; mass, 60.8 ± 5.2 kg) completed 6 weeks of running SIT (4 to 6, 30-s "all-out" sprints on a self-propelled treadmill separated by 4 min of rest performed 3 times per week). Training decreased body fat mass by 8.0% (15.1 ± 3.6 to 13.9 ± 3.4 kg, P = 0.002) and waist circumference by 3.5% (80.1 ± 4.2 to 77.3 ± 4.4 cm, P = 0.048), whereas it increased fat-free mass by 1.3% (45.7 ± 3.5 to 46.3 ± 2.9 kg, P = 0.05), maximal oxygen consumption by 8.7% (46 ± 5 to 50 ± 6 mL/(kg·min), P = 0.004), and peak running speed by 4.8% (16.6 ± 1.7 to 17.4 ± 1.4 km/h, P = 0.026). There were no differences in food intake assessed by 3-day food records (P > 0.329) or in blood lipids (P > 0.595), except for a slight decrease in high-density lipoprotein concentration (1.34 ± 0.28 to 1.24 ± 0.24 mmol/L, P = 0.034). Running SIT is a time-efficient strategy for decreasing body fat while increasing aerobic capacity, peak running speed, and fat-free mass in healthy young women.

  14. Any Way to Run a Railroad: Implications of Dedicated Trains

    SciTech Connect

    Dilger, F.C.; Halstead, R. J.

    2006-07-01

    The DOE recently issued a policy statement that it would use dedicated trains for most waste shipments to Yucca Mountain. Prior uncertainty about use of dedicated trains for Yucca Mountain rail shipments prevented an assessment of the likely impacts. This paper examines the controversy over the use of dedicated trains and evaluates the national impacts of shipping waste to Yucca Mountain using dedicated trains on the Union Pacific's preferred rail system. The national impacts of the routing are reported as route miles through three land use types: Rural, Urban and Census Places. (authors)

  15. Indices of training stress during competitive running and swimming seasons.

    PubMed

    Flynn, M G; Pizza, F X; Boone, J B; Andres, F F; Michaud, T A; Rodriguez-Zayas, J R

    1994-01-01

    Eight male cross-country runners and five male swimmers were tested four times during their collegiate seasons. Each trial corresponded to a different training load. The runners' trials were conducted before the start of organized practice (RT1), after 3 wk of increased training (RT2), 3 wk prior to the conference championship (pre-taper, RT3), and 4 d after the conference championship (post-taper, RT4). The swimmers' trials were conducted after the first 9 wk of training (ST1), after completing 2 wk of hard training (ST2), after an additional 6 wk of training (pre-taper, ST3) and during a week following the conference championship (post-taper, ST4). Venous blood samples, heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were obtained after 15 min supine rest (0700 h). Serum was analyzed for cortisol (C), total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), and creatine kinase (CK). Blood samples (lactate), HR and RPE were obtained during a fixed velocity run (75% preseason VO2max) and blood samples and RPE following a 365.8 m swim (90% preseason VO2max). The runners then completed a "performance run" to exhaustion (110% preseason VO2max) and the swimmers completed maximal 22.9 and 365.8 m swims. Serum CK, C, TT, FT, and the TT:C and FT:C ratios were not significantly different among trials for the runners. Serum TT and FT were significantly (P < 0.05) lower for the swimmers at ST2 (TT 16.7 +/- 2.5; FT 85.3 +/- 8.5) compared to ST1 (TT 30.3 +/- 2.8; FT 130.2 +/- 20.9) whereas, C, TT:C or FT:C were not significantly altered.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Adding Value through Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Stephen S.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    PPG's training department enhanced its value to the organization by getting closer to its internal customer and helping them build the competencies needed to meet business goals. Techniques included the training, development, and education process model and a professional development sourcebook clarifying competencies and activities for acquiring…

  17. Influence of Strength, Sprint Running, and Combined Strength and Sprint Running Training on Short Sprint Performance in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Marques, M C; Gabbett, T J; Marinho, D A; Blazevich, A J; Sousa, A; van den Tillaar, R; Izquierdo, M

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of transference of 6 weeks of full squat vs. full squat plus sprint running training to short (ranged from 0-10 to 0-30 m) sprint running performance in non-athletes. We hypothesized that a speed-full-squat training regimen could enhance squat strength and power with simultaneous improvements in short sprint performance. 122 physically active adults (age: 20.5±2.5 years; body mass: 65.8±6.1 kg; height: 1.71±0.08 m) were randomly divided into 4 groups: full squat training (n=36), combined full squat and sprint training (n=32), speed training only (n=34) and non-training control group (n=20). Each training group completed 2 sessions per week over 6 weeks, while the control group performed only their normal physical activity. Sprint performance was improved after sprint running or full squat training alone (1.7% and 1.8% P<0.05, respectively), however larger enhancements (2.3%; P<0.01) were observed after the combined full squat plus sprint training intervention. These results suggest that in recreationally active adults, combined full squat and sprint training provides a greater stimulus for improving sprint performance than either modality alone. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. 5. Aerial view of turnpike path running through center of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Aerial view of turnpike path running through center of photograph along row of trees. 1917 realignment visible along left edge of photograph along edge of forest. Modernized alignment resumes at top right of photograph. View looking north. - Orange Turnpike, Parallel to new Orange Turnpike, Monroe, Orange County, NY

  19. 2. Aerial view turnpike running through center of photograph along ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Aerial view turnpike running through center of photograph along the row of trees withing the bare spot on the landscape. Harriman Heights Road is the road located at the lower center of the photograph. View looking west. - Orange Turnpike, Parallel to new Orange Turnpike, Monroe, Orange County, NY

  20. The Acute Effect of Concurrent Training on Running Performance over 6 Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doma, Kenji; Deakin, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of strength training on alternating days and endurance training on consecutive days on running performance for 6 days. Methods: Sixteen male and 8 female moderately trained individuals were evenly assigned into concurrent-training (CCT) and strength-training (ST) groups. The CCT group undertook strength…

  1. The Acute Effect of Concurrent Training on Running Performance over 6 Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doma, Kenji; Deakin, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of strength training on alternating days and endurance training on consecutive days on running performance for 6 days. Methods: Sixteen male and 8 female moderately trained individuals were evenly assigned into concurrent-training (CCT) and strength-training (ST) groups. The CCT group undertook strength…

  2. Effects of a concurrent strength and endurance training on running performance and running economy in recreational marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Ferrauti, Alexander; Bergermann, Matthias; Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a concurrent strength and endurance training program on running performance and running economy of middle-aged runners during their marathon preparation. Twenty-two (8 women and 14 men) recreational runners (mean ± SD: age 40.0 ± 11.7 years; body mass index 22.6 ± 2.1 kg·m⁻²) were separated into 2 groups (n = 11; combined endurance running and strength training program [ES]: 9 men, 2 women and endurance running [E]: 7 men, and 4 women). Both completed an 8-week intervention period that consisted of either endurance training (E: 276 ± 108 minute running per week) or a combined endurance and strength training program (ES: 240 ± 121-minute running plus 2 strength training sessions per week [120 minutes]). Strength training was focused on trunk (strength endurance program) and leg muscles (high-intensity program). Before and after the intervention, subjects completed an incremental treadmill run and maximal isometric strength tests. The initial values for VO2peak (ES: 52.0 ± 6.1 vs. E: 51.1 ± 7.5 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) and anaerobic threshold (ES: 3.5 ± 0.4 vs. E: 3.4 ± 0.5 m·s⁻¹) were identical in both groups. A significant time × intervention effect was found for maximal isometric force of knee extension (ES: from 4.6 ± 1.4 to 6.2 ± 1.0 N·kg⁻¹, p < 0.01), whereas no changes in body mass occurred. No significant differences between the groups and no significant interaction (time × intervention) were found for VO2 (absolute and relative to VO2peak) at defined marathon running velocities (2.4 and 2.8 m·s⁻¹) and submaximal blood lactate thresholds (2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 mmol·L⁻¹). Stride length and stride frequency also remained unchanged. The results suggest no benefits of an 8-week concurrent strength training for running economy and coordination of recreational marathon runners despite a clear improvement in leg strength, maybe because of an insufficient sample size or a short

  3. Maximum Power Training and Plyometrics for Cross-Country Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebben, William P.

    2001-01-01

    Provides a rationale for maximum power training and plyometrics as conditioning strategies for cross-country runners, examining: an evaluation of training methods (strength training and maximum power training and plyometrics); biomechanic and velocity specificity (role in preventing injury); and practical application of maximum power training and…

  4. Maximum Power Training and Plyometrics for Cross-Country Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebben, William P.

    2001-01-01

    Provides a rationale for maximum power training and plyometrics as conditioning strategies for cross-country runners, examining: an evaluation of training methods (strength training and maximum power training and plyometrics); biomechanic and velocity specificity (role in preventing injury); and practical application of maximum power training and…

  5. 4. Aerial view of turnpike path running through center of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Aerial view of turnpike path running through center of photograph along row of trees. South edge of original alignment visible at left at cluster of white trailers. North edge of original alignment visible at right at the W.K. Smith house (HABS No. NY-6356-A) at the top right corner. Migel mansion visible on ridgetop at right-center of photograph, surrounded by trees. View looking west. - Orange Turnpike, Parallel to new Orange Turnpike, Monroe, Orange County, NY

  6. Effects of form-focused training on running biomechanics: A pilot randomized trial in untrained individuals

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepak; McDermott, Kelly; Feng, Haojun; Goldman, Veronica; Luke, Anthony; Souza, Richard B; Hecht, Frederick M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes in running biomechanics after training in Form-Focused running using ChiRunning vs. Not-Form focused training and Self-Directed training in untrained individuals. Design Pilot study - Randomized controlled trial. Setting Research Institution with Tertiary Care Medical Center. Participants Seventeen subjects (9 males, 8 females) with pre-hypertension. Methods Twenty-two participants were randomized to three study arms but 17 completed the study. The study arms were: 1) group-based Form-Focused running using ChiRunning (enrolled, n =10; completed, n=7); 2) group-based conventional running (enrolled, n=6; completed, n=4); 3) self-directed training with educational materials (enrolled, n =6; completed, n=6). The training schedule was prescribed for 8 weeks with 4 weeks of follow-up. All subjects completed overground running motion analyses before and after training. Outcomes Ankle, knee, hip joint peak moments and powers; Average vertical loading rate (AVLR), impact peak, cadence, stride length, strike index, and stride reach. Paired T-tests were used to compare differences with-in groups over-time. Results Form-Focused group reduced their Stride Reach (P = .047) after the training but not the other groups. Form-Focused group showed a close to significant reduction in knee adduction moment (P = .051) and a reduction in the peak ankle eversion moment (P = .027). Self-Directed group showed an increase in the running speed, (P =.056) and increases in ankle and knee joint powers and moments. Conclusions There are differences in the changes in running biomechanics between individuals trained in running form that emphazies mid-foot strike, higher cadence, and shorter stride compared to those not trained in the thise technique. These differences may be associated with reduced lower extremity stress in individuals trained in this running form but future studies are needed to confirm these findings in larger samples. PMID:25633634

  7. Increased intrinsic stiffness and mineralization in femurs of adult rats after high intensity treadmill running training.

    PubMed

    Bozzini, Clarisa; Viscor, Ginés; Kristjánsson, Juan C Ríos; Picasso, Emilio; Champin, Graciela; Alippi, Rosa M; Bozzini, Carlos E

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity plays a tremendous role in determining bone mechanical behavior, which is superimposed to gravidity. Compare the geometric and material responses of the rat femur to a high intensity treadmill running training of a relatively short duration, as assessed by 3-point mechanical test. Mature male rats (180.0 ± 30 g) were assigned (7 rats/group) to no exercise (NE) or treadmill exercise (EX). After a preconditioning period, the running speed was set at 45 cm.seg-1 during 2 wks, frequency 5 d/wk, 2-hour sessions/day. Body weight and weight of the crural quadriceps were registered at euthanasia. The right femur was mechanically tested through 3-point bending. The left femur was ashed to estimate bone mineral content. Geometric and material bone properties were estimated directly or calculated by appropriate equations. 1) Final body weight was 14% reduced in EX rats, while the crural quadriceps was 47% increased. Yield and fracture loads, and structural stiffness were significantly higher in the EX rats, as were the apparent elastic modulus, the bone mineral content and the degree of mineralization. Geometric properties were not affected. High intensity treadmill running training increases bone strength and stiffness by increasing material stiffness and mineralization, without affecting geometric bone parameters.

  8. Early phase interference between low-intensity running and power training in moderately trained females.

    PubMed

    Terzis, Gerasimos; Spengos, Kostas; Methenitis, Spyros; Aagaard, Per; Karandreas, Nikos; Bogdanis, Gregory

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of low-intensity running performed immediately after lower-body power-training sessions on power development. Twenty young females participated in 6 weeks, 3/week, of either lower body power training (PT) or lower body power training followed by 30 min of low-intensity running (PET) eliciting 60-70 % of maximal heart rate. The following were measured before and after the training period: counter-movement jump, isometric leg press force and rate of force development (RFD), half squat 1-RM, vastus lateralis fiber type composition and cross sectional area, resting intramuscular fiber conduction velocity (MFCV), and heart rate during the modified Bruce treadmill test. Counter-movement jump height and peak power increased after PT (10.7 ± 6.2 and 12.9 ± 18.7 %, p < 0.05) but not after PET (3.4 ± 7.6 and 5.11 ± 10.94 %, p > 0.05). Maximum isometric force, RFD, and half squat 1-RM increased similarly in both groups. Muscle fiber type composition was not altered in either group. Muscle fiber cross sectional area increased only after PT (17.5 ± 17.4, 14.5 ± 10.4, 20.36 ± 11.3 %, in type I, IIA, and IIX fibers, respectively, p < 0.05). Likewise, mean MFCV increased with PT only (before: 4.53 ± 0.38 m s(-1), after: 5.09 ± 0.39 m s(-1), p = 0.027). Submaximal heart rate during the Bruce treadmill test remained unchanged after PT but decreased after PET. These results suggest that low-intensity running performed after lower-body power training impairs the exercise-induced adaptation in stretch-shortening cycle jumping performance (vertical jump height, peak power), during the first 6 weeks of training, which may be partially linked to inhibited muscle fiber hypertrophy and muscle fiber conduction velocity.

  9. Acute Effects of Plyometric and Resistance Training on Running Economy in Trained Runners.

    PubMed

    Marcello, Richard T; Greer, Beau K; Greer, Anna E

    2017-09-01

    Marcello, RT, Greer, BK, and Greer, AE. Acute effects of plyometric and resistance training on running economy in trained runners. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2432-2437, 2017-Results regarding the acute effects of plyometrics and resistance training (PRT) on running economy (RE) are conflicting. Eight male collegiate distance runners (21 ± 1 years, 62.5 ± 7.8 ml·kg·min V[Combining Dot Above]O2 peak) completed V[Combining Dot Above]O2 peak and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) testing. Seven days later, subjects completed a 12 minutes RE test at 60 and 80% V[Combining Dot Above]O2 peak, followed by a PRT protocol or a rested condition of equal duration (CON). The PRT protocol consisted of 3 sets of 5 repetitions at 85% 1RM for barbell squats, Romanian deadlifts, and barbell lunges; the same volume was used for resisted lateral lunges, box jumps, and depth jumps. Subjects completed another RE test immediately after the treatments and 24 hours later. Subjects followed an identical protocol 6 days later with condition assignment reversed. Running economy was determined by both relative V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (ml·kg·min) and energy expenditure (EE) (kcal·min). There was a significant (p ≤ 0.05) between-trial increase in V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (37.1 ± 4.2 ml·kg·min PRT vs. 35.5 ± 3.9 ml·kg·min CON) and EE (11.4 ± 1.3 kcal·min PRT vs. 11.0 ± 1.4 kcal·min CON) immediately after PRT at 60% V[Combining Dot Above]O2 peak, but no significant changes were observed at 80% V[Combining Dot Above]O2 peak. Respiratory exchange ratio was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced 24 hours after PRT (0.93 ± 0.0) as compared to the CON trial (0.96 ± 0.0) at 80% V[Combining Dot Above]O2 peak. Results indicate that high-intensity PRT may acutely impair RE in aerobically trained individuals at a moderate running intensity, but that the attenuation lasts less than 24 hours in duration.

  10. No Change in Running Mechanics With Live High-Train Low Altitude Training in Elite Distance Runners.

    PubMed

    Stickford, Abigail S L; Wilhite, Daniel P; Chapman, Robert F

    2017-01-01

    Investigations into ventilatory, metabolic, and hematological changes with altitude training have been completed; however, there is a lack of research exploring potential gait-kinematic changes after altitude training, despite a common complaint of athletes being a lack of leg "turnover" on return from altitude training. To determine if select kinematic variables changed in a group of elite distance runners after 4 wk of altitude training. Six elite male distance runners completed a 28-d altitude-training intervention in Flagstaff, AZ (2150 m), following a modified "live high-train low" model, wherein higherintensity runs were performed at lower altitudes (945-1150 m) and low-intensity sessions were completed at higher altitudes (1950-2850 m). Gait parameters were measured 2-9 d before departure to altitude and 1 to 2 d after returning to sea level at running speeds of 300-360 m/min. No differences were found in ground-contact time, swing time, or stride length or frequency after altitude training (P > .05). Running mechanics are not affected by chronic altitude training in elite distance runners. The data suggest that either chronic training at altitude truly has no effect on running mechanics or completing the live high-train low model of altitude training, where higher-velocity workouts are completed at lower elevations, mitigates any negative mechanical adaptations that may be associated with chronic training at slower speeds.

  11. Comparison of Physiological Variables Between the Elliptical Bicycle and Run Training in Experienced Runners.

    PubMed

    Klein, Ian E; White, Jason B; Rana, Sharon R

    2016-11-01

    Klein, IE, White, JB, and Rana, SR. Comparison of physiological variables between the elliptical bicycle and run training in experienced runners. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 2998-3006, 2016-A novel outdoor elliptical bicycle (EBIKE) has been designed to elicit running-similar physiological adaptations while reducing the impact forces that commonly lead to injury. Various cross-training methods have been used to reduce injury risk, restore or maintain fitness, and prevent detraining. The purpose of this study was to compare 4 weeks of EBIKE-only training to run-only training on maximal oxygen consumption, ventilatory threshold, respiratory compensation point, running economy, and 5,000 m time trial times. Twelve experienced runners (age, 22.33 ± 3.33 years; running experience, 9.25 ± 4.53 years) completed 4 weeks of randomly assigned EBIKE or run training. Physiological and performance testing procedures were repeated, and subjects then performed a second matched 4-week training period in a crossover design. Ventilatory threshold was significantly greater after EBIKE (p ≤ 0.05; 41.60 ± 6.15 ml·kg·min) and run training (p ≤ 0.05; 42.33 ± 6.96 ml·kg·min) compared with the initial time point (40.17 ± 6.47 ml·kg·min). There were no significant group differences (p > 0.05) for these variables at any time point. In conclusion, EBIKE-only training yielded similar physiological and performance maintenance or improvements compared with run-only training. These results suggest that EBIKE training can be an effective cross-training method to maintain and improve certain physiological and performance variables in experienced runners over a 4-week period.

  12. Heavy strength training improves running and cycling performance following prolonged submaximal work in well-trained female athletes.

    PubMed

    Vikmoen, Olav; Rønnestad, Bent R; Ellefsen, Stian; Raastad, Truls

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of adding heavy strength training to female duathletes' normal endurance training on both cycling and running performance. Nineteen well-trained female duathletes (VO2max cycling: 54 ± 3 ml∙kg(-1)∙min(-1), VO2max running: 53 ± 3 ml∙kg(-1)∙min(-1)) were randomly assigned to either normal endurance training (E, n = 8) or normal endurance training combined with strength training (E+S, n = 11). The strength training consisted of four lower body exercises [3 × 4-10 repetition maximum (RM)] twice a week for 11 weeks. Running and cycling performance were assessed using 5-min all-out tests, performed immediately after prolonged periods of submaximal work (3 h cycling or 1.5 h running). E+S increased 1RM in half squat (45 ± 22%) and lean mass in the legs (3.1 ± 4.0%) more than E Performance during the 5-min all-out test increased in both cycling (7.0 ± 4.5%) and running (4.7 ± 6.0%) in E+S, whereas no changes occurred in E The changes in running performance were different between groups. E+S reduced oxygen consumption and heart rate during the final 2 h of prolonged cycling, whereas no changes occurred in E No changes occurred during the prolonged running in any group. Adding strength training to normal endurance training in well-trained female duathletes improved both running and cycling performance when tested immediately after prolonged submaximal work.

  13. A Community Runs Through It: 30 Years of Collaboration in ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    When participants in the 2016 St Louis River Summit identified their roles and described their interactions with the estuary on the 50-year timeline, they were illustrating the community that built and is now implementing the Remedial Action Plan. From its inception, the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement required that AOCs be collaborations between technical experts on remediation and restoration and the concerned public. Together, experts and the public form the community that runs through each AOC. Without such a community there is no way to gauge the success of BUI removal or AOC delisting in terms of associated social and health benefits. Community interactions are necessary in all stages of the journey to delisting to foster agreements, resolve conflicts, and to mobilize resources necessary to solve pressing environmental challenges. A social network analysis of the timeline responses was used to describe interactions of the community that runs through the SLRE. Self-identified managers and scientists were less likely than citizens and educators to form social networks. When social networks were present they typically included recreation as a major node. This suggests that while interactions among community members and the resource were diverse and widely distributed, a segment of the community remained professionally cloistered. These people clearly make important contributions to the science or management of the estuary, but constrain their further int

  14. A Community Runs Through It: 30 Years of Collaboration in ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    When participants in the 2016 St Louis River Summit identified their roles and described their interactions with the estuary on the 50-year timeline, they were illustrating the community that built and is now implementing the Remedial Action Plan. From its inception, the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement required that AOCs be collaborations between technical experts on remediation and restoration and the concerned public. Together, experts and the public form the community that runs through each AOC. Without such a community there is no way to gauge the success of BUI removal or AOC delisting in terms of associated social and health benefits. Community interactions are necessary in all stages of the journey to delisting to foster agreements, resolve conflicts, and to mobilize resources necessary to solve pressing environmental challenges. A social network analysis of the timeline responses was used to describe interactions of the community that runs through the SLRE. Self-identified managers and scientists were less likely than citizens and educators to form social networks. When social networks were present they typically included recreation as a major node. This suggests that while interactions among community members and the resource were diverse and widely distributed, a segment of the community remained professionally cloistered. These people clearly make important contributions to the science or management of the estuary, but constrain their further int

  15. Effects of Training Leaders in Needs-Based Methods of Running Meetings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Emily M.; Malouff, John M.; Rangan, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of brief training in how to lead organizational meetings. The training was based on an attendee-needs-based model of running meetings. Twelve mid-level managers completed the training. The study showed a significant pre to post increase in the number of needs-based behaviors displayed by meeting leaders and in…

  16. Running speed and maximal oxygen uptake in rats and mice: practical implications for exercise training.

    PubMed

    Høydal, Morten A; Wisløff, Ulrik; Kemi, Ole J; Ellingsen, Oyvind

    2007-12-01

    Valid and reliable experimental models are essential to gain insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of exercise in prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of lifestyle-related diseases. Studies with large changes, low variation, and reproducible training outcome require individualized training intensity, controlled by direct measurements of maximal oxygen uptake or heart rate. As this approach is expensive and time consuming, we discuss whether maximal treadmill running speed in a gradually increasing ramp protocol might be sufficient to control intensity without losing accuracy. Combined data from six studies of rats and mice from our lab demonstrated a close correlation between running speed and oxygen uptake. This relationship changed towards a steeper linear slope after endurance training, indicating improved work economy, that is, less oxygen was consumed at fixed submaximal running speeds. Maximal oxygen uptake increased 40-70% after high-intensity aerobic interval training in mice and rats. The speed at which oxygen uptake reached a plateau, increased in parallel with the change in maximal oxygen uptake during the training period. Although this suggests that running speed can be used to assess training intensity throughout a training program, the problem is to determine the exact relative intensity related to maximal oxygen uptake from running speed alone. We therefore suggest that directly measured oxygen uptake should be used to assess exercise intensity and optimize endurance training in rats and mice. Running speed may serve as a supplement to ensure this intensity.

  17. Blood lactate thresholds and walking/running economy are determinants of backpack-running performance in trained soldiers.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Richard J; Graham, Scott M; Connaboy, Christopher; Clement, Richard; Pollonini, Luca; Florida-James, Geraint D

    2017-01-01

    We developed a standardized laboratory treadmill protocol for assessing physiological responses to a simulated backpack load-carriage task in trained soldiers, and assessed the efficacy of blood lactate thresholds (LTs) and economy in predicting future backpack running success over an 8-mile course in field conditions. LTs and corresponding physiological responses were determined in 17 elite British soldiers who completed an incremental treadmill walk/run protocol to exhaustion carrying 20 kg backpack load. Treadmill velocity at the breakpoint (r = -0.85) and Δ 1 mmol l(-1) (r = -0.80) LTs, and relative V˙O2 at 4 mmol l(-1) (r = 0.76) and treadmill walk/run velocities of 6.4 (r = 0.76), 7.4 (r = 0.80), 11.4 (r = 0.66) and 12.4 (r = 0.65) km h(-1) were significantly associated with field test completion time. We report for the first time that LTs and backpack walk/run economy are major determinants of backpack load-carriage performance in trained soldiers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Lower-leg compression, running mechanics, and economy in trained distance runners.

    PubMed

    Stickford, Abigail S; Chapman, Robert F; Johnston, Jeanne D; Stager, Joel M

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of and mechanisms behind the widespread use of lower-leg compression as an ergogenic aid to improve running performance are unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine whether wearing graduated lower-leg compression sleeves during exercise evokes changes in running economy (RE), perhaps due to altered gait mechanics. Sixteen highly trained male distance runners completed 2 separate RE tests during a single laboratory session, including a randomized-treatment trial of graduated calf-compression sleeves (CS; 15-20 mm Hg) and a control trial (CON) without compression sleeves. RE was determined by measuring oxygen consumption at 3 constant submaximal speeds of 233, 268, and 300 m/min on a treadmill. Running mechanics were measured during the last 30 s of each 4-min stage of the RE test via wireless triaxial 10-g accelerometer devices attached to the top of each shoe. Ground-contact time, swing time, step frequency, and step length were determined from accelerometric output corresponding to foot-strike and toe-off events. Gait variability was calculated as the standard deviation of a given gait variable for an individual during the last 30 s of each stage. There were no differences in VO2 or kinematic variables between CON and CS trials at any of the speeds. Wearing lower-leg compression does not alter the energetics of running at submaximal speeds through changes in running mechanics or other means. However, it appears that the individual response to wearing lower-leg compression varies greatly and warrants further examination.

  19. Effect of resistance training regimens on treadmill running and neuromuscular performance in recreational endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Mikkola, Jussi; Vesterinen, Ville; Taipale, Ritva; Capostagno, Benoit; Häkkinen, Keijo; Nummela, Ari

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of heavy resistance, explosive resistance, and muscle endurance training on neuromuscular, endurance, and high-intensity running performance in recreational endurance runners. Twenty-seven male runners were divided into one of three groups: heavy resistance, explosive resistance or muscle endurance training. After 6 weeks of preparatory training, the groups underwent an 8-week resistance training programme as a supplement to endurance training. Before and after the 8-week training period, maximal strength (one-repetition maximum), electromyographic activity of the leg extensors, countermovement jump height, maximal speed in the maximal anaerobic running test, maximal endurance performance, maximal oxygen uptake ([V·]O(₂max)), and running economy were assessed. Maximal strength improved in the heavy (P = 0.034, effect size ES = 0.38) and explosive resistance training groups (P = 0.003, ES = 0.67) with increases in leg muscle activation (heavy: P = 0.032, ES = 0.38; explosive: P = 0.002, ES = 0.77). Only the heavy resistance training group improved maximal running speed in the maximal anaerobic running test (P = 0.012, ES = 0.52) and jump height (P = 0.006, ES = 0.59). Maximal endurance running performance was improved in all groups (heavy: P = 0.005, ES = 0.56; explosive: P = 0.034, ES = 0.39; muscle endurance: P = 0.001, ES = 0.94), with small though not statistically significant improvements in [V·]O(₂max) (heavy: ES = 0.08; explosive: ES = 0.29; muscle endurance: ES = 0.65) and running economy (ES in all groups < 0.08). All three modes of strength training used concurrently with endurance training were effective in improving treadmill running endurance performance. However, both heavy and explosive strength training were beneficial in improving neuromuscular characteristics, and heavy resistance training in particular contributed to improvements in high-intensity running characteristics. Thus, endurance

  20. Shuttle-Run Sprint Training in Hypoxia for Youth Elite Soccer Players: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gatterer, Hannes; Philippe, Marc; Menz, Verena; Mosbach, Florian; Faulhaber, Martin; Burtscher, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to investigate if a) shuttle-run sprint training performed in a normobaric hypoxia chamber of limited size (4.75x2.25m) is feasible, in terms of producing the same absolute training load, when compared to training in normoxia, and b) if such training improves the repeated sprint ability (RSA) and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery (YYIR) test outcome in young elite soccer players. Players of an elite soccer training Centre (age: 15.3 ± 0.5 years, height: 1.73 ± 0.07 m, body mass: 62.6 ± 6.6 kg) were randomly assigned to a hypoxia or a normoxia training group. Within a 5-week period, players, who were not informed about the hypoxia intervention, performed at least 7 sessions of identical shuttle-run sprint training either in a normal training room (FiO2 = 20.95%) or in a hypoxic chamber (FiO2 = 14.8%; approximately 3300m), both equipped with the same floor. Each training session comprised 3 series of 5x10s back and forth sprints (4.5m) performed at maximal intensity. Recovery time between repetitions was 20s and between series 5min. Before and after the training period the RSA (6 x 40m shuttle sprint with 20 s rest between shuttles) and the YYIR test were performed. The size of the chamber did not restrict the training intensity of the sprint training (both groups performed approximately 8 shuttles during 10s). Training in hypoxia resulted in a lower fatigue slope which indicates better running speed maintenance during the RSA test (p = 0.024). YYIR performance increased over time (p = 0.045) without differences between groups (p > 0.05). This study showed that training intensity of the shuttle-run sprint training was not restricted in a hypoxic chamber of limited size which indicates that such training is feasible. Furthermore, hypoxia compared to normoxia training reduced the fatigue slope during the RSA test in youth soccer players. Key Points Shuttle-run sprint training is feasible in hypoxic chambers of limited size (i

  1. Shuttle-run sprint training in hypoxia for youth elite soccer players: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gatterer, Hannes; Philippe, Marc; Menz, Verena; Mosbach, Florian; Faulhaber, Martin; Burtscher, Martin

    2014-12-01

    The purposes of the present study were to investigate if a) shuttle-run sprint training performed in a normobaric hypoxia chamber of limited size (4.75x2.25m) is feasible, in terms of producing the same absolute training load, when compared to training in normoxia, and b) if such training improves the repeated sprint ability (RSA) and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery (YYIR) test outcome in young elite soccer players. Players of an elite soccer training Centre (age: 15.3 ± 0.5 years, height: 1.73 ± 0.07 m, body mass: 62.6 ± 6.6 kg) were randomly assigned to a hypoxia or a normoxia training group. Within a 5-week period, players, who were not informed about the hypoxia intervention, performed at least 7 sessions of identical shuttle-run sprint training either in a normal training room (FiO2 = 20.95%) or in a hypoxic chamber (FiO2 = 14.8%; approximately 3300m), both equipped with the same floor. Each training session comprised 3 series of 5x10s back and forth sprints (4.5m) performed at maximal intensity. Recovery time between repetitions was 20s and between series 5min. Before and after the training period the RSA (6 x 40m shuttle sprint with 20 s rest between shuttles) and the YYIR test were performed. The size of the chamber did not restrict the training intensity of the sprint training (both groups performed approximately 8 shuttles during 10s). Training in hypoxia resulted in a lower fatigue slope which indicates better running speed maintenance during the RSA test (p = 0.024). YYIR performance increased over time (p = 0.045) without differences between groups (p > 0.05). This study showed that training intensity of the shuttle-run sprint training was not restricted in a hypoxic chamber of limited size which indicates that such training is feasible. Furthermore, hypoxia compared to normoxia training reduced the fatigue slope during the RSA test in youth soccer players. Key PointsShuttle-run sprint training is feasible in hypoxic chambers of limited size (i

  2. Ibuprofen administration during endurance training cancels running-distance-dependent adaptations of skeletal muscle in mice.

    PubMed

    Machida, M; Takemasa, T

    2010-10-01

    Exercise training induces many adaptations in skeletal muscle, representative examples of which include an increase in the IIa myofibre and an increase in the capillary-to-fibre ratio (C:F ratio). Moreover, these phenomena are thought to be dependent on running distance. Ibuprofen is one non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that is often used as an analgesic, but its effect on skeletal muscle adaptation during endurance training is unclear. In the present study, therefore, we administered ibuprofen to mice during running wheel exercise for four weeks, and examined its effects on the increase in the IIa myofibre and the C:F ratio in skeletal muscle. We observed a significant increase of the IIa myofibre and C:F ratio even in the presence of ibuprofen. Moreover, in untreated mice, there was a significant positive and strong correlation between these parameters and running distance. These results indicate that the increase in the IIa myofibre and the C:F ratio in skeletal muscle usually depend on running distance. Interestingly, we observed no significant correlation between these parameters and running distance in ibuprofen-administered mice. Moreover, we found no significant increase of these parameters when the running distance was significantly increased, in comparison with untreated mice. These results indicate that ibuprofen administration during endurance training cancels running-distance-dependent adaptations in skeletal muscle. This suggests that even if ibuprofen administration facilitates longer-distance running, no further effects of training on skeletal muscle can be expected.

  3. Thermographic Assessment of Eccentric Overload Training Within Three Days of a Running Session.

    PubMed

    Sanz-López, Fernando; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Valero-Campo, Carlos; Berzosa, César

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in patellar and Achilles tendons between a group trained using eccentric overload and an untrained group within 3 days of a running session. To this end, infrared thermography (IRT) will be used. Twenty healthy male subjects were divided into 2 groups. One group performed a 6-week squat training in the flywheel before the running session. During the running intervention, both groups ran in 3 different days, for 1 hour each, at 80% maximal heart rate. Before, just after, and after 10 minutes of the running intervention, participants were assessed using IRT. Eccentrically trained groups showed a statistically significant difference (analysis of variance, p = 0.0049) expressed as a smaller bilateral increase in temperature in the patellar tendon just before the first running day (right side, 0.11 °C; left side, 0.29 °C). On the other days of running and in the Achilles tendon groups, similar changes were observed: an increase in the temperature after running and no significant difference between contralateral limbs. Our results point at eccentric overload training providing a better adaptation for the first day of running. IRT is an easy-to-apply noninvasive tool to analyze and compare the effects of performance on tendon tissues.

  4. Can Trained Runners Effectively Attenuate Impact Acceleration During Repeated High-Intensity Running Bouts?

    PubMed

    Clansey, Adam C; Lake, Mark J; Wallace, Eric S; Feehally, Tom; Hanlon, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prolonged high-intensity running on impact accelerations in trained runners. Thirteen male distance runners completed two 20-minute treadmill runs at speeds corresponding to 95% of onset of blood lactate accumulation. Leg and head accelerations were collected for 20 s every fourth minute. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scores were recorded during the third and last minute of each run. RPE responses increased (P < .001) from the start (11.8 ± 0.9, moderate intensity) of the first run to the end (17.7 ± 1.5, very hard) of the second run. Runners maintained their leg impact acceleration, impact attenuation, stride length, and stride frequency characteristics with prolonged run duration. However, a small (0.11-0.14g) but significant increase (P < .001) in head impact accelerations were observed at the end of both first and second runs. It was concluded that trained runners are able to control leg impact accelerations during sustained high-intensity running. Alongside the substantial increases in perceived exertion levels, running mechanics and frequency domain impact attenuation levels remained constant. This suggests that the present trained runners are able to cope from a mechanical perspective despite an increased physiological demand.

  5. Running speed during training and percent body fat predict race time in recreational male marathoners

    PubMed Central

    Barandun, Ursula; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Klipstein, Andreas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that personal best marathon time is a strong predictor of race time in male ultramarathoners. We aimed to determine variables predictive of marathon race time in recreational male marathoners by using the same characteristics of anthropometry and training as used for ultramarathoners. Methods Anthropometric and training characteristics of 126 recreational male marathoners were bivariately and multivariately related to marathon race times. Results After multivariate regression, running speed of the training units (β = −0.52, P < 0.0001) and percent body fat (β = 0.27, P < 0.0001) were the two variables most strongly correlated with marathon race times. Marathon race time for recreational male runners may be estimated to some extent by using the following equation (r2 = 0.44): race time ( minutes) = 326.3 + 2.394 × (percent body fat, %) − 12.06 × (speed in training, km/hours). Running speed during training sessions correlated with prerace percent body fat (r = 0.33, P = 0.0002). The model including anthropometric and training variables explained 44% of the variance of marathon race times, whereas running speed during training sessions alone explained 40%. Thus, training speed was more predictive of marathon performance times than anthropometric characteristics. Conclusion The present results suggest that low body fat and running speed during training close to race pace (about 11 km/hour) are two key factors for a fast marathon race time in recreational male marathoner runners. PMID:24198587

  6. Aberrant hepatic arteries running through pancreatic parenchyma encountered during pancreatoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Xu, Jianwei; Sun, Dong; Zhang, Zongli

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Aberrant hepatic arteries (HAs) encountered during pancreatoduodenectomy are difficult to manage. Mehtods: Two cases with rare types of aberrant HA running through the pancreatic parenchyma were reviewed. Results: The first case, a 68-year-old man, was admitted with obstructive jaundice. A tumor of the pancreatic head and aberrant HAs were suspected on computed tomography (CT) scan. At laparotomy, a new variation was identified; namely, 2 aberrant arteries—a right replaced HA and middle HA (RMHA) that both originated from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and ran via intrapancreatic paths posterior and anterior to the pancreatic head, respectively. Branches of the RMHA to the pancreas were ligated and severed and the trunk preserved. The RMHA was mistakenly identified as an aberrant left HA (RLHA), whereas the RLHA was overlooked and not dissected intraoperatively. CT angiography performed 11 days postoperatively identified that the RLHA originated from the left gastric artery (LGA). The second case had a variation of Michels IX. A 58-year-old woman presented with obstructive jaundice and a distal cholangiocarcinoma was suspected on the basis of enhanced CT scan. At laparotomy, the common hepatic artery (CHA) was found to originate entirely from the SMA and run posterior to the pancreatic head via an intrapancreatic path. The segment of CHA in the pancreatic parenchyma was removed and reconstructed with the LGA. Conclusions: Preoperative identification of aberrant HAs helps in planning appropriate operative procedures and minimizing unnecessary complications. Both preservation and reconstruction of these arteries are technically safe and feasible; however, preservation is preferable. PMID:27930504

  7. Repeated sprint training improves intermittent peak running speed in team-sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Jayden R; O'Brien, Brendan J; Mooney, Mitchell G; Berry, Jason; Young, Warren B; Down, Neville

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of 2 repeated sprint training interventions on an intermittent peak running speed (IPRS) test designed for Australian Rules football. The test required participants to perform 10 × 10-m maximal efforts on an 80-m course every 25 seconds, for each of which the mean peak speed (kilometers per hour) was recorded to determine IPRS. The training interventions were performed twice weekly for 4 weeks immediately before regular football training. In the constant volume intervention (CVol), sprint repetition number remained at 10 (n = 9), and in the linear increase in volume (LIVol) intervention, repetition number increased linearly each week by 2 repetitions (n = 12). Intermittent peak running speed, 300-m shuttle test performance, and peak running speed were assessed before and upon completion of training. All measures were compared to a control group (CON; n = 8) in which players completed regular football training exclusively. Intermittent peak running speed performance in CVol and LIVol improved significantly (p < 0.01) by 5.2 and 3.8%, respectively, with no change in IPRS for CON. There were no differences in IPRS changes between CVol and LIVol. Additionally, peak running speed improved significantly (p < 0.01) by 5.1% for CVol, whereas 300-m shuttle performance improved significantly (p < 0.01) by 2.6% for LIVol only. Intermittent peak running speed, 300-m shuttle performance and peak running speed were improved after 4 weeks of training; however, progressively increasing sprint repetition number had no greater advantage on IPRS adaptation. Additionally, exclusive regular football training over a 4-week period is unlikely to improve IPRS, peak running speed, or 300-m shuttle performance.

  8. Mental Training for the Distance Athlete: "The Running Values Auction"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osteen, Deborah E.; Phillips, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    Coaches and sports psychologists often say that it is the mind that controls the body, and that once a race begins, it is 90 percent mental and 10 percent physical training. Teaching young athletes to use mental strategies is a skill they will continue to use throughout their athletic career, and best of all, throughout their everyday lives, even…

  9. Mental Training for the Distance Athlete: "The Running Values Auction"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osteen, Deborah E.; Phillips, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    Coaches and sports psychologists often say that it is the mind that controls the body, and that once a race begins, it is 90 percent mental and 10 percent physical training. Teaching young athletes to use mental strategies is a skill they will continue to use throughout their athletic career, and best of all, throughout their everyday lives, even…

  10. Isokinetic eccentric resistance training prevents loss in mechanical muscle function after running.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Anderson Souza; Caputo, Fabrizio; Aagaard, Per; Corvino, Rogério Bulhões; Gonçalves, Mauro; Denadai, Benedito Sergio

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the study was to verify whether 8 weeks of resistance training employing maximal isokinetic eccentric (IERT) knee extensor actions would reduce the acute force loss observed after high-intensity treadmill running exercise. It was hypothesized that specific IERT would induce protective effects against muscle fatigue and ultrastructural damages, preventing or reducing the loss in mechanical muscle function after running. Subjects were tested before and after IERT protocol for maximal isometric, concentric and eccentric isokinetic knee extensor strength (60° and 180° s(-1)). In a second session, subjects performed treadmill running (~35 min) and the previously mentioned measurements were repeated immediately after running. Subsequently, subjects were randomized to training (n = 12) consisting of 24 sessions of maximal IERT knee extensors actions at 180° s(-1), or served as controls (n = 8). The effects of acute running-induced fatigue and training on isokinetic and isometric peak torque, and rate of force development (RFD) were investigated. Before IERT, running-induced eccentric torque loss at 180° s(-1) was -8 %, and RFD loss was -11 %. Longitudinal IERT led to reduced or absent acute running-induced losses in maximal IERT torque at 180° s(-1) (+2 %), being significantly reduced compared to before IERT (p < 0.05), however, RFD loss remained at -11 % (p > 0.05). In conclusion, IERT yields a reduced strength loss after high-intensity running workouts, which may suggest a protective effect against fatigue and/or morphological damages. However, IERT may not avoid reductions in explosive muscle actions. In turn, this may allow more intense training sessions to be performed, facilitating the adaptive response to running training.

  11. Effect of cycling cadence on subsequent 3 km running performance in well trained triathletes

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, T; Vercruyssen, F; Grego, F; Hausswirth, C; Lepers, R; Vallier, J; Brisswalter, J; Vleck, V

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of three cycling cadences on a subsequent 3000 m track running performance in well trained triathletes. Methods: Nine triathletes completed a maximal cycling test, three cycle-run succession sessions (20 minutes of cycling + a 3000 m run) in random order, and one isolated run (3000 m). During the cycling bout of the cycle-run sessions, subjects had to maintain for 20 minutes one of the three cycling cadences corresponding to 60, 80, and 100 rpm. The metabolic intensity during these cycling bouts corresponded approximately to the cycling competition intensity of our subjects during a sprint triathlon (> 80% O2max). Results: A significant effect of the prior cycling exercise was found on middle distance running performance without any cadence effect (625.7 (40.1), 630.0 (44.8), 637.7 (57.9), and 583.0 (28.3) seconds for the 60 rpm run, 80 rpm run, 100 rpm run, and isolated run respectively). However, during the first 500 m of the run, stride rate and running velocity were significantly higher after cycling at 80 or 100 rpm than at 60 rpm (p<0.05). Furthermore, the choice of 60 rpm was associated with a higher fraction of O2max sustained during running compared with the other conditions (p<0.05). Conclusions: The results confirm the alteration in running performance completed after the cycling event compared with the isolated run. However, no significant effect of the cadence was observed within the range usually used by triathletes. PMID:12663359

  12. Effects of cross-training. Transfer of training effects on VO2max between cycling, running and swimming.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, H

    1994-11-01

    Cross-training is a widely used approach for structuring a training programme to improve competitive performance in a specific sport by training in a variety of sports. Despite numerous anecdotal reports claiming benefits for cross-training, very few scientific studies have investigated this particular type of training. It appears that some transfer of training effects on maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) exists from one mode to another. The nonspecific training effects seem to be more noticeable when running is performed as a cross-training mode. Swim training, however, may result in minimum transfer of training effects on VO2max. Cross-training effects never exceed those induced by the sport-specific training mode. The principles of specificity of training tend to have greater significance, especially for highly trained athletes. For the general population, cross-training may be highly beneficial in terms of overall fitness. Similarly, cross-training may be an appropriate supplement during rehabilitation periods from physical injury and during periods of overtraining or psychological fatigue.

  13. Running injuries in novice runners enrolled in different training interventions: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Baltich, J; Emery, C A; Whittaker, J L; Nigg, B M

    2016-08-03

    The purpose of this trial was to evaluate injury risk in novice runners participating in different strength training interventions. This was a pilot randomized controlled trial. Novice runners (n = 129, 18-60 years old, <2 years recent running experience) were block randomized to one of three groups: a "resistance" strength training group, a "functional" strength training group, or a stretching "control" group. The primary outcome was running related injury. The number of participants with complaints and the injury rate (IR = no. injuries/1000 running hours) were quantified for each intervention group. For the first 8 weeks, participants were instructed to complete their training intervention three to five times a week. The remaining 4 months was a maintenance period.

  14. A Submaximal Running Test With Postexercise Cardiac Autonomic and Neuromuscular Function in Monitoring Endurance Training Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Vesterinen, Ville; Nummela, Ari; Laine, Tanja; Hynynen, Esa; Mikkola, Jussi; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2017-01-01

    Vesterinen, V, Nummela, A, Laine, T, Hynynen, E, Mikkola, J, and Häkkinen, K. A submaximal running test with postexercise cardiac autonomic and neuromuscular function in monitoring endurance training adaptation. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 233-243, 2017-The aim of this study was to investigate whether a submaximal running test (SRT) with postexercise heart rate recovery (HRR), heart rate variability (HRV), and countermovement jump (CMJ) measurements could be used to monitor endurance training adaptation. Thirty-five endurance-trained men and women completed an 18-week endurance training. Maximal endurance performance and maximal oxygen uptake were measured every 8 weeks. In addition, SRTs with postexercise HRR, HRV, and CMJ measurements were carried out every 4 weeks. Submaximal running test consisted of two 6-minute stages at 70 and 80% of maximum heart rate (HRmax) and a 3-minute stage at 90% HRmax, followed by a 2-minute recovery stage for measuring postexercise HRR, HRV, and CMJ test. The highest responders according to the change of maximal endurance performance showed a significant improvement in running speeds during stages 2 and 3 in SRT, whereas no changes were observed in the lowest responders. The strongest correlation was found between the change of maximal endurance performance and running speed during stage 3, whereas no significant relationships were found between the change of maximal endurance performance and the changes of postexercise HRR, HRV, and CMJ. Running speed at 90% HRmax intensity was the most sensitive variable to monitor adaptation to endurance training. The present submaximal test showed potential to monitor endurance training adaptation. Furthermore, it may serve as a practical tool for athletes and coaches to evaluate weekly the effectiveness of training program without interfering in the normal training habits.

  15. Effects of Cycling Versus Running Training on Sprint and Endurance Capacity in Inline Speed Skating

    PubMed Central

    Stangier, Carolin; Abel, Thomas; Mierau, Julia; Hollmann, Wildor; Strüder, Heiko K.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of running versus cycling training on sprint and endurance capacity in inline speed skating. Sixteen elite athletes (8 male, 8 female, 24 ± 8 yrs) were randomly assigned into 2 training groups performing either 2 session per week of treadmill running or ergometer cycling in addition to 3 skating specific sessions (technique, plyometrics, parkour) for 8 weeks. Training intensity was determined within non-specific (cycling or running) and effects on specific endurance capacity within a specific incremental exercise test. Before and after the intervention all athletes performed a specific (300m) and one non-specific (30s cycling or 200m running) all-out sprint test according to the group affiliation. To determine the accumulation of blood lactate (BLa) and glucose (BGL) 20 μl arterialized blood was drawn at rest, as well as in 1 min intervals for 10 min after the sprint test. The sport-specific peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) was significantly increased (+17%; p = 0.01) in both groups and highly correlated with the sprint performance (r = -0.71). BLa values decreased significantly (-18%, p = 0.02) after the specific sprint test from pre to post-testing without any group effect. However, BGL values only showed a significant decrease (-2%, p = 0.04) in the running group. The close relationship between aerobic capacity and sprint performance in inline speed skating highlights the positive effects of endurance training. Although both training programs were equally effective in improving endurance and sprint capacities, the metabolic results indicate a faster recovery after high intensity efforts for all athletes, as well as a higher reliance on the fat metabolism for athletes who trained in the running group. Key points In addition to a highly developed aerobic performance inline speed skaters also require a highly trained anaerobic capacity to be effective in the sprint sections such as the mass start, tactical attacks

  16. Effects of Cycling Versus Running Training on Sprint and Endurance Capacity in Inline Speed Skating.

    PubMed

    Stangier, Carolin; Abel, Thomas; Mierau, Julia; Hollmann, Wildor; Strüder, Heiko K

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of running versus cycling training on sprint and endurance capacity in inline speed skating. Sixteen elite athletes (8 male, 8 female, 24 ± 8 yrs) were randomly assigned into 2 training groups performing either 2 session per week of treadmill running or ergometer cycling in addition to 3 skating specific sessions (technique, plyometrics, parkour) for 8 weeks. Training intensity was determined within non-specific (cycling or running) and effects on specific endurance capacity within a specific incremental exercise test. Before and after the intervention all athletes performed a specific (300m) and one non-specific (30s cycling or 200m running) all-out sprint test according to the group affiliation. To determine the accumulation of blood lactate (BLa) and glucose (BGL) 20 μl arterialized blood was drawn at rest, as well as in 1 min intervals for 10 min after the sprint test. The sport-specific peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) was significantly increased (+17%; p = 0.01) in both groups and highly correlated with the sprint performance (r = -0.71). BLa values decreased significantly (-18%, p = 0.02) after the specific sprint test from pre to post-testing without any group effect. However, BGL values only showed a significant decrease (-2%, p = 0.04) in the running group. The close relationship between aerobic capacity and sprint performance in inline speed skating highlights the positive effects of endurance training. Although both training programs were equally effective in improving endurance and sprint capacities, the metabolic results indicate a faster recovery after high intensity efforts for all athletes, as well as a higher reliance on the fat metabolism for athletes who trained in the running group. Key pointsIn addition to a highly developed aerobic performance inline speed skaters also require a highly trained anaerobic capacity to be effective in the sprint sections such as the mass start, tactical attacks

  17. Interval Running Training Improves Cognitive Flexibility and Aerobic Power of Young Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Venckunas, Tomas; Snieckus, Audrius; Trinkunas, Eugenijus; Baranauskiene, Neringa; Solianik, Rima; Juodsnukis, Antanas; Streckis, Vytautas; Kamandulis, Sigitas

    2016-08-01

    Venckunas, T, Snieckus, A, Trinkunas, E, Baranauskiene, N, Solianik, R, Juodsnukis, A, Streckis, V, and Kamandulis, S. Interval running training improves cognitive flexibility and aerobic power of young healthy adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2114-2121, 2016-The benefits of regular physical exercise may well extend beyond the reduction of chronic diseases risk and augmentation of working capacity, to many other aspects of human well-being, including improved cognitive functioning. Although the effects of moderate intensity continuous training on cognitive performance are relatively well studied, the benefits of interval training have not been investigated in this respect so far. The aim of the current study was to assess whether 7 weeks of interval running training is effective at improving both aerobic fitness and cognitive performance. For this purpose, 8 young dinghy sailors (6 boys and 2 girls) completed the interval running program with 200 m and 2,000 m running performance, cycling maximal oxygen uptake, and cognitive function was measured before and after the intervention. The control group consisted of healthy age-matched subjects (8 boys and 2 girls) who continued their active lifestyle and were tested in the same way as the experimental group, but did not complete any regular training. In the experimental group, 200 m and 2,000 m running performance and cycling maximal oxygen uptake increased together with improved results on cognitive flexibility tasks. No changes in the results of short-term and working memory tasks were observed in the experimental group, and no changes in any of the measured indices were evident in the controls. In conclusion, 7 weeks of interval running training improved running performance and cycling aerobic power, and were sufficient to improve the ability to adjust behavior to changing demands in young active individuals.

  18. The 400- and 800-m Track Running Induces Inspiratory Muscle Fatigue in Trained Female Middle-Distance Runners.

    PubMed

    Ohya, Toshiyuki; Yamanaka, Ryo; Hagiwara, Masahiro; Oriishi, Marie; Suzuki, Yasuhiro

    2016-05-01

    Inspiratory muscle fatigue (IMF) may limit exercise performance. A few studies have reported that IMF occurs after short-duration swimming exercise, but whether short-duration running can induce IMF remains unclear. Intra-abdominal pressure is increased during running through diaphragmatic activation to stabilize the spine during movements of the upper limbs. This occurs along with the increased inspiratory muscle effort associated with increased respirations during exercise; thus, we hypothesized that short-duration running exercise would induce IMF. To test this hypothesis, we measured maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) before and after 400- and 800-m track running sessions. Eight female middle-distance (400, 800 m) runners performed a 400- and 800-m running test. Maximal inspiratory pressure was measured before and after each test using a portable autospirometer. The mean MIPs were significantly lower after running than before running; values obtained were 107 ± 25 vs. 97 ± 27 cmH2O (p = 0.01, effect size [ES] = 0.65) and 108 ± 26 vs. 92 ± 27 cmH2O (p = 0.01, ES = 0.74) before vs. after the 400- and 800-m tests, respectively. The mean MIP after the 800-m test was significantly lower than after the 400-m test (p = 0.04, ES = 0.48). There was no correlation between IMF value and running time (r = 0.53 and r = -0.28 for either the 400- and 800-m tests, respectively; p > 0.05). In conclusion, IMF occurs after short-duration running exercise. Coaches could consider prescribing inspiratory muscle training or warm-up in an effort to reduce the inevitable IMF associated with maximal effort running.

  19. A Study of Running Safety and Ride Comfort of Floating Tracks for High-Speed Train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Tsutomu; Sogabe, Masamichi; Yamazaki, Takayuki

    In order to reduce train-induced vibration, many floating tracks have been used, however, for only low-speed trains because we are not sure whether riding comfort and running safety can be maintained on floating tracks for high speed train. The authors, in this study, carried out an analysis of dynamic response and running quality of various floating tracks for high-speed train like Shinkansen. We used a simulation program, DIASTARS for the analysis. In this program, the Shinkansen vehicle is represented by a model of three dimensions consisting of a body, two trucks, and four wheelsets connected to each other with springs and dampers. The floating tracks were modeled by three-dimensional finite element method. In this study, the wheel load fluctuation and vehicle body accelerations were investigated by a dynamic interaction analysis between the vehicle and track with the train speed as parameters.

  20. Swimming and cycling overloaded training in triathlon has no effect on running kinematics and economy.

    PubMed

    Palazzetti, S; Margaritis, I; Guezennec, C Y

    2005-04-01

    The aim of the study was to verify whether an overloaded training (OT) in triathlon deteriorates running kinematics (RK) and running economy (RE). Thirteen well-trained male long-distance triathletes (age: 28.1 +/- 4.3 yrs; V.O (2max): 65.0 +/- 3.1 ml O (2) . min (-1) . kg (-1)) were divided into two groups: completed an individualized OT program (OG; n = 7) or maintained a normal level of training (NT) (CG; n = 6) for a duration of 3 weeks. Every week, each triathlete completed a standardized questionnaire to quantify the influence of training loads on mood state. To reach OT, total training load (h . 3 wk (-1)) was increased by 24 %; swimming and cycling total volumes were increased by 46 and 57 %, respectively, but the distance run was not modified in order to limit the risk of injuries. RK and RE were determined on treadmill test at 12 km . h (-1) before and after the 3 weeks. The 3-week swimming and cycling OT in triathlon was sufficiently stressful to alter mood state but not to deteriorate the running kinematics and economy parameters in our previously well-trained male long-distance triathletes.

  1. Physiological Responses to On-Court vs Running Interval Training in Competitive Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Sanz-Rivas, David; Sanchez-Muñoz, Cristobal; de la Aleja Tellez, Jose Gonzalez; Buchheit, Martin; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare heart rate (HR), blood lactate (LA) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) responses to a tennis-specific interval training (i.e., on-court) session with that of a matched-on-time running interval training (i.e., off-court). Eight well-trained, male (n = 4) and female (n = 4) tennis players (mean ± SD; age: 16.4 ± 1.8 years) underwent an incremental test where peak treadmill speed, maximum HR (HRmax) and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) were determined. The two interval training protocols (i.e., off- court and on-court) consisted of 4 sets of 120 s of work, interspersed with 90 s rest. Percentage of HRmax (95.9 ± 2.4 vs. 96.1 ± 2.2%; p = 0.79), LA (6.9 ± 2.5 vs. 6.2 ± 2.4 mmol·L-1; p = 0.14) and RPE (16.7 ± 2.1 vs. 16.3 ± 1.8; p = 0.50) responses were similar for off-court and on-court, respectively. The two interval training protocols used in the present study have equivalent physiological responses. Longitudinal studies are still warranted but tennis-specific interval training sessions could represent a time-efficient alternative to off-court (running) interval training for the optimization of the specific cardiorespiratory fitness in tennis players. Key points On-court interval training protocol can be used as an alternative to running interval training Technical/tactical training should be performed under conditions that replicate the physical and technical demands of a competitive match During the competitive season tennis on-court training might be preferred to off-court training PMID:24150630

  2. Physiological Responses to On-Court vs Running Interval Training in Competitive Tennis Players.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Sanz-Rivas, David; Sanchez-Muñoz, Cristobal; de la Aleja Tellez, Jose Gonzalez; Buchheit, Martin; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare heart rate (HR), blood lactate (LA) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) responses to a tennis-specific interval training (i.e., on-court) session with that of a matched-on-time running interval training (i.e., off-court). Eight well-trained, male (n = 4) and female (n = 4) tennis players (mean ± SD; age: 16.4 ± 1.8 years) underwent an incremental test where peak treadmill speed, maximum HR (HRmax) and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) were determined. The two interval training protocols (i.e., off- court and on-court) consisted of 4 sets of 120 s of work, interspersed with 90 s rest. Percentage of HRmax (95.9 ± 2.4 vs. 96.1 ± 2.2%; p = 0.79), LA (6.9 ± 2.5 vs. 6.2 ± 2.4 mmol·L(-1); p = 0.14) and RPE (16.7 ± 2.1 vs. 16.3 ± 1.8; p = 0.50) responses were similar for off-court and on-court, respectively. The two interval training protocols used in the present study have equivalent physiological responses. Longitudinal studies are still warranted but tennis-specific interval training sessions could represent a time-efficient alternative to off-court (running) interval training for the optimization of the specific cardiorespiratory fitness in tennis players. Key pointsOn-court interval training protocol can be used as an alternative to running interval trainingTechnical/tactical training should be performed under conditions that replicate the physical and technical demands of a competitive matchDuring the competitive season tennis on-court training might be preferred to off-court training.

  3. Effects of high-intensity running training on soccer-specific fitness in professional male players.

    PubMed

    Wells, Carl; Edwards, Andrew; Fysh, Mary; Drust, Barry

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not physiological and performance gains could be achieved with the addition of high-intensity running to an existing training programme in a group of well trained professional male soccer players. Sixteen professional male players (21.3 ± 2.1 years, stature 177.4 ± 4.2 cm, body mass 73.1 ± 8.1 kg) were randomised in training (TRA, n = 8) and control (CON, n = 8) groups. All players performed physiological assessments before and after a 6-week intervention. Outcome measures were: (i) V̇O2peak, (ii) V̇O2 kinetics during very heavy-intensity exercise, (iii) a maximal anaerobic running test, and (iv) Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 2 (YIRT2). The only aerobic parameter to change after the intervention was the phase III time constant at exercise onset for CON, which lengthened (p = 0.012) to a value similar to that of the TRA group. However, TRA showed gains in anaerobic performance (p = 0.021), time to exhaustion (p = 0.019), and maximal running speed (p = 0.023). In the YIRT2, distance run increased for TRA over time (p = 0.015), and the TRA group were also capable of running further in the YIRT2 after the intervention compared with CON (p = 0.011). This study shows it is possible to improve the soccer-specific high-intensity running capacity of professional players when high-intensity intermittent training is added to the normal training load and that this effect is only detectable in anaerobic capabilities. The observed effects are meaningful to the training practices of elite athletes seeking a competitive edge in team sports when otherwise well matched.

  4. Acute Effect of Dynamic Stretching on Endurance Running Performance in Well-Trained Male Runners.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Taichi; Takizawa, Kazuki; Shibata, Keisuke

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the acute effect of dynamic stretching (DS) on relative high-intensity endurance running performance. The endurance running performances of 7 well-trained middle- or long-distance male runners were assessed on a treadmill after 2 types of pretreatment. The pretreatments were nonstretching (NS) and DS treatment. In the DS treatment, DS was performed as 1 set of 10 repetitions as quickly as possible for the 5 muscle groups in lower extremities. The endurance running performances were evaluated by time to exhaustion (TTE) and total running distance (TRD) during running at a velocity equivalent to 90% maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in each subject. The oxygen uptake (VO2) during running was measured as an index of running economy (RE). The TTE (928.6 ± 215.0 seconds) after DS treatment was significantly (p < 0.01) more prolonged compared with that (785.3 ± 206.2 seconds) after NS. The TRD (4,301.2 ± 893.8 m) after DS treatment was also significantly (p < 0.01) longer than that (3,616.9 ± 783.3 m) after NS. The changes in the VO2 during running, however, did not significantly (p > 0.05) differ between the pretreatments. The results demonstrated that the DS treatment improved the endurance performance of running at a velocity equivalent to 90% VO2max in well-trained male runners, although it did not change the RE. This running velocity is equivalent to that for a 3,000- or 5,000-m race. Our finding suggests that performing DS during warm-up before a race is effective for improving performance.

  5. Interpreter training for medical students: pilot implementation and assessment in a student-run clinic.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Jennifer E L; Ekasumara, Nydia; Menon, Nikhil R; Homan, Edwin; Rajarajan, Prashanth; Zamudio, Andrés Ramírez; Kim, Annie J; Gruener, Jason; Poliandro, Edward; Thomas, David C; Meah, Yasmin S; Soriano, Rainier P

    2016-09-29

    Trained medical interpreters are instrumental to patient satisfaction and quality of care. They are especially important in student-run clinics, where many patients have limited English proficiency. Because student-run clinics have ties to their medical schools, they have access to bilingual students who may volunteer to interpret, but are not necessarily formally trained. To study the feasibility and efficacy of leveraging medical student volunteers to improve interpretation services, we performed a pilot study at the student-run clinic at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. In each fall semester in 2012-2015, we implemented a 6-h course providing didactic and interactive training on medical Spanish interpreting techniques and language skills to bilingual students. We then assessed the impact of the course on interpreter abilities. Participants' comfort levels, understanding of their roles, and understanding of terminology significantly increased after the course (p < 0.05), and these gains remained several months later (p < 0.05) and were repeated in an independent cohort. Patients and student clinicians also rated participants highly (averages above 4.5 out of 5) on these measures in real clinical encounters. These findings suggest that a formal interpreter training course tailored for medical students in the setting of a student-run clinic is feasible and effective. This program for training qualified student interpreters can serve as a model for other settings where medical students serve as interpreters.

  6. Rivers Run Through It: Discovering the Interior Columbia River Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Shelley; Wojtanik, Brenda Lincoln; Rieben, Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    Explores the Columbia River Basin, its ecosystems, and challenges faced by natural resource managers. By studying the basin's complexity, students can learn about common scientific concepts such as the power of water and effects of rain shadows. Students can also explore social-scientific issues such as conflicts between protecting salmon runs and…

  7. Rivers Run Through It: Discovering the Interior Columbia River Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Shelley; Wojtanik, Brenda Lincoln; Rieben, Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    Explores the Columbia River Basin, its ecosystems, and challenges faced by natural resource managers. By studying the basin's complexity, students can learn about common scientific concepts such as the power of water and effects of rain shadows. Students can also explore social-scientific issues such as conflicts between protecting salmon runs and…

  8. Chasing Personal Meaning: Pedagogical Lessons through Luis Rodriguez's "Always Running"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theisen-Homer, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    In this autobiographical narrative, the author recounts her experiences teaching the novel "Always Running" by Luis Rodriguez with her English classes at a high school in a gang-heavy area. When she first started teaching, this teacher struggled to engage students. One particularly disruptive student requested to read "Always…

  9. Chasing Personal Meaning: Pedagogical Lessons through Luis Rodriguez's "Always Running"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theisen-Homer, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    In this autobiographical narrative, the author recounts her experiences teaching the novel "Always Running" by Luis Rodriguez with her English classes at a high school in a gang-heavy area. When she first started teaching, this teacher struggled to engage students. One particularly disruptive student requested to read "Always…

  10. "Functional" Inspiratory and Core Muscle Training Enhances Running Performance and Economy.

    PubMed

    Tong, Tomas K; McConnell, Alison K; Lin, Hua; Nie, Jinlei; Zhang, Haifeng; Wang, Jiayuan

    2016-10-01

    Tong, TK, McConnell, AK, Lin, H, Nie, J, Zhang, H, and Wang, J. "Functional" inspiratory and core muscle training enhances running performance and economy. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2942-2951, 2016-We compared the effects of two 6-week high-intensity interval training interventions. Under the control condition (CON), only interval training was undertaken, whereas under the intervention condition (ICT), interval training sessions were followed immediately by core training, which was combined with simultaneous inspiratory muscle training (IMT)-"functional" IMT. Sixteen recreational runners were allocated to either ICT or CON groups. Before the intervention phase, both groups undertook a 4-week program of "foundation" IMT to control for the known ergogenic effect of IMT (30 inspiratory efforts at 50% maximal static inspiratory pressure [P0] per set, 2 sets per day, 6 days per week). The subsequent 6-week interval running training phase consisted of 3-4 sessions per week. In addition, the ICT group undertook 4 inspiratory-loaded core exercises (10 repetitions per set, 2 sets per day, inspiratory load set at 50% post-IMT P0) immediately after each interval training session. The CON group received neither core training nor functional IMT. After the intervention phase, global inspiratory and core muscle functions increased in both groups (p ≤ 0.05), as evidenced by P0 and a sport-specific endurance plank test (SEPT) performance, respectively. Compared with CON, the ICT group showed larger improvements in SEPT, running economy at the speed of the onset of blood lactate accumulation, and 1-hour running performance (3.04% vs. 1.57%, p ≤ 0.05). The changes in these variables were interindividually correlated (r ≥ 0.57, n = 16, p ≤ 0.05). Such findings suggest that the addition of inspiratory-loaded core conditioning into a high-intensity interval training program augments the influence of the interval program on endurance running performance and that this may be

  11. High-intensity cycle interval training improves cycling and running performance in triathletes.

    PubMed

    Etxebarria, Naroa; Anson, Judith M; Pyne, David B; Ferguson, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Effective cycle training for triathlon is a challenge for coaches. We compared the effects of two variants of cycle high-intensity interval training (HIT) on triathlon-specific cycling and running. Fourteen moderately-trained male triathletes ([Formula: see text]O2peak 58.7 ± 8.1 mL kg(-1) min(-1); mean ± SD) completed on separate occasions a maximal incremental test ([Formula: see text]O2peak and maximal aerobic power), 16 × 20 s cycle sprints and a 1-h triathlon-specific cycle followed immediately by a 5 km run time trial. Participants were then pair-matched and assigned randomly to either a long high-intensity interval training (LONG) (6-8 × 5 min efforts) or short high-intensity interval training (SHORT) (9-11 × 10, 20 and 40 s efforts) HIT cycle training intervention. Six training sessions were completed over 3 weeks before participants repeated the baseline testing. Both groups had an ∼7% increase in [Formula: see text]O2peak (SHORT 7.3%, ±4.6%; mean, ±90% confidence limits; LONG 7.5%, ±1.7%). There was a moderate improvement in mean power for both the SHORT (10.3%, ±4.4%) and LONG (10.7%, ±6.8%) groups during the last eight 20-s sprints. There was a small to moderate decrease in heart rate, blood lactate and perceived exertion in both groups during the 1-h triathlon-specific cycling but only the LONG group had a substantial decrease in the subsequent 5-km run time (64, ±59 s). Moderately-trained triathletes should use both short and long high-intensity intervals to improve cycling physiology and performance. Longer 5-min intervals on the bike are more likely to benefit 5 km running performance.

  12. Anthropometric and training variables related to half-marathon running performance in recreational female runners.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Barandun, Ursula; Rosemann, Thomas

    2011-05-01

    The relationship between skin-fold thickness and running has been investigated in distances ranging from 100 m to the marathon distance (42.195 km), with the exclusion of the half-marathon distance (21.0975 km). We investigated the association between anthropometric variables, prerace experience, and training variables with race time in 42 recreational, nonprofessional, female half-marathon runners using bi- and multivariate analysis. Body weight (r, 0.60); body mass index (r, 0.48); body fat percentage (r, 0.56); pectoral (r, 0.61), mid-axilla (r, 0.69), triceps (r, 0.49), subscapular (r, 0.61), abdominal (r, 0.59), suprailiac (r, 0.55), and medial calf (r, 0.53) skin-fold thickness; mean speed of the training sessions (r, -0.68); and personal best time in a half-marathon (r, 0.69) correlated with race time after bivariate analysis. Body weight (P = 0.0054), pectoral skin-fold thickness (P = 0.0068), and mean speed of the training sessions (P = 0.0041) remained significant after multivariate analysis. Mean running speed during training was related to mid-axilla (r, -0.31), subscapular (r, -0.38), abdominal (r, -0.44), and suprailiac (r, -0.41) skin-fold thickness, the sum of 8 skin-fold thicknesses (r, -0.36); and percent body fat (r, -0.31). It was determined that variables of both anthropometry and training were related to half-marathon race time, and that skin-fold thicknesses were associated with running speed during training. For practical applications, high running speed during training (as opposed to extensive training) may both reduce upper-body skin-fold thicknesses and improve race performance in recreational female half-marathon runners.

  13. Effects of running training on in vitro brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozu, Tsukasa; Kikuchi, Kazue; Ogawa, Koji; Kuroshima, Akihiro

    1992-06-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a major site of nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) during cold acclimation for most mammals. Repetitive nonthermal stress such as immobilization has been shown to enhance the capacity of NST as cold acclimation. In the present study, the effects of running training, another type of nonthermal stress, were investigated on in vitro thermogenesis and the cellularity of interscapular BAT in rats. The rats were subjected to treadmill running for 30 min daily at 30 m/min under 8° inclination for 4 5 weeks. In vitro thermogenesis was then measured in minced tissue blocks incubated in a Krebs-Ringer phosphate buffer containing glucose and albumin at 37° C, using a Clark type oxygen electrode. The trained rats showed less body weight gain during the experiment. The weights of BAT and epididymal white adipose tissue were smaller in the trained rats. Noradrenaline- and glucagon-stimulated oxygen consumption were also significantly smaller in the trained rats. The tissue DNA level was greater in the trained rats, but the DNA content per tissue pad did not significantly differ. The results indicate that running training reduces BAT thermogenesis, possibly as an adaptation to conserve energy substrates for physical work.

  14. Effect on Oxygen Cost of Transport from 8-Weeks of Progressive Training with Barefoot Running.

    PubMed

    Tam, N; Tucker, R; Astephen Wilson, J L; Santos-Concejero, J

    2015-11-01

    Popular interest in barefoot running has emerged as a result of its alleged performance and injury prevention benefits. Oxygen cost of transport (COT) improvements from barefoot running, however, remains equivocal. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of an 8-week progressive barefoot training program on COT and associated spatiotemporal variables. 15 male runners participated in this study. Variables such as oxygen uptake, biomechanical and spatiotemporal characteristics of gait, including ground contact (GC) and swing time; stride length and frequency and ankle plantar-dorsiflexion were measured pre- and post-intervention. The COT did not differ between barefoot and shod running either pre- or post-training. Improved barefoot COT (p<0.05) but not shod was found between pre- and post-training. Biomechanical differences between barefoot and shod conditions persisted over the training period. A decrease in barefoot COT was associated with a decrease in GC time (p=0.003, r=0.688) and a small increase in stride frequency (p=0.030; r=0.569). Ground contact time and stride frequency, previously associated with COT, only partly contribute (32% - Stride frequency and 47% - GC time) to a decrease in COT after barefoot training. Thus other physiological and biomechanical variables must influence the improvement in COT after a barefoot training intervention.

  15. Ventilatory responses of trained and untrained subjects during running and walking.

    PubMed

    Berry, M J; Robergs, R A; Weyrich, A S; Puntenney, P J

    1988-10-01

    To investigate the influence of stride frequency on ventilation in different subject populations, the ventilatory responses to walking and running at similar metabolic loads were studied in 29 males. Ten of the males were well-trained, highly fit runners (HFR), ten were well-trained, highly fit cyclists (HFC), and nine were healthy low-fit males (LFM) who did not engage in any form of regular exercise. All subjects completed two separate exercise bouts, a level run and an uphill walk, at 90% of their ventilatory threshold. Stride frequency was found to increase by 49% between the walk and run trials. Minute ventilation (VE), tidal volume (VT), breathing frequency (f), end-tibial CO2 tension (PETCO2), end-tidal O2 tension (PETO2), and inspiratory time (TI) were all significantly different (P less than 0.05) between the walk and run trials for the HFR. Minute ventilation and expiratory time (TE) did not differ significantly between the walk and run trials for the HFC; however, VT, f, PETCO2, PETO2, and TI were significantly different. Only PETCO2 and TI were found to be significantly different between the walk and run trials for the LFM. These results suggest that stride frequency affects ventilation to varying degrees dependent upon the subject population and that the mechanisms for the hyperpnea of moderate exercise operating in each of these subject populations involve a complex interaction of many factors.

  16. Effects of Ramadan intermittent fasting on middle-distance running performance in well-trained runners.

    PubMed

    Brisswalter, Jeanick; Bouhlel, Ezzedine; Falola, Jean Marie; Abbiss, Christopher R; Vallier, Jean Marc; Hausswirth, Christophe; Hauswirth, Christophe

    2011-09-01

    To assess whether Ramadan intermittent fasting (RIF) affects 5000-m running performance and physiological parameters classically associated with middle-distance performance. Two experimental groups (Ramadan fasting, n = 9, vs control, n = 9) participated in 2 experimental sessions, one before RIF and the other at the last week of fasting. For each session, subjects completed 4 tests in the same order: a maximal running test, a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of knee extensor, 2 rectangular submaximal exercises on treadmill for 6 minutes at an intensity corresponding to the first ventilatory threshold (VT1), and a running performance test (5000 m). Eighteen, well-trained, middle-distance runners. Maximal oxygen consumption, MVC, running performance, running efficiency, submaximal VO(2) kinetics parameters (VO(2), VO(2)b, time constant τ, and amplitude A1) and anthropometric parameters were recorded or calculated. At the end of Ramadan fasting, a decrease in MVC was observed (-3.2%; P < 0.00001; η, 0.80), associated with an increase in the time constant of oxygen kinetics (+51%; P < 0.00007; η, 0.72) and a decrease in performance (-5%; P < 0.0007; η, 0.51). No effect was observed on running efficiency or maximal aerobic power. These results suggest that Ramadan changes in muscular performance and oxygen kinetics could affect performance during middle-distance events and need to be considered to choose training protocols during RIF.

  17. Effects of Physical Training and Fitness on Running Injuries in Physically Active Young Men.

    PubMed

    Grier, Tyson L; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Anderson, Morgan K; Bushman, Timothy T; Jones, Bruce H

    2017-01-01

    Grier, TL, Canham-Chervak, M, Anderson, MK, Bushman, TT, and Jones, BH. Effects of physical training and fitness on running injuries in physically active young men. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 207-216, 2017-The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of physical training (PT) and fitness on risks for running-related injuries (RRIs) in physically active young men. Personal characteristics, PT, Army Physical Fitness Test scores, and injury data were obtained by survey. Army Physical Fitness Test variables (push-ups, sit-ups, and 2-mile run) were converted into quartiles (Q), where Q1 = lowest performance and Q4 = highest performance. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression. Over 4,000 (n = 4,236) soldiers were surveyed. Running injury incidence was 14%. A greater risk of an RRI was associated with older age (OR31+/<22 years = 1.62, 95% CI, 1.21-2.18), higher BMI ((Equation is included in full-text article.)), and total distance ran per week during unit PT (OR16.1+/1-5 miles = 1.66, 95% CI, 1.15-2.41). A lower risk of an RRI was associated with total distance run per week during personal PT (OR5.1-10/1-5 miles = 0.70, 95% CI, 0.53-0.91, OR10.1-16 +/1-5 miles = 0.58, 95% CI, 0.35-0.97, OR16.1+/1-5 miles = 0.54, 95% CI, 0.30-0.98), higher aerobic endurance as measured by 2-mile run performance (ORQ4/Q1 = 0.50, 95% CI, 0.35-0.72), and unit resistance training ≥3 times a week (OR≥3 times per week/none = 0.46, 95% CI, 0.29-0.73). Greater personal PT running mileage decreased injuries in this population suggesting that the increased protective effect of higher aerobic fitness outweighed the injurious effect of running more miles during personal PT. Countermeasures to prevent RRIs could entail enhancing aerobic endurance, providing opportunities for personal aerobic training, monitoring for excessive unit PT running mileage and encouraging unit resistance training ≥3 times per week.

  18. "Running a Train": Adolescent Boys' Accounts of Sexual Intercourse Involving Multiple Males and One Female

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Emily F.; Decker, Michele R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay G.; Miller, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    The authors used qualitative research methods to explore the context and sexual risk behavior associated with sexual intercourse involving multiple males and one female, commonly called "running a train." Participants were 20 adolescent males aged 14 to 22 years who were either perpetrators of dating violence or perceived by teachers to…

  19. Mild renal hypertension alters run training effects on the frequency response of rat cardiomyocyte mechanics.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Bradley M; Mokelke, Eric A; Thayer, Anne M; Moore, Russell L

    2003-11-01

    We examined the effects of run training on the frequency dependence of cardiomyocyte mechanics and intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) dynamics in rats with mild renal hypertension. Male Fischer 344 rats aged 2-3 mo underwent a sham operation or stenosis of the left renal artery, which increased systolic blood pressure 20-30 mmHg. Half of the rats in each group underwent treadmill run training for >16 wk. Isolated cardiomyocytes were paced at 1.0 and 0.2 Hz in 2 mM external Ca2+ concentration at 29 degrees C. Under these conditions, negative frequency responses, i.e., decreased value with increased frequency, were recorded for peak shortening, shortening velocity, and the integral of the [Ca2+]i transient in both groups. Run training amplified the negative frequency response for the integral of the [Ca2+]i transient in both groups, but it amplified the negative frequency response for the shortening dynamics only in the normotensive sham-operated and not in the hypertensive rats. These results, as well as others for relaxation parameters, suggest that renal hypertension altered the effects of run training on the frequency response for cardiomyocyte contractile apparatus and/or passive mechanical properties, which respond to [Ca2+]i.

  20. "Running a Train": Adolescent Boys' Accounts of Sexual Intercourse Involving Multiple Males and One Female

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Emily F.; Decker, Michele R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay G.; Miller, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    The authors used qualitative research methods to explore the context and sexual risk behavior associated with sexual intercourse involving multiple males and one female, commonly called "running a train." Participants were 20 adolescent males aged 14 to 22 years who were either perpetrators of dating violence or perceived by teachers to…

  1. Specificity of arm training on aerobic power during swimming and running.

    PubMed

    Gergley, T J; McArdle, W D; DeJesus, P; Toner, M M; Jacobowitz, S; Spina, R J

    1984-08-01

    The specificity of aerobic training for upper-body exercise requiring differing amounts of muscle mass was evaluated in 25 college-aged male recreational swimmers who were randomly assigned to either a non-training control group (N = 9), a 10-wk swim(S)-training group (N = 9), or a group that trained with a standard swim-bench pulley system (SB; N = 7). For all subjects prior to training, tethered-swimming peak VO2 averaged 19% below treadmill values (P less than 0.01), while SB-ergometry peak VO2 was 50% and 39% below running and swimming values, respectively (P less than 0.01). Significant (P less than 0.01) increases of peak VO2 in tethered swimming (11%) and SB (21%) were observed for the SB-trained group, while the S-trained group improved (P less than 0.01) 18% and 19% on the tethered swimming and SB tests, respectively. No changes were observed during treadmill running, and the control subjects remained unchanged on all measures. Comparisons between training groups indicated that although both groups improved to a similar extent when measured on the swim bench, the 0.53 l X min-1 improvement in tethered-swimming peak VO2 for the S-trained group was greater (P less than 0.05) than the 0.32 l X min-1 increase noted for the SB-trained group. The comparisons between SB and S exercise vs treadmill exercise support the specificity of aerobic improvement with training and suggest that local adaptations contribute significantly to improvements in peak VO2. Furthermore, the present data indicate that SB exercise activates a considerable portion of the musculature involved in swimming, and that aerobic improvements with SB training are directly transferred to swimming.

  2. The effect of cycling cadence on subsequent 10km running performance in well-trained triathletes.

    PubMed

    Tew, Garry

    2005-09-01

    used by triathletes. Key PointsCompared with an isolated run, completion of a cycling event impairs the performance of a subsequent run independently of the pedalling cadence.The choice of cadence within triathletes' usual range does not seem to influence the performance of a 10km run.The results reinforce the necessity for triathletes to practice multi-block training in order to simulate the physiological responses experienced by the cycle-run transition.Further research into the effects of cycling cadence on subsequent running performance is required.

  3. Changes in tendon stiffness and running economy in highly trained distance runners.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jared R; Esau, Shane P; MacIntosh, Brian R

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if changes in triceps-surae tendon stiffness (TST K) could affect running economy (RE) in highly trained distance runners. The intent was to induce increased TST K in a subgroup of runners by an added isometric training program. If TST K is a primary determinant of RE, then the energy cost of running (EC) should decrease in the trained subjects. EC was measured via open-circuit spirometry in 12 highly trained male distance runners, and TST K was measured using ultrasonography and dynamometry. Runners were randomly assigned to either a training or control group. The training group performed 4 × 20 s isometric contractions at 80% of maximum voluntary plantarflexion moment three times per week for 8 weeks. All subjects (V(O)₂(max)) = 67.4 ± 4.6 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) continued their usual training for running. TST K was measured every 2 weeks. EC was measured in both training and control groups before and after the 8 weeks at three submaximal velocities, corresponding to 75, 85 and 95% of the speed at lactate threshold (sLT). Isometric training did neither result in a mean increase in TST K (0.9 ± 25.8%) nor a mean improvement in RE (0.1 ± 3.6%); however, there was a significant relationship (r(2) = 0.43, p = 0.02) between the change in TST K and change in EC, regardless of the assigned group. It was concluded that TST K and EC are somewhat labile and change together.

  4. An Innovative Running Wheel-based Mechanism for Improved Rat Training Performance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi-Chun; Yang, Chin-Lung; Chang, Ching-Ping

    2016-09-19

    This study presents an animal mobility system, equipped with a positioning running wheel (PRW), as a way to quantify the efficacy of an exercise activity for reducing the severity of the effects of the stroke in rats. This system provides more effective animal exercise training than commercially available systems such as treadmills and motorized running wheels (MRWs). In contrast to an MRW that can only achieve speeds below 20 m/min, rats are permitted to run at a stable speed of 30 m/min on a more spacious and high-density rubber running track supported by a 15 cm wide acrylic wheel with a diameter of 55 cm in this work. Using a predefined adaptive acceleration curve, the system not only reduces the operator error but also trains the rats to run persistently until a specified intensity is reached. As a way to evaluate the exercise effectiveness, real-time position of a rat is detected by four pairs of infrared sensors deployed on the running wheel. Once an adaptive acceleration curve is initiated using a microcontroller, the data obtained by the infrared sensors are automatically recorded and analyzed in a computer. For comparison purposes, 3 week training is conducted on rats using a treadmill, an MRW and a PRW. After surgically inducing middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo), modified neurological severity scores (mNSS) and an inclined plane test were conducted to assess the neurological damages to the rats. PRW is experimentally validated as the most effective among such animal mobility systems. Furthermore, an exercise effectiveness measure, based on rat position analysis, showed that there is a high negative correlation between the effective exercise and the infarct volume, and can be employed to quantify a rat training in any type of brain damage reduction experiments.

  5. Concurrent speed endurance and resistance training improves performance, running economy, and muscle NHE1 in moderately trained runners.

    PubMed

    Skovgaard, Casper; Christensen, Peter M; Larsen, Sonni; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Thomassen, Martin; Bangsbo, Jens

    2014-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether speed endurance training (SET, repeated 30-s sprints) and heavy resistance training (HRT, 80-90% of 1 repetition maximum) performed in succession are compatible and lead to performance improvements in moderately trained endurance runners. For an 8-wk intervention period (INT) 23 male runners [maximum oxygen uptake (V̇O(2max)) 59 ± 1 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1); values are means ± SE] either maintained their training (CON, n = 11) or performed high-intensity concurrent training (HICT, n = 12) consisting of two weekly sessions of SET followed by HRT and two weekly sessions of aerobic training with an average reduction in running distance of 42%. After 4 wk of HICT, performance was improved (P < 0.05) in a 10-km run (42:30 ± 1:07 vs. 44:11 ± 1:08 min:s) with no further improvement during the last 4 wk. Performance in a 1,500-m run (5:10 ± 0:05 vs. 5:27 ± 0:08 min:s) and in the Yo-Yo IR2 test (706 ± 97 vs. 491 ± 65 m) improved (P < 0.001) only following 8 wk of INT. In HICT, running economy (189 ± 4 vs. 195 ± 4 ml·kg(-1)·km(-1)), muscle content of NHE1 (35%) and dynamic muscle strength was augmented (P < 0.01) after compared with before INT, whereas V̇O(2max), muscle morphology, capillarization, content of muscle Na(+)/K(+) pump subunits, and MCT4 were unaltered. No changes were observed in CON. The present study demonstrates that SET and HRT, when performed in succession, lead to improvements in both short- and long-term running performance together with improved running economy as well as increased dynamic muscle strength and capacity for muscular H(+) transport in moderately trained endurance runners.

  6. Changing the Firm through Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdier, Eric

    1992-01-01

    A survey of French research by CEREQ ("A French research centre for analysis of occupations and of vocational education and training") shows that firms have undertaken a number of experiments, most of them large scale, to retrain their work force. These initiatives are situated within a general context of change. Training programs based…

  7. Training through Telematics in Virtual Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, C. B.

    1997-01-01

    Defines telematics and argues that India should exploit telematics resources for training. Describes training through telematics and virtual means, as well as a redefinition of the notion of training. Discusses the cost factor and its influence on policy at different levels. (AEF)

  8. A protocol of intermittent exercise (shuttle runs) to train young basketball players.

    PubMed

    Zadro, Ivan; Sepulcri, Luigino; Lazzer, Stefano; Fregolent, Rudy; Zamparo, Paola

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to set up a protocol of intermittent exercise to train young basketball players. Twenty-one players were asked to complete (a) an incremental test to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), the speed at the ventilatory threshold (vthr) and the energy cost of "linear" running (Cr) and (b) an intermittent test composed of 10 shuttle runs of 10-second duration and 30-seconds of recovery (total duration: about 6 minutes). The exercise intensity (the running speed, vi) was set at 130% of vthr. During the intermittent tests, oxygen uptake (VO2) and blood lactate concentration (Lab) were measured. The average pretraining VO2 calculated for a single bout (131 ± 9 ml · min(-1) kg(-1)) was about 2.4 times greater than the subjects' measured VO2max (54.7 ± 4.6 ml · min(-1) · kg(-1)). The net energy cost of running (9.2 ± 0.9 J · m(-1) · kg(-1)) was about 2.4 times higher than that measured at constant "linear" speed (3.9 ± 0.3 J · m(-1) · kg(-1)). The intermittent test was repeated after 7 weeks of training: 9 subjects (control group [CG]) maintained their traditional training schedule, whereas for 12 subjects (experimental group [EG]) part of the training was replaced by intermittent exercise (the same shuttle test as described above). After training, the VO2 measured during the intermittent test was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in both groups (-10.9% in EG and - 4.6 in CG %), whereas Lab decreased significantly only for EG (-31.5%). These data suggest that this training protocol is effective in reducing lactate accumulation in young basketball players.

  9. Incline Treadmill Interval Training: Short vs. Long Bouts and the Effects on Distance Running Performance.

    PubMed

    Ferley, D D; Hopper, D T; Vukovich, M D

    2016-11-01

    This study compared 6 weeks of incline treadmill interval training (INC) performed on a 10% treadmill grade using either sprint-like efforts or slower, longer bouts. 24 individuals were randomly assigned between 2 groups that each completed 2 INC and one 30-min level-grade sessions∙wk(-1). Training intensities, bout durations and the number of intervals per INC session were the velocity associated with VO2max (Vmax), 30 s and 10-14 (INCShort n=12), and 68%Vmax, ~3 min and 4-6 (INCLong n=12), respectively. All 30-min sessions were at 65%Vmax. Pre- and post-testing assessed VO2max; lactate threshold (VLT); running economy; and time-to-exhaustion at various conditions including 80%Vmax and 20% grade (CFMod). Both groups improved significantly in all tests; additionally, INCShort improved significantly more so in VLT and CFMod despite INCLong performing more than 2 times the running each INC session (P<0.05). Mean effect size (ES) of the relative improvement in a majority of tests revealed a trivial to very large ES of INCShort vs. INCLong training (ES range: 0.05-4.05). We conclude sprint-like INC better than slower, longer INC at improving a key determinant of distance running performance (VLT), and better at preparing individuals for running on courses with a variety of grades. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Habituation Training Improves Locomotor Performance in a Forced Running Wheel System in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Toval, Angel; Baños, Raúl; De la Cruz, Ernesto; Morales-Delgado, Nicanor; Pallarés, Jesús G.; Ayad, Abdelmalik; Tseng, Kuei Y.; Ferran, Jose L.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports that physical activity promotes mental health; and regular exercise may confer positive effects in neurological disorders. There is growing number of reports that requires the analysis of the impact of physical activity in animal models. Exercise in rodents can be performed under voluntary or forced conditions. The former presents the disadvantage that the volume and intensity of exercise varies from subject to subject. On the other hand, a major challenge of the forced training protocol is the low level of performance typically achieved within a given session. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gradual increasing of the volume and intensity (training habituation protocol) to improve the locomotor performance in a forced running-wheel system in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either a group that received an exercise training habituation protocol, or a control group. The locomotor performance during forced running was assessed by an incremental exercise test. The experimental results reveal that the total running time and the distance covered by habituated rats was significantly higher than in control ones. We conclude that the exercise habituation protocol improves the locomotor performance in forced running wheels. PMID:28337132

  11. Effects of Strength Training Associated With Whole-Body Vibration Training on Running Economy and Vertical Stiffness.

    PubMed

    Roschel, Hamilton; Barroso, Renato; Tricoli, Valmor; Batista, Mauro A B; Acquesta, Fernanda M; Serrão, Júlio C; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    Running economy (RE) is defined as the energy cost to maintain a submaximal running velocity and seems to be affected by individual's neuromuscular characteristics, such as stiffness level. Both resistance training (RT) and whole-body vibration training added to RT (WBV + RT) have been shown to influence those characteristics. Thus, it is conceivable that RT and WBV + RT could also affect RE. The objective of this study was to investigate if a 6-week training period of RT and WBV + RT influences RE and vertical stiffness (VS). Fifteen recreational runners were divided into RT or WBV + RT groups. Running economy, VS, and lower-limb maximum dynamic strength (1 repetition maximum [1RM] half-squat) were assessed before and after the 6-week training period. There was a main time effect for 1RM, but no other statistically significant difference was observed. Neither conventional RT nor RT performed on a WBV platform improved VS and RE in recreational long distance runners. It is possible that movement velocity was rather low, and utilization of stretch-shortening cycle might have been compromised, impairing any expected improvement in RE.

  12. Relationship between Achilles tendon length and running performance in well-trained male endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Hiromasa; Suga, Tadashi; Takao, Kenji; Tanaka, Takahiro; Misaki, Jun; Miyake, Yuto; Nagano, Akinori; Isaka, Tadao

    2017-06-28

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between Achilles tendon (AT) length and running performance, including running economy, in well-trained endurance runners. We also examined the reasonable portion of the AT related to running performance among AT lengths measured in three different portions. The AT lengths at three portions and cross-sectional area (CSA) of 30 endurance runners were measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Each AT length was calculated as the distance from the calcaneal tuberosity to the muscle-tendon junction of the soleus, gastrocnemius medialis (GMAT ), and gastrocnemius lateralis, respectively. These AT lengths were normalized with shank length. The AT CSA was calculated as the average of 10, 20, and 30 mm above the distal insertion of the AT and normalized with body mass. Running economy was evaluated by measuring energy cost during three 4-minutes submaximal treadmill running trials at 14, 16, and 18 km/h, respectively. Among three AT lengths, only a GMAT correlated significantly with personal best 5000-m race time (r=-.376, P=.046). Furthermore, GMAT correlated significantly with energy cost during submaximal treadmill running trials at 14 km/h and 18 km/h (r=-.446 and -.429, respectively, P<.05 for both), and a trend toward such significance was observed at 16 km/h (r=-.360, P=.050). In contrast, there was no correlation between AT CSA and running performance. These findings suggest that longer AT, especially GMAT , may be advantageous to achieve superior running performance, with better running economy, in endurance runners. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The effects of incline and level-grade high-intensity interval treadmill training on running economy and muscle power in well-trained distance runners.

    PubMed

    Ferley, Derek D; Osborn, Roy W; Vukovich, Matthew D

    2014-05-01

    Despite a paucity of evidence, uphill running has been touted as a sport-specific resistance-to-movement training tactic capable of enhancing metabolic, muscular, and neuromuscular processes in distance runners in ways similar to previously established resistance-to-movement training methods, such as heavy and/or explosive strength training and plyometric training. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation included documenting the effects of incline and level-grade interval treadmill training on indices of running economy (RE) (i.e., oxygen consumption [VO2] and blood lactate [BLa] responses of submaximal running) and muscle power. Thirty-two well-trained distance runners (age, 27.4 ± 3.8 years; body mass, 64.8 ± 8.9 kg; height, 173.6 ± 6.4 cm; and VO2max, 60.9 ± 8.5 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1)) received assignment to an uphill (GHill = 12), level-grade (GFlat = 12), or control (GCon = 8) group. GHill and GFlat completed 12 interval and 12 continuous run sessions over 6 weeks, whereas GCon maintained their normal training. Dependent variables measured before and after training were VO2 and BLa at 2 separate velocities associated with lactate threshold (VLT) (VO2-60% and VO2-80%; and BLa-60% and BLa-80%, respectively); percentage of VO2max at lactate threshold (%VO2max at VLT); muscle power as assessed through a horizontal 5-jump test (5Jmax); and isokinetic knee extension and flexion at 3 angular velocities (90, 180, and 300°·s(-1)). Statistical significance was set to p ≤ 0.05. All groups significantly improved 5Jmax, VO2-60%, VO2-80%, BLa-60%, and BLa-80%. Additionally, GHill and GFlat significantly improved %VO2max at VLT. Other indices of RE and muscle power did not improve. We conclude incline treadmill training effective for improving the components of RE, but insufficient as a resistance-to-movement exercise for enhancing muscle power output.

  14. Effects of extreme endurance running on cardiac autonomic nervous modulation in healthy trained subjects.

    PubMed

    Sztajzel, Juan; Atchou, Guillaume; Adamec, Richard; Bayes de Luna, Antonio

    2006-01-15

    This study examined spectral components of heart rate variability (HRV) during endurance mountain running in 8 healthy trained subjects. The data showed that during this type of mountain running, all spectral components of HRV may severely decrease, particularly very-low-frequency and low-frequency (LF) power, suggesting extreme activation of the sympathetic nervous system. The physiologic response of the heart in this situation was the downregulation of the beta-adrenergic receptors to protect myocardial function, with a subsequent increase in parasympathetic tone, reflected by an increase in high-frequency (HF) power and a decrease in the LF/HF ratio.

  15. Oxidative capacity and fatigability in run-trained malignant hyperthermia-susceptible mice.

    PubMed

    Rouviere, Clement; Corona, Benjamin T; Ingalls, Christopher P

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that malignant hyperthermia model mice (RyR1Y522S/wt) are more vulnerable to exercise-induced muscle injury and fatigability and adapt less to run training. After 6 weeks of voluntary wheel running, we measured anterior crural muscle fatigability, muscle injury, and cytochrome oxidase (COX) and citrate synthase (CS). Although RyR1Y522S/wt mice ran without undergoing MH episodes, they ran 42% less distance than wild-type (WT) mice. Muscles from WT mice exhibited increased fatigue resistance and COX content after training. Muscles from RyR1Y522S/wt mice demonstrated no significant change in fatigability or COX and CS after training. However, muscles from RyR1Y522S/wt mice displayed less intrinsic fatigability and greater COX/CS content and muscle damage than WT mice. RyR1Y522S/wt mice can run without having rhabdomyolysis, and their inability to adapt to training appears to stem from intrinsic enhancement of mitochondrial enzymes and fatigue resistance. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Oxidative Capacity and Fatigability in Run Trained Malignant Hyperthermia Susceptible Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rouviere, Clement; Corona, Benjamin T.; Ingalls, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that Malignant Hyperthermia model mice (RyR1Y522S/wt) are more vulnerable to exercise-induced muscle injury and fatigability and adapt less to run training. Methods Following 6 weeks of voluntary wheel running, we measured anterior crural muscle fatigability, muscle injury, and cytochrome oxidase (COX) and citrate synthase (CS). Results Although RyR1Y522S/wt mice ran without experiencing MH episodes, they ran 42% less distance than wild type (WT) mice. Muscles from WT mice exhibited increased fatigue resistance and COX content after training. Muscles from RyR1Y522S/wt mice demonstrated no significant change in fatigability or COX and CS after training. However, muscles from RyR1Y522S/wt mice displayed less intrinsic fatigability and greater COX/CS content and muscle damage than WT mice. Discussion RyR1Y522S/wt mice can run without experiencing rhabdomyolysis, and their inability to adapt to training appears to stem from intrinsic enhancement of mitochondrial enzymes and fatigue resistance. PMID:22431093

  17. Stride angle as a novel indicator of running economy in well-trained runners.

    PubMed

    Santos-Concejero, Jordan; Tam, Nicholas; Granados, Cristina; Irazusta, Jon; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Zabala-Lili, Jon; Gil, Susana M

    2014-07-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between a novel biomechanical variable, the stride angle, and running economy (RE) in a homogeneous group of long-distance athletes. Twenty-five well-trained male runners completed 4-minute running stages on a treadmill at different set velocities. During the test, biomechanical variables such as stride angle, swing time, ground contact time, stride length, stride frequency, and the different sub-phases of ground contact were recorded using an optical measurement system. VO2 values at velocities below the lactate threshold were measured to calculate RE. Stride angle was negatively correlated with RE at every speed (p < 0.001, large effect sizes). Running economy was also negatively correlated with swing phase and positively correlated with ground contact time and running performance according to the best 10-km race time (p ≤ 0.05, moderate and large effect sizes). Last, stride angle was correlated with ground contact time at every speed (p < 0.001, large effect sizes). In conclusion, it seems that optimal execution of stride angle allows runners to minimize contact time during ground contact, whereby facilitating a better RE. Coaches and/or athletes may find stride angle a useful and easily obtainable measure to track and make alterations to running technique, because changes in stride angle may influence the energy cost of running and lead to improved performance.

  18. 16 Weeks of Progressive Barefoot Running Training Changes Impact Force and Muscle Activation in Habitual Shod Runners

    PubMed Central

    Mezêncio, Bruno; Amadio, Alberto Carlos; Serrão, Julio Cerca

    2016-01-01

    Short-term effects of barefoot and simulated barefoot running have been widely discussed in recent years. Consequences of adopting barefoot running for a long period, including as a training approach, still remain unknown. The present study evaluated the influence of 16 weeks of progressive barefoot running training on impact force and muscle activation in habitual shod runners. Six habitual shod runners (3 men and 3 women, 29.5 ± 7.3 years) were tested barefoot (BF) and shod (SH), before and after 16 weeks of progressive barefoot running training. Tests consisted of running on instrumented treadmill at 9 km/h, for 10 minutes in each experimental condition. Nine data acquisitions (10 s) of vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) and electromyographic (EMG) signal were conducted in each experimental condition for each test. BF training was effective to alter VGRF and EMG parameters of running in habitual shod runners, regardless of footwear condition (SH or BF). The magnitude of first peak of VGRF (Fy1) and the impulse of the first 50 ms decreased after training for BF and SH (p<0.01). The activation reduced from PRE to POST training for four muscles in BF running (p<0.001), whereas only muscle gastrocnemius lateralis decreased significantly its activation (p<0.01) in SH running. A 16-week progressive barefoot running training seems to be an effective training strategy to reduce impact force, improve shock attenuation and to decrease muscle activation intensity, not only in BF running, but also in SH running, although BF condition seems to be more influenced by BF training. PMID:27907069

  19. 16 Weeks of Progressive Barefoot Running Training Changes Impact Force and Muscle Activation in Habitual Shod Runners.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Ana Paula da Silva; Mezêncio, Bruno; Amadio, Alberto Carlos; Serrão, Julio Cerca

    2016-01-01

    Short-term effects of barefoot and simulated barefoot running have been widely discussed in recent years. Consequences of adopting barefoot running for a long period, including as a training approach, still remain unknown. The present study evaluated the influence of 16 weeks of progressive barefoot running training on impact force and muscle activation in habitual shod runners. Six habitual shod runners (3 men and 3 women, 29.5 ± 7.3 years) were tested barefoot (BF) and shod (SH), before and after 16 weeks of progressive barefoot running training. Tests consisted of running on instrumented treadmill at 9 km/h, for 10 minutes in each experimental condition. Nine data acquisitions (10 s) of vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) and electromyographic (EMG) signal were conducted in each experimental condition for each test. BF training was effective to alter VGRF and EMG parameters of running in habitual shod runners, regardless of footwear condition (SH or BF). The magnitude of first peak of VGRF (Fy1) and the impulse of the first 50 ms decreased after training for BF and SH (p<0.01). The activation reduced from PRE to POST training for four muscles in BF running (p<0.001), whereas only muscle gastrocnemius lateralis decreased significantly its activation (p<0.01) in SH running. A 16-week progressive barefoot running training seems to be an effective training strategy to reduce impact force, improve shock attenuation and to decrease muscle activation intensity, not only in BF running, but also in SH running, although BF condition seems to be more influenced by BF training.

  20. Effects of hip flexor training on sprint, shuttle run, and vertical jump performance.

    PubMed

    Deane, Russell S; Chow, John W; Tillman, Mark D; Fournier, Kim A

    2005-08-01

    Although hip flexion is integral in sports, hip flexion exercises are seldom emphasized in strength and conditioning for sports performance. This study aimed to determine whether a hip flexor resistance-training program could improve performance on a variety of tasks. Thirteen men and 11 women completed an 8-week hip flexion resistance-training program. Eleven men and 13 women served as controls. Isometric hip flexion strength, 40-yd dash time and the time for the first 10-yds, 4 x 5.8-m shuttle run time, and vertical jump height were evaluated at the beginning and end of the training and control period. Improvements were observed in the training group but not in the control group. Individuals in the training group improved hip flexion strength by 12.2% and decreased their 40-yd and shuttle run times by 3.8% and 9.0%, respectively. An increase in hip flexion strength can help to improve sprint and agility performance for physically active, untrained individuals.

  1. Effects of downhill or uphill training prior to a downhill run.

    PubMed

    Pierrynowski, M R; Tüdus, P M; Plyley, M J

    1987-01-01

    Nine men volunteered to undergo 10% downhill (DT) or 10% uphill (UT) treadmill training at 60% VO2max for 12 minutes on two consecutive days. Four days later the downhill run (DR) was repeated. All subjects reported considerable muscular soreness following DT but not UT. When DR followed UT muscular soreness was again reported but not when DR followed DT. Peak knee flexion and extension moment of force data at five angular velocities, ranging from 0.52-4.71 rad s-1, were reduced following DR regardless of whether soreness was present. During each run VO2 was stable during UT but drifted upwards during DT and DR. This increase in VO2 was not due to changes in the stride frequency since the stride frequency remained nearly constant on all days except for the second day of the DT when an increase of 20 strides per minute occurred; this was the only day the subjects ran while sore. It was concluded that two 12 minute bouts of downhill running were sufficient to protect against the occurrence of muscular soreness in subsequent downhill run. However, this training was insufficient to prevent a 2-3 day loss of muscular strength. These results support the hypothesis that the sensation of delayed onset muscle soreness and the temporary strength loss associated with eccentric contraction have different physiological causes.

  2. Effect of speed endurance and strength training on performance, running economy and muscular adaptations in endurance-trained runners.

    PubMed

    Vorup, Jacob; Tybirk, Jonas; Gunnarsson, Thomas P; Ravnholt, Tanja; Dalsgaard, Sarah; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effects of combined strength and speed endurance (SE) training along with a reduced training volume on performance, running economy and muscular adaptations in endurance-trained runners. Sixteen male endurance runners (VO2-max: ~60 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) were randomly assigned to either a combined strength and SE training (CSS; n = 9) or a control (CON; n = 7) group. For 8 weeks, CSS replaced their normal moderate-intensity training (~63 km week(-1)) with SE (2 × week(-1)) and strength training (2 × week(-1)) as well as aerobic high (1 × week(-1)) and moderate (1 × week(-1)) intensity training with a reduction in total volume of ~58 %, whereas CON continued their training (~45 km week(-1)). In CSS, 400-m and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test performance was improved by 5 % (P < 0.01) and 19 % (P < 0.001), respectively, during the intervention period. Maximal aerobic speed was 0.6 km h(-1) higher (P < 0.05), and maximal activity of lactate dehydrogenase subunits 1 and 2 was 17 % (P < 0.05) higher after compared to before the intervention period. Time to exhaustion and peak blood lactate during an incremental treadmill test was 9 % (P < 0.05) and 32 % (P < 0.01), respectively, higher and expression of Na(+)-K(+) pump β1 subunit was 15 % higher (P < 0.05) after compared to before the intervention period. 10-K performance, maximum oxygen uptake and running economy were unchanged. In CON, no changes were observed. Adding strength and speed endurance training, along with a reduced training volume, can improve short-term exercise capacity and induce muscular adaptations related to anaerobic capacity in endurance-trained runners.

  3. Precision, Accuracy, and Performance Outcomes of Perceived Exertion vs. Heart Rate Guided Run-training.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Evan C; Pryor, Riana R; Casa, Douglas J; Ellis, Lindsay A; Maresh, Carl M; Pescatello, Linda S; Ganio, Matthew S; Lee, Elaine C; Armstrong, Lawrence E

    2017-03-01

    Johnson, EC, Pryor, RR, Casa, DJ, Ellis, LA, Maresh, CM, Pescatello, LS, Ganio, MS, Lee, EC, and Armstrong, LE. Precision, accuracy, and performance outcomes of perceived exertion vs. heart rate guided run-training. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 630-637, 2017-The purpose of this investigation was to compare run-prescription by heart rate (HR) vs. rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during 6 weeks to determine which is superior for consistent achievement of target intensities and improved performance. Forty untrained men participated in this laboratory-controlled and field-controlled trial. Participants were divided into heart rate (HRTG) and rating of perceived exertion training groups (RPETG). All underwent maximal-graded exercise testing and a 12-minute run test before and after training. Intensity was prescribed as either a target HR or RPE that corresponded to 4 relative intensity levels: 45, 60, 75, and 90% V[Combining Dot Above]O2 reserve (V[Combining Dot Above]O2R). Mean exercise intensity over the 6 weeks did not differ between HRTG (65.6 ± 7.2%HRR) and RPETG (61.9 ± 9.0%HRR). V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (+4.1 ± 2.5 ml·kg·min) and 12 minutes run distance (+240.1 ± 150.1 m) improved similarly in HRTG and RPETG (p > 0.05). HRTG displayed lower coefficients of variation (CV) (5.9 ± 4.1%, 3.3 ± 3.8%, and 3.0 ± 2.2%) and %error (4.1 ± 4.7%, 2.3 ± 4.1% and 2.6 ± 3.2%) at 45, 60, and 75% V[Combining Dot Above]O2R compared with RPETG (CV 11.1 ± 5.0%, 7.7 ± 4.1% and 5.6 ± 3.2%; all p < 0.005) %error (15.7 ± 9.2%, 10.6 ± 9.2% and 6.7 ± 3.2%; all p < 0.001), respectively. Overall, HR-prescribed and RPE-prescribed run-training resulted in similar exercise intensity and performance outcomes over 6 weeks. Differences in the CV and %error suggest use of HR monitoring for individuals that are new to running as it improves precision and accuracy but does not increase performance improvements across 6 weeks.

  4. Physical training in boots and running shoes: a historical comparison of injury incidence in basic combat training.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Joseph J; Jones, Bruce H; Steelman, Ryan A

    2015-03-01

    For many years, U.S. Army soldiers performed physical training (PT) in a modified duty uniform and combat boots. The belief that PT in combat boots was associated with injuries lead to the introduction of running shoes for PT in 1982. A historical comparison was conducted examining injuries before and after the change to running shoes in Basic Combat Training (BCT). Searches in literature databases and other sources identified 16 studies with quantitative data on injury incidence during 8-week BCT cycles. Employing studies with similar injury definitions (n = 12), injury incidence was compared in the boot and running shoe periods using meta-analyses, χ(2) statistics, and risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). The boot and shoe periods demonstrated little difference in overall injury incidence (men: RR[boot/shoes] = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.91-1.18, p = 0.50; women: RR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.85-1.05, p = 0.27) or in lower extremity injury incidence (men: RR[boot/shoes] = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.64-1.30, p = 0.66; women: RR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.89-1.27, p = 0.51). These analyses provided little support for a reduction in injury risk after the switch from boots to running shoes for PT in BCT. A large randomized, prospective cohort study should be conducted to determine if injury rates are different when PT is conducted in running shoes versus boots. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  5. The correlation between running economy and maximal oxygen uptake: cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships in highly trained distance runners.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Andrew J; Ingham, Stephen A; Atkinson, Greg; Folland, Jonathan P

    2015-01-01

    A positive relationship between running economy and maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) has been postulated in trained athletes, but previous evidence is equivocal and could have been confounded by statistical artefacts. Whether this relationship is preserved in response to running training (changes in running economy and V̇O2max) has yet to be explored. This study examined the relationships of (i) running economy and V̇O2max between runners, and (ii) the changes in running economy and V̇O2max that occur within runners in response to habitual training. 168 trained distance runners (males, n = 98, V̇O2max 73.0 ± 6.3 mL∙kg-1∙min-1; females, n = 70, V̇O2max 65.2 ± 5.9 mL kg-1∙min-1) performed a discontinuous submaximal running test to determine running economy (kcal∙km-1). A continuous incremental treadmill running test to volitional exhaustion was used to determine V̇O2max 54 participants (males, n = 27; females, n = 27) also completed at least one follow up assessment. Partial correlation analysis revealed small positive relationships between running economy and V̇O2max (males r = 0.26, females r = 0.25; P<0.006), in addition to moderate positive relationships between the changes in running economy and V̇O2max in response to habitual training (r = 0.35; P<0.001). In conclusion, the current investigation demonstrates that only a small to moderate relationship exists between running economy and V̇O2max in highly trained distance runners. With >85% of the variance in these parameters unexplained by this relationship, these findings reaffirm that running economy and V̇O2max are primarily determined independently.

  6. The Correlation between Running Economy and Maximal Oxygen Uptake: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Relationships in Highly Trained Distance Runners

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Andrew J.; Ingham, Stephen A.; Atkinson, Greg; Folland, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    A positive relationship between running economy and maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) has been postulated in trained athletes, but previous evidence is equivocal and could have been confounded by statistical artefacts. Whether this relationship is preserved in response to running training (changes in running economy and V̇O2max) has yet to be explored. This study examined the relationships of (i) running economy and V̇O2max between runners, and (ii) the changes in running economy and V̇O2max that occur within runners in response to habitual training. 168 trained distance runners (males, n = 98, V̇O2max 73.0 ± 6.3 mL∙kg-1∙min-1; females, n = 70, V̇O2max 65.2 ± 5.9 mL kg-1∙min-1) performed a discontinuous submaximal running test to determine running economy (kcal∙km-1). A continuous incremental treadmill running test to volitional exhaustion was used to determine V̇O2max 54 participants (males, n = 27; females, n = 27) also completed at least one follow up assessment. Partial correlation analysis revealed small positive relationships between running economy and V̇O2max (males r = 0.26, females r = 0.25; P<0.006), in addition to moderate positive relationships between the changes in running economy and V̇O2max in response to habitual training (r = 0.35; P<0.001). In conclusion, the current investigation demonstrates that only a small to moderate relationship exists between running economy and V̇O2max in highly trained distance runners. With >85% of the variance in these parameters unexplained by this relationship, these findings reaffirm that running economy and V̇O2max are primarily determined independently. PMID:25849090

  7. The effect of inspiratory muscle training on high-intensity, intermittent running performance to exhaustion.

    PubMed

    Tong, Tom Kwokkeung; Fu, Frank Hokin; Chung, Pak Kwong; Eston, Roger; Lu, Kui; Quach, Binh; Nie, Jinlei; So, Raymond

    2008-08-01

    The effects of inspiratory muscle (IM) training on maximal 20 m shuttle run performance (Ex) during Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test and on the physiological and perceptual responses to the running test were examined. Thirty men were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 groups. The experimental group underwent a 6 week pressure threshold IM training program by performing 30 inspiratory efforts twice daily, 6 d/week, against a load equivalent to 50% maximal static inspiratory pressure. The placebo group performed the same training procedure but with a minimal inspiratory load. The control group received no training. In post-intervention assessments, IM function was enhanced by >30% in the experimental group. The Ex was improved by 16.3% +/- 3.9%, while the rate of increase in intensity of breathlessness (RPB/4i) was reduced by 11.0% +/- 6.2%. Further, the whole-body metabolic stress reflected by the accumulations of plasma ammonia, uric acid, and blood lactate during the Yo-Yo test at the same absolute intensity was attenuated. For the control and placebo groups, no significant change in these variables was observed. In comparison with previous observations that the reduced RPB/4i resulting from IM warm-up was the major reason for improved Ex, the reduced RPB/4i resulting from the IM training program was lower despite the greater enhancement of IM function, whereas improvement in Ex was similar. Such findings suggest that although both IM training and warm-up improve the tolerance of intense intermittent exercise, the underlying mechanisms may be different.

  8. Stabilizing mechanism and running behavior of couplers on heavy haul trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ziqiang; Wu, Qing; Luo, Shihui; Ma, Weihua; Dong, Xiaoqing

    2014-11-01

    Published studies in regard to coupler systems have been mainly focused on the manufacturing process or coupler strength issues. With the ever increasing of tonnage and length of heavy haul trains, lateral in-train forces generated by longitudinal in-train forces and coupler rotations have become a more and more significant safety issue for heavy haul train operations. Derailments caused by excessive lateral in-train forces are frequently reported. This article studies two typical coupler systems used on heavy haul locomotives. Their structures and stabilizing mechanism are analyzed before the corresponding models are developed. Coupler systems models are featured by two distinct stabilizing mechanism models and draft gear models with hysteresis considered. A model set which consists of four locomotives and three coupler systems is developed to study the rotational behavior of different coupler systems and their implications for locomotive dynamics. Simulated results indicate that when the locomotives are equipped with the type B coupler system, locomotives can meet the dynamics standard on tangent tracks; while the dynamics performance on curved tracks is very poor. The maximum longitudinal in-train force for locomotives equipped with the type B coupler system is 2000 kN. Simulations revealed a distinct trend for the type A coupler system. Locomotive dynamics are poorer for the type A case when locomotives are running on tangent tracks, while the dynamics are better for the type A case when locomotives are running on curved tracks. Theoretical studies and simulations carried out in this article suggest that a combination of the two types of stabilizing mechanism can result in a good design which can significantly decrease the relevant derailments.

  9. Training response of adolescent Kenyan town and village boys to endurance running.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Henrik B; Nolan, Thomas; Borch, Christian; Søndergaard, Hans

    2005-02-01

    To investigate the response to endurance training on physiological characteristics, 10 Nandi town boys and 14 Nandi village boys 16.5 and 16.6 years of age, respectively, from western Kenya performed 12 weeks of running training. The study was performed at altitude (approximately 2000 m.a.s.l. approximately 595 mm Hg). Training heart rate and speed were registered during every training session throughout the entire training period. While town and village boys trained at similar heart rates (172.1 vs. 172.5 beats min(-1)), the training speed of the town boys was 9% lower compared with the village boys (12.4 vs. 13.6 km h(-1), P<0.001). Significant increases in VO2max were observed in the town boys (from 50.3 to 55.6 mL kg(-1) min(-1), P<0.001) and in village boys (from 56.0 to 59.1 mL kg(-1) min(-1), P<0.002). Significant decreases in submaximal heart rate (from 172.4 to 160.3 beats min(-1) (P<0.005)), blood lactate (from 2.7 to 1.4 mmol L(-1) (P<0.005)) and ammonia concentration (from 102.0 to 71.4 micromol L(-1) (P<0.01)) at 9.9 km h(-1) were observed in the town boys, while similar decreases in heart rate (from 170.2 to 159.2 beats min(-1) (P<0.001)), blood lactate (from 2.4 to 1.4 mmol L(-1) (P<0.001)) and ammonia concentration (from 102.5 to 72.7 micromol L(-1) (P<0.001)) at 10.9 km h(-1) were observed in the village boys. The oxygen cost of running was decreased from 221.5 to 211.5 mL kg(-1) km(-1) (P<0.03) in the town boys and from 220.1 to 207.2 mL kg(-1) km(-1) (P<0.01) in the village boys. The 5000 m performance time of the town boys was significantly greater than that of the village boys (20.25 vs. 18.42 min (P = 0.01)). It is concluded that no difference was observed in trainability with respect to VO2max, running economy, submaximal heart rate, and submaximal blood lactate and ammonia concentration between Kenyan Nandi town and village boys. The higher performance level of the village boys was likely due to a higher VO2max of these boys.

  10. Voluntary Running Suppresses Tumor Growth through Epinephrine- and IL-6-Dependent NK Cell Mobilization and Redistribution.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Line; Idorn, Manja; Olofsson, Gitte H; Lauenborg, Britt; Nookaew, Intawat; Hansen, Rasmus Hvass; Johannesen, Helle Hjorth; Becker, Jürgen C; Pedersen, Katrine S; Dethlefsen, Christine; Nielsen, Jens; Gehl, Julie; Pedersen, Bente K; Thor Straten, Per; Hojman, Pernille

    2016-03-08

    Regular exercise reduces the risk of cancer and disease recurrence. Yet the mechanisms behind this protection remain to be elucidated. In this study, tumor-bearing mice randomized to voluntary wheel running showed over 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across five different tumor models. Microarray analysis revealed training-induced upregulation of pathways associated with immune function. NK cell infiltration was significantly increased in tumors from running mice, whereas depletion of NK cells enhanced tumor growth and blunted the beneficial effects of exercise. Mechanistic analyses showed that NK cells were mobilized by epinephrine, and blockade of β-adrenergic signaling blunted training-dependent tumor inhibition. Moreover, epinephrine induced a selective mobilization of IL-6-sensitive NK cells, and IL-6-blocking antibodies blunted training-induced tumor suppression, intratumoral NK cell infiltration, and NK cell activation. Together, these results link exercise, epinephrine, and IL-6 to NK cell mobilization and redistribution, and ultimately to control of tumor growth.

  11. Online Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Software Training through the Behavioral Modeling Approach: A Longitudinal Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Charlie C.; Shaw, Ruey-shiang

    2006-01-01

    The continued and increasing use of online training raises the question of whether the most effective training methods applied in live instruction will carry over to different online environments in the long run. Behavior Modeling (BM) approach--teaching through demonstration--has been proven as the most effective approach in a face-to-face (F2F)…

  12. Online Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Software Training through the Behavioral Modeling Approach: A Longitudinal Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Charlie C.; Shaw, Ruey-shiang

    2006-01-01

    The continued and increasing use of online training raises the question of whether the most effective training methods applied in live instruction will carry over to different online environments in the long run. Behavior Modeling (BM) approach--teaching through demonstration--has been proven as the most effective approach in a face-to-face (F2F)…

  13. Injury reduction effectiveness of assigning running shoes based on plantar shape in Marine Corps basic training.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Joseph J; Trone, Daniel W; Swedler, David I; Villasenor, Adriana; Bullock, Steve H; Schmied, Emily; Bockelman, Timothy; Han, Peggy; Jones, Bruce H

    2010-09-01

    Shoe manufacturers market motion control, stability, and cushioned shoes for plantar shapes defined as low, normal, and high, respectively. This assignment procedure is presumed to reduce injuries by compensating for differences in running mechanics. Assigning running shoes based on plantar shape will not reduce injury risk in Marine Corps basic training. Randomized controlled clinical trial; Level of evidence, 1. After foot examinations, Marine Corps recruits in an experimental group (E: 408 men, 314 women) were provided motion control, stability, or cushioned shoes for plantar shapes indicative of low, medium, or high arches, respectively. A control group (C: 432 men, 257 women) received a stability shoe regardless of plantar shape. Injuries during the 12 weeks of training were determined from outpatient visits obtained from the Defense Medical Surveillance System. Other known injury risk factors (eg, fitness, smoking, prior physical activity) were obtained from a questionnaire, existing databases, or the training units. Cox regression indicated little difference in injury risk between the E and C groups among men (hazard ratio [E/C] = 1.01; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-1.24) or women (hazard ratio [E/C] = 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-1.10). This prospective study demonstrated that assigning shoes based on the shape of the plantar foot surface had little influence on injuries even after considering other injury risk factors.

  14. Resveratrol enhances exercise training responses in rats selectively bred for high running performance

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Nikolett; Sarga, Linda; Csende, Zsolt; Koltai, Erika; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Davies, Kelvin J.A.; Kouretas, Dimitris; Wessner, Barbara; Radak, Zsolt

    2013-01-01

    High capacity runner (HCR) rats have been developed by divergent artificial selection for treadmill endurance running capacity to explore an aerobic biology-disease connection. The beneficial effects of resveratrol supplementation have been demonstrated in endurance running and the antioxidant capacity of resveratrol is also demonstrated. In this study we examine whether 12 weeks of treadmill exercise training and/or resveratrol can enhance performance in HCR. Indeed, resveratrol increased aerobic performance and strength of upper limbs of these rats. Moreover, we have found that resveratrol activated the AMP-activated protein kinase, SIRT1, and mitochondrial transcription factor A (p<0.05). The changes in mitochondrial fission/fusion and Lon protease/HSP78 levels suggest that exercise training does not significantly induce damage of proteins. Moreover, neither exercise training nor resveratrol supplementation altered the content of protein carbonyls. Changes in the levels of forkhead transcription factor 1 and SIRT4 could suggest increased fat utilization and improved insulin sensitivity. These data indicate, that resveratrol supplementation enhances aerobic performance due to the activation of the AMPK-SIRT1-PGC-1α pathway. PMID:23422033

  15. Resveratrol enhances exercise training responses in rats selectively bred for high running performance.

    PubMed

    Hart, Nikolett; Sarga, Linda; Csende, Zsolt; Koltai, Erika; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Davies, Kelvin J A; Kouretas, Dimitris; Wessner, Barbara; Radak, Zsolt

    2013-11-01

    High Capacity Runner (HCR) rats have been developed by divergent artificial selection for treadmill endurance running capacity to explore an aerobic biology-disease connection. The beneficial effects of resveratrol supplementation have been demonstrated in endurance running and the antioxidant capacity of resveratrol is also demonstrated. In this study we examine whether 12 weeks of treadmill exercise training and/or resveratrol can enhance performance in HCR. Indeed, resveratrol increased aerobic performance and strength of upper limbs of these rats. Moreover, we have found that resveratrol activated the AMP-activated protein kinase, SIRT1, and mitochondrial transcription factor A (p<0.05). The changes in mitochondrial fission/fusion and Lon protease/HSP78 levels suggest that exercise training does not significantly induce damage of proteins. Moreover, neither exercise training nor resveratrol supplementation altered the content of protein carbonyls. Changes in the levels of forkhead transcription factor 1 and SIRT4 could suggest increased fat utilization and improved insulin sensitivity. These data indicate, that resveratrol supplementation enhances aerobic performance due to the activation of the AMPK-SIRT1-PGC-1α pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Are there differences in running economy at different velocities for well-trained distance runners?

    PubMed

    Helgerud, Jan; Støren, Oyvind; Hoff, Jan

    2010-04-01

    The present study investigated whether there are differences in running economy at different velocities for well-trained distance runners, and to what extent a commonly used incremental protocol for measuring oxygen uptake (VO(2)) at different velocities affects the reliability of these measurements. Fifteen well-trained distance runners (9 male and 6 female) participated in this study. Gross oxygen cost of running (C (R)), heart rate (HR) and [La(-)](b) during 5-min runs at velocities ranging from 8.0 to 17 km h(-1), representing intensities ranging from 60 to 90% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)) was measured on two different days in random order. The athletes were also tested for lactate threshold, VO(2max) and time to exhaustion at MAS ((t)MAS). No significant differences in C (R) between the different relative velocities or the different set velocities were found up to 90% of VO(2max). The incremental protocol for measuring VO(2) at different velocities was found not to affect the reliability of these measurements. All athletes reached their VO(2max) whilst running to exhaustion at MAS. The females showed significantly lower VO(2max), but significantly better C (R) than the males. At velocities representing intensities between 60 and 90% of VO(2max), no differences in C (R) were found. The commonly used incremental protocol for measuring oxygen uptake (VO(2)) at different velocities was found not to affect the reliability of these measurements. This means that C (R) measured at sub-maximal velocities are representative for C (R) at race velocity for distances above 10,000 m for most runners.

  17. Impact of a Long Run on Injury-Related Biomechanics with Relation to Weekly Mileage in Trained Male Runners.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Max R; Melcher, Daniel A

    2017-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to compare selected biomechanical variables before and after a long run, and to assess the relationship between weekly running volume and changes in lower limb biomechanics after the run. Twelve trained habitual rearfoot strike male runners ran overground before and after a treadmill long run while kinematic and kinetic data were recorded. Repeated measures analysis of variance and Cohen's d effect sizes were used to compare kinematic and kinetic variables before and after the run. Loading rate was 6% higher after the run (p < .05) but this difference had a small effect size (d = .32). Moderate effects were found for a 25% increase in peak ankle eversion (d = 0.62) and a 10% increase in hip adduction (d = 0.60) after the run. These findings suggest that the completion of a submaximal long run does not yield potentially injurious lower limb biomechanics in uninjured rearfoot strike runners. Weekly running mileage was not correlated to biomechanical changes observed before and after the long run. Since biomechanical responses to the long run varied among runners, differences in other factors such as specific training regimens and neuromuscular control should be considered in future studies.

  18. STS-130 astronaut Nick Patrick during dry run for SSATA Crew Training and EMU Verification for STS-130.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-29

    STS-130 astronaut Nick Patrick during dry run for SSATA Crew Training and EMU Verification for STS-130. Photo Date: October 29, 2009. Location: Building 7 - SSATA Chamber. Photographer: Robert Markowitz.

  19. SSATA Crew Training and EMU Verification for STS-128 crew member Danny Olivas during suited dry run.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-04-22

    SSATA Crew Training and EMU Verification for STS-128 crew member Danny Olivas during suited dry run. Test Directors: Cristina Anchondo and Laura Campbell. Photo Date: April 22, 2009. Location: Building 7 - SSATA Chamber. Photographer: Robert Markowitz

  20. Run Run Run.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilt, Fred

    This guidebook is written for coaches of runners competing in both crosscountry and track. The techniques of training athletes in this sport are described with emphasis placed on why certain methods are successful as well as how they are accomplished. The methods of training runners of different ages and varying experience are discussed. Articles…

  1. Brachial plexus palsy following a training run with a heavy backpack.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, Robert; Sheena, Y; Simpson, C; Power, D

    2014-12-01

    A 23-year-old male British soldier developed a progressive sensory loss and weakness in his right arm during a 12 km training run with a load of approximately 70 kg. There was no recovery of his symptoms within 3 months and both MRI and USS did not demonstrate a site of compression within the brachial plexus. An infraclavicular brachial plexus exploration was performed 11 months after injury that indicated an ischaemic neuropathy with post-injury fibrosis. Injuries of the brachial plexus secondary to carrying a heavy backpack during prolonged periods of exercise are rare, particularly in the infraclavicular region. Cases such as this highlight that training regimens within the military population should be appraised due to the risk of similar injuries occurring. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Improvement in running economy after 8 weeks of whole-body vibration training.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ching-Feng; Cheng, Kuo-Hui; Lee, Yu-Ming; Huang, Hsin-Wei; Kuo, Yu-Hsuan; Lee, Heng-Ju

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 8-week whole-body vibration (WBV) training on running economy (RE) and power performance. Twenty-four male collegiate athletes were recruited and randomly assigned to experimental (WBV) and placebo (PL) groups. The WBV subjects performed semisquat vibration training (30 Hz, ±1-2 mm, 3 times per week), whereas PL subjects performed identical training without vibration. The isometric maximum voluntary contraction tests were used to evaluate maximal isometric force (F(max)) and rate of force development (RFD) of lower extremities, before and after the intervention, and RE was measured on a level treadmill at 3 velocities (2.68, 3.13, and 3.58 m·s(-1)). The F(max) of the lower leg (plantar flexion, from 80.8 ± 24.5 to 99.0 ± 33.9 N·m, p < 0.05, η(2) = 0.567; dorsiflexion, from 38.1 ± 6.5 to 43.0 ± 7.7 N·m, p < 0.05), and the RFD of 0-200 milliseconds during plantar flexion (from 186.0 ± 69.2 to 264.6 ± 87.2 N·m·s(-1), p < 0.05, η(2) = 0.184) were significantly increased in the WBV group after training. The averaged RE values for the 3 running velocities were significantly improved after WBV training (pretraining vs. posttraining, 4.31 ± 0.33 vs. 4.65 ± 0.34 m·ml(-1)·kg(-1), p = 0.001, η(2) = 0.654); however, no significant differences were found in the PL group (pretraining vs. posttraining, 4.18 ± 0.26 vs. 4.26 ± 0.44 m·ml(-1)·kg(-1), p = 0.476). The WBV training significantly improved RE at selected speeds (∼5.0-8.5%, p < 0.05). These results indicated that short-term WBV training could be an effective stimulus to enhance RE and lower extremity power performance in competitive athletes.

  3. Differential expression of stress proteins in rat myocardium after free wheel or treadmill run training.

    PubMed

    Noble, E G; Moraska, A; Mazzeo, R S; Roth, D A; Olsson, M C; Moore, R L; Fleshner, M

    1999-05-01

    High-intensity treadmill exercise increases the expression of a cardioprotective, inducible 72-kDa stress protein (SP72) in cardiac muscle. This investigation examined whether voluntary free wheel exercise training would be sufficient to confer a similar response. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either treadmill (TM-Tr) or free wheel (FW-Tr) training groups. By the end of the 8-wk training period, TM-Tr animals ran 1 h/day, 5 days/wk up a 10% grade, covering a distance of 8,282 m/wk. FW-Tr rats ran, on average, 5,300 m/wk, with one-third of the animals covering distances similar to those for the TM-Tr group. At the time of death, hearts of trained and caged sedentary control (Sed) animals were divided into left (LV) and right (RV) ventricles. Citrate synthase activity and the relative immunoblot contents of SP72, SP73 (the constitutive isoform of the SP70 family), and a 75-kDa mitochondrial chaperone (SP75) were subsequently determined. LV and RV did not differ on any measure, and SP73, SP75, and citrate synthase were not affected by training. Cardiac SP72 levels were elevated over fourfold in both ventricles of TM-Tr compared with RV of FW-Sed rats. Despite the animals having run a similar total distance, cardiac SP72 content in FW-Tr rats was not different from that in Sed animals. These data indicate that voluntary exercise training is insufficient to elicit an elevation of SP72 in rat heart and suggest that exercise intensity may be a critical factor in evoking the cardioprotective SP72 response.

  4. TRAIN: Training through Research Application Italian iNitiative.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Claudio; Bottero, Sergio; d'Alessandro, Francesca; Giacomini, Mauro; Guderzo, Angela; Moretti, Franca; Marincola, Margherita; Pesce, Giorgia; Pierotti, Marco A; Spagnoli, Luigi Giusto; Belardelli, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    Training through Research Application Italian iNitiative (TRAIN) is a mobility program financed under the EU action called "Cofinancing of regional, national and international programs" (COFUND) of the European Commission Seventh Framework Program (FP7) - People, and has been designed to encourage the promotion and development of international programs of research through mobility at various stages of research careers. The aim of TRAIN is to improve translational skills in the field of cancer by promoting a three-year international mobility program assigning a total of 51 fellowships subdivided into incoming, outgoing and reintegration fellowships.?The TRAIN proposal has been submitted in February 2009 to the European Commission in reply to the 2008 FP7-PEOPLE-COFUND call and has been successfully evaluated. TRAIN is addressed to postdoctoral scientists or scientists who have at least four years' full-time equivalent research experience and who wish to improve their careers spending one year abroad. The mobility program is open also to non-Italian experienced scientists wishing to spend one year in an Italian research center or private company. Part of the scheme is targeted to experienced Italian scientists who have completed at least three years of research in a foreign country and are interested in returning to Italy.?TRAIN is part of an overall Italian strategy outlined by the International Program of the Italian Cancer Network "Alleanza Contro il Cancro" to promote Italian participation in the building of the European Area for translational cancer research and to enhance the interaction between academy and industry.

  5. A video based run-off-road training program with practice and evaluation in a simulator.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Paul; Neyens, David M; Wagner, John; Switzer, Fred; Alexander, Kim; Pidgeon, Philip

    2015-09-01

    A run-off-road (ROR) event occurs when one or more of a vehicle's wheels leaves the roadway and begins to travel on the surface or shoulder adjacent to the road. Despite various countermeasures, ROR crashes continue to yield a large number of fatalities and injuries. Infrastructure-based solutions do not directly address the critical factor of driver performance preceding and during an ROR event. In this study, a total of 75 individuals participated in a pre-post experiment to examine the effect of a training video on improving driver performance during a set of simulated ROR scenarios (e.g., on a high speed highway, a horizontal curve, and a residential rural road). In each scenario, the vehicle was unexpectedly forced into an ROR scenario for which the drivers were instructed to recover as safely as possible. The treatment group then watched a custom ROR training video while the control group viewed a placebo video. The participants then drove the same simulated ROR scenarios. The results suggest that the training video had a significant positive effect on drivers' steering response on all three roadway conditions as well as improvements in vehicle stability, subjectively rated demand on the driver, and self-evaluated performance in the highway scenario. Under the highway conditions, the treatment group reduced the frequency of spinouts from 70% in the pre-training events to 16% in the post-training events (χ(2)(1)=23.32, p<0.001) with no significant improvement found for the control group. In the horizontal curve, spinouts were reduced for the treatment group from 50% in the pre-training events to 30% in the post-training events (χ(2)(1)=8.45, p=0.004) with the control group also not showing any significant improvement. The results of this study suggest that even a short video about recovering from ROR events can significantly influence a driver's ability to recover. It is possible that additional training may have further benefits in recovering from ROR

  6. Physiological and biomechanical adaptations to the cycle to run transition in Olympic triathlon: review and practical recommendations for training

    PubMed Central

    Millet, G.; Vleck, V.

    2000-01-01

    Current knowledge of the physiological, biomechanical, and sensory effects of the cycle to run transition in the Olympic triathlon (1.5 km, 10 km, 40 km) is reviewed and implications for the training of junior and elite triathletes are discussed. Triathlon running elicits hyperventilation, increased heart rate, decreased pulmonary compliance, and exercise induced hypoxaemia. This may be due to exercise intensity, ventilatory muscle fatigue, dehydration, muscle fibre damage, a shift in metabolism towards fat oxidation, and depleted glycogen stores after a 40 km cycle. The energy cost (CR) of running during the cycle to run transition is also increased over that of control running. The increase in CR varies from 1.6% to 11.6% and is a reflection of triathlete ability level. This increase may be partly related to kinematic alterations, but research suggests that most biomechanical parameters are unchanged. A more forward leaning trunk inclination is the most significant observation reported. Running pattern, and thus running economy, could also be influenced by sensorimotor perturbations related to the change in posture. Technical skill in the transition area is obviously very important. The conditions under which the preceding cycling section is performed—that is, steady state or stochastic power output, drafting or non-drafting—are likely to influence the speed of adjustment to transition. The extent to which a decrease in the average 10 km running speed occurs during competition must be investigated further. It is clear that the higher the athlete is placed in the field at the end of the bike section, the greater the importance to their finishing position of both a quick transition area time and optimal adjustment to the physiological demands of the cycle to run transition. The need for, and current methods of, training to prepare junior and elite triathletes for a better transition are critically reviewed in light of the effects of sequential cycle to run

  7. Acute fatigue negatively affects risk factors for injury in trained but not well-trained habitually shod runners when running barefoot.

    PubMed

    Tam, Nicholas; Coetzee, Devon R; Ahmed, Safwaan; Lamberts, Robert P; Albertus-Kajee, Yumna; Tucker, Ross

    2017-10-01

    Many factors may contribute to running-related injury. These include fatigue and footwear, the combination of which has rarely been studied, in particular with reference to barefoot running, recently advocated as a method to reduce injury risk. Twenty-two runners (12 well-trained and 10 trained) participated in a 10 km fatiguing trial. Knee and ankle joint kinematics and kinetics and electromyography were assessed during overground running in the barefoot and shod condition. This was performed pre- and post-fatigue using a motion capture system and force platforms. Initial loading rate increased in the trained runners when barefoot but not shod. Shod knee stiffness increased in both groups after fatigue, whereas barefoot knee stiffness decreased only in the trained group. A reduction in barefoot bicep femoris pre-activation was found in both groups. During stance, a reduction in vastus lateralis and biceps femoris and an increase in tibialis anterior activity were found over time in both groups and conditions. Trained runners decreased gluteus medius and increased lateral gastrocnemius median frequency for both conditions after fatigue. When fatigued, gait adjustments in habitually shod runners may increase injury risk when running barefoot. Training status may be a risk factor for injury, as less-trained runners experience muscular fatigue changes that may compromise ground reaction force attenuation. Caution is recommended when transitioning to pure barefoot running.

  8. A Comparison of Stride Length and Lower Extremity Kinematics during Barefoot and Shod Running in Well Trained Distance Runners

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Peter; Ledingham, James; Clarke, Sarah; Collins, DJ; Jakeman, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Stride length, hip, knee and ankle angles were compared during barefoot and shod running on a treadmill at two speeds. Nine well-trained (1500m time: 3min:59.80s ± 14.7 s) male (22 ±3 years; 73 ±9 kg; 1.79 ±0.4 m) middle distance (800 m – 5,000 m) runners performed 2 minutes of running at 3.05 m·s-1 and 4.72 m·s-1 on an treadmill. This approach allowed continuous measurement of lower extremity kinematic data and calculation of stride length. Statistical analysis using a 2X2 factorial ANOVA revealed speed to have a main effect on stride length and hip angle and footwear to have a main effect on hip angle. There was a significant speed*footwear interaction for knee and ankle angles. Compared to shod running at the lower speed (3.05 m·s-1), well trained runners have greater hip, knee and ankle angles when running barefoot. Runners undertake a high volume (~75%) of training at lower intensities and therefore knowledge of how barefoot running alters running kinematics at low and high speeds may be useful to the runner. Key points Barefoot and shod kinematics are examined in competitive track runners with a mean 1500m personal best of 3:59:80. Previous literature has not investigated competitive track runners. Compared to amateur runners, competitive track runners demonstrate a smaller reduction in stride length during barefoot running at ~3 m·s-1. There is no difference in stride length or lower extremity kinematics when running at 4.72 m·s-1. Given that competitive runners spend a large (~75%) amount of time training at lower speeds, interventions which favourably alter running kinematics may be advantageous for the prevention of injury. PMID:27803620

  9. Beetroot juice does not enhance altitude running performance in well-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Josh Timothy; Oliver, Samuel James; Lewis-Jones, Tammy Maria; Wylie, Lee John; Macdonald, Jamie Hugo

    2015-06-01

    We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) provided as concentrated beetroot juice supplement would improve endurance running performance of well-trained runners in normobaric hypoxia. Ten male runners (mean (SD): sea level maximal oxygen uptake, 66 (7) mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); 10 km personal best, 36 (2) min) completed incremental exercise to exhaustion at 4000 m and a 10-km treadmill time-trial at 2500 m simulated altitude on separate days after supplementation with ∼7 mmol NO3(-) and a placebo at 2.5 h before exercise. Oxygen cost, arterial oxygen saturation, heart rate, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were determined during the incremental exercise test. Differences between treatments were determined using means [95% confidence intervals], paired sample t tests, and a probability of individual response analysis. NO3(-) supplementation increased plasma nitrite concentration (NO3(-), 473 (226) nmol·L(-1) vs. placebo, 61 (37) nmol·L(-1), P < 0.001) but did not alter time to exhaustion during the incremental test (NO3(-), 402 (80) s vs. placebo 393 (62) s, P = 0.5) or time to complete the 10-km time-trial (NO3(-), 2862 (233) s vs. placebo, 2874 (265) s, P = 0.6). Further, no practically meaningful beneficial effect on time-trial performance was observed as the 11 [-60 to 38] s improvement was less than the a priori determined minimum important difference (51 s), and only 3 runners experienced a "likely, probable" performance improvement. NO3(-) also did not alter oxygen cost, arterial oxygen saturation, heart rate, or RPE. Acute dietary NO3(-) supplementation did not consistently enhance running performance of well-trained athletes in normobaric hypoxia.

  10. Effect of tapering after a period of high-volume sprint interval training on running performance and muscular adaptations in moderately trained runners.

    PubMed

    Skovgaard, Casper; Almquist, Nicki Winfield; Kvorning, Thue; Christensen, Peter Møller; Bangsbo, Jens

    2017-09-21

    The effect of tapering following a period of high-volume sprint interval training (SIT) and a basic volume of aerobic training on performance and muscle adaptations in moderately trained runners was examined. Eleven (8 males, 3 females) runners (maximum oxygen uptake (VO2-max): 56.8±2.9 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1); mean±SD) conducted high-volume SIT (HV; 20 SIT sessions; 8-12 x 30-s all-out) for 40 days followed by 18 days of tapering (TAP; 4 SIT sessions; 4 x 30-s all-out). Before and after HV as well as midway through and at the end of TAP, the subjects completed a 10-km running test and a repeated running test at 90% of vVO2-max to exhaustion (RRT). In addition, a biopsy from m. vastus lateralis was obtained at rest. Performance during RRT was better (P<0.01) at the end of TAP than before HV (6.8±0.5 vs 5.6±0.5 min; means±SE), and 10-km performance was 2.7% better (P<0.05) midway through (40.7±0.7 min) and at the end of TAP (40.7±0.6 min) than after HV (41.8±0.9 min). The expression of muscle Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (NKA)α1, NKAβ1, phospholemman (FXYD1) and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium transport ATPase (SERCA1) increased (P<0.05) during HV and remained higher during TAP. In addition, oxygen uptake at 60% of vVO2-max was lower (P<0.05) at the end of TAP than before and after HV. Thus, tapering after a period of high-volume SIT improved 10-km performance and running economy, and short-duration exercise capacity was better than before the high-volume SIT period together with higher expression of muscle proteins related to Na(+)/K(+) transport and Ca(2+) re-uptake. Copyright © 2017, Journal of Applied Physiology.

  11. A Comparison of Stride Length and Lower Extremity Kinematics during Barefoot and Shod Running in Well Trained Distance Runners.

    PubMed

    Francis, Peter; Ledingham, James; Clarke, Sarah; Collins, D J; Jakeman, Philip

    2016-09-01

    Stride length, hip, knee and ankle angles were compared during barefoot and shod running on a treadmill at two speeds. Nine well-trained (1500m time: 3min:59.80s ± 14.7 s) male (22 ±3 years; 73 ±9 kg; 1.79 ±0.4 m) middle distance (800 m - 5,000 m) runners performed 2 minutes of running at 3.05 m·s(-1) and 4.72 m·s(-1) on an treadmill. This approach allowed continuous measurement of lower extremity kinematic data and calculation of stride length. Statistical analysis using a 2X2 factorial ANOVA revealed speed to have a main effect on stride length and hip angle and footwear to have a main effect on hip angle. There was a significant speed*footwear interaction for knee and ankle angles. Compared to shod running at the lower speed (3.05 m·s(-1)), well trained runners have greater hip, knee and ankle angles when running barefoot. Runners undertake a high volume (~75%) of training at lower intensities and therefore knowledge of how barefoot running alters running kinematics at low and high speeds may be useful to the runner.

  12. Raclopride, but not SCH 23,390, induces maldirected jumping in rats trained to perform a run-climb-run behavioral task.

    PubMed

    Senyuz, L; Fowler, S C

    1993-01-01

    In order to explore further the putative differential behavioral consequences of D1 dopamine and D2 dopamine receptor antagonism, SCH 23,390 (0.01-0.12 mg/kg) and raclopride (0.12-1.0 mg/kg) were administered to two separate groups of rats that had been trained in an eight-trial-per-day format to run down an alleyway, climb a vertical rope, and run across a horizontal board to access sweetened milk. Although both drugs dose-dependently reduced the speed of task completion, only raclopride produced vigorous, maldirected jumping behavior in the floor segment of the apparatus. The number of such jumps increased with dose. This raclopride-specific jumping phenomenon may provide a new behavioral arena for investigating the functional differences between D1 and D2 receptor antagonism.

  13. Solar Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure of South African Marathon Runners During Competition Marathon Runs and Training Sessions: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Nurse, Victoria; Wright, Caradee Y; Allen, Martin; McKenzie, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Marathon runners spend considerable time in outdoor training for and participating in marathons. Outdoor runners may experience high solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure. South Africa, where running is popular, experiences high ambient solar UVR levels that may be associated with adverse health effects. This feasibility study explores the use of personal dosimeters to determine solar UVR exposure patterns and possible related acute health risks of four marathon runners during marathons and training sessions in Cape Town and Pretoria. Runners running marathons that started early in the day, and that did not exceed 4 hours, yielded low total solar UVR exposure doses (mean 0.093 SED per exposure period run, median 0.088 SED, range 0.062-0.136 SED; average of 16.54% of ambient solar UVR). Training sessions run during early morning and late afternoon presented similar results. Several challenges hindered analysis including accounting for anatomical position of personal dosimeter and natural shade. To assess health risks, hazard quotients (HQs) were calculated using a hypothetical runner's schedule. Cumulative, annual solar UVR exposure-calculated acute health risks were low (HQ = 0.024) for training sessions and moderate (HQ = 4.922) for marathon runs. While these data and calculations are based on 18 person-days, one can measure marathon runners' personal solar UVR exposure although several challenges must be overcome.

  14. Physiological and biomechanical adaptations to the cycle to run transition in Olympic triathlon: review and practical recommendations for training.

    PubMed

    Millet, G P; Vleck, V E

    2000-10-01

    Current knowledge of the physiological, biomechanical, and sensory effects of the cycle to run transition in the Olympic triathlon (1.5 km, 10 km, 40 km) is reviewed and implications for the training of junior and elite triathletes are discussed. Triathlon running elicits hyperventilation, increased heart rate, decreased pulmonary compliance, and exercise induced hypoxaemia. This may be due to exercise intensity, ventilatory muscle fatigue, dehydration, muscle fibre damage, a shift in metabolism towards fat oxidation, and depleted glycogen stores after a 40 km cycle. The energy cost (CR) of running during the cycle to run transition is also increased over that of control running. The increase in CR varies from 1.6% to 11.6% and is a reflection of triathlete ability level. This increase may be partly related to kinematic alterations, but research suggests that most biomechanical parameters are unchanged. A more forward leaning trunk inclination is the most significant observation reported. Running pattern, and thus running economy, could also be influenced by sensorimotor perturbations related to the change in posture. Technical skill in the transition area is obviously very important. The conditions under which the preceding cycling section is performed-that is, steady state or stochastic power output, drafting or non-drafting-are likely to influence the speed of adjustment to transition. The extent to which a decrease in the average 10 km running speed occurs during competition must be investigated further. It is clear that the higher the athlete is placed in the field at the end of the bike section, the greater the importance to their finishing position of both a quick transition area time and optimal adjustment to the physiological demands of the cycle to run transition. The need for, and current methods of, training to prepare junior and elite triathletes for a better transition are critically reviewed in light of the effects of sequential cycle to run exercise.

  15. Comparative effects of two interval shuttle-run training modes on physiological and performance adaptations in female professional futsal players.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Anderson S; Arins, Francimara B; De Lucas, Ricardo D; Carminatti, Lorival J; Dittrich, Naiandra; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; Guglielmo, Luiz Guilherme A

    2017-09-06

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effects of two shuttle-run interval training (SRIT) models with one and three directional changes per running bout on the aerobic and anaerobic performances of elite female futsal players. Sixteen players competing in the Brazilian National Division League took part in the study. The training protocols consisted of shuttle-run intervals organized in four sets of 4-min bouts with 3- min of rest intervals between the sets. The SRIT models were composed of one (7.5 s running and 7.5 s pause [SRIT7.5x7.5]; n=7) or three (15 s running and 15 s pause [SRIT15x15]; n=9) directional changes. The athletes performed the following tests before and after a 5-week training period: incremental treadmill test (ITT), Futsal Intermittent Endurance Test (FIET) [with respective peak speeds (PS)] and a repeated sprint ability (RSA) test. After the training period, PSFIET and speed at the second lactate turnpoint were very likely and almost certainly increased in both training regimens, respectively. SRIT15x15 induced possibly greater improvements in PSITT (+3.28%, 90%CL -0.16 to 6.82) and RSAmean (+1.17%, 90% CL -0.68 to 3.05) than SRIT7.5x7.5. In addition, SRIT15x15 resulted in a likely greater improvement in running economy (+4.33%, 90% CL -0.35 to 9.23) compared with SRIT7.5x7.5. In elite female futsal players, SRIT15x15 is a promising strategy to enhance performance-related physical fitness attributes in a shortterm period (5 weeks) during the preseason, due to its superior effects on these important aerobic and anaerobic qualities than a protocol with fewer directional changes.

  16. Relationship between functional hamstring: quadriceps ratios and running economy in highly trained and recreational female runners.

    PubMed

    Sundby, Oyvind H; Gorelick, Mark L S

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between running economy (RE), functional hamstring:quadriceps peak torque ratios (f-H:Q), and flexibility among female runners. Seven highly trained (HT) female runners (age: 25.7 ± 4.7 years, VO2peak of 62.0 ± 4.8 ml·kg-1·min-1) and 11 recreational female runners (age of 28.8 ± 5.6 years, VO2peak of 49.2 ± 4.6 ml·kg-1·min-1) were measured for maximal aerobic power (VO2peak), RE, heart rate, respiratory exchange ratio, f-H:Q (Hecc:Qcon and Hcon:Qecc), and sit-and-reach hamstring/trunk flexibility. On 2 separate days, RE was measured on a treadmill at 1% grade at 2 velocities (160.9 and 201.2 m·min-1) for 6 minutes each, and isokinetic knee strength was measured at 3 angular velocities (60, 120, and 180°·s-1) for both concentric and eccentric muscle actions. The unpaired t-tests showed a consistent trend toward higher f-H:Q ratios at all angular velocities among the HT runners. Highly trained runners had significantly higher Hecc:Qcon at 120°·s-1 (p ≤ 0.05) and 180°·s-1 (p ≤ 0.05). Whole group correlations demonstrated a significant correlation between Hcon:Qecc at 180°·s-1 and RE (ml·kg-1·km-1) at 201.2 m·min-1 (R = -0.48, p ≤ 0.05). No significant relationships were found between flexibility, or hamstring and quadriceps peak torque (N·m) and RE (p > 0.05). This cross-sectional analysis suggests that higher f-H:Q torque ratios, and not muscle strength per se, are associated with a lower metabolic cost of running. Therefore, runners should consider implementing hamstring exercises to improve their f-H:Q ratios.

  17. Inspiratory muscle warm-up and inspiratory muscle training: separate and combined effects on intermittent running to exhaustion.

    PubMed

    Lomax, Mitch; Grant, Ian; Corbett, Jo

    2011-03-01

    In the present study, we examined the independent and combined effects of an inspiratory muscle warm-up and inspiratory muscle training on intermittent running to exhaustion. Twelve males were recruited to undertake four experimental trials. Two trials (Trials 1 and 2) preceded either a 4-week training period of 1 × 30 breaths twice daily at 50% (experimental group) or 15% (control group) maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (PImax). A further two trials (Trials 3 and 4) were performed after the 4 weeks. Trials 2 and 4 were preceded by a warm-up: 2 × 30 breaths at 40% PImax. Pre-training PImax and distance covered increased (P < 0.05) similarly between groups after the warm-up (~11% and ~5-7% PImax and distance covered, respectively). After training, PImax increased by 20 ± 6.1% (P < 0.01; d = 3.6) and 26.7 ± 6.3% (P < 0.01; d = 3.1) when training and warm-up were combined in the experimental group. Distance covered increased after training in the experimental group by 12 ± 4.9% (P < 0.01; d = 3.6) and 14.9 ± 4.5% (P < 0.01; d = 2.3) when training and warm-up interventions were combined. In conclusion, inspiratory muscle training and inspiratory muscle warm-up can both increase running distance independently, but the greatest increase is observed when they are combined.

  18. Effects of simultaneous training for strength and endurance on upper and lower body strength and running performance.

    PubMed

    Hortobágyi, T; Katch, F I; Lachance, P F

    1991-03-01

    This study examined simultaneous training for strength and endurance during a 13-week, 3-day a week program of hydraulic resistive circuit training and running. Eighteen college males (U.S. Army ROTC) were placed into low resistance (LR; n = 10) or high resistance (HR; n = 8) groups, and 10 college males were controls and did not train. There were 20 exercise stations (7 upper and lower body, and 6 supplementary). LR and HR performed 2 circuits with a work/rest ratio of 20 to 40 s during the 40 min workout. LR trained at two low resistances (approximately 100 cm.s-1), while HR trained at a higher resistance (approximately 50 cm.s-1). Following the workout, subjects ran 2 miles. Pre and post tests included strength, physical fitness, and anthropometry. Strength was assessed with (1) hydraulic resistance dynamometry for 4 exercises at 2 speeds using a computerized dynamometer (Hydra-Fitness, Belton, TX); (2) isokinetic and isotonic upright squat and supine bench press using the Ariel Exerciser (Trabuco Canyon, CA); (3) concentric and eccentric arm flexion/extension at 60 and 120 degrees.s-1 on the Biodex dynamometer (Shirley, NY), and (4) 1-RM free weight concentric and eccentric arm flexion and extension. The fitness tests included 2-mile run, sit-ups, and push-ups. Anthropometry included 3 fatfolds, 6 girths, and arm and leg volume. There were no significant changes in body composition or interactions between the fitness test measures and the 2 training groups (p greater than 0.05). Improvements averaged 15% (run time), 30% (push-ups), and 19% (sit-ups; p less than 0.05). Significant improvements also occurred in 3 of 8 measures for hydraulic testing (overall change 8.8%), in 3 of 4 1-RM tests (9.4%), and in 2 of 8 Biodex tests (6%), but no significant changes for isokinetic and isotonic squat and bench press (1.9%). The change in overall strength averaged 6.5% compared to 16% in a prior study that used hydraulic resistive training without concomitant running. We

  19. Exercise training effects on hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses in mice selected for increased voluntary wheel running.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Scott A; Rezende, Enrico L; Chappell, Mark A; Gomes, Fernando R; Kolb, Erik M; Malisch, Jessica L; Rhodes, Justin S; Mitchell, Gordon S; Garland, Theodore

    2014-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? We used experimental evolution to determine how selective breeding for high voluntary wheel running and exercise training (7-11 weeks) affect ventilatory chemoreflexes of laboratory mice at rest. What is the main finding and its importance? Selective breeding, although significantly affecting some traits, did not systematically alter ventilation across gas concentrations. As with most human studies, our findings support the idea that endurance training attenuates resting ventilation. However, little evidence was found for a correlation between ventilatory chemoreflexes and the amount of individual voluntary wheel running. We conclude that exercise 'training' alters respiratory behaviours, but these changes may not be necessary to achieve high levels of wheel running. Ventilatory control is affected by genetics, the environment and gene-environment and gene-gene interactions. Here, we used an experimental evolution approach to test whether 37 generations of selective breeding for high voluntary wheel running (genetic effects) and/or long-term (7-11 weeks) wheel access (training effects) alter acute respiratory behaviour of mice resting in normoxic, hypoxic and hypercapnic conditions. As the four replicate high-runner (HR) lines run much more than the four non-selected control (C) lines, we also examined whether the amount of exercise among individual mice was a quantitative predictor of ventilatory chemoreflexes at rest. Selective breeding and/or wheel access significantly affected several traits. In normoxia, HR mice tended to have lower mass-adjusted rates of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. Chronic wheel access increased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production in both HR and C mice during hypercapnia. Breathing frequency and minute ventilation were significantly reduced by chronic wheel access in both HR and C mice during hypoxia. Selection history, while significantly affecting some traits

  20. The Effect of Extra-Curricular Mental Training with Biofeedback on Short Running Performance of Adolescent Physical Education Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar-Eli, Michael; Blumenstein, Boris

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between mental training with biofeedback and performance was investigated. An adapted version of the Wingate five-step approach was used as a mental preparation technique for enhancing the short-running performance among 16-18-year-old adolescent physical education pupils. Participants (n = 79) were randomly…

  1. The Effect of Extra-Curricular Mental Training with Biofeedback on Short Running Performance of Adolescent Physical Education Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar-Eli, Michael; Blumenstein, Boris

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between mental training with biofeedback and performance was investigated. An adapted version of the Wingate five-step approach was used as a mental preparation technique for enhancing the short-running performance among 16-18-year-old adolescent physical education pupils. Participants (n = 79) were randomly…

  2. The combination of plyometric and balance training improves sprint and shuttle run performances more often than plyometric-only training with children.

    PubMed

    Chaouachi, Anis; Othman, Aymen Ben; Hammami, Raouf; Drinkwater, Eric J; Behm, David G

    2014-02-01

    Because balance is not fully developed in children and studies have shown functional improvements with balance only training studies, a combination of plyometric and balance activities might enhance static balance, dynamic balance, and power. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of plyometric only (PLYO) with balance and plyometric (COMBINED) training on balance and power measures in children. Before and after an 8-week training period, testing assessed lower-body strength (1 repetition maximum leg press), power (horizontal and vertical jumps, triple hop for distance, reactive strength, and leg stiffness), running speed (10-m and 30-m sprint), static and dynamic balance (Standing Stork Test and Star Excursion Balance Test), and agility (shuttle run). Subjects were randomly divided into 2 training groups (PLYO [n = 14] and COMBINED [n = 14]) and a control group (n = 12). Results based on magnitude-based inferences and precision of estimation indicated that the COMBINED training group was considered likely to be superior to the PLYO group in leg stiffness (d = 0.69, 91% likely), 10-m sprint (d = 0.57, 84% likely), and shuttle run (d = 0.52, 80% likely). The difference between the groups was unclear in 8 of the 11 dependent variables. COMBINED training enhanced activities such as 10-m sprints and shuttle runs to a greater degree. COMBINED training could be an important consideration for reducing the high velocity impacts of PLYO training. This reduction in stretch-shortening cycle stress on neuromuscular system with the replacement of balance and landing exercises might help to alleviate the overtraining effects of excessive repetitive high load activities.

  3. Effects of Continuous and Interval Training on Running Economy, Maximal Aerobic Speed and Gait Kinematics in Recreational Runners.

    PubMed

    González-Mohíno, Fernando; González-Ravé, José M; Juárez, Daniel; Fernández, Francisco A; Barragán Castellanos, Rubén; Newton, Robert U

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects on running economy (RE), V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, maximal aerobic speed (MAS), and gait kinematics (step length [SL] and frequency, flight and contact time [CT]) in recreational athletes, with 2 different training methods, Interval and Continuous (CON). Eleven participants were randomly distributed in an interval training group (INT; n = 6) or CON training group (CON; n = 5). Interval training and CON performed 2 different training programs (95-110% and 70-75% of MAS, respectively), which consisted of 3 sessions per week during 6 weeks with the same external workload (%MAS × duration). An incremental test to exhaustion was performed to obtain V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, MAS, RE, and gait variables (high speed camera) before and after the training intervention. There was a significant improvement (p ≤ 0.05) in RE at 60 and 90% of MAS by the CON group; without changes in gait. The INT group significantly increased MAS and higher stride length at 80, 90, and 100% of MAS and lower CT at 100% of MAS. As expected, training adaptations are highly specific to the overload applied with CON producing improvements in RE at lower percentage of MAS whereas INT produces improvements in MAS. The significantly increased stride length and decreased CT for the INT group are an important outcome of favorable changes in running gait.

  4. Effects of continuous and interval running training on serum growth and cortisol hormones in junior male basketball players.

    PubMed

    Büyükyazi, G; Karamizrak, S O; Islegen, C

    2003-01-01

    Effects of two different eight-week aerobic training programs consisting of continuous (CR) or extensive interval running (IR) on serum growth (GH) and cortisol hormones in 33 male basketball players aged 15-16 were assessed. The CR group ran 4.8 km and the IR group ran 4 x 1.2 km, using equal work-to-rest ratio, three times per week. Aerobic power scores of all subjects and anaerobic power marks of the training subjects increased (p<0.01). Upon exertion, though serum GH levels increased in both exercise groups (p<0.01) prior to and following training; cortisol levels increased only in the IR group prior to training, and in both exercise groups following training (p<0.05). Following the eight week period, resting cortisol levels rose in the training (p<0.05) and control (p<0.01) groups. To conclude, an 8-week training program consisting of continuous or extensive interval running has been effective on acute GH and cortisol secretion in 15-16 year-old male athletes.

  5. High intensity interval training vs. high-volume running training during pre-season conditioning in high-level youth football: a cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Faude, Oliver; Schnittker, Reinhard; Schulte-Zurhausen, Roman; Müller, Florian; Meyer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    We aimed at comparing the endurance effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with high-volume running training (HVT) during pre-season conditioning in 20 high-level youth football players (15.9 (s 0.8) years). Players either conducted HVT or HIIT during the summer preparation period. During winter preparation they performed the other training programme. Before and after each training period several fitness tests were conducted: multi-stage running test (to assess the individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) and maximal running velocity (Vmax)), vertical jumping height, and straight sprinting. A significant increase from pre- to post-test was observed in IAT velocity (P < 0.001) with a greater increase after HVT (+0.8 km · h(-1) vs. +0.5 km · h(-1) after HIIT, P = 0.04). Maximal velocity during the incremental exercise test also slightly increased with time (P = 0.09). Forty per cent (HIIT) and 15% (HVT) of all players did not improve IAT beyond baseline variability. The players who did not respond to HIIT were significantly slower during 30 m sprinting than responders (P = 0.02). No further significant differences between responders and non-responders were observed. Jump heights deteriorated significantly after both training periods (P < 0.003). Both training programmes seem to be promising means to improve endurance capacity in high-level youth football players during pre-season conditioning.

  6. Running Shoes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    This guide explains the purpose of running shoes and provides tips for purchasing them. A brief explanation of the difference between training shoes and racing shoes is followed by a list of characteristics of running shoes that should be considered when buying them. These characteristics include heel fit, heel elevation and width, the inner and…

  7. The effects of creatine and glycerol hyperhydration on running economy in well trained endurance runners

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ingestion of creatine (Cr) and glycerol (Gly) has been reported to be an effective method in expanding water compartments within the human body, attenuating the rise in heart rate (HR) and core temperature (Tcore) during exercise in the heat. Despite these positive effects, a substantial water retention could potentially impair endurance performance through increasing body mass (BM) and consequently impacting negatively on running economy (RE). The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of a combined Cr and Gly supplementation on thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses and RE during running for 30 min at speed corresponding to 60% of maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) in hot and cool conditions. Methods Cr·H2O (11.4 g), Gly (1 g·kg-1 BM) and Glucose polymer (75 g) were administered twice daily to 15 male endurance runners during a 7-day period. Exercise trials were conducted pre- and post-supplementation at 10 and 35°C and 70% relative humidity. Results BM and total body water increased by 0.90 ± 0.40 kg (P < 0.01; mean ± SD) and 0.71 ± 0.42 L (P < 0.01), respectively following supplementation. Despite the significant increase in BM, supplementation had no effect on V˙O2 and therefore RE. Both HR and Tcore were attenuated significantly after supplementation (P < 0.05, for both). Nevertheless, thermal comfort and rating of perceived exertion was not significantly different between pre- and post-supplementation. Similarly, no significant differences were found in sweat loss, serum osmolality, blood lactate and in plasma volume changes between pre- and post-supplementation. Conclusions Combining Cr and Gly is effective in reducing thermal and cardiovascular strain during exercise in the heat without negatively impacting on RE. PMID:22176668

  8. Differences in plantar loading between training shoes and racing flats at a self-selected running speed.

    PubMed

    Wiegerinck, Johannes I; Boyd, Jennifer; Yoder, Jordan C; Abbey, Alicia N; Nunley, James A; Queen, Robin M

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in plantar loading between two different running shoe types. We hypothesized that a higher maximum force, peak pressure, and contact area would exist beneath the entire foot while running in a racing flat when compared to a training shoe. 37 athletes (17 male and 20 female) were recruited for this study. Subjects had no history of lower extremity injuries in the past six months, no history of foot or ankle surgery within the past 3 years, and no history of metatarsal stress fractures. Subjects had to be physically active and run at least 10 miles per week. Each subject ran on a 10m runway 7 times wearing two different running shoe types, the Nike Air Pegasus (training shoe) and the Nike Air Zoom Katana IV (racing flat). A Pedar-X in-shoe pressure measurement system sampling at 50Hz was used to collect plantar pressure data. Peak pressure, maximum force, and contact area beneath eight different anatomical regions of the foot as well as beneath the total foot were obtained. The results of this study demonstrated a significant difference between training shoes and racing flats in terms of peak pressure, maximum force, and contact area. The significant differences measured between the two shoes can be of importance when examining the influence of shoe type on the occurrence of stress fractures in runners.

  9. Effects of High Velocity Elastic Band versus Heavy Resistance Training on Hamstring Strength, Activation, and Sprint Running Performance

    PubMed Central

    Janusevicius, Donatas; Snieckus, Audrius; Skurvydas, Albertas; Silinskas, Viktoras; Trinkunas, Eugenijus; Cadefau, Joan Aureli; Kamandulis, Sigitas

    2017-01-01

    Hamstring muscle injuries occur during high-speed activities, which suggests that muscular strength at high velocities may be more important than maximal strength. This study examined hamstring adaptations to training for maximal strength and for strength at high velocities. Physically active men (n = 25; age, 23.0 ± 3.2 years) were randomly divided into: (1) a resistance training (RT, n = 8) group, which performed high-load, low-velocity concentric–eccentric hamstring contractions; (2) a resistance training concentric (RTC; n = 9) group, which performed high-load, low-velocity concentric-only hamstring contractions; and (3) a high-velocity elastic band training (HVT, n = 8) group, which performed low-load, high-velocity concentric–eccentric hamstring contractions. Pre- and posttraining tests included hamstring strength on a hamstring-curl apparatus, concentric knee extension–flexion at 60°/s, 240°/s, and 450°/s, eccentric knee flexion at 60°/s and 240°/s, hamstring and quadriceps coactivation, knee flexion and extension frequency in the prone position, and 30-m sprint running speed from a stationary start and with a running start. Knee flexor torque increased significantly by 21.1% ± 8.1% in the RTC group and 16.2% ± 4.2% in the RT group (p < 0.05 for both groups). Hamstring coactivation decreased significantly in both groups. In the HVT group, knee flexion and extension frequency increased by 17.8% ± 8.2%, concentric peak torque of the knee flexors at 450°/s increased by 31.0% ± 12.0%, hamstring coactivation decreased, and running performance over 30 m improved (p < 0.05 for all parameters). These findings suggest that resistance training at high velocities is superior to traditional heavy resistance training for increasing knee flexor strength at high velocities, movement frequency, and sprint running performance. These findings also indicate that traditional training approaches are effective for increasing knee flexor strength and reducing knee

  10. The effect of strength training, recreational soccer and running exercise on stretch-shortening cycle muscle performance during countermovement jumping.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Kjær, Michael; Andersen, Lars L; Krustrup, Peter; Aagaard, Per

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of contrasting training modalities on mechanical muscle performance and neuromuscular activity during maximal SSC (stretch-shortening cycle) countermovement jumps (CMJ). Bilateral countermovement jumping, surface electromyography (EMG) and muscle fiber size (CSA) were studied in untrained individuals (n=49, 21-45 yrs) pre and post 12 weeks of progressive heavy-resistance strength training (ST, n=8), recreational soccer training (SOC, n=15), high-intensity interval running (INT, n=7), continuous running (RUN, n=9) or continuation of an inactive life-style (CON, n=10). ST displayed shortened CMJ take-off time (p<.05) and increased (p<.05) maximal CMJ jump height, peak down- and upward velocity of center of mass (COM), rate of vertical force development (RFD: ΔF(Z)/Δt), peak power production, rate of power development (RPD), mean plantar flexor EMG and peak hamstring rate of EMG rise (RER). Peak quadriceps EMG rate of rise increased in SOC (p<.05). Moreover, ST and SOC demonstrated increased quadriceps muscle fiber CSA and lean leg mass. Positive relationships (r>.70) were observed following ST between training-induced changes in CMJ SSC muscle performance, neuromuscular activity and muscle fiber CSA, respectively. ST induced a more rapid CMJ take-off phase and elevated muscle power production, indicating a more explosive-type SSC muscle performance. No effects were detected in CMJ performance after continuous running, high-intensity interval running and recreational soccer, despite an increased muscle fiber CSA and quadriceps muscle activity in SOC. Enhanced neuromuscular activity in the hip extensors (hamstrings) and plantar flexors, and increased myofiber fiber size were responsible for the enhanced CMJ SSC muscle performance with ST.

  11. Training in ChiRunning to reduce blood pressure: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Kelly; Kumar, Deepak; Goldman, Veronica; Feng, Haojun; Mehling, Wolf; Moskowitz, Judith T; Souza, Richard B; Hecht, Frederick M

    2015-10-15

    People with prehypertension (120-130/80-90 mmHg) are at increased risk of progressing to hypertension. Recommendations for prehypertension include engaging in regular physical activity. We aimed to assess feasibility and acceptability and collect preliminary outcome data on ChiRunning for people with elevated blood pressure. ChiRunning is a commercially available running program based on the mindful movements of Tai Chi, which is aimed at decreasing injury by both increasing body awareness and modifying running form. We enrolled adults with elevated systolic (130-150 mmHg) or diastolic (80-100 mmHg) blood pressure in a 12-week pilot trial. Participants were randomized 2:1:1 to 8 weeks of: 1) intervention-a trainer-led ChiRunning group (n = 10); 2) active control-a trainer-led running group (n = 6); or 3) educational control-a self-directed running group (n = 6) and followed for 4 more weeks. The active control and educational control groups were combined for analysis. This study was feasible, meeting recruitment, retention and adherence goals, and acceptable to participants. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure did not change significantly over the study for either the ChiRunning or control groups. Changes in BMI over time were significantly different from zero in the ChiRunning group (p = 0.04) but not in the control group (slope for ChiRunning -0.05 [-0.1 to -0.002] vs. control -0.01 [-0.06 to 0.04], between slope difference, p = 0.22). Self-reported running-related injury (i.e. discomfort leading to a decrease in running) was similar between groups (ChiRunning, 4 [1.2 to 8.4] vs. control, 3 [0.7 to 7.1] injuries per 100 h of running, p = 0.72) although self-reported running-related discomfort (i.e. discomfort that does not lead to changes in running) trended higher in the ChiRunning group (ChiRunning, 10 [5.4 to 16.8] vs. control, 4 [1.5 to 9] reports of discomfort per 100 h of running, p = 0.06). ChiRunning appears to be a feasible

  12. Variations in stride length and running economy in male novice runners subsequent to a seven-week training program.

    PubMed

    Bailey, S P; Messier, S P

    1991-06-01

    The purposes of this investigation were to document the changes in stride length of college-age male novice runners (n = 13) who were allowed of freely choose their stride length throughout a 7-week training period (FCSL), and to compare subsequent changes in running economy to those observed in a similar group of runners (n = 13) that ran for 7 weeks with constant stride lengths equivalent to their initially chosen stride lengths (CSL). Subjects trained 3 days per week for approximately 7 weeks (22 training bouts). Each training bout consisted of a minute warmup (60% VO2max) and a 15-minute run at a speed equivalent to 80% of the subjects' initial VO2max. Absolute stride length (ASL), heart rate (HR), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the 12th and 20th minute of exercise. Relative and absolute submaximal VO2 were measured during the 4th and 22nd training bout. No significant differences in percent change in ASL were found between the groups or across the weeks of training at the 12th or 20th minute of exercise; however, there was a significant difference (p less than or equal to .05) between the groups during the 4th week of training. No significant differences were found between the groups in relative or absolute submaximal VO2. Relative submaximal VO2 at the 12th minute of exercise decreased significantly following the training period in both the FCSL (-3.38%) and CSL (-4.32%) groups. Absolute submaximal VO2 did not change significantly following the training period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Walk-run training improves the anti-inflammation properties of high-density lipoprotein in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sang, Hui; Yao, Shutong; Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiuhong; Yang, Nana; Zhao, Jianxiang; Zhao, Li; Si, Yanhong; Zhang, Ying; Lv, Xiaohong; Xue, Yazhuo; Qin, Shucun

    2015-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of cardiovascular risk factors, including central obesity, dysglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. The anti-inflammatory properties of high density lipoprotein (HDL) can be compromised in MetS. Exercise is recognized as an important factor in the prevention and treatment of MetS. This study was designed to investigate whether walk/run training without any specific diet could enhance anti-inflammation capacity of HDL from MetS patients. This was a case control study. The study was conducted in a Zhoudian community, Taian. Thirty nine patients with MetS were recruited and divided into a control group (n = 12) remaining in an untrained state and exercise group (n = 27) performing a 10-week walk/run training program. The anti-inflammation capacities of HDL3 (HDL subfractions) from MetS patients with or without exercise were investigated by co-incubating with TNF- α-injured endothelial cells in vitro. The training did not influence serum lipoprotein level in MetS patients and cholesterol efflux capacity of circulating HDL. However, walk/run training increased paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity and decreased the levels of malondialdehyde in either serum or isolated HDL from MetS patients prominently. More importantly, HDL3 isolated from MetS patients with 10 weeks training protected endothelial cells against tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) -induced injury, decreased monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels in media and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression markedly. Furthermore, HDL3 isolated from MetS patients with walk/run training inhibited the TNF-á-induced monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells and obviously increased nitric oxide production by activating endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Walk/run training leads to a significant improvement in HDL anti-inflammation capacity in subjects with MetS without restricted diet, the mechanism underlying which at least partially is due to increased PON1 activity in HDL, NO

  14. Comparison of the influence of age on cycling efficiency and the energy cost of running in well-trained triathletes.

    PubMed

    Peiffer, Jeremiah; Abbiss, Chris R; Sultana, Frederic; Bernard, Thierry; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2016-01-01

    Locomotive efficiency is cited as an important component to endurance performance; however, inconsistent observations of age-related changes in efficiency question its influence in the performance of masters athletes. This study examined locomotive efficiency in young and masters triathletes during both a run and cycle test. Twenty young (28.5 ± 2.6 years) and 20 masters (59.8 ± 1.3 years) triathletes completed an incremental cycling and running test to determine maximal aerobic consumption (VO2max) and the first ventilatory threshold (VT1). Participants then completed 10-min submaximal running and cycling tests at VT1 during which locomotive efficiency was calculated from expired ventilation. Additionally, body fat percentage was determined using skin-fold assessment. During the cycle and run, VO2max was lower in the masters (48.3 ± 5.4 and 49.6 ± 4.8 ml kg(-1) min(-1), respectively) compared with young (61.6 ± 5.7 and 62.4 ± 5.2 ml kg(-1) min(-1), respectively) cohort. Maximal running speed and the cycling power output corresponding to VO2max were also lower in the masters (15.1 ± 0.8 km h(-1) and 318.6 ± 26.0 W) compared with the young (19.5 ± 1.3 km h(-1) and 383.6 ± 35.0 W) cohort. Cycling efficiency was lower (-11.2%) in the masters compared with young cohort. Similar results were observed for the energy cost of running (+10.8%); however, when scaled to lean body mass, changes were more pronounced during the run (+22.1%). Within trained triathletes, ageing can influence efficiency in both the run and cycle discipline. While disregarded in the past, efficiency should be considered in research examining performance in ageing athletes.

  15. The effects of the overline running model of the high-speed trains on the existing lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Yong-Sheng; Zeng, Jun-Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Long; Wang, Jia-Yuan; Lv, Ting-Ting

    2016-09-01

    This paper studies the effect on the existing railway which is made by the train with 216 km/h high-speed when running across over the existing railway. The influence on the railway carrying capacity which is made by the transportation organization mode of the existing railway is analyzed under different parking modes of high-speed trains as well. In order to further study the departure intervals of the train, the average speed and the delay of the train, an automata model under these four-aspects is established. The results of the research in this paper could serve as the theoretical references to the newly built high-speed railways.

  16. The Effects of a Periodized vs. Traditional Military Training Program on 2-Mile Run Performance During the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT).

    PubMed

    Stone, Brandon L; Heishman, Aaron D; Campbell, Jay A

    2017-07-31

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of an experimental versus traditional military run training on 2-mile run ability in Army Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) cadets. Fifty college-aged cadets were randomly placed into two groups and trained for four weeks with either an experimental running program (EXP, n=22) comprised of RPE intensity-specific, energy system based intervals or with traditional military running program (TRA, n=28) utilizing a crossover study design. A 2-mile run assessment was performed just prior to the start, at the end of the first 4 weeks, and again after the second 4 weeks of training following crossover. The EXP program significantly decreased 2-mile run times (961.3s ± 155.8s to 943.4 ± 140.2s, P=0.012, baseline to post 1) while the TRA group experienced a significant increase in run times (901.0 ± 79.2s vs. 913.9 ± 82.9s) over the same training period. There was a moderate effect size (d = 0.61, P=0.07) for the experimental run program to "reverse" the adverse effects of the traditional program within the 4-week training period (post 1 to post 2) following treatment crossover. Thus, for short-term training of military personnel, RPE intensity specific running program comprised of aerobic and anaerobic system development can enhance 2-mile run performance superior of a traditional program while reducing training volume (60 min per session vs. 43.2 min per session, respectively). Future research should extend the training period to determine efficacy of this training approach for long term improvement of aerobic capacity and possible reduction of musculoskeletal injury.

  17. The effect of endurance training and downhill running on the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α and HSP72 in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Isanejad, Amin; Saraf, Zahir Hassan; Mahdavi, Mehdi; Gharakhanlou, Reza; Shamsi, Mahdieh Molanouri; Paulsen, Gøran

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated changes in the myokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, as well as HSP72, after endurance training and after a session of downhill running. Twenty-eight rats were allocated to four different groups: 1. Eight weeks of endurance training at 65-70% VO2max (Trained); 2. Endurance training and a single session of downhill running on a 16° slope (Trained plus downhill); 3. A single session of downhill running (Sedentary plus downhill); and 4. Sedentary (Control, no exercise). Soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were harvested 48h after training and/or a single session of downhill running and protein levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and HSP72 were measured and compared to the levels in the control animals. Creatine kinase (CK) was measured in plasma. Endurance training augmented intramuscular levels of HSP72 and IL-6 in both soleus and EDL muscles (p<0.05). Endurance training elevated IL-1β and decreased TNF-α significantly only in EDL (P<0.05). IL-6 increased in both sedentary and trained rats after downhill running (P<0.05), while HSP72 increased only in the previously sedentary rats. CK was lower in trained than sedentary rats after downhill running. In conclusion, endurance training for 8weeks elevated muscular HSP72 protein levels, which might have preconditioned the muscles for a single session of downhill running, as indicated by the CK and HSP72 responses. Interestingly, IL-6 was augmented by endurance training and further increased by downhill running. IL-1β, along with IL-6, was increased by endurance training, and these myokines thus appear to be differently regulated than TNF-α.

  18. Rainfall Trends through Time: A Running Trend Analysis of Hawaiian Rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, A. G.; Giambelluca, T. W.

    2015-12-01

    Significant declines in rainfall have been observed in Hawai'i since 1920. However, these trends have not been uniform in space or time. It is important to understand past rainfall variations to provide the context for future changes. This is especially important for isolated oceanic islands where resources are limited, and understanding the potential impacts of climate change on freshwater supplies is crucial. Maps of seasonal and annual rainfall trends have been produced for the State of Hawai'i for the period 1920-2012. However, since rainfall time series can be highly variable and these trend values may be sensitive to the time period chosen, a running trend analysis was performed to assess the stability of these trends through time. Running trend plots were generated for selected stations chosen to represent unique climate regions based on exposure (windward or leeward) and elevation (low, mid or high). The running trend analysis indicates that in many areas, these drying trends are only significant when the last few years of the record are included in the trend period. The only region with persistent trends through time is the Kona region of the Island of Hawai'i, with significant long-term drying trends, particularly in the dry season. This analysis also highlights the influence of natural variability in short-term trends. These results support previous studies that indicate drying across the state, and reveal the timing of upward and downward trends as well as important spatial details for water resource managers in Hawai'i.

  19. Lactate minimum test during incremental running after a submaximal cycling exercise: a novel test with training applications for triathletes.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Campous, D; Barbado, C; Nuñez, M J; Chicharro, J L

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether running speed determined in a lactate minimum test (lactate minimum intensity, LMI) during a treadmill incremental exercise performed just after submaximal cycling corresponds to the speed of a respiratory exchange ratio of 1.00 (RER-1) and, by extension, to the maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) previously obtained in a standard incremental exercise test. Eighteen moderately trained triathletes (15 men, 3 women) underwent two exercise sessions 72 h apart in random order: 1) a standard incremental treadmill test to identify the speed corresponding to RER-1, and 2) a submaximal exercise test on a bicycle-ergometer to obtain the LT (lactate threshold) followed by the incremental portion of the lactate minimum test on the treadmill. No significant differences were detected between running speed and heart rate at RER-1 and LMI (14.44±1.24 vs. 14.11±1.36 km·h-1 and 166.38±9.30 vs. 169.55±8.97 beats·min-1, respectively). Moreover, 95% of the differences between the results of the two incremental tests for running speed and heart rate were within the limits of agreement. These findings suggest the possibility of obtaining a valid physiological profile of a triathlete using a single test to assess the level of training in both cycling and running.

  20. Raising Quality through Training: National Training Survey Results and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Linda K.

    2007-01-01

    Child Care Resource and Referral agencies (CCR&Rs) are one of the major vehicles in the United States for providing training to child care providers. The quality of care children receive in child care settings is due, in large part, to the effectiveness of the training child care providers receive from CCR&Rs and other community…

  1. Training Continued through Plant Phase-Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, James H.

    1976-01-01

    Even when one of its plants was phased out, the Union Carbide Corp. Program continued with regular training programs and also put two additional programs into motion: Training for employees who would be re-entering the job market and training for employees eligible for retirement benefits. (ABM)

  2. Learning Basic Surgical Skills through Simulator Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvennoinen, Minna; Helfenstein, Sacha; Ruoranen, Minna; Saariluoma, Pertti

    2012-01-01

    Computer-based surgical training simulators are instrumental in skill-based training and performance measurement. However, to date, the educational employment of these tools lacks empirically founded insights and effective practical guidelines. This study examined surgical residents during computer-based simulator training of basic laparoscopic…

  3. Learning Basic Surgical Skills through Simulator Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvennoinen, Minna; Helfenstein, Sacha; Ruoranen, Minna; Saariluoma, Pertti

    2012-01-01

    Computer-based surgical training simulators are instrumental in skill-based training and performance measurement. However, to date, the educational employment of these tools lacks empirically founded insights and effective practical guidelines. This study examined surgical residents during computer-based simulator training of basic laparoscopic…

  4. View from inside Train Shed looking out through arched opening. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from inside Train Shed looking out through arched opening. - Central of Georgia Railway, Passenger Station & Train Shed, Corner of Louisville (Railroad) Road & West Broad Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  5. Injury Reduction Effectiveness of Prescribing Running Shoes Based on Foot Shape in Basic Combat Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    projects directed at training- related injury reduction. In 2005, the MTTF ranked military physical training footwear prescription and trainee fitness...volunteers arriving for BCT. Volunteers filled out a questionnaire regarding age and lifestyle characteristics, including physical activity, smoking status...educational level, and component. The training units provided Army Physical Fitness Test scores. To account for differential follow-up time (subjects who

  6. The development of social capital through football and running: studying an intervention program for inactive women.

    PubMed

    Ottesen, L; Jeppesen, R S; Krustrup, B R

    2010-04-01

    This article examines the development of social capital through the use and dynamics of different types of stories ("I,"we" and "they") as described by Robert D. Putnam. The data come from a research project in which inactive women participated in a 16-week intervention program of physical exercise, either in the form of football or running. The study shows a positive development of social capital in the two different types of physical activity. The I-stories show themselves to be central to bonding within the two groups and bridging outside the groups (developing and/or creating networks). The study also points to the importance of the activity itself for internal bonding illustrated through we- and they-stories. Our data indicate that team sports, such as football, may have an advantage over individual sports in the development of social capital.

  7. Effects of age and spa treatment on match running performance over two consecutive games in highly trained young soccer players.

    PubMed

    Buchheit, Martin; Horobeanu, Cosmin; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Simpson, Ben M; Bourdon, Pitre C

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of age and spa treatment (i.e. combined sauna, cold water immersion, and jacuzzi) on match running performance over two consecutive matches in highly trained young soccer players. Fifteen pre- (age 12.8 ± 0.6 years) and 13 post- (15.9 ± 1 y) peak height velocity (PHV) players played two matches (Matches 1 and 2) within 48 h against the same opposition, with no specific between-match recovery intervention (control). Five post-PHV players also completed another set of two consecutive matches, with spa treatment implemented after the first match. Match running performance was assessed using a global positioning system with very-high-intensity running (> 16.1-19.0 km · h(-1)), sprinting distance (>19 km · h(-1)), and peak match speed determined. Match 2 very-high-intensity running was "possibly" impaired in post-PHV players (-9 ± 33%; ± 90% confidence limits), whereas it was "very likely" improved for the pre-PHV players (+27 ± 22%). The spa treatment had a beneficial impact on Match 2 running performance, with a "likely" rating for sprinting distance (+30 ± 67%) and "almost certain" for peak match speed (+6.4 ± 3%). The results suggest that spa treatment is an effective recovery intervention for post-PHV players, while its value in pre-PHV players is questionable.

  8. Effects of High Velocity Elastic Band versus Heavy Resistance Training on Hamstring Strength, Activation, and Sprint Running Performance.

    PubMed

    Janusevicius, Donatas; Snieckus, Audrius; Skurvydas, Albertas; Silinskas, Viktoras; Trinkunas, Eugenijus; Cadefau, Joan Aureli; Kamandulis, Sigitas

    2017-06-01

    Hamstring muscle injuries occur during high-speed activities, which suggests that muscular strength at high velocities may be more important than maximal strength. This study examined hamstring adaptations to training for maximal strength and for strength at high velocities. Physically active men (n = 25; age, 23.0 ± 3.2 years) were randomly divided into: (1) a resistance training (RT, n = 8) group, which performed high-load, low-velocity concentric-eccentric hamstring contractions; (2) a resistance training concentric (RTC; n = 9) group, which performed high-load, low-velocity concentric-only hamstring contractions; and (3) a high-velocity elastic band training (HVT, n = 8) group, which performed low-load, high-velocity concentric-eccentric hamstring contractions. Pre- and posttraining tests included hamstring strength on a hamstring-curl apparatus, concentric knee extension-flexion at 60°/s, 240°/s, and 450°/s, eccentric knee flexion at 60°/s and 240°/s, hamstring and quadriceps coactivation, knee flexion and extension frequency in the prone position, and 30-m sprint running speed from a stationary start and with a running start. Knee flexor torque increased significantly by 21.1% ± 8.1% in the RTC group and 16.2% ± 4.2% in the RT group (p < 0.05 for both groups). Hamstring coactivation decreased significantly in both groups. In the HVT group, knee flexion and extension frequency increased by 17.8% ± 8.2%, concentric peak torque of the knee flexors at 450°/s increased by 31.0% ± 12.0%, hamstring coactivation decreased, and running performance over 30 m improved (p < 0.05 for all parameters). These findings suggest that resistance training at high velocities is superior to traditional heavy resistance training for increasing knee flexor strength at high velocities, movement frequency, and sprint running performance. These findings also indicate that traditional training approaches are effective for increasing knee flexor strength and reducing knee

  9. A High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)-Based Running Plan Improves Athletic Performance by Improving Muscle Power.

    PubMed

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Cámara-Pérez, Jose C; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor M; Latorre-Román, Pedro Á

    2017-01-01

    García-Pinillos, F, Cámara-Pérez, JC, Soto-Hermoso, VM, and Latorre-Román, PÁ. A High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)-based running plan improves athletic performance by improving muscle power. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 146-153, 2017-This study aimed to examine the effect of a 5-week high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT)-based running plan on athletic performance and to compare the physiological and neuromuscular responses during a sprint-distance triathlon before and after the HIIT period. Thirteen triathletes were matched into 2 groups: the experimental group (EG) and the control group (CG). The CG was asked to maintain their normal training routines, whereas the EG maintained only their swimming and cycling routines and modified their running routine. Participants completed a sprint-distance triathlon before (pretest) and after (posttest) the intervention period. In both pretest and posttest, the participants performed 4 jumping tests: before the race (baseline), postswim, postcycling, and postrun. Additionally, heart rate was monitored (HRmean), whereas rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate accumulation (BLa) were registered after the race. No significant differences (p ≥ 0.05) between groups were found before HIIT intervention (at pretest). Significant group-by-training interactions were found in vertical jumping ability and athletic performance: the EG improved jumping performance (∼6-9%, p ≤ 0.05, effect size (ES) > 0.7), swimming performance (p = 0.013, ES = 0.438), and running time (p = 0.001, ES = 0.667) during the competition, whereas the CG remained unchanged (p ≥ 0.05, ES < 0.4). No changes (p ≥ 0.05, ES < 0.4) were observed in RPE, HRmean, and BLa. A linear regression analysis showed that ΔCMJ predicted both the ΔRu_time (R = 0.559; p = 0.008) and the ΔOverall_time (R = 0.391; p = 0.048). This low-volume, HIIT-based running plan combined with the high training volumes of these triathletes in swimming and

  10. Improved Visual Cognition through Stroboscopic Training

    PubMed Central

    Appelbaum, L. Gregory; Schroeder, Julia E.; Cain, Matthew S.; Mitroff, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    Humans have a remarkable capacity to learn and adapt, but surprisingly little research has demonstrated generalized learning in which new skills and strategies can be used flexibly across a range of tasks and contexts. In the present work we examined whether generalized learning could result from visual–motor training under stroboscopic visual conditions. Individuals were assigned to either an experimental condition that trained with stroboscopic eyewear or to a control condition that underwent identical training with non-stroboscopic eyewear. The training consisted of multiple sessions of athletic activities during which participants performed simple drills such as throwing and catching. To determine if training led to generalized benefits, we used computerized measures to assess perceptual and cognitive abilities on a variety of tasks before and after training. Computer-based assessments included measures of visual sensitivity (central and peripheral motion coherence thresholds), transient spatial attention (a useful field of view – dual task paradigm), and sustained attention (multiple-object tracking). Results revealed that stroboscopic training led to significantly greater re-test improvement in central visual field motion sensitivity and transient attention abilities. No training benefits were observed for peripheral motion sensitivity or peripheral transient attention abilities, nor were benefits seen for sustained attention during multiple-object tracking. These findings suggest that stroboscopic training can effectively improve some, but not all aspects of visual perception and attention. PMID:22059078

  11. Nanosecond-Timescale Intra-Bunch-Train Feedback for the Linear Collider: Results of the FONT2 Run

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, R.; Dufau, M.; Kalinin, A.; Myatt, G.; Perry, C.; Burrows, P.N.; Hartin, T.; Hussain, S.M.; Molloy, S.; White, G.R.; Adolphsen, C.; Frisch, J.C.; Hendrickson, L.; Jobe, R.K.; Markiewicz, T.; McCormick, D.J.; Nelson, J.; Ross, M.C.; Smith, S.; Smith, T.J.; /SLAC

    2005-05-11

    We report on experimental results from the December 2003/January 2004 data run of the Feedback On Nanosecond Timescales (FONT) experiment at the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator at SLAC. We built a second-generation prototype intra-train beam-based feedback system incorporating beam position monitors, fast analogue signal processors, a feedback circuit, fast-risetime amplifiers and stripline kickers. We applied a novel real-time charge-normalization scheme to account for beam current variations along the train. We used the system to correct the position of the 170-nanosecond-long bunchtrain at NLCTA. We achieved a latency of 53 nanoseconds, representing a significant improvement on FONT1 (2002), and providing a demonstration of intra-train feedback for the Linear Collider.

  12. Interval training at 95% and 100% of the velocity at VO2 max: effects on aerobic physiological indexes and running performance.

    PubMed

    Denadai, Benedito S; Ortiz, Marcelo J; Greco, Camila C; de Mello, Marco T

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of two different high-intensity interval training (HIT) programs on selected aerobic physiological indices and 1500 and 5000 m running performance in well-trained runners. The following tests were completed (n=17): (i) incremental treadmill test to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), running velocity associated with VO2 max (vVO2 max), and the velocity corresponding to 3.5 mmol/L of blood lactate concentration (vOBLA); (ii) submaximal constant-intensity test to determine running economy (RE); and (iii) 1500 and 5000 m time trials on a 400 m track. Runners were then randomized into 95% vVO2 max or 100% vVO2 max groups, and undertook a 4 week training program consisting of 2 HIT sessions (performed at 95% or 100% vVO2 max, respectively) and 4 submaximal run sessions per week. Runners were retested on all parameters at the completion of the training program. The VO2 max values were not different after training for both groups. There was a significant increase in post-training vVO2 max, RE, and 1500 m running performance in the 100% vVO2 max group. The vOBLA and 5000 m running performance were significantly higher after the training period for both groups. We conclude that vOBLA and 5000 m running performance can be significantly improved in well-trained runners using a 4 week training program consisting of 2 HIT sessions (performed at 95% or 100% vVO2 max) and 4 submaximal run sessions per week. However, the improvement in vVO2 max, RE, and 1500 m running performance seems to be dependent on the HIT program at 100% vVO2 max.

  13. Improving African children's cognitive development through training.

    PubMed

    Mwamwenda, T S

    1992-06-01

    According to Piaget, cognitive development can be realized with maturation and environmental experience, but he attached some significance to training as a means of facilitating cognitive development. This paper gives brief summaries of eight studies carried out in Africa clearly showing that cognitive development can be facilitated by training.

  14. IMPROVEMENT OF CLINICAL PREDICTION THROUGH SPECIAL TRAINING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KRAUSKOPF, C.J.; AND OTHERS

    A SERIES OF STUDIES WAS REPORTED ON INCREASING ACCURACY IN CLINICAL PREDICTION BY USING AN IMMEDIATE FEEDBACK PROCEDURE. THE GENERAL DESIGN IMPOSED EIGHT EXPERIMENTS AND THREE SETS OF ITEMS. SET ONE TESTED PREDICTIVE LEVEL BEFORE FEEDBACK. SET TWO WAS THE TRAINING SET. SET THREE TESTED THE EFFECT OF FEEDBACK TRAINING. THE PREDICTOR VARIABLE WAS…

  15. Retaining through Training Even for Older Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picchio, Matteo; van Ours, Jan C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates whether on-the-job training has an effect on the employability of workers. Using data from the Netherlands we disentangle the true effect of training incidence from the spurious one determined by unobserved individual heterogeneity. We also take into account that there might be feedback from shocks in the employment status…

  16. Developing an Effective Workforce through Instructor Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    Career and technical educators have long recognized the fact that a highly skilled craftsperson is not necessarily a highly skilled instructor of that craft. In the belief that the key to a productive, efficient workforce lies in high quality training for journeymen and apprentices, the Carpenter's International Training Fund (CITF) partnered with…

  17. Quality Self-Reflection through Reflection Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gun, Bahar

    2011-01-01

    This research study discusses the importance of "reflection training" in teacher education programmes. The main premise of the study is that although teachers are constantly encouraged to "reflect" on their teaching, they are unable to do so effectively unless they are specifically trained in how to reflect (they tend to "react" rather than…

  18. Retaining through Training Even for Older Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picchio, Matteo; van Ours, Jan C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates whether on-the-job training has an effect on the employability of workers. Using data from the Netherlands we disentangle the true effect of training incidence from the spurious one determined by unobserved individual heterogeneity. We also take into account that there might be feedback from shocks in the employment status…

  19. Developing ICT Competency for Thai Teachers through Blended Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akarawang, Chaiya; Kidrakran, Pachoen; Nuangchalerm, Prasart

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study aims to enhance teachers' ICT competency. Three hundred and thirty seven teachers are surveyed through a questionnaire to identify training problems and training needs. Then the blended training model is implemented with teachers. The result showed that it can increase score in cognitive and attitude tests. The post-test…

  20. Soccer vs. running training effects in young adult men: which programme is more effective in improvement of body composition? Randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Milanović, Z; Pantelić, S; Kostić, R; Trajković, N; Sporiš, G

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this study were: 1) To determine the effects of a 12-week recreational soccer training programme and continuous endurance running on body composition of young adult men and 2) to determine which of these two programmes was more effective concerning body composition. Sixty-four participants completed the randomized controlled trial and were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a soccer training group (SOC; n=20), a running group (RUN; n=21) or a control group performing no physical training (CON; n=23). Training programmes for SOC and RUN lasted 12-week with 3 training sessions per week. Soccer sessions consisted of 60 min ordinary five-a-side, six-a-side or seven-a-side matches on a 30-45 m wide and 45-60 m long plastic grass pitch. Running sessions consisted of 60 min of continuous moderate intensity running at the same average heart rate as in SOC (~80% HRmax). All participants, regardless of group assignment, were tested for each of the following dependent variables: body weight, body height, body mass index, percent body fat, body fat mass, fat-free mass and total body water. In the SOC and RUN groups there was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in body composition parameters from pre- to post-training values for all measures with the exception of fat-free mass and total body water. Body mass index, percent body fat and body fat mass did not differ between groups at baseline, but by week 12 were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the SOC and RUN groups compared to CON. To conclude, recreational soccer training provides at least the same changes in body composition parameters as continuous running in young adult men when the training intensity is well matched.

  1. Soccer vs. running training effects in young adult men: which programme is more effective in improvement of body composition? Randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Pantelić, S; Kostić, R; Trajković, N; Sporiš, G

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were: 1) To determine the effects of a 12-week recreational soccer training programme and continuous endurance running on body composition of young adult men and 2) to determine which of these two programmes was more effective concerning body composition. Sixty-four participants completed the randomized controlled trial and were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a soccer training group (SOC; n=20), a running group (RUN; n=21) or a control group performing no physical training (CON; n=23). Training programmes for SOC and RUN lasted 12-week with 3 training sessions per week. Soccer sessions consisted of 60 min ordinary five-a-side, six-a-side or seven-a-side matches on a 30-45 m wide and 45-60 m long plastic grass pitch. Running sessions consisted of 60 min of continuous moderate intensity running at the same average heart rate as in SOC (~80% HRmax). All participants, regardless of group assignment, were tested for each of the following dependent variables: body weight, body height, body mass index, percent body fat, body fat mass, fat-free mass and total body water. In the SOC and RUN groups there was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in body composition parameters from pre- to post-training values for all measures with the exception of fat-free mass and total body water. Body mass index, percent body fat and body fat mass did not differ between groups at baseline, but by week 12 were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the SOC and RUN groups compared to CON. To conclude, recreational soccer training provides at least the same changes in body composition parameters as continuous running in young adult men when the training intensity is well matched. PMID:26681832

  2. Earthquake Safety Training through Virtual Drills.

    PubMed

    Li, Changyang; Liang, Wei; Quigley, Chris; Zhao, Yibiao; Yu, Lap-Fai

    2017-04-01

    Recent popularity of consumer-grade virtual reality devices, such as the Oculus Rift and the HTC Vive, has enabled household users to experience highly immersive virtual environments. We take advantage of the commercial availability of these devices to provide an immersive and novel virtual reality training approach, designed to teach individuals how to survive earthquakes, in common indoor environments. Our approach makes use of virtual environments realistically populated with furniture objects for training. During a training, a virtual earthquake is simulated. The user navigates in, and manipulates with, the virtual environments to avoid getting hurt, while learning the observation and self-protection skills to survive an earthquake. We demonstrated our approach for common scene types such as offices, living rooms and dining rooms. To test the effectiveness of our approach, we conducted an evaluation by asking users to train in several rooms of a given scene type and then test in a new room of the same type. Evaluation results show that our virtual reality training approach is effective, with the participants who are trained by our approach performing better, on average, than those trained by alternative approaches in terms of the capabilities to avoid physical damage and to detect potentially dangerous objects.

  3. ALTITUDE TEST RUN - ASTRONAUT JOHN W. YOUNG - TRAINING - MCDONNELL AIRCRAFT CORP. (MDAC), MO

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-04-14

    S66-32530 (14 April 1966) --- Astronauts John W. Young (right), command pilot, and Michael Collins, pilot, the prime crew of the Gemini-10 spaceflight, prepare for a Manned Altitude Test Run in the Gemini-10 spacecraft. They are in McDonnell Aircraft's 30-feet altitude chamber. Photo credit: NASA

  4. Physical training in man. Skeletal muscle metabolism in relation to muscle morphology and running ability.

    PubMed

    Bylund, A C; Bjurö, T; Cederblad, G; Holm, J; Lundholm, K; Sjöstroöm, M; Angquist, K A; Scherstén, T

    1977-03-15

    The metabolic and morphologic adaptation to physical training in skeletal muscle tissue of eleven middle-aged, physically untrained men was studied. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before, after 8 weeks and after 6 months of physical training for analysis of metabolic and morphologic variables. Glucose tolerance test indicated increased insulin sensitivity after 6 months of physical training. The activities of glycogen phosphorylase, hexokinase and glucose-6-P-dehydrogenase were increased but other enzymes involved in glycogen turnover and glycolysis were unchanged after 6 months of physical traning. The activities of citrate synthase and cytochrome-c-oxidase, representing the oxidative capacity were significantly increased already after 8 weeks of physical training. The incorporation rate of palmitate-carbon into CO2 and triglycerides increased, and the incorporation rate of leucine-carbon into CO2 decreased with 6 months of physical training. The fiber diameter of both Type 1- and Type 2-fibers increased, while the mitochondrial volume increased predominantly in Type 2-fibers. Significant correlations were found between metabolic, physiologic and morphologic variables before and after physical training. The results indicate an increased oxidative capacity, mainly located to Type 2-fibers, and an increased utilization of fatty acids in response to this type of physical training.

  5. Improving Reading Comprehension through Metacognitive Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangano, Nancy G.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Argues that metacognitive training in students can help students to remediate comprehension difficulties, to more accurately guage their success as learners, and to view reading as a flexible, thought-provoking process of interaction with text. (HOD)

  6. Supramaximal intermittent running performance in relation to age and locomotor profile in highly-trained young soccer players.

    PubMed

    Buchheit, Martin; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine supramaximal intermittent running performance in highly-trained young soccer players, with regard to age and locomotor profile. Twenty-seven Under 14, 19 U16 and 16 U18 highly-trained soccer players performed an incremental intermittent running test (30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test) to assess supramaximal intermittent running performance (VIFT), an incremental running test to estimate maximal aerobic speed (VVam-Eval) and a 40-m sprint to estimate maximal sprinting speed (MSS). U16 and U18 presented very likely greater VIFT (19.2 ± 0.9, 19.7 ± 1.0 vs. 17.4 ± 0.9 km · h(-1)) and VVam-Eval (16.2 ± 0.9, 16.7 ± 1.0 vs. 14.6 ± 0.9 km · h(-1)) than U14, while there was no clear difference between U16 and U18. MSS (25.1 ± 1.6, 29.3 ± 1.6 and 31.0 ± 1.1 km · h(-1) for U14, U16 and U18) was very likely different between all groups. When data were pooled together, VIFT was very largely correlated with VVam-Eval and MSS (overall r =0.89, partial r = 0.74 and 0.29, respectively). Within-age group correlations showed that the older the players, the greater the magnitude of the correlations between VIFT and VVam-Eval (r = 0.67, 0.73 and 0.87). In conclusion, the major predictors of VIFT were, in order of importance, VVam-Eval and MSS; however, the older the players, the greater the correlations with VVam-Eval.

  7. Stress Inoculation through Cognitive and Biofeedback Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    predominantly younger personnel; leaders as well as troops; multiple ranks and experiences; multi-ethnic population ; and for women as well as men...system, but its training modules are not yet fully populated with the planned content. The system contains a number of administrative functions...Solutions, Inc., Sherman Oaks, CA 18. Robbins, R. (2010). Personal Communication, Modesto , CA, February 25 Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and

  8. Training for teamwork through in situ simulations.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Asta; Poehlman, Jon; Bollenbacher, John; Riggan, Scott; Davis, Stan; Miller, Kristi; Ivester, Thomas; Kahwati, Leila

    2015-07-01

    In situ simulations allow healthcare teams to practice teamwork and communication as well as clinical management skills in a team's usual work setting with typically available resources and equipment. The purpose of this video is to demonstrate how to plan and conduct in situ simulation training sessions, with particular emphasis on how such training can be used to improve communication and teamwork. The video features an in situ simulation conducted at a labour and delivery unit in response to postpartum hemorrhage.

  9. Training for teamwork through in situ simulations

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, Asta; Poehlman, Jon; Bollenbacher, John; Riggan, Scott; Davis, Stan; Miller, Kristi; Ivester, Thomas; Kahwati, Leila

    2015-01-01

    In situ simulations allow healthcare teams to practice teamwork and communication as well as clinical management skills in a team's usual work setting with typically available resources and equipment. The purpose of this video is to demonstrate how to plan and conduct in situ simulation training sessions, with particular emphasis on how such training can be used to improve communication and teamwork. The video features an in situ simulation conducted at a labour and delivery unit in response to postpartum hemorrhage. PMID:26294962

  10. Effect of running training on uncoupling protein mRNA expression in rat brown adipose tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Mikio; Sato, Yuzo; Izawa, Tetsuya; Komabayashi, Takao; Saito, Daizo; Ohno, Hideki

    1993-03-01

    The effect was investigated of endurance training on the expression of uncoupling protein (UCP) mRNA in brown adipose tissue (BAT) of rats. The exercised rats were trained on a rodent treadmill for 5 days per week and a total of 9 weeks. After the training programme, a marked decrease in BAT mass was found in terms of weight or weight per unit body weight; there was a corresponding decrease in DNA content and a downward trend in RNA and glycogen levels. The UCP mRNA was present at a markedly decreased level in BAT of trained animals. In consideration of the reduced levels of mRNAs for hormone-sensitive lipase and acylCoA synthetase, the brown adipose tissue investigated appeared to be in a relatively atrophied and thermogenically quiescent state.

  11. Dynamic sensitivity analysis of long running landslide models through basis set expansion and meta-modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohmer, Jeremy

    2016-04-01

    Predicting the temporal evolution of landslides is typically supported by numerical modelling. Dynamic sensitivity analysis aims at assessing the influence of the landslide properties on the time-dependent predictions (e.g., time series of landslide displacements). Yet two major difficulties arise: 1. Global sensitivity analysis require running the landslide model a high number of times (> 1000), which may become impracticable when the landslide model has a high computation time cost (> several hours); 2. Landslide model outputs are not scalar, but function of time, i.e. they are n-dimensional vectors with n usually ranging from 100 to 1000. In this article, I explore the use of a basis set expansion, such as principal component analysis, to reduce the output dimensionality to a few components, each of them being interpreted as a dominant mode of variation in the overall structure of the temporal evolution. The computationally intensive calculation of the Sobol' indices for each of these components are then achieved through meta-modelling, i.e. by replacing the landslide model by a "costless-to-evaluate" approximation (e.g., a projection pursuit regression model). The methodology combining "basis set expansion - meta-model - Sobol' indices" is then applied to the La Frasse landslide to investigate the dynamic sensitivity analysis of the surface horizontal displacements to the slip surface properties during the pore pressure changes. I show how to extract information on the sensitivity of each main modes of temporal behaviour using a limited number (a few tens) of long running simulations. In particular, I identify the parameters, which trigger the occurrence of a turning point marking a shift between a regime of low values of landslide displacements and one of high values.

  12. Effects of Strength Training on Running Economy in Highly Trained Runners: A Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis of Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Santos-Concejero, Jordan; Grivas, Gerasimos V

    2016-08-01

    Balsalobre-Fernández, C, Santos-Concejero, J, and Grivas, GV. Effects of strength training on running economy in highly trained runners: a systematic review with meta-analysis of controlled trials. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2361-2368, 2016-The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials to determine the effect of strength training programs on the running economy (RE) of high-level middle- and long-distance runners. Four electronic databases were searched in September 2015 (PubMed, SPORTDiscus, MEDLINE, and CINAHL) for original research articles. After analyzing 699 resultant original articles, studies were included if the following criteria were met: (a) participants were competitive middle- or long-distance runners; (b) participants had a V[Combining Dot Above]O2max >60 ml·kg·min; (c) studies were controlled trials published in peer-reviewed journals; (d) studies analyzed the effects of strength training programs with a duration greater than 4 weeks; and (e) RE was measured before and after the strength training intervention. Five studies met the inclusion criteria, resulting in a total sample size of 93 competitive, high-level middle- and long-distance runners. Four of the 5 included studies used low to moderate training intensities (40-70% one repetition maximum), and all of them used low to moderate training volume (2-4 resistance lower-body exercises plus up to 200 jumps and 5-10 short sprints) 2-3 times per week for 8-12 weeks. The meta-analyzed effect of strength training programs on RE in high-level middle- and long-distance runners showed a large, beneficial effect (standardized mean difference [95% confidence interval] = -1.42 [-2.23 to -0.60]). In conclusion, a strength training program including low to high intensity resistance exercises and plyometric exercises performed 2-3 times per week for 8-12 weeks is an appropriate strategy to improve RE in highly trained middle- and long-distance runners.

  13. Physiological and performance test correlates of prolonged, high-intensity, intermittent running performance in moderately trained women team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Sirotic, Anita C; Coutts, Aaron J

    2007-02-01

    A large number of team sports require athletes to repeatedly produce maximal or near maximal sprint efforts of short duration interspersed with longer recovery periods of submaximal intensity. This type of team sport activity can be characterized as prolonged, high-intensity, intermittent running (PHIIR). The primary purpose of the present study was to determine the physiological factors that best relate to a generic PHIIR simulation that reflects team sport running activity. The second purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between common performance tests and the generic PHIIR simulation. Following a familiarization session, 16 moderately trained (VO2max = 40.0 +/- 4.3 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) women team sport athletes performed various physiological, anthropometrical, and performance tests and a 30-minute PHIIR sport simulation on a nonmotorized treadmill. The mean heart rate and blood lactate concentration during the PHIIR sport simulation were 164 +/- 6 b x min(-1) and 8.2 +/- 3.3 mmol x L(-1), respectively. Linear regression demonstrated significant relationships between the PHIIR sport simulation distance and running velocity attained at a blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol x L(-1) (LT) (r = 0.77, p < 0.05), 5 x 6-second repeated cycle sprint work (r = 0.56, p < 0.05), 30-second Wingate test (r = 0.61, p < 0.05), peak aerobic running velocity (Vmax) (r = 0.69, p < 0.05), and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (Yo-Yo IR1) distance (r = 0.50, p < 0.05), respectively. These results indicate that an increased LT is associated with improved PHIIR performance and that PHIIR performance may be monitored by determining Yo-Yo IR1 performance, 5 x 6-second repeated sprint cycle test work, 30-second Wingate test performance, Vmax, or LT. We suggest that training programs should focus on improving both LT and Vmax for increasing PHIIR performance in moderately trained women. Future studies should examine optimal training methods for improving these

  14. Plasticity of Executive Control through Task Switching Training in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zinke, Katharina; Einert, Manuela; Pfennig, Lydia; Kliegel, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that cognitive training can enhance performance in executive control tasks. The current study was designed to explore if executive control, specifically task switching, can be trained in adolescents, what particular aspects of executive control may underlie training and transfer effects, and if acute bouts of exercise directly prior to cognitive training enhance training effects. For that purpose, a task switching training was employed that has been shown to be effective in other age groups. A group of adolescents (10–14 years, n = 20) that received a three-session task switching training was compared to a group (n = 20) that received the same task switching training but who exercised on a stationary bike before each training session. Additionally, a no-contact and an exercise only control group were included (both ns = 20). Analyses indicated that both training groups significantly reduced their switching costs over the course of the training sessions for reaction times and error rates, respectively. Analyses indicated transfer to mixing costs in a task switching task that was similar to the one used in training. Far transfer was limited to a choice reaction time task and a tendency for faster reaction times in an updating task. Analyses revealed no additional effects of the exercise intervention. Findings thus indicate that executive control can be enhanced in adolescents through training and that updating may be of particular relevance for the effects of task switching training. PMID:22470325

  15. Enhancing the Flight Safety Culture Through Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    In the 1970's, flight safety professionals became profoundly concerned about the prevalence of crew-caused accidents and incidents, and the role of human error in flight operations. As result, they initiated a change in the flight safety culture which has grown to significant proportions today. At the heart of the evolution were crew concepts such as flightdeck management, crew coordination, and cockpit resource management, concepts which seemed to target critical deficiencies. In themselves, the concepts were not new but their incorporation into training as a direct means of changing the flight safety culture was an untried, almost 'grassroots' approach. The targeted crew concepts and skills were not an integral part of the typical training program; the methods, curriculum, media, and even course content itself, would have to be developed and implemented from the bottom up. A familiar truism in the pilot culture is that you should 'Train the way you fly; Fly the way you train'. In short, training was expected to provide the pilot with practical operational skills that were consistent with the performance standards they were required to maintain and the operational demands they met on a daily basis. In short, one could not simply command crews to use good CRM; one would have to research and define these skills operationally as well as develop and implement a consistent and effective training program. Furthermore, one would need active support and collaboration among the research, industry and government communities in order to ensure acceptance and continued commitment. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Enhancing the Flight Safety Culture Through Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    In the 1970's, flight safety professionals became profoundly concerned about the prevalence of crew-caused accidents and incidents, and the role of human error in flight operations. As result, they initiated a change in the flight safety culture which has grown to significant proportions today. At the heart of the evolution were crew concepts such as flightdeck management, crew coordination, and cockpit resource management, concepts which seemed to target critical deficiencies. In themselves, the concepts were not new but their incorporation into training as a direct means of changing the flight safety culture was an untried, almost 'grassroots' approach. The targeted crew concepts and skills were not an integral part of the typical training program; the methods, curriculum, media, and even course content itself, would have to be developed and implemented from the bottom up. A familiar truism in the pilot culture is that you should 'Train the way you fly; Fly the way you train'. In short, training was expected to provide the pilot with practical operational skills that were consistent with the performance standards they were required to maintain and the operational demands they met on a daily basis. In short, one could not simply command crews to use good CRM; one would have to research and define these skills operationally as well as develop and implement a consistent and effective training program. Furthermore, one would need active support and collaboration among the research, industry and government communities in order to ensure acceptance and continued commitment. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. Improvements in heat tolerance induced by interval running training in the heat and in sweat clothing in cool conditions.

    PubMed

    Dawson, B; Pyke, F S; Morton, A R

    1989-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of training in heat and in sweat clothing in cool conditions on improving heat tolerance, two groups of active subjects (n = 6 in each) performed an interval running heat-tolerance test before and after a 7-day experimental treatment. On each treatment day the subjects attempted to complete 4 x 15 min interval treadmill running periods (a 7.5 s effort every 30 s, on 15 km h-1, 15% grade; the same exercise format as the heat-tolerance test), which were interspersed with 5-min recovery periods (total time each day = 80 min). Group 1 (heat) ran in shorts, socks and shoes in hot humid conditions, and Group 2 (sweat clothing) ran in cool conditions dressed in shorts, socks and T-shirt covered by a polyester-cotton tracksuit, over which was worn 100% nylon spray-proof pants and jacket (cotton lined) with an acrylic cloth bobble hat (beanie) on the head. Both groups displayed changes typical of heat acclimatization over the 7-day period, with significant decreases in final rectal temperature (Tr) and heart rate (HR) being evident, but no change in sweat loss. Mean skin temperature (Tsk) was similar in both groups during the training sessions (heat group: 34.8-35.7 degrees C; sweat clothing group 34.9-35.5 degrees C). After the heat-tolerance test, both groups had significantly lower Tr, Tsk and HR values than before, and sweating sensitivity (g m-2 h-1 degrees C rise in Tr) was significantly increased. There was only one significant difference between the two groups (Tsk, 20th min value). It was concluded that training in sweat clothing in cool conditions can provide the same improvements in heat tolerance as training in hot humid conditions where a fixed exercise intensity and duration are used.

  18. Continuous and interval training programs using deep water running improves functional fitness and blood pressure in the older adults.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Thaís; Kanitz, Ana Carolina; Delevatti, Rodrigo Sudatti; Bagatini, Natália Carvalho; Barroso, Bruna Machado; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of two periodized training programs of deep water running on functional fitness and blood pressure in the older adults. Thirty-six individuals were divided into continuous group (CONT) and interval group (INT). Both groups were trained for 28 weeks (twice weekly). Measures were performed before the training period, after 12 weeks and training period. Two-way ANOVA and post hoc of Bonferroni were used (α = 0.05). There were no differences between groups in functional tests, with the exception of the flexibility of the upper limbs, in which the INT group showed the highest values. There was a significant improvement in both groups of foot up-and-go test (CONT 6.45 to 5.67; INT 6.59 to 5.78, in seconds), flexibility of lower limbs (CONT -4.76 to -0.61; INT 0.54 to 4.63, in centimeters), strength of upper (CONT 18.76 to 27.69; INT 18.66 to 26.58, in repetitions) and lower limbs (CONT 14.46 to 21.23; INT 14.40 to 21.58, in repetitions), and 6-min walk (CONT 567.50 to 591.16; INT 521.41 to 582.77, in meters). No differences were shown between groups for systolic blood pressure; however, diastolic blood pressure remained higher in CONT during all training. The blood pressure decreased significantly in both groups after the training (CONT 142 ± 16/88 ± 3 to 125 ± 14/77 ± 7 mmHg; INT 133 ± 15/75 ± 7 to 123 ± 17 and 69 ± 11 mmHg). Both programs of deep water running training promoted improvements of similar magnitude in all parameters of functional fitness, with the exception of flexibility of upper limbs, and decreased blood pressure in the older individuals.

  19. Enhancing early communication through infant sign training.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Rachel H; Cotnoir-Bichelman, Nicole M; McKerchar, Paige M; Tate, Trista L; Dancho, Kelly A

    2007-01-01

    Existing research suggests that there may be benefits to teaching signing to hearing infants who have not yet developed vocal communication. In the current study, each of 4 infants ranging in age from 6 to 10 months was taught a simple sign using delayed prompting and reinforcement. In addition, Experiment 1 showed that 2 children independently signed in a variety of novel stimulus conditions (e.g., in a classroom, with father) after participating in sign training under controlled experimental conditions. In Experiment 2, crying and whining were replaced with signing when sign training was implemented in combination with extinction.

  20. Management of pain through autogenic training.

    PubMed

    Kanji, N

    2000-08-01

    Physical and emotional pain are an inevitable part of human existence and are without natural antidotes. In view of this, and in the light of increasing professional reluctance to depend on analgesics, this paper proposes the widespread application of autogenic training, a relaxation technique which has been seen to confront pain very effectively, and also to reduce substantially drugs dependency. It analyses autogenic training in respect of some of the more common pain-allied disorders such as childbirth, headaches and migraines, back pain, cancer and palliative care, and cardiology.

  1. Child health in low-resource settings: pathways through UK paediatric training.

    PubMed

    Goenka, Anu; Magnus, Dan; Rehman, Tanya; Williams, Bhanu; Long, Andrew; Allen, Steve J

    2013-11-01

    UK doctors training in paediatrics benefit from experience of child health in low-resource settings. Institutions in low-resource settings reciprocally benefit from hosting UK trainees. A wide variety of opportunities exist for trainees working in low-resource settings including clinical work, research and the development of transferable skills in management, education and training. This article explores a range of pathways for UK trainees to develop experience in low-resource settings. It is important for trainees to start planning a robust rationale early for global child health activities via established pathways, in the interests of their own professional development as well as UK service provision. In the future, run-through paediatric training may include core elements of global child health, as well as designated 'tracks' for those wishing to develop their career in global child health further. Hands-on experience in low-resource settings is a critical component of these training initiatives.

  2. Air Pollution Training Courses July 1972 through June 1973 and University Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC.

    Responding to the demands of the Clean Air Act of 1970, the Manpower Development Staff of the Office of Air Programs has acted to provide more and better-trained practitioners in the field of air pollution control. Numerous courses are conducted through the Institute for Air Pollution Training, while university training programs are administered…

  3. Improving Organizational Learning through Leadership Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasson, Henna; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Holmstrom, Stefan; Karanika-Murray, Maria; Tafvelin, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to evaluate whether training of managers at workplaces can improve organizational learning. Managers play a crucial role in providing opportunities to employees for learning. Although scholars have called for intervention research on the effects of leadership development on organizational learning, no such research is…

  4. Reducing Adolescent Aggression through Group Assertive Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huey, Wayne C.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a short-term, structured, group counseling approach, group assertive training, which can be employed by school counselors as a remedial intervention with aggresive adolescents. Presents the conceptual framework for the program and details of program implementation including group selection, public relations, and evaluation. (PAS)

  5. Training and Development through Adult Learning Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swagar, Colleen

    This report analyzes the employee training program at the Outdoor Program Centre (OPC) of the University of Calgary and offers recommendations that may be of benefit to other outdoor recreation centers. The OPC offers products and services such as facility access, equipment rentals, instructional and recreational programs, and repair services for…

  6. Training Content Area Teachers Through Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Christine Uber; Wagner, J. Patrick

    1994-01-01

    Focuses on a telecourse funded by the Florida Department of Education to assist the State's 67 school districts in training teachers in effective English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teaching strategies to fulfill a requirement established by a consent decree in 1990. Showing videotapes of teachers applying learned strategies in the classroom…

  7. Improving Organizational Learning through Leadership Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasson, Henna; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Holmstrom, Stefan; Karanika-Murray, Maria; Tafvelin, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to evaluate whether training of managers at workplaces can improve organizational learning. Managers play a crucial role in providing opportunities to employees for learning. Although scholars have called for intervention research on the effects of leadership development on organizational learning, no such research is…

  8. Whole-body cryotherapy's enhancement of acute recovery of running performance in well-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Malte; de Mareés, Markus; Dittmar, Karl-Heinrich; Sperlich, Billy; Mester, Joachim

    2015-07-01

    To examine the effects of a whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) protocol (3 min at -110°C) on acute recovery and key variables of endurance performance during high-intensity intermittent exercise in a thermoneutral environment. Eleven endurance athletes were tested twice in a randomized crossover design in which 5×5 min of high-intensity running (HIR) were followed by 1 h of passive rest at ~22°C, including either 3 min of whole-body exposure to -110°C (WBC) or a placebo intervention of 3 min walking (PBO). A ramp-test protocol was performed before HIR (R1) and after the 1-h recovery period (R2). Time to exhaustion (tlim) was measured along with alterations in oxygen content of the vastus lateralis (TSI), oxygen consumption (VO2), capillary blood lactate, heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during submaximal and maximal running. The difference in tlim between R1 and R2 was lower in WBC than in PBO (P<.05, effect size d=1.13). During R2, TSI was higher in WBC during submaximal and maximal running (P<.01, d=0.68-1.01). In addition, VO2, HR, and RPE were lower at submaximal level of R2 after WBC than in PBO (P=.04 to <.01, d=0.23-0.83). WBC improves acute recovery during high-intensity intermittent exercise in thermoneutral conditions. The improvements might be induced by enhanced oxygenation of the working muscles, as well as a reduction in cardiovascular strain and increased work economy at submaximal intensities.

  9. Downhill Running Excessive Training Inhibits Hypertrophy in Mice Skeletal Muscles with Different Fiber Type Composition.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Alisson L; Pereira, Bruno C; Pauli, José R; de Souza, Claudio T; Teixeira, Giovana R; Lira, Fábio S; Cintra, Dennys E; Ropelle, Eduardo R; Júnior, Carlos R B; da Silva, Adelino S R

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of running overtraining protocols performed in downhill, uphill, and without inclination on the proteins related to hypertrophy signaling pathway in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus of C57BL/6 mice. We also performed histological and stereological analyses. Rodents were divided into control (CT; sedentary mice), overtrained by downhill running (OTR/down), overtrained by uphill running (OTR/up), and overtrained by running without inclination (OTR). The incremental load, exhaustive, and grip force tests were used as performance evaluation parameters. 36 h after the grip force test, EDL and soleus were removed and immediately used for immunoblotting analysis or stored at -80°C for histological and stereological analyses. For EDL, OTR/down decreased the protein kinase B (Akt) and tuberous sclerosis protein 2 (TSC2) phosphorylation (p), and increased myostatin, receptor-activated Smads (pSMAD2-3), and insulin receptor substrate-1 (pIRS-1; Ser307/636). OTR/down also presented low and high relative proportions of cytoplasm and connective tissue, respectively. OTR/up increased the mammalian target of rapamycin (pmTOR), 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (pS6K1) and pSMAD2-3, and decreased pTSC2. OTR decreased pTSC2 and increased pIRS-1 (Ser636). For soleus, OTR/down increased S6 ribosomal protein (pS6RP) and pSMAD2-3, and decreased pIRS-1 (Ser639). OTR/up decreased pS6K1, pS6RP and pIRS-1 (Ser639), and increased pTSC2 (Ser939), and pSMAD2-3. OTR increased pS6RP, 4E-binding protein-1 (p4E-BP1), pTSC2 (Ser939), and pSMAD2-3, and decreased pIRS-1 (Ser639). In summary, OTR/down inhibited the skeletal muscle hypertrophy with concomitant signs of atrophy in EDL. The effects of OTR/up and OTR depended on the analyzed skeletal muscle type. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Running away from stress: How regulatory modes prospectively affect athletes' stress through passion.

    PubMed

    Lucidi, F; Pica, G; Mallia, L; Castrucci, E; Manganelli, S; Bélanger, J J; Pierro, A

    2016-06-01

    A prospective field study conducted with runners training for an upcoming marathon (Marathon of Rome 2013) examined the relation between regulatory modes, locomotion and assessment, and stress. Integrating regulatory mode theory and the dualistic model of passion, we hypothesized that the relation between regulatory modes (evaluated 3 months before the race) and the experience of stress approaching the marathon, is mediated by the type of passion (harmonious vs obsessive) athletes experience with regard to marathoning. Results revealed that (a) locomotion positively predicted harmonious passion, which in turn reduced athletes' experience of stress; and (b) assessment positively predicted obsessive passion, which in turn enhanced athletes' experience of stress. Overall, the present results suggest that proximal psychological mechanisms such as basic regulatory mode orientations can predict distal outcomes such as stress indirectly through their relation with motivational phenomena such as passion. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Learning surgically oriented anatomy in a student-run extracurricular club: an education through recreation initiative.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Shahnoor M; Bodrogi, Andrew; Cristea, Octav; Johnson, Marjorie; McAlister, Vivian C

    2012-01-01

    Didactic and laboratory anatomical education have seen significant reductions in the medical school curriculum due, in part, to the current shift from basic science to more clinically based teaching in North American medical schools. In order to increase medical student exposure to anatomy, with clinical applicability, a student-run initiative called surgically oriented anatomy prosectors (SOAP) club was created within the extracurricular program at the Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, The University of Western Ontario, London, Canada. SOAP invites surgeons and residents from various surgical specialties to demonstrate, on a cadaver, a surgical procedure of their choosing. During the demonstration, the anatomy, as it relates to the surgical procedure, is discussed. The students then break into smaller groups to examine the relevant anatomy on the cadavers, during which time the discussion is broadened. The group continues the conversation in a social environment with refreshments. SOAP is one of the most popular extracurricular clubs with 65% of first and second year medical students registered as members. The high demand for SOAP, along with the positive participant feedback, may be due to its utilization of the principle of education through recreation, which seeks to provide opportunities for learning seamlessly throughout all facets of life. It also demonstrates the desire, amongst certain medical students, to learn applied anatomy, particularly within a surgical context.

  12. Effects of strength, explosive and plyometric training on energy cost of running in ultra-endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Giovanelli, Nicola; Taboga, Paolo; Rejc, Enrico; Lazzer, Stefano

    2017-04-10

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week home-based strength, explosive and plyometric (SEP) training on the cost of running (Cr) in well-trained ultra-marathoners and to assess the main mechanical parameters affecting changes in Cr. Twenty-five male runners (38.2 ± 7.1 years; body mass index: 23.0 ± 1.1 kg·m(-2); V˙O2max: 55.4 ± 4.0 mlO2·kg(-1)·min(-1)) were divided into an exercise (EG = 13) and control group (CG = 12). Before and after a 12-week SEP training, Cr, spring-mass model parameters at four speeds (8, 10, 12, 14 km·h(-1)) were calculated and maximal muscle power (MMP) of the lower limbs was measured. In EG, Cr decreased significantly (p < .05) at all tested running speeds (-6.4 ± 6.5% at 8 km·h(-1); -3.5 ± 5.3% at 10 km·h(-1); -4.0 ± 5.5% at 12 km·h(-1); -3.2 ± 4.5% at 14 km·h(-1)), contact time (tc) increased at 8, 10 and 12 km·h(-1) by mean +4.4 ± 0.1% and ta decreased by -25.6 ± 0.1% at 8 km·h(-1) (p < .05). Further, inverse relationships between changes in Cr and MMP at 10 (p = .013; r = -0.67) and 12 km·h(-1) (p < .001; r = -0.86) were shown. Conversely, no differences were detected in the CG in any of the studied parameters. Thus, 12-week SEP training programme lower the Cr in well-trained ultra-marathoners at submaximal speeds. Increased tc and an inverse relationship between changes in Cr and changes in MMP could be in part explain the decreased Cr. Thus, adding at least three sessions per week of SEP exercises in the normal endurance-training programme may decrease the Cr.

  13. Building peace through participatory health training: a case from Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Ui, S; Leng, K; Aoyama, A

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the significance and effectiveness of participatory health training as a tool for peace building. It does so by analysing a case of training for 'health promoters' run by a Cambodian government health agency. The authors observed participants during the training and interviewed those involved in the courses. A developing capacity for coexistence and reconciliation between individuals who had been on opposite sides during the years of Khmer Rouge terror and continuous internal war was observed among both participants and trainers. Factors embodied in the training that facilitated favourable changes in self and in relations with others were identified as: (1) 'space for dialogue' was created by concrete common public health interests and urgent needs; (2) training took place 'live-in' style in a rural setting; (3) course contents and methods were consistent with peace education; (4) trainers had a conscious function as role models; and (5) there was continuity of effort and consequent accumulation of experience. To build peace, as well as conducting training directly on a technical topic, these essential factors need to be incorporated in the training programmes.

  14. Sprint running with a body-weight supporting kite reduces ground contact time in well-trained sprinters.

    PubMed

    Kratky, Sascha; Müller, Erich

    2013-05-01

    It is well founded that ground contact time is the crucial part of sprinting because the available time window to apply force to the ground diminishes with growing running velocity. In view of this knowledge, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of body-weight support during full-effort sprints on ground contact time and selected stride parameters in 19 Austrian male elite sprinters. A kite with a lifting effect combined with a towing system to erase drag was used. The subjects performed flying 20-m sprints under 3 conditions: (a) free sprint; (b) body-weight supported sprint-normal speed (BWS-NS); and (c) body-weight supported sprint-overspeed (BWS-OS). Sprint cycle characteristics were recorded during the high-speed phase by an optical acquisition system. Additionally, running velocity was derived from the 20-m sprint time. Compared with the fastest free sprint, running velocity, step length, and step frequency remained unchanged during BWS-NS, whereas ground contact time decreased (-5.80%), and air time increased (+5.79%) (both p < 0.001). Throughout, BWS-OS ground contact time (-7.66%) was reduced, whereas running velocity (+2.72%), air time (+4.92%), step length (+1.98%) (all p < 0.001), and step frequency (+1.05%; p < 0.01) increased. Compared with BWS-NS, BWS-OS caused an increase in running velocity (+3.33%), step length (+1.92%) (both p < 0.001), and step frequency (+1.37%; p < 0.01), whereas ground contact time was diminished (-1.97%; p < 0.001). In summary, sprinting with a body-weight supporting kite appeared to be a highly specific method to simulate an advanced performance level, indicated by higher running velocities requiring reduced ground contact times. The additional application of an overspeed condition led to a further reduction of ground contact time. Therefore, we recommend body-weight supported sprinting as an additional tool in sprint training.

  15. Activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor pathway induced by prolyl hydroxylase domain 2 deficiency enhances the effect of running training in mice.

    PubMed

    Nunomiya, A; Shin, J; Kitajima, Y; Dan, T; Miyata, T; Nagatomi, R

    2017-05-01

    Hypoxic response mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) seems to contribute to the benefit of endurance training. To verify the direct contribution of HIF activation to running training without exposure to atmospheric hypoxia, we used prolyl hydroxylase domain 2 (PHD2) conditional knockout mice (cKO), which exhibit HIF activation independent of oxygen concentration, and we examined their maximal exercise capacity before and after 4 weeks of treadmill exercise training. Phd2(f/f) mice (n = 26) and Phd2 cKO mice (n = 24) were randomly divided into two groups, trained and untrained, and were subjected to maximal running test before and after a 4-week treadmill-training regimen. Prolyl hydroxylase domain 2 deficiency resulted in HIF-α protein accumulation. Phd2 cKO mice exhibited marked increases in haematocrit values and haemoglobin concentrations, as well as an increase in the capillary number in the skeletal muscle. The 4-week training elicited an increase in the capillary-to-fibre (C/F) ratio and succinyl dehydrogenase activity of the skeletal muscle. Importantly, trained Phd2 cKO mice showed a significantly greater improvement in running time than trained control mice (P < 0.05). Collectively, these data suggest that the combination of training and the activation of the HIF pathway are important for maximizing the effect of running training. We conclude that the activation of the HIF pathway induced by PHD2 deficiency enhances the effect of running training. © 2016 The Authors. Acta Physiologica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  16. Marathon Running, Accreditation of Study Programmes and Professional Development in Consultancies: Are They All about the Same? A Cognitive Perspective on Transfer of Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Three challenges are presented which address problems of transfer of training: running marathon, accreditation of study programmes, professional development in consultancies. It is discussed in-how-far and why different approaches to transfer of training stress commonalities or differences between these challenges. The results are used to analyse…

  17. The effect of a combined high-intensity strength and speed training program on the running and jumping ability of soccer players.

    PubMed

    Kotzamanidis, Christos; Chatzopoulos, Dimitris; Michailidis, Charalambos; Papaiakovou, Giorgos; Patikas, Dimitris

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a combined heavy-resistance and running-speed training program performed in the same training session on strength, running velocity (RV), and vertical-jump performance (VJ) of soccer players. Thirty-five individuals were divided into 3 groups. The first group (n = 12, COM group) performed a combined resistance and speed training program at the same training session, and the second one (n = 11, STR group) performed the same resistance training without speed training. The third group was the control group (n = 12, CON group). Three jump tests were used for the evaluation of vertical jump performance: squat jump, countermovement jump, and drop jump. The 30-m dash and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) tests were used for running speed and strength evaluation, respectively. After training, both experimental groups significantly improved their 1RM of all tested exercises. Furthermore, the COM group performed significantly better than the STR and the CON groups in the 30-m dash, squat jump, and countermovement jump. It is concluded that the combined resistance and running-speed program provides better results than the conventional resistance training, regarding the power performance of soccer players.

  18. Marathon Running, Accreditation of Study Programmes and Professional Development in Consultancies: Are They All about the Same? A Cognitive Perspective on Transfer of Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Three challenges are presented which address problems of transfer of training: running marathon, accreditation of study programmes, professional development in consultancies. It is discussed in-how-far and why different approaches to transfer of training stress commonalities or differences between these challenges. The results are used to analyse…

  19. Influence of Caffeine on Serum Substrate Changes During Running in Trained and Untrained Individuals,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-15

    Frith and J. Karlsson. Effect of physical training on LDH activity and LDH isozyme pattern in human skeletal muscle. Acta Physiol. Scand. 97: 150-157...construed as an official department of the Army position, policy, or decision, unless so designated by other official documentation. Human subjects...UNCLASSIFIED SECURTY CLASIFICATION OF TIS PAG9 (When Date Enter*Q UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE(hmn Dea Entered) 20. Abstract (continued

  20. Characterization of recruitment through tandem running in an Indian queenless ant Diacamma indicum

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Rajbir; Joseph, Joby; Anoop, Karunakaran

    2017-01-01

    Tandem running is a primitive recruitment method employed by many ant genera. This study characterizes this behaviour during the recruitment of colony mates to a new nest in an Indian ant Diacamma indicum. Tandem leaders who have knowledge of the new nest lead a single follower at a time, to the destination by maintaining physical contact. In order to characterize tandem running, we captured and analysed 621 invitations, 217 paths and 226 termination events. Remarkably, not a single colony member was lost. While invitations were stereotypic in behaviour, termination was not. Analysis of speed revealed that the average transport speed was 4.2 cm s−1. Coupled adult-brood transport was slower than other transports but was more efficient than individual trips. Comparing tandem running with other popular recruitment methods in ants allows us to postulate that even though tandem running is primitive it is probably just another means to achieve the same end. PMID:28280548

  1. 17. Steam construction trains along construction of sublevel rightofway through ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Steam construction trains along construction of sub-level right-of-way through east side of Cleveland, just west of Shaker Square (Moreland Circle): 'Working in cut of Shaker Boulevard East of Woodhill Road; Steam Shovel filling train of dump cars'. 1915 - Shaker Heights Rapid Transit Line, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  2. Supporting Quality in Vocational Training through Networking. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyfried, Erwin; Kohlmeyer, Klaus; Furth-Riedesser, Rafael

    The extent to which network cooperation between the general education system, vocational training institutions, business enterprises, social partners, and political decision makers affects quality development in vocational training was examined through a literature review and synthesis of eight case studies in the following seven European…

  3. Child Success through Parent Training: Final Report, 1980-1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, D. Sue

    The report describes the model and evaluation results of a project serving birth to 3-year-old developmentally delayed/handicapped children through a parent training approach. The transdisciplinary program featured center and home visits to train parents in all activities of assessment, planning, and intervention activities. Parents were to become…

  4. Validity of the running repeated sprint ability test among playing positions and level of competitiveness in trained soccer players.

    PubMed

    Aziz, A R; Mukherjee, S; Chia, M Y H; Teh, K C

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the construct validity of the running repeated sprint ability (rRSA) test to discriminate performances between: i) various playing positions (Study 1), and ii) teams of different level of competitiveness (Study 2), in trained soccer players. Study 1 comprised clubs' players participating in the top local professional league. Study 2 comprised professional and semiprofessional players from the National Under-23 and Youth squads respectively, and amateur-level players from a University team. The rRSA test protocol consisted of either 6 or 8 repetitions of 20-m all-out sprints, interspersed with a 20-s active recovery period. There were significant differences in the rRSA performance between goalkeepers and outfield-positions (p < 0.01). Forwards had significantly better rRSA performance compared to defenders and midfielders (F ratio = 4.147, p = 0.02). Performance in the rRSA was superior in teams with relatively higher competitiveness (F ratio = 3.973, p = 0.02). The rRSA is a specific physical or fitness attribute of an outfield-position player, and may be of greater importance to the forwards' position. Performance in the rRSA also seems to be associated with a higher level of competitiveness and/or adaptation to resistance training. These data support the construct validity of the rRSA test in trained soccer players.

  5. Higher dietary carbohydrate content during intensified running training results in better maintenance of performance and mood state.

    PubMed

    Achten, J; Halson, S L; Moseley, L; Rayson, M P; Casey, A; Jeukendrup, A E

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether consumption of a diet containing 8.5 g carbohydrate (CHO) x kg(-1) x day(-1) (high CHO; HCHO) compared with 5.4 g CHO x kg(-1) x day(-1) (control; Con) during a period of intensified training (IT) would result in better maintenance of physical performance and mood state. In a randomized cross-over design, seven trained runners [maximal O(2) uptake (Vo(2 max)) 64.7 +/- 2.6 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)] performed two 11-day trials consuming either the Con or the HCHO diet. The last week of both trials consisted of IT. Performance was measured with a preloaded 8-km all-out run on the treadmill and 16-km all-out runs outdoors. Substrate utilization was measured using indirect calorimetry and continuous [U-(13)C]glucose infusion during 30 min of running at 58 and 77% Vo(2 max). Time to complete 8 km was negatively affected by the IT: time significantly increased by 61 +/- 23 and 155 +/- 38 s in the HCHO and Con trials, respectively. The 16-km times were significantly increased (by 8.2 +/- 2.1%) during the Con trial only. The Daily Analysis of Life Demands of Athletes questionnaire showed significant deterioration in mood states in both trials, whereas deterioration in global mood scores, as assessed with the Profile of Mood States, was more pronounced in the Con trial. Scores for fatigue were significantly higher in the Con compared with the HCHO trial. CHO oxidation decreased significantly from 1.7 +/- 0.2 to 1.2 +/- 0.2 g/min over the course of the Con trial, which was completely accounted for by a decrease in muscle glycogen oxidation. These findings indicate that an increase in dietary CHO content from 5.4 to 8.5 g CHO x kg(-1)x day(-1) (41 vs. 65% total energy intake, respectively) allowed better maintenance of physical performance and mood state over the course of training, thereby reducing the symptoms of overreaching.

  6. [Training through simulation in multi-professional groups].

    PubMed

    Policard, Florence

    2017-03-01

    The effective management of an emergency situation requires optimal collaboration between the different players present. Training through simulation in multi-professional groups is an apposite way of developing collaborative competencies.

  7. [Hemodynamics in arterial hypertension treated with running endurance training or nifedipine therapy].

    PubMed

    Winterfeld, H J; Siewert, H; Bohm, J; Möbes, R; Bauer, U; Reisinger, J; Conradi, E

    1996-03-01

    This is a report about the therapeutic behavior of blood pressure and heart rate in patients suffering from hypertension. Forty male patients with hypertension (age: 30-53 years) were treated either with running or swimming therapy according to the stamina principle or with nifedipine therapy (40-60 mg/d). Both groups were randomized. Peripheric hemodynamics were investigated by means of the Xenon-133-muscle-clearance (M. tibialis anterior). The values of interest were half-value time (T1/2) and the mean functional vessel diameter. Additionally total peripheric vascular resistance (TPR) and radiocardiographic cardiac output (CO) were measured. Significant decrease of systolic and diastolic blood pressure values at rest were obtained with the therapeutic regimens. CO increased and the TPR decreased. The decrease of blood pressure during physical therapy and with nifedipine therapy also is due to the enhanced microcirculation. Half-value time of muscle clearance (T1/2) and the mean functional vascular diameter were increased significantly.

  8. The Artswork: Employment Training through the Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warger, Cynthia L.; Cuskaden, Eileen C.

    This booklet, based on the Transition Through the Arts project developed by Very Special Arts, describes the successes that project instructors have achieved in using the arts to assist individuals with developmental disabilities reach employment. The project uses the arts as a vehicle to teach and reinforce the social and personal skill…

  9. Visual Articulatory Training through Dynamic Orometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Samuel G.

    1989-01-01

    The paper describes dynamic orometric instrumentation and procedures developed to measure, display, and guide changes in vowel and consonant production through visual articulatory modeling and feedback routines. Sensors are placed in the mouth to detect tongue shapes, positions, and actions during speech of hearing-impaired talkers, and online…

  10. Advocacy training for pediatricians: the experience of running a course in leeds, United kingdom.

    PubMed

    Rudolf, Mary

    2003-09-01

    Given the critical role of pediatricians in child advocacy, it is important to understand how to train pediatricians to speak out to improve the health and well-being of children. This article describes the experience of developing and implementing a 5-day child advocacy course at the University of Leeds, which formed part of a master's program. Eight community pediatricians and pediatric registrars participated in the initial course. The material from the course has been published in Archives of Disease in Childhood.(1) This exercise was about the only time as a teacher that I also started at the same level as the students in the course. We started off by defining what we meant by advocacy. The definition that we chose was "the active support of a cause or course of action," and we applied this to any child problem for which the system was at fault and use of action was required. What is needed to be an effective advocate? One must have an awareness of issues confronting children, in particular on the local level and not only on the national and international levels. One then needs to gain an understanding of the political framework of the issue, how change can occur, and how one can contribute to bringing about the necessary change. Then follows the identification and acquisition of the practical skills and competencies related to effecting these changes. Finally, one needs to have a successful experience tackling a particular issue to realize that one can be effective.

  11. Running wheel training does not change neurogenesis levels or alter working memory tasks in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Manuel J.; Cardenas P., Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Background Exercise can change cellular structure and connectivity (neurogenesis or synaptogenesis), causing alterations in both behavior and working memory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of exercise on working memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in adult male Wistar rats using a T-maze test. Methods An experimental design with two groups was developed: the experimental group (n = 12) was subject to a forced exercise program for five days, whereas the control group (n = 9) stayed in the home cage. Six to eight weeks after training, the rats’ working memory was evaluated in a T-maze test and four choice days were analyzed, taking into account alternation as a working memory indicator. Hippocampal neurogenesis was evaluated by means of immunohistochemistry of BrdU positive cells. Results No differences between groups were found in the behavioral variables (alternation, preference index, time of response, time of trial or feeding), or in the levels of BrdU positive cells. Discussion Results suggest that although exercise may have effects on brain structure, a construct such as working memory may require more complex changes in networks or connections to demonstrate a change at behavioral level. PMID:28503368

  12. High-Intensity Cycling Training: The Effect of Work-to-Rest Intervals on Running Performance Measures.

    PubMed

    Kavaliauskas, Mykolas; Aspe, Rodrigo R; Babraj, John

    2015-08-01

    The work-to-rest ratio during cycling-based high-intensity interval training (HIT) could be important in regulating physiological and performance adaptations. We sought to determine the effectiveness of cycling-based HIT with different work-to-rest ratios for long-distance running. Thirty-two long-distance runners (age: 39 ± 8 years; sex: 14 men, 18 women; average weekly running training volume: 25 miles) underwent baseline testing (3-km time-trial, V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak and time to exhaustion, and Wingate test) before a 2-week matched-work cycling HIT of 6 × 10-second sprints with different rest periods (30 seconds [R30], 80 seconds [R80], 120 seconds [R120], or control). Three-kilometer time trial was significantly improved in the R30 group only (3.1 ± 4.0%, p = 0.04), whereas time to exhaustion was significantly increased in the 2 groups with a lower work-to-rest ratio (R30 group 6.4 ± 6.3%, p = 0.003 vs. R80 group 4.4 ± 2.7%, p = 0.03 vs. R120 group 1.9 ± 5.0%, p = 0.2). However, improvements in average power production were significantly greater with a higher work-to-rest ratio (R30 group 0.3 ± 4.1%, p = 0.8 vs. R80 group 4.6 ± 4.2%, p = 0.03 vs. R120 group 5.3 ± 5.9%, p = 0.02), whereas peak power significantly increased only in the R80 group (8.5 ± 8.2%, p = 0.04) but not in the R30 group (4.3 ± 6.1%, p = 0.3) or in the R120 group (7.1 ± 7.9%, p = 0.09). Therefore, cycling-based HIT is an effective way to improve running performance, and the type and magnitude of adaptation is dependent on the work-to-rest ratio.

  13. Learning Surgically Oriented Anatomy in a Student-Run Extracurricular Club: An Education through Recreation Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullah, Shahnoor M.; Bodrogi, Andrew; Cristea, Octav; Johnson, Marjorie; McAlister, Vivian C.

    2012-01-01

    Didactic and laboratory anatomical education have seen significant reductions in the medical school curriculum due, in part, to the current shift from basic science to more clinically based teaching in North American medical schools. In order to increase medical student exposure to anatomy, with clinical applicability, a student-run initiative…

  14. It's Money! Real-World Grant Experience through a Student-Run, Peer-Reviewed Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumanis, Sonya B.; Ullrich, Lauren; Washington, Patricia M.; Forcelli, Patrick A.

    2013-01-01

    Grantsmanship is an integral component of surviving and thriving in academic science, especially in the current funding climate. Therefore, any additional opportunities to write, read, and review grants during graduate school may have lasting benefits on one's career. We present here our experience with a small, student-run grant program at…

  15. Learning Surgically Oriented Anatomy in a Student-Run Extracurricular Club: An Education through Recreation Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullah, Shahnoor M.; Bodrogi, Andrew; Cristea, Octav; Johnson, Marjorie; McAlister, Vivian C.

    2012-01-01

    Didactic and laboratory anatomical education have seen significant reductions in the medical school curriculum due, in part, to the current shift from basic science to more clinically based teaching in North American medical schools. In order to increase medical student exposure to anatomy, with clinical applicability, a student-run initiative…

  16. It's Money! Real-World Grant Experience through a Student-Run, Peer-Reviewed Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumanis, Sonya B.; Ullrich, Lauren; Washington, Patricia M.; Forcelli, Patrick A.

    2013-01-01

    Grantsmanship is an integral component of surviving and thriving in academic science, especially in the current funding climate. Therefore, any additional opportunities to write, read, and review grants during graduate school may have lasting benefits on one's career. We present here our experience with a small, student-run grant program at…

  17. A Rapid Method for Optimizing Running Temperature of Electrophoresis through Repetitive On-Chip CE Operations

    PubMed Central

    Kaneda, Shohei; Ono, Koichi; Fukuba, Tatsuhiro; Nojima, Takahiko; Yamamoto, Takatoki; Fujii, Teruo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a rapid and simple method to determine the optimal temperature conditions for denaturant electrophoresis using a temperature-controlled on-chip capillary electrophoresis (CE) device is presented. Since on-chip CE operations including sample loading, injection and separation are carried out just by switching the electric field, we can repeat consecutive run-to-run CE operations on a single on-chip CE device by programming the voltage sequences. By utilizing the high-speed separation and the repeatability of the on-chip CE, a series of electrophoretic operations with different running temperatures can be implemented. Using separations of reaction products of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) with a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) oligomer, the effectiveness of the presented method to determine the optimal temperature conditions required to discriminate a single-base substitution (SBS) between two different ssDNAs is demonstrated. It is shown that a single run for one temperature condition can be executed within 4 min, and the optimal temperature to discriminate the SBS could be successfully found using the present method. PMID:21845077

  18. Service-Learning for Graduate Students through a Student-Run Consulting Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunaratna, Nilupa S.; Johnson, Craig A.; Stevens, John R.

    2007-01-01

    Statistics in the Community (STATCOM) is a student-run statistical consulting program that has been serving its local community since 2001. Directed and staffed by graduate students from Purdue University's Department of Statistics, it provides professional consulting services to governmental and nonprofit groups free of charge. Students work in…

  19. Trends in Spending on Training: An Analysis of the 1982 through 2008 Training Annual Industry Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carliner, Saul; Bakir, Ingy

    2010-01-01

    This article explores long-term trends in spending using data compiled from the "Training" magazine Annual Industry Survey from 1982 through 2008. It builds on literature that proposes spending on training is an investment that yields benefits--and that offers methods for demonstrating it. After adjusting for inflation, aggregate spending on…

  20. Trends in Spending on Training: An Analysis of the 1982 through 2008 Training Annual Industry Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carliner, Saul; Bakir, Ingy

    2010-01-01

    This article explores long-term trends in spending using data compiled from the "Training" magazine Annual Industry Survey from 1982 through 2008. It builds on literature that proposes spending on training is an investment that yields benefits--and that offers methods for demonstrating it. After adjusting for inflation, aggregate spending on…

  1. Muscle‐specific creatine kinase gene polymorphism and running economy responses to an 18‐week 5000‐m training programme

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, D Q; Hu, Y; Liu, G; Gong, L; Xi, Y; Wen, L

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between muscle‐specific creatine kinase (CKMM) gene polymorphism and the effects of endurance training on running economy. Methods 102 biologically unrelated male volunteers from northern China performed a 5000‐m running programme, with an intensity of 95–105% ventilatory threshold. The protocol was undertaken three times per week and lasted for 18 weeks. Running economy indexes were determined by making the participants run on a treadmill before and after the protocol, and the A/G polymorphism in the 3′ untranslated region of CKMM was detected by polymerase chain reaction‐restricted fragment length polymorphism (NcoI restriction enzyme). Results Three expected genotypes for CKMM‐NcoI (AA, AG and GG) were observed in the participants. After training, all running economy indexes declined markedly. Change in steady‐state consumption of oxygen, change in steady‐state consumption of oxygen by mean body weight, change in steady‐state consumption of oxygen by mean lean body weight and change in ventilatory volume in AG groups were larger than those in AA and GG groups. Conclusions The findings indicate that the CKMM gene polymorphism may contribute to individual running economy responses to endurance training. PMID:17000714

  2. Formation of spatial thinking skills through different training methods.

    PubMed

    Kornkasem, Sorachai; Black, John B

    2015-09-01

    Spatial training can be durable and transferable if the training involves cognitive process-based tasks. The current study explored different spatial training methods and investigated the sequences of process-based mental simulation that was facilitated by various structures of external spatial representation, 3D technology, spatial cues, and/or technical languages. A total of 115 Columbia University's students were conducted through three experiments using a between-subjects design to examine the effects of spatial training methods on spatial ability performance. The conditions for training environments included 3D-virtual and 3D-physical interactions with abstract (nonsense-geometric) and concrete (everyday-object) contents. Overall, learners in the treatment conditions improved in their spatial skills significantly more than those in the control conditions. Particularly, 3D-direct-manipulation conditions in the third experiment added promising results about the specific sequences during spatial thinking formation processes.

  3. The Effects of a 6-Week Strength Training on Critical Velocity, Anaerobic Running Distance, 30-M Sprint and Yo-Yo Intermittent Running Test Performances in Male Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Karsten, Bettina; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Kandemir, Gokhan; Hazir, Tahir; Klose, Andreas; Naclerio, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of a moderate intensity strength training on changes in critical velocity (CV), anaerobic running distance (D'), sprint performance and Yo-Yo intermittent running test (Yo-Yo IR1) performances. Methods: two recreational soccer teams were divided in a soccer training only group (SO; n = 13) and a strength and soccer training group (ST; n = 13). Both groups were tested for values of CV, D', Yo-Yo IR1 distance and 30-m sprint time on two separate occasions (pre and post intervention). The ST group performed a concurrent 6-week upper and lower body strength and soccer training, whilst the SO group performed a soccer only training. Results: after the re-test of all variables, the ST demonstrated significant improvements for both, YoYo IR1 distance (p = 0.002) and CV values (p<0.001) with no significant changes in the SO group. 30-m sprint performance were slightly improved in the ST group with significantly decreased performance times identified in the SO group (p<0.001). Values for D' were slightly reduced in both groups (ST -44.5 m, 95% CI = -90.6 to 1.6; SO -42.6 m, 95% CI = -88.7 to 3.5). Conclusions: combining a 6-week moderate strength training with soccer training significantly improves CV, Yo-Yo IR1 whilst moderately improving 30-m sprint performances in non-previously resistance trained male soccer players. Critical Velocity can be recommended to coaches as an additional valid testing tool in soccer. PMID:27015418

  4. The Effects of a 6-Week Strength Training on Critical Velocity, Anaerobic Running Distance, 30-M Sprint and Yo-Yo Intermittent Running Test Performances in Male Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Karsten, Bettina; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Kandemir, Gokhan; Hazir, Tahir; Klose, Andreas; Naclerio, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of a moderate intensity strength training on changes in critical velocity (CV), anaerobic running distance (D'), sprint performance and Yo-Yo intermittent running test (Yo-Yo IR1) performances. two recreational soccer teams were divided in a soccer training only group (SO; n = 13) and a strength and soccer training group (ST; n = 13). Both groups were tested for values of CV, D', Yo-Yo IR1 distance and 30-m sprint time on two separate occasions (pre and post intervention). The ST group performed a concurrent 6-week upper and lower body strength and soccer training, whilst the SO group performed a soccer only training. after the re-test of all variables, the ST demonstrated significant improvements for both, YoYo IR1 distance (p = 0.002) and CV values (p<0.001) with no significant changes in the SO group. 30-m sprint performance were slightly improved in the ST group with significantly decreased performance times identified in the SO group (p<0.001). Values for D' were slightly reduced in both groups (ST -44.5 m, 95% CI = -90.6 to 1.6; SO -42.6 m, 95% CI = -88.7 to 3.5). combining a 6-week moderate strength training with soccer training significantly improves CV, Yo-Yo IR1 whilst moderately improving 30-m sprint performances in non-previously resistance trained male soccer players. Critical Velocity can be recommended to coaches as an additional valid testing tool in soccer.

  5. Body composition changes affect energy cost of running during 12 months of specific diet and training in amateur athletes.

    PubMed

    Ghiani, Giovanna; Marongiu, Elisabetta; Melis, Franco; Angioni, Giuseppina; Sanna, Irene; Loi, Andrea; Pusceddu, Matteo; Pinna, Virginia; Crisafulli, Antonio; Tocco, Filippo

    2015-09-01

    Considering the relation between body weight composition and energy cost of running, we tested the hypothesis that by modifying body composition by means of a combined protocol of specific diet and training, the energy cost of motion (Cr) may be reduced. Forty-five healthy and normal-weight subjects were divided into 3 groups that performed a different treatment: the first group attended a dietary protocol (D), the second group participated in a running program (R), and the third group followed both the dietary and running protocols (R&D). Each subject underwent 3 anthropometric and exercise evaluation tests during 1 year (at entry (T0), month 6 (T6), and month 12 (T12)) to assess body composition and Cr adjustments. The mean fat mass (FM) values were reduced in R&D from 12.0 ± 4.0 to 10.4 ± 3.0 kg (p < 0.05 T0 vs. T12) and in the D group from 14.2 ± 5.8 to 11.6 ± 4.7 kg (p < 0.05 T0 vs. T12). Conversely, the mean fat free mass values increased in R&D (from 56.3 ± 8.8 to 58.3 ± 9.8 kg, p < 0.05 T0 vs. T12) and in the D group (from 50.6 ± 13.2 to 52.9 ± 13.6 kg, p < 0.05 T0 vs. T12). The mean Cr values of the 2 groups were significantly modified throughout the 1-year protocol (1.48 ± 0.16 and 1.40 ± 0.15 kcal·kg(-b)·km(-1) in the R&D group at T0 and T12, respectively; 1.83 ± 0.17 and 1.76 ± 0.23 kcal·kg(-b)·km(-1) in D group at T0 to T12, respectively). The R&D and D groups that underwent the diet protocol had a positive change in body composition during the year (FM/fat free mass ratio decline), which determined a Cr reduction.

  6. Pettit runs a drill while looking through a camera mounted on the Nadir window in the U.S. Lab

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-04-05

    ISS006-E-44305 (5 April 2003) --- Astronaut Donald R. Pettit, Expedition Six NASA ISS science officer, runs a drill while looking through a camera mounted on the nadir window in the Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station (ISS). The device is called a “barn door tracker”. The drill turns the screw, which moves the camera and its spotting scope.

  7. The Endovascular Preprocedural Run Through and Brief: A Simple Intervention to Reduce Radiation Dose and Contrast Load in Endovascular Aneurysm Repair.

    PubMed

    Stansfield, Tim; Parker, Richard; Masson, Neil; Lewis, David

    2016-05-01

    To assess the impact of a quality assured planning and sizing process and the endovascular team briefing (preprocedure run through and brief - PRTB) on the delivery of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), in Edinburgh. Prospective observational study, comparing parameters before and after the intervention. Prospectively collected database recording infrarenal aneurysms treated with EVAR performed from January 2007 to April 2014 at our institution. The total screening time, iodinated contrast volume used, radiation dose, endovascular training opportunities, and hospital length of stay were recorded. A comparison before (January 2007 to November 2011) and after (December 2011 to April 2014) the introduction of the PRTB was made for each of these variables. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to account for the learning effect. In this study, 61 EVAR cases were performed prior to and 44 EVAR cases after the introduction of the PRTB. Univariate Mann-Whitney tests suggested a significant difference between before PRTB introduction and after PRTB introduction on all outcome variables except procedure time. Multiple linear regression analysis results showed a statistically significant improvement in outcomes after the change point for all outcomes except for radiation dose. Endovascular training opportunities were realized in 12/61 (20%) before compared to 42/44 cases (95%) after PRTB introduction. By introducing rigorous quality assurance and utilizing the principles of crew resource management to the EVAR process, it is possible to reduce screening times, contrast use, hospital length of stay, and improve endovascular training opportunities. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Characteristics of urban run-off derived sediments captured by proprietary flow-through stormwater interceptors.

    PubMed

    Faram, M G; Iwugo, K O; Andoh, R Y G

    2007-01-01

    Sediment entrained in urban run-off is acknowledged as being an important carrier of pollutants. The paper reports on the physical and chemical characteristics of sediments captured by six installations of a proprietary interceptor device. The sites, located in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, were selected to represent a range of urban contexts. Particle D(50) values were found to range from 7 to 112 mum, corresponding with ranges reported for stormwater ponds. Heavy metal and hydrocarbon concentrations were also found to vary, with the highest corresponding to the most established and heavily trafficked sites. Further to confirming the ability of the interceptor to remove contaminated sediments, useful insights are provided into the interrelation between sediment characteristics and site conditions.

  9. Integrating Training through a Bonded Star Knowledge Information Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    areas: Horizontal, Vertical, Integration and Functional • Provide continuous career-long development of joint knowledge through learning ... education , and training • Distribute knowledge to DoD personnel anytime, anywhere JAEC (Assessing and Enabling the Force) OSD and CJCS Lead JNTC

  10. Optimizing otoscopy competency in audiology students through supplementary otoscopy training.

    PubMed

    Kaf, Wafaa A; Masterson, Caleb G; Dion, Nancy; Berg, Susan L; Abdelhakiem, Mohamed K

    2013-10-01

    Scope of practice in audiology encompasses proficiency in visual inspection of ear canal and tympanic membrane (TM) as well as otoscopy interpretation skills to determine normal versus abnormal conditions of outer and middle ear. Audiology students can develop skills in otoscopy through education and supervised training. Studies have shown that additional otoscopy training increased skills in medical students and general practitioners. However, educational and supervised practices targeting otoscopy competency during audiology graduate coursework are lacking. Also, no studies have attempted to determine otoscopy skills among audiology students. To determine the effectiveness of the otoscopy training model on clinical competency and confidence level of audiology students in performing and interpreting otoscopy. A combination of experimental treatment design with random assignment of treatment and control groups and delayed treatment for control group. Thirty-two first- and second-year audiology graduate students who were enrolled in a pediatric audiology class participated in this study. Students were randomly assigned to the control (n = 16, 14 females) or experimental (n = 16, 14 females) group. Participants in the experimental group received supplementary otoscopy training including didactic otoscopy lectures as well as clinical training using manikin ears. The control group received the same pretest and posttest and then completed a third assessment (posttest 2) after receiving the same training. An evaluation of knowledge and skills regarding otoscopy between groups and time was conducted at three times: (a) pretraining, (b) upon completion of training for the experimental group, (c) upon completion of training by the control group. The evaluation consisted of a written exam, a clinical exam, and a self-perception rating of confidence. Both written exam scores and clinical exam scores (otoscopy manikin) were analyzed via two-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs

  11. Training the inspiratory muscles improves running performance when carrying a 25 kg thoracic load in a backpack.

    PubMed

    Faghy, Mark A; Brown, Peter I

    2016-08-01

    Load carriage (LC) exercise in physically demanding occupations is typically characterised by periods of low-intensity steady-state exercise and short duration, high-intensity exercise while carrying an external mass in a backpack; this form of exercise is also known as LC exercise. This induces inspiratory muscle fatigue and reduces whole-body performance. Accordingly we investigated the effect of inspiratory muscle training (IMT, 50% maximal inspiratory muscle pressure (PImax) twice daily for six week) upon running time-trial performance with thoracic LC. Nineteen healthy males formed a pressure threshold IMT (n = 10) or placebo control group (PLA; n = 9) and performed 60 min LC exercise (6.5 km h(-1)) followed by a 2.4 km running time trial (LCTT) either side of a double-blind six week intervention. Prior to the intervention, PImax was reduced relative to baseline, post-LC and post-LCTT in both groups (pooled data: 13 ± 7% and 16 ± 8%, respectively, p < .05) and similar changes were observed post-PLA. Post-IMT only, resting PImax increased +31% (p < .05) and relative to pre-IMT was greater post-LC (+19%) and post-LCTT (+18%, p < .05), however, the relative reduction in PImax at each time point was unchanged (13 ± 11% and 17 ± 9%, respectively, p > .05). In IMT only, heart rate and perceptual responses were reduced post-LC (p < .05). Time-trial performance was unchanged post-PLA and improved 8 ± 4% after IMT (p < .05). In summary, when wearing a 25 kg backpack, IMT attenuated the cardiovascular and perceptual responses to steady-state exercise and improved high-intensity time-trial performance which we attribute in part to reduced relative work intensity of the inspiratory muscles due to improved inspiratory muscle strength. These findings have real-world implications for occupational contexts.

  12. Facilitating access to prenatal care through an interprofessional student-run free clinic.

    PubMed

    Danhausen, Kathleen; Joshi, Deepa; Quirk, Sarah; Miller, Robert; Fowler, Michael; Schorn, Mavis N

    2015-01-01

    Addressing the persistent challenge of inadequate prenatal care requires innovative solutions. Student-run free health centers are poised to rise to this challenge. The Shade Tree Clinic Early Pregnancy Program, jointly operated by university medical and nursing programs, functions as an ongoing access-to-care portal for pregnant women without health insurance. The clinic is run by medical students and nurse-midwifery students and uses a service-based learning model that allows students to work and learn in supervised, interprofessional teams while providing evidence-based prenatal care. All data reported in this paper were obtained from a retrospective chart review of women served by the prenatal clinic. These data are descriptive in nature, and include the patient demographics and services provided by the clinic to 152 women between the years of 2010-2013. During this time period, the clinic served a demographically diverse clientele. Approximately half lacked documentation of legal immigration status. The majority of women seeking care were in their first trimester of pregnancy and had previously given birth. Several women had medical or obstetric complications that required timely referral to specialist care; and many women received treatment for infection and other primary care concerns. Shade Tree Clinic provides the basic components of prenatal care and assists women with other medical needs. Women also receive help when applying for and accessing public maternity insurance, and the clinic facilitates entry to any necessary specialist care while that insurance is processed. In many cases, necessary and time-sensitive care would be delayed if Shade Tree Clinic's prenatal services were not available. In addition, the clinic presents a valuable opportunity for interprofessional socialization, increased respect, and improved collaboration between students in different but complementary professions, which is an important experience while we move to meet national

  13. It's money! Real-world grant experience through a student-run, peer-reviewed program.

    PubMed

    Dumanis, Sonya B; Ullrich, Lauren; Washington, Patricia M; Forcelli, Patrick A

    2013-01-01

    Grantsmanship is an integral component of surviving and thriving in academic science, especially in the current funding climate. Therefore, any additional opportunities to write, read, and review grants during graduate school may have lasting benefits on one's career. We present here our experience with a small, student-run grant program at Georgetown University Medical Center. Founded in 2010, this program has several goals: 1) to give graduate students an opportunity to conduct small, independent research projects; 2) to encourage graduate students to write grants early and often; and 3) to give graduate students an opportunity to review grants. In the 3 yr since the program's start, 28 applications have been submitted, 13 of which were funded for a total of $40,000. From funded grants, students have produced abstracts and manuscripts, generated data to support subsequent grant proposals, and made new professional contacts with collaborators. Above and beyond financial support, this program provided both applicants and reviewers an opportunity to improve their writing skills, professional development, and understanding of the grants process, as reflected in the outcome measures presented. With a small commitment of time and funding, other institutions could implement a program like this to the benefit of their graduate students.

  14. It's Money! Real-World Grant Experience through a Student-Run, Peer-Reviewed Program

    PubMed Central

    Dumanis, Sonya B.; Ullrich, Lauren; Washington, Patricia M.; Forcelli, Patrick A.

    2013-01-01

    Grantsmanship is an integral component of surviving and thriving in academic science, especially in the current funding climate. Therefore, any additional opportunities to write, read, and review grants during graduate school may have lasting benefits on one's career. We present here our experience with a small, student-run grant program at Georgetown University Medical Center. Founded in 2010, this program has several goals: 1) to give graduate students an opportunity to conduct small, independent research projects; 2) to encourage graduate students to write grants early and often; and 3) to give graduate students an opportunity to review grants. In the 3 yr since the program's start, 28 applications have been submitted, 13 of which were funded for a total of $40,000. From funded grants, students have produced abstracts and manuscripts, generated data to support subsequent grant proposals, and made new professional contacts with collaborators. Above and beyond financial support, this program provided both applicants and reviewers an opportunity to improve their writing skills, professional development, and understanding of the grants process, as reflected in the outcome measures presented. With a small commitment of time and funding, other institutions could implement a program like this to the benefit of their graduate students. PMID:24006391

  15. Strengthening health workforce capacity through work-based training.

    PubMed

    Matovu, Joseph K B; Wanyenze, Rhoda K; Mawemuko, Susan; Okui, Olico; Bazeyo, William; Serwadda, David

    2013-01-24

    Although much attention has been given to increasing the number of health workers, less focus has been directed at developing models of training that address real-life workplace needs. Makerere University School of Public Health (MakSPH) with funding support from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed an eight-month modular, in-service work-based training program aimed at strengthening the capacity for monitoring and evaluation (M&E) and continuous quality improvement (CQI) in health service delivery. This capacity building program, initiated in 2008, is offered to in-service health professionals working in Uganda. The purpose of the training is to strengthen the capacity to provide quality health services through hands-on training that allows for skills building with minimum work disruptions while encouraging greater involvement of other institutional staff to enhance continuity and sustainability. The hands-on training uses practical gaps and challenges at the workplace through a highly participatory process. Trainees work with other staff to design and implement 'projects' meant to address work-related priority problems, working closely with mentors. Trainees' knowledge and skills are enhanced through short courses offered at specific intervals throughout the course. Overall, 143 trainees were admitted between 2008 and 2011. Of these, 120 (84%) from 66 institutions completed the training successfully. Of the trainees, 37% were Social Scientists, 34% were Medical/Nursing/Clinical Officers, 5.8% were Statisticians, while 23% belonged to other professions. Majority of the trainees (80%) were employed by Non-Government Organizations while 20% worked with the public health sector. Trainees implemented 66 projects which addressed issues such as improving access to health care services; reducing waiting time for patients; strengthening M&E systems; and improving data collection and reporting. The projects implemented aimed to improve trainees

  16. Different effects of running wheel exercise and skilled reaching training on corticofugal tract plasticity in hypertensive rats with cortical infarctions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, ChanJuan; Zou, Yan; Li, Kui; Li, Chao; Jiang, YingPing; Sun, Ju; Sun, Ruifang; Wen, HongMei

    2017-09-04

    The approaches that facilitate white matter plasticity may prompt functional recovery after a stroke. The effects of different exercise methods on motor recovery in stroke rats have been investigated. However, it is not clear whether their effects on axonal plasticity different. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the forced running wheel exercise (RWE) and skilled reaching training (SRT) on axonal plasticity and motor recovery. Cortical infarctions were generated in stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats. The rats were randomly divided into the following three groups: the control (Con) group, the RWE group, and the SRT group. A sham group was also included. The mNSS and forelimb grip strength tests were performed on days 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 after ischemia. The anterograde tract tracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was injected into the rats to trace the axonal plasticity of the contralesional corticofugal tracts. Compared with the Con group, the mNSS scores in the SRT and RWE groups decreased on day 28 (P<0.05) and on days 35 and 42 (P<0.01). The grip strength in the SRT group increased relative to that in the RWE group at 42day post-ischemia (P<0.01). Both the RWE and SRT groups exhibited enhanced plasticity of the contralesional corticofugal tract axons at the level of the red nucleus (P<0.01) and the cervical enlargement (P<0.01). More contralateral corticorubral tract remodeling was observed at the red nucleus level in the SRT group than in the RWE group (P<0.001). Taken together, these results suggest that SRT may enhance axon plasticity in the corticorubral tract more effectively than the forced RWE and is associated with better motor recovery after cerebral ischemia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Running Away

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Running Away KidsHealth > For Kids > Running Away A A ... life on the streets. continue The Reality of Running Away When you think about running away, you ...

  18. Running WRF on various distributed computing infrastructures through a standard-based Science Gateway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbera, Roberto; Bruno, Riccardo; La Rocca, Giuseppe; Markussen Lunde, Torleif; Pehrson, Bjorn

    2014-05-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modelling system is a widely used meso-scale numerical weather prediction system designed to serve both atmospheric research and operational forecasting needs. WRF has a large worldwide community counting more than 20,000 users in 130 countries and it has been specifically designed to be the state-of-the-art atmospheric simulation system being portable and running efficiently on available parallel computing platforms. Although WRF can be executed in many different environments ranging form the single core inside a stand-alone machine up to the most sophisticated HPC platforms, there are no solutions yet to match the e-Science paradigm where software, data and users are "linked" together by the network as components of distributed computing infrastructures. The topmost component of the typical e-Science model consists of Science Gateways, defined as community-developed sets of tools, applications, and data collections that normally are integrated via a portal to get access to a distributed infrastructure. One of the many available Science Gateway solutions is the Catania Science Gateway Framework (CSGF - www.catania-science-gateways.it) whose most descriptive keywords are: standard adoption, interoperability and standard adoption. The support of standards such as SAGA and SAML allows any CSGF user to seamlessly access and use both Grid and Cloud-based resources. In this work we present the CSGF and how it has been used in the context of the eI4frica project (www.ei4africa.eu) to implement the Africa Grid Science Gateway (http://sgw.africa-grid.org), which allows to execute WRF simulations on various kinds of distributed computing infrastructures at the same time, including the EGI Federated Cloud.

  19. The Effects of a Sport-Specific Maximal Strength and Conditioning Training on Critical Velocity, Anaerobic Running Distance, and 5-km Race Performance.

    PubMed

    Karsten, Bettina; Stevens, Liesbeth; Colpus, Mark; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Naclerio, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of a sport-specific maximal 6-wk strength and conditioning program on critical velocity (CV), anaerobic running distance (ARD), and 5-km time-trial performance (TT). 16 moderately trained recreational endurance runners were tested for CV, ARD, and TT performances on 3 separate occasions (baseline, midstudy, and poststudy). Participants were randomly allocated into a strength and conditioning group (S&C; n = 8) and a comparison endurance-training-only group (EO; n = 8). During the first phase of the study (6 wk), the S&C group performed concurrent maximal strength and endurance training, while the EO group performed endurance-only training. After the retest of all variables (midstudy), both groups subsequently, during phase 2, performed another 6 wk of endurance-only training that was followed by poststudy tests. No significant change for CV was identified in either group. The S&C group demonstrated a significant decrease for ARD values after phases 1 and 2 of the study. TT performances were significantly different in the S&C group after the intervention, with a performance improvement of 3.62%. This performance increase returned close to baseline after the 6-wk endurance-only training. Combining a 6-wk resistance-training program with endurance training significantly improves 5-km TT performance. Removing strength training results in some loss of those performance improvements.

  20. Increased dynamic regulation of postural tone through Alexander Technique training

    PubMed Central

    Cacciatore, TW; Gurfinkel, VS; Horak, FB; Cordo, PJ; Ames, KE

    2010-01-01

    Gurfinkel and colleagues (2006) recently found that healthy adults dynamically modulate postural muscle tone in the body axis during anti-gravity postural maintenance and that this modulation is inversely correlated with axial stiffness. Our objective in the present study was to investigate whether dynamic modulation of axial postural tone can change through training. We examined whether teachers of the Alexander Technique (AT), who undergo “long-term” (3-year) training, have greater modulation of axial postural tone than matched control subjects. In addition, we performed a longitudinal study on the effect of “short-term” (10-week) AT training on the axial postural tone of individuals with low back pain (LBP), since short term AT training has previously been shown to reduce LBP. Axial postural tone was quantified by measuring the resistance of the neck, trunk and hips to small (±10°), slow (1°/s) torsional rotation during stance. Modulation of tone was determined by the torsional resistance to rotation (peak-to-peak, phase-advance, and variability of torque) and axial muscle activity (EMG). Peak-to-peak torque was lower (~50%), while phase-advance and cycle-to-cycle variability were enhanced for AT teachers compared to matched control subjects at all levels of the axis. In addition, LBP subjects decreased trunk and hip stiffness following short-term AT training compared to a control intervention. While changes in static levels of postural tone may have contributed to the reduced stiffness observed with the AT, our results suggest that dynamic modulation of postural tone can be enhanced through long-term training in the AT, which may constitute an important direction for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21185100

  1. A forced running wheel system with a microcontroller that provides high-intensity exercise training in an animal ischemic stroke model.

    PubMed

    Chen, C C; Chang, M W; Chang, C P; Chan, S C; Chang, W Y; Yang, C L; Lin, M T

    2014-10-01

    We developed a forced non-electric-shock running wheel (FNESRW) system that provides rats with high-intensity exercise training using automatic exercise training patterns that are controlled by a microcontroller. The proposed system successfully makes a breakthrough in the traditional motorized running wheel to allow rats to perform high-intensity training and to enable comparisons with the treadmill at the same exercise intensity without any electric shock. A polyvinyl chloride runway with a rough rubber surface was coated on the periphery of the wheel so as to permit automatic acceleration training, and which allowed the rats to run consistently at high speeds (30 m/min for 1 h). An animal ischemic stroke model was used to validate the proposed system. FNESRW, treadmill, control, and sham groups were studied. The FNESRW and treadmill groups underwent 3 weeks of endurance running training. After 3 weeks, the experiments of middle cerebral artery occlusion, the modified neurological severity score (mNSS), an inclined plane test, and triphenyltetrazolium chloride were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed platform. The proposed platform showed that enhancement of motor function, mNSS, and infarct volumes was significantly stronger in the FNESRW group than the control group (P<0.05) and similar to the treadmill group. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed platform can be applied to test the benefit of exercise-preconditioning-induced neuroprotection using the animal stroke model. Additional advantages of the FNESRW system include stand-alone capability, independence of subjective human adjustment, and ease of use.

  2. A forced running wheel system with a microcontroller that provides high-intensity exercise training in an animal ischemic stroke model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, C.C.; Chang, M.W.; Chang, C.P.; Chan, S.C.; Chang, W.Y.; Yang, C.L.; Lin, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    We developed a forced non-electric-shock running wheel (FNESRW) system that provides rats with high-intensity exercise training using automatic exercise training patterns that are controlled by a microcontroller. The proposed system successfully makes a breakthrough in the traditional motorized running wheel to allow rats to perform high-intensity training and to enable comparisons with the treadmill at the same exercise intensity without any electric shock. A polyvinyl chloride runway with a rough rubber surface was coated on the periphery of the wheel so as to permit automatic acceleration training, and which allowed the rats to run consistently at high speeds (30 m/min for 1 h). An animal ischemic stroke model was used to validate the proposed system. FNESRW, treadmill, control, and sham groups were studied. The FNESRW and treadmill groups underwent 3 weeks of endurance running training. After 3 weeks, the experiments of middle cerebral artery occlusion, the modified neurological severity score (mNSS), an inclined plane test, and triphenyltetrazolium chloride were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed platform. The proposed platform showed that enhancement of motor function, mNSS, and infarct volumes was significantly stronger in the FNESRW group than the control group (P<0.05) and similar to the treadmill group. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed platform can be applied to test the benefit of exercise-preconditioning-induced neuroprotection using the animal stroke model. Additional advantages of the FNESRW system include stand-alone capability, independence of subjective human adjustment, and ease of use. PMID:25140816

  3. The effect of sprinting after each set of heavy resistance training on the running speed and jumping performance of young basketball players.

    PubMed

    Tsimahidis, Konstantinos; Galazoulas, Christos; Skoufas, Dimitrios; Papaiakovou, Georgios; Bassa, Eleni; Patikas, Dimitrios; Kotzamanidis, Christos

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a 10-week heavy resistance combined with a running training program on the strength, running speed (RS), and vertical jump performance of young basketball players. Twenty-six junior basketball players were equally divided in 2 groups. The control (CON) group performed only technical preparation and the group that followed the combined training program (CTP) performed additionally 5 sets of 8-5 repetition maximum (RM) half squat with 1 30-m sprint after each set. The evaluation took place before training and after the 5th and 10th weeks of training. Apart from the 1RM half squat test, the 10- and 30-m running time was measured using photocells and the jump height (squat, countermovement jump, and drop jump) was estimated taking into account the flight time. The 1RM increased by 30.3 +/- 1.5% at the 10th week of training for the CTP group (p < 0.05), whereas the CON group showed no significant increase (1.1 +/- 1.6%, p > 0.05). In general, all measured parameters showed a statistically significant increase after the 5th and 10th weeks (p < 0.05), in contrast to the CON group (p > 0.05). This suggests that the applied CTP is beneficial for the strength, RS, and jump height of young basketball players. The observed adaptations in the CTP group could be attributed to learning factors and to a more optimal transfer of the strength gain to running and jumping performance.

  4. Importing Quality Higher Educational Resources through Chinese-Foreign Cooperation in Running Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-hui; Liu, Zhi-ping

    2007-01-01

    Importing quality higher education resources is the core mission of a Chinese-foreign joint initiative in higher education as well as the key to improving the level of the cooperation initiatives. The paper reviews the history and current situation of the introduction of quality higher education resources through Sino-foreign cooperation in…

  5. The effects of isolated ankle strengthening and functional balance training on strength, running mechanics, postural control and injury prevention in novice runners: design of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Baltich, Jennifer; Emery, Carolyn A; Stefanyshyn, Darren; Nigg, Benno M

    2014-12-04

    Risk factors have been proposed for running injuries including (a) reduced muscular strength, (b) excessive joint movements and (c) excessive joint moments in the frontal and transverse planes. To date, many running injury prevention programs have focused on a "top down" approach to strengthen the hip musculature in the attempt to reduce movements and moments at the hip, knee, and/or ankle joints. However, running mechanics did not change when hip muscle strength increased. It could be speculated that emphasis should be placed on increasing the strength of the ankle joint for a "ground up" approach. Strengthening of the large and small muscles crossing the ankle joint is assumed to change the force distribution for these muscles and to increase the use of smaller muscles. This would be associated with a reduction of joint and insertion forces, which could have a beneficial effect on injury prevention. However, training of the ankle joint as an injury prevention strategy has not been studied. Ankle strengthening techniques include isolated strengthening or movement-related strengthening such as functional balance training. There is little knowledge about the efficacy of such training programs on strength alteration, gait or injury reduction. Novice runners will be randomly assigned to one of three groups: an isolated ankle strengthening group (strength, n = 40), a functional balance training group (balance, n = 40) or an activity-matched control group (control, n = 40). Isokinetic strength will be measured using a Biodex System 3 dynamometer. Running kinematics and kinetics will be assessed using 3D motion analysis and a force platform. Postural control will be assessed by quantifying the magnitude and temporal structure of the center of pressure trace during single leg stance on a force platform. The change pre- and post-training in isokinetic strength, running mechanics, and postural control variables will be compared following the interventions

  6. Fixed-bed gasifier and cleanup system engineering summary report through Test Run No. 100

    SciTech Connect

    Pater, K. Jr.; Headley, L.; Kovach, J.; Stopek, D.

    1984-06-01

    The state-of-the-art of high-pressure, fixed-bed gasification has been advanced by the many refinements developed over the last 5 years. A novel full-flow gas cleanup system has been installed and tested to clean coal-derived gases. This report summarizes the results of tests conducted on the gasifier and cleanup system from its inception through 1982. Selected process summary data are presented along with results from complementary programs in the areas of environmental research, process simulation, analytical methods development, and component testing. 20 references, 32 figures, 42 tables.

  7. The Running Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Henning, P. Troy

    2014-01-01

    Context: Pelvic stress fractures, osteitis pubis, and snapping hip syndrome account for a portion of the overuse injuries that can occur in the running athlete. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed searches were performed for each entity using the following keywords: snapping hip syndrome, coxa sultans, pelvic stress fracture, and osteitis pubis from 2008 to 2013. Topic reviews, case reports, case series, and randomized trials were included for review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: Collectively, 188 articles were identified. Of these, 58 were included in this review. Conclusion: Based on the available evidence, the majority of these overuse injuries can be managed non-operatively. Primary treatment should include removal from offending activity, normalizing regional muscle strength/length imbalances and nutritional deficiencies, and mitigating training errors through proper education of the athlete and training staff. Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy: C PMID:24587861

  8. Configuring a Graphical User Interface for Managing Local HYSPLIT Model Runs Through AWIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, mark M.; Blottman, Peter F.; Sharp, David W.; Hoeth, Brian; VanSpeybroeck, Kurt M.

    2009-01-01

    Responding to incidents involving the release of harmful airborne pollutants is a continual challenge for Weather Forecast Offices in the National Weather Service. When such incidents occur, current protocol recommends forecaster-initiated requests of NOAA's Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model output through the National Centers of Environmental Prediction to obtain critical dispersion guidance. Individual requests are submitted manually through a secured web site, with desired multiple requests submitted in sequence, for the purpose of obtaining useful trajectory and concentration forecasts associated with the significant release of harmful chemical gases, radiation, wildfire smoke, etc., into local the atmosphere. To help manage the local HYSPLIT for both routine and emergency use, a graphical user interface was designed for operational efficiency. The interface allows forecasters to quickly determine the current HYSPLIT configuration for the list of predefined sites (e.g., fixed sites and floating sites), and to make any necessary adjustments to key parameters such as Input Model. Number of Forecast Hours, etc. When using the interface, forecasters will obtain desired output more confidently and without the danger of corrupting essential configuration files.

  9. A tunnel runs through it: an inside view of the Tualatin Mountains, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Ken; Peterson, Gary L.; Beeson, Marvin H.; Wells, Ray E.; Fleck, Robert J.; Evarts, Russell C.; Duvall, Alison; Blakely, Richard J.; Burns, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The Tualatin Mountains form a northwest-striking ridge about 350 m high that separates Portland, Oregon, from the cities of the Tualatin Valley to the west. Known informally as the Portland Hills, the ridge is a late Cenozoic anticline, bounded by reverse faults that dip toward the anticlinal axis. The anticline is a broad, open fold consisting chiefly of Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group, with remnants of Miocene-Pliocene Troutdale Formation and Pleistocene basalt of the Boring Volcanic Field on the flanks of the anticline. Anticlinal structures similar to the Tualatin Mountains are characteristic of the northern Willamette Valley, where the structures accommodate margin-parallel shortening of the Cascadia fore arc. Global Positioning System (GPS) results indicate that the shortening is due to the northward motion of Oregon at several millimeters per year with respect to stable North America. Some of the uplifts may contain active faults, but the structures are poorly exposed and are overlain by thick Pleistocene loess and Missoula flood deposits. Between 1993 and 1998, construction of the 3-mile-long (4500-m-long) TriMet MAX Light Rail tunnel through the Tualatin Mountains provided an unusual opportunity to investigate the geological structure and history of the Tualatin Mountains. This report is a collaborative effort among the tunnel geologists and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to document the geologic story and quantify late Cenozoic and Quaternary deformation rates of the Tualatin Mountains.

  10. Running the Gauntlet: Regional Movement Patterns of Manta alfredi through a Complex of Parks and Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Germanov, Elitza S.; Marshall, Andrea D.

    2014-01-01

    Manta rays (Genus Manta) are economically important for fisheries and tourism in Indonesia. These species have been listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List as Vulnerable to extinction; therefore, human exploitation of manta rays must be regulated. A better understanding of the habitat use and movement patterns of manta rays in Indonesia is needed in order to employ effective conservation measures. To gain better insight into the movements of Manta alfredi we used ‘Manta Matcher’, an online database with an integrated automated matching algorithm, to compare photographs from 2,604 encounters of M. alfredi collected by recreational divers and dive operators throughout Indonesia over a nine-year period. This photographic comparison revealed that manta rays migrated between regional sanctuaries such as Nusa Penida, the Gili Islands, and the Komodo National Park (up to 450 km straight-line distance). The areas between these sanctuaries are heavily fished and trafficked by ships, and when manta rays travel through these regions they risk being fished and injured by ship strikes. These long-range manta ray movements suggest connectivity between M. alfredi populations in neighboring islands and raise concerns about the future management of regional populations. It is recommended that a national conservation strategy be developed to protect the remaining populations in the country. PMID:25337865

  11. The Energy Cost and Heart Rate Response of Trained and Untrained Subjects Walking and Running in Shoes and Boots,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    Bobbert 196f , Fellingham etat. 1978, Menier and Pugh 1968) and running (Bransford and Howley 1977, Fellingham et al. 1973, Hagan et al. 1980...Knuttgen 1961, Margaria et al. 1963, Menier and Pugh 1968), but few give any account of the weight or type of footwear worn by subjects. Comparison between...collected in this study agree well with previous data reported by others for walking and running in shoes (Margaria et al. 1963, Menier and Pugh 1968) and

  12. The Effect of a Combined High-Intensity Plyometric and Speed Training Program on the Running and Jumping Ability of Male Handball Players

    PubMed Central

    Cherif, Monsef; Said, Mohamed; Chaatani, Sana; Nejlaoui, Olfa; Gomri, Daghbaji; Abdallah, Aouidet

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a combined program including sprint repetitions and drop jump training in the same session on male handball players. Methods Twenty-two male handball players aged more than 20 years were assigned into 2 groups: experimental group (n=11) and control group (n=11). Selection was based on variables “axis” and “lines”, goalkeepers were not included. The experimental group was subjected to 2 testing periods (test and retest) separated by 12 weeks of an additional combined plyometric and running speed training program. The control group performed the usual handball training. The testing period comprised, at the first day, a medical checking, anthropometric measurements and an incremental exercise test called yo-yo intermittent recovery test. 2 days later, participants performed the Repeated Sprint Ability test (RSA), and performed the Jumping Performance using 3 different events: Squat jump (SJ), Countermovement jump without (CMJ) and with arms (CMJA), and Drop jump (DJ). At the end of the training period, participants performed again the repeated sprint ability test, and the jumping performance. Results The conventional combined program improved the explosive force ability of handball players in CMJ (P=0.01), CMJA (P=0.01) and DJR (P=0.03). The change was 2.78, 2.42 and 2.62% respectively. No significant changes were noted in performances of the experimental group at the squat jump test and the drop jump with the left leg test. The training intervention also improved the running speed ability of the experimental group (P=0.003). No statistical differences were observed between lines or axes. Conclusion Additional combined training program between sprint repetition and vertical jump in the same training session positively influence the jumping ability and the sprint ability of handball players. PMID:22461962

  13. Enhanced learning of proportional math through music training and spatial-temporal training.

    PubMed

    Graziano, A B; Peterson, M; Shaw, G L

    1999-03-01

    It was predicted, based on a mathematical model of the cortex, that early music training would enhance spatial-temporal reasoning. We have demonstrated that preschool children given six months of piano keyboard lessons improved dramatically on spatial-temporal reasoning while children in appropriate control groups did not improve. It was then predicted that the enhanced spatial-temporal reasoning from piano keyboard training could lead to enhanced learning of specific math concepts, in particular proportional math, which is notoriously difficult to teach using the usual language-analytic methods. We report here the development of Spatial-Temporal Math Video Game software designed to teach fractions and proportional math, and its strikingly successful use in a study involving 237 second-grade children (age range six years eight months-eight years five months). Furthermore, as predicted, children given piano keyboard training along with the Math Video Game training scored significantly higher on proportional math and fractions than children given a control training along with the Math Video Game. These results were readily measured using the companion Math Video Game Evaluation Program. The training time necessary for children on the Math Video Game is very short, and they rapidly reach a high level of performance. This suggests that, as predicted, we are tapping into fundamental cortical processes of spatial-temporal reasoning. This spatial-temporal approach is easily generalized to teach other math and science concepts in a complementary manner to traditional language-analytic methods, and at a younger age. The neural mechanisms involved in thinking through fractions and proportional math during training with the Math Video Game might be investigated in EEG coherence studies along with priming by specific music.

  14. Effects of aerobic long distance running training (up to 40 km.day-1) of 1-year duration on blood and endocrine parameters of female beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Arokoski, J; Miettinen, P V; Säämänen, A M; Haapanen, K; Parviainen, M; Tammi, M; Helminen, H J

    1993-01-01

    The effects of long distance running training on blood parameters, hormone responses and bone growth were studied in young growing dogs. A genetically uniform group of female beagles matched with respect to age and body mass were used. The runner dogs (n = 10) underwent gradually increased running exercise up to 40 km.day-1 on a treadmill with 15 degrees uphill gradient 5 days each week during a period of 1 year, while the littermate control dogs (n = 10) were kept in their cages throughout the study. Low plasma lactate concentrations of the runners measured immediately after the running training indicated the aerobic metabolism of the dogs while running. Significant decreases of blood haemoglobin concentrations (11%), blood erythrocyte number (10%), and erythrocyte packed cell volume (12%) were found in the runner group. Throughout the experiment, the value of thyroxine was slightly lower (13%) in the runners but no changes were found in tri-iodothyronine, free thyroxine, or cortisol serum concentrations. Serum oestradiol concentration at 56 weeks was significantly lower (42%) in the runner group than in the control group but was not as low (27%) at 70 weeks. Somatomedin-C concentration had decreased significantly by 37% at the age of 56 weeks in the runner group but was again at the level of the control dogs at the end of experiment (at 70 weeks). Ulna and radius bone mass as a ratio to the body mass had significantly increased in the runners. It would seem from our study that long distance running has a positive effect on bone growth.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. The Effect of High Intensity Interval Run Training on Cross-sectional Area of the Vastus Lateralis in Untrained College Students

    PubMed Central

    ESTES, REBEKAH R.; MALINOWSKI, AMY; PIACENTINI, MEREDITH; THRUSH, DAVID; SALLEY, ERIC; LOSEY, CASSIDY; HAYES, ERIK

    2017-01-01

    Aerobic cycling has been repeatedly shown to induce hypertrophy in skeletal muscle across a variety of populations, while there has been a lack of investigation into the impact of running upon hypertrophy. An increasingly popular model of aerobic exercise is high-intensity interval training (HIIT); in addition to its positive impact upon cardiovascular health, HIIT may be sufficient for inducing significant muscular hypertrophy. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of a high-intensity interval running protocol upon hypertrophy of the vastus lateralis in an untrained, young population. Twelve recreationally active university students (Male: 2; Female: 10; 19.9±0.5 yr.; 169.8±1.9 cm; 63.8±2.3 kg; VO2max: 42.1±1.6 ml•kg−1min−1) completed 24.5±0.6 sessions of high-intensity interval run training over 10 weeks. The protocol consisted of four sets of 4 minutes running at 90–95% HRmax followed by 3 minutes active rest at 70% HRmax. Relative and absolute aerobic capacity increased 5.2±2.2% and 6.0±2.3% respectively as a result of the intervention (p< 0.05). Cross-sectional area (CSA) of the vastus lateralis was measured via panoramic ultrasound imaging pre- and post-intervention. Following the protocol, CSA of the intervention group was 10.6±2.7% greater (p< 0.05), while that of the control group did not change. This is the first data to demonstrate hypertrophy of the vastus lateralis in a young population following a running protocol. These data support the existing body of evidence suggesting aerobic exercise to be an effective mode of improving cardiorespiratory fitness as well as increasing whole muscle size of the quadriceps. PMID:28479954

  16. Motion Perception and Driving: Predicting Performance Through Testing and Shortening Braking Reaction Times Through Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    in Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 2013; 54(13):8364-74. doi :10.1167/iovs.13-12774 14. ABSTRACT A driving simulator was used to...predicting performance through testing and shortening brak- ing reaction times through training. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:8364–8374. DOI ...MK, Meyer LE, Bush JM. Judgements about collision in younger and older drivers. Transport Res Part F: Traffic Psychol Behaviour . 2003;6:63–80. 6. Wood

  17. The London Academic Training Scheme: learning research methods through teaching.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, J; Iliffe, S

    1998-04-01

    The London Academic Training Scheme (LATS) provides a 1-year training programme in research methods and teaching for GPs who have recently finished vocational training. This paper describes an adult educational approach to learning about research methods through teaching as part of the LATS trainees' weekly academic programme. We aimed to provide and evaluate a course exploring research methodologies used in primary care by a three-step approach to learning, with trainees taking the main role as teachers. Trainees on the LATS programme met for one afternoon each week for one term. During alternate sessions a pair of trainees would deliver a whole afternoon's seminar on one aspect of primary care research methodology. The teaching of each session was evaluated by the whole group, by academic supervisors and by experts. Sessions were scored by participants for content, style of presentation, educational value and enjoyment on a seven-point rating scale where 1 = no value, 4 = neutral and 7 = very valuable. All sessions scored above 4 and usually above 5 for each aspect. Open comments collected showed that trainees greatly appreciated this self-directed approach to learning and teaching. The active involvement of learners as teachers is a practical and rewarding means of using adult educational principles in providing an academic programme.

  18. Exercise training improves functional sympatholysis in spontaneously hypertensive rats through a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Masaki; Iwamoto, Gary A.; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen; Mitchell, Jere H.

    2014-01-01

    Functional sympatholysis is impaired in hypertensive animals and patients. Exercise training (ET) improves functional sympatholysis through a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent mechanism in normotensive rats. However, whether ET has similar physiological benefits in hypertension remains to be elucidated. Thus we tested the hypothesis that the impairment in functional sympatholysis in hypertension is reversed by ET through a NO-dependent mechanism. In untrained normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYUT; n = 13), untrained spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRUT; n = 13), and exercise-trained SHR (SHRET; n = 6), changes in femoral vascular conductance (FVC) were examined during lumbar sympathetic nerve stimulation (1, 2.5, and 5 Hz) at rest and during muscle contraction. The magnitude of functional sympatholysis (Δ%FVC = Δ%FVC muscle contraction − Δ%FVC rest) in SHRUT was significantly lower than WKYUT (1 Hz: −2 ± 4 vs. 13 ± 3%; 2.5 Hz: 9 ± 3 vs. 21 ± 3%; and 5 Hz: 12 ± 3 vs. 26 ± 3%, respectively; P < 0.05). Three months of voluntary wheel running significantly increased maximal oxygen uptake in SHRET compared with nontrained SHRUT (78 ± 6 vs. 62 ± 4 ml·kg−1·min−1, respectively; P < 0.05) and restored the magnitude of functional sympatholysis in SHRET (1 Hz: 9 ± 2%; 2.5 Hz: 20 ± 4%; and 5 Hz: 34 ± 5%). Blockade of NO synthase (NOS) by NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester attenuated functional sympatholysis in WKYUT but not SHRUT. Furthermore, NOS inhibition significantly diminished the improvements in functional sympatholysis in SHRET. These data demonstrate that impairments in functional sympatholysis are normalized via a NO mechanism by voluntary wheel running in hypertensive rats. PMID:24816260

  19. Exercise training improves functional sympatholysis in spontaneously hypertensive rats through a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Masaki; Iwamoto, Gary A; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen; Mitchell, Jere H; Smith, Scott A

    2014-07-15

    Functional sympatholysis is impaired in hypertensive animals and patients. Exercise training (ET) improves functional sympatholysis through a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent mechanism in normotensive rats. However, whether ET has similar physiological benefits in hypertension remains to be elucidated. Thus we tested the hypothesis that the impairment in functional sympatholysis in hypertension is reversed by ET through a NO-dependent mechanism. In untrained normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYUT; n = 13), untrained spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRUT; n = 13), and exercise-trained SHR (SHRET; n = 6), changes in femoral vascular conductance (FVC) were examined during lumbar sympathetic nerve stimulation (1, 2.5, and 5 Hz) at rest and during muscle contraction. The magnitude of functional sympatholysis (Δ%FVC = Δ%FVC muscle contraction - Δ%FVC rest) in SHRUT was significantly lower than WKYUT (1 Hz: -2 ± 4 vs. 13 ± 3%; 2.5 Hz: 9 ± 3 vs. 21 ± 3%; and 5 Hz: 12 ± 3 vs. 26 ± 3%, respectively; P < 0.05). Three months of voluntary wheel running significantly increased maximal oxygen uptake in SHRET compared with nontrained SHRUT (78 ± 6 vs. 62 ± 4 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), respectively; P < 0.05) and restored the magnitude of functional sympatholysis in SHRET (1 Hz: 9 ± 2%; 2.5 Hz: 20 ± 4%; and 5 Hz: 34 ± 5%). Blockade of NO synthase (NOS) by N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester attenuated functional sympatholysis in WKYUT but not SHRUT. Furthermore, NOS inhibition significantly diminished the improvements in functional sympatholysis in SHRET. These data demonstrate that impairments in functional sympatholysis are normalized via a NO mechanism by voluntary wheel running in hypertensive rats. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Improving neonatal outcome through practical shoulder dystocia training.

    PubMed

    Draycott, Timothy J; Crofts, Joanna F; Ash, Jonathan P; Wilson, Louise V; Yard, Elaine; Sibanda, Thabani; Whitelaw, Andrew

    2008-07-01

    To compare the management of and neonatal injury associated with shoulder dystocia before and after introduction of mandatory shoulder dystocia simulation training. This was a retrospective, observational study comparing the management and neonatal outcome of births complicated by shoulder dystocia before (January 1996 to December 1999) and after (January 2001 to December 2004) the introduction of shoulder dystocia training at Southmead Hospital, Bristol, United Kingdom. The management of shoulder dystocia and associated neonatal injuries were compared pretraining and posttraining through a review of intrapartum and postpartum records of term, cephalic, singleton births in which difficulty with the shoulders was recorded during the two study periods. There were 15,908 and 13,117 eligible births pretraining and posttraining, respectively. The shoulder dystocia rates were similar: pretraining 324 (2.04%) and posttraining 262 (2.00%) (P=.813). After training was introduced, clinical management improved: McRoberts' position, pretraining 95/324 (29.3%) to 229/262 (87.4%) posttraining (P<.001); suprapubic pressure 90/324 (27.8%) to 119/262 (45.4%) (P<.001); internal rotational maneuver 22/324 (6.8%) to 29/262 (11.1%) (P=.020); delivery of posterior arm 24/324 (7.4%) to 52/262 (19.8%) (P<.001); no recognized maneuvers performed 174/324 (50.9%) to 21/262 (8.0%) (P<.001); documented excessive traction 54/324 (16.7%) to 24/262 (9.2%) (P=.010). There was a significant reduction in neonatal injury at birth after shoulder dystocia: 30/324 (9.3%) to 6/262 (2.3%) (relative risk 0.25 [confidence interval 0.11-0.57]). The introduction of shoulder dystocia training for all maternity staff was associated with improved management and neonatal outcomes of births complicated by shoulder dystocia. II.

  1. Communication Runs through It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landrum, Tom S.

    2012-01-01

    Effective writing is every bit as important in alumni and development communications as it is in the public affairs shop. A poorly written donor proposal, awkward or grammatically incorrect thank-you letter, and ambiguous, jargon-filled copy have no place in a professional advancement operation. Good communication is especially important for…

  2. Communication Runs through It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landrum, Tom S.

    2012-01-01

    Effective writing is every bit as important in alumni and development communications as it is in the public affairs shop. A poorly written donor proposal, awkward or grammatically incorrect thank-you letter, and ambiguous, jargon-filled copy have no place in a professional advancement operation. Good communication is especially important for…

  3. Improving retention of older employees through training and development.

    PubMed

    Tourigny, Louise; Pulich, Marcia

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the needs and interests of older employees in training and development efforts which can result in higher retention rates. Managers may be reluctant to train workers close to retirement age for various reasons. Managers also use certain practices to avoid training older employees. When training is offered, accurate performance feedback is essential for desired training outcomes to occur. Finally, areas are proposed which are more appropriate to include in training and development endeavors for older employees versus younger ones.

  4. High chronic training loads and exposure to bouts of maximal velocity running reduce injury risk in elite Gaelic football.

    PubMed

    Malone, Shane; Roe, Mark; Doran, Dominic A; Gabbett, Tim J; Collins, Kieran

    2017-03-01

    To examine the relationship between chronic training loads, number of exposures to maximal velocity, the distance covered at maximal velocity, percentage of maximal velocity in training and match-play and subsequent injury risk in elite Gaelic footballers. Prospective cohort design. Thirty-seven elite Gaelic footballers from one elite squad were involved in a one-season study. Training and game loads (session-RPE multiplied by duration in min) were recorded in conjunction with external match and training loads (using global positioning system technology) to measure the distance covered at maximal velocity, relative maximal velocity and the number of player exposures to maximal velocity across weekly periods during the season. Lower limb injuries were also recorded. Training load and GPS data were modelled against injury data using logistic regression. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated based on chronic training load status, relative maximal velocity and number of exposures to maximal velocity with these reported against the lowest reference group for these variables. Players who produced over 95% maximal velocity on at least one occasion within training environments had lower risk of injury compared to the reference group of 85% maximal velocity on at least one occasion (OR: 0.12, p=0.001). Higher chronic training loads (≥4750AU) allowed players to tolerate increased distances (between 90 to 120m) and exposures to maximal velocity (between 10 to 15 exposures), with these exposures having a protective effect compared to lower exposures (OR: 0.22 p=0.026) and distance (OR=0.23, p=0.055). Players who had higher chronic training loads (≥4750AU) tolerated increased distances and exposures to maximal velocity when compared to players exposed to low chronic training loads (≤4750AU). Under- and over-exposure of players to maximal velocity events (represented by a U-shaped curve) increased the risk of injury. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by

  5. Improving Access and Relevance of Training through In-Plant Training: The Jamaican Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Kenneth

    Inplant training has begun to be used as a strategy to improve access and the relevance of training by the Human Employment and Resource Training (HEART) Trust/National Training Agency (NTA) in Jamaica. Inplant training is presented as a viable, efficient, and relevant method of providing induction and upgrading training for industry. In this…

  6. Decreased birefringence of the superficial zone collagen network in the canine knee (stifle) articular cartilage after long distance running training, detected by quantitative polarised light microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Arokoski, J P; Hyttinen, M M; Lapveteläinen, T; Takács, P; Kosztáczky, B; Módis, L; Kovanen, V; Helminen, H

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of a one year programme of running training (up to 40 km/day for 15 weeks) on the spatial orientation pattern of collagen and glycosaminoglycans in articular cartilage in different parts of the knee (stifle) and shoulder joints of young beagle dogs. METHODS: Area specific measurements of the optical path difference (= retardation, gamma) and the cartilage zone thickness were performed using conventional procedures and a new computer based quantitative polarised light microscopy method. Transmission electron microscopy was used to determine the zonal volume density of collagen fibrils. The concentrations of collagen and hydroxypyridinium crosslinks were investigated biochemically. RESULTS: Running training decreased gamma by 24-34% (p < 0.05) in the superficial zone of the lateral femoral condyle articular cartilage and at the centre of the tibial condyles. Gamma of glycosaminoglycans decreased by 26% (p < 0.05) in the superficial zone of the lateral condyle of the femur, but at the same site the volume density of collagen fibrils was unchanged. Neither the collagen concentration nor the concentration of hydroxypyridinium crosslinks was altered as a result of running. In both control and runner dogs, the thickness and gamma values of the superficial zone were greater in the humerus and the femur than in the tibia. CONCLUSION: Endurance type running exercise in beagles caused a reduction in the superficial zone birefringence of the articular cartilage, which indicates either a disorganisation or a reorientation of the superficial zone collagen network. Articular cartilage showed marked variability of collagen network organisation over the different knee (stifle) joint articular surfaces. Images PMID:8733443

  7. Water Resources Division Training Bulletin, July 1973 Through June 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, R. O.; Brown, D. W.

    This bulletin provides information about available training as well as information to assist supervisors and training officers in developing a coordinated, efficient training program in hydrology and other subjects related to water-resources investigations. Most of the training is presented at the Center at Lakewood, Colorado. Information is given…

  8. Create a Better Flow through Sequencing Resident Assistant Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Rich; Early, Sherry; Whisler, Travis

    2016-01-01

    Resident assistant training happens every year for the approximate 10,000 RAs who work on campuses across the country. These training programs can include classes, pre-service summer weeks, and ongoing training throughout the year. Following educational and training models such as CAS, assessment, Bloom's taxonomy, adventure programming, and…

  9. Technology Transfer through Training: Emerging Roles for the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergsma, Harold M.

    The importance of training in the technology transfer process is discussed, with special consideration to conditions in developing countries. Also considered is the role universities can play in training to promote technology transfer. Advisors on training and curriculum development are needed to introduce a new technology. Training farmers to…

  10. Triathlon: running injuries.

    PubMed

    Spiker, Andrea M; Dixit, Sameer; Cosgarea, Andrew J

    2012-12-01

    The running portion of the triathlon represents the final leg of the competition and, by some reports, the most important part in determining a triathlete's overall success. Although most triathletes spend most of their training time on cycling, running injuries are the most common injuries encountered. Common causes of running injuries include overuse, lack of rest, and activities that aggravate biomechanical predisposers of specific injuries. We discuss the running-associated injuries in the hip, knee, lower leg, ankle, and foot of the triathlete, and the causes, presentation, evaluation, and treatment of each.

  11. Increasing School Success Through Partnership-Based Family Competency Training

    PubMed Central

    Spoth, Richard; Randall, G. Kevin; Shin, Chungyeol

    2008-01-01

    An expanding body of research suggests an important role for parent or family competency training in children’s social-emotional learning and related school success. This article summarizes a test of a longitudinal model examining partnership-based family competency training effects on academic success in a general population. Specifically, it examines indirect effects of the Iowa Strengthening Families Program (ISFP) on school engagement in 8th grade and academic success in the 12th grade, through direct ISFP effects on intervention-targeted outcomes—parenting competencies and student substance-related risk—in 6th grade. Twenty-two rural schools were randomly assigned to either ISFP or a minimal-contact control group; data were collected from 445 families. Following examination of the equivalence of the measurement model across group and time, a structural equation modeling approach was used to test the hypothesized model and corresponding hypothesized structural paths. Significant effects of the ISFP were found on proximal intervention outcomes, intermediate school engagement, and the academic success of high school seniors. PMID:20376279

  12. 20 CFR 638.600 - Applied vocational skills training (VST) through work projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applied vocational skills training (VST... Skills Training (VST) § 638.600 Applied vocational skills training (VST) through work projects. (a)(1) The Job Corps Director shall establish procedures for administering applied vocational skills training...

  13. Running to Achieve: Engaging Students in Literacy and Physical Activity through an After-School Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanzandt, Christina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this participant-observation study is to describe rural, southern, 3rd-5th grade children's engagement in running and writing in an after-school learning community called "Running to Achieve." This study provides insights into links between physical activity and writing by using one to engage students in the other. Three…

  14. Effectiveness of Start to Run, a 6-week training program for novice runners, on increasing health-enhancing physical activity: a controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of the organized sports sector as a setting for health-promotion is a relatively new strategy. In the past few years, different countries have been investing resources in the organized sports sector for promoting health-enhancing physical activity. In the Netherlands, National Sports Federations were funded to develop and implement “easily accessible” sporting programs, aimed at the least active population groups. Start to Run, a 6-week training program for novice runners, developed by the Dutch Athletics Organization, is one of these programs. In this study, the effects of Start to Run on health-enhancing physical activity were investigated. Methods Physical activity levels of Start to Run participants were assessed by means of the Short QUestionnaire to ASsess Health-enhancing physical activity (SQUASH) at baseline, immediately after completing the program and six months after baseline. A control group, matched for age and sex, was assessed at baseline and after six months. Compliance with the Dutch physical activity guidelines was the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures were the total time spent in physical activity and the time spent in each physical activity intensity category and domain. Changes in physical activity within groups were tested with paired t-tests and McNemar tests. Changes between groups were examined with multiple linear and logistic regression analyses. Results In the Start to Run group, the percentage of people who met the Dutch Norm for Health-enhancing Physical Activity, Fit-norm and Combi-norm increased significantly, both in the short- and longer-term. In the control group, no significant changes in physical activity were observed. When comparing results between groups, significantly more Start to Run participants compared with control group participants were meeting the Fit-norm and Combi-norm after six months. The differences in physical activity between groups in favor of the Start to Run group

  15. Effectiveness of Start to Run, a 6-week training program for novice runners, on increasing health-enhancing physical activity: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ooms, Linda; Veenhof, Cindy; de Bakker, Dinny H

    2013-07-31

    The use of the organized sports sector as a setting for health-promotion is a relatively new strategy. In the past few years, different countries have been investing resources in the organized sports sector for promoting health-enhancing physical activity. In the Netherlands, National Sports Federations were funded to develop and implement "easily accessible" sporting programs, aimed at the least active population groups. Start to Run, a 6-week training program for novice runners, developed by the Dutch Athletics Organization, is one of these programs. In this study, the effects of Start to Run on health-enhancing physical activity were investigated. Physical activity levels of Start to Run participants were assessed by means of the Short QUestionnaire to ASsess Health-enhancing physical activity (SQUASH) at baseline, immediately after completing the program and six months after baseline. A control group, matched for age and sex, was assessed at baseline and after six months. Compliance with the Dutch physical activity guidelines was the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures were the total time spent in physical activity and the time spent in each physical activity intensity category and domain. Changes in physical activity within groups were tested with paired t-tests and McNemar tests. Changes between groups were examined with multiple linear and logistic regression analyses. In the Start to Run group, the percentage of people who met the Dutch Norm for Health-enhancing Physical Activity, Fit-norm and Combi-norm increased significantly, both in the short- and longer-term. In the control group, no significant changes in physical activity were observed. When comparing results between groups, significantly more Start to Run participants compared with control group participants were meeting the Fit-norm and Combi-norm after six months. The differences in physical activity between groups in favor of the Start to Run group could be explained by an

  16. Structured teaching methods enhance skill acquisition but not problem-solving abilities: an evaluation of the 'silent run through'.

    PubMed

    Murdoch Eaton, D; Cottrell, D

    1999-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate whether a structured teaching technique (the silent run through) was of benefit in the learning of a skill sequence, and whether it would affect students' ability to improve their problem-solving skills or ability to make judgements. Students from one hospital were taught two different complex skills using a highly structured teaching method involving the breakdown of complex tasks into smaller components and the utilization of an internal, silent 'commentary'. Their subsequent ability to reproduce these skills was compared with a second group of students taught at another hospital. All students were assessed during a common end of attachment Objective Structured Clinical Examination on the two skills, by raters blind to the teaching techniques the students had received. School of Medicine, University of Leeds, UK. Medical students. Students who received the structured teaching were significantly better at reproducing a complex, sequential clinical skill (examination of a squint). There was no demonstrable improvement in problem-solving skills as assessed on an X-ray interpretation station. Students expressed high levels of satisfaction with learning skills in such a structured way and reported increased confidence in their examination skills. This study provides some evidence to support the hypothesis that different teaching techniques may be more effective for improving different elements of skills learning. In particular, a highly structured technique involving breaking complex tasks down into smaller components and utilizing an internal 'commentary' may be an effective way of teaching the sequential motor components of complex clinical skills.

  17. Salivary and plasma cortisol and testosterone responses to interval and tempo runs and a bodyweight-only circuit session in endurance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Amy Vivien; Nielsen, Birthe Vejby; Allgrove, Judith

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the acute response to plasma and salivary cortisol and testosterone to three training protocols. Ten trained endurance athletes participated in three experimental trials, such as interval training (INT), tempo run (TEMP) and bodyweight-only circuit training (CIR), on separate days. Blood and saliva samples were collected pre- and 0, 15, 30 and 60 min post-exercise. Peak post-exercise salivary cortisol was higher than pre-exercise in all trials (P < 0.01). After INT, salivary cortisol remained elevated above pre-exercise than 60 min post-exercise. Salivary testosterone also increased post-exercise in all trials (P < 0.05). Plasma and salivary cortisol were correlated between individuals (r = 0.81, 0.73-0.88) and within individuals (r = 0.81, 0.73-0.87) (P < 0.01). Plasma and salivary testosterone was also correlated between (r = 0.57, 0.43-0.69) and within individuals (r = 0.60, 0.45-0.72), (P < 0.01). Peak cortisol and testosterone levels occurred simultaneously in plasma and saliva, but timing of post-exercise hormone peaks differed between trials and individuals. Further investigation is required to identify the mechanisms eliciting an increase in hormones in response to CIR. Furthermore, saliva is a valid alternative sampling technique for measurement of cortisol, although the complex, individual and situation dependent nature of the hormone response to acute exercise should be considered.

  18. Renal function parameters during early and late recovery periods following an all-out 21-km run in trained adolescent runners.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ye; Tong, Tom K; Lippi, Giuseppe; Huang, Chuanye; Shi, Qingde; Nie, Jinlei

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated the changes in biomarkers of renal function and the corresponding estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in 10 male adolescent (16.2±0.6 years) trained runners during early and late recovery periods after an all-out 21-km run. Venous blood samples were taken immediately before, and at 2-h, 4-h, and 24-h following the 21-km run. Samples were analyzed for hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct), and serum urea (U), creatinine (Cr), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). U/Cr ratio, eGFR, and plasma volume change (%ΔPV) were calculated based on the associated measured variables. At 2-h and 4-h, there were increases (26%-146%) in U, Cr, U/Cr, CK, and LDH, and decreases (8%-13%) in Hb and Hct, as compared with the corresponding pre-exercise values. The calculated %ΔPV increased by 17% while the eGFR decreased 20% from the corresponding pre-exercise value, respectively. At 24-h, the changes of the blood variables and renal function parameters observed at early recovery period were sustained. Taken together, the findings of this study suggest that mild decline in renal function occurred during the early recovery period following the 21-km run. The decline in renal function did not return to normal during the later recovery period.

  19. Gut-training: the impact of two weeks repetitive gut-challenge during exercise on gastrointestinal status, glucose availability, fuel kinetics, and running performance.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ricardo J S; Miall, Atlanta; Khoo, Anthony; Rauch, Christopher; Snipe, Rhiannon; Camões-Costa, Vera; Gibson, Peter

    2017-05-01

    Due to gastrointestinal tract adaptability, the study aimed to determine the impact of gut-training protocol over 2 weeks on gastrointestinal status, blood glucose availability, fuel kinetics, and running performance. Endurance runners (n = 25) performed a gut-challenge trial (GC1), consisting of 2 h running exercise at 60% V̇O2max whilst consuming gel-discs containing 30 g carbohydrates (2:1 glucose/fructose, 10% w/v) every 20 min and a 1 h distance test. Participants were then randomly assigned to a carbohydrate gel-disc (CHO-S), carbohydrate food (CHO-F), or placebo (PLA) gut-training group for 2 weeks of repetitive gut-challenge intervention. Participants then repeated a second gut-challenge trial (GC2). Gastrointestinal symptoms reduced in GC2 on CHO-S (60%; p = 0.008) and CHO-F (63%; p = 0.046); reductions were greater than PLA (p < 0.05). H2 peak was lower in GC2 on CHO-S (mean (CI): 6 (4-8) ppm) compared with CHO-F (9 (6-12) ppm) and PLA (12 (2-21) ppm) (trial × time: p < 0.001). Blood glucose concentration was higher in GC2 on CHO-S (7.2 (6.3-8.1) mmol·L(-1)) compared with CHO-F (6.1 (5.7-6.5) mmol·L(-1)) and PLA (6.2 (4.9-7.5) mmol·L(-1)) (trial × time: p = 0.015). No difference in oxidation rates, plasma I-FABP, and cortisol concentrations were observed between groups and trials. Distance test improved on CHO-S (5.2%) and CHO-F (4.3%) in GC2, but not on PLA (-2.1%) (trial × time: p = 0.009). Two weeks of gut-training with CHO-S and CHO-F improved gastrointestinal symptoms and running performance compared with PLA. CHO-S also reduced malabsorption and increased blood glucose availability during endurance running compared with PLA.

  20. Teach beyond Your Reach: An Instructor's Guide to Developing and Running Successful Distance Learning Classes, Workshops, Training Sessions and More

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neidorf, Robin

    2006-01-01

    Distance learning is enabling individuals to earn college and graduate degrees, professional certificates, and a wide range of skills and credentials. In addition to the rapidly expanding role of distance learning in higher education, all types of organizations now offer Web-based training courses to employees, clients, and other associates. In…

  1. Heart ABCA1 and PPAR- α Genes Expression Responses in Male rats: Effects of High Intensity Treadmill Running Training and Aqueous Extraction of Black Crataegus-Pentaegyna.

    PubMed

    Ghanbari-Niaki, Abbass; Ghanbari-Abarghooi, Safieyh; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Zare-Kookandeh, Navabeh; Gholizadeh, Monireh; Roudbari, Fatemeh; Zare-Kookandeh, Asghar

    2013-11-01

    Heart as a high metabolic and aerobic tissue is consuming lipid as a fuel for its energy provision at rest during light and moderate exercise, except when lactate level is higher in blood circulation. It has been shown that any type of regular exercise and crataegus species would improve cardiovascular function and minimizes several risk factors via stimulating lipid metabolism by acting on enzymes and genes expression such as ABCA1 and PPAR α which are involving in this process. Twenty Wistar male rats (4-6 weeks old, 140-173 g weight) were used. Animals were randomly classified into training (n = 10) and control (n = 10) groups and then divided into saline-control (SC), saline-training (ST), Crataegus-Pentaegyna -control (CPC), and Crataegus-Pentaegyna -training (CPT) groups. Training groups have performed a high-intensity running program (at 34 m/min (0% grade), 60 min/day, 5 days/week) on a motor-driven treadmill for eight weeks. Animals were orally fed with Crataegus-Pentaegyna extraction (500mg/kg) and saline solution for six weeks. Seventy- two hours after the last training session, rats were sacrificed, hearts were excised, cleaned and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 °C until RNA extraction. Plasma also was collected for plasma variable measurements. Statistical analysis was performed using a two way analysis of variance, and significance was accepted at P < 0.05. A non-significant (P < 0.4, P < 0.79, respectively) increase in ABCA1 and PPAR α genes expression was accompanied by a significant (P < 0.01, P < 0.04, P < 0.04, respectively) reduction in TC, TG, and VLDL-C levels in Crataegus-Pentaegyna groups. Our findings show that a high intensity treadmill running was able to express ABCA1 and PPAR α in rat heart. Data also possibly indicate that the Crataeguse-Pentaegyna supplementation solely could mimic training effect on the mentioned genes and lipid profiles via different mechanism(s).

  2. Heart ABCA1 and PPAR- α Genes Expression Responses in Male rats: Effects of High Intensity Treadmill Running Training and Aqueous Extraction of Black Crataegus-Pentaegyna

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari-Niaki, Abbass; Ghanbari-Abarghooi, Safieyh; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Zare-Kookandeh, Navabeh; Gholizadeh, Monireh; Roudbari, Fatemeh; Zare-Kookandeh, Asghar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Heart as a high metabolic and aerobic tissue is consuming lipid as a fuel for its energy provision at rest during light and moderate exercise, except when lactate level is higher in blood circulation. It has been shown that any type of regular exercise and crataegus species would improve cardiovascular function and minimizes several risk factors via stimulating lipid metabolism by acting on enzymes and genes expression such as ABCA1 and PPAR α which are involving in this process. Materials and Methods: Twenty Wistar male rats (4-6 weeks old, 140-173 g weight) were used. Animals were randomly classified into training (n = 10) and control (n = 10) groups and then divided into saline-control (SC), saline-training (ST), Crataegus-Pentaegyna -control (CPC), and Crataegus-Pentaegyna -training (CPT) groups. Training groups have performed a high-intensity running program (at 34 m/min (0% grade), 60 min/day, 5 days/week) on a motor-driven treadmill for eight weeks. Animals were orally fed with Crataegus-Pentaegyna extraction (500mg/kg) and saline solution for six weeks. Seventy- two hours after the last training session, rats were sacrificed, hearts were excised, cleaned and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 °C until RNA extraction. Plasma also was collected for plasma variable measurements. Statistical analysis was performed using a two way analysis of variance, and significance was accepted at P < 0.05. Results: A non-significant (P < 0.4, P < 0.79, respectively) increase in ABCA1 and PPAR α genes expression was accompanied by a significant (P < 0.01, P < 0.04, P < 0.04, respectively) reduction in TC, TG, and VLDL-C levels in Crataegus-Pentaegyna groups. Conclusions: Our findings show that a high intensity treadmill running was able to express ABCA1 and PPAR α in rat heart. Data also possibly indicate that the Crataeguse-Pentaegyna supplementation solely could mimic training effect on the mentioned genes and lipid profiles via

  3. Voluntary wheel running reduces voluntary consumption of ethanol in mice: identification of candidate genes through striatal gene expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Darlington, T M; McCarthy, R D; Cox, R J; Miyamoto-Ditmon, J; Gallego, X; Ehringer, M A

    2016-06-01

    Hedonic substitution, where wheel running reduces voluntary ethanol consumption, has been observed in prior studies. Here, we replicate and expand on previous work showing that mice decrease voluntary ethanol consumption and preference when given access to a running wheel. While earlier work has been limited mainly to behavioral studies, here we assess the underlying molecular mechanisms that may account for this interaction. From four groups of female C57BL/6J mice (control, access to two-bottle choice ethanol, access to a running wheel, and access to both two-bottle choice ethanol and a running wheel), mRNA-sequencing of the striatum identified differential gene expression. Many genes in ethanol preference quantitative trait loci were differentially expressed due to running. Furthermore, we conducted Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis and identified gene networks corresponding to each effect behavioral group. Candidate genes for mediating the behavioral interaction between ethanol consumption and wheel running include multiple potassium channel genes, Oprm1, Prkcg, Stxbp1, Crhr1, Gabra3, Slc6a13, Stx1b, Pomc, Rassf5 and Camta2. After observing an overlap of many genes and functional groups previously identified in studies of initial sensitivity to ethanol, we hypothesized that wheel running may induce a change in sensitivity, thereby affecting ethanol consumption. A behavioral study examining Loss of Righting Reflex to ethanol following exercise trended toward supporting this hypothesis. These data provide a rich resource for future studies that may better characterize the observed transcriptional changes in gene networks in response to ethanol consumption and wheel running.

  4. Why Does My Nose Run?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Puberty Train Your Temper Why Does My Nose Run? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Does My Nose Run? Print A A A en ... smell, you must be upside down! But why does your nose run? Read on to find out ...

  5. Does a short period of lower limb strength training improve performance in field-based tests of running and agility in young professional soccer players?

    PubMed

    Jullien, Hugues; Bisch, Cécile; Largouët, Nasser; Manouvrier, Christophe; Carling, Christopher J; Amiard, Valérie

    2008-03-01

    The present study assessed the effects of specific leg strength training (as part of a broader exercise program) on running speed and agility in young professional soccer players. Twenty-six male players (ages 17 to 19 years) were divided into 3 groups. The reference group (Re) performed individual technical work only, the coordination group (Co) performed a circuit designed to promote agility, coordination, and balance control (together with some technical work) and the Squat group (Sq) underwent 3 series of 3 squat repetitions (at 90% of the individual maximum value) and a sprint, before competition of the agility circuit and some technical work. These specific training programs were performed 5 times a week for 3 weeks. Before the experimental session and at the end of each week, all players were assessed using 4 types of tests, (agility, a shuttle test with changes of direction, and 2 sprints over 10 and 7.32 meters, respectively), with completion time being the only performance parameter recorded. Our results indicate that in the short sprints or shuttle sprint with changes in direction, lower limb strengthening did not improve performance. Performance improved in all 3 groups in the agility test but more so in the reference and coordination groups. It appears that soccer-specific training composed of exercise circuits specifically adapted to the different types of effort actually used in match play can enhance agility and coordination.

  6. Spatial Reasoning Training Through Light Curves Of Model Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziffer, Julie; Nakroshis, Paul A.; Rudnick, Benjamin T.; Brautigam, Maxwell J.; Nelson, Tyler W.

    2015-11-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that spatial reasoning skills, long known to be crucial to math and science success, are teachable. Even short stints of training can improve spatial reasoning skills among students who lack them (Sorby et al., 2006). Teaching spatial reasoning is particularly valuable to women and minorities who, through societal pressure, often doubt their spatial reasoning skill (Hill et al., 2010). We have designed a hands on asteroid rotation lab that provides practice in spatial reasoning tasks while building the student’s understanding of photometry. For our tool, we mount a model asteroid, with any shape of our choosing, on a slowly rotating motor shaft, whose speed is controlled by the experimenter. To mimic an asteroid light curve, we place the model asteroid in a dark box, shine a movable light source upon our asteroid, and record the light reflected onto a moveable camera. Students may then observe changes in the light curve that result from varying a) the speed of rotation, b) the model asteroid’s orientation with respect to the motor axis, c) the model asteroid’s shape or albedo, and d) the phase angle. After practicing with our tool, students are asked to pair new objects to their corresponding light curves. To correctly pair objects to their light curves, students must imagine how light scattering off of a three dimensional rotating object is imaged on a ccd sensor plane, and then reduced to a series of points on a light curve plot. Through the use of our model asteroid, the student develops confidence in spatial reasoning skills.

  7. The effects of 8-week speed training program on the acceleration ability and maximum speed running at 11 years athletes.

    PubMed

    Gevat, Cecilia; Taskin, Halil; Arslan, Fatma; Larion, Alin; Stanculescu, George

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an 8-week speed training program on the acceleration ability and maximum speed at 11 years athletes. A total of 30 healthy female athletes volunteered to participate in this study. They were divided randomly into 1 of 2 groups: Experimental group (EG; N = 15) and control group (CG; N = 15). The mean (SD) age was 11.20 +/- 0.32 years, height was 1.44 +/- 0.08 m, and weight was 35.20 +/- 2.02 kg for the experimental group; the mean (SD) age was 11.40 +/- 0.39 years, height was 1.45 +/- 0.05 m, and weight was 36.06 +/- 1.15 kg for the control group. A speed training program was applied to the subjects 3 days a week for 8 weeks. Testing was conducted before and after 8 weeks of training. Acceleration and maximum speed was evaluated for 15-m and 30-m, respectively, involving sprinting 15 m and 30 m as fast as possible from a stationary start position that was ascertained during a 50-m. Electronic timekeeping was conducted by the facility--Brower Timing System--made in Utah, USA., consisting of 4 components. Paired t-tests detected significant differences in pre- and posttests for clearance time of 5 m during 50 m in the experimental and control groups (p < 0.05). Therefore, acceleration phase was significantly reduce at 15 m distance interval for the experimental group and control groups posttraining than pretraining (0-15 m, p < 0.05). Acceleration improvement was 12.6% for the experimental group posttraining, on the other hand, acceleration improvement was 5% for the control groups posttraining. we did not find significant difference between pretest and posttest in 10-15 m, 15-20 m, and 20-25 m for the experimental group (p > 0.05). On the other hand, we did find significant difference between pretest and posttest values of other clearance times of consecutively each 5m during 50 m for the experimental and control groups (p < 0.05). Also, this study observed that athletes reached maximum speed in 30 m. In conclusion

  8. Fitness Effects of 10-Month Frequent Low-Volume Ball Game Training or Interval Running for 8–10-Year-Old School Children

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Claus Malta; Ørntoft, Christina; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Helge, Eva Wulff; Madsen, Mads; Manniche, Vibeke; Hansen, Lone; Bangsbo, Jens

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the exercise intensity and fitness effects of frequent school-based low-volume high-intensity training for 10 months in 8–10-year-old children. 239 Danish 3rd-grade school children from four schools were cluster-randomised into a control group (CON, n = 116) or two training groups performing either 5 × 12 min/wk small-sided football plus other ball games (SSG, n = 62) or interval running (IR, n = 61). Whole-body DXA scans, flamingo balance, standing long-jump, 20 m sprint, and Yo-Yo IR1 children's tests (YYIR1C) were performed before and after the intervention. Mean running velocity was higher (p < 0.05) in SSG than in IR (0.88 ± 0.14 versus 0.63 ± 0.20 m/s), while more time (p < 0.05) was spent in the highest player load zone (>2; 5.6 ± 3.4 versus 3.7 ± 3.4%) and highest HR zone (>90% HRmax; 12.4 ± 8.9 versus 8.4 ± 8.0%) in IR compared to SSG. After 10 months, no significant between-group differences were observed for YYIR1C performance and HR after 2 min of YYIR1C (HRsubmax), but median-split analyses showed that HRsubmax was reduced (p < 0.05) in both training groups compared to CON for those with the lowest aerobic fitness (SSG versus CON: 3.2%  HRmax [95% CI: 0.8–5.5]; IR versus CON: 2.6%  HRmax [95% CI: 1.1–5.2]). After 10 months, IR had improved (p < 0.05) 20 m sprint performance (IR versus CON: 154 ms [95% CI: 61–241]). No between-group differences (p > 0.05) were observed for whole-body or leg aBMD, lean mass, postural balance, or jump length. In conclusion, frequent low-volume ball games and interval running can be conducted over a full school year with high intensity rate but has limited positive fitness effects in 8–10-year-old children. PMID:28303248

  9. Fitness Effects of 10-Month Frequent Low-Volume Ball Game Training or Interval Running for 8-10-Year-Old School Children.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Malte Nejst; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Ørntoft, Christina; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Helge, Eva Wulff; Madsen, Mads; Manniche, Vibeke; Hansen, Lone; Hansen, Peter Riis; Bangsbo, Jens; Krustrup, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the exercise intensity and fitness effects of frequent school-based low-volume high-intensity training for 10 months in 8-10-year-old children. 239 Danish 3rd-grade school children from four schools were cluster-randomised into a control group (CON, n = 116) or two training groups performing either 5 × 12 min/wk small-sided football plus other ball games (SSG, n = 62) or interval running (IR, n = 61). Whole-body DXA scans, flamingo balance, standing long-jump, 20 m sprint, and Yo-Yo IR1 children's tests (YYIR1C) were performed before and after the intervention. Mean running velocity was higher (p < 0.05) in SSG than in IR (0.88 ± 0.14 versus 0.63 ± 0.20 m/s), while more time (p < 0.05) was spent in the highest player load zone (>2; 5.6 ± 3.4 versus 3.7 ± 3.4%) and highest HR zone (>90% HRmax; 12.4 ± 8.9 versus 8.4 ± 8.0%) in IR compared to SSG. After 10 months, no significant between-group differences were observed for YYIR1C performance and HR after 2 min of YYIR1C (HRsubmax), but median-split analyses showed that HRsubmax was reduced (p < 0.05) in both training groups compared to CON for those with the lowest aerobic fitness (SSG versus CON: 3.2%  HRmax [95% CI: 0.8-5.5]; IR versus CON: 2.6%  HRmax [95% CI: 1.1-5.2]). After 10 months, IR had improved (p < 0.05) 20 m sprint performance (IR versus CON: 154 ms [95% CI: 61-241]). No between-group differences (p > 0.05) were observed for whole-body or leg aBMD, lean mass, postural balance, or jump length. In conclusion, frequent low-volume ball games and interval running can be conducted over a full school year with high intensity rate but has limited positive fitness effects in 8-10-year-old children.

  10. Increasing self-directed training in neurorehabilitation patients through competition.

    PubMed

    Studer, B; Van Dijk, H; Handermann, R; Knecht, S

    2016-01-01

    This proof-of-concept study aimed to test whether competition could be a useful tool to increase intensity and amount of self-directed training in neurorehabilitation. Stroke patients undergoing inpatient neurorehabilitation (n=93) conducted self-directed endurance training on a (wheelchair-compatible) bicycle trainer under three experimental conditions: a "Competition" condition and two noncompetition control conditions (repeated randomized within-subject design). Training performance and perceived exertion were recorded and statistically analyzed. Three motivational effects of competition were found. First, competition led to an increase in self-directed training. Patients exercised significantly more intensively under competition than in the two noncompetition control conditions. Second, (winning a) competition had a positive influence on performance in the subsequent training session. Third, training performance was particularly high during rematch competitions; that is to say, during second encounter competitions against an opponent that the patient had just beaten. No systematic effect of competition upon perceived exertion (controlled for training performance) was found. Together, our results demonstrate that competition is a potent motivational tool to increase self-directed training in neurorehabilitation. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhancing the Benefits of Written Emotional Disclosure through Response Training

    PubMed Central

    Konig, Andrea; Eonta, Alison; Dyal, Stephanie R.; Vrana, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Writing about a personal stressful event has been found to have psychological and physical health benefits, especially when physiological response increases during writing. Response training was developed to amplify appropriate physiological reactivity in imagery exposure. The present study examined whether response training enhances the benefits of written emotional disclosure. Participants were assigned to either a written emotional disclosure condition (n = 113) or a neutral writing condition (n = 133). Participants in each condition wrote for 20 minutes on three occasions and received response training (n = 79), stimulus training (n = 84) or no training (n = 83). Heart rate and skin conductance were recorded throughout a 10-minute baseline, 20-minute writing, and a 10-minute recovery period. Self-reported emotion was assessed in each session. One month after completing the sessions, participants completed follow-up assessments of psychological and physical health outcomes. Emotional disclosure elicited greater physiological reactivity and self-reported emotion than neutral writing. Response training amplified physiological reactivity to emotional disclosure. Greater heart rate during emotional disclosure was associated with the greatest reductions in event-related distress, depression, and physical illness symptoms at follow-up, especially among response trained participants. Results support an exposure explanation of emotional disclosure effects and are the first to demonstrate that response training facilitates emotional processing and may be a beneficial adjunct to written emotional disclosure. PMID:24680230

  12. Partnering through Training and Practice to Achieve Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a partnership effort among managers, trainers, and employees to spring to life performance improvement using the performance templates (P-T) approach. P-T represents a process model as well as a method of training leading to performance improvement. Not only does it add to our repertoire of training and performance management…

  13. Trends Shaping Advanced Aircrew Training Capabilities through the 1990s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    Brooks, & Singleton, 1982; Polzella . 1983; Ricard, Crosby, & Lambert, 1982; Semple, Cotton, & Sullivan, 1981.) The paper Is oriented toward the...Williams AFI, AZ: Operations Training Division, Air Force Human Resources Laboratory. Polzella , D.J. (1983). Aircrew training devices: Utility and

  14. Facilitating Representation Change in Insight Problems through Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John; Ahmed, Afia

    2014-01-01

    Our aim in this article is to elaborate the role of training in representational change theory (RCT), particularly in terms of Ohlsson's (2011) spread of activation explanation (named "redistribution theory"), and to develop novel training manipulations that effect the re-encoding mechanism proposed by RCT (Ohlsson, 1992). Two…

  15. Improving Police Probationer Training through a Democratic Research Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandrou, Alex; Davis, John Dwyfor

    2005-01-01

    Following a damning report on the state of police probationer training in England and Wales by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary, entitled "Training Matters" (2002), the Home Office (2003), as part of its modernisation programme for the police service, decided that what police officers were required to know and learn to execute…

  16. Think3d!: Improving mathematics learning through embodied spatial training.

    PubMed

    Burte, Heather; Gardony, Aaron L; Hutton, Allyson; Taylor, Holly A

    2017-01-01

    Spatial thinking skills positively relate to Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) outcomes, but spatial training is largely absent in elementary school. Elementary school is a time when children develop foundational cognitive skills that will support STEM learning throughout their education. Spatial thinking should be considered a foundational cognitive skill. The present research examined the impact of an embodied spatial training program on elementary students' spatial and mathematical thinking. Students in rural elementary schools completed spatial and math assessments prior to and after participating in an origami and pop-up paper engineering-based program, called Think3d!. Think3d! uses embodied tasks, such as folding and cutting paper, to train two-dimensional to three-dimensional spatial thinking. Analyses explored spatial thinking gains, mathematics gains - specifically for problem types expected to show gains from spatial training - and factors predicting mathematics gains. Results showed spatial thinking gains in two assessments. Using a math categorization to target problems more and less likely to be impacted by spatial training, we found that all students improved on real-world math problems and older students improved on visual and spatial math problems. Further, the results are suggestive of developmental time points for implementing embodied spatial training related to applying spatial thinking to math. Finally, the spatial thinking assessment that was most highly related to training activities also predicted math performance gains. Future research should explore developmental issues related to how embodied spatial training might support STEM learning and outcomes.

  17. Training Insight Problem Solving through Focus on Barriers and Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walinga, Jennifer; Cunningham, J. Barton; MacGregor, James N.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has reported successful training interventions that improve insight problem solving. In some ways this is surprising, because the processes involved in insight solutions are often assumed to be unconscious, whereas the training interventions focus on conscious cognitive strategies. We propose one mechanism that may help to explain…

  18. Improving Preceptor Behavior through Formative Feedback in Preceptor Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groh, Nancy; Gill, Diane; Henning, Jolene; Stevens, Susan W.; Dondanville, Abbey

    2013-01-01

    Context: Clinical instructor educators (CIEs) prepare athletic trainers (ATs) to serve as preceptors. Structured performance observation and supervisory conferencing is a well-established method to improve teaching practice that may prove effective for training preceptors. Objective: To explore the impact of a systematic preceptor training program…

  19. Developing Meaningfulness at Work through Emotional Intelligence Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thory, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    To date, there remains a significant gap in the human resource development (HRD) literature in understanding how training and development contributes to meaningful work. In addition, little is known about how individuals proactively make their work more meaningful. This article shows how emotional intelligence (EI) training promotes learning about…

  20. Improving Police Probationer Training through a Democratic Research Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandrou, Alex; Davis, John Dwyfor

    2005-01-01

    Following a damning report on the state of police probationer training in England and Wales by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary, entitled "Training Matters" (2002), the Home Office (2003), as part of its modernisation programme for the police service, decided that what police officers were required to know and learn to execute…

  1. Improving Preceptor Behavior through Formative Feedback in Preceptor Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groh, Nancy; Gill, Diane; Henning, Jolene; Stevens, Susan W.; Dondanville, Abbey

    2013-01-01

    Context: Clinical instructor educators (CIEs) prepare athletic trainers (ATs) to serve as preceptors. Structured performance observation and supervisory conferencing is a well-established method to improve teaching practice that may prove effective for training preceptors. Objective: To explore the impact of a systematic preceptor training program…

  2. Decreasing Students' Stress through Time Management Training: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Häfner, Alexander; Stock, Armin; Oberst, Verena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a time management training program on perceived control of time and perceived stress in the context of higher education. Twenty-three undergraduate students attended a time management training intervention and reported demands, perceived stress and perceived control of time directly before 2 and…

  3. Training Insight Problem Solving through Focus on Barriers and Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walinga, Jennifer; Cunningham, J. Barton; MacGregor, James N.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has reported successful training interventions that improve insight problem solving. In some ways this is surprising, because the processes involved in insight solutions are often assumed to be unconscious, whereas the training interventions focus on conscious cognitive strategies. We propose one mechanism that may help to explain…

  4. Decreasing Students' Stress through Time Management Training: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Häfner, Alexander; Stock, Armin; Oberst, Verena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a time management training program on perceived control of time and perceived stress in the context of higher education. Twenty-three undergraduate students attended a time management training intervention and reported demands, perceived stress and perceived control of time directly before 2 and…

  5. Partnering through Training and Practice to Achieve Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a partnership effort among managers, trainers, and employees to spring to life performance improvement using the performance templates (P-T) approach. P-T represents a process model as well as a method of training leading to performance improvement. Not only does it add to our repertoire of training and performance management…

  6. SUIC: Improving Opportunities through In-Plant Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skill Upgrading in Cleveland, OH.

    Skill Upgrading in Cleveland (SUIC) is one of three manpower training and upgrading organizations which was funded to replicate and further test the High Intensity Training (HIT) model for upgrading underemployed workers. This report is a summary of activities aimed at upgrading low-skill, low-wage workers within a plant setting and with small…

  7. Increasing Mathematical Problem-Solving Performance through Relaxation Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Conni; Coltharp, Hazel; Hurford, David; Cole, AmyKay

    2000-01-01

    Studies two intact classes of 30 undergraduate students enrolled in a mathematics course; however, one group received relaxation training during an initial class meeting and during the first 5-7 minutes of each subsequent class. The group which received the relaxation training had significantly lower mathematics anxiety and significantly higher…

  8. Flight Hour Reductions in Fleet Replacement Pilot Training through Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smode, Alfred F.

    A project was undertaken to integrate the 2F87F operational flight trainer into the program for training replacement patrol plane pilots. The objectives were to determine the potential of the simulator as a substitute environment for learning aircraft tasks and to effectively utilize the simulator in pilot training. The students involved in the…

  9. Reducing the Risks of Military Aircrew Training through Simulation Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrow, Douglas R.

    1982-01-01

    This discussion of the types of risks associated with military aircrew training and the varieties of training devices and techniques currently utilized to minimize those risks includes an examination of flight trainer simulators and complex mission simulators for coping with military aviation hazards. Four references are listed. (Author/MER)

  10. Enhancing teamwork in complex environments through team training.

    PubMed

    Stout, R J; Salas, E; Fowlkes, J E

    1997-06-01

    Although the importance of team training has become widely recognized, research is needed to more clearly understand what instructional strategies actually lead to enhanced teamwork and performance. This research incorporates a theoretical framework, based on the work of J.A. Cannon-Bowers, S.I. Tannenbaum, E. Salas, and C.E. Volpe (1995), to guide the systematic development of training that targeted specific team competencies (i.e., knowledge, skills, and attitudes). The theoretically designed training was delivered to 42 male aviators from an undergraduate naval aviation community. A comprehensive evaluation of this training was conducted using a multiple-measurement approach. Results provide strong support for the effectiveness of this team training in improving critical team competencies.

  11. 20 CFR 638.600 - Applied vocational skills training (VST) through work projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applied vocational skills training (VST... Skills Training (VST) § 638.600 Applied vocational skills training (VST) through work projects. (a)(1) The Job Corps Director shall establish procedures for administering applied vocational skills...

  12. Promoting Inter-Agency Readiness through Standardized Training and Education of Front Line Responders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Review Report RBC Regular Basic Course RFT Recruit Firefighter Training RTA Regional Training Advisors REM Regional Emergency Management REPTS...the Regular Basic Training ( RBC ) curriculum that effectively prepares a police recruit to serve a local jurisdiction. This curriculum is...element of interoperability. By creating standards designed to support information sharing across organizational lines through the aggregation of

  13. Improving College-to-Work Transitions through Enhanced Training for Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papier, Joy

    2017-01-01

    Historically in South Africa, apprentice training towards artisanship in the engineering trades has been characterised by a sharp separation between theoretical studies undertaken in a technical and vocational education and training (TVET) college and subsequent practical training undertaken in a workshop or through industry placement. TVET…

  14. Running Away

    MedlinePlus

    ... away or know someone who has. If Your Friend Wants to Run Away If your friend is thinking about running away, warn him or ... will be to survive on the streets. Your friend is probably scared and confused. Try to be ...

  15. Rapid and long-lasting reduction of crowding through training

    PubMed Central

    Yashar, Amit; Chen, Jiageng; Carrasco, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    Crowding is the failure to identify an object in the peripheral visual field in the presence of nearby objects. Recent studies have shown that crowding can be alleviated after several days of training, but the processes underlying this improvement are still unclear. Here we tested whether a few hundred trials within a short period of training can alleviate crowding, whether the learning is location specific, and whether the improvement reflects facilitation by target enhancement or flankers suppression. Observers were asked to identify the orientation of a letter in the periphery surrounded by two flanker letters. Observers were tested before (pretest) and after (posttest) training (600 trials). In Experiment 1 we tested whether learning is location specific or can transfer to a different location; the training and test occurred at the same or different hemifields. In a control experiment, we ruled out alternative explanations for the learning effect in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, we assessed different components of feature selection by training with either the same flanker polarity as the pre/posttest but opposite polarity group (flanker polarity group) or the same target polarity as the pre/posttest but opposite flanker polarity (target polarity group). Following training, overall performance increased in all four conditions, but only the same-location group (Experiment 1) and the same flanker polarity (Experiment 2) showed a significant reduction in crowding as assessed by the distance at which the flankers no longer interfere with target identification, that is, the critical spacing. These results show that training can rapidly reduce crowding and that improvement primarily reflects learning to ignore the irrelevant flankers. Remarkably, in the two conditions in which training significantly reduced crowding, the benefit of short training persisted for up to a year. PMID:26583278

  16. Best Practices for Improving Capacity Building Outcomes through Professional Training: Insights from NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training (ARSET) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blevins, B.; Mehta, A. V.; Gupta, P.; Prados, A. I.; McCullum, A. J. K.; Schmidt, C.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training Program (ARSET), http://arset.gsfc.nasa.gov, has been providing applied remote sensing training since 2008. To date, the program has reached over 3500 participants, with 1600 stakeholders from 100 countries in 2015 alone. The goals of the program are to develop the technical and analytical skills necessary to utilize NASA resources for decision-support, and to help end-users navigate through the vast, freely available and open data resources. We discuss ARSET's best practices and training approach to improved data access and application of NASA satellite and model data for air quality, water resources, disasters, land, and wildfire management. ARSET follows an iterative approach where the end user community is engaged and data needs input is solicited throughout the training process. End-user data needs and feedback are also incorporated into current and future training content and communicated to NASA Applied Sciences Program principal investigators and data centers responsible for developing NASA tools, portals, data formats, and other data delivery structures. ARSET's success has relied upon 1) targeting outreach to applied science professionals both as training participants and collaborators in developing training activities 2) developing training content tailored to a specific to community's decision support activities and unique environmental challenges 3) promoting interactive forums during trainings to capture and assess end-user needs 4) training scientists within the program in science communication 5) adopting a contextualized gradual learning approach through online and hands-on instruction, and 6) conducting program evaluation, used to assess the benefit of ARSET to program participants and to plan and adapt future training content, methods, and outreach activities.

  17. Enhancing Icing Training for Pilots Through Web-Based Multimedia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, William; Nolan, Gary; Adanich, Emery; Bond, Thomas H.

    2006-01-01

    The Aircraft Icing Project of the NASA Aviation Safety Program has developed a number of in-flight icing education and training aids designed to increase pilot awareness about the hazards associated with various icing conditions. The challenges and advantages of transitioning these icing training materials to a Web-based delivery are discussed. Innovative Web-based delivery devices increased course availability to pilots and dispatchers while increasing course flexibility and utility. These courses are customizable for both self-directed and instructor-led learning. Part of our goal was to create training materials with enough flexibility to enable Web-based delivery and downloadable portability while maintaining a rich visual multimedia-based learning experience. Studies suggest that using visually based multimedia techniques increases the effectiveness of icing training materials. This paper describes these concepts, gives examples, and discusses the transitional challenges.

  18. Experience in running a Diarrhoeal Training cum Treatment Unit (DTTU) in a state teaching hospital in Calcutta.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, B; Dasgupta, S; Saha, I; Mandal, A K; Palodhi, P K

    1998-04-01

    The performance of the Diarrhoeal Training cum Treatment Unit (DTTU) of NRS Medical College and Hospital, Calcutta, in a 2-year period was evaluated by record analysis. The study revealed that 73.6% cases out of a total 4349 could be successfully managed at the oral rehydration therapy (ORT) area and only 16.5% cases required indoor admission. Rest of the cases (9.9%) with "no dehydration" were sent home with advice. There were 84.7% cases out 3919 dehydration cases who could be successfully treated by ORT and only 15.3% required intravenous (i.v.) therapy. A definite decline was also evident in the proportion of diarrhoea cases requiring antibiotic therapy (13.5% in 1991 to 6.8% in 1992). The case fatality rate due to diarrhoea was 1.7% in 1992. Had all cases of diarrhoea with dehydration being admitted and treated with i.v. fluids and antibiotics, the estimated cost would have been Rs 14.2 lakhs, which with ORT, actually cost Rs 2.4 lakhs. Thus estimated total cost reduction was to the extent of Rs 11.8 lakhs in a 2-year period.

  19. [Emergency medical training through simulation : Always the same for everyone?

    PubMed

    Schaumberg, A; Schröder, T; Sander, M

    2017-03-01

    Simulation assumes a growing importance in the field of emergency medical education. Many rescue service schools work with simulators or even have their own simulation center. Classic resuscitation training in the classroom is increasingly being replaced by realistic case scenarios. But simulators themselves do not train! Using a simulator in emergency medical training does not necessarily mean achieving sustained learning success among the participants. Depending on the skills, abilities or competences being taught, there seems to be different requirements for simulation. However, there is no scientific evidence about how strong learners should be stressed in order to achieve the best learning effect. However, it can be stated that for training purely technical skills, simulators that represent the anatomical or physiological reality as accurately as possible should be used. If soft skills, practical knowledge and decision-making are the learning objectives, a scenario with extremly realistic conditions needs to be embedded. Mid-fidelity simulators seem to be able to cover the widest range of imparting skills for emergency medical training. No matter what simulator is used, the following applies: The selected scenario must be realistic and the simulation as well as technical capabilities of the simulator must be coordinated. A well-presented scenario with a well-trained teacher using a simple resuscitation doll appears to be better than a highly complex, however unrealistic, amateur simulation scenario for successful learning.

  20. Well liner running shoe

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.F.

    1994-01-11

    Wellbore liners are set with a running shoe comprising a cylindrical body, end cap, check valve and receiver member in assembly. The receiver member includes threads for receiving the coupling sleeve of a running tool, and retaining wickers for engagement with a cement plug or dart to retain the same permanently engaged with and blocking the flow of fluid through the running shoe. A running tool for use with the shoe includes a coupling sleeve which is retained on a support mandrel by a collar which is secured to the mandrel with a shear pin so that pressuring up the workstring, in the event of a stuck coupling sleeve, will permit retrieval of the main part of the running tool and the workstring. The interior parts of the running shoe are made of aluminum or plastic for easy drill-out to extend the wellbore beyond the end of the liner. 3 figs.

  1. Minimizing Injuries and Enhancing Performance in Golf Through Training Programs

    PubMed Central

    Meira, Erik P.; Brumitt, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Context: Golf is a popular sport, particularly in older populations. Regardless of age and skill level, golfers risk injury to the back, shoulder, wrist and hand, elbow, and knee. Because of the unique compressive, shear, rotational, and lateral bending forces created in the lumbar region during the golf swing, the primary sport-related malady experienced by amateurs and professionals is low back pain. Extrinsic and intrinsic injury risk factors have been reported in the literature. A growing body of evidence supports the prescription of strength training routines to enhance performance and reduce the risk of injury. Evidence Acquisition: Relevant studies were reviewed on golf injuries, swing mechanics, training routines, and general training program design. The following electronic databases were used to identify research relevant to this report: MEDLINE (from 1950–November 2009), CINAHL (1982–November 2009), and SPORTDiscus (1830–November 2009). Results: Injuries may be associated with lack of warm-up, poor trunk flexibility and strength, faulty swing technique, and overuse. Conclusions: Implementing a training program that includes flexibility, strength, and power training with correction of faulty swing mechanics will help the golfer reduce the likelihood of injury and improve overall performance. PMID:23015957

  2. Nutrition education and leadership for improved clinical outcomes: training and supporting junior doctors to run ‘Nutrition Awareness Weeks’ in three NHS hospitals across England

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One in four adults are estimated to be at medium to high risk of malnutrition when screened using the ‘Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool’ upon admission to hospital in the United Kingdom. The Need for Nutrition Education/Education Programme (NNEdPro) Group was developed to address this issue and the Nutrition Education and Leadership for Improved Clinical Outcomes (NELICO) is a project within this group. The objective of NELICO was to assess whether an intensive training intervention combining clinical and public health nutrition, organisational management and leadership strategies, could equip junior doctors to contribute to improvement in nutrition awareness among healthcare professionals in the National Health Service in England. Methods Three junior doctors were self-selected from the NNEdPro Group original training. Each junior doctor recruited three additional team members to attend an intensive training weekend incorporating nutrition, change management and leadership. This equipped them to run nutrition awareness weeks in their respective hospitals. Knowledge, attitudes and practices were evaluated at baseline as well as one and four months post-training as a quality assurance measure. The number and type of educational events held, pre-awareness week Online Hospital Survey results, attendance and qualitative feedback from training sessions, effectiveness of dissemination methods such as awareness stalls, Hospital Nutrition Attitude Survey results and overall feedback were also used to determine impact. Results When the weighted average score for knowledge, attitudes and practices at baseline was compared with four months post-intervention scores, there was a significant increase in the overall score (p = 0.03). All three hospital teams conducted an effective nutrition awareness week, as determined by qualitative data collected from interviews and feedback from educational sessions. Conclusion The NELICO project and its resulting

  3. Nutrition education and leadership for improved clinical outcomes: training and supporting junior doctors to run 'Nutrition Awareness Weeks' in three NHS hospitals across England.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sumantra; Laur, Celia; Douglas, Pauline; Rajput-Ray, Minha; van der Es, Mike; Redmond, Jean; Eden, Timothy; Sayegh, Marietta; Minns, Laura; Griffin, Kate; McMillan, Colin; Adiamah, Alfred; Gillam, Stephen; Gandy, Joan

    2014-05-29

    One in four adults are estimated to be at medium to high risk of malnutrition when screened using the 'Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool' upon admission to hospital in the United Kingdom. The Need for Nutrition Education/Education Programme (NNEdPro) Group was developed to address this issue and the Nutrition Education and Leadership for Improved Clinical Outcomes (NELICO) is a project within this group.The objective of NELICO was to assess whether an intensive training intervention combining clinical and public health nutrition, organisational management and leadership strategies, could equip junior doctors to contribute to improvement in nutrition awareness among healthcare professionals in the National Health Service in England. Three junior doctors were self-selected from the NNEdPro Group original training. Each junior doctor recruited three additional team members to attend an intensive training weekend incorporating nutrition, change management and leadership. This equipped them to run nutrition awareness weeks in their respective hospitals. Knowledge, attitudes and practices were evaluated at baseline as well as one and four months post-training as a quality assurance measure. The number and type of educational events held, pre-awareness week Online Hospital Survey results, attendance and qualitative feedback from training sessions, effectiveness of dissemination methods such as awareness stalls, Hospital Nutrition Attitude Survey results and overall feedback were also used to determine impact. When the weighted average score for knowledge, attitudes and practices at baseline was compared with four months post-intervention scores, there was a significant increase in the overall score (p = 0.03). All three hospital teams conducted an effective nutrition awareness week, as determined by qualitative data collected from interviews and feedback from educational sessions. The NELICO project and its resulting nutrition awareness weeks were considered

  4. Increasing mathematical problem-solving performance through relaxation training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Conni; Coltharp, Hazel; Hurford, David; Cole, Amykay

    2000-04-01

    Two intact classes of 30 undergraduate students enrolled in the same general education mathematics course were each administered the IPSP Mathematics Problem Solving Test and the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale at the beginning and end of the semester. Both groups experienced the same syllabus, lectures, course requirements, and assessment techniques; however, one group received relaxation training during an initial class meeting and during the first 5 to 7 minutes of each subsequent class. The group which had received relaxation training had significantly lower mathematics anxiety and significantly higher mathematics performance at the end of the course. The results suggest that relaxation training may be a useful tool for treating anxiety in undergraduate general education mathematics students.

  5. Improving resistance and resiliency through crisis intervention training.

    PubMed

    Chan, Angelina O M; Chan, Yiong Huak; Kee, Jass P C

    2012-01-01

    To our knowledge no research has been done on the impact of crisis intervention training programs on resistance and resiliency. This paper describes the use of a localized crisis intervention course and its impact on resistance and resiliency in the participants after 2 days of training. Participants attending the localized version of ICISF Individual Crisis Intervention and Peer Support courses participated in a pre-course quiz and a post-course quiz. The overall resistance and resiliency scores improved at the end of the localized 2-Day Individual Crisis Intervention and Peer Support course. Organizations should view the training of employees in mental health and crisis intervention as contributing to the overall resiliency of the organization, in addition to providing services that facilitate the resilience and recovery of employees affected by personal or workplace stress or critical incidents.

  6. Air Pollution Training Courses July 1971 Through June 1972 and University Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC.

    The courses, seminars and workshops given at the ten regional centers of the Institute for Air Pollution Training and university air pollution training programs sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency are described in this directory. The Institute's primary objective is to develop and improve the skills and knowledge of individuals in air…

  7. Improving Preschoolers’ Arithmetic through Number Magnitude Training: The Impact of Non-Symbolic and Symbolic Training

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The numerical cognition literature offers two views to explain numerical and arithmetical development. The unique-representation view considers the approximate number system (ANS) to represent the magnitude of both symbolic and non-symbolic numbers and to be the basis of numerical learning. In contrast, the dual-representation view suggests that symbolic and non-symbolic skills rely on different magnitude representations and that it is the ability to build an exact representation of symbolic numbers that underlies math learning. Support for these hypotheses has come mainly from correlative studies with inconsistent results. In this study, we developed two training programs aiming at enhancing the magnitude processing of either non-symbolic numbers or symbolic numbers and compared their effects on arithmetic skills. Fifty-six preschoolers were randomly assigned to one of three 10-session-training conditions: (1) non-symbolic training (2) symbolic training and (3) control training working on story understanding. Both numerical training conditions were significantly more efficient than the control condition in improving magnitude processing. Moreover, symbolic training led to a significantly larger improvement in arithmetic than did non-symbolic training and the control condition. These results support the dual-representation view. PMID:27875540

  8. Break through to success with training and teamwork.

    PubMed

    Williams, M K

    1999-08-01

    This is a case study on the effect of training and teamwork in two different divisions within the same company. One division consisted of a nonunion manufacturing plant; the second was a unionized distribution operation. In both operations, serious problems existed--poor customer service levels, inadequate inventory turns, and insufficient profitability. These are the kinds of problems that, left untreated, can cause the death of any manufacturing or distribution operation. However, by implementing training and teamwork at both operations, impressive benefits were achieved, including customer service levels exceeding 90 percent, dramatic improvements in the inventory turnover rate, and profitability that exceeded corporate goals.

  9. Changes in lactate dehydrogenase and 3-hydroxyacetyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities in rat skeletal muscle by the administration of Eucommia ulmoides OLIVER leaf with spontaneous running-training.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Koike, K; Che, Q; Yamaguchi, M; Takahashi, S

    1999-09-01

    We examined the effect of Eucommia ulmoides OLIVER leaf on rat skeletal muscles together with spontaneous running-training in terms of the isozyme profile and specific activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; EC 1.1.1.27) and 3-hydroxyacetyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD; EC 1.1.1.35). On the twenty-ninth day of the experimental period, a mandatory endurance running exercise (treadmill, 7 degrees grade) was conducted. Twenty-four hours later, the rats were sacrificed and the skeletal muscles and other organs were dissected. Due to the training, the HAD specific activity in the skeletal muscles had increased and a more oxidative metabolism had developed, which was further enhanced by the administration of the leaf. In soleus (SOL) muscle in the Eucommia leaf treated running-training group (ET), the LDH specific activity in the skeletal muscle was significantly higher than in the sedentary control group (SC). The isozyme profile of the group ET was significantly different when compared with the group SC. The changes in the LDH isozyme profile were larger in the SOL than that in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle. The results show that mechanical training and the use of the leaf cooperatively increase the ability to avoid lactate accumulation in skeletal muscle. This effect is supported by the group where 67% of rats accomplished the endurance running exercise. Theses results suggest that the administration of Eucommia ulmoides OLIVER leaf along with light intensity training enhances the ability of a muscle to resist fatigue.

  10. [Effects of Training Students through a Program Simulating Medication Administration and Patient Instructions in Pre-training for Practical Training].

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Chigusa; Matsunaga, Tamihide; Suzuki, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacy school students were trained in a program simulating medication administration and giving adherence instructions. Following the training, the educational effects were evaluated. Students were separated into two groups. One group of students played the role of pharmacists and instructed simulated patients on medication adherence. Another group of students played the role of patients receiving simulated drug therapy; they were instructed on medication adherence by the students playing the role of pharmacists. The educational effects were evaluated using a questionnaire. The scores for "recognition of factors that influence medication adherence" tended to increase after the simulation, and they increased significantly after practical training. The scores for "self-evaluation of technique for instructing patients on medication adherence" increased significantly after the simulation, and they increased even more after practical training. The students' understanding of the effects on patients who were being instructed also increased significantly after the simulation, and these changes were maintained after practical training. In particular, students became more aware of the influence of pharmacists' attitudes. In practical training, the simulation training was helpful for bedside practice at hospital pharmacies and over-the-counter service at community pharmacies. Thus, the use of role play and simulated patients was an effective method for training pharmacy students to instruct patients on medication adherence.

  11. Transfer of Training: Adding Insight through Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van den Bossche, Piet; Segers, Mien

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews studies which apply a social network perspective to examine transfer of training. The theory behind social networks focuses on the interpersonal mechanisms and social structures that exist among interacting units such as people within an organization. A premise of this perspective is that individual's behaviors and outcomes…

  12. Cultivating Mind Fitness through Mindfulness Training: Applied Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heydenfeldt, Jo Ann; Herkenhoff, Linda; Coe, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Mindfulness reduces distress, promotes optimal health, improves attentional control, mental agility, emotional intelligence, and situational awareness. Stress management and cognitive performance in Marines who spent more hours practicing Mindfulness Based Mind Fitness Training were superior to those soldiers who practiced fewer hours. Students…

  13. Improving Lecture Quality through Training in Public Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowbray, Robert; Perry, Laura B.

    2015-01-01

    Lecturing is a common instructional format but poor lecturing skills can detract from students' learning experiences and outcomes. As lecturing is essentially a form of public communication, training in public speaking may improve lecture quality. Twelve university lecturers in Malaysia participated in a six-week public speaking skills training…

  14. Improving Product Performance Through New Equipment Training (NET) Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    42 b. Generation X ...........................................................................42 c. Millennial ...Generation X, and Millennials or Gen Y. Sometimes the term Nexters is used for younger Millennials . Common knowledge indicates that each generation...to the Millennial generation in the workplace including training. Shamy also explained that all generations are most comfortable with the learning

  15. (Re)Constructing Rurality through Skilled Trades Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Nicole Gerarda

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing body of research interrogating the discursive construction of "rural" in negative terms--as lacking, in decline or in crisis. This paper contributes to this body of literature by taking as its point of departure skilled trades training in Canada's most easterly province, Newfoundland and Labrador. To meet the labour…

  16. Designing Simulations for Athletic Training Students through Interprofessional Teaching Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tivener, Kristin Ann; Gloe, Donna Sue

    2015-01-01

    Context: While multidisciplinary team approaches to education and practice have been promoted for decades, literature on collaborative efforts in athletic training and nursing remains sparse. Objective: The goal of this article is to provide an example of an interprofessional teaching collaboration in which a simulation scenario was developed…

  17. Improving Lecture Quality through Training in Public Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowbray, Robert; Perry, Laura B.

    2015-01-01

    Lecturing is a common instructional format but poor lecturing skills can detract from students' learning experiences and outcomes. As lecturing is essentially a form of public communication, training in public speaking may improve lecture quality. Twelve university lecturers in Malaysia participated in a six-week public speaking skills training…

  18. Rights Consciousness: Victimization Prevention through Personal Defense and Assertiveness Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidder, Louise H.; And Others

    Anger and consciousness of rights may play a significant role in victimization prevention. In an attempt to examine how personal defense and assertiveness training would alter women's feelings of fear, helplessness, and anger, as well as their judgments of what rights they have, three studies were conducted. The first study, a participant…

  19. Cultivating Mind Fitness through Mindfulness Training: Applied Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heydenfeldt, Jo Ann; Herkenhoff, Linda; Coe, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Mindfulness reduces distress, promotes optimal health, improves attentional control, mental agility, emotional intelligence, and situational awareness. Stress management and cognitive performance in Marines who spent more hours practicing Mindfulness Based Mind Fitness Training were superior to those soldiers who practiced fewer hours. Students…

  20. Think3d!: Improving Mathematics Learning through Embodied Spatial Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burte, Heather; Gardony, Aaron L.; Hutton, Allyson; Taylor, Holly A.

    2017-01-01

    Spatial thinking skills positively relate to Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) outcomes, but spatial training is largely absent in elementary school. Elementary school is a time when children develop foundational cognitive skills that will support STEM learning throughout their education. Spatial thinking should be considered a…

  1. Promoting Maintenance and Generalization through Cognitive Decision Making Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fore, Cecil, III; Riser, Susan E.

    2005-01-01

    This article investigates issues in the areas of work outcomes, self-determination, career decision-making skills, person centered planning, and transitional planning for students with disabilities. In particular, training in cognitive decision-making is suggested for students with mild disabilities. Educators and schools are charged with…

  2. Improving Nursing Home Care through Training and Job Redesign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyer, Michael; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Short-term longitudinal study assessed single and combined effects of two interventions designed to affect nursing assistants' (n=193) performance by increasing knowledge and motivation. Four sites included skills training only, job redesign only, both interventions, and control. Significant differences were found in knowledge in comparisons…

  3. Transfer of Training: Adding Insight through Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van den Bossche, Piet; Segers, Mien

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews studies which apply a social network perspective to examine transfer of training. The theory behind social networks focuses on the interpersonal mechanisms and social structures that exist among interacting units such as people within an organization. A premise of this perspective is that individual's behaviors and outcomes…

  4. Improving Foundational Number Representations through Simple Arithmetical Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallai, Arava Y.; Schunn, Christian D.; Ponting, Andrea L.; Fiez, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test a training program intended to fine-tune the mental representations of double-digit numbers, thus increasing the discriminability of such numbers. The authors' assumption was that increased fluency in math could be achieved by improving the analogic representations of numbers. The study was completed in the…

  5. Improving the Performance of Poor Readers through Autogenic Relaxation Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Herbert

    1980-01-01

    Reports that the addition of 15 minutes of relaxation training to weekly remedial reading periods for disabled readers throughout a school year raised concentration levels and decreased anxiety, neuroticism, and number of reading errors. Describes a few types of relaxation exercises that may be helpful. (ET)

  6. The Challenge of Competence. Professionalism through Vocational Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodkinson, Phil, Ed.; Issitt, Mary, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers about the role of vocational education and training in developing a competent work force in Great Britain (United Kingdom): "The Challenge of Competence for the Caring Professions: An Overview" (Phil Hodkinson, Mary Issitt); "The European Challenge to British Vocational Education and…

  7. RESTORATION OF YOUTH THROUGH TRAINING, A FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MANDELL, WALLACE; SULLIVAN, CLYDE E.

    THE PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT WAS TO PROVIDE VOCATIONAL TRAINING FOR A SAMPLE OF YOUNG JAIL INMATES ON RIKERS ISLAND IN NEW YORK CITY AND TO EVALUATE THEIR SUBSEQUENT PERFORMANCE AND ADJUSTMENT UPON RELEASE. OF 264 INMATES SELECTED UPON THE BASIS OF TESTING AND OTHER CRITERIA, 137 WERE RANDOMLY ASSIGNED TO AN EXPERIMENTAL AND 127 TO A CONTROL GROUP.…

  8. Liberal Education through Training: Bringing Higher Education to the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, William A.

    A case is put forward for incorporating the skills, attitudes, perspectives, and sensitivities of liberal learning into training programs in the workplace. Liberal learning not only results in employees who possess the skills, insights, breadth of understanding, flexibility and tolerance traditionally associated with liberal arts graduates but is…

  9. Enhancing Employability through Industrial Training in the Malaysian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillai, Stefanie; Khan, Mahmud H.; Ibrahim, Ida Syahirah; Raphael, Sharmane

    2012-01-01

    This study discusses the industrial training programme at the University of Malaya in Malaysia, specifically the issues that need to be addressed in order to enhance the employability skills of graduates. Findings from the feedback obtained from trainees and organizations in the 2008/2009 academic session were examined in terms of the extent to…

  10. Prevention through Parent Training: Making More of a Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Peter; Stanley, Lesley

    2005-01-01

    Responding to serious behaviour problems requires new practice answers and emphases. Best practice principles and a developmental perspective indicate that the family should be the focus of preventative work. The Incredible Years parent training series is described as an important example of an empirically-supported programme that is presently…

  11. Designing Simulations for Athletic Training Students through Interprofessional Teaching Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tivener, Kristin Ann; Gloe, Donna Sue

    2015-01-01

    Context: While multidisciplinary team approaches to education and practice have been promoted for decades, literature on collaborative efforts in athletic training and nursing remains sparse. Objective: The goal of this article is to provide an example of an interprofessional teaching collaboration in which a simulation scenario was developed…

  12. Leveraging the Corporate Library through Web User Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detlor, Brian

    Recently, increasing reliance on Web technology by end-users in organizations has encouraged corporate libraries to provide Web user training. To understand the effects of this new service, a case study was conducted on 17 participants at a large Canadian utility company. After an initial questionnaire, participant usage of the Web was…

  13. Exercise training causes sympathoinhibition through antioxidant effect in the rostral ventrolateral medulla of hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Takuya; Hirooka, Yoshitaka; Katsuki, Masato; Ogawa, Kiyohiro; Shinohara, Keisuke; Isegawa, Kengo; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Exercise training normalizes sympathetic outflow in hypertension and chronic heart failure. The aim of this study was to determine whether the exercise training inhibits sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) via reduction of oxidative stress through blocked angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) in rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). We divided stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) into SHRSP with exercised training (SHRSP-EX) and control (SHRSP-C). SNA and oxidative stress in the RVLM were significantly lower in SHRSP-EX than in SHRSP-C. These results suggest that exercise training inhibits SNA via reduction of oxidative stress through blocked AT(1)R in the RVLM of hypertension.

  14. The anatomy and biomechanics of running.

    PubMed

    Nicola, Terry L; Jewison, David J

    2012-04-01

    To understand the normal series of biomechanical events of running, a comparative assessment to walking is helpful. Closed kinetic chain through the lower extremities, control of the lumbopelvic mechanism, and overall symmetry of movement has been described well enough that deviations from normal movement can now be associated with specific overuse injuries experienced by runners. This information in combination with a history of the runner's errors in their training program will lead to a more comprehensive treatment and prevention plan for related injuries.

  15. A case study of interior low-frequency noise from box-shaped bridge girders induced by running trains: Its mechanism, prediction and countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xun; Li, Xiaozhen; Hao, Hong; Wang, Dangxiong; Li, Yadong

    2016-04-01

    A side effect of high-speed railway and urban rail transit systems is the associated vibration and noise. Since the use of concrete viaducts is predominant in railway construction due to scarce land resources, low-frequency (20-200 Hz) structure-radiated noise from concrete bridges is a principal concern. Although it is the most commonly used bridge type, the mechanism of noise emission from box-shaped bridge girders when subjected to impact forces from moving trains, which sounds like beating a drum, has not been well studied. In this study, a field measurement was first made on a simply-supported box-shaped bridge to record the acceleration of the slabs and the associated sound pressures induced by running trains. These data indicated that a significant beat-wave noise occurred in the box-shaped cavity when the train speed was around 340 km/h, which arose from the interference between two sound waves of 75.0 Hz and 78.8 Hz. The noise leakage from the bridge expansion joint was serious and resulted in obvious noise pollution near the bridge once the beat-wave noise was generated in the cavity. The dominant frequency of the interior noise at 75.0 Hz was confirmed from the spectrum of the data and the modal analysis results, and originated from the peak vibration of the top slab due to resonance and the first-order vertical acoustic mode, which led to cavity resonance, amplifying the corresponding noise. The three-dimensional acoustic modes and local vibration modes of the slab were calculated by using the finite element method. A simplified vehicle-track-bridge coupling vibration model was then developed to calculate the wheel-rail interaction force in a frequency range of 20-200 Hz. Numerical simulations using the boundary element method confirmed the cavity resonance effect and the numerical results agreed well with the data. Based on the calibrated numerical model, three noise reduction measures, i.e., adding a horizontal baffle in the interior cavity, narrowing

  16. Angiotensin II receptor blocker telmisartan enhances running endurance of skeletal muscle through activation of the PPAR-δ/AMPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaoli; Luo, Zhidan; Ma, Liqun; Ma, Shuangtao; Yang, Dachun; Zhao, Zhigang; Yan, Zhencheng; He, Hongbo; Cao, Tingbing; Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming

    2011-07-01

    Clinical trials have shown that angiotensin II receptor blockers reduce the new onset of diabetes in hypertensives; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We investigated the effects of telmisartan on peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPAR-δ) and the adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway in cultured myotubes, as well as on the running endurance of wild-type and PPAR-δ-deficient mice. Administration of telmisartan up-regulated levels of PPAR-δ and phospho-AMPKα in cultured myotubes. However, PPAR-δ gene deficiency completely abolished the telmisartan effect on phospho-AMPKαin vitro. Chronic administration of telmisartan remarkably prevented weight gain, enhanced running endurance and post-exercise oxygen consumption, and increased slow-twitch skeletal muscle fibres in wild-type mice, but these effects were absent in PPAR-δ-deficient mice. The mechanism is involved in PPAR-δ-mediated stimulation of the AMPK pathway. Compared to the control mice, phospho-AMPKα level in skeletal muscle was up-regulated in mice treated with telmisartan. In contrast, phospho-AMPKα expression in skeletal muscle was unchanged in PPAR-δ-deficient mice treated with telmisartan. These findings highlight the ability of telmisartan to improve skeletal muscle function, and they implicate PPAR-δ as a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2011 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Angiotensin II receptor blocker telmisartan enhances running endurance of skeletal muscle through activation of the PPAR-δ/AMPK pathway

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiaoli; Luo, Zhidan; Ma, Liqun; Ma, Shuangtao; Yang, Dachun; Zhao, Zhigang; Yan, Zhencheng; He, Hongbo; Cao, Tingbing; Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Clinical trials have shown that angiotensin II receptor blockers reduce the new onset of diabetes in hypertensives; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We investigated the effects of telmisartan on peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPAR-δ) and the adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway in cultured myotubes, as well as on the running endurance of wild-type and PPAR-δ-deficient mice. Administration of telmisartan up-regulated levels of PPAR-δ and phospho-AMPKα in cultured myotubes. However, PPAR-δ gene deficiency completely abolished the telmisartan effect on phospho-AMPKαin vitro. Chronic administration of telmisartan remarkably prevented weight gain, enhanced running endurance and post-exercise oxygen consumption, and increased slow-twitch skeletal muscle fibres in wild-type mice, but these effects were absent in PPAR-δ-deficient mice. The mechanism is involved in PPAR-δ-mediated stimulation of the AMPK pathway. Compared to the control mice, phospho-AMPKα level in skeletal muscle was up-regulated in mice treated with telmisartan. In contrast, phospho-AMPKα expression in skeletal muscle was unchanged in PPAR-δ-deficient mice treated with telmisartan. These findings highlight the ability of telmisartan to improve skeletal muscle function, and they implicate PPAR-δ as a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. PMID:20477906

  18. The Effects of Different Training Backgrounds on VO2 Responses to All-Out and Supramaximal Constant-Velocity Running Bouts

    PubMed Central

    de Aguiar, Rafael Alves; Lisbôa, Felipe Domingos; Turnes, Tiago; Cruz, Rogério Santos de Oliveira; Caputo, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the impact of different training backgrounds on pulmonary oxygen uptake (V̇O2) responses during all-out and supramaximal constant-velocity running exercises, nine sprinters (SPRs) and eight endurance runners (ENDs) performed an incremental test for maximal aerobic velocity (MAV) assessment and two supramaximal running exercises (1-min all-out test and constant-velocity exercise). The V̇O2 responses were continuously determined during the tests (K4b2, Cosmed, Italy). A mono-exponential function was used to describe the V̇O2 onset kinetics during constant-velocity test at 110%MAV, while during 1-min all-out test the peak of V̇O2 (V̇O2peak), the time to achieve the V̇O2peak (tV̇O2peak) and the V̇O2 decrease at last of the test was determined to characterize the V̇O2 response. During constant-velocity exercise, ENDs had a faster V̇O2 kinetics than SPRs (12.7 ± 3.0 vs. 19.3 ± 5.6 s; p < 0.001). During the 1-min all-out test, ENDs presented slower tV̇O2peak than SPRs (40.6 ± 6.8 and 28.8 ± 6.4 s, respectively; p = 0.002) and had a similar V̇O2peak relative to the V̇O2max (88 ± 8 and 83 ± 6%, respectively; p = 0.157). Finally, SPRs was the only group that presented a V̇O2 decrease in the last half of the test (-1.8 ± 2.3 and 3.5 ± 2.3 ml.kg-1.min-1, respectively; p < 0.001). In summary, SPRs have a faster V̇O2 response when maximum intensity is required and a high maximum intensity during all-out running exercise seems to lead to a higher decrease in V̇O2 in the last part of the exercise. PMID:26252001

  19. Gaining Through Training: Pilot Proficiency in Modern Combat Aviation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    in managing , operating, and training. To solve problems created by rapidly advancing weapons technology, designers and managers created a...a problem in decision-making in the MQ-9 community exists because of how the Air Force employs the aircraft. In the mobility community ...navigate and overfly triple-canopy jungle. The Air Force attempted to solve this ground-reference problem by seeding homing and targeting beacons into

  20. Air-Sea Battle through Joint Training: Power Projection Sustainability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-15

    misconception is that the ASB Concept relies on the development of new 25 U.S. Office of the Chairman, Joint...advanced tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP), vice the integration of existing capabilities. 30 The risk of this misconception is that U.S...insufficient joint training and planning involving the denial of the electro- magnetic spectrum. 67 With the changes in the global A2/AD environment, the CVW

  1. Mission Training Through Distributed Simulation - Contributing to Warfighter Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-11-01

    technology to join together a collection of compatible advanced real- time pilot-in-the-loop flight simulators, plus other simulations, located at...including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering end maintaining the data needed, and completing and...rich and complex operational environment and can expand the scope of training to include the chain of command, including real- time targeting and

  2. Training communication abilities in Rett Syndrome through reading and writing

    PubMed Central

    Fabio, Rosa Angela; Castelli, Ilaria; Marchetti, Antonella; Antonietti, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this clinical case study is to investigate the possibility of training communication abilities in people with Rett Syndrome (RS). Usually, girls with RS never exceed the sensorimotor stage of development, but the inter-individual variability typical of RS may lead us to doubt the irrevocability of that developmental limit, especially for those girls who are engaged in cognitive rehabilitation. The case study reported here concerns a 21-year-old girl with RS who was engaged in cognitive rehabilitation training based upon the principles of Feuerstein's modificability and mediated learning theory. The training aimed to teach her basic concepts and enhance reading-writing abilities. Statistical analyses showed that the girl reached adequate reading-writing abilities, proving the validity of the cognitive intervention which allowed her to communicate by composing words with her forefinger on an alphabetic table. Although these results need to be cautiously considered as they derive from a single case study, they have implications for future cognitive rehabilitation for deeply impaired clinical conditions as in the case of RS. PMID:24367345

  3. Improving a Bimanual Motor Skill Through Unimanual Training.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takuji; Nozaki, Daichi

    2016-01-01

    When we learn a bimanual motor skill (e.g., rowing a boat), we often break it down into unimanual practices (e.g., a rowing drill with the left or right arm). Such unimanual practice is thought to be useful for learning bimanual motor skills efficiently because the learner can concentrate on learning to perform a simpler component. However, it is not so straightforward to assume that unimanual training (UT) improves bimanual performance. We have previously demonstrated that motor memories for reaching movements consist of three different parts: unimanual-specific, bimanual-specific, and overlapping parts. According to this scheme, UT appears to be less effective, as its training effect is only partially transferred to the same limb for bimanual movement. In the present study, counter-intuitively, we demonstrate that, even after the bimanual skill is almost fully learned by means of bimanual training (BT), additional UT could further improve bimanual skill. We hypothesized that this effect occurs because UT increases the memory content in the overlapping part, which might contribute to an increase in the memory for bimanual movement. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether the UT performed after sufficient BT could improve the bimanual performance. Participants practiced performing bimanual reaching movements (BM) in the presence of a novel force-field imposed only on their left arm. As an index for the motor performance, we used the error-clamp method (i.e., after-effect of the left arm) to evaluate the force output to compensate for the force-field during the reaching movement. After sufficient BT, the training effect reached a plateau. However, UT performed subsequently improved the bimanual performance significantly. In contrast, when the same amount of BT was continued, the bimanual performance remained unchanged, highlighting the beneficial effect of UT on bimanual performance. Considering memory structure, we also expected that BT could improve unimanual

  4. Improving a Bimanual Motor Skill Through Unimanual Training

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Takuji; Nozaki, Daichi

    2016-01-01

    When we learn a bimanual motor skill (e.g., rowing a boat), we often break it down into unimanual practices (e.g., a rowing drill with the left or right arm). Such unimanual practice is thought to be useful for learning bimanual motor skills efficiently because the learner can concentrate on learning to perform a simpler component. However, it is not so straightforward to assume that unimanual training (UT) improves bimanual performance. We have previously demonstrated that motor memories for reaching movements consist of three different parts: unimanual-specific, bimanual-specific, and overlapping parts. According to this scheme, UT appears to be less effective, as its training effect is only partially transferred to the same limb for bimanual movement. In the present study, counter-intuitively, we demonstrate that, even after the bimanual skill is almost fully learned by means of bimanual training (BT), additional UT could further improve bimanual skill. We hypothesized that this effect occurs because UT increases the memory content in the overlapping part, which might contribute to an increase in the memory for bimanual movement. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether the UT performed after sufficient BT could improve the bimanual performance. Participants practiced performing bimanual reaching movements (BM) in the presence of a novel force-field imposed only on their left arm. As an index for the motor performance, we used the error-clamp method (i.e., after-effect of the left arm) to evaluate the force output to compensate for the force-field during the reaching movement. After sufficient BT, the training effect reached a plateau. However, UT performed subsequently improved the bimanual performance significantly. In contrast, when the same amount of BT was continued, the bimanual performance remained unchanged, highlighting the beneficial effect of UT on bimanual performance. Considering memory structure, we also expected that BT could improve unimanual

  5. Community Capacity Building as a vital mechanism for enhancing the growth and efficacy of a sustainable scientific software ecosystem: experiences running a real-time bi-coastal "Open Science for Synthesis" Training Institute for young Earth and Environmental scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schildhauer, M.; Jones, M. B.; Bolker, B.; Lenhardt, W. C.; Hampton, S. E.; Idaszak, R.; Rebich Hespanha, S.; Ahalt, S.; Christopherson, L.

    2014-12-01

    Continuing advances in computational capabilities, access to Big Data, and virtual collaboration technologies are creating exciting new opportunities for accomplishing Earth science research at finer resolutions, with much broader scope, using powerful modeling and analytical approaches that were unachievable just a few years ago. Yet, there is a perceptible lag in the abilities of the research community to capitalize on these new possibilities, due to lacking the relevant skill-sets, especially with regards to multi-disciplinary and integrative investigations that involve active collaboration. UC Santa Barbara's National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS), and the University of North Carolina's Renaissance Computing Institute (RENCI), were recipients of NSF OCI S2I2 "Conceptualization awards", charged with helping define the needs of the research community relative to enabling science and education through "sustained software infrastructure". Over the course of our activities, a consistent request from Earth scientists was for "better training in software that enables more effective, reproducible research." This community-based feedback led to creation of an "Open Science for Synthesis" Institute— a innovative, three-week, bi-coastal training program for early career researchers. We provided a mix of lectures, hands-on exercises, and working group experience on topics including: data discovery and preservation; code creation, management, sharing, and versioning; scientific workflow documentation and reproducibility; statistical and machine modeling techniques; virtual collaboration mechanisms; and methods for communicating scientific results. All technologies and quantitative tools presented were suitable for advancing open, collaborative, and reproducible synthesis research. In this talk, we will report on the lessons learned from running this ambitious training program, that involved coordinating classrooms among two remote sites, and

  6. Building a culture of safety through team training and engagement.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Lily; Galla, Catherine

    2013-05-01

    Medical errors continue to occur despite multiple strategies devised for their prevention. Although many safety initiatives lead to improvement, they are often short lived and unsustainable. Our goal was to build a culture of patient safety within a structure that optimised teamwork and ongoing engagement of the healthcare team. Teamwork impacts the effectiveness of care, patient safety and clinical outcomes, and team training has been identified as a strategy for enhancing teamwork, reducing medical errors and building a culture of safety in healthcare. Therefore, we implemented Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS), an evidence-based framework which was used for team training to create transformational and/or incremental changes; facilitating transformation of organisational culture, or solving specific problems. To date, TeamSTEPPS (TS) has been implemented in 14 hospitals, two Long Term Care Facilities, and outpatient areas across the North Shore LIJ Health System. 32 150 members of the healthcare team have been trained. TeamSTEPPS was piloted at a community hospital within the framework of the health system's organisational care delivery model, the Collaborative Care Model to facilitate sustainment. AHRQ's Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture, (HSOPSC), was administered before and after implementation of TeamSTEPPS, comparing the perception of patient safety by the heathcare team. Pilot hospital results of HSOPSC show significant improvement from 2007 (pre-TeamSTEPPS) to 2010. System-wide results of HSOPSC show similar trends to those seen in the pilot hospital. Valuable lessons for organisational success from the pilot hospital enabled rapid spread of TeamSTEPPS across the rest of the health system.

  7. Supporting sustainability initiatives through biometeorology education and training.

    PubMed

    Allen, Michael J; Vanos, Jennifer; Hondula, David M; Vecellio, Daniel J; Knight, David; Mehdipoor, Hamed; Lucas, Rebekah; Fuhrmann, Chris; Lokys, Hanna; Lees, Angela; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; Leung, Andrew C W; Perkins, David R

    2017-07-19

    The International Society of Biometeorology (ISB) has covered significant breadth and depth addressing fundamental and applied societal and environmental challenges in the last 60 years. Biometeorology is an interdisciplinary science connecting living organisms to their environment, but there is very little understanding of the existence and placement of this discipline within formal educational systems and institutions. It is thus difficult to project the ability of members of the biometeorological community-especially the biometeorologists of the future-to help solve global challenges. In this paper, we ask: At present, how we are training people to understand and think about biometeorology? We also ask: What are the current tools and opportunities in which biometeorologists might address future challenges? Finally, we connect these two questions by asking: What type of new training and skill development is needed to better educate "biometeorologists of the future" to more effectively address the future challenges? To answer these questions, we provide quantitative and qualitative evidence from an educationally focused workshop attended by new professionals in biometeorology. We identify four common themes (thermal comfort and exposures, agricultural productivity, air quality, and urbanization) that biometeorologists are currently studying and that we expect to be important in the future based on their alignment with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Review of recent literature within each of these thematic areas highlights a wide array of skill sets and perspectives that biometeorologists are already using. Current and new professionals within the ISB have noted highly varying and largely improvised educational pathways into the field. While variability and improvisation may be assets in promoting flexibility, adaptation, and interdisciplinarity, the lack of formal training in biometeorology raises concerns about the extent to which continuing

  8. Supporting sustainability initiatives through biometeorology education and training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Michael J.; Vanos, Jennifer; Hondula, David M.; Vecellio, Daniel J.; Knight, David; Mehdipoor, Hamed; Lucas, Rebekah; Fuhrmann, Chris; Lokys, Hanna; Lees, Angela; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; Leung, Andrew C. W.; Perkins, David R.

    2017-09-01

    The International Society of Biometeorology (ISB) has covered significant breadth and depth addressing fundamental and applied societal and environmental challenges in the last 60 years. Biometeorology is an interdisciplinary science connecting living organisms to their environment, but there is very little understanding of the existence and placement of this discipline within formal educational systems and institutions. It is thus difficult to project the ability of members of the biometeorological community—especially the biometeorologists of the future—to help solve global challenges. In this paper, we ask: At present, how we are training people to understand and think about biometeorology? We also ask: What are the current tools and opportunities in which biometeorologists might address future challenges? Finally, we connect these two questions by asking: What type of new training and skill development is needed to better educate "biometeorologists of the future" to more effectively address the future challenges? To answer these questions, we provide quantitative and qualitative evidence from an educationally focused workshop attended by new professionals in biometeorology. We identify four common themes (thermal comfort and exposures, agricultural productivity, air quality, and urbanization) that biometeorologists are currently studying and that we expect to be important in the future based on their alignment with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Review of recent literature within each of these thematic areas highlights a wide array of skill sets and perspectives that biometeorologists are already using. Current and new professionals within the ISB have noted highly varying and largely improvised educational pathways into the field. While variability and improvisation may be assets in promoting flexibility, adaptation, and interdisciplinarity, the lack of formal training in biometeorology raises concerns about the extent to which

  9. Supporting sustainability initiatives through biometeorology education and training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Michael J.; Vanos, Jennifer; Hondula, David M.; Vecellio, Daniel J.; Knight, David; Mehdipoor, Hamed; Lucas, Rebekah; Fuhrmann, Chris; Lokys, Hanna; Lees, Angela; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; Leung, Andrew C. W.; Perkins, David R.

    2017-07-01

    The International Society of Biometeorology (ISB) has covered significant breadth and depth addressing fundamental and applied societal and environmental challenges in the last 60 years. Biometeorology is an interdisciplinary science connecting living organisms to their environment, but there is very little understanding of the existence and placement of this discipline within formal educational systems and institutions. It is thus difficult to project the ability of members of the biometeorological community—especially the biometeorologists of the future—to help solve global challenges. In this paper, we ask: At present, how we are training people to understand and think about biometeorology? We also ask: What are the current tools and opportunities in which biometeorologists might address future challenges? Finally, we connect these two questions by asking: What type of new training and skill development is needed to better educate "biometeorologists of the future" to more effectively address the future challenges? To answer these questions, we provide quantitative and qualitative evidence from an educationally focused workshop attended by new professionals in biometeorology. We identify four common themes (thermal comfort and exposures, agricultural productivity, air quality, and urbanization) that biometeorologists are currently studying and that we expect to be important in the future based on their alignment with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Review of recent literature within each of these thematic areas highlights a wide array of skill sets and perspectives that biometeorologists are already using. Current and new professionals within the ISB have noted highly varying and largely improvised educational pathways into the field. While variability and improvisation may be assets in promoting flexibility, adaptation, and interdisciplinarity, the lack of formal training in biometeorology raises concerns about the extent to which

  10. Transfer of training through a science education professional development program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowards, Alan Bosworth

    Educational research substantiates that effective professional development models must be developed in order for reform-based teaching strategies to be implemented in classrooms. This study examined the effectiveness of an established reform-based science education professional development program, Project LIFE. The study investigated what impact Project LIFE had on participants implementation of reform-based instruction in their classroom three years after participation in the science inservice program. Participants in the case studies described use of reform-based instruction and program factors that influenced transfer of training to their classrooms. Subjects of the study were 5th--10th grade teachers who participated in the 1997--98 Project LIFE professional development program. The study employed a mixed design including both qualitative and quantitative methodology. The qualitative data was collected from multiple sources which included: an open-ended survey, classroom observations, structured interviews, and artifacts. Three purposeful selection of teachers for case studies were made with teacher approval and authorization from building principals. Interview responses from the three case studies were further analyzed qualitatively using the microcomputer software NUD*IST. Tables and figures generated from NUD*IST graphically represented the case study teachers response and case comparison to six established categories: (1) continued implementation of reform-based instruction, (2) use of reform-based instruction, (3) program factors supporting transfer of training, (4) professional development, (5) goals of Project LIFE, and (6) critical issues in science education. Paired t-tests were used to analysis the quantitative data collected from the Survey of Attitudes Toward Science and Science Teaching. The study concluded the 1997--98 Project LIFE participants continued to implement reform-based instruction in their classrooms three years later. According to the

  11. Benefits to Down's syndrome children through training their mothers.

    PubMed Central

    Bidder, R T; Bryant, G; Gray, O P

    1975-01-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that training of mothers with Down's syndrome children would be beneficial both to the child and parents. The mothers were taught behaviour modification techniques based on learning theory and were given group discussions on dealing with their family or personal problems. The subjects were 16 mothers with a Down's syndrome child, divided into two groups on the basis of their child's sex and chronological and mental ages. The Griffiths Scale was used for assessment. The mothers in the treatment group received 12 sessions of training and group counseling over a 6-month period, whereas the control mothers received no additional attention except the usual routine from the general practitioner and health visitor. The result show clear gains to both the child and mother in the treatment group. The child improved, especially in language development as well as in the other areas, and the mother-gained more confidence and competence in her daily management of the child. PMID:127552

  12. Training in Socio-Emotional Skills through On-Site Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talavera, Elvira Repetto; Perez-Gonzalez, Juan Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Socio-emotional skills are highly prized on the labour market these days; many writers say that competencies of this type help to increase individuals' employability, but educational institutions consistently forget their responsibility for providing training in them. Most jobs call not only for knowledge and specific technical competencies, but…

  13. Electronic collaboration in dermatology resident training through social networking.

    PubMed

    Meeks, Natalie M; McGuire, April L; Carroll, Bryan T

    2017-04-01

    The use of online educational resources and professional social networking sites is increasing. The field of dermatology is currently under-utilizing online social networking as a means of professional collaboration and sharing of training materials. In this study, we sought to assess the current structure of and satisfaction with dermatology resident education and gauge interest for a professional social networking site for educational collaboration. Two surveys-one for residents and one for faculty-were electronically distributed via the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery and Association of Professors of Dermatology (APD) listserves. The surveys confirmed that there is interest among dermatology residents and faculty in a dermatology professional networking site with the goal to enhance educational collaboration.

  14. Excellence in physician assistant training through faculty development.

    PubMed

    Glicken, Anita Duhl

    2008-11-01

    Once again, experts predict a shortage of health care providers by 2020. The physician assistant (PA) profession was created in the 1960s to address a similar need. Currently, there are 141 accredited PA training programs in the United States, 75 of them established in the 10 years between 1993 and 2002. Historically, PA education and practice models have been responsive to the ever-changing landscape of health care. It may be the profession's flexibility and adaptability that has enabled it to survive and flourish in a competitive service environment. The growth of new PA programs mandates a need for continuing faculty development, as increasing numbers of educators hail primarily from clinical practice and come equipped with minimal teaching experience. PA faculty development addresses these new recruits' needs to develop model curricula, implement new courses, and enhance instruction-all with the goal of improving both access to and quality of health care.The author describes the impact of Health Resources and Service Administration Title VII, Section 747 (Title VII) contracts in addressing this need. Title VII-funded PA education projects, considered innovative at the time of implementation, included both faculty development workshops that promoted active learning of basic teaching and administrative skills and new curricula designed to enhance faculty teaching in genomics and practice management. These projects and others resulted in enduring professional resources that have not only strengthened the PA community but also enjoyed broad applicability within other health professions groups.This article is part of a theme issue of Academic Medicine on the Title VII health professions training programs.

  15. Prevention of running injuries.

    PubMed

    Fields, Karl B; Sykes, Jeannie C; Walker, Katherine M; Jackson, Jonathan C

    2010-01-01

    Evidence for preventive strategies to lessen running injuries is needed as these occur in 40%-50% of runners on an annual basis. Many factors influence running injuries, but strong evidence for prevention only exists for training modification primarily by reducing weekly mileage. Two anatomical factors - cavus feet and leg length inequality - demonstrate a link to injury. Weak evidence suggests that orthotics may lessen risk of stress fracture, but no clear evidence proves they will reduce the risk of those athletes with leg length inequality or cavus feet. This article reviews other potential injury variables, including strength, biomechanics, stretching, warm-up, nutrition, psychological factors, and shoes. Additional research is needed to determine whether interventions to address any of these will help prevent running injury.

  16. Bridging the gap: supporting translational research careers through an integrated research track within residency training.

    PubMed

    Arbuckle, Melissa R; Gordon, Joshua A; Pincus, Harold A; Oquendo, Maria A

    2013-06-01

    In the setting of traditional residency training programs, physician-scientists are often limited in their ability to pursue research training goals while meeting clinical training requirements. This creates a gap in research training at a critical developmental stage. In response, Columbia University Medical Center's Department of Psychiatry, in partnership with the New York State Psychiatric Institute, has created a formal Research Track Program (RTP) for psychiatry residents so that interested individuals can maintain their attention on research training during formative residency years. Clinical and research training are integrated through core clinical rotations on research units. With protected research time and clear developmental milestones for each year of training, the RTP allows research track residents to meet both clinical and research training goals while maintaining a healthy work-life balance. In coordination with existing postdoctoral research fellowship programs, research track residents can effectively jump-start fellowship training with advanced course work and consistent, continuous mentorship bridging residency and fellowship years. A key element of the program is its provision of core training in research literacy and extensive research opportunities for all residents, stimulating research interest across the whole residency program. Supported by the National Institutes of Health and a private foundation, this RTP capitalizes on a unique academic-private partnership to address many of the challenges facing physician-scientists. By integrating clinical and research exposures and offering protected research time, careful mentoring, and financial resources, the program aims to further the development of those most poised to establish careers in translational research.

  17. Listening level of music through headphones in train car noise environments.

    PubMed

    Shimokura, Ryota; Soeta, Yoshiharu

    2012-09-01

    Although portable music devices are useful for passing time on trains, exposure to music using headphones for long periods carries the risk of damaging hearing acuity. The aim of this study is to examine the listening level of music through headphones in the noisy environment of a train car. Eight subjects adjusted the volume to an optimum level (L(music)) in a simulated noisy train car environment. In Experiment I, the effects of noise level (L(train)) and type of train noise (rolling, squealing, impact, and resonance) were examined. Spectral and temporal characteristics were found to be different according to the train noise type. In Experiment II, the effects of L(train) and type of music (five vocal and five instrumental music) were examined. Each music type had a different pitch strength and spectral centroid, and each was evaluated by φ(1) and W(φ(0)), respectively. These were classified as factors of the autocorrelation function (ACF) of the music. Results showed that L(music) increased as L(train) increased in both experiments, while the type of music greatly influenced L(music). The type of train noise, however, only slightly influenced L(music). L(music) can be estimated using L(train) and the ACF factors φ(1) and W(φ(0)).

  18. From Training to Organizational Behavior: A Mediation Model through Absorptive and Innovative Capacities

    PubMed Central

    Yáñez-Araque, Benito; Hernández-Perlines, Felipe; Moreno-Garcia, Juan

    2017-01-01

    The training of human resources improves business performance: myth or reality? While the literature has extensively addressed this issue, the transfer that occurs from training to performance still remains unresolved. The present study suggests an empirical solution to this gap, through a multiple mediation model of dynamic capabilities. Accordingly, the study makes a major contribution to the effectiveness of an organizational-level training: the “true” relationship between training and performance is mediated by absorptive and innovative capacities. It is difficult from training to directly affect the results: it must be done through a chain of intermediate variables. Training can be argued to be indirectly related to performance, through absorptive capacity in the first place, and innovative capacity in the second, sequentially in this order (three-path mediated effect). Of all immediate relationships received by performance, its explained variance is achieved partly via absorptive capacity and partly via innovation. The direct relationship through training is not significant and only explains a small percentage of the variance in performance. These results have been corroborated by combining two methods of analysis: PLS-SEM and fsQCA, using data from an online survey. This dual methodology in the study of the same phenomenon allows overcoming the limitations of each method, which would not have been possible with a single methodological approach, and confirming the findings obtained by any of them. PMID:28966599

  19. Training at the Gym, Training for Life: Creating Better Versions of the Self Through Exercise.

    PubMed

    Doğan, Ceren

    2015-08-01

    The present study draws on Scott's (2011) notion of the Re-Inventive Institution and explores how gym members make sense and give meaning to their exercise regime. Overall, it is argued that for many participants gym exercise is more than physical training; it is also training for life. Based on a thematic analysis of 32 semi-structured interviews it is argued that gym workout is a means to create better versions of the self on mainly three levels. First, gym participants perceive themselves to be efficient and productive in general. Second, gym training is believed to increase the control they have over their lives. Third, gym members associate their gym workout with amplified emotional resilience, believing that fitness workout makes them not only fitter in a physical sense but also fitter and better equipped in a psychological sense. Surprisingly, a small group of regular gym users displayed more critical sentiments and distanced themselves from the images and values the gym stands for. The results of this study can be linked to broader political discourses on health and fitness that make use of corporate managerial vocabularies and are based on ideals of rationalization and efficiency.

  20. Training at the Gym, Training for Life: Creating Better Versions of the Self Through Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Doğan, Ceren

    2015-01-01

    The present study draws on Scott’s (2011) notion of the Re-Inventive Institution and explores how gym members make sense and give meaning to their exercise regime. Overall, it is argued that for many participants gym exercise is more than physical training; it is also training for life. Based on a thematic analysis of 32 semi-structured interviews it is argued that gym workout is a means to create better versions of the self on mainly three levels. First, gym participants perceive themselves to be efficient and productive in general. Second, gym training is believed to increase the control they have over their lives. Third, gym members associate their gym workout with amplified emotional resilience, believing that fitness workout makes them not only fitter in a physical sense but also fitter and better equipped in a psychological sense. Surprisingly, a small group of regular gym users displayed more critical sentiments and distanced themselves from the images and values the gym stands for. The results of this study can be linked to broader political discourses on health and fitness that make use of corporate managerial vocabularies and are based on ideals of rationalization and efficiency. PMID:27247669

  1. Changing Instructional Practices through Technology Training, Part 2 of 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seamon, Mary

    2001-01-01

    This second of a two-part article introducing the steps in a school district's teacher professional development model discusses steps three through six: Web page or project; Internet Discovery (with its five phases-question, search, interpretation, composition, sharing); Cyberinquiry; and WebQuests. Three examples are included: Web Page…

  2. Examination of Pre-Service Teacher's Training through Tutoring Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Hsiao-ping; Guerra, Myriam Jimena

    2017-01-01

    Pre-service teacher preparation in the United States is becoming progressively more challenging with respect to the demands on teachers. This study examined the impact of tutoring approach on pre-service teachers? skills to work with English language learners through a qualitative research design. Content analysis was used at the thematic level on…

  3. Environmental compliance through boiler operator training and certification

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, R.M.

    1996-05-01

    The power plant for the Opa City Electric Works and Boiler Gasket Emporium was having its usual Monday morning supervisors meeting when someone suggested removing the high pressure feedwater heater from service for the sole purpose of {open_quotes}getting more megawatts{close_quotes}. Since the feedwater heater was not considered to be {open_quotes}part of the boiler,{close_quotes} it was assumed that removal of the heater would not affect air pollution emissions. Fortunately, the suggestion was shot down when calculations revealed that removal of the heater would result in a 7.5% decrease in the overall boiler efficiency along with a 21 lb{sub m}/hr increase in SO{sub 2} emissions. This document discusses the interface between sound boiler operating practices and compliance with environmental regulations. Good operating practice is most often a combination of comprehensive training, experience, a strong work ethic, and common sense. We will also explore the various aspects operator certification requirements, with a focus on ASME certification standards for high capacity fossil fuel fired boilers.

  4. Reducing teachers' psychological distress through a mindfulness training program.

    PubMed

    Franco, Clemente; Mañas, Israel; Cangas, Adolfo J; Moreno, Emilio; Gallego, José

    2010-11-01

    Teachers constitute one of the professional collectives most affected by psychological problems. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study is to examine the efficacy of a mindfulness training programme to reduce psychological distress in a group of teachers. The sample comprised 68 teachers of Secondary School Education, from various public schools; half of them formed the experimental group, and the another half the control group. The levels of psychological distress were measured, in both groups, by the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) before and after the application of the programme. Statistical analysis shows the significant reduction of three general measures of psychological distress (Global Severity Index, Positive Symptom Distress Index, and Positive Symptom Total), as well in all its dimensions (somatization, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensibility, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism), in the experimental group compared with the control group. Follow-up measures show that these results were maintained for four months after termination of the intervention in the experimental group.

  5. A Long-Run View of Israeli Society through the Looking Glass of Mourning Announcements in the Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roniger, Luis

    1994-01-01

    Analyzes mourning press announcements (MPA) published in the Hebrew press in twentieth-century Palestine and Israel. The MPA's evolution from its beginnings in the European Jewish press is reviewed, and the changing social context and characteristics of Israeli society are analyzed through the looking glass of the MPA. (CC)

  6. The water that runs within us - how Geography can be learned through volcanic calderas, fumaroles and hot springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Ana; Luís Gaspar, João

    2014-05-01

    "Look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better." Albert Einstein Teaching Geography within the classroom walls is always a challenge, especially if it is done in S. Miguel Island. Its breath-taking scenery invites us to dive into the wilderness and learn from it directly! Located in the Atlantic Ocean, the Azorean Archipelago is a privileged volcanic region, which makes it an open and unique resource for geosciences lesson to anyone, especially for 10th grade students whose curricula is not based on Geography as the main subject. The challenge, for their Geography teacher is, therefore, greater. Being an islander makes us sometimes forget the importance of one of the most basic resources - water. My students asked me "It's everywhere we look, so why should we bother?" when they were told the theme of our project was water. The more obvious it is, the harder it gets - making them aware of how privileged they are by living in a region where rare natural phenomena occur, such as hot springs and geothermal spring. Moreover, water is a content of their two-year curricula. Being a major topic on the 10th grade curricula, with me as their Geography teacher, and engaging in the poster session "Science in tomorrow's classroom" (during the GIFT 2014 Workshop), as well as the choice of our main theme "The water that runs within us", seem like natural stages that had to happen, as in the cycle of water. Therefore, for two years, experimental activities will take place both inside and outside of the classroom in order to study the availability of water in lakes, streams, underwater and hydrothermal reservoirs, as well as to enhance its importance for geothermal centrals, but also to local tourism as a main income of the economy of the region. Natural hazards associated with water will be studied on the second year of this project. Nothing of this would be possible without the cooperation of certain local agents, such as the Centre for Volcanology and

  7. Training Standardization

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2003-09-01

    The article describes the benefits of and required process and recommendations for implementing the standardization of training in the nuclear power industry in the United States and abroad. Current Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) enable training standardization in the nuclear power industry. The delivery of training through the Internet, Intranet and video over IP will facilitate this standardization and bring multiple benefits to the nuclear power industry worldwide. As the amount of available qualified and experienced professionals decreases because of retirements and fewer nuclear engineering institutions, standardized training will help increase the number of available professionals in the industry. Technology will make it possible to use the experience of retired professionals who may be interested in working part-time from a remote location. Well-planned standardized training will prevent a fragmented approach among utilities, and it will save the industry considerable resources in the long run. It will also ensure cost-effective and safe nuclear power plant operation.

  8. Effects of Training on Recognition of Musical Instruments Presented through Cochlear Implant Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Virginia D.; Oleson, Jacob; Jiang, Dingfeng; Gfeller, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Background The simulation of the CI (cochlear implant) signal presents a degraded representation of each musical instrument, which makes recognition difficult. Purpose To examine the efficiency and effectiveness of three types of training on recognition of musical instruments as presented through simulations of the sounds transmitted through a CI. Research Design Participants were randomly assigned to one of three training conditions: repeated exposure, feedback, and direct instruction. Study Sample Sixty-six adults with normal hearing. Intervention Each participant completed three training sessions per week, over a five-week time period, in which they listened to the CI simulations of eight different musical instruments. Data Collection and Analysis Analyses on percent of instruments identified correctly showed statistically significant differences between recognition accuracy of the three training conditions (p< .01). Results those assigned to the direct instruction group showed the greatest improvement over the five-week training period as well as sustained improvement after training. The feedback group achieved the next highest level of recognition accuracy. The repeated exposure group showed modest improvement during the first three-week time period, but no subsequent improvements. Conclusions These results indicate that different types of training are differentially effective with regard to improving recognition of musical instruments presented through a degraded signal, which has practical implications for the auditory rehabilitation of persons who use cochlear implants. PMID:19927684

  9. Promoting patient participation in healthcare interactions through communication skills training: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, Thomas A; Atkinson, Thomas M; Latella, Lauren E; Rogers, Madeline; Morrissey, Dana; DeRosa, Antonio P; Parker, Patricia A

    2017-07-01

    To present literature on training patients in the use of effective communication skills. Systematic searches were conducted in six databases. References were screened for inclusion through several phases. Extracted data included intervention study design, sample characteristics, content and structure of training programs, outcomes assessed, and findings reported. A total of 32 unique intervention studies were included. Most targeted primary care or cancer patients and used a randomized controlled study design. Interventions used a variety of training formats and modes of delivering educational material. Reported findings suggest that communication training is an effective approach to increase patients' total level of active participation in healthcare interactions and that some communication behaviors may be more amenable to training (e.g., expressing concerns). Trained patients do not have longer visits and tend to receive more information from their providers. Most studies have found no relationship between communication training and improved health, psychosocial wellbeing, or treatment-related outcomes. Findings reinforce the importance and potential benefits of patient communication training. Additional research is warranted to determine the most efficacious training programs with the strongest potential for dissemination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Citizenship Development through Vocational Training: British Columbia Rural Youth Training School, 1947-1959

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mclean, Scott; Gondek, Jyoti

    2012-01-01

    This article inspires critical and creative thinking about the promotion of citizenship development through programmes of study designed primarily to enhance adults' vocational skills. It does so through presenting an empirical case study of an important adult education programme delivered by the Department of University Extension at the…

  11. Revitalizing Young Adults through Leadership Training at Victory Presbyterian Church, Ilsan, Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noh, Kyeong Cheon

    2009-01-01

    This study has the aim of examining the effects obtained mainly through the leadership development process through small group dynamics for the purpose of making the youth group church, vitalized. The church reached the conclusion that the important problem for continuous church development was how to find a trained leader and to help the…

  12. Enhancing Digital Fluency through a Training Program for Creative Problem Solving Using Computer Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, SugHee; Chung, KwangSik; Yu, HeonChang

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a training program for creative problem solving based on computer programming. The proposed program will encourage students to solve real-life problems through a creative thinking spiral related to cognitive skills with computer programming. With the goal of enhancing digital fluency through this proposed…

  13. Enhancing Digital Fluency through a Training Program for Creative Problem Solving Using Computer Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, SugHee; Chung, KwangSik; Yu, HeonChang

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a training program for creative problem solving based on computer programming. The proposed program will encourage students to solve real-life problems through a creative thinking spiral related to cognitive skills with computer programming. With the goal of enhancing digital fluency through this proposed…

  14. Revitalizing Young Adults through Leadership Training at Victory Presbyterian Church, Ilsan, Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noh, Kyeong Cheon

    2009-01-01

    This study has the aim of examining the effects obtained mainly through the leadership development process through small group dynamics for the purpose of making the youth group church, vitalized. The church reached the conclusion that the important problem for continuous church development was how to find a trained leader and to help the…

  15. Knowledge Is Power: Empowering the Autism Community through Parent-Professional Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Mary M.; Ackerman-Spain, Karen; Williams, Ellen U.; Ryley, Anderia T.

    2011-01-01

    Partnerships for Autism through Collaborative Community Choice and Empowerment (Project PACE) was developed to empower parents and professionals (e.g., general or special education teachers, therapists, social workers, school counselors, psychologists) through training and education. Project PACE was designed to provide participants with basic…

  16. Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Jorming; Ladiges, Warren

    2015-01-01

    Voluntary wheel running in the mouse is used to assess physical performance and endurance and to model exercise training as a way to enhance health. Wheel running is a voluntary activity in contrast to other experimental exercise models in mice, which rely on aversive stimuli to force active movement. The basic protocol consists of allowing mice to run freely on the open surface of a slanted plastic saucer-shaped wheel placed inside a standard mouse cage. Rotations are electronically transmitted to a USB hub so that frequency and rate of running can be captured to a software program for data storage and analysis for variable time periods. Mice are individually housed so that accurate recordings can be made for each animal. Factors such as mouse strain, gender, age, and individual motivation, which affect running activity, must be considered in the design of experiments using voluntary wheel running. PMID:26629772

  17. Running Loose or Getting Lost: How HIV-1 Counters and Capitalizes on APOBEC3-Induced Mutagenesis through Its Vif Protein

    PubMed Central

    Münk, Carsten; Jensen, Björn-Erik O.; Zielonka, Jörg; Häussinger, Dieter; Kamp, Christel

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) dynamics reflect an intricate balance within the viruses’ host. The virus relies on host replication factors, but must escape or counter its host’s antiviral restriction factors. The interaction between the HIV-1 protein Vif and many cellular restriction factors from the APOBEC3 protein family is a prominent example of this evolutionary arms race. The viral infectivity factor (Vif) protein largely neutralizes APOBEC3 proteins, which can induce in vivo hypermutations in HIV-1 to the extent of lethal mutagenesis, and ensures the production of viable virus particles. HIV-1 also uses the APOBEC3-Vif interaction to modulate its own mutation rate in harsh or variable environments, and it is a model of adaptation in a coevolutionary setting. Both experimental evidence and the substantiation of the underlying dynamics through coevolutionary models are presented as complementary views of a coevolutionary arms race. PMID:23202519

  18. Motion perception and driving: predicting performance through testing and shortening braking reaction times through training.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Luke; Gray, Rob; Gaska, James; Winterbottom, Marc

    2013-12-30

    A driving simulator was used to examine the relationship between motion perception and driving performance. Although motion perception test scores have been shown to be related to driving safety, it is not clear which combination of tests are the best predictors and whether motion perception training can improve driving performance. In experiment 1, 60 younger drivers (22.4 ± 2.5 years) completed three motion perception tests (2-dimensional [2D] motion-defined letter [MDL] identification, 3D motion in depth sensitivity [MID], and dynamic visual acuity [DVA]) followed by two driving tests (emergency braking [EB] and hazard perception [HP]). In experiment 2, 20 drivers (21.6 ± 2.1 years) completed 6 weeks of motion perception training (using the MDL, MID, and DVA tests), while 20 control drivers (22.0 ± 2.7 years) completed an online driving safety course. The EB performance was measured before and after training. In experiment 1, MDL (r = 0.34) and MID (r = 0.46) significantly correlated with EB score. The change in DVA score as a function of target speed (i.e., "velocity susceptibility") was correlated most strongly with HP score (r = -0.61). In experiment 2, the motion perception training group had a significant decrease in brake reaction time on the EB test from pre- to posttreatment, while there was no significant change for the control group: t(38) = 2.24, P = 0.03. Tests of 3D motion perception are the best predictor of EB, while DVA velocity susceptibility is the best predictor of hazard perception. Motion perception training appears to result in faster braking responses.

  19. Myocardial work during endurance training and resistance training: a daily comparison, from workout session 1 through completion of cardiac rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Matthew; McCullough-Shock, Tiffany; Simms, Kay; Cheng, Dunlei; Hartman, Julie; Strauss, Danielle; Anderson, Valerie; Lawrence, Anne; Malorzo, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Patients in cardiac rehabilitation are typically advised to complete a period of supervised endurance training before beginning resistance training. In this study, however, we compared the peak rate-pressure product (RPP, a calculated indicator of myocardial work) of patients during two types of exercise—treadmill walking and chest press—from workout session 1 through completion of cardiac rehabilitation. Twenty-one patients (4 women and 17 men, aged 35 to 70 years) were enrolled in the study; they were referred for cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial infarction, percutaneous coronary intervention, or both. The participants did treadmill walking and chest press exercises during each workout session. Peak values for heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were recorded, and the peak RPP was calculated (peak HR ⊠ peak SBP). Paired t tests were used to compare the data collected during the two types of exercise across 19 workout sessions. The mean peak values for HR, SBP, and RPP were lower during resistance training than during endurance training; the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05), with only one exception (the SBP for session 1). Across all 19 workout sessions, the participants performed more myocardial work, as indicated by the peak RPP, during treadmill walking than during the chest press. PMID:20396420

  20. Myocardial work during endurance training and resistance training: a daily comparison, from workout session 1 through completion of cardiac rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jenny; Hubbard, Matthew; McCullough-Shock, Tiffany; Simms, Kay; Cheng, Dunlei; Hartman, Julie; Strauss, Danielle; Anderson, Valerie; Lawrence, Anne; Malorzo, Emily

    2010-04-01

    Patients in cardiac rehabilitation are typically advised to complete a period of supervised endurance training before beginning resistance training. In this study, however, we compared the peak rate-pressure product (RPP, a calculated indicator of myocardial work) of patients during two types of exercise-treadmill walking and chest press-from workout session 1 through completion of cardiac rehabilitation. Twenty-one patients (4 women and 17 men, aged 35 to 70 years) were enrolled in the study; they were referred for cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial infarction, percutaneous coronary intervention, or both. The participants did treadmill walking and chest press exercises during each workout session. Peak values for heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were recorded, and the peak RPP was calculated (peak HR multiply sign in box peak SBP). Paired t tests were used to compare the data collected during the two types of exercise across 19 workout sessions. The mean peak values for HR, SBP, and RPP were lower during resistance training than during endurance training; the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05), with only one exception (the SBP for session 1). Across all 19 workout sessions, the participants performed more myocardial work, as indicated by the peak RPP, during treadmill walking than during the chest press.

  1. Study protocol for improving asthma outcomes through cross-cultural communication training for physicians: a randomized trial of physician training.

    PubMed

    Patel, Minal R; Thomas, Lara J; Hafeez, Kausar; Shankin, Matthew; Wilkin, Margaret; Brown, Randall W

    2014-06-16

    outcomes among African American and Latino/Hispanic children through cross-cultural communication training of their physicians and assessing the added value of this training compared to general communication. The results of this study will provide important information about the value of cross-cultural training in helping to address persistent racial disparities in outcomes. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01251523 December 1, 2010.

  2. A river runs through it: how autophagy, senescence, and phagocytosis could be linked to phospholipase D by Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Cambronero, Julian; Kantonen, Samuel

    2014-11-01

    Neutrophils and macrophages are professional phagocytic cells, extremely efficient at the process of engulfing and killing bacteria. Autophagy is a similar process, by which phagosomes recycle internal cell structures during nutrient shortages. Some pathogens are able to subvert the autophagy process, funneling nutrients for their own use and for the host's detriment. Additionally, a failure to mount an efficient autophagy is a deviation on the cell's part from normal cellular function into cell senescence and cessation of the cell cycle. In spite of these reasons, the mechanism of autophagy and senescence in leukocytes has been under studied. We advance here the concept of a common thread underlying both autophagy and senescence, which implicates PLD. Such a PLD-based autophagy mechanism would involve two positive inputs: the generation of PA to help the initiation of the autophagosome and a protein-protein interaction between PLD and PKC that leads to enhanced PA. One negative input is also involved in this process: down-regulation of PLD gene expression by mTOR. Additionally, a dual positive/negative input plays a role in PLD-mediated autophagy, β-catenin increase of autophagy through PLD up-regulation, and a subsequent feedback termination by Dvl degradation in case of excessive autophagy. An abnormal PLD-mTOR-PKC-β-catenin/Wnt network function could lead to faulty autophagy and a means for opportunistic pathogens to survive inside of the cell. © 2014 Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  3. Muscular strategy shift in human running: dependence of running speed on hip and ankle muscle performance.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Tim W; Schache, Anthony G; Pandy, Marcus G

    2012-06-01

    Humans run faster by increasing a combination of stride length and stride frequency. In slow and medium-paced running, stride length is increased by exerting larger support forces during ground contact, whereas in fast running and sprinting, stride frequency is increased by swinging the legs more rapidly through the air. Many studies have investigated the mechanics of human running, yet little is known about how the individual leg muscles accelerate the joints and centre of mass during this task. The aim of this study was to describe and explain the synergistic actions of the individual leg muscles over a wide range of running speeds, from slow running to maximal sprinting. Experimental gait data from nine subjects were combined with a detailed computer model of the musculoskeletal system to determine the forces developed by the leg muscles at different running speeds. For speeds up to 7 m s(-1), the ankle plantarflexors, soleus and gastrocnemius, contributed most significantly to vertical support forces and hence increases in stride length. At speeds greater than 7 m s(-1), these muscles shortened at relatively high velocities and had less time to generate the forces needed for support. Thus, above 7 m s(-1), the strategy used to increase running speed shifted to the goal of increasing stride frequency. The hip muscles, primarily the iliopsoas, gluteus maximus and hamstrings, achieved this goal by accelerating the hip and knee joints more vigorously during swing. These findings provide insight into the strategies used by the leg muscles to maximise running performance and have implications for the design of athletic training programs.

  4. Bridging the Gap: Supporting Translational Research Careers Through an Integrated Research Track Within Residency Training

    PubMed Central

    Arbuckle, Melissa R.; Gordon, Joshua A.; Pincus, Harold A.; Oquendo, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    In the setting of traditional residency training programs, physician–scientists are often limited in their ability to pursue research training goals while meeting clinical training requirements. This creates a gap in research training at a critical developmental stage. In response, Columbia University Medical Center’s Department of Psychiatry, in partnership with the New York State Psychiatric Institute, has created a formal Research Track Program (RTP) for psychiatry residents so that interested individuals can maintain their attention on research training during formative residency years. Clinical and research training are integrated through core clinical rotations on research units. With protected research time and clear developmental milestones for each year of training, the RTP allows research track residents to meet both clinical and research training goals while maintaining a healthy work–life balance. In coordination with existing postdoctoral research fellowship programs, research track residents can effectively jump-start fellowship training with advanced course work and consistent, continuous mentorship bridging residency and fellowship years. A key element of the program is its provision of core training in research literacy and extensive research opportunities for all residents, stimulating research interest across the whole residency program. Supported by the National Institutes of Health and a private foundation, this RTP capitalizes on a unique academic–private partnership to address many of the challenges facing physician–scientists. By integrating clinical and research exposures and offering protected research time, careful mentoring, and financial resources, the program aims to further the development of those most poised to establish careers in translational research. PMID:23619070

  5. Maximizing lipocalin prediction through balanced and diversified training set and decision fusion.

    PubMed

    Nath, Abhigyan; Subbiah, Karthikeyan

    2015-12-01

    Lipocalins are short in sequence length and perform several important biological functions. These proteins are having less than 20% sequence similarity among paralogs. Experimentally identifying them is an expensive and time consuming process. The computational methods based on the sequence similarity for allocating putative members to this family are also far elusive due to the low sequence similarity existing among the members of this family. Consequently, the machine learning methods become a viable alternative for their prediction by using the underlying sequence/structurally derived features as the input. Ideally, any machine learning based prediction method must be trained with all possible variations in the input feature vector (all the sub-class input patterns) to achieve perfect learning. A near perfect learning can be achieved by training the model with diverse types of input instances belonging to the different regions of the entire input space. Furthermore, the prediction performance can be improved through balancing the training set as the imbalanced data sets will tend to produce the prediction bias towards majority class and its sub-classes. This paper is aimed to achieve (i) the high generalization ability without any classification bias through the diversified and balanced training sets as well as (ii) enhanced the prediction accuracy by combining the results of individual classifiers with an appropriate fusion scheme. Instead of creating the training set randomly, we have first used the unsupervised Kmeans clustering algorithm to create diversified clusters of input patterns and created the diversified and balanced training set by selecting an equal number of patterns from each of these clusters. Finally, probability based classifier fusion scheme was applied on boosted random forest algorithm (which produced greater sensitivity) and K nearest neighbour algorithm (which produced greater specificity) to achieve the enhanced predictive performance

  6. Improving memory performance in the aged through mnemonic training: a meta-analytic study.

    PubMed

    Verhaeghen, P; Marcoen, A; Goossens, L

    1992-06-01

    The effectiveness of memory training for the elderly was examined through a meta-analysis of pre-to-posttest gains on episodic memory tasks in healthy subjects aged 60 or above. Pre-to-posttest gains were found to be significantly larger in training groups (0.73 SD, k = 49) than in both control (0.38 SD, k = 10) and placebo (0.37 SD, k = 8) groups. Treatment gains in training groups were negatively affected by age of participants and duration of training sessions and positively affected by group treatment, pretraining, and memory-related interventions. No differences in treatment gain were obtained as a function of type of mnemonic taught nor the kind of pretraining used.

  7. Public health laboratory systems development in East Africa through training in laboratory management and field epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Mosha, Fausta; Oundo, Joseph; Mukanga, David; Njenga, Kariuki; Nsubuga, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Laboratories are integral to the delivery of quality health care and for public health functions; however laboratory systems and services are often neglected in resource-poor settings such as the East African region. In order to sustainably strengthen national laboratory systems in resource-poor countries, there is a need to train laboratory personnel to work in clinical as well as public health laboratories. In 2004,Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, and South Sudan began training public health laboratory workers jointly with field epidemiologists in the Kenya Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP), and later through the Tanzania FELTP, as a strategy to strengthen public health laboratories. These programs train laboratory epidemiologists through a two-year public health leadership development course, and also offer various types of short course training for frontline staff. The FELTP laboratory graduates in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and South Sudan are working in their respective countries to strengthen public health laboratory systems while the short course participants provide a pool of frontline implementers with the capacity to support the lower tiers of health systems, as well as serve as surge capacity for the regions and the national level. Through training competent public health laboratory workers, the East African ministries of health, in collaboration with other regional partners and stakeholders are now engaged in developing and implementing a holistic approach that will guarantee an overall strengthening of the health system by using well-trained public health laboratory leaders to drive the process. Strengthening public health laboratory medicine in East Africa is critical to improve health-care systems. The experience with the FELTP model in East Africa is a step in the right direction towards ensuring a stronger role for the laboratory in public health. PMID:22359702

  8. A Rille Runs Through It

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    This oblique view of the Moon's surface was photographed by the Apollo 10 astronauts in May of 1969. Center point coordinates are located at 13 degrees, 3 minutes east longitude and 7 degrees, 1 minute north latitude. One of the Apollo 10 astronauts attached a 250mm lens and aimed a handheld 70mm camera at the surface from lunar orbit for a series of pictures in this area.

  9. A Crack Runs Through It

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-02

    This 3-D image taken by the microscopic imager on NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a close-up of the center of the rock abrasion tool hole, ground into Bounce. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  10. Neck-shortening effect on prosaccade reaction time formed through saccadic training accompanied by maintenance of neck flexion.

    PubMed

    Kunita, Kenji; Fujiwara, Katsuo

    2009-11-01

    We investigated the effect of neck-shortening on prosaccade reaction time formed through saccadic training accompanied by maintenance of neck flexion. The subjects were 30 university students who exhibited no significant shortening of prosaccade reaction time during maintenance of neck flexion, assigned to three groups: prosaccade training subjects at rest neck position (rest training group); prosaccade training subjects at 20 degrees neck flexion position (neck training group); and untrained subjects (control group). Saccadic training for 1 min was performed ten times per day, and the training period was 14 days. For the control group, no significant postural or training effects on reaction time were found. For both training groups, reaction time at the rest position after training was significantly shorter than that before training. For the neck training group, reaction time after training was significantly shorter at the neck flexion position than at the rest position. Conversely, no significant neck effect was found for the rest training group. This indicates that the shortening effect associated with maintenance of neck flexion on prosaccade reaction time is formed through saccadic training accompanied by maintenance of neck flexion.

  11. Time at or near VO2max during continuous and intermittent running. A review with special reference to considerations for the optimisation of training protocols to elicit the longest time at or near VO2max.

    PubMed

    Midgley, A W; Mc Naughton, L R

    2006-03-01

    Several authors have suggested that training at or near VO2max (i.e. > or = 95% VO2max) is the most effective training intensity to enhance VO2max and that for highly trained endurance athletes, training at or near VO2max may be necessary to increase it further. Consequently, there is an interest in characterising training protocols that allow the longest time at or near VO2max (T@VO2max). Intermittent running protocols have been found to be more effective than continuous protocols for increasing T@VO2max. Intermittent protocols can be manipulated by altering the warm-up intensity and timing, work and relief interval velocity and duration, amplitude, interval number per set, and the number of sets performed. To increase T@VO2max it is recommended that work interval intensity should generally range between 90% and 105% vVO2max and relief interval intensity between 50% vVO2max and the lactate threshold velocity. Work and relief interval durations should be between 15 and 30 seconds. The warm-up period prior to the intermittent protocol should be about 10 to 15 minutes in duration at 1 or 2 km x h(-1) below the lactate threshold velocity, with no gap between the warm-up and the intermittent protocol. When designing intermittent training protocols for the enhancement of VO2max, the simultaneous enhancement of other physiological performance determinants should also be considered. Further experimental research is required to identify the specific physiological responses and adaptations to various intermittent running protocols that are designed to elicit the longest time at or near VO2max, before recommendations can be given to competitive endurance runners.

  12. Workforce Skills Development and Engagement in Training through Skill Sets: Literature Review. Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, John; Bowman, Kaye; Crean, David; Ranshaw, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    This literature review examines the available research on skill sets. It provides background for a larger research project "Workforce skills development and engagement in training through skill sets," the report of which will be released early next year. This paper outlines the origin of skill sets and explains the difference between…

  13. Visions 2020.2: Student Views on Transforming Education and Training through Advanced Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Departments of Commerce and Education (who co-chair the NSTC Working Group) and NetDay formed a partnership aimed at analyzing K-12 student views about technology for learning. These views are analyzed in this second report, "Visions 2020.2: Student Views on Transforming Education and Training Through Advanced Technologies." In…

  14. ALOHA to New Learning: Uniting Student and Career Staff through Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Lynn N.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines staff training from a different perspective, as a means of transmitting organizational culture to student employees through a closer communication between career and student part-time employees. Results of a qualitative survey suggest communication supports multigenerational relationships and administrators who invest in…

  15. Bulletin of Air Pollution Training Courses, July 1970 through June 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Issued by the National Air Pollution Control Administration (NAPCA), this directory covers program and course offerings through the Institute for Air Pollution Training (IAPT), Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Officers of the Triangle Universities (Duke, North Carolina, North Carolina State) Consortium on Air Pollution are listed first,…

  16. Promoting Self-Regulation through School-Based Martial Arts Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakes, Kimberley D.; Hoyt, William T.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of school-based Tae Kwon Do training on self-regulatory abilities was examined. A self-regulation framework including three domains (cognitive, affective, and physical) was presented. Children (N = 207) from kindergarten through Grade 5 were randomly assigned by homeroom class to either the intervention (martial arts) group or a…

  17. Gaining Insight to Transfer of Training through the Lens of Social Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisweiler, Silke; Nikitopoulos, Alexandra; Netzel, Janine; Frey, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with the question under which conditions people change their behavior through vocational trainings or not. Following the demand of more theory-driven investigations in transfer research (Blume, Ford, Baldwin, & Huang, 2010) we wish to add the perspective of social psychology. We therefore illustrate how well-known concepts from…

  18. Beyond Parental Control and Authoritarian Parenting Style: Understanding Chinese Parenting through the Cultural Notion of Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Ruth K.

    1994-01-01

    Examined the child-rearing practices of immigrant Chinese and European American mothers of preschool children through questionnaires that measured parental control, authoritative-authoritarian parenting style, and the Chinese concept of child training. Chinese mothers scored significantly higher than European American mothers on the training…

  19. 49 CFR 236.326 - Mechanical locking removed or disarranged; requirement for permitting train movements through...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mechanical locking removed or disarranged... § 236.326 Mechanical locking removed or disarranged; requirement for permitting train movements through interlocking. When mechanical locking of interlocking machine is being changed or is removed from the machine...

  20. 49 CFR 236.326 - Mechanical locking removed or disarranged; requirement for permitting train movements through...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mechanical locking removed or disarranged... § 236.326 Mechanical locking removed or disarranged; requirement for permitting train movements through interlocking. When mechanical locking of interlocking machine is being changed or is removed from the machine...

  1. 49 CFR 236.326 - Mechanical locking removed or disarranged; requirement for permitting train movements through...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mechanical locking removed or disarranged... § 236.326 Mechanical locking removed or disarranged; requirement for permitting train movements through interlocking. When mechanical locking of interlocking machine is being changed or is removed from the machine...

  2. Social Skills Training in Natural Play Settings: Educating through the Physical Theory to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aljadeff-Abergel, Elian; Ayvazo, Shiri; Eldar, Eitan

    2012-01-01

    Social skills are prerequisite to academic performance and success in school. Training of these skills is particularly important for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) who have social deficits and struggle maintaining appropriate and accepted behavior in and outside of the classroom. Educating through the "physical" model is a…

  3. Promoting Self-Regulation through School-Based Martial Arts Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakes, Kimberley D.; Hoyt, William T.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of school-based Tae Kwon Do training on self-regulatory abilities was examined. A self-regulation framework including three domains (cognitive, affective, and physical) was presented. Children (N = 207) from kindergarten through Grade 5 were randomly assigned by homeroom class to either the intervention (martial arts) group or a…

  4. ALOHA to New Learning: Uniting Student and Career Staff through Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Lynn N.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines staff training from a different perspective, as a means of transmitting organizational culture to student employees through a closer communication between career and student part-time employees. Results of a qualitative survey suggest communication supports multigenerational relationships and administrators who invest in…

  5. Gaining Insight to Transfer of Training through the Lens of Social Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisweiler, Silke; Nikitopoulos, Alexandra; Netzel, Janine; Frey, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with the question under which conditions people change their behavior through vocational trainings or not. Following the demand of more theory-driven investigations in transfer research (Blume, Ford, Baldwin, & Huang, 2010) we wish to add the perspective of social psychology. We therefore illustrate how well-known concepts from…

  6. Social Skills Training in Natural Play Settings: Educating through the Physical Theory to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aljadeff-Abergel, Elian; Ayvazo, Shiri; Eldar, Eitan

    2012-01-01

    Social skills are prerequisite to academic performance and success in school. Training of these skills is particularly important for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) who have social deficits and struggle maintaining appropriate and accepted behavior in and outside of the classroom. Educating through the "physical" model is a…

  7. Beyond Parental Control and Authoritarian Parenting Style: Understanding Chinese Parenting through the Cultural Notion of Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Ruth K.

    1994-01-01

    Examined the child-rearing practices of immigrant Chinese and European American mothers of preschool children through questionnaires that measured parental control, authoritative-authoritarian parenting style, and the Chinese concept of child training. Chinese mothers scored significantly higher than European American mothers on the training…

  8. 49 CFR 236.326 - Mechanical locking removed or disarranged; requirement for permitting train movements through...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mechanical locking removed or disarranged... § 236.326 Mechanical locking removed or disarranged; requirement for permitting train movements through interlocking. When mechanical locking of interlocking machine is being changed or is removed from the machine...

  9. 49 CFR 236.326 - Mechanical locking removed or disarranged; requirement for permitting train movements through...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mechanical locking removed or disarranged... § 236.326 Mechanical locking removed or disarranged; requirement for permitting train movements through interlocking. When mechanical locking of interlocking machine is being changed or is removed from the machine...

  10. Mitochondrial activity in fern spores of Cyathea costaricensis as an indicator of the impact of land use and water quality in rivers running through cloud forests.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Romero, Alexis Joseph; Rico-Sánchez, Axel Eduardo; Catalá, Myriam; Sedeño-Díaz, Jacinto Elías; López-López, Eugenia

    2017-09-21

    Early-warning biomarkers, such as mitochondrial activity, have become a key tool in ecosystem assessment. This study aims to evaluate the response of mitochondrial activity in spores of the autochthonous fern Cyathea costaricensis as a bioassessment tool concurrently with land use and physicochemical evaluation in 11 sites along Bobos River, Veracruz, Mexico, to assess river water quality. Bobos River is located in the Nautla basin, northeastern Veracruz (Mexico); the upper river runs through a protected natural area (Filobobos River and adjacent areas). The study involved three monitoring periods: February, June and September 2014. In each study site, physicochemical water quality parameters were recorded to calculate the Water Quality Index (WQI); also, study sites were characterized in terms of land use. Water samples were collected to perform bioassays where spores of C. costaricensis were exposed to samples to assess mitochondrial activity; a positive control exposure test was run under controlled conditions to maximize mitochondrial activity. A Principal Component Analysis was performed to correlate land-use attributes with environmental variables and mitochondrial activity. Three river sections were identified: the upper portion was characterized by the dominance of native vegetation, the highest WQI (in September), and the lowest mitochondrial activity (63.87%-77.47%), related to the geological nature of the basin and high hardness levels. Mitochondrial activity peaked in September (98.32% ± 9.01), likely resulting from nutrient enrichment in the rainy season, and was lowest in February (74.54% ± 1.60) (p < 0.05). Mitochondrial activity was found to be a good benchmark for the assessment of water quality, reflecting the effects of physicochemical characteristics. Mitochondrial activity showed changes along the river and between seasons, associated with environmental characteristics such as land use and the geological nature of the basin, as well as

  11. Running WASP at Argonne

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    The WASP model was initially implemented at Argonne for the International Training course on Electric System Planning being conducted at Argonne. This implementation was done with special consideration to course participants who are unfamiliar with WASP and with the computer system they use during the course. Cataloged Procedures were developed for this purpose. The procedures simplify using WASP and enable participants to quickly start using WASP with a minimum of training. Within the procedures, features were added that enhance WASP. These features include a formatted printout of WASP input data and a historical log of all runs and inut data used. For the RENAME step, an alternate method is presented, with special comment concerning the WASP3 release.

  12. Enhancing Connectedness Through Peer Training for Community-Dwelling Older People: A Person Centred Approach.

    PubMed

    Burmeister, Oliver K; Bernoth, Maree; Dietsch, Elaine; Cleary, Michelle

    2016-06-01

    Social interaction and connectedness is important to the mental health and wellbeing of older people. The aim of this research study was to facilitate and increase opportunities for social connectedness for older people living in regional areas through the use of technology training. Weekly technology training sessions were conducted at a Seniors Citizen's Club with a peer trainer (an experienced, retired computer teacher) and sessions were attended not only by the six study participants, but also by other club members, with up to 15 club members participating in sessions. Data analysis involved all documents generated by the project, including the individual interviews, researcher observations of training sessions, reports from the peer trainer and weekly diaries maintained by participants. Findings demonstrated that computer training at the Senior Citizens Club helped participants build group cohesion and to form tiered connections with partners, family, and friends with whom they no longer live. When the trainer is seen as a peer, and training is person-centred, older people are more receptive to learning, exploring, and experimenting with technology. Although only six people were involved in the in-depth evaluation part of the study, voluntary training with the trainer in the absence of any funding continues even to this present time. The outcome of this research reinforces the potential for technology facilitated tiered connectivity to enhance the quality of life for older people living in regional and rural Australia.

  13. Advancing MCH Interdisciplinary/Interprofessional Leadership Training and Practice Through a Learning Collaborative.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Meaghan C; Margolis, Lewis H; Rosenberg, Angela; Humphreys, Elizabeth

    2016-11-01

    Purpose The Interdisciplinary Leadership Learning Collaborative (ILLC), under the sponsorship of AUCD and the Maternal and Child Health Bureau, brought together six teams, composed of 14 MCHB and UCEDD training programs to enhance their leadership training. Description Using adult learning principles, interactive training methods, and skill-focused learning, the ILLC built upon the evidence-based Interdisciplinary Leadership Development Program of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The program began with a 4-day on-site intensive and then continued through monthly conference calls, a mid-term on-site workshop, and a summary virtual workshop to present programmatic accomplishments and share plans for sustainability. Coaching/consultation for the teams around particular challenges was also part of the program. Assessment All teams reported enhancements in intentional leadership training, threading of leadership concepts across clinical, didactic, and workshop settings, and new collaborative partnerships for leadership training. Teams also identified a number of strategies to increase sustainability of their intentional leadership training efforts. Conclusion for Practice The learning collaborative is a productive model to address the growing need for interdisciplinary MCH leaders.

  14. Facial Affect Recognition Training Through Telepractice: Two Case Studies of Individuals with Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Williamson, John; Isaki, Emi

    2015-01-01

    The use of a modified Facial Affect Recognition (FAR) training to identify emotions was investigated with two case studies of adults with moderate to severe chronic (> five years) traumatic brain injury (TBI). The modified FAR training was administered via telepractice to target social communication skills. Therapy consisted of identifying emotions through static facial expressions, personally reflecting on those emotions, and identifying sarcasm and emotions within social stories and role-play. Pre- and post-therapy measures included static facial photos to identify emotion and the Prutting and Kirchner Pragmatic Protocol for social communication. Both participants with chronic TBI showed gains on identifying facial emotions on the static photos.

  15. Facial Affect Recognition Training Through Telepractice: Two Case Studies of Individuals with Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    WILLIAMSON, JOHN; ISAKI, EMI

    2015-01-01

    The use of a modified Facial Affect Recognition (FAR) training to identify emotions was investigated with two case studies of adults with moderate to severe chronic (> five years) traumatic brain injury (TBI). The modified FAR training was administered via telepractice to target social communication skills. Therapy consisted of identifying emotions through static facial expressions, personally reflecting on those emotions, and identifying sarcasm and emotions within social stories and role-play. Pre- and post-therapy measures included static facial photos to identify emotion and the Prutting and Kirchner Pragmatic Protocol for social communication. Both participants with chronic TBI showed gains on identifying facial emotions on the static photos. PMID:27563379

  16. Analysis of the impact of coal trains moving through Morehead City, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-10-01

    At the present time 3 million tons of coal is transported by trains through Morehead City each year. This is projected to rise to 15 million tons per year by 1984. As the tonnage of exported coal increases, the possible adverse effects on the Town of Morehead City are likely to be observed. This report examines the possibility of any adverse effects to the Town and its citizens caused by the coal train transportation. Traffic delay, noise and vibration, and business effect studies were conducted, analyzed, and conclusions drawn from these studies to assess the impacts.

  17. Enhancing nonhuman primate care and welfare through the use of positive reinforcement training.

    PubMed

    Laule, Gail; Whittaker, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are excellent subjects for the enhancement of care and welfare through training. The broad range of species offers tremendous behavioral diversity, and individual primates show varying abilities to cope with the stressors of captivity, which differ depending on the venue. Biomedical facilities include small single cages, pair housing, and breeding corrals with large social groups. Zoos have social groupings of differing sizes, emphasizing public display and breeding. Sanctuaries have nonbreeding groups of varying sizes and often of mixed species. In every venue, the primary objective is to provide good quality care, with minimal stress. Positive reinforcement training improves care and reduces stress by enlisting a primate's voluntary cooperation with targeted activities, including both husbandry and medical procedures. It can also improve socialization, reduce abnormal behaviors, and increase species-typical behaviors. This article reviews the results already achieved with positive reinforcement training and suggests further possibilities for enhancing primate care and welfare.

  18. Perceptual training profoundly alters binocular rivalry through both sensory and attentional enhancements

    PubMed Central

    Dieter, Kevin C.; Melnick, Michael D.; Tadin, Duje

    2016-01-01

    The effects of attention, as well as its functional utility, are particularly prominent when selecting among multiple stimuli that compete for processing resources. However, existing studies have found that binocular rivalry—a phenomenon characterized by perceptual competition between incompatible stimuli presented to the two eyes—is only modestly influenced by selective attention. Here, we demonstrate that the relative resistance of binocular rivalry to selective modulations gradually erodes over the course of extended perceptual training that uses a demanding, feature-based attentional task. The final result was a dramatic alteration in binocular rivalry dynamics, leading to profound predominance of the trained stimulus. In some cases, trained observers saw the trained rival image nearly exclusively throughout 4-min viewing periods. This large change in binocular rivalry predominance was driven by two factors: task-independent, eye-specific changes in visual processing, as well as an enhanced ability of attention to promote predominance of the task-relevant stimulus. Notably, this strengthening of task-driven attention also exhibited eye specificity above and beyond that from observed sensory processing changes. These empirical results, along with simulations from a recently developed model of interocular suppression, reveal that stimulus predominance during binocular rivalry can be realized both through an eye-specific boost in processing of sensory information and through facilitated deployment of attention to task-relevant features in the trained eye. Our findings highlight the interplay of attention and binocular rivalry at multiple visual processing stages and reveal that sustained training can substantially alter early visual mechanisms. PMID:27791061

  19. The Influences of the Wheel Profiles on the Wheel Wear and Vibrational Characteristics of the Passenger Cars Running on the Seoul-Pusan Conventional Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Bu-Byoung; Lee, Chan-Woo

    Wheels of the railway vehicle play the important role for driving train through wheel-rail interaction. Especially wheel profile is one of the most important design factors to rule the running stability and safety of train. Accordingly maintenance of wheel like wheel profile control is also very important for securing safety and stability of train operation. This study presents the wheel wear measurement results of Saemaeul running on the conventional line. The train set included three different cars which have different shape of wheel profile including KNR profile currently used in Saemaeul. Train set was operated on Seoul-Pusan line with fixed train set formation for commercial service. Wheel wear measurements were performed periodically. We can find the influence of wheel profile on the wheel wear of the train running on the conventional line through the measurement results.

  20. Enhancing Executive Function and Neural Health in Bipolar Disorder through Reasoning Training

    PubMed Central

    Venza, Erin E.; Chapman, Sandra B.; Aslan, Sina; Zientz, Jennifer E.; Tyler, David L.; Spence, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in executive function and memory among individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) are well-documented; however, only recently have efforts begun to address whether such cognitive deficits can be ameliorated through cognitive training. This pilot study examined the effects of a top–down, cognitive reasoning training program in adults with BD on both brain and cognitive measures. Twenty-seven participants (11 males, 16 females), aged 21–70 years old, completed the study. Participants completed neurocognitive testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after training, consisting of 8 h (2 h/week) of training in small groups. The training delivered information processing strategies that were implemented and applicable to a variety of daily living contexts. Results indicated that participants showed significant gains in the primary outcome measure of complex abstraction, also referred to as gist reasoning, as well as in untrained domains of executive function and memory. We found a significant increase in resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) in left inferior frontal gyrus after cognitive training. We also found that resting CBF in the right frontal middle gyrus correlated positively with performance on the measure of complex abstraction. This feasibility study provides promising evidence that short-term reasoning training can enhance cognitive performance and brain health in adults with BD. These data motivate further efforts to explore adjuvant therapeutics to improve cognitive performance and underlying brain systems in bipolar, as well as other psychiatric disorders. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02843282, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02843282 PMID:27847486

  1. Enhancing Executive Function and Neural Health in Bipolar Disorder through Reasoning Training.

    PubMed

    Venza, Erin E; Chapman, Sandra B; Aslan, Sina; Zientz, Jennifer E; Tyler, David L; Spence, Jeffrey S

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in executive function and memory among individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) are well-documented; however, only recently have efforts begun to address whether such cognitive deficits can be ameliorated through cognitive training. This pilot study examined the effects of a top-down, cognitive reasoning training program in adults with BD on both brain and cognitive measures. Twenty-seven participants (11 males, 16 females), aged 21-70 years old, completed the study. Participants completed neurocognitive testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after training, consisting of 8 h (2 h/week) of training in small groups. The training delivered information processing strategies that were implemented and applicable to a variety of daily living contexts. Results indicated that participants showed significant gains in the primary outcome measure of complex abstraction, also referred to as gist reasoning, as well as in untrained domains of executive function and memory. We found a significant increase in resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) in left inferior frontal gyrus after cognitive training. We also found that resting CBF in the right frontal middle gyrus correlated positively with performance on the measure of complex abstraction. This feasibility study provides promising evidence that short-term reasoning training can enhance cognitive performance and brain health in adults with BD. These data motivate further efforts to explore adjuvant therapeutics to improve cognitive performance and underlying brain systems in bipolar, as well as other psychiatric disorders. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02843282, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02843282.

  2. The Aircraft Simulation Role in Improving Flight Safety Through Control Room Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shy, Karla S.; Hageman, Jacob J.; Le, Jeanette H.; Sitz, Joel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Center uses its six-degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF) fixed-base simulations for mission control room training to improve flight safety and operations. This concept is applied to numerous flight projects such as the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV), the F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS), the X-38 Actuator Control Test (XACT), and X-43A (Hyper-X). The Dryden 6-DOF simulations are typically used through various stages of a project, from design to ground tests. The roles of these simulations have expanded to support control room training, reinforcing flight safety by building control room staff proficiency. Real-time telemetry, radar, and video data are generated from flight vehicle simulation models. These data are used to drive the control room displays. Nominal static values are used to complete information where appropriate. Audio communication is also an integral part of training sessions. This simulation capability is used to train control room personnel and flight crew for nominal missions and emergency situations. Such training sessions are also opportunities to refine flight cards and control room display pages, exercise emergency procedures, and practice control room setup for the day of flight. This paper describes this technology as it is used in the X-43A and F-15 IFCS and XACT projects.

  3. Building mental health workforce capacity through training and retention of psychiatrists in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Abas, Melanie A; Nhiwatiwa, Sekai M; Mangezi, Walter; Jack, Helen; Piette, Angharad; Cowan, Frances M; Barley, Elizabeth; Chingono, Alfred; Iversen, Amy; Chibanda, Dixon

    2014-08-01

    Despite the need to improve the quantity and quality of psychiatry training in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), very little is known about the experiences of psychiatric trainees in the region. This is the first study examining psychiatric trainees in a low-income country in SSA. It was carried out as part of the needs assessment for a unique Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) programme to find African solutions for medical shortages in Africa. We approached all doctors who had trained in post-graduate psychiatry in Zimbabwe in 2010 and conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with all except one (n = 6). We analysed the data using constant comparison and thematic analysis. Trainees described the apprenticeship model as the programme's primary strength, through providing clinical exposure and role models. Programme weaknesses included shortages in information sources, trainee salaries, trainers, public health education, and in the mental health service. Most respondents were, however, eager to continue practising psychiatry in Zimbabwe, motivated by family ties, national commitment and helping vulnerable, stigmatized individuals. Respondents called for sub-speciality training and for infrastructure and training to do research. Resources need to be made available for psychiatric trainees in more SSA settings to develop public health competencies. However, investment in psychiatry training programmes must balance service provision with trainees' educational needs. Directing investment towards needs identified by trainees may be a cost-effective, context-sensitive way to increase retention and learning outcomes.

  4. A Critical Analysis of Managerial Skills Competencies of Secondary School Heads Trained through Distance Mode of Allama Iqbal Open University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akhlaq, Muhammad; Sulehri, Shazia Munawar

    2010-01-01

    The premise of this article is to analyze the managerial skills competencies of secondary schools heads trained through distance mode of education in Pakistan. For this purpose a sample 300 secondary school teachers and 100 secondary schools head-teachers trained through distance mode and working in the Federal Government Educational Institutions…

  5. Injury-Reduction Effectiveness of Prescribing Running Shoes Based on Plantar Shape in Marine Corps Basic Training, San Diego, CA, and Parris Island, SC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    for implementation. b. Injuries and Footwear (1) There are a large number of biomechanical studies involving running shoes (32-38) and these...in excessive pronation, creating a torsional force that repeatedly overstretched the plantar fascia , leading to the fasciitis. On the basis of one...capacity may perceive long-term low intensity tasks as more difficult (94). The combined cardiovascular, metabolic, biomechanical , and perceptual stress

  6. Training Through Blood and Fire: The Leadership Development of Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    AU/ACSC/CUDDY, J/AY15       AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY TRAINING THROUGH BLOOD AND FIRE: THE LEADERSHIP...had ‘a chivalrous strain of blood in his composition’ and taught Chamberlain lessons of honor, courtesy, and magnanimity towards foes.”53 His...until his boot filled with blood (thigh wound) and he passed [out].”86 At Marye’s Heights near Fredericksburg in December 1862, which was the

  7. Capacity Building through Focus Group Training in Community-based Participatory Research

    PubMed Central

    Amico, KL; Wieland, ML; Weis, JA; Sullivan, SM; Nigon, JA; Sia, IG

    2014-01-01

    Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR) emphasizes collaborative efforts among communities and academics where all members are equitable contributors. Capacity building through training in research methodology is a potentially important outcome for CBPR partnerships. Objectives To describe the logistics and lessons learned from building community research capacity for focus group moderation in the context of a CBPR partnership. Methods After orientation to CBPR principles, members of a US suburban community underwent twelve hours of interactive learning in focus group moderation by a national focus group expert. An additional eight-hour workshop promoted advanced proficiency and built on identified strengths and weaknesses. Ten focus groups were conducted at an adult education center addressing a health concern previously identified by the center’s largely immigrant and refugee population. Program evaluation was achieved through multiple observations by community and academic-based observers. Results Twenty-seven community and academic members were recruited through established relationships for training in focus group moderation, note-taking, and report compilation. Focus group training led to increased trust among community and research partners while empowering individual community members and increasing research capacity for CBPR. Conclusions Community members were trained in focus group moderation and successfully applied these skills to a CBPR project addressing a health concern in the community. This approach of equipping community members with skills in a qualitative research method promoted capacity building within a socio-culturally diverse community, while strengthening community-academic partnership. In this setting, capacity building efforts may help to ensure the success and sustainability for continued health interventions through CBPR. PMID:22267359

  8. Transforming LEND leadership training curriculum through the maternal and child health leadership competencies.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Betsy P; Couse, Leslie J; Sonnenmeier, Rae M; Kurtz, Alan; Russell, Susan M; Antal, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how the Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Leadership Competencies (v 3.0) were used to examine and improve an MCH Leadership Education in Neurodevelopmental and Related Disabilities (LEND) training curriculum for New Hampshire and Maine. Over 15 % of the nation's children experience neurodevelopmental disabilities or special health care needs and estimates suggest 1 in every 68 children is diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. Across the Unites States critical shortages of qualified MCH professionals exist, particularly in poor and rural areas. A continued investment in training interdisciplinary leaders is critical. The MCH Leadership Competencies provide an effective foundation for leadership training through identification of requisite knowledge, skills, and dispositions required of MCH leaders. This paper describes a three-step process, which began in 2010 and included utilizing the MCH Leadership Competencies as a tool to reflect on, develop, and evaluate the NH LEND leadership curriculum. Curriculum development was further supported through participation in a multi-state learning collaborative. Through a series of intentional decisions, the curriculum design of NH LEND utilized the competencies and evidence-based principles of instruction to engage trainees in the development of specific MCH content knowledge and leadership skills. The LEND network specifically, and MCH leadership programs more broadly, may benefit from the intentional use of the MCH competencies to assist in curriculum development and program evaluation, and as a means to support trainees in identifying specific leadership goals and evaluating their leadership skill development.

  9. Understanding the Initial Impact of Early Support and Key Working Training through the Voices of Trainers, Training Participants, and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brito, Ana Teresa; Lindsay, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    An exploratory study is reported of the delivery of the Early Support and Key Working (ES&KW) training program in England for multiagency professionals and parents. This qualitative study examined how ES&KW training principles and content relate to contemporary pillars in early childhood intervention; how this training is structured to…

  10. Understanding the Initial Impact of Early Support and Key Working Training through the Voices of Trainers, Training Participants, and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brito, Ana Teresa; Lindsay, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    An exploratory study is reported of the delivery of the Early Support and Key Working (ES&KW) training program in England for multiagency professionals and parents. This qualitative study examined how ES&KW training principles and content relate to contemporary pillars in early childhood intervention; how this training is structured to…

  11. Improving health and safety conditions in agriculture through professional training of Florida farm labor supervisors.

    PubMed

    Morera, Maria C; Monaghan, Paul F; Tovar-Aguilar, J Antonio; Galindo-Gonzalez, Sebastian; Roka, Fritz M; Asuaje, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Because farm labor supervisors (FLSs) are responsible for ensuring safe work environments for thousands of workers, providing them with adequate knowledge is critical to preserving worker health. Yet a challenge to offering professional training to FLSs, many of whom are foreign-born and have received different levels of education in the US and abroad, is implementing a program that not only results in knowledge gains but meets the expectations of a diverse audience. By offering bilingual instruction on safety and compliance, the University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) FLS Training program is helping to improve workplace conditions and professionalize the industry. A recent evaluation of the program combined participant observation and surveys to elicit knowledge and satisfaction levels from attendees of its fall 2012 trainings. Frequency distributions and dependent- and independent-means t-tests were used to measure and compare participant outcomes. The evaluation found that attendees rated the quality of their training experience as either high or very high and scored significantly better in posttraining knowledge tests than in pretraining knowledge tests across both languages. Nonetheless, attendees of the trainings delivered in English had significantly higher posttest scores than attendees of the trainings delivered in Spanish. As a result, the program has incorporated greater standardization of content delivery and staff development. Through assessment of its program components and educational outcomes, the program has documented its effectiveness and offers a replicable approach that can serve to improve the targeted outcomes of safety and health promotion in other states.

  12. Biomechanics and analysis of running gait.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Sheila A; Bhat, Krishna P

    2005-08-01

    Physical activity, including running, is important to general health by way of prevention of chronic illnesses and their precursors. To keep runners healthy, it is paramount that one has sound knowledge of the biomechanics of running and assessment of running gait. More so, improving performance in competitive runners is based in sound training and rehabilitation practices that are rooted firmly in biomechanical principles. This article summarized the biomechanics of running and the means with which one can evaluate running gait. The gait assessment techniques for collecting and analyzing kinetic and kinematic data can provide insights into injury prevention and treatment and performance enhancement.

  13. 49 CFR 238.319 - Running brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Running brake test. 238.319 Section 238.319... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.319 Running brake test. (a) As soon as conditions safely permit, a running brake test shall be performed on each passenger train after the train has received, or...

  14. 49 CFR 238.319 - Running brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Running brake test. 238.319 Section 238.319... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.319 Running brake test. (a) As soon as conditions safely permit, a running brake test shall be performed on each passenger train after the train has received, or...

  15. 49 CFR 238.319 - Running brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Running brake test. 238.319 Section 238.319... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.319 Running brake test. (a) As soon as conditions safely permit, a running brake test shall be performed on each passenger train after the train has received, or...

  16. 49 CFR 238.319 - Running brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Running brake test. 238.319 Section 238.319... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.319 Running brake test. (a) As soon as conditions safely permit, a running brake test shall be performed on each passenger train after the train has received, or...

  17. 49 CFR 238.319 - Running brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Running brake test. 238.319 Section 238.319... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.319 Running brake test. (a) As soon as conditions safely permit, a running brake test shall be performed on each passenger train after the train has received, or...

  18. Teach beyond Your Reach: An Instructor's Guide to Developing and Running Successful Distance Learning Classes, Workshops, Training Sessions, and More. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neidorf, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Distance education is enabling individuals to earn college and graduate degrees, professional certificates, and a wide range of skills and credentials. In addition to the expanding role of distance learning in higher education, all types of organizations now offer web-based training courses to employees, clients, and other associates. In this…

  19. Learning through projects in the training of biomedical engineers: an application experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambi, José Antonio Li; Peme, Carmen

    2011-09-01

    Learning through Projects in the curriculum consists of both the identification and analysis of a problem, and the design of solution, execution and evaluation strategies, with teams of students. The project is conceived as the creation of a set of strategies articulated and developed during a certain amount of time to solve a problem contextualized in situations continually changing, where the constant evaluation provides feedback to make adjustments. In 2009, Learning through Projects was applied on the subject Hospital Facilities and three intervention projects were developed in health centers. This first stage is restricted to the analysis of the aspects that are considered to be basic to the professional training: a) Context knowledge: The future biomedical engineers must be familiarized with the complex health system where they will develop their profession; b) Team work: This is one of the essential skills in the training of students, since Biomedical Engineering connects the knowledge of sciences of life with the knowledge of exact sciences and technology; c) Regulations: The activities related to the profession require the implementation of regulations; therefore, to be aware of and to apply these regulations is a fundamental aspect to be analyzed in this stage; d) Project evaluation: It refers to the elaboration and studying of co-evaluation reports, which helps to find out if Learning through Projects contributes to the training. This new line of investigation has the purpose of discovering if the application of this learning strategy makes changes in the training of students in relation to their future professional career. The findings of this ongoing investigation will allow for the analysis of the possibility of extending its application. Key words: engineering, biomedical, learning, projects, strategies.

  20. 48 CFR 225.7402-4 - Law of war training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... training normally will be provided through a military-run training center. The contracting officer may...= en-US. (b) Advanced law of war training. (1) The types of personnel that must obtain advanced law of... areas of military operations. (iii) Interrogators, linguists, interpreters, guards, report...