Science.gov

Sample records for running wheel exercise

  1. Improved Infrared-Sensing Running Wheel Systems with an Effective Exercise Activity Indicator

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chi-Chun; Chang, Ming-Wen; Chang, Ching-Ping; Chang, Wen-Ying; Chang, Shin-Chieh; Lin, Mao-Tsun; Yang, Chin-Lung

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an infrared-sensing running wheel (ISRW) system for the quantitative measurement of effective exercise activity in rats. The ISRW system provides superior exercise training compared with commercially available traditional animal running platforms. Four infrared (IR) light-emitting diode/detector pairs embedded around the rim of the wheel detect the rat’s real-time position; the acrylic wheel has a diameter of 55 cm and a thickness of 15 cm, that is, it is larger and thicker than traditional exercise wheels, and it is equipped with a rubber track. The acrylic wheel hangs virtually frictionless, and a DC motor with an axially mounted rubber wheel, which has a diameter of 10 cm, drives the acrylic wheel from the outer edge. The system can automatically train rats to run persistently. The proposed system can determine effective exercise activity (EEA), with the IR sensors (which are connected to a conventional PC) recording the rat exercise behavior. A prototype of the system was verified by a hospital research group performing ischemic stroke experiments on rats by considering middle cerebral artery occlusion. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed system provides greater neuroprotection in an animal stroke model compared with a conventional treadmill and a motorized running wheel for a given exercise intensity. The quantitative exercise effectiveness indicator showed a 92% correlation between an increase in the EEA and a decrease in the infarct volume. This indicator can be used as a noninvasive and objective reference in clinical animal exercise experiments. PMID:25875841

  2. Acute Bouts of Wheel Running Decrease Cocaine Self-Administration: Influence of Exercise Output

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Mark A.; Fronk, Gaylen E.; Zhang, Huailin; Magee, Charlotte P.; Robinson, Andrea M.

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is associated with lower rates of drug use in human populations and decreases drug self-administration in laboratory animals. Most of the existing literature examining the link between exercise and drug use has focused on chronic, long-term exercise, and very few studies have examined the link between exercise output (i.e., amount of exercise) and drug self-administration. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute bouts of exercise on cocaine self-administration, and to determine whether these effects were dependent on exercise output and the time interval between exercise and drug self-administration. Female rats were trained to run in automated running wheels, implanted with intravenous catheters, and allowed to self-administer cocaine on a fixed ratio (FR1) schedule of reinforcement. Immediately prior to each test session, subjects engaged in acute bouts of exercise in which they ran for 0, 30, or 60 min at 12 m/min. Acute bouts of exercise before test sessions decreased cocaine self-administration in an output-dependent manner, with the greatest reduction in cocaine intake observed in the 60-min exercise condition. Exercise did not reduce cocaine self-administration when wheel running and test sessions were separated by 12 hours, and exercise did not reduce responding maintained by food or responding during a saline substitution test. These data indicate that acute bouts of exercise decrease cocaine self-administration in a time- and output-dependent manner. These results also add to a growing body of literature suggesting that physical activity may be an effective component of drug abuse treatment programs. PMID:27720801

  3. Metabolic adaptations of skeletal muscle to voluntary wheel running exercise in hypertensive heart failure rats.

    PubMed

    Schultz, R L; Kullman, E L; Waters, R P; Huang, H; Kirwan, J P; Gerdes, A M; Swallow, J G

    2013-01-01

    The Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure (SHHF) rat mimics the human progression of hypertension from hypertrophy to heart failure. However, it is unknown whether SHHF animals can exercise at sufficient levels to observe beneficial biochemical adaptations in skeletal muscle. Thirty-seven female SHHF and Wistar-Furth (WF) rats were randomized to sedentary (SHHFsed and WFsed) and exercise groups (SHHFex and WFex). The exercise groups had access to running wheels from 6-22 months of age. Hindlimb muscles were obtained for metabolic measures that included mitochondrial enzyme function and expression, and glycogen utilization. The SHHFex rats ran a greater distance and duration as compared to the WFex rats (P<0.05), but the WFex rats ran at a faster speed (P<0.05). Skeletal muscle citrate synthase and beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase enzyme activity was not altered in the SHHFex group, but was increased (P<0.05) in the WFex animals. Citrate synthase protein and gene expression were unchanged in SHHFex animals, but were increased in WFex rats (P<0.05). In the WFex animals muscle glycogen was significantly depleted after exercise (P<0.05), but not in the SHHFex group. We conclude that despite robust amounts of aerobic activity, voluntary wheel running exercise was not sufficiently intense to improve the oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle in adult SHHF animals, indicating an inability to compensate for declining heart function by improving peripheral oxidative adaptations in the skeletal muscle.

  4. Running Wheel for Earthworms

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, W. Jeffrey; Johnson, Brandon A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the construction and use of a running wheel responsive to the movement of the earthworm. The wheel employs readily available, inexpensive components and is easily constructed. Movement of the wheel can be monitored visually or via standard behavioral laboratory computer interfaces. Examples of data are presented, and possibilities for use in the teaching classroom are discussed. PMID:27385934

  5. Exercise training effects on hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses in mice selected for increased voluntary wheel running.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Scott A; Rezende, Enrico L; Chappell, Mark A; Gomes, Fernando R; Kolb, Erik M; Malisch, Jessica L; Rhodes, Justin S; Mitchell, Gordon S; Garland, Theodore

    2014-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? We used experimental evolution to determine how selective breeding for high voluntary wheel running and exercise training (7-11 weeks) affect ventilatory chemoreflexes of laboratory mice at rest. What is the main finding and its importance? Selective breeding, although significantly affecting some traits, did not systematically alter ventilation across gas concentrations. As with most human studies, our findings support the idea that endurance training attenuates resting ventilation. However, little evidence was found for a correlation between ventilatory chemoreflexes and the amount of individual voluntary wheel running. We conclude that exercise 'training' alters respiratory behaviours, but these changes may not be necessary to achieve high levels of wheel running. Ventilatory control is affected by genetics, the environment and gene-environment and gene-gene interactions. Here, we used an experimental evolution approach to test whether 37 generations of selective breeding for high voluntary wheel running (genetic effects) and/or long-term (7-11 weeks) wheel access (training effects) alter acute respiratory behaviour of mice resting in normoxic, hypoxic and hypercapnic conditions. As the four replicate high-runner (HR) lines run much more than the four non-selected control (C) lines, we also examined whether the amount of exercise among individual mice was a quantitative predictor of ventilatory chemoreflexes at rest. Selective breeding and/or wheel access significantly affected several traits. In normoxia, HR mice tended to have lower mass-adjusted rates of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. Chronic wheel access increased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production in both HR and C mice during hypercapnia. Breathing frequency and minute ventilation were significantly reduced by chronic wheel access in both HR and C mice during hypoxia. Selection history, while significantly affecting some traits

  6. Spontaneous Wheel Running Exercise Induces Brain Recovery via Neurotrophin-3 Expression Following Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hyun Mo; Lee, Sun Min; Kim, Min Hee

    2013-09-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) after applying spontaneous wheel running exercises (SWR) after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). [Subjects and Methods] Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups; 20 rats were subjected to controlled cortical impact for TBI, and then, animals were randomly collected from the SWR group and subjected to wheel running exercise for 3 weeks. Ten rats were not subjected to any injury or running exercise to compare with the effect of TBI and SWR. Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, skilled ladder rung walking test, and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining analysis for the evaluation of NT-3 expression were used to assess brain damage and recovery. [Results] The TBI-induced decrease in NT-3 expression was recovered by wheel running exercise. Moreover, decreased ischemic volume and progressive neurobehavioral outcome were observed in the SWR group. [Conclusion] Spontaneous running exercise promotes brain recovery and motor function through an increase in expression of NT-3.

  7. Reduced wheel running and blunted effects of voluntary exercise in LPA1-null mice: The importance of assessing the amount of running in transgenic mice studies

    PubMed Central

    Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Rosell-Valle, Cristina; Blanco, Eduardo; Pedraza, Carmen; Chun, Jerold; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo; Santín, Luis J.

    2014-01-01

    This work was aimed to assess whether voluntary exercise rescued behavioral and hippocampal alterations in mice lacking the lysophosphatidic acid LPA1 receptor (LPA1-null mice), studying the potential relationship between the amount of exercise performed and its effects. Normal and LPA1-null mice underwent 23 days of free wheel running and were tested for open-field behavior and adult hippocampal neurogenesis (cell proliferation, immature neurons, cell survival). Running decreased anxiety-like behavior in both genotypes but increased exploration only in the normal mice. While running affected all neurogenesis-related measures in normal mice (especially in the suprapyramidal blade of the dentate gyrus), only a moderate increase in cell survival was found in the mutants. Importantly, the LPA1-nulls showed notably reduced running. Analysis suggested that defective running in the LPA1-null mice could contribute to explain the scarce benefit of the voluntary exercise treatment. On the other hand, a literature review revealed that voluntary exercise is frequently used to modulate behavior and the hippocampus in transgenic mice, but half of the studies did not assess the quantity of running, overlooking any potential running impairments. This study adds evidence to the relevance of the quantity of exercise performed, emphasizing the importance of its assessment in transgenic mice research. PMID:24055600

  8. Running wheel exercise reduces α-synuclein aggregation and improves motor and cognitive function in a transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenbo; Barkow, Jessica Cummiskey; Freed, Curt R

    2017-01-01

    Exercise has been recommended to improve motor function in Parkinson patients, but its value in altering progression of disease is unknown. In this study, we examined the neuroprotective effects of running wheel exercise in mice. In adult wild-type mice, one week of running wheel activity led to significantly increased DJ-1 protein concentrations in muscle and plasma. In DJ-1 knockout mice, running wheel performance was much slower and Rotarod performance was reduced, suggesting that DJ-1 protein is required for normal motor activity. To see if exercise can prevent abnormal protein deposition and behavioral decline in transgenic animals expressing a mutant human form of α-synuclein in all neurons, we set up running wheels in the cages of pre-symptomatic animals at 12 months old. Activity was monitored for a 3-month period. After 3 months, motor and cognitive performance on the Rotarod and Morris Water Maze were significantly better in running animals compared to control transgenic animals with locked running wheels. Biochemical analysis revealed that running mice had significantly higher DJ-1, Hsp70 and BDNF concentrations and had significantly less α-synuclein aggregation in brain compared to control mice. By contrast, plasma concentrations of α-synuclein were significantly higher in exercising mice compared to control mice. Our results suggest that exercise may slow the progression of Parkinson's disease by preventing abnormal protein aggregation in brain.

  9. Running wheel exercise reduces α-synuclein aggregation and improves motor and cognitive function in a transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Barkow, Jessica Cummiskey; Freed, Curt R.

    2017-01-01

    Exercise has been recommended to improve motor function in Parkinson patients, but its value in altering progression of disease is unknown. In this study, we examined the neuroprotective effects of running wheel exercise in mice. In adult wild-type mice, one week of running wheel activity led to significantly increased DJ-1 protein concentrations in muscle and plasma. In DJ-1 knockout mice, running wheel performance was much slower and Rotarod performance was reduced, suggesting that DJ-1 protein is required for normal motor activity. To see if exercise can prevent abnormal protein deposition and behavioral decline in transgenic animals expressing a mutant human form of α-synuclein in all neurons, we set up running wheels in the cages of pre-symptomatic animals at 12 months old. Activity was monitored for a 3-month period. After 3 months, motor and cognitive performance on the Rotarod and Morris Water Maze were significantly better in running animals compared to control transgenic animals with locked running wheels. Biochemical analysis revealed that running mice had significantly higher DJ-1, Hsp70 and BDNF concentrations and had significantly less α-synuclein aggregation in brain compared to control mice. By contrast, plasma concentrations of α-synuclein were significantly higher in exercising mice compared to control mice. Our results suggest that exercise may slow the progression of Parkinson’s disease by preventing abnormal protein aggregation in brain. PMID:29272304

  10. Prior voluntary wheel running attenuates neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Grace, Peter M; Fabisiak, Timothy J; Green-Fulgham, Suzanne M; Anderson, Nathan D; Strand, Keith A; Kwilasz, Andrew J; Galer, Erika L; Walker, Frederick Rohan; Greenwood, Benjamin N; Maier, Steven F; Fleshner, Monika; Watkins, Linda R

    2016-09-01

    Exercise is known to exert a systemic anti-inflammatory influence, but whether its effects are sufficient to protect against subsequent neuropathic pain is underinvestigated. We report that 6 weeks of voluntary wheel running terminating before chronic constriction injury (CCI) prevented the full development of allodynia for the ∼3-month duration of the injury. Neuroimmune signaling was assessed at 3 and 14 days after CCI. Prior exercise normalized ipsilateral dorsal spinal cord expression of neuroexcitatory interleukin (IL)-1β production and the attendant glutamate transporter GLT-1 decrease, as well as expression of the disinhibitory P2X4R-BDNF axis. The expression of the macrophage marker Iba1 and the chemokine CCL2 (MCP-1), and a neuronal injury marker (activating transcription factor 3), was attenuated by prior running in the ipsilateral lumbar dorsal root ganglia. Prior exercise suppressed macrophage infiltration and/or injury site proliferation, given decreased presence of macrophage markers Iba1, iNOS (M1), and Arg-1 (M2; expression was time dependent). Chronic constriction injury-driven increases in serum proinflammatory chemokines were suppressed by prior running, whereas IL-10 was increased. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were also stimulated with lipopolysaccharide ex vivo, wherein CCI-induced increases in IL-1β, nitrite, and IL-10 were suppressed by prior exercise. Last, unrestricted voluntary wheel running, beginning either the day of, or 2 weeks after, CCI, progressively reversed neuropathic pain. This study is the first to investigate the behavioral and neuroimmune consequences of regular exercise terminating before nerve injury. This study suggests that chronic pain should be considered a component of "the diseasome of physical inactivity," and that an active lifestyle may prevent neuropathic pain.

  11. A forced running wheel system with a microcontroller that provides high-intensity exercise training in an animal ischemic stroke model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, C.C.; Chang, M.W.; Chang, C.P.; Chan, S.C.; Chang, W.Y.; Yang, C.L.; Lin, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    We developed a forced non-electric-shock running wheel (FNESRW) system that provides rats with high-intensity exercise training using automatic exercise training patterns that are controlled by a microcontroller. The proposed system successfully makes a breakthrough in the traditional motorized running wheel to allow rats to perform high-intensity training and to enable comparisons with the treadmill at the same exercise intensity without any electric shock. A polyvinyl chloride runway with a rough rubber surface was coated on the periphery of the wheel so as to permit automatic acceleration training, and which allowed the rats to run consistently at high speeds (30 m/min for 1 h). An animal ischemic stroke model was used to validate the proposed system. FNESRW, treadmill, control, and sham groups were studied. The FNESRW and treadmill groups underwent 3 weeks of endurance running training. After 3 weeks, the experiments of middle cerebral artery occlusion, the modified neurological severity score (mNSS), an inclined plane test, and triphenyltetrazolium chloride were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed platform. The proposed platform showed that enhancement of motor function, mNSS, and infarct volumes was significantly stronger in the FNESRW group than the control group (P<0.05) and similar to the treadmill group. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed platform can be applied to test the benefit of exercise-preconditioning-induced neuroprotection using the animal stroke model. Additional advantages of the FNESRW system include stand-alone capability, independence of subjective human adjustment, and ease of use. PMID:25140816

  12. Western diet increases wheel running in mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running.

    PubMed

    Meek, T H; Eisenmann, J C; Garland, T

    2010-06-01

    Mice from a long-term selective breeding experiment for high voluntary wheel running offer a unique model to examine the contributions of genetic and environmental factors in determining the aspects of behavior and metabolism relevant to body-weight regulation and obesity. Starting with generation 16 and continuing through to generation 52, mice from the four replicate high runner (HR) lines have run 2.5-3-fold more revolutions per day as compared with four non-selected control (C) lines, but the nature of this apparent selection limit is not understood. We hypothesized that it might involve the availability of dietary lipids. Wheel running, food consumption (Teklad Rodent Diet (W) 8604, 14% kJ from fat; or Harlan Teklad TD.88137 Western Diet (WD), 42% kJ from fat) and body mass were measured over 1-2-week intervals in 100 males for 2 months starting 3 days after weaning. WD was obesogenic for both HR and C, significantly increasing both body mass and retroperitoneal fat pad mass, the latter even when controlling statistically for wheel-running distance and caloric intake. The HR mice had significantly less fat than C mice, explainable statistically by their greater running distance. On adjusting for body mass, HR mice showed higher caloric intake than C mice, also explainable by their higher running. Accounting for body mass and running, WD initially caused increased caloric intake in both HR and C, but this effect was reversed during the last four weeks of the study. Western diet had little or no effect on wheel running in C mice, but increased revolutions per day by as much as 75% in HR mice, mainly through increased time spent running. The remarkable stimulation of wheel running by WD in HR mice may involve fuel usage during prolonged endurance exercise and/or direct behavioral effects on motivation. Their unique behavioral responses to WD may render HR mice an important model for understanding the control of voluntary activity levels.

  13. Eating meals before wheel-running exercise attenuate high fat diet-driven obesity in mice under two meals per day schedule.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Yuta; Ikeda, Yuko; Kamagata, Mayo; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2015-06-01

    Mice that exercise after meals gain less body weight and visceral fat compared to those that exercised before meals under a one meal/exercise time per day schedule. Humans generally eat two or three meals per day, and rarely have only one meal. To extend our previous observations, we examined here whether a "two meals, two exercise sessions per day" schedule was optimal in terms of maintaining a healthy body weight. In this experiment, "morning" refers to the beginning of the active phase (the "morning" for nocturnal animals). We found that 2-h feeding before 2-h exercise in the morning and evening (F-Ex/F-Ex) resulted in greater attenuation of high fat diet (HFD)-induced weight gain compared to other combinations of feeding and exercise under two daily meals and two daily exercise periods. There were no significant differences in total food intake and total wheel counts, but feeding before exercise in the morning groups (F-Ex/F-Ex and F-Ex/Ex-F) increased the morning wheel counts. These results suggest that habitual exercise after feeding in the morning and evening is more effective for preventing HFD-induced weight gain. We also determined whether there were any correlations between food intake, wheel rotation, visceral fat volume and skeletal muscle volumes. We found positive associations between gastrocnemius muscle volumes and morning wheel counts, as well as negative associations between morning food intake volumes/body weight and morning wheel counts. These results suggest that morning exercise-induced increase of muscle volume may refer to anti-obesity. Evening exercise is negatively associated with fat volume increases, suggesting that this practice may counteract fat deposition. Our multifactorial analysis revealed that morning food intake helps to increase exercise, and that evening exercise reduced fat volumes. Thus, exercise in the morning or evening is important for preventing the onset of obesity.

  14. Progressive resistance voluntary wheel running in the mdx mouse.

    PubMed

    Call, Jarrod A; McKeehen, James N; Novotny, Susan A; Lowe, Dawn A

    2010-12-01

    Exercise training has been minimally explored as a therapy to mitigate the loss of muscle strength for individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Voluntary wheel running is known to elicit beneficial adaptations in the mdx mouse model for DMD. The aim of this study was to examine progressive resistance wheel running in mdx mice by comprehensively testing muscle function before, during, and after a 12-week training period. Male mdx mice at ~4 weeks age were randomized into three groups: Sedentary, Free Wheel, and Resist Wheel. Muscle strength was assessed via in vivo dorsiflexion torque, grip strength, and whole body tension intermittently throughout the training period. Contractility of isolated soleus muscles was analyzed at the study's conclusion. Both Free and Resist Wheel mice had greater grip strength (~22%) and soleus muscle specific tetanic force (26%) compared with Sedentary mice. This study demonstrates that two modalities of voluntary exercise are beneficial to dystrophic muscle and may help establish parameters for an exercise prescription for DMD.

  15. PROGRESSIVE RESISTANCE VOLUNTARY WHEEL RUNNING IN THE mdx MOUSE

    PubMed Central

    Call, Jarrod A.; McKeehen, James N.; Novotny, Susan A.; Lowe, Dawn A.

    2012-01-01

    Exercise training has been minimally explored as a therapy to mitigate the loss of muscle strength for individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Voluntary wheel running is known to elicit beneficial adaptations in the mdx mouse model for DMD. The aim of this study was to examine progressive resistance wheel running in mdx mice by comprehensively testing muscle function before, during, and after a 12-week training period. Male mdx mice at ~4 weeks age were randomized into three groups: Sedentary, Free Wheel, and Resist Wheel. Muscle strength was assessed via in vivo dorsiflexion torque, grip strength, and whole body tension intermittently throughout the training period. Contractility of isolated soleus muscles was analyzed at the study’s conclusion. Both Free and Resist Wheel mice had greater grip strength (~22%) and soleus muscle specific tetanic force (26%) compared with Sedentary mice. This study demonstrates that two modalities of voluntary exercise are beneficial to dystrophic muscle and may help establish parameters for an exercise prescription for DMD. PMID:21104862

  16. Wheel-running activity modulates circadian organization and the daily rhythm of eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Pendergast, Julie S; Branecky, Katrina L; Huang, Roya; Niswender, Kevin D; Yamazaki, Shin

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of high-fat diet acutely alters the daily rhythm of eating behavior and circadian organization (the phase relationship between oscillators in central and peripheral tissues) in mice. Voluntary wheel-running activity counteracts the obesogenic effects of high-fat diet and also modulates circadian rhythms in mice. In this study, we sought to determine whether voluntary wheel-running activity could prevent the proximate effects of high-fat diet consumption on circadian organization and behavioral rhythms in mice. Mice were housed with locked or freely rotating running wheels and fed chow or high-fat diet for 1 week and rhythms of locomotor activity, eating behavior, and molecular timekeeping (PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE luminescence rhythms) in ex vivo tissues were measured. Wheel-running activity delayed the phase of the liver rhythm by 4 h in both chow- and high-fat diet-fed mice. The delayed liver phase was specific to wheel-running activity since an enriched environment without the running wheel did not alter the phase of the liver rhythm. In addition, wheel-running activity modulated the effect of high-fat diet consumption on the daily rhythm of eating behavior. While high-fat diet consumption caused eating events to be more evenly dispersed across the 24 h-day in both locked-wheel and wheel-running mice, the effect of high-fat diet was much less pronounced in wheel-running mice. Together these data demonstrate that wheel-running activity is a salient factor that modulates liver phase and eating behavior rhythms in both chow- and high-fat-diet fed mice. Wheel-running activity in mice is both a source of exercise and a self-motivating, rewarding behavior. Understanding the putative reward-related mechanisms whereby wheel-running activity alters circadian rhythms could have implications for human obesity since palatable food and exercise may modulate similar reward circuits.

  17. Reduced metabolic disease risk profile by voluntary wheel running accompanying juvenile Western diet in rats bred for high and low voluntary exercise.

    PubMed

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Braselton, Joshua F; Roberts, Christian K; Booth, Frank W

    2015-12-01

    Metabolic disease risk is influenced by genetics and modifiable factors, such as physical activity and diet. Beginning at 6 weeks of age, rats selectively bred for high (HVR) versus low voluntary running distance (LVR) behaviors were housed in a complex design with or without voluntary running wheels being fed either a standard or Western (WD, 42% kcal from fat and added sucrose) diet for 8 weeks. Upon intervention completion, percent body fat, leptin, insulin, and mediobasal hypothalamic mRNAs related to appetite control were assessed. Wheel access led to differences in body weight, food intake, and serum leptin and insulin. Intriguingly, percent body fat, leptin, and insulin did not differ between HVR and LVR lines in response to the two levels of voluntary running, regardless of diet, after the 8 wk. experiment despite HVR eating more calories than LVR regardless of diet and voluntarily running 5-7 times further in wheels than LVR. In response to WD, we observed increases in Cart and Lepr mediobasal hypothalamic mRNA in HVR, but no differences in LVR. Npy mRNA was intrinsically greater in LVR than HVR, while wheel access led to greater Pomc and Cart mRNA in LVR versus HVR. These data suggest that despite greater consumption of WD, HVR animals respond similarly to WD as LVR as a result, in part, of their increased wheel running behavior. Furthermore, high physical activity in HVR may offset the deleterious effects of a WD on adiposity despite greater energy intake in this group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Wheel running reduces high-fat diet intake, preference and mu-opioid agonist stimulated intake.

    PubMed

    Liang, Nu-Chu; Bello, Nicholas T; Moran, Timothy H

    2015-05-01

    The ranges of mechanisms by which exercise affects energy balance remain unclear. One potential mechanism may be that exercise reduces intake and preference for highly palatable, energy dense fatty foods. The current study used a rodent wheel running model to determine whether and how physical activity affects HF diet intake/preference and reward signaling. Experiment 1 examined whether wheel running affected the ability of intracerebroventricular (ICV) μ opioid receptor agonist D-Ala2, NMe-Phe4, Glyol5-enkephalin (DAMGO) to increase HF diet intake. Experiment 2 examined the effects of wheel running on the intake of and preference for a previously preferred HF diet. We also assessed the effects of wheel running and diet choice on mesolimbic dopaminergic and opioidergic gene expression. Experiment 1 revealed that wheel running decreased the ability of ICV DAMGO administration to stimulate HF diet intake. Experiment 2 showed that wheel running suppressed weight gain and reduced intake and preference for a previously preferred HF diet. Furthermore, the mesolimbic gene expression profile of wheel running rats was different from that of their sedentary paired-fed controls but similar to that of sedentary rats with large HF diet consumption. These data suggest that alterations in preference for palatable, energy dense foods play a role in the effects of exercise on energy homeostasis. The gene expression results also suggest that the hedonic effects of exercise may substitute for food reward to limit food intake and suppress weight gain. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Wheel running reduces high-fat diet intake, preference and mu-opioid agonist stimulated intake

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Nu-Chu; Bello, Nicholas T.; Moran, Timothy H.

    2015-01-01

    The ranges of mechanisms by which exercise affects energy balance remain unclear. One potential mechanism may be that exercise reduces intake and preference for highly palatable, energy dense fatty foods. The current study used a rodent wheel running model to determine whether and how physical activity affects HF diet intake/preference and reward signaling. Experiment 1 examined whether wheel running affected the ability of intracerebroventricular (ICV) µ opioid receptor agonist D-Ala2, NMe-Phe4, Glyol5-enkephalin (DAMGO) to increase HF diet intake. Experiment 2 examined the effects of wheel running on the intake of and preference for a previously preferred HF diet. We also assessed the effects of wheel running and diet choice on mesolimbic dopaminergic and opioidergic gene expression. Experiment 1 revealed that wheel running decreased the ability of ICV DAMGO administration to stimulate HF diet intake. Experiment 2 showed that wheel running suppressed weight gain and reduced intake and preference for a previously preferred HF diet. Furthermore, the mesolimbic gene expression profile of wheel running rats was different from that of their sedentary paired-fed controls but similar to that of sedentary rats with large HF diet consumption. These data suggest that alterations in preference for palatable, energy dense foods play a role in the effects of exercise on energy homeostasis. The gene expression results also suggest that the hedonic effects of exercise may substitute for food reward to limit food intake and suppress weight gain. PMID:25668514

  20. Effects of a High Fat Diet and Voluntary Wheel Running Exercise on Cidea and Cidec Expression in Liver and Adipose Tissue of Mice.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Thomas H; Banerjee, Sayani; Sharma, Vishva Mitra; Donohue, Jacob; Couldwell, Sandrine; Sosinsky, Alexandra; Frulla, Ashton; Robinson, Allegra; Puri, Vishwajeet

    2015-01-01

    Cidea and Cidec play an important role in regulating triglyceride storage in liver and adipose tissue. It is not known if the Cidea and Cidec genes respond to a high fat diet (HFD) or exercise training, two interventions that alter lipid storage. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of a HFD and voluntary wheel running (WR) on Cidea and Cidec mRNA and protein expression in adipose tissue and liver of mice. A HFD promoted a significant increase in Cidea and Cidec mRNA levels in adipose tissue and liver. The increase in Cidea and Cidec mRNAs in adipose tissue and liver in response to a HFD was prevented by WR. Similar to the changes in Cidea mRNA, Cidea protein levels in adipose tissue significantly increased in response to a HFD, a process that was, again, prevented by WR. However, in adipose tissue the changes in Cidec mRNA did not correspond to the changes in Cidec protein levels, as a HFD decreased Cidec protein abundance. Interestingly, in adipose tissue Cidea protein expression was significantly related to body weight (R=.725), epididymal adipose tissue (EWAT) mass (R=.475) and insulin resistance (R=.706), whereas Cidec protein expression was inversely related to body weight (R=-.787), EWAT mass (R=-.706), and insulin resistance (R=-.679). Similar to adipose tissue, Cidea protein expression in liver was significantly related to body weight (R=.660), EWAT mass (R=.468), and insulin resistance (R=.599); however, unlike adipose tissue, Cidec protein levels in liver were not related to body weight or EWAT mass and only moderately associated with insulin resistance (R=-.422, P=0.051). Overall, our findings indicate that Cidea is highly associated with adiposity and insulin resistance, whereas Cidec is related to insulin sensitivity. The present study suggests that Cide proteins might play an important functional role in the development of obesity, hepatic steatosis, as well as the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.

  1. 76. Credit FM. Detail showing belts running from water wheel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. Credit FM. Detail showing belts running from water wheel to governor and from water wheel to tachometer (foreground). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  2. Long term voluntary wheel running is rewarding and produces plasticity in the mesolimbic reward pathway

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Foley, Teresa E.; Le, Tony V.; Strong, Paul V.; Loughridge, Alice B.; Day, Heidi E.W.; Fleshner, Monika

    2011-01-01

    The mesolimbic reward pathway is implicated in stress-related psychiatric disorders and is a potential target of plasticity underlying the stress resistance produced by repeated voluntary exercise. It is unknown, however, whether rats find long-term access to running wheels rewarding, or if repeated voluntary exercise reward produces plastic changes in mesolimbic reward neurocircuitry. In the current studies, young adult, male Fischer 344 rats allowed voluntary access to running wheels for 6 weeks, but not 2 weeks, found wheel running rewarding, as measured by conditioned place preference (CPP). Consistent with prior reports and the behavioral data, 6 weeks of wheel running increased ΔFosB/FosB immunoreactivity in the nucleus accumbens (Acb). In addition, semi quantitative in situ hybridization revealed that 6 weeks of wheel running, compared to sedentary housing, increased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA levels in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), increased delta opioid receptor (DOR) mRNA levels in the Acb shell, and reduced levels of dopamine receptor (DR)-D2 mRNA in the Acb core. Results indicate that repeated voluntary exercise is rewarding and alters gene transcription in mesolimbic reward neurocircuitry. The duration-dependent effects of wheel running on CPP suggest that as the weeks of wheel running progress, the rewarding effects of a night of voluntary wheel running might linger longer into the inactive cycle thus providing stronger support for CPP. The observed plasticity could contribute to the mechanisms by which exercise reduces the incidence and severity of substance abuse disorders, changes the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse, and facilitates successful coping with stress. PMID:21070820

  3. Free access to running wheels abolishes hyperphagia in human growth hormone transgenic rats.

    PubMed

    Komatsuda, Mugiko; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Matsuwaki, Takashi; Nishihara, Masugi

    2014-07-01

    Obesity is a major health problem, and increased food intake and decreased physical activity are considered as two major factors causing obesity. Previous studies show that voluntary exercise in a running wheel decreases not only body weight but also food intake of rats. We previously produced human growth hormone transgenic (TG) rats, which are characterized by severe hyperphagia and obesity. To gain more insight into the effects on physical activity to food consumption and obesity, we examined whether voluntary running wheel exercise causes inhibition of hyperphagia and alteration of body composition in TG rats. Free access to running wheels completely abolished hyperphagia in TG rats, and this effect persisted for many weeks as far as the running wheel is accessible. Unexpectedly, though the running distances of TG rats were significantly less than those of wild type rats, it was sufficient to normalize their food consumption. This raises the possibility that rearing environment, which enables them to access to a running wheel freely, rather than the amounts of physical exercises is more important for the maintenance of proper food intake.

  4. Impact of wheel running on chronic ethanol intake in aged Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Brager, Allison J; Hammer, Steven B

    2012-10-10

    Alcohol dependence in aging populations is seen as a public health concern, most recently because of the significant proportion of heavy drinking among "Baby Boomers." Basic animal research on the effects of aging on physiological and behavioral regulation of ethanol (EtOH) intake is sparse, since most of this research is limited to younger models of alcoholism. Here, EtOH drinking and preference were measured in groups of aged Syrian hamsters. Further, because voluntary exercise (wheel-running) is a rewarding substitute for EtOH in young adult hamsters, the potential for such reward substitution was also assessed. Aged (24 month-old) male hamsters were subjected to a three-stage regimen of free-choice EtOH (20% v/v) or water and unlocked or locked running wheels to investigate the modulatory effects of voluntary wheel running on EtOH intake and preference. Levels of fluid intake and activity were recorded daily across 60 days of experimentation. Prior to wheel running, levels of EtOH intake were significantly less than levels of water intake, resulting in a low preference for EtOH (30%). Hamsters with access to an unlocked running wheel had decreased EtOH intake and preference compared with hamsters with access to a locked running wheel. These group differences in EtOH intake and preference were sustained for up to 10 days after running wheels were re-locked. These results extend upon those of our previous work in young adult hamsters, indicating that aging dampens EtOH intake and preference. Voluntary wheel running further limited EtOH intake, suggesting that exercise could offer a practical approach for managing late-life alcoholism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. IMPACT OF WHEEL RUNNING ON CHRONIC ETHANOL INTAKE IN AGED SYRIAN HAMSTERS

    PubMed Central

    Brager, Allison J.; Hammer, Steven B.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol dependence in aging populations is seen as a public health concern, most recently because of the significant proportion of heavy drinking among “Baby Boomers.” Basic animal research on the effects of aging on physiological and behavioral regulation of ethanol (EtOH) intake is sparse, since most of this research is limited to younger models of alcoholism. Here, EtOH drinking and preference were measured in groups of aged Syrian hamsters. Further, because voluntary exercise (wheel-running) is a rewarding substitute for EtOH in young adult hamsters, the potential for such reward substitution was also assessed. Methods Aged (24 month-old) male hamsters were subjected to a three-stage regimen of free-choice EtOH (20% v/v) or water and unlocked or locked running wheels to investigate the modulatory effects of voluntary wheel running on EtOH intake and preference. Levels of fluid intake and activity were recorded daily across 60 days of experimentation. Results Prior to wheel running, levels of EtOH intake were significantly less than levels of water intake, resulting in a low preference for EtOH (30%). Hamsters with access to an unlocked running wheel had decreased EtOH intake and preference compared with hamsters with access to a locked running wheel. These group differences in EtOH intake and preference were sustained for up to 10 days after running wheels were re-locked. Discussion These results extend upon those of our previous work in young adult hamsters, indicating that aging dampens EtOH intake and preference. Voluntary wheel running further limited EtOH intake, suggesting that exercise could offer a practical approach for managing late-life alcoholism. PMID:23022151

  6. Sex-related differences in the wheel-running activity of mice decline with increasing age.

    PubMed

    Bartling, Babett; Al-Robaiy, Samiya; Lehnich, Holger; Binder, Leonore; Hiebl, Bernhard; Simm, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Laboratory mice of both sexes having free access to running wheels are commonly used to study mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of physical exercise on health and aging in human. However, comparative wheel-running activity profiles of male and female mice for a long period of time in which increasing age plays an additional role are unknown. Therefore, we permanently recorded the wheel-running activity (i.e., total distance, median velocity, time of breaks) of female and male mice until 9months of age. Our records indicated higher wheel-running distances for females than males which were highest in 2-month-old mice. This was mainly reached by higher running velocities of the females and not by longer running times. However, the sex-related differences declined in parallel to the age-associated reduction in wheel-running activities. Female mice also showed more variances between the weekly running distances than males, which were recorded most often for females being 4-6months old but not older. Additional records of 24-month-old mice of both sexes indicated highly reduced wheel-running activities at old age. Surprisingly, this reduction at old age resulted mainly from lower running velocities and not from shorter running times. Old mice also differed in their course of night activity which peaked later compared to younger mice. In summary, we demonstrated the influence of sex on the age-dependent activity profile of mice which is somewhat contrasting to humans, and this has to be considered when transferring exercise-mediated mechanism from mouse to human. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Stereotypic wheel running decreases cortical activity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Simon P.; Cui, Nanyi; McKillop, Laura E.; Gemignani, Jessica; Bannerman, David M.; Oliver, Peter L.; Peirson, Stuart N.; Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V.

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged wakefulness is thought to gradually increase ‘sleep need' and influence subsequent sleep duration and intensity, but the role of specific waking behaviours remains unclear. Here we report the effect of voluntary wheel running during wakefulness on neuronal activity in the motor and somatosensory cortex in mice. We find that stereotypic wheel running is associated with a substantial reduction in firing rates among a large subpopulation of cortical neurons, especially at high speeds. Wheel running also has longer-term effects on spiking activity across periods of wakefulness. Specifically, cortical firing rates are significantly higher towards the end of a spontaneous prolonged waking period. However, this increase is abolished when wakefulness is dominated by running wheel activity. These findings indicate that wake-related changes in firing rates are determined not only by wake duration, but also by specific waking behaviours. PMID:27748455

  8. Wheel running decreases palatable diet preference in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Moody, Laura; Liang, Joy; Choi, Pique P; Moran, Timothy H; Liang, Nu-Chu

    2015-10-15

    Physical activity has beneficial effects on not only improving some disease conditions but also by preventing the development of multiple disorders. Experiments in this study examined the effects of wheel running on intakes of chow and palatable diet e.g. high fat (HF) or high sucrose (HS) diet in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Experiment 1 demonstrated that acute wheel running results in robust HF or HS diet avoidance in male rats. Although female rats with running wheel access initially showed complete avoidance of the two palatable diets, the avoidance of the HS diet was transient. Experiment 2 demonstrated that male rats developed decreased HF diet preferences regardless of the order of diet and wheel running access presentation. Running associated changes in HF diet preference in females, on the other hand, depended on the testing schedule. In female rats, simultaneous presentation of the HF diet and running access resulted in transient complete HF diet avoidance whereas running experience prior to HF diet access did not affect the high preference for the HF diet. Ovariectomy in females resulted in HF diet preference patterns that were similar to those in male rats during simultaneous exposure of HF and wheel running access but similar to intact females when running occurred before HF exposure. Overall, the results demonstrated wheel running associated changes in palatable diet preferences that were in part sex dependent. Furthermore, ovarian hormones play a role in some of the sex differences. These data reveal complexity in the mechanisms underlying exercise associated changes in palatable diet preference. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Wheel running decreases palatable diet preference in Sprague-Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Moody, Laura; Liang, Joy; Choi, Pique P.; Moran, Timothy H.; Liang, Nu-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity has beneficial effects on not only improving some disease conditions but also by preventing the development of multiple disorders. Experiments in this study examined the effects of wheel running on intakes of chow and palatable diet e.g. high fat (HF) or high sucrose (HS) diet in male and female Sprague Dawley rats. Experiment 1 demonstrated that acute wheel running results in robust HF or HS diet avoidance in male rats. Although female rats with running wheel access initially showed complete avoidance of the two palatable diets, the avoidance of the HS diet was transient. Experiment 2 demonstrated that male rats developed decreased HF diet preferences regardless of the order of diet and wheel running access presentation. Running associated changes in HF diet preference in females, on the other hand, depended on the testing schedule. In female rats, simultaneous presentation of the HF diet and running access resulted in transient complete HF diet avoidance whereas running experience prior to HF diet access did not affect the high preference for the HF diet. Ovariectomy in females resulted in HF diet preference patterns that were similar to those in male rats during simultaneous exposure of HF and wheel running access but similar to intact females when running occurred before HF exposure. Overall, the results demonstrated wheel running associated changes in palatable diet preferences that were in part sex dependent. Furthermore, ovarian hormones play a role in some of the sex differences. These data reveal complexity in the mechanisms underlying exercise associated changes in palatable diet preference. PMID:25791204

  10. The use of a running wheel to measure activity in rodents: Relationship to energy balance, general activity, and reward

    PubMed Central

    Levine, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Running wheels are commonly employed to measure rodent physical activity in a variety of contexts, including studies of energy balance and obesity. There is no consensus on the nature of wheel-running activity or its underlying causes, however. Here, we will begin by systematically reviewing how running wheel availability affects physical activity and other aspects of energy balance in laboratory rodents. While wheel running and physical activity in the absence of a wheel commonly correlate in a general sense, in many specific aspects the two do not correspond. In fact, the presence of running wheels alters several aspects of energy balance, including body weight and composition, food intake, and energy expenditure of activity. We contend that wheel-running activity should be considered a behavior in and of itself, reflecting several underlying behavioral processes in addition to a rodent's general, spontaneous activity. These behavioral processes include defensive behavior, predatory aggression, and depression- and anxiety-like behaviors. As it relates to energy balance, wheel running engages several brain systems—including those related to the stress response, mood, and reward, and those responsive to growth factors—that influence energy balance indirectly. We contend that wheel-running behavior represents factors in addition to rodents' tendency to be physically active, engaging additional neural and physiological mechanisms which can then independently alter energy balance and behavior. Given the impact of wheel-running behavior on numerous overlapping systems that influence behavior and physiology, this review outlines the need for careful design and interpretation of studies that utilize running wheels as a means for exercise or as a measurement of general physical activity. PMID:22230703

  11. Chronic sciatic neuropathy in rat reduces voluntary wheel running activity with concurrent chronic mechanical allodynia

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, RA; Lam, NL; Sun, MS; Sanchez, JJ; Noor, S; Vanderwall, AG; Petersen, TR; Martin, HB

    2016-01-01

    hrs) of either the (1) inactive (n=8/gp) or (2) active (n = 8/gp) phase of the diurnal cycle. An additional group of CCI-treated rats (n = 8/gp) were exposed to a locked running wheel to control for the potential effects of wheel running exercise on allodynia. The 1-hr running wheel trial period was further examined at discrete 20-min intervals to identify possible pattern differences in activity during the first, middle and last portion of the 1-hr trial. The effect of neuropathy on activity levels were assessed by measuring the change from their respective BLs to distance traveled in the running wheels. RESULTS While wheel running distances between groups were not different at BL from rats examined during either the inactive phase of the diurnal cycle or active phase of the diurnal cycle, sciatic nerve CCI reduced running wheel activity levels compared to sham-operated controls during the inactive phase. Additionally, compared to sham controls, bilateral low threshold mechanical allodynia was observed at all time-points after surgical induction of neuropathy in rats with free-wheel and locked-wheel access. Allodynia in CCI compared to shams was replicated in rats whose running wheel activity was examined during the active phase of the diurnal cycle. Conversely, no significant reduction in wheel running activity was observed in CCI-treated rats compared to sham controls at any timepoint when activity levels were examined during the active diurnal phase. Lastly, running wheel activity patterns within the 1 hr trial period during the inactive phase of the diurnal cycle were relatively consistent throughout each 20 min phase. CONCLUSIONS Compared to non-neuropathic sham controls, a profound and stable reduction of running wheel activity was observed in CCI rats during the inactive phase of the diurnal cycle. A concurrent robust allodynia persisted in all rats regardless of when wheel running activity was examined or whether they ran on wheels, suggesting that acute

  12. Chronic Sciatic Neuropathy in Rat Reduces Voluntary Wheel-Running Activity With Concurrent Chronic Mechanical Allodynia.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Ryan A; Lam, Nicholas L; Sun, Melody S; Sanchez, Joshua; Noor, Shahani; Vanderwall, Arden G; Petersen, Timothy R; Martin, Hugh B; Milligan, Erin D

    2017-01-01

    the (1) inactive (n = 8/group) or (2) active (n = 8/group) phase of the diurnal cycle. An additional group of CCI-treated rats (n = 8/group) was exposed to a locked running wheel to control for the potential effects of wheel-running exercise on allodynia. The 1-hour running wheel trial period was further examined at discrete 20-minute intervals to identify possible pattern differences in activity during the first, middle, and last portions of the 1-hour trial. The effect of neuropathy on activity levels was assessed by measuring the change from their respective BLs to distance traveled in the running wheels. Although wheel-running distances between groups were not different at BL from rats examined during either the inactive phase of the diurnal cycle or active phase of the diurnal cycle, sciatic nerve CCI reduced running wheel activity levels compared with sham-operated controls during the inactive phase. In addition, compared with sham controls, bilateral low-threshold mechanical allodynia was observed at all time points after surgical induction of neuropathy in rats with free-wheel and locked-wheel access. Allodynia in CCI compared with shams was replicated in rats whose running wheel activity was examined during the active phase of the diurnal cycle. Conversely, no significant reduction in wheel-running activity was observed in CCI-treated rats compared with sham controls at any time point when activity levels were examined during the active diurnal phase. Finally, running wheel activity patterns within the 1-hour trial period during the inactive phase of the diurnal cycle were relatively consistent throughout each 20-minute phase. Compared with nonneuropathic sham controls, a profound and stable reduction of running wheel activity was observed in CCI rats during the inactive phase of the diurnal cycle. A concurrent robust allodynia persisted in all rats regardless of when wheel-running activity was examined or whether they ran on wheels, suggesting that acute

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL MODULATION OF ALCOHOL INTAKE IN HAMSTERS: EFFECTS OF WHEEL-RUNNING AND CONSTANT LIGHT EXPOSURE

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Steven B.; Ruby, Christina L.; Brager, Allison J.; Prosser, Rebecca A.; Glass, J. David

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Alcohol abuse leads to marked disruptions of circadian rhythms, and these disturbances in themselves can increase the drive to drink. Circadian clock timing is regulated by light, as well as by nonphotic influences like food, social interactions, and wheel-running. We previously reported that alcohol markedly disrupts photic and nonphotic modes of circadian rhythm regulation in Syrian hamsters. As an extension of this work, we characterize the hedonic interrelationship between wheel-running and ethanol intake and the effects of environmental circadian disruption (long-term exposure to constant light [LL]) on the drive to drink. METHODS First, we tested the effect of wheel running on chronic free-choice consumption of a 20% (v/v) ethanol (EtOH) solution and water. Second, the effect of this alcohol drinking on wheel running in alcohol-naive animals was investigated. Third, we assessed the influence of LL, known to suppress locomotor activity and cause circadian rhythm disruption, on EtOH consumption and wheel-running behavior. RESULTS Inhibitory effects of wheel running on EtOH intake and vice versa were observed. Exposure to LL, while not affecting EtOH intake, induced rhythm splitting in 75% of the animals. Notably, the splitting phenotype was associated with lower levels of EtOH consumption and preference prior to, and throughout, the period of LL exposure. CONCLUSIONS These results are evidence that exercise may offer an efficacious clinical approach to reducing EtOH intake. Also, predisposition for light-induced (or other) forms of circadian disruption may modulate the drive to drink. PMID:20569242

  14. Environmental modulation of alcohol intake in hamsters: effects of wheel running and constant light exposure.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Steven B; Ruby, Christina L; Brager, Allison J; Prosser, Rebecca A; Glass, John David

    2010-09-01

    Alcohol abuse leads to marked disruptions of circadian rhythms, and these disturbances in themselves can increase the drive to drink. Circadian clock timing is regulated by light, as well as by nonphotic influences such as food, social interactions, and wheel running. We previously reported that alcohol markedly disrupts photic and nonphotic modes of circadian rhythm regulation in Syrian hamsters. As an extension of this work, we characterize the hedonic interrelationship between wheel running and ethanol (EtOH) intake and the effects of environmental circadian disruption (long-term exposure to constant light [LL]) on the drive to drink. First, we tested the effect of wheel running on chronic free-choice consumption of a 20% (v/v) EtOH solution and water. Second, the effect of this alcohol drinking on wheel running in alcohol-naive animals was investigated. Third, we assessed the influence of LL, known to suppress locomotor activity and cause circadian rhythm disruption, on EtOH consumption and wheel-running behavior. Inhibitory effects of wheel running on EtOH intake and vice versa were observed. Exposure to LL, while not affecting EtOH intake, induced rhythm splitting in 75% of the animals. Notably, the splitting phenotype was associated with lower levels of EtOH consumption and preference prior to, and throughout, the period of LL exposure. These results are evidence that exercise may offer an efficacious clinical approach to reducing EtOH intake. Also, predisposition for light-induced (or other) forms of circadian disruption may modulate the drive to drink.

  15. Treadmill but not wheel running improves fatigue resistance of isolated extensor digitorum longus muscle in mice.

    PubMed

    Jeneson, J A L; de Snoo, M W; Verlinden, N A T; Joosten, B J L J; Doornenbal, A; Schot, A; Everts, M E

    2007-06-01

    The present study is the first to compare the physiological impact of either forced treadmill or voluntary wheel running exercise on hindlimb muscle in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to either 6 weeks of forced treadmill or voluntary wheel running exercise. Mice in the treadmill running exercise group (TRE; n = 8) ran 1.9 km day(-1) at a speed of 16 m min(-1) against an uphill incline of 11 degrees. In the running wheel exercise group (RWE; n = 8) animals ran 8.8 +/- 0.2 km per day (average speed 42 +/- 2 m min(-1)). After the experimental period, animals were killed and mechanical performance and oxygen consumption of isolated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle were determined during serial electrical stimulation at 0.5, 1 and 2 Hz. Steady-state half-width time (HWT) of twitch contraction at 0.5 Hz was significantly shorter in TRE and RWE than controls (CON) (41.3 +/- 0.2, 41.3 +/- 0.1 and 44.3 +/- 0.1 s respectively; P < 0.05). The rate of fatigue development and HWT lengthening at 2 Hz was the same in RWE and CON but lower in TRE (1.2-fold and twofold respectively; P < 0.05). EDL oxygen consumption, mitochondrial content and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) composition were not different between the groups. These results indicate that both exercise modalities have an effect on a hindlimb fast-twitch muscle in mice, with the greatest impact seen with forced treadmill running.

  16. Voluntary wheel running mitigates the stress-induced bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Lertsinthai, Parinya; Charoenphandhu, Jantarima; Suntornsaratoon, Panan; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2015-05-01

    In estrogen-deficient rodents with osteopenia, repetitive exposure to mild-to-moderate stress, which mimics the chronic aversive stimuli (CAS) of the modern urban lifestyle in postmenopausal women, has been hypothesized to cause the bone microstructure to further deteriorate. Recently, we have provided evidence in rats that voluntary impact exercise, e.g., wheel running, is as effective as pharmacological treatments for stress-induced anxiety and depression. The present study, therefore, aims to investigate whether a 4-week CAS exposure aggravates trabecular bone loss in ovariectomized (Ovx) rats, and whether CAS-induced bone loss can be rescued by voluntary wheel running. CAS was found to elevate the serum levels of corticosterone, a stress hormone from the adrenal gland. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry revealed a decrease in bone mineral content (BMC) in the tibiae of CAS-exposed Ovx rats as compared to the CAS-free Ovx rats (control), while having no detectable effect on bone mineral density (BMD). Bone histomorphometric analysis of the proximal tibial metaphysis showed that CAS decreased trabecular bone volume and increased trabecular separation, which were completely restored to the baseline values of Ovx rats by voluntary wheel running. This CAS-induced trabecular bone loss in Ovx rats was probably due to an enhancement of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, as indicated by increases in osteoclast surface and active erosion surface. Moreover, wheel running as well as non-impact exercise (endurance swimming) effectively increased the tibial BMD and BMC of CAS-exposed Ovx rats. It can be concluded that exercise is an effective intervention in mitigating CAS-induced bone loss in estrogen-deficient rats.

  17. Running induces nausea in rats: Kaolin intake generated by voluntary and forced wheel running.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2016-10-01

    Three experiments were conducted showing rats' pica behavior (kaolin clay intake) due to running in activity wheels. The amount of kaolin consumed was a positive function of the available time of voluntary running (20, 40, or 60 min), although this relationship was blunted by a descending (i.e., 60 → 40 → 20 min) test series of execution (Experiment 1). Pica was also generated by forced running in a motorized wheel for 60 min as a positive function of the speed of wheel rotations at 98, 185, or 365 m/h, independent of the order of execution (Experiment 2). Voluntary running generated more pica than did forced running at 80 m/h, although the distance travelled in the former condition was 27% lesser than that in the latter condition (Experiment 3). Because kaolin intake is regarded as a reliable measure of nausea in rats, these results show that wheel running, either voluntary or forced, induces nausea in rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Voluntary wheel running attenuates ethanol withdrawal-induced increases in seizure susceptibility in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Devaud, Leslie L; Walls, Shawn A; McCulley, Walter D; Rosenwasser, Alan M

    2012-11-01

    We recently found that voluntary wheel running attenuated ethanol withdrawal-induced increased susceptibility to chemoconvulsant-induced seizures in male rats. Since female rats recover from ethanol withdrawal (EW) more quickly than male rats across several behavioral measures, this study was designed to determine whether the effects of exercise on EW seizures also exhibited sex differences. Animals were maintained under no-wheel, locked-wheel or free-wheel conditions and ethanol was administered by liquid diet for 14 days with control animals pair-fed an isocaloric diet, after which seizure thresholds were determined at 1 day or 3 days of EW. Consistent with previous reports, females ran significantly more than males, regardless of diet condition. Introduction of the ethanol-containing liquid diet dramatically increased running for females during the day (rest) phase, with little impact on night phase activity. Consistent with previous reports, EW increased seizure susceptibility at 1 day in non-exercising males and females and at 3 days in males. These effects were attenuated by access to running wheels in both sexes. We also assessed the effects of sex, ethanol diet and exercise on ethanol clearance following an acute ethanol administration at 1 day EW in a separate set of animals. Blood ethanol concentrations at 30 min post-injection were lower in males, ethanol-exposed animals, and runners, but no interactions among these factors were detected. Interestingly, females displayed more rapid ethanol clearance than males and there were no effects of either diet or wheel access on clearance rates. Taken together, these data suggest that voluntary wheel running during ethanol administration provides protective effects against EW seizures in both males and females. This effect may be mediated, in part, in male, but not in female rat, by effects of exercise on early pharmacokinetic contributions. This supports the idea that encouraging alcoholics to exercise may

  19. Effects of leptin treatment and Western diet on wheel running in selectively bred high runner mice.

    PubMed

    Meek, Thomas H; Dlugosz, Elizabeth M; Vu, Kim T; Garland, Theodore

    2012-05-15

    The role of leptin in regulating physical activity is varied. The behavioral effects of leptin signaling depend on the type of activity and the animal's physiological state. We used mice from lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running to further study how leptin regulates volitional exercise. Mice from four replicate high runner (HR) lines typically run ~3-fold more revolutions per day than those from four non-selected control (C) lines. HR mice have altered dopamine function and differences from C in brain regions known to be important in leptin-mediated behavior. Furthermore, male HR mice have been found to dramatically increase running when administered Western diet, an effect possibly mediated through leptin signaling. Male mice from generation 61 (representing three HR lines and one C line) were allowed wheel access at 24 days of age and given either Western diet (high in fat and with added sucrose) or standard chow. After four weeks, Western diet significantly increased circulating leptin, insulin, C-peptide, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, and inflammatory hormone resistin concentrations in HR mice (C mice not measured). Western diet increased running in HR mice, but did not significantly affect running in C mice. During the fifth week, all mice received two days of intra-peritoneal sham injections (physiological saline) followed by three days of murine recombinant leptin injections, and then another six days of sham injections. Leptin treatment significantly decreased caloric intake (adjusted for body mass) and body mass in all groups. Wheel running significantly increased with leptin injections in HR mice (fed Western or standard diet), but was unaffected in C mice. Whether Western diet and leptin treatment stimulate wheel running in HR mice through the same physiological pathways awaits future study. These results have implications for understanding the neural and endocrine systems that control locomotor activity, food consumption, and body

  20. Dose-dependent effectiveness of wheel running to attenuate cocaine-seeking: impact of sex and estrous cycle in rats.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Alexis B; Hivick, Daniel P; Lynch, Wendy J

    2014-07-01

    Exercise has shown promise as an intervention for drug addiction; however, little is known regarding the exercise conditions that most effectively reduce relapse vulnerability and whether these conditions differ by sex. Here, we examined sex differences in the dose-dependent effects of wheel running, an animal model of exercise, during abstinence on subsequent cocaine-seeking. Male and female rats self-administered cocaine (1.5 mg/kg/infusion) under extended access conditions (24 h/day, 4 discrete trials/h) for 10 days. Rats were then given voluntary access to either an unlocked or locked running wheel for 1, 2, 6, or 24 h/day during the 14-day abstinence period. Separate groups of rats were housed in polycarbonate cages during abstinence to control for physical activity that the wheel may provide. Subsequent cocaine-seeking was assessed under a within-session extinction/cue-induced reinstatement procedure. Estrous cycle was monitored in females to determine whether the effectiveness of wheel running varied by estrous cycle phase. Although females ran more than males, males were more sensitive to the effects of running and showed a dose-dependent decrease in cocaine-seeking with longer access resulting in greater suppression. The dose-effect relationship was less straightforward in females and access to both a locked and unlocked wheel decreased cocaine-seeking with effects dependent on estrous cycle phase. Notably, extended (6 and 24 h/day), but not limited (1 and 2 h/day) access to a wheel surmounted the heightened vulnerability observed in females during estrus. Taken together, our findings suggest that the effectiveness of wheel running is dose-, sex-, and estrous cycle-dependent.

  1. Forward conditioning with wheel running causes place aversion in rats.

    PubMed

    Masaki, Takahisa; Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2008-09-01

    Backward pairings of a distinctive chamber as a conditioned stimulus and wheel running as an unconditioned stimulus (i.e., running-then-chamber) can produce a conditioned place preference in rats. The present study explored whether a forward conditioning procedure with these stimuli (i.e., chamber-then-running) would yield place preference or aversion. Confinement of a rat in one of two distinctive chambers was followed by a 20- or 60-min running opportunity, but confinement in the other was not. After four repetitions of this treatment (i.e., differential conditioning), a choice preference test was given in which the rat had free access to both chambers. This choice test showed that the rats given 60-min running opportunities spent less time in the running-paired chamber than in the unpaired chamber. Namely, a 60-min running opportunity after confinement in a distinctive chamber caused conditioned aversion to that chamber after four paired trials. This result was discussed with regard to the opponent-process theory of motivation.

  2. Dose-dependent effects of wheel running on cocaine-seeking and prefrontal cortex Bdnf exon IV expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Alexis B; Abel, Jean M; Lynch, Wendy J

    2014-04-01

    Physical activity, and specifically exercise, has shown promise as an intervention for drug addiction; however, the exercise conditions that produce the most efficacious response, as well as its underlying mechanism, are unknown. In this study, we examined the dose-dependent effects of wheel running, an animal model of exercise, during abstinence on subsequent cocaine-seeking and associated changes in prefrontal cortex (PFC) brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) exon IV expression, a marker of epigenetic regulation implicated in cocaine relapse and known to be regulated by exercise. Cocaine-seeking was assessed under a within-session extinction/cue-induced reinstatement procedure following extended access cocaine or saline self-administration (24-h/day, 4 discrete trials/h, 10 days, 1.5 mg/kg/infusion) and a 14-day abstinence period. During abstinence, rats had either locked or unlocked running wheel access for 1, 2, or 6 h/day. Bdnf exon IV expression was assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cocaine-seeking was highest under the locked wheel condition, and wheel running dose dependently attenuated this effect. Cocaine increased Bdnf exon IV expression, and wheel running dose dependently attenuated this increase, with complete blockade in rats given 6-h/day access. Notably, the efficacy of exercise was inversely associated with Bdnf exon IV expression, and both its efficacy and its effects on Bdnf exon IV expression were mimicked by treatment during abstinence with sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor that, like exercise, modulates gene transcription, including Bdnf exon IV expression. Taken together, these results indicate that the efficacy of exercise is dose dependent and likely mediated through epigenetic regulation of PFC Bdnf.

  3. Motivational wheel running reverses cueing behavioural inflexibility in rodents.

    PubMed

    Chomiak, Taylor; Brown, Andrew R; Teskey, G Campbell; Hu, Bin

    2017-12-01

    Behavioural inflexibility and associated atypical learning behaviours are common clinical manifestations of the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotype. Despite advances in our understanding of ASD, little research has been devoted to experimental interventions that might help to circumvent behavioural inflexibility in ASD. The current paper suggests that motivational locomotion in the form of wheel running can reduce behavioural inflexibility and learning impairments in an ASD rat model, and discusses how the strategy of reward-coupled locomotor activity may lead to clinical interventions for children with ASD.

  4. Effects of voluntary wheel running on LPS-induced sickness behavior in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Martin, Stephen A; Pence, Brandt D; Greene, Ryan M; Johnson, Stephanie J; Dantzer, Robert; Kelley, Keith W; Woods, Jeffrey A

    2013-03-01

    Peripheral stimulation of the innate immune system with LPS causes exaggerated neuroinflammation and prolonged sickness behavior in aged mice. Regular moderate intensity exercise has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects that may protect against inappropriate neuroinflammation and sickness in aged mice. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that voluntary wheel running would attenuate LPS-induced sickness behavior and proinflammatory cytokine gene expression in ~22-month-old C57BL/6J mice. Mice were housed with a running wheel (VWR), locked-wheel (Locked), or no wheel (Standard) for 10 weeks, after which they were intraperitoneally injected with LPS across a range of doses (0.02, 0.08, 0.16, 0.33 mg/kg). VWR mice ran on average 3.5 km/day and lost significantly more body weight and body fat, and increased their forced exercise tolerance compared to Locked and Shoebox mice. VWR had no effect on LPS-induced anorexia, adipsia, weight-loss, or reductions in locomotor activity at any LPS dose when compared to Locked and Shoebox groups. LPS induced sickness behavior in a dose-dependent fashion (0.33>0.02 mg/kg). Twenty-four hours post-injection (0.33 mg/kg LPS or Saline) we found a LPS-induced upregulation of whole brain TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-10 mRNA, and increased IL-1β and IL-6 in the spleen and liver; these effects were not attenuated by VWR. We conclude that VWR does not reduce LPS-induced exaggerated or prolonged sickness behavior in aged animals, or 24h post-injection (0.33 mg/kg LPS or Saline) brain and peripheral proinflammatory cytokine gene expression. The necessity of the sickness response is critical for survival and may outweigh the subtle benefits of exercise training in aged animals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of wheel-running during abstinence on subsequent nicotine-seeking in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Victoria; Moore, Catherine F; Brunzell, Darlene H; Lynch, Wendy J

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Exercise appears to be a promising non-pharmacological treatment for nicotine addiction that may be useful for the vulnerable adolescent population. Objectives To determine if wheel running, an animal model of aerobic exercise, during an abstinence period would decrease subsequent nicotine-seeking in rats that had extended access to nicotine self-administration during adolescence. Methods Male adolescent rats (n = 55) were trained to self-administer saline or nicotine infusions (5 or 10 μg/kg) under a fixed ratio 1 schedule with a maximum of 20 infusions/day beginning on postnatal day 30. After 5 days, access was extended to 23-hr/day with unlimited infusions for a total of 10 days. After the last self-administration session, rats were moved to polycarbonate cages for a 10-day abstinence period where they either had access to a locked or unlocked running wheel for 2-hr/day. Nicotine-seeking was examined following the 10th day of abstinence under a within-session extinction/cue-induced reinstatement paradigm. Results Intake was higher at the 10 μg/kg dose as compared to the 5 μg/kg dose; however, intake did not differ within doses prior to wheel assignment. Compared to saline controls, rats that self-administered nicotine at either dose showed a significant increase in drug-seeking during extinction, and consistent with our hypothesis, exercise during abstinence attenuated this effect. Nicotine led to modest, but significant levels of cue-induced reinstatement; however, in this adolescent-onset model, levels were variable and not affected by exercise. Conclusions Exercise may effectively reduce relapse vulnerability for adolescent-onset nicotine addiction. PMID:23371488

  6. Usefulness of Running Wheel for Detection of Congestive Heart Failure in Dilated Cardiomyopathy Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Sugihara, Masami; Odagiri, Fuminori; Suzuki, Takeshi; Murayama, Takashi; Nakazato, Yuji; Unuma, Kana; Yoshida, Ken-ichi; Daida, Hiroyuki; Sakurai, Takashi; Morimoto, Sachio; Kurebayashi, Nagomi

    2013-01-01

    Background Inherited dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a progressive disease that often results in death from congestive heart failure (CHF) or sudden cardiac death (SCD). Mouse models with human DCM mutation are useful to investigate the developmental mechanisms of CHF and SCD, but knowledge of the severity of CHF in live mice is necessary. We aimed to diagnose CHF in live DCM model mice by measuring voluntary exercise using a running wheel and to determine causes of death in these mice. Methodology/Principal Findings A knock-in mouse with a mutation in cardiac troponin T (ΔK210) (DCM mouse), which results in frequent death with a t1/2 of 70 to 90 days, was used as a DCM model. Until 2 months of age, average wheel-running activity was similar between wild-type and DCM mice (approximately 7 km/day). At approximately 3 months, some DCM mice demonstrated low running activity (LO: <1 km/day) while others maintained high running activity (HI: >5 km/day). In the LO group, the lung weight/body weight ratio was much higher than that in the other groups, and the lungs were infiltrated with hemosiderin-loaded alveolar macrophages. Furthermore, echocardiography showed more severe ventricular dilation and a lower ejection fraction, whereas Electrocardiography (ECG) revealed QRS widening. There were two patterns in the time courses of running activity before death in DCM mice: deaths with maintained activity and deaths with decreased activity. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that DCM mice with low running activity developed severe CHF and that running wheels are useful for detection of CHF in mouse models. We found that approximately half of ΔK210 DCM mice die suddenly before onset of CHF, whereas others develop CHF, deteriorate within 10 to 20 days, and die. PMID:23383212

  7. Chronic wheel running affects cocaine-induced c-Fos expression in brain reward areas in rats.

    PubMed

    Zlebnik, Natalie E; Hedges, Valerie L; Carroll, Marilyn E; Meisel, Robert L

    2014-03-15

    Emerging evidence from human and animal studies suggests that exercise is a highly effective treatment for drug addiction. However, most work has been done in behavioral models, and the effects of exercise on the neurobiological substrates of addiction have not been identified. Specifically, it is unknown whether prior exercise exposure alters neuronal activation of brain reward circuitry in response to drugs of abuse. To investigate this hypothesis, rats were given 21 days of daily access to voluntary wheel running in a locked or unlocked running wheel. Subsequently, they were challenged with a saline or cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p.) injection and sacrificed for c-Fos immunohistochemistry. The c-Fos transcription factor is a measure of cellular activity and was used to quantify cocaine-induced activation of reward-processing areas of the brain: nucleus accumbens (NAc), caudate putamen (CPu), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). The mean fold change in cocaine-induced c-Fos cell counts relative to saline-induced c-Fos cell counts was significantly higher in exercising compared to control rats in the NAc core, dorsomedial and dorsolateral CPu, the prelimbic area, and the OFC, indicating differential cocaine-specific cellular activation of brain reward circuitry between exercising and control animals. These results suggest neurobiological mechanisms by which voluntary wheel running attenuates cocaine-motivated behaviors and provide support for exercise as a novel treatment for drug addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Why Animals Run on Legs, Not on Wheels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Jared

    1983-01-01

    Speculates why animals have not developed wheels in place of inefficient legs. One study cited suggests three reasons why animals are better off without wheels: wheels are efficient only on hard surfaces, limitation of wheeled motion due to vertical obstructions, and the problem of turning in spaces cluttered with obstacles. (JN)

  9. Glycogen storage and muscle glucose transporters (GLUT-4) of mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Fernando R; Rezende, Enrico L; Malisch, Jessica L; Lee, Sun K; Rivas, Donato A; Kelly, Scott A; Lytle, Christian; Yaspelkis, Ben B; Garland, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    To examine the evolution of endurance-exercise behaviour, we have selectively bred four replicate lines of laboratory mice (Mus domesticus) for high voluntary wheel running (;high runner' or HR lines), while also maintaining four non-selected control (C) lines. By generation 16, HR mice ran approximately 2.7-fold more than C mice, mainly by running faster (especially in females), a differential maintained through subsequent generations, suggesting an evolutionary limit of unknown origin. We hypothesized that HR mice would have higher glycogen levels before nightly running, show greater depletion of those depots during their more intense wheel running, and have increased glycogen synthase activity and GLUT-4 protein in skeletal muscle. We sampled females from generation 35 at three times (photophase 07:00 h-19:00 h) during days 5-6 of wheel access, as in the routine selection protocol: Group 1, day 5, 16:00 h-17:30 h, wheels blocked from 13:00 h; Group 2, day 6, 02:00 h-03:30 h (immediately after peak running); and Group 3, day 6, 07:00 h-08:30 h. An additional Group 4, sampled 16:00 h-17:30 h, never had wheels. HR individuals with the mini-muscle phenotype (50% reduced hindlimb muscle mass) were distinguished for statistical analyses comparing C, HR normal, and HR mini. HR mini ran more than HR normal, and at higher speeds, which might explain why they have been favored by the selective-breeding protocol. Plasma glucose was higher in Group 1 than in Group 4, indicating a training effect (phenotypic plasticity). Without wheels, no differences in gastrocnemius GLUT-4 were observed. After 5 days with wheels, all mice showed elevated GLUT-4, but HR normal and mini were 2.5-fold higher than C. At all times and irrespective of wheel access, HR mini showed approximately three-fold higher [glycogen] in gastrocnemius and altered glycogen synthase activity. HR mini also showed elevated glycogen in soleus when sampled during peak running. All mice showed some glycogen

  10. Glycogen storage and muscle glucose transporters (GLUT-4) of mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Fernando R.; Rezende, Enrico L.; Malisch, Jessica L.; Lee, Sun K.; Rivas, Donato A.; Kelly, Scott A.; Lytle, Christian; Yaspelkis, Ben B.; Garland, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    Summary To examine the evolution of endurance-exercise behaviour, we have selectively bred four replicate lines of laboratory mice (Mus domesticus) for high voluntary wheel running (`high runner' or HR lines), while also maintaining four non-selected control (C) lines. By generation 16, HR mice ran ∼2.7-fold more than C mice, mainly by running faster (especially in females), a differential maintained through subsequent generations, suggesting an evolutionary limit of unknown origin. We hypothesized that HR mice would have higher glycogen levels before nightly running, show greater depletion of those depots during their more intense wheel running, and have increased glycogen synthase activity and GLUT-4 protein in skeletal muscle. We sampled females from generation 35 at three times (photophase 07:00 h–19:00 h) during days 5–6 of wheel access, as in the routine selection protocol: Group 1, day 5, 16:00 h–17:30 h, wheels blocked from 13:00 h; Group 2, day 6, 02:00 h–03:30 h (immediately after peak running); and Group 3, day 6, 07:00 h–08:30 h. An additional Group 4, sampled 16:00 h–17:30 h, never had wheels. HR individuals with the mini-muscle phenotype (50% reduced hindlimb muscle mass) were distinguished for statistical analyses comparing C, HR normal, and HR mini. HR mini ran more than HR normal, and at higher speeds, which might explain why they have been favored by the selective-breeding protocol. Plasma glucose was higher in Group 1 than in Group 4, indicating a training effect (phenotypic plasticity). Without wheels, no differences in gastrocnemius GLUT-4 were observed. After 5 days with wheels, all mice showed elevated GLUT-4, but HR normal and mini were 2.5-fold higher than C. At all times and irrespective of wheel access, HR mini showed approximately three-fold higher [glycogen] in gastrocnemius and altered glycogen synthase activity. HR mini also showed elevated glycogen in soleus when sampled during peak running. All mice showed some

  11. Antioxidant gene expression in active and sedentary house mice (Mus domesticus) selected for high voluntary wheel-running behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Bronikowski, Anne M; Morgan, Theodore J; Garland, Theodore; Carter, Patrick A

    2002-01-01

    We present liver mRNA levels of the two antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD2) in four treatment groups of house mice assayed by RNase protection at 20 months of age. These groups were mice from four replicate selection and four replicate control lines from the sixteenth generation of selective breeding for high voluntary wheel running, housed with or without running wheels from age 3 weeks through 20 months. Exercising control females had induced CAT expression; SOD2 exhibited a similar pattern in females from two of the four control lines. Exercising male mice had induced CAT expression, but not SOD2 expression, irrespective of genetic background. We discuss these results with respect to both evolutionary (genetic) and training (exercise-induced) adaptations and explore predictions of these results in relation to the oxidative-damage theory of senescence. PMID:12196416

  12. Caffeine stimulates voluntary wheel running in mice without increasing aerobic capacity.

    PubMed

    Claghorn, Gerald C; Thompson, Zoe; Wi, Kristianna; Van, Lindsay; Garland, Theodore

    2017-03-01

    The "energy drink" Red Bull and the "sports drink" Gatorade are often marketed to athletes, with claims that they cause performance gains. However, both are high in sugars, and also consumed by non-athletes. Few studies have addressed the effects of these drinks or their biologically active components in rodent exercise models. We used three experiments to test effects on both voluntary exercise behavior and maximal aerobic capacity in lines of mice known to differ in "athletic" traits. Mice from four replicate High Runner (HR) lines have been selectively bred for voluntary running on wheels, and run approximately three times as many revolutions per day as do mice from four non-selected Control (C) lines. HR mice also have higher endurance and maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2 max) during forced treadmill exercise. In Experiment 1, we tested the hypothesis that Gatorade or Red Bull might cause or allow mice to increase their voluntary wheel running. On days 5 and 6 of 6days of wheel access, as is used to select breeders, HR mice ran 3.3-fold more than C, and females ran 1.2-fold more than males, with no linetype by sex interaction. On day 7, mice were administered Gatorade, Red Bull or tap water. During the subsequent 19-hour period, Gatorade had no statistical effect on running, but Red Bull significantly increased distance run by both sexes and in both HR and C lines. The increase in distance run caused by Red Bull was attributable to time spent running, not an increase in mean (or maximum) speed. As previous studies have found that sucrose alone does not generally increase wheel running, we tested two other active ingredients in Red Bull, caffeine and taurine, in Experiment 2. With a similar testing protocol, caffeine alone and caffeine+taurine increased running by about half the magnitude of Red Bull. In Experiment 3, we tested the hypothesis that Red Bull or caffeine alone can increase physiological performance ability during aerobic exercise, measured as VO 2

  13. Comparison of amino acid profiles between rats subjected to forced running and voluntary running exercises

    PubMed Central

    OKAME, Rieko; NAKAHARA, Keiko; KATO, Yumiko; BANNAI, Makoto; MURAKAMI, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    It has been suspected that in comparison with glucose or fatty acids, the levels of amino acids may readily change with different forms of exercise. In the present study, we measured the concentrations of amino acids, glucose, triglycerides, total protein and total cholesterol in the blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of rats subjected to forced running exercise on a treadmill, and voluntary running exercise using a wheel, with a constant running distance of 440 m. Rats that performed no running and rats subjected to immobilization stress were used as controls. We observed a few significant changes in the levels of plasma glucose, triglycerides, total protein and total cholesterol in all groups. Whereas, plasma amino acid levels were significantly changed by exercise and stress, especially during the light period. The plasma levels of many amino acids were specifically increased by forced running; some were decreased by immobilization stress. Few amino acids showed similar changes in their levels as a result of voluntary running. In addition, there was a significant difference in the degree of amino acid imbalance between blood and CSF. These results provide the first information on changes in levels of amino acids in plasma and CSF resulting from forced and voluntary exercises. PMID:25715957

  14. Comparison of voluntary and foraging running wheel activity on food demand in mice.

    PubMed

    Atalayer, Deniz; Rowland, Neil E

    2011-01-10

    The effects of running wheel activity on food intake and meal patterns were measured under several cost conditions for food in CD1 mice. In a first experiment, voluntary wheel running activity increased daily food intake relative to a sedentary group, and runners consumed bigger but fewer meals. Although they ate more, runners had significantly lower body fat than sedentary mice. In a second experiment, running was used as an approach cost and food access was contingent on running wheel activity. Mice were able to emit more wheel revolution responses compared to a condition in which nose poking was the approach response. In both voluntary and foraging running protocols mice had inelastic demand functions compared to the non-running groups. When running was voluntary (experiment 1), the day-night cycle for activity was more pronounced compared to when running was a foraging or approach activity (experiment 2). 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Influences of the Wheel Profiles on the Wheel Wear and Vibrational Characteristics of the Passenger Cars Running on the Seoul-Pusan Conventional Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Bu-Byoung; Lee, Chan-Woo

    Wheels of the railway vehicle play the important role for driving train through wheel-rail interaction. Especially wheel profile is one of the most important design factors to rule the running stability and safety of train. Accordingly maintenance of wheel like wheel profile control is also very important for securing safety and stability of train operation. This study presents the wheel wear measurement results of Saemaeul running on the conventional line. The train set included three different cars which have different shape of wheel profile including KNR profile currently used in Saemaeul. Train set was operated on Seoul-Pusan line with fixed train set formation for commercial service. Wheel wear measurements were performed periodically. We can find the influence of wheel profile on the wheel wear of the train running on the conventional line through the measurement results.

  16. Reinforcement Value and Substitutability of Sucrose and Wheel Running: Implications for Activity Anorexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belke, Terry W.; Duncan, Ian D.; Pierce, W. David

    2006-01-01

    Choice between sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement was assessed in two experiments. In the first experiment, ten male Wistar rats were exposed to concurrent VI 30 s VI 30 s schedules of wheel-running and sucrose reinforcement. Sucrose concentration varied across concentrations of 2.5, 7.5, and 12.5%. As concentration increased, more behavior…

  17. Effect of Intraperitoneal Radiotelemetry Instrumentation on Voluntary Wheel Running and Surgical Recovery in Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Sl , No 5 September 2012 Pages 600-608 Effect of Intraperitoneal Radiotelemetry Instrumentation on Voluntary Wheel Running and Surgical Recovery...of the diaphragm, large intestine, and duodenum. These results demonstrate that the large transmitter delayed surgical recovery, disrupted normal...and water intake, core body temperature, daily activity, and running wheel activity throughout 16 d of surgical recovery in mice implanted with

  18. Nocturnal to Diurnal Switches with Spontaneous Suppression of Wheel-Running Behavior in a Subterranean Rodent

    PubMed Central

    Tachinardi, Patricia; Tøien, Øivind; Valentinuzzi, Veronica S.; Buck, C. Loren; Oda, Gisele A.

    2015-01-01

    Several rodent species that are diurnal in the field become nocturnal in the lab. It has been suggested that the use of running-wheels in the lab might contribute to this timing switch. This proposition is based on studies that indicate feed-back of vigorous wheel-running on the period and phase of circadian clocks that time daily activity rhythms. Tuco-tucos (Ctenomys aff. knighti) are subterranean rodents that are diurnal in the field but are robustly nocturnal in laboratory, with or without access to running wheels. We assessed their energy metabolism by continuously and simultaneously monitoring rates of oxygen consumption, body temperature, general motor and wheel running activity for several days in the presence and absence of wheels. Surprisingly, some individuals spontaneously suppressed running-wheel activity and switched to diurnality in the respirometry chamber, whereas the remaining animals continued to be nocturnal even after wheel removal. This is the first report of timing switches that occur with spontaneous wheel-running suppression and which are not replicated by removal of the wheel. PMID:26460828

  19. Chronic voluntary wheel running facilitates corticosterone response habituation to repeated audiogenic stress exposure in male rats.

    PubMed

    Sasse, Sarah K; Greenwood, Benjamin N; Masini, Cher V; Nyhuis, Tara J; Fleshner, Monika; Day, Heidi E W; Campeau, Serge

    2008-11-01

    Voluntary exercise is associated with the prevention and treatment of numerous physical and psychological illnesses, yet the mechanisms by which it confers this protection remain unclear. In contrast, stress, particularly under conditions of prolonged or repeated exposure when glucocorticoid levels are consistently elevated, can have a devastating impact on health. It has been suggested that the benefits of physical exercise may lie in an ability to reduce some of the more deleterious health effects of stress and stress hormones. The present series of experiments provides evidence that voluntary exercise facilitates habituation of corticosterone but not adrenocorticotropin hormone responses to repeated stress presentations. After 6 weeks of running wheel access or sedentary housing conditions, rats were exposed to 11 consecutive daily 30 min presentations of 98 dB noise stress. Similar corticosterone responses in exercised rats and sedentary controls were observed following the first, acute stress presentation. While both groups demonstrated habituation of corticosterone secretory responses with repeated noise stress exposures, the rate of habituation was significantly facilitated in exercised animals. These results suggest that voluntary exercise may reduce the negative impact of prolonged or repeated stress on health by enhancing habituation of the corticosterone response ultimately reducing the amount of glucocorticoids the body and brain are exposed to.

  20. Limits to sustained energy intake. XV. Effects of wheel running on the energy budget during lactation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-Jun; Król, Elzbieta; Moille, Sophie; Gamo, Yuko; Speakman, John R

    2013-06-15

    The capacity of animals to dissipate heat may constrain sustained energy intake during lactation. We examined these constraints at peak lactation in MF1 mice that had ad libitum access to food, or that had to run a pre-set target on running wheels to obtain ad libitum access to food. The voluntary distance run decreased sharply during pregnancy and peak lactation. When lactating females were provided with 80% of their estimated food requirements, and had to run pre-set distances of 2, 4 or 6 km before given access to additional ad libitum food, most of them did not complete the running target during late lactation and the mice with the highest targets failed to reach their targets earlier in lactation. There were consequently significant group differences in asymptotic food intake (2 km, 16.97 ± 0.40 g day(-1); 4 km, 14.29 ± 0.72 g day(-1); and 6 km, 12.65 ± 0.45 g day(-1)) and weaned litter masses (2 km, 71.11 ± 2.39 g; 4 km, 54.63 ± 4.28 g and 6 km, 47.18 ± 2.46 g). When the females did run sufficiently to gain ad libitum food access, their intake did not differ between the different distance groups or from controls that were not required to run. Thus, despite being physically capable of running the distances, mice could not exercise sufficiently in lactation to gain regular ad libitum access to food, probably because of the risks of hyperthermia when combining heat production from exercise with thermogenesis from lactation.

  1. Wheel running improves REM sleep and attenuates stress-induced flattening of diurnal rhythms in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Robert S; Roller, Rachel; Greenwood, Benjamin N; Fleshner, Monika

    2016-05-01

    Regular physical activity produces resistance to the negative health consequences of stressor exposure. One way that exercise may confer stress resistance is by reducing the impact of stress on diurnal rhythms and sleep; disruptions of which contribute to stress-related disease including mood disorders. Given the link between diurnal rhythm disruptions and stress-related disorders and that exercise both promotes stress resistance and is a powerful non-photic biological entrainment cue, we tested if wheel running could reduce stress-induced disruptions of sleep/wake behavior and diurnal rhythms. Adult, male F344 rats with or without access to running wheels were instrumented for biotelemetric recording of diurnal rhythms of locomotor activity, heart rate, core body temperature (CBT), and sleep (i.e. REM, NREM, and WAKE) in the presence of a 12 h light/dark cycle. Following 6 weeks of sedentary or exercise conditions, rats were exposed to an acute stressor known to disrupt diurnal rhythms and produce behaviors associated with mood disorders. Prior to stressor exposure, exercise rats had higher CBT, more locomotor activity during the dark cycle, and greater %REM during the light cycle relative to sedentary rats. NREM and REM sleep were consolidated immediately following peak running to a greater extent in exercise, compared to sedentary rats. In response to stressor exposure, exercise rats expressed higher stress-induced hyperthermia than sedentary rats. Stressor exposure disrupted diurnal rhythms in sedentary rats; and wheel running reduced these effects. Improvements in sleep and reduced diurnal rhythm disruptions following stress could contribute to the health promoting and stress protective effects of exercise.

  2. Wheel Running Improves REM Sleep and Attenuates Stress-induced Flattening of Diurnal Rhythms in F344 Rats

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Robert S.; Roller, Rachel; Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Fleshner, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Regular physical activity produces resistance to the negative health consequences of stressor exposure. One way that exercise may confer stress resistance is by reducing the impact of stress on diurnal rhythms and sleep; disruptions of which contribute to stress-related disease including mood disorders. Given the link between diurnal rhythm disruptions and stress-related disorders and that exercise both promotes stress resistance and is a powerful non-photic biological entrainment cue, we tested if wheel running could reduce stress-induced disruptions of sleep/wake behavior and diurnal rhythms. Adult, male F344 rats with or without access to running wheels were instrumented for biotelemetric recording of diurnal rhythms of locomotor activity, heart rate, core body temperature (CBT), and sleep (i.e. REM, NREM, and WAKE) in the presence of a 12hr light/dark cycle. Following 6 weeks of sedentary or exercise conditions, rats were exposed to an acute stressor known to disrupt diurnal rhythms and produce behaviors associated with mood disorders. Prior to stressor exposure, exercise rats had higher CBT, more locomotor activity during the dark cycle, and greater %REM during the light cycle relative to sedentary rats. NREM and REM sleep were consolidated immediately following peak running to a greater extent in exercise, compared to sedentary rats. In response to stressor exposure, exercise rats expressed higher stress-induced hyperthermia than sedentary rats. Stressor exposure disrupted diurnal rhythms in sedentary rats; and wheel running reduced these effects. Improvements in sleep and reduced diurnal rhythm disruptions following stress could contribute to the health promoting and stress protective effects of exercise. PMID:27124542

  3. Wheel-running reinforcement in free-feeding and food-deprived rats.

    PubMed

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David

    2016-03-01

    Rats experiencing sessions of 30min free access to wheel running were assigned to ad-lib and food-deprived groups, and given additional sessions of free wheel activity. Subsequently, both ad-lib and deprived rats lever pressed for 60s of wheel running on fixed ratio (FR) 1, variable ratio (VR) 3, VR 5, and VR 10 schedules, and on a response-initiated variable interval (VI) 30s schedule. Finally, the ad-lib rats were switched to food deprivation and the food-deprived rats were switched to free food, as rats continued responding on the response-initiated VI 30-s schedule. Wheel running functioned as reinforcement for both ad-lib and food-deprived rats. Food-deprived rats, however, ran faster and had higher overall lever-pressing rates than free-feeding rats. On the VR schedules, wheel-running rates positively correlated with local and overall lever pressing rates for deprived, but not ad-lib rats. On the response-initiated VI 30s schedule, wheel-running rates and lever-pressing rates changed for ad-lib rats switched to food deprivation, but not for food-deprived rats switched to free-feeding. The overall pattern of results suggested different sources of control for wheel running: intrinsic motivation, contingencies of automatic reinforcement, and food-restricted wheel running. An implication is that generalizations about operant responding for wheel running in food-deprived rats may not extend to wheel running and operant responding of free-feeding animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Chronic wheel running-induced reduction of extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking in methamphetamine dependent rats is associated with reduced number of periaqueductal gray dopamine neurons

    PubMed Central

    Sobieraj, Jeffery C.; Kim, Airee; Fannon, McKenzie J.; Mandyam, Chitra D.

    2015-01-01

    Exercise (physical activity) has been proposed as a treatment for drug addiction. In rodents, voluntary wheel running reduces cocaine and nicotine seeking during extinction, and reinstatement of cocaine seeking triggered by drug cues. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of chronic wheel running during withdrawal and protracted abstinence on extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking in methamphetamine dependent rats, and to determine a potential neurobiological correlate underlying the effects. Rats were given extended access to methamphetamine (0.05 mg/kg, 6h/day) for 22 sessions. Rats were withdrawn and were given access to running wheels (wheel runners) or no wheels (sedentary) for three weeks after which they experienced extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking. Extended access to methamphetamine self-administration produced escalation in methamphetamine intake. Methamphetamine experience reduced running output, and conversely, access to wheel running during withdrawal reduced responding during extinction and, context- and cue-induced reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking. Immunohistochemical analysis of brain tissue demonstrated that wheel running during withdrawal did not regulate markers of methamphetamine neurotoxicity (neurogenesis, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, vesicular monoamine transporter-2) and cellular activation (c-Fos) in brain regions involved in relapse to drug seeking. However, reduced methamphetamine seeking was associated with running-induced reduction (and normalization) of the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactive neurons in the periaqueductal gray (PAG). The present study provides evidence that dopamine neurons of the PAG region show adaptive biochemical changes during methamphetamine seeking in methamphetamine dependent rats and wheel running abolishes these effects. Given that the PAG dopamine neurons project onto the structures of the extended amygdala, the present findings

  5. A novel mouse running wheel that senses individual limb forces: biomechanical validation and in vivo testing

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Grahm C.; Edke, Mangesh

    2012-01-01

    Biomechanical data provide fundamental information about changes in musculoskeletal function during development, adaptation, and disease. To facilitate the study of mouse locomotor biomechanics, we modified a standard mouse running wheel to include a force-sensitive rung capable of measuring the normal and tangential forces applied by individual paws. Force data were collected throughout the night using an automated threshold trigger algorithm that synchronized force data with wheel-angle data and a high-speed infrared video file. During the first night of wheel running, mice reached consistent running speeds within the first 40 force events, indicating a rapid habituation to wheel running, given that mice generated >2,000 force-event files/night. Average running speeds and peak normal and tangential forces were consistent throughout the first four nights of running, indicating that one night of running is sufficient to characterize the locomotor biomechanics of healthy mice. Twelve weeks of wheel running significantly increased spontaneous wheel-running speeds (16 vs. 37 m/min), lowered duty factors (ratio of foot-ground contact time to stride time; 0.71 vs. 0.58), and raised hindlimb peak normal forces (93 vs. 115% body wt) compared with inexperienced mice. Peak normal hindlimb-force magnitudes were the primary force component, which were nearly tenfold greater than peak tangential forces. Peak normal hindlimb forces exceed the vertical forces generated during overground running (50-60% body wt), suggesting that wheel running shifts weight support toward the hindlimbs. This force-instrumented running-wheel system provides a comprehensive, noninvasive screening method for monitoring gait biomechanics in mice during spontaneous locomotion. PMID:22723628

  6. Sex differences in the effect of wheel running on subsequent nicotine-seeking in a rat adolescent-onset self-administration model

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Victoria; Moore, Catherine F; Brunzell, Darlene H; Lynch, Wendy J

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Wheel running attenuates nicotine-seeking in male adolescent rats; however it is not known if this effect extends to females. Objective To determine if wheel running during abstinence would differentially attenuate subsequent nicotine-seeking in male and female rats that had extended access to nicotine self-administration during adolescence. Methods Male (N = 49) and female (N = 43) adolescent rats self-administered saline or nicotine (5μg/kg) under an extended access (23-hour) paradigm. Following the last self-administration session, rats were moved to polycarbonate cages for an abstinence period where they either had access to a locked or unlocked running wheel for 2-hours/day. Subsequently, nicotine-seeking was examined under a within-session extinction/cue-induced reinstatement paradigm. Due to low levels of nicotine-seeking in females in both wheel groups, additional groups were included that were housed without access to a running wheel during abstinence. Results Females self-administered more nicotine as compared to males; however, within males and females, intake did not differ between groups prior to wheel assignment. Compared to saline controls, males and females that self-administered nicotine showed a significant increase in drug-seeking during extinction. Wheel running during abstinence attenuated nicotine-seeking during extinction in males. In females, access to either locked or unlocked wheels attenuated nicotine-seeking during extinction. While responding was reinstated by cues in both males and females, levels were modest and not significantly affected by exercise in this adolescent-onset model. Conclusions While wheel running reduced subsequent nicotine-seeking in males, access to a wheel, either locked or unlocked, was sufficient to suppress nicotine-seeking in females. PMID:24271035

  7. Exercise economy in skiing and running.

    PubMed

    Losnegard, Thomas; Schäfer, Daniela; Hallén, Jostein

    2014-01-01

    Substantial inter-individual variations in exercise economy exist even in highly trained endurance athletes. The variation is believed to be determined partly by intrinsic factors. Therefore, in the present study, we compared exercise economy in V2-skating, double poling, and uphill running. Ten highly trained male cross-country skiers (23 ± 3 years, 180 ± 6 cm, 75 ± 8 kg, VO2peak running: 76.3 ± 5.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) participated in the study. Exercise economy and VO2peak during treadmill running, ski skating (V2 technique) and double poling were compared based on correlation analysis. There was a very large correlation in exercise economy between V2-skating and double poling (r = 0.81) and large correlations between V2-skating and running (r = 0.53) and double poling and running (r = 0.58). There were trivial to moderate correlations between exercise economy and the intrinsic factors VO2peak (r = 0.00-0.23), cycle rate (r = 0.03-0.46), body mass (r = -0.09-0.46) and body height (r = 0.11-0.36). In conclusion, the inter-individual variation in exercise economy could be explained only moderately by differences in VO2peak, body mass and body height. Apparently other intrinsic factors contribute to the variation in exercise economy between highly trained subjects.

  8. Exercise economy in skiing and running

    PubMed Central

    Losnegard, Thomas; Schäfer, Daniela; Hallén, Jostein

    2014-01-01

    Substantial inter-individual variations in exercise economy exist even in highly trained endurance athletes. The variation is believed to be determined partly by intrinsic factors. Therefore, in the present study, we compared exercise economy in V2-skating, double poling, and uphill running. Ten highly trained male cross-country skiers (23 ± 3 years, 180 ± 6 cm, 75 ± 8 kg, VO2peak running: 76.3 ± 5.6 mL·kg−1·min−1) participated in the study. Exercise economy and VO2peak during treadmill running, ski skating (V2 technique) and double poling were compared based on correlation analysis. There was a very large correlation in exercise economy between V2-skating and double poling (r = 0.81) and large correlations between V2-skating and running (r = 0.53) and double poling and running (r = 0.58). There were trivial to moderate correlations between exercise economy and the intrinsic factors VO2peak (r = 0.00–0.23), cycle rate (r = 0.03–0.46), body mass (r = −0.09–0.46) and body height (r = 0.11–0.36). In conclusion, the inter-individual variation in exercise economy could be explained only moderately by differences in VO2peak, body mass and body height. Apparently other intrinsic factors contribute to the variation in exercise economy between highly trained subjects. PMID:24478718

  9. Corticosterone and dopamine D2/D3 receptors mediate the motivation for voluntary wheel running in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Ebada, Mohamed Elsaed; Kendall, David A; Pardon, Marie-Christine

    2016-09-15

    Physical exercise can improve cognition but whether this is related to motivation levels is unknown. Voluntary wheel running is a rewarding activity proposed as a model of motivation to exercise. To question the potential effects of exercise motivation on subsequent behaviour, we used a pharmacological approach targeting some reward mechanisms. The stress hormone corticosterone has rewarding effects mediated by activation of low affinity glucocorticoid receptors (GR). To investigate whether corticosterone synthesis motivates exercise via activation of GRs and subsequently, impacts on behaviour, we treated C57BL/6J mice acutely with the inhibitor of corticosterone synthesis metyrapone (35mg/kg) or repeatedly with the GR antagonist mifepristone (30mg/kg) prior to 1-h running wheel sessions. To investigate whether reducing motivation to exercise impacts on behaviour, we antagonised running-induced dopamine D2/D3 receptors activation with sulpiride (25 or 50mg/kg) and assessed locomotor, anxiety-related and memory performance after 20 running sessions over 4 weeks. We found that corticosterone synthesis contributes to running levels, but the maintenance of running behaviour was not mediated by activation of GRs. Intermittent exercise was not associated with changes in behavioural or cognitive performance. The persistent reduction in exercise levels triggered by sulpiride also had limited impact on behavioural performance, although the level of performance for some behaviours was related to the level of exercise. Altogether, these findings indicate that corticosterone and dopamine D2/D3 receptor activation contribute to the motivation for wheel running, but suggest that motivation for exercise is not a sufficient factor to alter behaviour in healthy mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Differential response to a selective cannabinoid receptor antagonist (SR141716: rimonabant) in female mice from lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behaviour.

    PubMed

    Keeney, Brooke K; Raichlen, David A; Meek, Thomas H; Wijeratne, Rashmi S; Middleton, Kevin M; Gerdeman, Gregory L; Garland, Theodore

    2008-12-01

    Exercise is a naturally rewarding behaviour in human beings and can be associated with feelings of euphoria and analgesia. The endocannabinoid system may play a role in the perception of neurobiological rewards during and after prolonged exercise. Mice from lines that have been selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running (high runner or HR lines) may have evolved neurobiological mechanisms that increase the incentive salience of endurance-type exercise. Here, we test the hypothesis that endocannabinoid signalling has been altered in the four replicate HR lines as compared with four nonselected control lines. After 18 days of acclimation to cages with attached wheels, we injected mice with rimonabant (SR141716), a selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist. During the time of normal peak running, each mouse received, in a randomized order, intraperitoneal injection of rimonabant (0.1 or 3.0 mg/kg) or vehicle, over 9 days. Drug response was quantified as wheel revolutions, time and speed 10-70 min postinjection. Rimonabant decreased running in all mice; however, female HR mice differentially decreased running speed and distance (but not time) as compared with control females. We conclude that altered endocannabinoid signalling plays a role in the high wheel running of female HR mice.

  11. Effects of running wheel training on adult obese rats programmed by maternal prolactin inhibition.

    PubMed

    Boaventura, G; Casimiro-Lopes, G; Pazos-Moura, C C; Oliveira, E; Lisboa, P C; Moura, E G

    2013-10-01

    The inhibition of maternal prolactin production in late lactation leads to metabolic syndrome and hypothyroidism in adult offspring. Physical training is a therapeutic strategy that could prevent or reverse this condition. We evaluated the effects of a short-duration low-intensity running wheel training program on the metabolic and hormonal alterations in rats. Lactating Wistar rats were treated with bromocriptine (Bro, 1 mg twice a day) or saline on days 19, 20, and 21 of lactation, and the training of offspring began at 35 days of age. Offspring were divided into sedentary and trained controls (C-Sed and C-Ex) and sedentary and trained Bro-treated rats (Bro-Sed and Bro-Ex). Chronic exercise delayed the onset of weight gain in Bro-Ex offspring, and the food intake did not change during the experimental period. At 180 days, visceral fat mass was higher (+46%) in the Bro-Sed offspring than in C-Sed and Bro-Ex rats. As expected, running capacity was higher in trained animals. Most parameters observed in the Bro-Sed offspring were consistent with hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome and were reversed in the Bro-Ex group. Chronic exercise did not influence the muscle glycogen in the C-Ex group; however, liver glycogen was higher (+30%) in C-Ex group and was unchanged in both Bro offspring groups. Bro-Ex animals had higher plasma lactate dehydrogenase levels, indicating skeletal muscle damage and intolerance of the training program. Low-intensity chronic training is able to normalize many clinical aspects in Bro animals; however, these animals might have had a lower threshold for exercise adaptation than the control rats.

  12. A Brief Opportunity to Run Does Not Function as a Reinforcer for Mice Selected for High Daily Wheel-Running Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belke, Terry W.; Garland, Theodore, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Mice from replicate lines, selectively bred based on high daily wheel-running rates, run more total revolutions and at higher average speeds than do mice from nonselected control lines. Based on this difference it was assumed that selected mice would find the opportunity to run in a wheel a more efficacious consequence. To assess this assumption…

  13. Wnt Protein-mediated Satellite Cell Conversion in Adult and Aged Mice Following Voluntary Wheel Running

    PubMed Central

    Fujimaki, Shin; Hidaka, Ryo; Asashima, Makoto; Takemasa, Tohru; Kuwabara, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    Muscle represents an abundant, accessible, and replenishable source of adult stem cells. Skeletal muscle-derived stem cells, called satellite cells, play essential roles in regeneration after muscle injury in adult skeletal muscle. Although the molecular mechanism of muscle regeneration process after an injury has been extensively investigated, the regulation of satellite cells under steady state during the adult stage, including the reaction to exercise stimuli, is relatively unknown. Here, we show that voluntary wheel running exercise, which is a low stress exercise, converts satellite cells to the activated state due to accelerated Wnt signaling. Our analysis showed that up-regulated canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling directly modulated chromatin structures of both MyoD and Myf5 genes, resulting in increases in the mRNA expression of Myf5 and MyoD and the number of proliferative Pax7+Myf5+ and Pax7+ MyoD+ cells in skeletal muscle. The effect of Wnt signaling on the activation of satellite cells, rather than Wnt-mediated fibrosis, was observed in both adult and aged mice. The association of β-catenin, T-cell factor, and lymphoid enhancer transcription factors of multiple T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor regulatory elements, conserved in mouse, rat, and human species, with the promoters of both the Myf5 and MyoD genes drives the de novo myogenesis in satellite cells even in aged muscle. These results indicate that exercise-stimulated extracellular Wnts play a critical role in the regulation of satellite cells in adult and aged skeletal muscle. PMID:24482229

  14. Wheel access duration in rats: I. Effects on feeding and running.

    PubMed

    Lattanzio, Sara B; Eikelboom, Roelof

    2003-06-01

    The effects of 0-, 2-, and 24-hr wheel access on the pattern of running, feeding, and weight were explored over 24 days in 3 groups of 8 male rats. Both 2 and 24 hr of wheel access suppressed feeding by about 15% for about 8 days before feeding gradually returned to normal. Weight in these 2 groups was similar and was suppressed for the 24 days. Like the pattern seen with drug self-administration (S. H. Ahmed & G. F. Koob, 1998, 1999), running levels stayed low with short, 2-hr daytime wheel access, but with long, 24-hr access, rats' running escalated over days to chronically high levels. These results may have relevance for the understanding of addiction and anorexia nervosa.

  15. Developmental effects of wheel running on hippocampal glutamate receptor expression in young and mature adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Staples, Miranda C.; Somkuwar, Sucharita S.; Mandyam, Chitra D.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the behavioral benefits associated with voluntary wheel running in rodents may be due to modulation of glutamatergic transmission in the hippocampus, a brain region implicated in learning and memory. However, the expression of the n-Methyl-d-Aspartate glutamate receptor subunits (GluNs) in the hippocampus in response to chronic sustained voluntary wheel running has not yet been investigated. Further, the developmental effects during young and mature adulthood on wheel running output and GluN expression in hippocampal subregions has not been determined, and therefore is the main focus of this investigation. Eight-week-old and sixteen-week-old male Wistar rats were housed in home cages with free access to running wheels and running output was monitored for four weeks. Wheel access was terminated and tissue from the dorsal and ventral hippocampi were processed for Western blot analysis of GluN subunit expression. Young adult runners demonstrated an escalation in running output but this behavior was not evident in mature adult runners. In parallel, young adult runners demonstrated a significant increase in total GluN (1 and 2A) subunit expression in the dorsal hippocampus, and an opposing effect in the ventral hippocampus compared to age-matched sedentary controls; these changes in total protein expression were not associated with significant alterations in the phosphorylation of the GluN subunits. In contrast, mature adult runners demonstrated a reduction in total GluN2A expression in the dorsal hippocampus, without producing alterations in the ventral hippocampus compared to age-matched sedentary controls. In conclusion, differential running activity-mediated modulation of GluN subunit expression in the hippocampal subregions was revealed to be associated with developmental effects on running activity, which may contribute to altered hippocampal synaptic activity and behavioral outcomes in young and mature adult subjects. PMID:26220171

  16. Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis responses to low-intensity stressors are reduced after voluntary wheel running in rats.

    PubMed

    Campeau, S; Nyhuis, T J; Sasse, S K; Kryskow, E M; Herlihy, L; Masini, C V; Babb, J A; Greenwood, B N; Fleshner, M; Day, H E W

    2010-08-01

    Regular physical exercise is beneficial for both physical and mental health. By contrast, stress is associated with deleterious effects on health and there is growing evidence that regular physical exercise counteracts some of the effects of stress. However, most previous studies have suggested that prior exercise does not alter the acute hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis responses to stress. The present series of studies provides evidence that in rats, 6 weeks (but not 1 or 3 weeks) of voluntary wheel running reduces the HPA axis responses to lower-intensity stressors such as an i.p. saline injection, exposure to a novel environment or exposure to moderate intensity noise, but not to more intense stressors such as predator odour exposure or restraint. Daily exercise does not appear to be necessary for the reduction in HPA axis responses, with intermittent access (24 h out of each 72-h period) to a running wheel for 6 weeks, resulting in similar decrements in adrenocorticotrophic hormone and corticosterone release in response to 85 dBA noise exposure. Data from in situ hybridisation for c-fos mRNA are consistent with the hypothesis that voluntary exercise results in a decrease in HPA axis responsiveness to a low-intensity stressor at a central level, with no changes in primary sensory processing. Together, these data suggest that 6 weeks of daily or intermittent exercise constrains the HPA axis response to mild, but not more intense stressors, and that this regulation may be mediated at a central level beyond the primary sensory input.

  17. Dopamine D3 receptor status modulates sexual dimorphism in voluntary wheel running behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Klinker, Florian; Ko Hnemann, Kathrin; Paulus, Walter; Liebetanz, David

    2017-08-30

    Sexual dimorphism has been described in various aspects of physiological and pathophysiological processes involving dopaminergic signaling. This might account for the different disease characteristics in men and women in e.g. Parkinson's disease or ADHD. A better understanding might contribute to the future individualization of therapy. We examined spontaneous wheel running activity of male and female mice, homo- and heterozygote for dopamine D3 receptor deficiency (D3R -/- and D3R+/-), and compared them to wild type controls. We found higher wheel running activity in female mice than in their male littermates. D3-/- mice, irrespective of sex, were also hyperactive compared to both D3+/- and wild type animals. Hyperactivity of D3-/- female mice was pronounced during the first days of wheel running but then decreased while their male counterparts continued to be hyperactive. Physical activity was menstrual cycle-dependent. Activity fluctuations were also seen in D3 receptor knockout mice and are therefore presumably independent of D3 receptor activation. Our data underscore the complex interaction of dopaminergic signaling and gonadal hormones that leads to specific running behavior. Furthermore, we detected sex- and D3 receptor status-specific reactions during novel exposure to the running wheel. These findings suggest the need for adapting dopaminergic therapies to individual factors such as sex or even menstrual cycle to optimize therapeutic success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mu opioid receptor modulation in the nucleus accumbens lowers voluntary wheel running in rats bred for high running motivation.

    PubMed

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Will, Matthew J; Booth, Frank W

    2015-10-01

    The exact role of opioid receptor signaling in mediating voluntary wheel running is unclear. To provide additional understanding, female rats selectively bred for motivation of low (LVR) versus high voluntary running (HVR) behaviors were used. Aims of this study were 1) to identify intrinsic differences in nucleus accumbens (NAc) mRNA expression of opioid-related transcripts and 2) to determine if nightly wheel running is differently influenced by bilateral NAc injections of either the mu-opioid receptor agonist D-Ala2, NMe-Phe4, Glyo5-enkephalin (DAMGO) (0.25, 2.5 μg/side), or its antagonist, naltrexone (5, 10, 20 μg/side). In Experiment 1, intrinsic expression of Oprm1 and Pdyn mRNAs were higher in HVR compared to LVR. Thus, the data imply that line differences in opioidergic mRNA in the NAc could partially contribute to differences in wheel running behavior. In Experiment 2, a significant decrease in running distance was present in HVR rats treated with 2.5 μg DAMGO, or with 10 μg and 20 μg naltrexone between hours 0-1 of the dark cycle. Neither DAMGO nor naltrexone had a significant effect on running distance in LVR rats. Taken together, the data suggest that the high nightly voluntary running distance expressed by HVR rats is mediated by increased endogenous mu-opioid receptor signaling in the NAc, that is disturbed by either agonism or antagonism. In summary, our findings on NAc opioidergic mRNA expression and mu-opioid receptor modulations suggest HVR rats, compared to LVR rats, express higher running levels mediated by an increase in motivation driven, in part, by elevated NAc opioidergic signaling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Voluntary wheel running increases satellite cell abundance and improves recovery from disuse in gastrocnemius muscles from mice.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Matthew J; Hajira, Ameena; Mohamed, Junaith S; Alway, Stephen E

    2018-02-22

    Reloading of atrophied muscles after hindlimb suspension unloading (HSU) can induce injury and prolong recovery. Low-impact exercise, such as voluntary wheel running, has been identified as a non-damaging rehabilitation therapy in rodents, but its effects on muscle function, morphology, and satellite cell activity after HSU are unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that low impact wheel running would increase satellite cell proliferation and improve recovery of muscle structure and function after HSU in mice. Young adult male and female C57BL/6 mice (n=6/group) were randomly placed into 5 groups. These included HSU without recovery (HSU), normal ambulatory recovery for 14 days after HSU (HSU+NoWR), and voluntary wheel running recovery for 14 days after HSU (HSU+WR). Two control groups were used: non-suspended mice-cage controls (Control) and voluntary wheel running controls (ControlWR). Satellite cell activation, was evaluated by providing mice 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in their drinking water. As expected, HSU significantly reduced in vivo maximal force and decreased the in vivo fatigability and decreased type I and IIa myosin heavy chain (MHC) abundance in plantarflexor muscles. HSU+WR mice significantly improved plantarflexor fatigue resistance, increased type type I and IIa MHC abundance, increased fiber cross sectional area (CSA), and an increased the percentage of type I and IIA muscle fibers in the gastrocnemius muscle. HSU+WR mice also had a significantly greater percentage of BrdU-positive and Pax 7 positive nuclei inside muscle fibers and a greater MyoD to Pax 7 protein ratio when compared to HSU+NoWR mice. The mechanotransduction protein Yes-associated protein (YAP) was elevated with reloading after HSU, but HSU+WR had lower levels of the inactive phosphorylated YAP serine127 which may have contributed to increased satellite cell activation creased with reloading after HSU. These results indicate that voluntary wheel running increased YAP

  20. Simultaneous introduction of a novel high fat diet and wheel running induces anorexia.

    PubMed

    Scarpace, E T; Matheny, M; Strehler, K Y E; Shapiro, A; Cheng, K Y; Tümer, N; Scarpace, P J

    2012-02-28

    Voluntary wheel running (WR) is a form of physical activity in rodents that influences ingestive behavior. The present report describes an anorexic behavior triggered by the simultaneous introduction of a novel diet and WR. This study examined the sequential, compared with the simultaneous, introduction of a novel high-fat (HF) diet and voluntary WR in rats of three different ages and revealed a surprising finding; the simultaneous introduction of HF food and voluntary WR induced a behavior in which the animals chose not to eat although food was available at all times. This phenomenon was apparently not due to an aversion to the novel HF diet because introduction of the running wheels plus the HF diet, while continuing the availability of the normal chow diet did not prevent the anorexia. Moreover, the anorexia was prevented with prior exposure to the HF diet. In addition, the anorexia was not related to extent of WR but dependent on the act of WR. The introduction a HF diet and locked running wheels did not induce the anorexia. This voluntary anorexia was accompanied by substantial weight loss, and the anorexia was rapidly reversed by removal of the running wheels. Moreover, the HF/WR-induced anorexia is preserved across the age span despite the intrinsic decrease in WR activity and increased consumption of HF food with advancing age. The described phenomenon provides a new model to investigate anorexia behavior in rodents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Simultaneous Introduction of a Novel High Fat Diet and Wheel Running Induces Anorexia

    PubMed Central

    Scarpace, E. T.; Matheny, M.; Strehler, K. Y. E.; Shapiro, A.; Cheng, K. Y.; Tümer, N.; Scarpace, P. J.

    2011-01-01

    Voluntary wheel running (WR) is a form of physical activity in rodents that influences ingestive behavior. The present report describes an anorexic behavior triggered by the simultaneous introduction of a novel diet and WR. This study examined the sequential, compared with the simultaneous, introduction of a novel high-fat (HF) diet and voluntary WR in rats of three different ages and revealed a surprising finding; the simultaneous introduction of HF food and voluntary WR induced a behavior in which the animals chose not to eat although food was available at all times. This phenomenon was apparently not due to an aversion to the novel HF diet because introduction of the running wheels plus the HF diet, while continuing the availability of the normal chow diet did not prevent the anorexia. Moreover, the anorexia was prevented with prior exposure to the HF diet. In addition, the anorexia was not related to extent of WR but dependent on the act of WR. The introduction a HF diet and locked running wheels did not induce the anorexia. This voluntary anorexia was accompanied by substantial weight loss, and the anorexia was rapidly reversed by removal of the running wheels. Moreover, the HF/WR-induced anorexia is preserved across the age span despite the intrinsic decrease in WR activity and increased consumption of HF food with advancing age. The described phenomenon provides a new model to investigate anorexia behavior in rodents. PMID:22115947

  2. Depression of home cage wheel running: a reliable and clinically relevant method to assess migraine pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Ram; Lee, Andrea T; Morgan, Michael M

    2017-12-01

    The development of new anti-migraine treatments is limited by the difficulty inassessing migraine pain in laboratory animals. Depression of activity is one of the few diagnostic criteria formigraine that can be mimicked in rats. The goal of the present study was to test the hypothesis thatdepression of home cage wheel running is a reliable and clinically relevant method to assess migraine painin rats. Adult female rats were implanted with a cannula to inject allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) onto the dura to induce migraine pain, as has been shown before. Rats recovered from implantation surgery for 8 days in cages containing a running wheel. Home cage wheel running was recorded 23 h a day. AITC and the migraine medication sumatriptan were administered in the hour prior to onset of the dark phase. Administration of AITC caused a concentration-dependent decrease in wheel running that lasted 3 h. The duration and magnitude of AITC-induced depression of wheel running was consistent following three repeated injections spaced 48 h apart. Administration of sumatriptan attenuated AITC-induced depressionof wheel running when a large dose (1 mg/kg) was administered immediately following AITC administration. Wheel running patterns did not change when sumatriptan was given to naïve rats. These data indicate that home cage wheel running is a sensitive, reliable, and clinically relevant method to assess migraine pain in the rat.

  3. Seven days of muscle re-loading and voluntary wheel running following hindlimb suspension in mice restores running performance, muscle morphology and metrics of fatigue but not muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Andrea M; Stodieck, Louis S; Cannon, Cara M A; Simske, Steven J; Ferguson, Virginia L

    2010-08-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of 2-week hindlimb un-loading in mice followed by re-ambulation with voluntary access to running wheels. The recovery period was terminated at a time point when physical performance--defined by velocity, time, and distance ran per day--of the suspended group matched that of an unsuspended group. Mice were assigned to one of four groups: unsuspended non-exercise (Control), 14 days of hindlimb suspension (HS), 7 days of access to running wheels (E7), or 14 days of HS plus 7 days access to running wheels (HSE7). HS resulted in significant decreases in body and muscle mass, hindlimb strength, soleus force, soleus specific force, fatigue resistance, and fiber cross sectional area (CSA). Seven days of re-ambulation with access to running wheels following HS recovered masses to Control values, increased fiber CSA, increased resistance to fatigue and improved recovery from fatigue in the soleus. HS resulted in a myosin heavy chain (MHC) phenotype shift from slow toward fast-twitch fibers, though running alone did not influence the expression of MHC fibers. Compared to the Control group, HSE7 mice did not recover functional hindlimb strength as assessed through measurements either in vivo or ex vivo. Results from this study demonstrate that 7 days of muscle re-loading with access to wheel-running following HS can stimulate muscle to regain mass and fiber CSA and exhibit improved metrics of fatigue resistance and recovery, yet muscles remain impaired in regard to strength. Understanding this mismatch between muscle morphology and strength may prove of value in designing effective exercise protocols for disuse muscle atrophy rehabilitation.

  4. Effects of intrinsic aerobic capacity and ovariectomy on voluntary wheel running and nucleus accumbens dopamine receptor gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Min; Kanaley, Jill A.; Padilla, Jaume; Zidon, Terese; Welly, Rebecca J.; Will, Matthew J.; Britton, Steven L.; Koch, Lauren G.; Ruegsegger, Gregory N.; Booth, Frank W.; Thyfault, John P.; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J.

    2016-01-01

    Rats selectively bred for high (HCR) and low (LCR) aerobic capacity show a stark divergence in wheel running behavior, which may be associated with dopamine (DA) system in the brain. HCR possess greater motivation for voluntary running along with greater brain DA activity compared to LCR. We recently demonstrated that HCR are not immune to ovariectomy (OVX)-associated reductions in spontaneous cage (i.e. locomotor) activity. Whether HCR and LCR rats differ in their OVX-mediated voluntary wheel running response is unknown. PURPOSE To determine whether HCR are protected from OVX-associated reduction in voluntary wheel running. METHODS Forty female HCR and LCR rats (age ~27 weeks) had either SHM or OVX operations, and given access to a running wheel for 11 weeks. Weekly wheel running distance was monitored throughout the intervention. Nucleus accumbens (NAc) was assessed for mRNA expression of DA receptors at sacrifice. RESULTS Compared to LCR, HCR ran greater distance and had greater ratio of excitatory/inhibitory DA mRNA expression (both line main effects, P<0.05). Wheel running distance was significantly, positively correlated with the ratio of excitatory/inhibitory DA mRNA expression across animals. In both lines, OVX reduced wheel running (P<0.05). Unexpectedly, although HCR started with significantly greater voluntary wheel running, they had greater OVX-induced reduction in wheel running than LCR such that no differences were found 11 weeks after OVX between HCROVX and LCROVX (interaction, P<0.05). This significant reduction in wheel running in HCR was associated with an OVX-mediated reduction in the ratio of excitatory/inhibitory DA mRNA expression. CONCLUSION DA system in the NAc region may play a significant role in motivation to run in female rats. Compared to LCR, HCR rats run significantly more, which associates with greater ratio of excitatory/inhibitory DA mRNA expression. However, despite greater inherent motivation to run and an associated brain DA m

  5. Mouse genetic differences in voluntary wheel running, adult hippocampal neurogenesis and learning on the multi-strain-adapted plus water maze

    PubMed Central

    Merritt, Jennifer; Rhodes, Justin S.

    2014-01-01

    Moderate levels of aerobic exercise broadly enhance cognition throughout the lifespan. One hypothesized contributing mechanism is increased adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Recently, we measured the effects of voluntary wheel running on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in 12 different mouse strains, and found increased neurogenesis in all strains, ranging from 2 to 5 fold depending on the strain. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which increased neurogenesis from wheel running is associated with enhanced performance on the water maze for 5 of the 12 strains, chosen based on their levels of neurogenesis observed in the previous study (C57BL/6J, 129S1/SvImJ, B6129SF1/J, DBA/2J, and B6D2F1/J). Mice were housed with or without a running wheels for 30 days then tested for learning and memory on the plus water maze, adapted for multiple strains, and rotarod test of motor performance. The first 10 days, animals were injected with BrdU to label dividing cells. After behavioral testing animals were euthanized to measure adult hippocampal neurogenesis using standard methods. Levels of neurogenesis depended on strain but all mice had a similar increase in neurogenesis in response to exercise. All mice acquired the water maze but performance depended on strain. Exercise improved water maze performance in all strains to a similar degree. Rotarod performance depended on strain. Exercise improved rotarod performance only in DBA/2J and B6D2F1/J mice. Taken together, results demonstrate that despite different levels of neurogenesis, memory performance and motor coordination in these mouse strains, all strains have the capacity to increase neurogenesis and improve learning on the water maze through voluntary wheel running. PMID:25435316

  6. Activity wheel running reduces escape latency and alters brain monoamine levels after footshock.

    PubMed

    Dishman, R K; Renner, K J; Youngstedt, S D; Reigle, T G; Bunnell, B N; Burke, K A; Yoo, H S; Mougey, E H; Meyerhoff, J L

    1997-01-01

    We examined the effects of chronic activity wheel running on brain monoamines and latency to escape foot shock after prior exposure to uncontrollable, inescapable foot shock. Individually housed young (approximately 50 day) female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to standard cages (sedentary) or cages with activity wheels. After 9-12 weeks, animals were matched in pairs on body mass. Activity wheel animals were also matched on running distance. An animal from each matched pair was randomly assigned to controllable or uncontrollable inescapable foot shock followed the next day by a foot shock escape test in a shuttle box. Brain concentrations of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) were assayed in the locus coeruleus (LC), dorsal raphe (DR), central amygdala (AC), hippocampus (CA1), arcuate nucleus, paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and midbrain central gray. After prior exposure to uncontrollable foot shock, escape latency was reduced by 34% for wheel runners compared with sedentary controls. The shortened escape latency for wheel runners was associated with 61% higher NE concentrations in LC and 44% higher NE concentrations in DR compared with sedentary controls. Sedentary controls, compared with wheel runners, had 31% higher 5-HIAA concentrations in CA1 and 30% higher 5-HIAA concentrations in AC after uncontrollable foot shock and had 28% higher 5-HT and 33% higher 5-HIAA concentrations in AC averaged across both foot shock conditions. There were no group differences in monoamines in the central gray or in plasma prolactin or ACTH concentrations, despite 52% higher DA concentrations in the arcuate nucleus after uncontrollable foot shock and 50% higher DOPAC/DA and 17% higher 5-HIAA/5-HT concentrations in the PVN averaged across both foot shock conditions for sedentary compared with activity wheel animals. The present results extend understanding of the

  7. Spontaneous appetence for wheel-running: a model of dependency on physical activity in rat.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Anthony; Lamarque, Stéphanie; Boyer, Patrice; Perez-Diaz, Fernando; Jouvent, Roland; Cohen-Salmon, Charles

    2006-12-01

    According to human observations of a syndrome of physical activity dependence and its consequences, we tried to examine if running activity in a free activity paradigm, where rats had a free access to activity wheel, may present a valuable animal model for physical activity dependence and most generally to behavioral dependence. The pertinence of reactivity to novelty, a well-known pharmacological dependence predictor was also tested. Given the close linkage observed in human between physical activity and drugs use and abuse, the influence of free activity in activity wheels on reactivity to amphetamine injection and reactivity to novelty were also assessed. It appeared that (1) free access to wheel may be used as a valuable model for physical activity addiction, (2) two populations differing in activity amount also differed in dependence to wheel-running. (3) Reactivity to novelty did not appeared as a predictive factor for physical activity dependence (4) activity modified novelty reactivity and (5) subjects who exhibited a high appetence to wheel-running, presented a strong reactivity to amphetamine. These results propose a model of dependency on physical activity without any pharmacological intervention, and demonstrate the existence of individual differences in the development of this addiction. In addition, these data highlight the development of a likely vulnerability to pharmacological addiction after intense and sustained physical activity, as also described in man. This model could therefore prove pertinent for studying behavioral dependencies and the underlying neurobiological mechanisms. These results may influence the way psychiatrists view behavioral dependencies and phenomena such as doping in sport or addiction to sport itself.

  8. A guideline for analyzing circadian wheel-running behavior in rodents under different lighting conditions

    PubMed Central

    Jud, Corinne; Schmutz, Isabelle; Hampp, Gabriele; Oster, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    Most behavioral experiments within circadian research are based on the analysis of locomotor activity. This paper introduces scientists to chronobiology by explaining the basic terminology used within the field. Furthermore, it aims to assist in designing, carrying out, and evaluating wheel-running experiments with rodents, particularly mice. Since light is an easily applicable stimulus that provokes strong effects on clock phase, the paper focuses on the application of different lighting conditions. PMID:16136228

  9. Effects of Supraphysiological Doses of Sex Steroids on Wheel Running Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Robert S; Knab, Amy M; Hamilton, Alicia Trynor; McCall, Jennifer R; Moore-Harrison, Trudy L; Lightfoot, J Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The regulatory mechanisms of physical activity are postulated to include environmental and biological/genetic factors. In particular, the sex steroids appear to have profound effects on wheel running in rodents. The purpose of this project was to investigate the effects of 17β-estradiol and testosterone on wheel running distance, duration, and speed in male and female C57BL/6J mice. The mice (N=46) were provided free access to running wheels interfaced with computers to track daily running distance, duration, and speed. Activity was assessed at baseline in intact mice, after surgical gonadectomy, and after replacement with either 17β-estradiol or testosterone. Upon removal of the gonads, physical activity levels were significantly reduced in both males and females. Distance (10–30% of baseline) and duration (20–47% of baseline) measures were most affected by the loss of endogenous steroids, while running speed (60–77% of baseline) though significantly reduced-decreased by a much lower magnitude. Testosterone replacement fully recovered running distance, duration, and speed to pre-surgical levels in both sexes (100% of baseline). Distance (30–42% of baseline) and duration (43–47% of baseline) were partially recovered by 17β-estradiol, but not to baseline levels. Speed (100% of baseline) was fully recovered by 17β-estradiol replacement in males and females. This study suggests that physical activity in mice is affected by endogenous steroids and can be altered by exogenous steroid replacement. The differences in the recovery abilities of 17β-estradiol and testosterone suggest that both estrogenic and androgenic pathways may be involved to variable degrees in activity regulation. PMID:25419484

  10. Forces and mechanical energy fluctuations during diagonal stride roller skiing; running on wheels?

    PubMed

    Kehler, Alyse L; Hajkova, Eliska; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Kram, Rodger

    2014-11-01

    Mechanical energy can be conserved during terrestrial locomotion in two ways: the inverted pendulum mechanism for walking and the spring-mass mechanism for running. Here, we investigated whether diagonal stride cross-country roller skiing (DIA) utilizes similar mechanisms. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that running and DIA would share similar phase relationships and magnitudes of kinetic energy (KE), and gravitational potential energy (GPE) fluctuations, indicating elastic energy storage and return, as if roller skiing is like 'running on wheels'. Experienced skiers (N=9) walked and ran at 1.25 and 3 m s(-1), respectively, and roller skied with DIA at both speeds on a level dual-belt treadmill that recorded perpendicular and parallel forces. We calculated the KE and GPE of the center of mass from the force recordings. As expected, the KE and GPE fluctuated with an out-of-phase pattern during walking and an in-phase pattern during running. Unlike walking, during DIA, the KE and GPE fluctuations were in phase, as they are in running. However, during the glide phase, KE was dissipated as frictional heat and could not be stored elastically in the tendons, as in running. Elastic energy storage and return epitomize running and thus we reject our hypothesis. Diagonal stride cross-country skiing is a biomechanically unique movement that only superficially resembles walking or running. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Evidence for positive, but not negative, behavioral contrast with wheel-running reinforcement on multiple variable-ratio schedules.

    PubMed

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David

    2016-12-01

    Rats responded on a multiple variable-ratio (VR) 10 VR 10 schedule of reinforcement in which lever pressing was reinforced by the opportunity to run in a wheel for 30s in both the changed (manipulated) and unchanged components. To generate positive contrast, the schedule of reinforcement in the changed component was shifted to extinction; to generate negative contrast, the schedule was shifted to VR 3. With the shift to extinction in the changed component, wheel-running and local lever-pressing rates increased in the unchanged component, a result supporting positive contrast; however, the shift to a VR 3 schedule in the changed component showed no evidence of negative contrast in the unaltered setting, only wheel running decreased in the unchanged component. Changes in wheel-running rates across components were consistent in showing a compensation effect, depending on whether the schedule manipulation increased or decreased opportunities for wheel running in the changed component. These findings are the first to demonstrate positive behavioral contrast on a multiple schedule with wheel running as reinforcement in both components. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Energy cost of wheel running in house mice: implications for coadaptation of locomotion and energy budgets.

    PubMed

    Koteja, P; Swallow, J G; Carter, P A; Garland, T

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory house mice (Mus domesticus) that had experienced 10 generations of artificial selection for high levels of voluntary wheel running ran about 70% more total revolutions per day than did mice from random-bred control lines. The difference resulted primarily from increased average velocities rather than from increased time spent running. Within all eight lines (four selected, four control), females ran more than males. Average daily running distances ranged from 4.4 km in control males to 11.6 km in selected females. Whole-animal food consumption was statistically indistinguishable in the selected and control lines. However, mice from selected lines averaged approximately 10% smaller in body mass, and mass-adjusted food consumption was 4% higher in selected lines than in controls. The incremental cost of locomotion (grams food/revolution), computed as the partial regression slope of food consumption on revolutions run per day, did not differ between selected and control mice. On a 24-h basis, the total incremental cost of running (covering a distance) amounted to only 4.4% of food consumption in the control lines and 7.5% in the selected ones. However, the daily incremental cost of time active is higher (15.4% and 13.1% of total food consumption in selected and control lines, respectively). If wheel running in the selected lines continues to increase mainly by increases in velocity, then constraints related to energy acquisition are unlikely to be an important factor limiting further selective gain. More generally, our results suggest that, in small mammals, a substantial evolutionary increase in daily movement distances can be achieved by increasing running speed, without remarkable increases in total energy expenditure.

  13. Provision of a voluntary exercise environment enhances running activity and prevents obesity in Snark-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Ichinoseki-Sekine, Noriko; Naito, Hisashi; Tsuchihara, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Ikumi; Ogura, Yuji; Kakigi, Ryo; Kurosaka, Mitsutoshi; Fujioka, Rumi; Esumi, Hiroyasu

    2009-05-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the involvement of SNARK in physical activity levels in mice. To examine the acute effect of SNARK deficiency on voluntary running, Snark-deficient mice (Snark(+/-): n = 16) and their wild-type counterparts (Snark(+/+): n = 16) were assigned to sedentary or exercise (1 wk voluntary wheel running) groups. In addition, to clarify the differences in voluntary running activity and its effect between genotypes, mice (Snark(+/+): n = 16; Snark(+/-): n = 16) were also kept in individual cages with/without a running wheel for 5 mo. Unexpectedly, in both voluntary running experiments, running distances were increased in Snark(+/-) mice compared with Snark(+/+) mice. Under sedentary conditions, body and white adipose tissue weights were increased significantly in Snark(+/-) mice. However, no significant differences were observed between the two genotypes under exercise conditions, and the values were significantly less than those under sedentary conditions in the long-term experiment. In the short-term experiment, serum interleukin-6 level in exercised Snark(+/+) mice was the same as that in sedentary Snark(+/+) mice, whereas that in sedentary Snark(+/-) mice was significantly lower than in the other groups. In contrast, serum leptin level was reduced significantly in exercised Snark(+/-) mice compared with sedentary Snark(+/-) mice. The results of this study demonstrated that exposure to an environment that allows voluntary exercise promotes increased running activity and prevents obesity in Snark-deficient mice.

  14. Voluntary wheel running ameliorates depression-like behaviors and brain blood oxygen level-dependent signals in chronic unpredictable mild stress mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Peng; Dong, Zhaoyang; Huang, Weiliang; Zhou, Chuying; Zhong, Weichao; Hu, Peiqian; Wen, Ge; Sun, Xuegang; Hua, Heyu; Cao, Huihui; Gao, Lei; Lv, Zhiping

    2017-07-14

    Physical exercise has been long recognized for its therapeutic effects on depressive disorders, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the study, we investigated whether the physical exercise by voluntary wheel running (VWR) alters depression-like behaviors and its impact on brain blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in mice. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were assigned to one of the following groups; (1) no exercise control (noEx), housed in a standard cage; (2) exercise (Ex), 2h/day in a running wheel apparatus; (3) chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), which was imitating adult stress; and (4) CUMS+Ex. The differences in functional brain changes were determined by BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The results showed that VWR exercise significantly reversed the CUMS-induced behavioral abnormalities. Base on the fMRI amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) analysis, we found that VWR exercise could restore the CUMS-induced excessive BOLD activation in parts of limbic system, such as cortex, hippocampus and corpus callosum. Furthermore, CUMS-induced BOLD suppressive regions were also partially attenuated by VWR exercise, such as amygdala, cerebellum anterior lobe, thalamus, midbrain, and pontine. Most of these regions are involved in mood-regulating circuit, suggesting dysfunction of the circuit in CUMS model of depression, and VWR exercise could adjust the mood-regulating circuit. These results suggested that VWR exercise ameliorated depression-like behaviors and brain BOLD signals in CUMS induced depression mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Wheel running eliminates high-fat preference and enhances leptin signaling in the ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Scarpace, P J; Matheny, M; Zhang, Y

    2010-05-11

    Voluntary wheel running (WR) is a form of physical activity in rodents that influences ingestive behavior. This study examined the effects of WR on dietary preference and the potential role of leptin in mediating these effects. In a two-diet choice paradigm in which both palatable high-fat (HF) food and standard laboratory chow were provided ad libitum, rats displayed a strong preference for the former and chose to eat almost exclusively the HF diet over chow in sedentary conditions. With free access to running wheels, however, rats exhibited no preference for the HF food and consumed equal gram amounts of both chow and HF diets. The total daily caloric consumption during WR in the dietary choice protocol was equivalent to the amount of calories consumed daily by WR rats with only chow or only HF diet available, yet significantly less than sedentary chow caloric consumption. Two days after initiating WR, leptin signal transduction was examined in multiple selected brain sites following leptin injection into the third cerebral ventricle. The maximal leptin-stimulated STAT3 phosphorylation was enhanced only in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), but not in the arcuate nucleus, lateral hypothalamus, dorsal medial or ventral medial hypothalamus, or substantia nigra. In conclusion, wheel running appears to act either as an independent reinforcing factor or as a more favored activity to substitute for the consumption of a palatable HF diet, thus eliminating the preference for the HF food. Moreover, WR enhances leptin signaling specifically in the VTA, suggestive of a WR-evoked mechanism of heightened leptin function in the VTA to curb the drive to consume palatable HF foods. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Voluntary wheel running ameliorates symptoms of MK-801-induced schizophrenia in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Woon; Kang, Hyun-Sik; Park, Joon-Ki; Lee, Sam-Jun; Baek, Sang-Bin; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2014-12-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic and severe mental disorder characterized by the disintegration of cognitive thought processes and emotional responses. Despite the precise cause of schizophrenia remains unclear, it is hypothesized that a dysregulation of the N‑methyl‑D‑aspartate (NMDA) receptor in the brain is a major contributing factor to its development. Brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family and is implicated in learning and memory processes. In the present study, we investigated in vivo the effects of voluntary wheel running on behavioral symptoms associated with NMDA receptor expression, using MK‑801‑induced schizophrenic mice. Abilify (aripiprazole), a drug used to treat human schizophrenia patients, was used as the positive control. For the assessment of behavioral symptoms affecting locomotion, social interaction and spatial working memory, the open‑field, social interaction and Morris water maze tests were conducted. For investigating the biochemical parameters, NMDA receptor expression in the hippocampal CA2‑3 regions and prefrontal cortex was detected by NMDA immunofluorescence and BDNF expression in the hippocampus was measured using western blot analysis. MK‑801 injection for 14 days induced schizophrenia‑like behavioral abnormalities with decreased expression of the NMDA receptor and BDNF in the brains of mice. The results indicated that free access to voluntary wheel running for 2 weeks alleviated schizophrenia‑like behavioral abnormalities and increased the expression of NMDA receptor and BDNF, comparable to the effects of aripiprazole treatment. In the present study, the results suggest that NMDA receptor hypofunctioning induced schizophrenia‑like behaviors, and that voluntary wheel running was effective in reducing these symptoms by increasing NMDA receptor and BDNF expression, resulting in an improvement of disease related behavioral deficits.

  17. Home cage wheel running is an objective and clinically relevant method to assess inflammatory pain in male and female rats

    PubMed Central

    Kandasamy, Ram; Calsbeek, Jonas J.; Morgan, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The assessment of nociception in preclinical studies is undergoing a transformation from pain-evoked to pain-depressed tests to more closely mimic the effects of clinical pain. Many inflammatory pain-depressed behaviors (reward seeking, locomotion) have been examined, but these tests are limited because of confounds such as stress and difficulties in quantifying behavior. New Method The present study evaluates home cage wheel running as an objective method to assess the magnitude and duration of inflammatory pain in male and female rats. Results Injection of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) into the right hindpaw to induce inflammatory pain almost completely inhibited wheel running for 2 days in males and females. Wheel running gradually returned to baseline levels within 12 days despite persistent mechanical hypersensitivity (von Frey test). Comparison with Existing Methods Continuously monitoring home cage wheel running improves on previous studies examining inflammatory pain-depressed wheel running because it is more sensitive to noxious stimuli, avoids the stress of removing the rat from its cage for testing, and provides a complete analysis of the time course for changes in nociception. Conclusions The present data indicate that home cage wheel running is a clinically relevant method to assess inflammatory pain in the rat. The decrease in activity caused by inflammatory pain and subsequent gradual recovery mimics the changes in activity caused by pain in humans. The tendency for pain-depressed wheel running to be greater in female than male rats is consistent with the tendency for women to be at greater risk of chronic pain than men. PMID:26891874

  18. Home cage wheel running is an objective and clinically relevant method to assess inflammatory pain in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Ram; Calsbeek, Jonas J; Morgan, Michael M

    2016-04-01

    The assessment of nociception in preclinical studies is undergoing a transformation from pain-evoked to pain-depressed tests to more closely mimic the effects of clinical pain. Many inflammatory pain-depressed behaviors (reward seeking, locomotion) have been examined, but these tests are limited because of confounds such as stress and difficulties in quantifying behavior. The present study evaluates home cage wheel running as an objective method to assess the magnitude and duration of inflammatory pain in male and female rats. Injection of Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) into the right hindpaw to induce inflammatory pain almost completely inhibited wheel running for 2 days in male and female rats. Wheel running gradually returned to baseline levels within 12 days despite persistent mechanical hypersensitivity (von Frey test). Continuously monitoring home cage wheel running improves on previous studies examining inflammatory pain-depressed wheel running because it is more sensitive to noxious stimuli, avoids the stress of removing the rat from its cage for testing, and provides a complete analysis of the time course for changes in nociception. The present data indicate that home cage wheel running is a clinically relevant method to assess inflammatory pain in the rat. The decrease in activity caused by inflammatory pain and subsequent gradual recovery mimics the changes in activity caused by pain in humans. The tendency for pain-depressed wheel running to be greater in female than male rats is consistent with the tendency for women to be at greater risk of chronic pain than men. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Inflammation-induced decrease in voluntary wheel running in mice: a nonreflexive test for evaluating inflammatory pain and analgesia.

    PubMed

    Cobos, Enrique J; Ghasemlou, Nader; Araldi, Dionéia; Segal, David; Duong, Kelly; Woolf, Clifford J

    2012-04-01

    Inflammatory pain impacts adversely on the quality of life of patients, often resulting in motor disabilities. Therefore, we studied the effect of peripheral inflammation induced by intraplantar administration of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in mice on a particular form of voluntary locomotion, wheel running, as an index of mobility impairment produced by pain. The distance traveled over 1 hour of free access to activity wheels decreased significantly in response to hind paw inflammation, peaking 24 hours after CFA administration. Recovery of voluntary wheel running by day 3 correlated with the ability to support weight on the inflamed limb. Inflammation-induced mechanical hypersensitivity, measured with von Frey hairs, lasted considerably longer than the impaired voluntary wheel running and is not driving; therefore, the change in voluntary behavior. The CFA-induced decrease in voluntary wheel running was dose-dependently reversed by subcutaneous administration of antiinflammatory and analgesic drugs, including naproxen (10-80 mg/kg), ibuprofen (2.5-20mg/kg), diclofenac (1.25-10mg/kg), celecoxib (2.5-20mg/kg), prednisolone (0.62-5mg/kg), and morphine (0.06-0.5mg/kg), all at much lower doses than reported in most rodent models. Furthermore, the doses that induced recovery in voluntary wheel running did not reduce CFA-induced mechanical allodynia, indicating a greater sensitivity of the former as a surrogate measure of inflammatory pain. We conclude that monitoring changes in voluntary wheel running in mice during peripheral inflammation is a simple, observer-independent objective measure of functional changes produced by inflammation, likely more aligned to the global level of pain than reflexive measures, and much more sensitive to analgesic drug effects. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. One day access to a running wheel reduces self-administration of d-methamphetamine, MDMA and Methylone

    PubMed Central

    Aarde, Shawn M.; Miller, Michelle L.; Creehan, Kevin M.; Vandewater, Sophia A.; Taffe, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise influences drug craving and consumption in humans and drug self-administration in laboratory animals, but the effects can be variable. Improved understanding of how exercise affects drug intake or craving would enhance applications of exercise programs to human drug users attempting cessation. Methods Rats were trained in the intravenous self-administration (IVSA) of d-methamphetamine (METH; 0.05 mg/kg/inf), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 0.5 mg/kg/inf) or methylone (0.5 mg/kg/inf). Once IVSA was established, the effect of ~22 hrs of wheel access in the home cage on subsequent drug taking was assessed in a two cohort crossover design. Results Provision of home cage wheel access during the day prior to IVSA sessions significantly decreased the self-administration of METH, MDMA and methylone. At the individual level, there was no correlation between the amount a rat used the wheel and the size of the individual’s decrease in drug intake. Conclusions Wheel access can reduce self-administration of a variety of psychomotor stimulants. It does so immediately, i.e., without a need for weeks of exercise prior to drug access. This study therefore indicates that future mechanistic investigations should focus on acute effects of exercise. In sum, the results predict that exercise programs can be used to decrease stimulant drug use in individuals even with no exercise history and an established drug taking pattern. PMID:25863714

  1. Effects of voluntary wheel running on heart rate, body temperature, and locomotor activity in response to acute and repeated stressor exposures in rats

    PubMed Central

    MASINI, CHER V.; NYHUIS, TARA J.; SASSE, SARAH K.; DAY, HEIDI E. W.; CAMPEAU, SERGE

    2015-01-01

    Stress often negatively impacts physical and mental health but it has been suggested that voluntary physical activity may benefit health by reducing some of the effects of stress. The present experiments tested whether voluntary exercise can reduce heart rate, core body temperature and locomotor activity responses to acute (novelty or loud noise) or repeated stress (loud noise). After 6 weeks of running-wheel access, rats exposed to a novel environment had reduced heart rate, core body temperature, and locomotor activity responses compared to rats housed under sedentary conditions. In contrast, none of these measures were different between exercised and sedentary rats following acute 30-min noise exposures, at either 85 or 98 dB. Following 10 weeks of running-wheel access, both groups displayed significant habituation of all these responses to 10 consecutive daily 30-min presentations of 98 dB noise stress. However, the extent of habituation of all three responses was significantly enhanced in exercised compared to sedentary animals on the last exposure to noise. These results suggest that in physically active animals, under some conditions, acute responses to stress exposure may be reduced, and response habituation to repeated stress may be enhanced, which ultimately may reduce the negative and cumulative impact of stress. PMID:21438772

  2. Effects of voluntary wheel running on heart rate, body temperature, and locomotor activity in response to acute and repeated stressor exposures in rats.

    PubMed

    Masini, Cher V; Nyhuis, Tara J; Sasse, Sarah K; Day, Heidi E W; Campeau, Serge

    2011-05-01

    Stress often negatively impacts physical and mental health but it has been suggested that voluntary physical activity may benefit health by reducing some of the effects of stress. The present experiments tested whether voluntary exercise can reduce heart rate, core body temperature and locomotor activity responses to acute (novelty or loud noise) or repeated stress (loud noise). After 6 weeks of running-wheel access, rats exposed to a novel environment had reduced heart rate, core body temperature, and locomotor activity responses compared to rats housed under sedentary conditions. In contrast, none of these measures were different between exercised and sedentary rats following acute 30-min noise exposures, at either 85 or 98 dB. Following 10 weeks of running-wheel access, both groups displayed significant habituation of all these responses to 10 consecutive daily 30-min presentations of 98 dB noise stress. However, the extent of habituation of all three responses was significantly enhanced in exercised compared to sedentary animals on the last exposure to noise. These results suggest that in physically active animals, under some conditions, acute responses to stress exposure may be reduced, and response habituation to repeated stress may be enhanced, which ultimately may reduce the negative and cumulative impact of stress.

  3. Voluntary wheel-running attenuates insulin and weight gain and affects anxiety-like behaviors in C57BL6/J mice exposed to a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Jasmin A; Hatzidis, Aikaterini; Arruda, Nicole L; Gelineau, Rachel R; De Pina, Isabella Monteiro; Adams, Kenneth W; Seggio, Joseph A

    2016-09-01

    It is widely accepted that lifestyle plays a crucial role on the quality of life in individuals, particularly in western societies where poor diet is correlated to alterations in behavior and the increased possibility of developing type-2 diabetes. While exercising is known to produce improvements to overall health, there is conflicting evidence on how much of an effect exercise has staving off the development of type-2 diabetes or counteracting the effects of diet on anxiety. Thus, this study investigated the effects of voluntary wheel-running access on the progression of diabetes-like symptoms and open field and light-dark box behaviors in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet. C57BL/6J mice were placed into either running-wheel cages or cages without a running-wheel, given either regular chow or a high-fat diet, and their body mass, food consumption, glucose tolerance, insulin and c-peptide levels were measured. Mice were also exposed to the open field and light-dark box tests for anxiety-like behaviors. Access to a running-wheel partially attenuated the obesity and hyperinsulinemia associated with high-fat diet consumption in these mice, but did not affect glucose tolerance or c-peptide levels. Wheel-running strongly increased anxiety-like and decreased explorative-like behaviors in the open field and light-dark box, while high-fat diet consumption produced smaller increases in anxiety. These results suggest that voluntary wheel-running can assuage some, but not all, of the physiological problems associated with high-fat diet consumption, and can modify anxiety-like behaviors regardless of diet consumed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Central gene expression changes associated with enhanced neuroendocrine and autonomic response habituation to repeated noise stress after voluntary wheel running in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sasse, Sarah K.; Nyhuis, Tara J.; Masini, Cher V.; Day, Heidi E. W.; Campeau, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that regular physical exercise benefits health in part by counteracting some of the negative physiological impacts of stress. While some studies identified reductions in some measures of acute stress responses with prior exercise, limited data were available concerning effects on cardiovascular function, and reported effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis responses were largely inconsistent. Given that exposure to repeated or prolonged stress is strongly implicated in the precipitation and exacerbation of illness, we proposed the novel hypothesis that physical exercise might facilitate adaptation to repeated stress, and subsequently demonstrated significant enhancement of both HPA axis (glucocorticoid) and cardiovascular (tachycardia) response habituation to repeated noise stress in rats with long-term access to running wheels compared to sedentary controls. Stress habituation has been attributed to modifications of brain circuits, but the specific sites of adaptation and the molecular changes driving its expression remain unclear. Here, in situ hybridization histochemistry was used to examine regulation of select stress-associated signaling systems in brain regions representing likely candidates to underlie exercise-enhanced stress habituation. Analyzed brains were collected from active (6 weeks of wheel running) and sedentary rats following control, acute, or repeated noise exposures that induced a significantly faster rate of glucocorticoid response habituation in active animals but preserved acute noise responsiveness. Nearly identical experimental manipulations also induce a faster rate of cardiovascular response habituation in exercised, repeatedly stressed rats. The observed regulation of the corticotropin-releasing factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor systems across several brain regions suggests widespread effects of voluntary exercise on central functions and related adaptations to stress across

  5. Central gene expression changes associated with enhanced neuroendocrine and autonomic response habituation to repeated noise stress after voluntary wheel running in rats.

    PubMed

    Sasse, Sarah K; Nyhuis, Tara J; Masini, Cher V; Day, Heidi E W; Campeau, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that regular physical exercise benefits health in part by counteracting some of the negative physiological impacts of stress. While some studies identified reductions in some measures of acute stress responses with prior exercise, limited data were available concerning effects on cardiovascular function, and reported effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis responses were largely inconsistent. Given that exposure to repeated or prolonged stress is strongly implicated in the precipitation and exacerbation of illness, we proposed the novel hypothesis that physical exercise might facilitate adaptation to repeated stress, and subsequently demonstrated significant enhancement of both HPA axis (glucocorticoid) and cardiovascular (tachycardia) response habituation to repeated noise stress in rats with long-term access to running wheels compared to sedentary controls. Stress habituation has been attributed to modifications of brain circuits, but the specific sites of adaptation and the molecular changes driving its expression remain unclear. Here, in situ hybridization histochemistry was used to examine regulation of select stress-associated signaling systems in brain regions representing likely candidates to underlie exercise-enhanced stress habituation. Analyzed brains were collected from active (6 weeks of wheel running) and sedentary rats following control, acute, or repeated noise exposures that induced a significantly faster rate of glucocorticoid response habituation in active animals but preserved acute noise responsiveness. Nearly identical experimental manipulations also induce a faster rate of cardiovascular response habituation in exercised, repeatedly stressed rats. The observed regulation of the corticotropin-releasing factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor systems across several brain regions suggests widespread effects of voluntary exercise on central functions and related adaptations to stress across

  6. Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage and Running Economy in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Assumpção, Cláudio de Oliveira; Lima, Leonardo Coelho Rabello; Oliveira, Felipe Bruno Dias; Greco, Camila Coelho; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio

    2013-01-01

    Running economy (RE), defined as the energy demand for a given velocity of submaximal running, has been identified as a critical factor of overall distance running performance. Plyometric and resistance trainings, performed during a relatively short period of time (~15–30 days), have been successfully used to improve RE in trained athletes. However, these exercise types, particularly when they are unaccustomed activities for the individuals, may cause delayed onset muscle soreness, swelling, and reduced muscle strength. Some studies have demonstrated that exercise-induced muscle damage has a negative impact on endurance running performance. Specifically, the muscular damage induced by an acute bout of downhill running has been shown to reduce RE during subsequent moderate and high-intensity exercise (>65% VO2max). However, strength exercise (i.e., jumps, isoinertial and isokinetic eccentric exercises) seems to impair RE only for subsequent high-intensity exercise (~90% VO2max). Finally, a single session of resistance exercise or downhill running (i.e., repeated bout effect) attenuates changes in indirect markers of muscle damage and blunts changes in RE. PMID:23431253

  7. Exercise-induced muscle damage and running economy in humans.

    PubMed

    Assumpção, Cláudio de Oliveira; Lima, Leonardo Coelho Rabello; Oliveira, Felipe Bruno Dias; Greco, Camila Coelho; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio

    2013-01-01

    Running economy (RE), defined as the energy demand for a given velocity of submaximal running, has been identified as a critical factor of overall distance running performance. Plyometric and resistance trainings, performed during a relatively short period of time (~15-30 days), have been successfully used to improve RE in trained athletes. However, these exercise types, particularly when they are unaccustomed activities for the individuals, may cause delayed onset muscle soreness, swelling, and reduced muscle strength. Some studies have demonstrated that exercise-induced muscle damage has a negative impact on endurance running performance. Specifically, the muscular damage induced by an acute bout of downhill running has been shown to reduce RE during subsequent moderate and high-intensity exercise (>65% VO₂max). However, strength exercise (i.e., jumps, isoinertial and isokinetic eccentric exercises) seems to impair RE only for subsequent high-intensity exercise (~90% VO₂max). Finally, a single session of resistance exercise or downhill running (i.e., repeated bout effect) attenuates changes in indirect markers of muscle damage and blunts changes in RE.

  8. Studies with the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method - Exercise wheels and oxygen replenishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Continuing efforts to improve the University of San Francisco/NASA toxicity screening test method have included the addition of exercise wheels to provide a different measure of incapacitation, and oxygen replenishment to offset any effect of oxygen depletion by the test animals. The addition of exercise wheels limited the number of animals in each test and doubled the required number of tests without any significant improvement in reproducibility. Oxygen replenishment appears to have an effect on survival in the last 5 minutes of the 30-minute test, but the effect is expected to be similar for most materials.

  9. Non-peptide oxytocin receptor ligands and hamster circadian wheel running rhythms.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Robert L

    2014-10-17

    The synchronization of circadian rhythms in sleep, endocrine and metabolic functions with the environmental light cycle is essential for health, and dysfunction of this synchrony is thought to play a part in the development of many neurological disorders. There is a demonstrable need to develop new therapeutics for the treatment of neurological disorders such as depression and schizophrenia, and oxytocin is currently being investigated for this purpose. There are no published reports describing activity of oxytocin receptor ligands on mammalian circadian rhythms and that, then, is the purpose of this study. Non-peptide oxytocin receptor ligands that cross the blood brain barrier were systemically injected in hamsters to determine their ability to modulate light-induced phase advances and delays of circadian wheel running rhythms. The oxytocin receptor agonist WAY267464 (10 mg/kg) inhibited light induced phase advances of wheel running rhythms by 55%, but had no effect on light-induced phase delays. In contrast, the oxytocin receptor antagonist WAY162720 (10 mg/kg) inhibited light-induced phase delays by nearly 75%, but had no effect on light-induced phase advances. Additionally, WAY162720 was able to antagonize the inhibitory effects of WAY267464 on light-induced phase advances. These results are consistent for a role of oxytocin in the phase-delaying effects of light on circadian activity rhythms early in the night. Therefore, oxytocin may prove to be useful in developing therapeutics for the treatment of mood disorders with a concomitant dysfunction in circadian rhythms. Investigators should also be cognizant that oxytocin ligands may negatively affect circadian rhythms during clinical trials for other conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of early-life exposure to Western diet and wheel access on metabolic syndrome profiles in mice bred for high voluntary exercise.

    PubMed

    Meek, T H; Eisenmann, J C; Keeney, B K; Hannon, R M; Dlugosz, E M; Garland, T

    2014-03-01

    Experimental studies manipulating diet and exercise have shown varying effects on metabolic syndrome components in both humans and rodents. To examine the potential interactive effects of diet, exercise and genetic background, we studied mice from four replicate lines bred (52 generations) for high voluntary wheel running (HR lines) and four unselected control lines (C). At weaning, animals were housed for 60 days with or without wheels and fed either a standard chow or Western diet (WD, 42% kcal from fat). Four serial (three juvenile and one adult) blood samples were taken to measure fasting total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides and glucose. Western diet was obesogenic for all mice, even after accounting for the amount of wheel running and kilojoules consumed. Western diet significantly raised glucose as well as TC and HDL-C concentrations. At the level of individual variation (repeatability), there was a modest correlation (r = 0.3-0.5) of blood lipids over time, which was reduced with wheel access and/or WD. Neither genetic selection history nor wheel access had a statistically significant effect on blood lipids. However, HR and C mice had divergent ontogenetic trajectories for body mass and caloric intake. HR mice also had lower adiposity, an effect that was dependent on wheel access. The environmental factors of diet and wheel access had pronounced effects on body mass, food consumption and fasting glucose concentrations, interacting with each other and/or with genetic strain. These data underscore the importance (and often unpredictable nature) of genotype-by-environment and environment-by-environment interactions when studying body weight regulation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  11. Is the WII fit free run activity a feasible mode of exercise for regular exercisers: a comparison with treadmill running.

    PubMed

    Roopchand-Martin, Sharmella; Nelson, Gail A

    2016-10-01

    This study compared the metabolic responses between treadmill running and the Free Run on the Nintendo Wii when maintaining a constant pace with an aim to see whether this would be a feasible option for exercise in persons who already exercise. Twenty eight university students, mean age 20.7±1.38 years, participated in a repeated measures study. Subjects completed 10 minutes running on the treadmill at a self selected pace followed by 10 minutes of Free Run on the Nintendo Wii Fit disc. A metronome regulated the running pace during the Free Run activity to match the running pace on the treadmill. Oxygen consumption, caloric expenditure and heart rate were measured with a Cardio Coach Metabolic Cart. Paired t-tests compared the percentage of age predicted maximal oxygen consumption (% VO2max), metabolic equivalents (METs), caloric expenditure and percentage of estimated maximal heart rate (% HRmax) between the two running situations. For all variables of interest the mean values for treadmill running was found to be significantly higher than those for the Wii Free Run (P<0.001). The mean %HRmax and METs categorized both activities as vigorous intensity, however, the Free Run was at the lower end of the ranges whilst treadmill running was at the upper. The mean %VO2max classified treadmill running as vigorous intensity and Wii Free Run as moderate. The Wii Free Run activity can be used as an additional form of exercise for persons who are already engaged in physical activity but should not be considered a replacement for treadmill running by those who run.

  12. Suppression of voluntary wheel running in rats is dependent on the site of inflammation: evidence for voluntary running as a measure of hind paw-evoked pain.

    PubMed

    Grace, Peter M; Strand, Keith A; Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R

    2014-02-01

    Decreased voluntary wheel running has recently been proposed as a preclinical pain measure for inflammatory pain, but whether this reflects pain evoked by use of the affected limbs is unknown. To assess the role of inflammation site as a determinant of this measure, complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), formalin, or equivolume vehicle was subcutaneously injected into the plantar surface of the hind paws (bilateral) or L1 dorsum dermatome (leaving paws unaffected) of male Sprague Dawley rats. CFA-induced hind paw mechanical allodynia (P < .001) did not correlate with reduced voluntary wheel running. Intraplantar formalin did not attenuate voluntary running, despite eliciting robust licking/writhing/flinching behavior and hind paw mechanical allodynia (P < .001). Subcutaneous L1 dorsum dermatome formalin, but not CFA, induced licking/writhing/flinching behavior (P < .001), but neither induced hind paw mechanical allodynia or attenuated voluntary running. That voluntary running is decreased by hind paw CFA, but not by L1 dorsum CFA, implies that the behavior is a measure of CFA-induced pain evoked by use of the affected limbs rather than supraspinal pain processing that is independent of inflammation site. Furthermore, the results suggest that interpretation of voluntary wheel running data cannot simply be explained by correlation with mechanical allodynia. Whether decreased voluntary running is dependent on inflammation site is unknown. We show that intraplantar, but not L1 dorsum, CFA suppressed voluntary running and formalin-induced licking/writhing/flinching behavior but had no effect on voluntary running. These data suggest that suppressed voluntary running by CFA likely reflects pain evoked by use of the affected limbs. Copyright © 2014 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Exclusive Preference Develops Less Readily on Concurrent Ratio Schedules with Wheel-Running than with Sucrose Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belke, Terry W.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research suggested that allocation of responses on concurrent schedules of wheel-running reinforcement was less sensitive to schedule differences than typically observed with more conventional reinforcers. To assess this possibility, 16 female Long Evans rats were exposed to concurrent FR FR schedules of reinforcement and the schedule…

  14. Do Running and Strength Exercises Reduce Daily Muscle Inactivity Time?

    PubMed Central

    Finni, Taija; Uusi-Vähälä, Marja; Pesola, Arto J.; Taipale, Ritva S.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how a specific exercise changes daily activity patterns is important when designing physical activity interventions. We examined the effects of strength and interval running exercise sessions on daily activity patterns using recordings of quadriceps and hamstring muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity and inactivity. Five male and five female subjects taking part in a 10-week training programme containing both strength and interval running training sessions were measured for daily muscle EMG activities during three days: on a strength day, an interval running day, and a day without exercise. EMG was measured using textile electrodes embedded into sport shorts that were worn 9.1 ± 1.4 hours/day and results are given as % of recording time. During the total measurement time the muscles were inactive 55 ± 26%, 53 ± 30% and 71 ± 12% during strength training day, interval running day, and day without exercise (n.s.). When compared to the day without exercise, the change in muscle inactivity correlated negatively with change in light muscle activity in strength (r = -0.971, p < 0.001) and interval running days (r = -0.965, p < 0.001). While interval running exercise bout induced a more systematic decrease in muscle inactivity time (from 62 ± 15% to 6 ± 6%, p < 0.001), reductions in muscle inactivity in response to strength exercise were highly individual (range 5–70 pp) despite the same training programme. Strength, but not running exercise bout, increased muscle activity levels occurring above 50% MVC (p < 0.05) when compared to a similar period without exercise. The effect of strength exercise bout on total daily recording time increased the EMG amplitudes across the entire intensity spectrum. While strength and interval running exercise are effective in increasing muscle moderate-to-vigorous activity when compared to a similar period without exercise, it comprises only a small part of the day and does not seem to have a systematic effect neither

  15. A single administration of methamphetamine to mice early in the light period decreases running wheel activity observed during the dark period.

    PubMed

    Kitanaka, Nobue; Kitanaka, Junichi; Hall, F Scott; Uhl, George R; Watabe, Kaname; Kubo, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Tatsuta, Tomohiro; Morita, Yoshio; Takemura, Motohiko

    2012-01-06

    Repeated intermittent administration of amphetamines acutely increases appetitive and consummatory aspects of motivated behaviors as well as general activity and exploratory behavior, including voluntary running wheel activity. Subsequently, if the drug is withdrawn, the frequency of these behaviors decreases, which is thought to be indicative of dysphoric symptoms associated with amphetamine withdrawal. Such decreases may be observed after chronic treatment or even after single drug administrations. In the present study, the effect of acute methamphetamine (METH) on running wheel activity, horizontal locomotion, appetitive behavior (food access), and consummatory behavior (food and water intake) was investigated in mice. A multi-configuration behavior apparatus designed to monitor the five behaviors was developed, where combined measures were recorded simultaneously. In the first experiment, naïve male ICR mice showed gradually increasing running wheel activity over three consecutive days after exposure to a running wheel, while mice without a running wheel showed gradually decreasing horizontal locomotion, consistent with running wheel activity being a positively motivated form of natural motor activity. In experiment 2, increased horizontal locomotion and food access, and decreased food intake, were observed for the initial 3h after acute METH challenge. Subsequently, during the dark phase period decreased running wheel activity and horizontal locomotion were observed. The reductions in running wheel activity and horizontal locomotion may be indicative of reduced dopaminergic function, although it remains to be seen if these changes may be more pronounced after more prolonged METH treatments. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. A single administration of methamphetamine to mice early in the light period decreases running wheel activity observed during the dark period

    PubMed Central

    Kitanaka, Nobue; Kitanaka, Junichi; Hall, F. Scott; Uhl, George R.; Watabe, Kaname; Kubo, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Tatsuta, Tomohiro; Morita, Yoshio; Takemura, Motohiko

    2014-01-01

    Repeated intermittent administration of amphetamines acutely increases appetitive and consummatory aspects of motivated behaviors as well as general activity and exploratory behavior, including voluntary running wheel activity. Subsequently, if the drug is withdrawn, the frequency of these behaviors decrease, which is thought to be indicative of dysphoric symptoms associated with amphetamine withdrawal. Such decreases may be observed after chronic treatment or even after single drug administrations. In the present study, the effect of acute methamphetamine (METH) on running wheel activity, horizontal locomotion, appetitive behavior (food access), and consummatory behavior (food and water intake) was investigated in mice. A multi-configuration behavior apparatus designed to monitor the five behaviors was developed, where combined measures were recorded simultaneously. In the first experiment, naïve male ICR mice showed gradually increasing running wheel activity over three consecutive days after exposure to a running wheel, while mice without a running wheel showed gradually decreasing horizontal locomotion, consistent with running wheel activity being a positively motivated form of natural motor activity. In experiment 2, increased horizontal locomotion and food access, and decreased food intake, were observed for the initial 3 h after acute METH challenge. Subsequently, during the dark phase period decreased running wheel activity and horizontal locomotion were observed. The reductions in running wheel activity and horizontal locomotion may be indicative of reduced dopaminergic function, although it remains to be seen if these changes may be more pronounced after more prolonged METH treatments. PMID:22079320

  17. Effects of a Chinese traditional formula Kai Xin San (KXS) on chronic fatigue syndrome mice induced by forced wheel running.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yin; Hu, Yuan; Liu, Ping; Zhao, Hai-Xia; Zhou, Xiao-Jiang; Wei, Ying-Mei

    2012-01-06

    In traditional medicine, Kai Xin San (KXS), composed of ginseng (Panax ginseng), hoelen (Wolfiporia cocos), polygala (Polygala tenuifolia) and Acorus gramineus, is famous for the treatment of emotion-thought disease, such as settling fright, quieting the spirit and nourishing the heart. The present study investigated the effect of KXS on chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) mice induced by forced wheel running. Seventy two healthy adult male Kunming mice were randomly divided into six groups: home cage control group, CFS group, CFS group with Modafinil treatment at 13 mg/kg/d doge, KXS treatment at 175 mg/kg/d, 350 mg/kg/d and 700 mg/kg/d doge. CFS mice were induced by forced wheel running with higher speed for 4 weeks and then taken an exhausted exercise. The biochemical parameters including serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum urea nitrogen (SUN), serum testosterone (T), liver glycogen (LG), muscle glycogen (MG) and muscle lactic acid (MLA) were determined by using commercially available kits. The splenocytes proliferation from mice was examined by MTT method. The levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) secreted by splenocytes were determined by ELISA. CFS mice with KXS administration exhibited less electric shock time when compared with CFS group without drug treatment. The effect of KXS has after demonstrated reduction in SUN, LDH and MLA levels and an increase in T, LG and MG levels. CFS mice with KXS could improve the proliferation of splenocytes compared with CFS group without drug treatment. The cultured splenocytes from CFS mice without KXS supplementation produced more interleukin-2 (IL-2) but less interleukin-4 (IL-4) when compared with home cage control mice. The cultured splenocytes of CFS mice with KXS supplementation produced more interleukin-2 (IL-2) but less interleukin-4 (IL-4) when compared with CFS group without drug treatment. The results of this preliminary study provide evidence that KXS could ameliorate CFS by affecting the

  18. Pre-exercise stretching does not impact upon running economy.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Philip R; Walker, Adrian

    2007-11-01

    Pre-exercise stretching has been widely reported to reduce performance in tasks requiring maximal or near-maximal force or torque. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 3 different pre-exercise stretching routines on running economy. Seven competitive male middle and long-distance runners (mean +/- SD) age: 32.5 +/- 7.7 years; height: 175.0 +/- 8.8 cm; mass: 67.8 +/- 8.6 kg; V(.-)O2max: 66.8 +/- 7.0 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) volunteered to participate in this study. Each participant completed 4 different pre-exercise conditions: (a) a control condition, (b) static stretching, (c) progressive static stretching, and (d) dynamic stretching. Each stretching routine consisted of 2 x 30-second stretches for each of 5 exercises. Dependent variables measured were sit and reach test before and after each pre-exercise routine, running economy (ml x kg(-1) x km(-1)), and steady-state oxygen uptake (ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)), which were measured during the final 3 minutes of a 10-minute run below lactate threshold. All 3 stretching routines resulted in an increase in the range of movement (p = 0.008). There was no change in either running economy (p = 0.915) or steady-state V(.-)O2 (p = 0.943). The lack of change in running economy was most likely because it was assessed after a period of submaximal running, which may have masked any effects from the stretching protocols. Previously reported reductions in performance have been attributed to reduced motor unit activation, presumably IIX. In this study, these motor units were likely not to have been recruited; this may explain the unimpaired performance. This study suggests that pre-exercise stretching has no impact upon running economy or submaximal exercise oxygen cost.

  19. Molecular and metabolomic effects of voluntary running wheel activity on skeletal muscle in late middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Garvey, Sean M; Russ, David W; Skelding, Mary B; Dugle, Janis E; Edens, Neile K

    2015-02-01

    We examined the molecular and metabolomic effects of voluntary running wheel activity in late middle-aged male Sprague Dawley rats (16-17 months). Rats were assigned either continuous voluntary running wheel access for 8 weeks (RW+) or cage-matched without running wheel access (RW-). The 9 RW+ rats averaged 83 m/day (range: 8-163 m), yet exhibited both 84% reduced individual body weight gain (4.3 g vs. 26.3 g, P = 0.02) and 6.5% reduced individual average daily food intake (20.6 g vs. 22.0 g, P = 0.09) over the 8 weeks. Hindlimb muscles were harvested following an overnight fast. Muscle weights and myofiber cross-sectional area showed no difference between groups. Western blots of gastrocnemius muscle lysates with a panel of antibodies suggest that running wheel activity improved oxidative metabolism (53% increase in PGC1α, P = 0.03), increased autophagy (36% increase in LC3B-II/-I ratio, P = 0.03), and modulated growth signaling (26% increase in myostatin, P = 0.04). RW+ muscle also showed 43% increased glycogen phosphorylase expression (P = 0.04) and 45% increased glycogen content (P = 0.04). Metabolomic profiling of plantaris and soleus muscles indicated that even low-volume voluntary running wheel activity is associated with decreases in many long-chain fatty acids (e.g., palmitoleate, myristoleate, and eicosatrienoate) relative to RW- rats. Relative increases in acylcarnitines and acyl glycerophospholipids were also observed in RW+ plantaris. These data establish that even modest amounts of physical activity during late middle-age promote extensive metabolic remodeling of skeletal muscle. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  20. Hypothalamic Npy mRNA is correlated with increased wheel running and decreased body fat in calorie-restricted rats.

    PubMed

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Speichinger, Katherine R; Manier, Jacob B; Younger, Kyle M; Childs, Thomas E; Booth, Frank W

    2016-04-08

    The neuro-molecular mechanisms that regulate the relationship between physical activity level, energy homeostasis regulation, and body fat are unclear. Thus, we aimed to investigate the relationship between mRNAs in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) related to energy homeostasis, wheel running distance, and body fat in ad lib (AL) and calorie-restricted (CR) growing rats. We hypothesized that changes in select mRNAs (Pomc, Cart, Agrp, Npy, Lepr, Insr, Mc4r, Ampk, Sirt1, Sirt3) in CR would be associated with decreases in body fat percentage and increased wheel running behavior. Male Wistar rats were given access to voluntary running wheels at 4 weeks of age and randomized into AL (n=8) and CR (70% of AL; n=7) groups at 5 weeks of age until study termination at 12 weeks of age. Body composition, serum leptin, insulin, and adiponectin, and ARC mRNA expression in AL and CR rats were assessed and correlated with week-12 running distance to examine potential relationships that may exist. By 12 weeks of age, wheel running was increased ∼3.3-fold (p=0.03) while body fat percentage was ∼2-fold lower in CR compared to AL (p=0.001). Compared to AL, ARC Npy mRNA expression was ∼2-fold greater in CR (p=0.02), while Lepr, Insr, Ampk, and Sirt1 mRNA were additionally increased in CR (p<0.05). Significant correlations existed between ARC Npy mRNA levels versus week-12 wheel running distance (r=0.81, p=0.03), body fat (r=-0.93, p<0.01), and between body fat and wheel running (r=-0.83, p=0.02) in CR, but not in AL. These results reveal possible mechanisms by which fat-brain crosstalk may influence physical activity during energy deficit. These data suggest that below a 'threshold' fat content, body fat may drive activity levels, potentially through hypothalamic Npy action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Active and safe with wheeled walkers : Pilot study on feasibility of mobility exercises for wheeled walker users].

    PubMed

    Pflaum, Marina; Lang, Frieder R; Freiberger, Ellen

    2016-07-01

    The number of older people with mobility impairments using wheeled walkers is increasing; however, the handling of these walking aids is often ineffective. Moreover, age-associated functional loss, environmental demands and fear of falling may additionally challenge mobility. The new training program "Active and safe with wheeled walkers" aims to enhance skills and to improve mobility. The present pilot study was carried out to assess the feasibility of the training as well as to identify training effects and methodological insights for further research. The study was carried out with 28 wheeled walker users (age 68-91 years) in assisted living facilities using a pre-post design. Of the participants 13 persons were trained for 10 weeks (90 min, twice a week) and 15 persons served as a control group. Data were collected on functional mobility, hand strength, leg strength, balance, walker handling and fear of falling. The drop-out rate for the training was 38 % due to health concerns (n = 2), lack of time (n = 1) and changes in health status independent of training (n = 3). Medium to large effects were detected. Data regarding the recruitment strategy and the acceptance of individual exercises are available. The results indicate a good feasibility and effectiveness of the training. The simple accessibility of the training was conducive for the regular participation. The everyday relevance of the results and the lack of comparable interventions suggest that further research efforts be carried out. Recruitment strategies, training requirements and data collection methods need to be optimized.

  2. Beneficial effects of fluoxetine, reboxetine, venlafaxine, and voluntary running exercise in stressed male rats with anxiety- and depression-like behaviors.

    PubMed

    Lapmanee, Sarawut; Charoenphandhu, Jantarima; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2013-08-01

    Rodents exposed to mild but repetitive stress may develop anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. Whether this stress response could be alleviated by pharmacological treatments or exercise interventions, such as wheel running, was unknown. Herein, we determined anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in restraint stressed rats (2h/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks) subjected to acute diazepam treatment (30min prior to behavioral test), chronic treatment with fluoxetine, reboxetine or venlafaxine (10mg/kg/day for 4 weeks), and/or 4-week voluntary wheel running. In elevated plus-maze (EPM) and forced swimming tests (FST), stressed rats spent less time in the open arms and had less swimming duration than the control rats, respectively, indicating the presence of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. Stressed rats also developed learned fear as evaluated by elevated T-maze test (ETM). Although wheel running could reduce anxiety-like behaviors in both EPM and ETM, only diazepam was effective in the EPM, while fluoxetine, reboxetine, and venlafaxine were effective in the ETM. Fluoxetine, reboxetine, and wheel running, but not diazepam and venlafaxine, also reduced depression-like behavior in FST. Combined pharmacological treatment and exercise did not further reduce anxiety-like behavior in stressed rats. However, stressed rats treated with wheel running plus reboxetine or venlafaxine showed an increase in climbing duration in FST. In conclusion, regular exercise (voluntary wheel running) and pharmacological treatments, especially fluoxetine and reboxetine, could alleviate anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in stressed male rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Behavioral Traits are Affected by Selective Breeding for Increased Wheel-Running Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jónás, I.; Schubert, K. A.; Reijne, A. C.; Scholte, J.; Garland, T.; Gerkema, M. P.; Scheurink, A. J. W.; Nyakas, C.

    2010-01-01

    Voluntary physical activity may be related to personality traits. Here, we investigated these relations in two mouse lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior and in one non-selected control line. Selection lines were more explorative and “information gathering” in the open-field test, either with increased upright positions or horizontal locomotion toward the middle ring. Furthermore, one of the selection lines had an increased risk-taking behavior relative to the control line in approaching a novel object placed in the center of the open field. However, anxiety behavior was increased in selection lines during the plus-maze test. Maze learning was not statistically different among lines, but routine behavior was increased in both selection lines when the maze exit after 2 days of testing was displaced. Specifically, in the displaced maze, selected mice traveled more frequently to the old, habituated exit, bypassing the new exit attached to their home cage. Although the generality of the results would need to be confirmed in future studies including all eight lines in the selection experiment, the increased routine and exploratory behavior (at least in the lines used in the present study) may be adaptive to sustain high activity levels. PMID:20369280

  4. Behavioral traits are affected by selective breeding for increased wheel-running behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Jónás, I; Schubert, K A; Reijne, A C; Scholte, J; Garland, T; Gerkema, M P; Scheurink, A J W; Nyakas, C; van Dijk, G

    2010-07-01

    Voluntary physical activity may be related to personality traits. Here, we investigated these relations in two mouse lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior and in one non-selected control line. Selection lines were more explorative and "information gathering" in the open-field test, either with increased upright positions or horizontal locomotion toward the middle ring. Furthermore, one of the selection lines had an increased risk-taking behavior relative to the control line in approaching a novel object placed in the center of the open field. However, anxiety behavior was increased in selection lines during the plus-maze test. Maze learning was not statistically different among lines, but routine behavior was increased in both selection lines when the maze exit after 2 days of testing was displaced. Specifically, in the displaced maze, selected mice traveled more frequently to the old, habituated exit, bypassing the new exit attached to their home cage. Although the generality of the results would need to be confirmed in future studies including all eight lines in the selection experiment, the increased routine and exploratory behavior (at least in the lines used in the present study) may be adaptive to sustain high activity levels.

  5. Evolutionary Aspects of Human Exercise – Born to Run Purposefully

    PubMed Central

    Mattson, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    This article is intended to raise awareness of the adaptive value of endurance exercise (particularly running) in the evolutionary history of humans, and the implications of the genetic disposition to exercise for the aging populations of modern technology-driven societies. The genome of Homo sapiens has evolved to support the svelte phenotype of an endurance runner, setting him/her apart from all other primates. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the competitive advantages conferred by exercise capacity in youth can also provide a survival benefit beyond the reproductive period. These mechanisms include up-regulation of genes encoding proteins involved in protecting cells against oxidative stress, disposing of damaged proteins and organelles, and enhancing bioenergetics. Particularly fascinating are the signaling mechanisms by which endurance running changes the structure and functional capabilities of the brain and, conversely, the mechanisms by which the brain integrates metabolic, cardiovascular and behavioral responses to exercise. As an emerging example, I highlight the roles of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a mediator of the effects of exercise on the brain, and BDNF s critical role in regulating metabolic and cardiovascular responses to endurance running. A better understanding of such healthspan-extending actions of endurance exercise may lead to new approaches for improving quality of life as we advance in the coming decades and centuries. PMID:22394472

  6. Evolutionary aspects of human exercise--born to run purposefully.

    PubMed

    Mattson, Mark P

    2012-07-01

    This article is intended to raise awareness of the adaptive value of endurance exercise (particularly running) in the evolutionary history of humans, and the implications of the genetic disposition to exercise for the aging populations of modern technology-driven societies. The genome of Homo sapiens has evolved to support the svelte phenotype of an endurance runner, setting him/her apart from all other primates. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the competitive advantages conferred by exercise capacity in youth can also provide a survival benefit beyond the reproductive period. These mechanisms include up-regulation of genes encoding proteins involved in protecting cells against oxidative stress, disposing of damaged proteins and organelles, and enhancing bioenergetics. Particularly fascinating are the signaling mechanisms by which endurance running changes the structure and functional capabilities of the brain and, conversely, the mechanisms by which the brain integrates metabolic, cardiovascular and behavioral responses to exercise. As an emerging example, I highlight the roles of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a mediator of the effects of exercise on the brain, and BDNF's critical role in regulating metabolic and cardiovascular responses to endurance running. A better understanding of such 'healthspan-extending' actions of endurance exercise may lead to new approaches for improving quality of life as we advance in the coming decades and centuries. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Oxygen uptake kinetics during treadmill running across exercise intensity domains.

    PubMed

    Carter, Helen; Pringle, Jamie S M; Jones, Andrew M; Doust, Jonathan H

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine comprehensively the kinetics of oxygen uptake (VO2) during treadmill running across the moderate, heavy and severe exercise intensity domains. Nine subjects [mean (SD age, 27 (7) years; mass, 69.8 (9.0) kg; maximum VO2, VO2max, 4,137 (697) ml x min(-1)] performed a series of "square-wave" rest-to-exercise transitions of 6 min duration at running speeds equivalent to 80% and 100% of the VO2 at lactate threshold (LT; moderate exercise); and at 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% of the difference between the VO2 at LT and VO2max (delta heavy and severe exercise). Critical velocity (CV) was also determined using four maximal treadmill runs designed to result in exhaustion in 2-15 min. The VO2 response was modelled using non-linear regression techniques. As expected, the amplitude of the VO2 primary component increased with exercise intensity [from 1,868 (136) ml x min-( 1) at 80% LT to 3,296 (218) ml x min-(1) at 100% delta, P < 0.05]. However, there was a non-significant trend for the "gain" of the primary component to decrease as exercise intensity increased [181 (7) ml x kg(-1) x km(-1) at 80% LT to 160 (6) ml x kg(-1) x km(-1) at 100% delta]. The time constant of the primary component was not different between supra-LT running speeds (mean value range = 17.9-19.1 s), but was significantly shorter during the 80% LT trial [12.7 (1.4) s, P < 0 .05]. The VO2 slow component increased with exercise intensity from 139 (39) ml x min(-1) at 20% delta to 487 (57) ml x min(-1) at 80% delta (P < 0.05), but decreased to 317 (84) ml x min(-1) during the 100% delta trial (P < 0.05). During both the 80% delta and 100% delta trials, the VO2 at the end of exercise reached VOmax [4,152 (242) ml x min(-1) and 4,154 (114) ml x min(-1), respectively]. Our results suggest that the "gain" of the primary component is not constant as exercise intensity increases across the moderate, heavy and severe domains of treadmill running. These intensity

  8. Voluntary wheel running augments aortic l-arginine transport and endothelial function in rats with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Martens, Christopher R.; Kuczmarski, James M.; Kim, Jahyun; Guers, John J.; Brennan Harris, M.; Lennon-Edwards, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Reduced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis contributes to risk for cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Vascular uptake of the NO precursor l-arginine (ARG) is attenuated in rodents with CKD, resulting in reduced substrate availability for NO synthesis and impaired vascular function. We tested the effect of 4 wk of voluntary wheel running (RUN) and/or ARG supplementation on endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR) in rats with CKD. Twelve-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent ⅚ ablation infarction surgery to induce CKD, or SHAM surgery as a control. Beginning 4 wk following surgery, CKD animals either remained sedentary (SED) or received one of the following interventions: supplemental ARG, RUN, or combined RUN+ARG. Animals were euthanized 8 wk after surgery, and EDR was assessed. EDR was significantly impaired in SED vs. SHAM animals after 8 wk, in response to ACh (10−9-10−5 M) as indicated by a reduced area under the curve (AUC; 44.56 ± 9.01 vs 100 ± 4.58, P < 0.05) and reduced maximal response (Emax; 59.9 ± 9.67 vs. 94.31 ± 1.27%, P < 0.05). AUC was not improved by ARG treatment but was significantly improved above SED animals in both RUN and RUN+ARG-treated animals. Maximal relaxation was elevated above SED in RUN+ARG animals only. l-[3H]arginine uptake was impaired in both SED and ARG animals and was improved in RUN and RUN+ARG animals. The results suggest that voluntary wheel running is an effective therapy to improve vascular function in CKD and may be more beneficial when combined with l-arginine. PMID:24966085

  9. Voluntary wheel running augments aortic l-arginine transport and endothelial function in rats with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Martens, Christopher R; Kuczmarski, James M; Kim, Jahyun; Guers, John J; Harris, M Brennan; Lennon-Edwards, Shannon; Edwards, David G

    2014-08-15

    Reduced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis contributes to risk for cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Vascular uptake of the NO precursor l-arginine (ARG) is attenuated in rodents with CKD, resulting in reduced substrate availability for NO synthesis and impaired vascular function. We tested the effect of 4 wk of voluntary wheel running (RUN) and/or ARG supplementation on endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR) in rats with CKD. Twelve-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent ⅚ ablation infarction surgery to induce CKD, or SHAM surgery as a control. Beginning 4 wk following surgery, CKD animals either remained sedentary (SED) or received one of the following interventions: supplemental ARG, RUN, or combined RUN+ARG. Animals were euthanized 8 wk after surgery, and EDR was assessed. EDR was significantly impaired in SED vs. SHAM animals after 8 wk, in response to ACh (10(-9)-10(-5) M) as indicated by a reduced area under the curve (AUC; 44.56 ± 9.01 vs 100 ± 4.58, P < 0.05) and reduced maximal response (Emax; 59.9 ± 9.67 vs. 94.31 ± 1.27%, P < 0.05). AUC was not improved by ARG treatment but was significantly improved above SED animals in both RUN and RUN+ARG-treated animals. Maximal relaxation was elevated above SED in RUN+ARG animals only. l-[(3)H]arginine uptake was impaired in both SED and ARG animals and was improved in RUN and RUN+ARG animals. The results suggest that voluntary wheel running is an effective therapy to improve vascular function in CKD and may be more beneficial when combined with l-arginine. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  10. EXERCISE-INDUCED PULMONARY HEMORRHAGE AFTER RUNNING A MARATHON

    EPA Science Inventory

    We report on a healthy 26-year-old male who had an exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) within 24 hours of running a marathon. There were no symptoms, abnormalities on exam, or radiographic infiltrates. He routinely participated in bronchoscopy research and the EIPH was e...

  11. Agomelatine, venlafaxine, and running exercise effectively prevent anxiety- and depression-like behaviors and memory impairment in restraint stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Lapmanee, Sarawut; Charoenphandhu, Jantarima; Teerapornpuntakit, Jarinthorn; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2017-01-01

    Several severe stressful situations, e.g., natural disaster, infectious disease out break, and mass casualty, are known to cause anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment, and preventive intervention for these stress complications is worth exploring. We have previously reported that the serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor, venlafaxine, as well as voluntary wheel running are effective in the treatment of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in stressed rats. But whether they are able to prevent deleterious consequences of restraint stress in rats, such as anxiety/depression-like behaviors and memory impairment that occur afterward, was not known. Herein, male Wistar rats were pre-treated for 4 weeks with anti-anxiety/anti-depressive drugs, agomelatine and venlafaxine, or voluntary wheel running, followed by 4 weeks of restraint-induced stress. During the stress period, rats received neither drug nor exercise intervention. Our results showed that restraint stress induced mixed anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, and memory impairment as determined by elevated plus-maze, elevated T-maze, open field test (OFT), forced swimming test (FST), and Morris water maze (MWM). Both pharmacological pre-treatments and running successfully prevented the anxiety-like behavior, especially learned fear, in stressed rats. MWM test suggested that agomelatine, venlafaxine, and running could prevent stress-induced memory impairment, but only pharmacological treatments led to better novel object recognition behavior and positive outcome in FST. Moreover, western blot analysis demonstrated that venlafaxine and running exercise upregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus. In conclusion, agomelatine, venlafaxine as well as voluntary wheel running had beneficial effects, i.e., preventing the restraint stress-induced anxiety/depression-like behaviors and memory impairment.

  12. Rates and Risks for Running and Exercise Injuries: Studies in Three Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Steven N.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reports on the results of three epidemiologic studies of orthopedic running and exercise injuries in exercisers present information regarding relationships between type of injury and participant age, gender, exercise level, exercise surface, and physical fitness. (Author/CB)

  13. Mu-opioid receptor inhibition decreases voluntary wheel running in a dopamine-dependent manner in rats bred for high voluntary running.

    PubMed

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Brown, Jacob D; Kovarik, M Cathleen; Miller, Dennis K; Booth, Frank W

    2016-12-17

    The mesolimbic dopamine and opioid systems are postulated to influence the central control of physical activity motivation. We utilized selectively bred rats for high (HVR) or low (LVR) voluntary running behavior to examine (1) inherent differences in mu-opioid receptor (Oprm1) expression and function in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), (2) if dopamine-related mRNAs, wheel-running, and food intake are differently influenced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) naltrexone injection in HVR and LVR rats, and (3) if dopamine is required for naltrexone-induced changes in running and feeding behavior in HVR rats. Oprm1 mRNA and protein expression were greater in the NAc of HVR rats, and application of the Oprm1 agonist [D-Ala2, N-MePhe4, Gly-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) to dissociated NAc neurons produced greater depolarizing responses in neurons from HVR versus LVR rats. Naltrexone injection dose-dependently decreased wheel running and food intake in HVR, but not LVR, rats. Naltrexone (20mg/kg) decreased tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA in the ventral tegmental area and Fos and Drd5 mRNA in NAc shell of HVR, but not LVR, rats. Additionally, lesion of dopaminergic neurons in the NAc with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) ablated the decrease in running, but not food intake, in HVR rats following i.p. naltrexone administration. Collectively, these data suggest the higher levels of running observed in HVR rats, compared to LVR rats, are mediated, in part, by increased mesolimbic opioidergic signaling that requires downstream dopaminergic activity to influence voluntary running, but not food intake. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Arterial stiffness results from eccentrically biased downhill running exercise.

    PubMed

    Burr, J F; Boulter, M; Beck, K

    2015-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that select forms of exercise are associated with vascular changes that are in opposition to the well-accepted beneficial effects of moderate intensity aerobic exercise. To determine if alterations in arterial stiffness occur following eccentrically accentuated aerobic exercise, and if changes are associated with measures of muscle soreness. Repeated measures experimental cohort. Twelve (m=8/f=4) moderately trained (VO₂max=52.2 ± 7.4 ml kg(-1)min(-1)) participants performed a downhill run at -12° grade using a speed that elicited 60% VO₂max for 40 min. Cardiovascular and muscle soreness measures were collected at baseline and up to 72 h post-running. Muscle soreness peaked at 48 h (p=<0.001). Arterial stiffness similarly peaked at 48 h (p=0.04) and remained significantly elevated above baseline through 72 h. Eccentrically accentuated downhill running is associated with arterial stiffening in the absence of an extremely prolonged duration or fast pace. The timing of alterations coincides with the well-documented inflammatory response that occurs from the muscular insult of downhill running, but whether the observed changes are a result of either systemic or local inflammation is yet unclear. These findings may help to explain evidence of arterial stiffening in long-term runners and following prolonged duration races wherein cumulative eccentric loading is high. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The act of voluntary wheel running reverses dietary hyperphagia and increases leptin signaling in ventral tegmental area of aged obese rats.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Alexandra; Cheng, Kit-Yan; Gao, Yongxin; Seo, Dong-Oh; Anton, Steve; Carter, Christy S; Zhang, Yi; Tumer, Nihal; Scarpace, Philip J

    2011-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that exercise increases central leptin signaling, and thus reduces dietary weight gain in an aged obese model, we assessed the effects of voluntary wheel running (WR) in 23-month-old F344×BN rats fed a 60% high-fat (HF) diet for 3 months. After 2 months on the HF diet, half of the rats were provided access to running wheels for 2 weeks while the other half remained sedentary. Following the removal of the wheels, physical performance was evaluated, and 4 weeks later leptin signaling was assessed in hypothalamus and VTA after an acute bout of WR. Introduction of a HF diet led to prolonged hyperphagia (63.9 ± 7.8 kcal/day on chow diet vs. 88.1 ± 8.2 kcal/day on high-fat diet (when food intake stabilized), p < 0.001). As little as 9 (ranging to 135) wheel revolutions per day significantly reduced caloric consumption of HF food (46.8 ± 11.2 kcal/day) to a level below that on chow diet (63.9 ± 7.8 kcal/day, p < 0.001). After 2 weeks of WR, body weight was significantly reduced (7.9 ± 2.1% compared with prerunning weight, p < 0.001), and physical performance (latency to fall from an incline plane) was significantly improved (p = 0.04). WR significantly increased both basal (p = 0.04) and leptin-stimulated (p = 0.001) STAT3 phosphorylation in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), but not in the hypothalamus. Thus, in aged dietary obese rats, the act but not the extent of voluntary WR is highly effective in reversing HF consumption, decreasing body weight, and improving physical performance. It appears to trigger a response that substitutes for the reward of highly palatable food that may be mediated by increased leptin signaling in the VTA. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Postactivation potentiation effects after heavy resistance exercise on running speed.

    PubMed

    Chatzopoulos, Dimitris E; Michailidis, Charalambos J; Giannakos, Athanasios K; Alexiou, Kostas C; Patikas, Dimitrios A; Antonopoulos, Christos B; Kotzamanidis, Christos M

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the postactivation potentiation effect after a heavy resistance stimulus (HRS) on running speed (RS). Fifteen amateur team game players (basketball, volleyball, handball, and soccer players), ages 18-23 years running the 30-m dash and the intermediate phase of 0-10 and 0-30 m sprints, were used to evaluate RS. Resistance training consisted of 10 single repetitions at 90% of 1 repetition maximum. The running tests were performed 3 times--(a) 3 minutes prior the HRS, (b) 3 minutes after the HRS, and (c) 5 minutes after the HRS--in separated training sessions. Results showed that RS was not affected 3 minutes after the resistance training, but it increased for both selected running phases (0-10 and 0-30 m) 5 minutes after the HRS (p < 0.05). These findings indicate that heavy resistance exercise improves 10- and 30-m sprint performance when performed 5 minutes after the exercise bout.

  17. Chronic wheel running reduces maladaptive patterns of methamphetamine intake: regulation by attenuation of methamphetamine-induced neuronal nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Engelmann, Alexander J.; Aparicio, Mark B.; Kim, Airee; Sobieraj, Jeffery C.; Yuan, Clara J.; Grant, Yanabel

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether prior exposure to chronic wheel running (WR) alters maladaptive patterns of excessive and escalating methamphetamine intake under extended access conditions, and intravenous methamphetamine self-administration-induced neurotoxicity. Adult rats were given access to WR or no wheel (sedentary) in their home cage for 6 weeks. A set of WR rats were injected with 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to determine WR-induced changes in proliferation (2-h old) and survival (28-day old) of hippocampal progenitors. Another set of WR rats were withdrawn (WRw) or continued (WRc) to have access to running wheels in their home cages during self-administration days. Following self-administration [6 h/day], rats were tested on the progressive ratio (PR) schedule. Following PR, BrdU was injected to determine levels of proliferating progenitors (2-h old). WRc rats self-administered significantly less methamphetamine than sedentary rats during acquisition and escalation sessions, and demonstrated reduced motivation for methamphetamine seeking. Methamphetamine reduced daily running activity of WRc rats compared with that of pre-methamphetamine days. WRw rats self-administered significantly more methamphetamine than sedentary rats during acquisition, an effect that was not observed during escalation and PR sessions. WR-induced beneficial effects on methamphetamine self-administration were not attributable to neuroplasticity effects in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex, but were attributable to WR-induced inhibition of methamphetamine-induced increases in the number of neuronal nitric oxide synthase expressing neurons and apoptosis in the nucleus accumbens shell. Our results demonstrate that WR prevents methamphetamine-induced damage to forebrain neurons to provide a beneficial effect on drug-taking behavior. Importantly, WR-induced neuroprotective effects are transient and continued WR activity is necessary to prevent compulsive methamphetamine intake

  18. Chronic wheel running reduces maladaptive patterns of methamphetamine intake: regulation by attenuation of methamphetamine-induced neuronal nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, Alexander J; Aparicio, Mark B; Kim, Airee; Sobieraj, Jeffery C; Yuan, Clara J; Grant, Yanabel; Mandyam, Chitra D

    2014-03-01

    We investigated whether prior exposure to chronic wheel running (WR) alters maladaptive patterns of excessive and escalating methamphetamine intake under extended access conditions, and intravenous methamphetamine self-administration-induced neurotoxicity. Adult rats were given access to WR or no wheel (sedentary) in their home cage for 6 weeks. A set of WR rats were injected with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to determine WR-induced changes in proliferation (2-h old) and survival (28-day old) of hippocampal progenitors. Another set of WR rats were withdrawn (WRw) or continued (WRc) to have access to running wheels in their home cages during self-administration days. Following self-administration [6 h/day], rats were tested on the progressive ratio (PR) schedule. Following PR, BrdU was injected to determine levels of proliferating progenitors (2-h old). WRc rats self-administered significantly less methamphetamine than sedentary rats during acquisition and escalation sessions, and demonstrated reduced motivation for methamphetamine seeking. Methamphetamine reduced daily running activity of WRc rats compared with that of pre-methamphetamine days. WRw rats self-administered significantly more methamphetamine than sedentary rats during acquisition, an effect that was not observed during escalation and PR sessions. WR-induced beneficial effects on methamphetamine self-administration were not attributable to neuroplasticity effects in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex, but were attributable to WR-induced inhibition of methamphetamine-induced increases in the number of neuronal nitric oxide synthase expressing neurons and apoptosis in the nucleus accumbens shell. Our results demonstrate that WR prevents methamphetamine-induced damage to forebrain neurons to provide a beneficial effect on drug-taking behavior. Importantly, WR-induced neuroprotective effects are transient and continued WR activity is necessary to prevent compulsive methamphetamine intake.

  19. Effects of loaded voluntary wheel exercise on performance and muscle hypertrophy in young and old male C57Bl/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Soffe, Z; Radley-Crabb, H G; McMahon, C; Grounds, M D; Shavlakadze, T

    2016-02-01

    This study compared the capacity of young and old male C57Bl/6J mice to exercise with increasing resistance over 10 weeks, and its impact on muscle mass. Young mice (aged 15-25 weeks) were subjected to low (LR) and high (HR) resistance exercise, whereas only LR was used for old mice (107-117 weeks). Weekly patterns of voluntary wheel activity, food consumption and body weights were measured. Running patterns changed over time and with age, with two peaks of activity detected for young, but only one for old mice: speed and distance run was also less for old mice. The mass for six limb muscles was measured at the end of the experiment. The most pronounced increase in mass in response to exercise was for the soleus in young and old mice, and also quadriceps and gastrocnemius in young mice. Soleus and quadriceps muscles were analyzed histologically for myofiber number and size. A striking feature was the many small myofibers in response to exercise in young (but not old) soleus, whereas these were not present after exercise in young or old quadriceps. Overall, there was a striking difference in response to exercise between muscles and this was influenced by age. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Effects of high doses of magnesium in drinking water and voluntary wheel running on magnesium and calcium concentrations in rats.

    PubMed

    Meludu, S C; Nishimuta, M; Aboh, N A; Okonkwo, C; Dioka, C E

    2002-12-01

    The effect of high magnesium intake in addition to supplementation and voluntary wheel activity on magnesium and calcium homeostasis was investigated in rats. Thirty-six 5-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n = 9). Groups 2 and 4 received five hundred ppm of elemental magnesium as MgCl2 provided in drinking water. After 1 week of acclimatization and 4 weeks of supplement and/or exercise, the animals were fasted and sacrificed. It appears that magnesium supplementation as well as exercise played some significant role in the homeostatic changes of magnesium and calcium. This could be of great significance in better understanding of mineral homeostasis particularly in sports medicine.

  1. Running exercise alleviates trabecular bone loss and osteopenia in hemizygous β-globin knockout thalassemic mice.

    PubMed

    Thongchote, Kanogwun; Svasti, Saovaros; Teerapornpuntakit, Jarinthorn; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2014-06-15

    A marked decrease in β-globin production led to β-thalassemia, a hereditary anemic disease associated with bone marrow expansion, bone erosion, and osteoporosis. Herein, we aimed to investigate changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular microstructure in hemizygous β-globin knockout thalassemic (BKO) mice and to determine whether endurance running (60 min/day, 5 days/wk for 12 wk in running wheels) could effectively alleviate bone loss in BKO mice. Both male and female BKO mice (1-2 mo old) showed growth retardation as indicated by smaller body weight and femoral length than their wild-type littermates. A decrease in BMD was more severe in female than in male BKO mice. Bone histomorphometry revealed that BKO mice had decreases in trabecular bone volume, trabecular number, and trabecular thickness, presumably due to suppression of osteoblast-mediated bone formation and activation of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, the latter of which was consistent with elevated serum levels of osteoclastogenic cytokines IL-1α and -1β. As determined by peripheral quantitative computed tomography, running increased cortical density and thickness in the femoral and tibial diaphyses of BKO mice compared with those of sedentary BKO mice. Several histomorphometric parameters suggested an enhancement of bone formation (e.g., increased mineral apposition rate) and suppression of bone resorption (e.g., decreased osteoclast surface), which led to increases in trabecular bone volume and trabecular thickness in running BKO mice. In conclusion, BKO mice exhibited pervasive osteopenia and impaired bone microstructure, whereas running exercise appeared to be an effective intervention in alleviating bone microstructural defect in β-thalassemia. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Selective Breeding and Short-Term Access to a Running Wheel Alter Stride Characteristics in House Mice.

    PubMed

    Claghorn, Gerald C; Thompson, Zoe; Kay, Jarren C; Ordonez, Genesis; Hampton, Thomas G; Garland, Theodore

    Postural and kinematic aspects of running may have evolved to support high runner (HR) mice to run approximately threefold farther than control mice. Mice from four replicate HR lines selectively bred for high levels of voluntary wheel running show many differences in locomotor behavior and morphology as compared with four nonselected control (C) lines. We hypothesized that HR mice would show stride alterations that have coadapted with locomotor behavior, morphology, and physiology. More specifically, we predicted that HR mice would have stride characteristics that differed from those of C mice in ways that parallel some of the adaptations seen in highly cursorial animals. For example, we predicted that limbs of HR mice would swing closer to the parasagittal plane, resulting in a two-dimensional measurement of narrowed stance width. We also expected that some differences between HR and C mice might be amplified by 6 d of wheel access, as is used to select breeders each generation. We used the DigiGait Imaging System (Mouse Specifics) to capture high-speed videos in ventral view as mice ran on a motorized treadmill across a range of speeds and then to automatically calculate several aspects of strides. Young adults of both sexes were tested both before and after 6 d of wheel access. Stride length, stride frequency, stance width, stance time, brake time, propel time, swing time, duty factor, and paw contact area were analyzed using a nested analysis of covariance, with body mass as a covariate. As expected, body mass and treadmill speed affected nearly every analyzed metric. Six days of wheel access also affected nearly every measure, indicating pervasive training effects, in both HR and C mice. As predicted, stance width was significantly narrower in HR than C mice. Paw contact area and duty factor were significantly greater in minimuscle individuals (subset of HR mice with 50%-reduced hind limb muscle mass) than in normal-muscled HR or C mice. We conclude that

  3. Inflammation-induced decrease in voluntary wheel running in mice: a non-reflexive test for evaluating inflammatory pain and analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Cobos, Enrique J.; Ghasemlou, Nader; Araldi, Dionéia; Segal, David; Duong, Kelly; Woolf, Clifford J.

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory pain impacts adversely on the quality of life of patients, often resulting in motor disabilities. Therefore, we studied the effect of peripheral inflammation induced by intraplantar administration of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) in mice on a particular form of voluntary locomotion, wheel running, as an index of mobility impairment produced by pain. The distance travelled over 1 h of free access to activity wheels decreased significantly in response to hindpaw inflammation, peaking 24 h after CFA administration. Recovery of voluntary wheel running by day three correlated with the ability to support weight on the inflamed limb. Inflammation-induced mechanical hypersensitivity, measured with von Frey hairs, lasted considerably longer than the impaired voluntary wheel running and is not driving, therefore, the change in voluntary behavior. The CFA-induced decrease in voluntary wheel running was dose-dependently reversed by subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs, including naproxen (10–80 mg/kg), ibuprofen (2.5–20 mg/kg), diclofenac (1.25–10 mg/kg), celecoxib (2.5–20 mg/kg), prednisolone (0.62–5 mg/kg) and morphine (0.06–0.5 mg/kg), all at much lower doses than reported in most rodent models. Furthermore, the doses that induced recovery in voluntary wheel running did not reduce CFA-induced mechanical allodynia, indicating a greater sensitivity of the former as a surrogate measure of inflammatory pain. We conclude that monitoring changes in voluntary wheel running in mice during peripheral inflammation is a simple, observer-independent objective measure of functional changes produced by inflammation, likely more aligned to the global level of pain than reflexive measures, and much more sensitive to analgesic drug effects. PMID:22341563

  4. Voluntary Running Exercise-Mediated Enhanced Neurogenesis Does Not Obliterate Retrograde Spatial Memory.

    PubMed

    Kodali, Maheedhar; Megahed, Tarick; Mishra, Vikas; Shuai, Bing; Hattiangady, Bharathi; Shetty, Ashok K

    2016-08-03

    Running exercise (RE) improves cognition, formation of anterograde memories, and mood, alongside enhancing hippocampal neurogenesis. A previous investigation in a mouse model showed that RE-induced increased neurogenesis erases retrograde memory (Akers et al., 2014). However, it is unknown whether RE-induced forgetting is common to all species. We ascertained whether voluntary RE-induced enhanced neurogenesis interferes with the recall of spatial memory in rats. Young rats assigned to either sedentary (SED) or running exercise (RE) groups were first subjected to eight learning sessions in a water maze. A probe test (PT) conducted 24 h after the final training session confirmed that animals in either group had a similar ability for the recall of short-term memory. Following this, rats in the RE group were housed in larger cages fitted with running wheels, whereas rats in the SED group remained in standard cages. Animals in the RE group ran an average of 78 km in 4 weeks. A second PT performed 4 weeks after the first PT revealed comparable ability for memory recall between animals in the RE and SED groups, which was evidenced through multiple measures of memory retrieval function. The RE group displayed a 1.5- to 2.1-fold higher hippocampal neurogenesis than SED rats. Additionally, both moderate and brisk RE did not interfere with the recall of memory, although increasing amounts of RE proportionally enhanced neurogenesis. In conclusion, RE does not impair memory recall ability in a rat model despite substantially increasing neurogenesis. Running exercise (RE) improves new memory formation along with an increased neurogenesis in the hippocampus. In view of a recent study showing that RE-mediated increased hippocampal neurogenesis promotes forgetfulness in a mouse model, we ascertained whether a similar adverse phenomenon exists in a rat model. Memory recall ability examined 4 weeks after learning confirmed that animals that had run a mean of 78 km and displayed a 1

  5. Effect of Muscle-Damaging Eccentric Exercise on Running Kinematics and Economy for Running at Different Intensities.

    PubMed

    Satkunskienė, Danguolė; Stasiulis, Arvydas; Zaičenkovienė, Kristina; Sakalauskaitė, Raminta; Rauktys, Donatas

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the changes in running kinematics and economy during running at different intensities 1 and 24 hours after a muscle-damaging bench-stepping exercise. Healthy, physically active adult women were recruited for this study. The subjects' running kinematics, heart rate, gas exchange, minute ventilation, and perceived exertion were continuously recorded during the increasing-intensity running test on a treadmill for different testing conditions: a control condition and 1 and 24 hours after the bench-stepping exercise test. Two muscle damage markers, muscle soreness and blood creatine kinase (CK) activity, were measured before and 24 hours after the stepping exercise. Muscle soreness and blood CK activity were significantly altered (exact p ≤ 0.05, Monte Carlo test) 24 hours after the bench-stepping exercise. The stride length, stride frequency, and support time at different running intensities did not change. Twenty-four hours after the previous step exercise, ankle dorsiflexion in the support phase was significantly higher during severe-intensity running, the range of knee flexion at the stance phase was significantly lower during moderate-intensity running, and knee flexion at the end of the amortization phase was significantly lower during heavy-intensity running compared with the control values (exact p ≤ 0.05, Monte Carlo test). The running economy at moderate and heavy intensities, maximum ventilation, and maximum heart rate did not change. We conclude that, given moderate soreness in the calf muscles 24 hours after eccentric exercise, the running kinematics are slightly but significantly changed without a detectable effect on running economy.

  6. Effects of selective breeding for increased wheel-running behavior on circadian timing of substrate oxidation and ingestive behavior.

    PubMed

    Jónás, I; Vaanholt, L M; Doornbos, M; Garland, T; Scheurink, A J W; Nyakas, C; van Dijk, G

    2010-04-19

    Fluctuations in substrate preference and utilization across the circadian cycle may be influenced by the degree of physical activity and nutritional status. In the present study, we assessed these relationships in control mice and in mice from a line selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior, either when feeding a carbohydrate-rich/low-fat (LF) or a high-fat (HF) diet. Housed without wheels, selected mice, and in particular the females, exhibited higher cage activity than their non-selected controls during the dark phase and at the onset of the light phase, irrespective of diet. This was associated with increases in energy expenditure in both sexes of the selection line. In selected males, carbohydrate oxidation appeared to be increased compared to controls. In contrast, selected females had profound increases in fat oxidation above the levels in control females to cover the increased energy expenditure during the dark phase. This is remarkable in light of the finding that the selected mice, and in particular the females showed higher preference for the LF diet relative to controls. It is likely that hormonal and/or metabolic signals increase carbohydrate preference in the selected females, which may serve optimal maintenance of cellular metabolism in the presence of augmented fat oxidation. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Voluntary wheel running, but not a diet containing (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and β-alanine, improves learning, memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Trisha E; Pence, Brandt D; Petr, Geraldine; Ossyra, Jessica M; Mach, Houston C; Bhattacharya, Tushar K; Perez, Samuel; Martin, Stephen A; McCusker, Robert H; Kelley, Keith W; Rhodes, Justin S; Johnson, Rodney W; Woods, Jeffrey A

    2014-10-01

    Aging is associated with impaired learning and memory accompanied by reductions in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and brain expression of neurotrophic factors among other processes. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, a green tea catechin), β-alanine (β-ala, the precursor of carnosine), and exercise have independently been shown to be neuroprotective and to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress in the central nervous system. We hypothesized that EGCG, β-ala supplementation or exercise alone would improve learning and memory and increase neurogenesis in aged mice, and the combined intervention would be better than either treatment alone. Male Balb/cByJ mice (19 months) were given AIN-93M diet with or without EGCG (182mg/kg/d) and β-ala (417mg/kg/d). Half of the mice were given access to a running wheel (VWR). The first 10 days, animals received 50mg/kg bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) daily. After 28 days, learning and memory was assessed by Morris water maze (MWM) and contextual fear conditioning (CFC). Brains were collected for immunohistochemical detection of BrdU and quantitative mRNA expression in the hippocampus. VWR increased the number of BrdU cells in the dentate gyrus, increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, decreased expression of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β, and improved performance in the MWM and CFC tests. The dietary intervention reduced brain oxidative stress as measured by 4-hydroxynonenal in the cerebellum, but had no effect on BrdU labeling or behavioral performance. These results suggest that exercise, but not a diet containing EGCG and β-ala, exhibit pro-cognitive effects in aged mice when given at these doses in this relatively short time frame. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Physiological responses during intermittent running exercise differ between outdoor and treadmill running.

    PubMed

    Panascì, Marco; Lepers, Romuald; La Torre, Antonio; Bonato, Matteo; Assadi, Hervè

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the physiological responses during 15 min of intermittent running consisting of 30 s of high-intensity running exercise at maximal aerobic velocity (MAV) interspersed with 30 s of passive recovery (30-30) performed outdoor versus on a motorized treadmill. Fifteen collegiate physically active males (age, 22 ± 1 years old; body mass, 66 ± 7 kg; stature, 176 ± 06 cm; weekly training volume, 5 ± 2 h·week -1 ), performed the Fitness Intermittent Test 45-15 to determine maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O 2max ) and MAV and then completed in random order 3 different training sessions consisting of a 30-s run/30-s rest on an outdoor athletic track (30-30 Track) at MAV; a 30-s run/30-s rest on a treadmill (30-30 Treadmill) at MAV; a 30-s run/30-s rest at MAV+15% (30-30 + 15% MAV Treadmill). Oxygen uptake (V̇O 2 ), time above 90%V̇O 2max (t90%V̇O 2max ), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during each training session. We observed a statistical significant underestimation of V̇O 2 (53.1 ± 5.4 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 vs 49.8 ± 6.7 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 , -6.3%, P = 0.012), t90%V̇O 2max (8.6% ± 11.5% vs 38.7% ± 32.5%, -77.8%, P = 0.008), RPE (11.4 ± 1.4 vs 16.5 ± 1.7, -31%, P < 0.0001) during the 30-30 Treadmill compared with the same training session performed on track. No statistical differences between 30-30 +15 % MAV Treadmill and 30-30 Track were observed. The present study demonstrates that a 15% increase in running velocity during a high-intensity intermittent treadmill training session is the optimal solution to reach the same physiological responses than an outdoor training session.

  9. Running wheel training does not change neurogenesis levels or alter working memory tasks in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Manuel J.; Cardenas P., Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Background Exercise can change cellular structure and connectivity (neurogenesis or synaptogenesis), causing alterations in both behavior and working memory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of exercise on working memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in adult male Wistar rats using a T-maze test. Methods An experimental design with two groups was developed: the experimental group (n = 12) was subject to a forced exercise program for five days, whereas the control group (n = 9) stayed in the home cage. Six to eight weeks after training, the rats’ working memory was evaluated in a T-maze test and four choice days were analyzed, taking into account alternation as a working memory indicator. Hippocampal neurogenesis was evaluated by means of immunohistochemistry of BrdU positive cells. Results No differences between groups were found in the behavioral variables (alternation, preference index, time of response, time of trial or feeding), or in the levels of BrdU positive cells. Discussion Results suggest that although exercise may have effects on brain structure, a construct such as working memory may require more complex changes in networks or connections to demonstrate a change at behavioral level. PMID:28503368

  10. Analysis of inflammation-induced depression of home cage wheel running in rats reveals the difference between opioid antinociception and restoration of function

    PubMed Central

    Kandasamy, Ram; Calsbeek, Jonas J.; Morgan, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Opioids are effective at inhibiting responses to noxious stimuli in rodents, but have limited efficacy and many side effects in chronic pain patients. One reason for this disconnect is that nociception is typically assessed using withdrawal from noxious stimuli in animals, whereas chronic pain patients suffer from abnormal pain that disrupts normal activity. We hypothesized that assessment of home cage wheel running in rats would provide a much more clinically relevant method to assess opioid efficacy to restore normal behavior. Intraplantar injection of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) into the right hindpaw depressed wheel running and caused mechanical allodynia measured with the von Frey test in both male and female rats. Administration of an ED50 dose of morphine (3.2 mg/kg) reversed mechanical allodynia, but did not reverse CFA-induced depression of wheel running. In contrast, administration of a low dose of morphine (1.0 mg/kg) restored running for one hour in both sexes, but had no effect on mechanical allodynia. Administration of the atypical opioid buprenorphine had no effect on inflammation-induced depression of wheel running in male or female rats, but attenuated mechanical allodynia in male rats. Administration of buprenorphine and higher doses of morphine depressed wheel running in non-inflamed rats, suggesting that the side effects of opioids interfere with restoration of function. These data indicate that restoration of pain-depressed function requires antinociception in the absence of disruptive side effects. The disruptive side effects of opioids are consistent with the major limitation of opioid use in human pain patients. PMID:27746208

  11. Voluntary wheel running in growing rats does not protect against doxorubicin-induced osteopenia.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Reid; Iwaniec, Urszula T; Turner, Russell T; Lien, Chia-Ying; Jensen, Brock T; Hydock, David S; Schneider, Carole M

    2013-05-01

    There is growing concern regarding the long-term negative side effects of chemotherapy in childhood cancer survivors. Doxorubicin (DOX) is commonly used in the treatment of childhood cancers and has been shown to be both cardiotoxic and osteotoxic. It is unclear whether exercise can attenuate the negative skeletal effects of this chemotherapy. Rat pups were treated with saline or DOX. Animals remained sedentary or voluntarily exercised. After 10 weeks, femoral bone mineral content and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Cortical and cancellous bone architecture was then evaluated by microcomputed tomography. DOX had a profound negative effect on all measures of bone mass and cortical and cancellous bone architecture. Treatment with DOX resulted in shorter femora and lower femoral bone mineral content and bone mineral density, lower cross-sectional volume, cortical volume, marrow volume, cortical thickness, and principal (IMAX, IMIN) and polar (IPOLAR) moments of inertia in the femur diaphysis, and lower cancellous bone volume/tissue volume, trabecular number, and trabecular thickness in the distal femur metaphysis. Exercise failed to protect bones from the damaging effects of DOX. Other modalities may be necessary to mitigate the deleterious skeletal effects that occur in juveniles undergoing treatment with anthracyclines.

  12. Forced running exercise attenuates hippocampal neurogenesis impairment and the neurocognitive deficits induced by whole-brain irradiation via the BDNF-mediated pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Jian-feng; Ji, Sheng-jun; Sun, Rui

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •Forced exercise can ameliorate WBI induced cognitive impairment in our rat model. •Mature BDNF plays an important role in the effects of forced exercise. •Exercise may be a possible treatment of the radiation-induced cognitive impairment. -- Abstract: Cranial radiotherapy induces progressive and debilitating cognitive deficits, particularly in long-term cancer survivors, which may in part be caused by the reduction of hippocampal neurogenesis. Previous studies suggested that voluntary exercise can reduce the cognitive impairment caused by radiation therapy. However, there is no study on the effect of forced wheel exercise and little is known about the molecular mechanisms mediating themore » effect of exercise. In the present study, we investigated whether the forced running exercise after irradiation had the protective effects of the radiation-induced cognitive impairment. Sixty-four Male Sprague–Dawley rats received a single dose of 20 Gy or sham whole-brain irradiation (WBI), behavioral test was evaluated using open field test and Morris water maze at 2 months after irradiation. Half of the rats accepted a 3-week forced running exercise before the behavior detection. Immunofluorescence was used to evaluate the changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and Western blotting was used to assess changes in the levels of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), phosphorylated tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) receptor, protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), calcium-calmodulin dependent kinase (CaMKII), cAMP-calcium response element binding protein (CREB) in the BDNF–pCREB signaling. We found forced running exercise significantly prevented radiation-induced cognitive deficits, ameliorated the impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis and attenuated the down-regulation of these proteins. Moreover, exercise also increased behavioral performance, hippocampal neurogenesis and elevated BDNF–pCREB signaling in non

  13. Comparison of Effects of Running and Playing Exercises on Differential Leucocyte Count in Young Elite Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cenikli, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present research are to test the effects of running and playing exercises on leucocyte and differential leucocyte accounts, and to test the possible differences between running and playing exercises in terms of leucocyte accounts. They were thirty two male young soccer players. Participants arrived at the laboratory after a 12-hour…

  14. Oral self-administration of EtOH: Sex-Dependent Modulation by Running Wheel Access in C57BL/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Piza-Palma, Carlos; Barfield, Elizabeth T.; Brown, Jadeda A.; Hubka, James C.; Lusk, Cade; Schonhar, Charles A.; Sweat, Sean C.; Grisel, Judith E.

    2017-01-01

    Background The effects of stress, including neuroendocrine and behavioral sequelae aimed at maintaining homeostasis, are associated with increased alcohol consumption. Because both stress and drinking are multifactorial, the mechanisms underlying the relationship are difficult to elucidate. We therefore employed an animal model investigating the influence of blocked access to a running wheel on drinking in C57BL/6J (B6) mice. Methods In the first experiment, naïve, adult male and female subjects were individually housed for 2 weeks with 24hr access to a running wheel and 12% EtOH in a 2-bottle, free choice paradigm. After determining baseline consumption and preference, experimental subjects had the running wheel placed in a locked position for 6hr, and the EtOH bottle was removed during the first half of this period. Two subsequent experiments, again in adult, naïve B6 mice, examined the influence of locked running wheels on self-administration of 20% EtOH in a limited access paradigm, and blood EtOH concentrations (BECs) were determined. Results In all three studies, using both between and within subject analyses, females showed transient yet reliable increases in alcohol drinking during blocked access to a rotating activity, while drinking in male mice was largely insensitive to this manipulation, though both sexes showed appreciable BECs (>130 mg/dL in females, and 80 mg/dL in males) following a 2hr EtOH access period. Conclusions These data add to a burgeoning literature suggesting that the factors contributing to excessive alcohol use differ between males and females, and that females may be especially sensitive to the influence of wheel manipulation. Elucidating the sex-dependent mechanisms mediating differences in alcohol sensitivity and response is critical to understanding the causes of alcoholism and in developing effective treatments and interventions. PMID:25257288

  15. Hyperphagia, lower body temperature, and reduced running wheel activity precede development of morbid obesity in New Zealand obese mice.

    PubMed

    Jürgens, Hella S; Schürmann, Annette; Kluge, Reinhart; Ortmann, Sylvia; Klaus, Susanne; Joost, Hans-Georg; Tschöp, Matthias H

    2006-04-13

    Among polygenic mouse models of obesity, the New Zealand obese (NZO) mouse exhibits the most severe phenotype, with fat depots exceeding 40% of total body weight at the age of 6 mo. Here we dissected the components of energy balance including feeding behavior, locomotor activity, energy expenditure, and thermogenesis compared with the related lean New Zealand black (NZB) and obese B6.V-Lep(ob)/J (ob/ob) strains (11% and 65% fat at 23 wk, respectively). NZO mice exhibited a significant hyperphagia that, when food intake was expressed per metabolic body mass, was less pronounced than that of the ob/ob strain. Compared with NZB, NZO mice exhibited increased meal frequency, meal duration, and meal size. Body temperature as determined by telemetry with implanted sensors was reduced in NZO mice, but again to a lesser extent than in the ob/ob strain. In striking contrast to ob/ob mice, NZO mice were able to maintain a constant body temperature during a 20-h cold exposure, thus exhibiting a functioning cold-induced thermogenesis. No significant differences in spontaneous home cage activity were observed among NZO, NZB, and ob/ob strains. When mice had access to voluntary running wheels, however, running activity was significantly lower in NZO than NZB mice and even lower in ob/ob mice. These data indicate that obesity in NZO mice, just as in humans, is due to a combination of hyperphagia, reduced energy expenditure, and insufficient physical activity. Because NZO mice differ strikingly from the ob/ob strain in their resistance to cold stress, we suggest that the molecular defects causing hyperphagia in NZO mice are located distal from leptin and its receptor.

  16. Cycling Versus Uphill Walking: Impact on Locomotor Muscle Fatigue and Running Exercise.

    PubMed

    Pageaux, Benjamin; Theurel, Jean; Lepers, Romuald

    2017-11-01

    To describe the effects of uphill walking versus cycling exercises on knee-extensor (KE) neuromuscular properties and subsequent running exercise. Nine athletes performed 4 different sessions (1 familiarization and 3 experimental sessions, visit 2-4). Visit 2 (cycling +10-km condition) consisted of the completion of 1-h cycling followed by a 10-km running time trial. Visit 3 consisted of the completion of 1-h uphill walking followed by a 10-km running exercise (RE). During the fourth visit, athletes only ran 10 km. Visits 3 and 4 were randomized. The uphill walking and cycling exercises were performed at the same intensity, and pacing of the RE was similar between conditions. Neuromuscular function of the KE was assessed before warm-up, after first exercise, and after RE. Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded during all exercises. RPE during RE was greater following the 1-h cycling and uphill walking exercises than during RE alone. KE force (-21%), twitch torque (-20%), doublet torque (-16%), and twitch rate of force development (-13%) significantly decreased following cycling exercise and not after uphill walking exercise. Postactivation potentiation was observed after uphill walking and RE. KE force-production capacity partially recovered after running in the cycling +10-km condition. Uphill walking and running induced postactivation potentiation, limiting the decrease in KE force postexercise. Despite different alterations in force-production capacity induced by cycling and uphill walking, both exercises increased perception of effort during the subsequent RE.

  17. Wheel running alters patterns of uncontrollable stress-induced cfos mRNA expression in rat dorsal striatum direct and indirect pathways: a possible role for plasticity in adenosine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Peter J.; Ghasem, Parsa R.; Mika, Agnieszka; Day, Heidi E.; Herrera, Jonathan J.; Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Fleshner, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that adenosine is a major regulator of striatum activity, in part, through the antagonistic modulation of dopaminergic function. Exercise can influence adenosine and dopamine activity, which may subsequently promote plasticity in striatum adenosine and dopamine systems. Such changes could alter activity of medium spiny neurons and impact striatum function. The purpose of this study was two-fold. The first was to characterize the effect of long-term wheel running on adenosine 1 (A1R), adenosine 2A (A2AR), dopamine 1 (D1R), and dopamine 2 (D2R) receptor mRNA expression in adult rat dorsal and ventral striatum structures using in situ hybridization. The second was to determine if changes to adenosine and dopamine receptor mRNA from running are associated with altered cfos mRNA induction in dynorphin- (direct pathway) and enkephalin- (indirect pathway) expressing neurons of the dorsal striatum following stress exposure. We report that chronic running, as well as acute uncontrollable stress, reduced A1R and A2AR mRNA levels in the dorsal and ventral striatum. Running also modestly elevated D2R mRNA levels in striatum regions. Finally, stress-induced cfos was potentiated in dynorphin and attenuated in enkephalin expressing neurons of running rats. These data suggest striatum adenosine and dopamine systems are targets for neuroplasticity from exercise, which may contribute to changes in direct and indirect pathway activity. These findings may have implications for striatum mediated motor and cognitive processes, as well as exercise facilitated stress-resistance. PMID:25017571

  18. Running from fear: Exercise modulation of fear extinction.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Margaret K; Hake, Holly S; Bouchet, Courtney A; Greenwood, Benjamin N

    2018-03-31

    Extinction-based exposure therapy is the most common behavioral therapy for anxiety and trauma-related disorders, but fear tends to resurface even after successful extinction. Identification of novel strategies to enhance fear extinction and reduce fear relapse is of paramount importance to mental health. Exercise can enhance cognitive function, but it is not yet well understood whether exercise can be an effective augmentation strategy for fear extinction. In the current review, we present the current state of knowledge on the effects of exercise on fear extinction. Effects of exercise duration, explanations for conflicting results, and potential mechanisms, focusing on a hypothesized role for dopamine, are all discussed. We also provide new data suggesting that the timing in which acute exercise occurs relative to fear extinction, is a crucial variable in determining whether exercise can enhance fear extinction. Clinical implications and ideas to guide future research endeavors in this area are provided. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Interrelationship of CB1R and OBR pathways in regulation of metabolic, neuroendocrine, and behavioral responses to food restriction and voluntary wheel running.

    PubMed

    Diane, Abdoulaye; Vine, Donna F; Russell, James C; Heth, C Donald; Pierce, W David; Proctor, Spencer D

    2014-07-15

    We hypothesized the cannabinoid-1 receptor and leptin receptor (ObR) operate synergistically to modulate metabolic, neuroendocrine, and behavioral responses of animals exposed to a survival challenge (food restriction and wheel running). Obese-prone (OP) JCR:LA-cp rats, lacking functional ObR, and lean-prone (LP) JCR:LA-cp rats (intact ObR) were assigned to OP-C and LP-C (control) or CBR1-antagonized (SR141716, 10 mg/kg body wt in food) OP-A and LP-A groups. After 32 days, all rats were exposed to 1.5-h daily meals without the drug and 22.5-h voluntary wheel running, a survival challenge that normally culminates in activity-based anorexia (ABA). Rats were removed from the ABA protocol when body weight reached 75% of entry weight (starvation criterion) or after 14 days (survival criterion). LP-A rats starved faster (6.44 ± 0.24 days) than LP-C animals (8.00 ± 0.29 days); all OP rats survived the ABA challenge. LP-A rats lost weight faster than animals in all other groups (P < 0.001). Consistent with the starvation results, LP-A rats increased the rate of wheel running more rapidly than LP-C rats (P = 0.001), with no difference in hypothalamic and primary neural reward serotonin levels. In contrast, OP-A rats showed suppression of wheel running compared with the OP-C group (days 6-14 of ABA challenge, P < 0.001) and decreased hypothalamic and neural reward serotonin levels (P < 0.01). Thus there is an interrelationship between cannabinoid-1 receptor and ObR pathways in regulation of energy balance and physical activity. Effective clinical measures to prevent and treat a variety of disorders will require understanding of the mechanisms underlying these effects. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Running wheel activity is sensitive to acute treatment with selective inhibitors for either serotonin or norepinephrine reuptake.

    PubMed

    Weber, Martin; Talmon, Sonja; Schulze, Ilka; Boeddinghaus, Christine; Gross, Gerhard; Schoemaker, Hans; Wicke, Karsten M

    2009-05-01

    Most antidepressants (AD) directly or indirectly enhance the serotonergic tone in the CNS. Since the serotonin system is involved in both, the modulation of mood and motor behavior, it was reasoned that these drugs might also interfere with running wheel activity (RWA), a form of positively motivated motor behavior, which might be linked to pathological states like obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We used RWA to characterize ADs from all major classes. Effects on RWA were compared to effects on general locomotor activity (LOC) to control for unspecific effects on general locomotion. Two hours before lights-off, mice were treated with either vehicle or one of the following AD: the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) citalopram (3-10 mg/kg), paroxetine (1-10 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (2-6.6 mg/kg), the selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) reboxetine (1-10 mg/kg), the monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors tranylcypromine (1-3 mg/kg) and moclobemide (3-10 mg/kg), and the tricyclic ADs desipramine and imipramine (10-30 mg/kg, each). LOC and RWA were measured after lights-off. At the highest dose tested, all ADs, with the exception of the MAO inhibitors, significantly reduced RWA. Both tricyclics inhibited RWA only at doses that similarly affected LOC. In contrast, all SSRI and reboxetine inhibited RWA at doses that left LOC unaffected. SSRI and the SNRI reboxetine inhibit RWA at doses not suppressing LOC. RWA may represent a simple behavioral readout of positively motivated behavior that merits further attention for psychopharmacology.

  1. Mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running have larger midbrains: support for the mosaic model of brain evolution.

    PubMed

    Kolb, E M; Rezende, E L; Holness, L; Radtke, A; Lee, S K; Obenaus, A; Garland, T

    2013-02-01

    Increased brain size, relative to body mass, is a primary characteristic distinguishing the mammalian lineage. This greater encephalization has come with increased behavioral complexity and, accordingly, it has been suggested that selection on behavioral traits has been a significant factor leading to the evolution of larger whole-brain mass. In addition, brains may evolve in a mosaic fashion, with functional components having some freedom to evolve independently from other components, irrespective of, or in addition to, changes in size of the whole brain. We tested whether long-term selective breeding for high voluntary wheel running in laboratory house mice results in changes in brain size, and whether those changes have occurred in a concerted or mosaic fashion. We measured wet and dry brain mass via dissections and brain volume with ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging of brains that distinguished the caudate-putamen, hippocampus, midbrain, cerebellum and forebrain. Adjusting for body mass as a covariate, mice from the four replicate high-runner (HR) lines had statistically larger non-cerebellar wet and dry brain masses than those from four non-selected control lines, with no differences in cerebellum wet or dry mass or volume. Moreover, the midbrain volume in HR mice was ~13% larger (P<0.05), while volumes of the caudate-putamen, hippocampus, cerebellum and forebrain did not differ statistically between HR and control lines. We hypothesize that the enlarged midbrain of HR mice is related to altered neurophysiological function in their dopaminergic system. To our knowledge, this is the first example in which selection for a particular mammalian behavior has been shown to result in a change in size of a specific brain region.

  2. Isokinetic eccentric exercise of quadriceps femoris does not affect running economy.

    PubMed

    Vassilis, Paschalis; Vassilios, Baltzopoulos; Vassilis, Mougios; Athanasios, Jamurtas Z; Vassilis, Theoharis; Christina, Karatzaferi; Yiannis, Koutedakis

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether running economy is affected by isokinetic eccentric exercise designed to cause muscle damage. Twenty-four young healthy men performed 120 maximal voluntary eccentric actions at each thigh's quadriceps muscle at an angular velocity of 60 degrees .s. The participants were then randomly divided into 2 equal groups, 1 of which exercised 24 hours later, while the other group rested. Muscle damage indicators (i.e., serum creatine kinase, delayed onset muscle soreness, and eccentric, concentric, and isometric peak torque) and running economy indicators (i.e., oxygen consumption, pulmonary ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio, respiratory rate, and heart rate during treadmill running at 2.2 and 3.3 m.s) were assessed prior to and 48 hours following the eccentric exercise. All muscle damage indicators changed significantly in both groups (p < 0.05) in a way suggestive of considerable muscle damage. Running economy indicators of the exercise group demonstrated only an elevation of respiratory rate at 48 hours (p < 0.05) and a tendency to lower economy compared to the resting group. It can be concluded that isokinetic eccentric exercise applied to the quadriceps femoris muscles did not affect running economy 48 hours later and that resting during this period tended to result in more economical running compared to exercising at 24 hours.

  3. Methodological framework for heart rate variability analysis during exercise: application to running and cycling stress testing.

    PubMed

    Hernando, David; Hernando, Alberto; Casajús, Jose A; Laguna, Pablo; Garatachea, Nuria; Bailón, Raquel

    2018-05-01

    Standard methodologies of heart rate variability analysis and physiological interpretation as a marker of autonomic nervous system condition have been largely published at rest, but not so much during exercise. A methodological framework for heart rate variability (HRV) analysis during exercise is proposed, which deals with the non-stationary nature of HRV during exercise, includes respiratory information, and identifies and corrects spectral components related to cardiolocomotor coupling (CC). This is applied to 23 male subjects who underwent different tests: maximal and submaximal, running and cycling; where the ECG, respiratory frequency and oxygen consumption were simultaneously recorded. High-frequency (HF) power results largely modified from estimations with the standard fixed band to those obtained with the proposed methodology. For medium and high levels of exercise and recovery, HF power results in a 20 to 40% increase. When cycling, HF power increases around 40% with respect to running, while CC power is around 20% stronger in running.

  4. Running exercise alleviates pain and promotes cell proliferation in a rat model of intervertebral disc degeneration.

    PubMed

    Luan, Shuo; Wan, Qing; Luo, Haijie; Li, Xiao; Ke, Songjian; Lin, Caina; Wu, Yuanyuan; Wu, Shaoling; Ma, Chao

    2015-01-19

    Chronic low back pain accompanied by intervertebral disk degeneration is a common musculoskeletal disorder. Physical exercise, which is clinically recommended by international guidelines, has proven to be effective for degenerative disc disease (DDD) patients. However, the mechanism underlying the analgesic effects of physical exercise on DDD remains largely unclear. The results of the present study showed that mechanical withdrawal thresholds of bilateral hindpaw were significantly decreased beginning on day three after intradiscal complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection and daily running exercise remarkably reduced allodynia in the CFA exercise group beginning at day 28 compared to the spontaneous recovery group (controls). The hindpaw withdrawal thresholds of the exercise group returned nearly to baseline at the end of experiment, but severe pain persisted in the control group. Histological examinations performed on day 70 revealed that running exercise restored the degenerative discs and increased the cell densities of the annulus fibrosus (AF) and nucleus pulposus (NP). Furthermore, immunofluorescence labeling revealed significantly higher numbers of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells in the exercise group on days 28, 42, 56 and 70, which indicated more rapid proliferation compared to the control at the corresponding time points. Taken together, these results suggest that running exercise might alleviate the mechanical allodynia induced by intradiscal CFA injection via disc repair and cell proliferation, which provides new evidence for future clinical use.

  5. Blood lactoferrin release induced by running exercise in normal volunteers: antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hiroyoshi; Sakai, Megumi; Kaida, Yasuhiko; Kaibara, Kozue

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine serum lactoferrin concentrations and serum antibacterial activity before and after running exercise. Twenty-four healthy young men were randomly assigned to high, middle, or low intensity of exercise groups (5000 steps running at 180, 130, and 80 steps/min, respectively). Blood samples were collected at baseline and immediately, 1 and 4 h after exercise. Concentrations of circulating neutrophils, serum lactoferrin, iron in whole blood, and serum iron were measured. Antibacterial activity of serum was evaluated using live Micrococcus luteus. The numbers of circulating neutrophils were increased by 20.0% and 15.5% 1 h after exercise in high and middle groups (both P<0.01), respectively. Serum lactoferrin concentrations were significantly increased immediately after exercise by 48.3% and 33.0% in the high and middle groups (both P<0.01), respectively. No significant changes in total iron or serum iron concentrations were observed during the study. Antibacterial activities of serum collected immediately after exercise in the high and middle groups were significantly stronger than those before exercise, by 31.2% and 25.4% (both P<0.05), respectively. Serum lactoferrin concentrations are increased immediately after running exercise and may play an antibacterial role in host defenses before mobilization of neutrophils into the circulating pool.

  6. Running Exercise Alleviates Pain and Promotes Cell Proliferation in a Rat Model of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Shuo; Wan, Qing; Luo, Haijie; Li, Xiao; Ke, Songjian; Lin, Caina; Wu, Yuanyuan; Wu, Shaoling; Ma, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Chronic low back pain accompanied by intervertebral disk degeneration is a common musculoskeletal disorder. Physical exercise, which is clinically recommended by international guidelines, has proven to be effective for degenerative disc disease (DDD) patients. However, the mechanism underlying the analgesic effects of physical exercise on DDD remains largely unclear. The results of the present study showed that mechanical withdrawal thresholds of bilateral hindpaw were significantly decreased beginning on day three after intradiscal complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) injection and daily running exercise remarkably reduced allodynia in the CFA exercise group beginning at day 28 compared to the spontaneous recovery group (controls). The hindpaw withdrawal thresholds of the exercise group returned nearly to baseline at the end of experiment, but severe pain persisted in the control group. Histological examinations performed on day 70 revealed that running exercise restored the degenerative discs and increased the cell densities of the annulus fibrosus (AF) and nucleus pulposus (NP). Furthermore, immunofluorescence labeling revealed significantly higher numbers of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells in the exercise group on days 28, 42, 56 and 70, which indicated more rapid proliferation compared to the control at the corresponding time points. Taken together, these results suggest that running exercise might alleviate the mechanical allodynia induced by intradiscal CFA injection via disc repair and cell proliferation, which provides new evidence for future clinical use. PMID:25607736

  7. Effects of Running Wheel Activity and Dietary HMB and β-alanine Co-Supplementation on Muscle Quality in Aged Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Russ, D W; Acksel, C; McCorkle, K W; Edens, N K; Garvey, S M

    2017-01-01

    Loss of skeletal muscle function is linked to increased risk for loss of health and independence in older adults. Dietary interventions that can enhance aging muscle function, alone or in combination with exercise, may offer an effective way to reduce these risks. The goal of this study was to evaluate the muscular effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) and beta-alanine (β-Ala) co-supplementation in aged Sprague-Dawley rats with voluntary access to running wheels (RW). Aged (20 months) rats were housed with ad libitum access to RW while on a purified diet for 4 weeks, then balanced for RW activity and assigned to either a control or an experimental diet (control + HMB and β-Ala) for the next 4 weeks (n = 10/group). At the end of the study, we assessed muscle size, in situ force and fatigability in the medial gastrocnemius muscles, as well as an array of protein markers related to various age- and activity-responsive signaling pathways. Dietary HMB+β-Ala did not improve muscle force or fatigue resistance, but a trend for increased muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) was observed (P = 0.077). As a result, rats on the experimental diet exhibited reduced muscle quality (force/CSA; P = 0.032). Dietary HMB+β-Ala reduced both the abundance of PGC1-α (P = 0.050) and the ratio of the lipidated to non-lipidated forms of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta (P = 0.004), markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy, respectively. Some alterations in myostatin signaling also occurred in the dietary HMB+β-Ala group. There was an unexpected difference (P = 0.046) in RW activity, which increased throughout the study in the animals on the control diet, but not in animals on the experimental diet. These data suggest that the short-term addition of dietary HMB+β-Ala to modest physical activity provided little enhancement of muscle function in this model of uncomplicated aging.

  8. Stress biomarkers in rats submitted to swimming and treadmill running exercises.

    PubMed

    Contarteze, Ricardo Vinícius Ledesma; Manchado, Fúlvia De Barros; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre; De Mello, Maria Alice Rostom

    2008-11-01

    The objective of the present work was to compare stress biomarkers (serum ACTH and corticosterone hormones) during known intensity swimming and treadmill running exercises performed by rats. Adult Wistar rats (n=41) weighing 320-400 g at the beginning and 420-500 g at the end of the experiment, previously adapted to exercise and with Maximal Lactate Steady State (MLSS) already determined were used. The animals were divided into the following subgroups: (1) sacrificed shortly after session of 25 min of exercise (swimming or treadmill) at the MLSS intensity or (2) sacrificed after exhaustive exercise (swimming or treadmill) at intensity 25% higher than MLSS. For comparison, a control group C was sacrificed at rest. Two-way ANOVA was used to identify differences in the stress parameters (P<0.05). At both exercise intensities serum ACTH concentrations were significantly higher for the swimming group compared to running and control groups, while serum corticosterone concentrations in swimming and running groups were significantly higher than in the control group. The differences were more pronounced at the higher intensity (25% higher than MLSS). The swimming group showed higher concentrations for both hormones in relation to the running group. Only acute swimming exercise induced activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses expected to stress: elevations in the serum ACTH and corticosterone concentrations.

  9. Fat max as an index of aerobic exercise performance in mice during uphill running

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Hirokazu

    2018-01-01

    Endurance exercise performance has been used as a representative index in experimental animal models in the field of health sciences, exercise physiology, comparative physiology, food function or nutritional physiology. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Fatmax (the exercise intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation) as an additional index of endurance exercise performance that can be measured during running at submaximal exercise intensity in mice. We measured both Fatmax and Vo2 peak of trained ICR mice that voluntary exercised for 8 weeks and compared them with a sedentary group of mice at multiple inclinations of 20, 30, 40, and 50° on a treadmill. The Vo2 at Fatmax of the training group was significantly higher than that of the sedentary group at inclinations of 30 and 40° (P < 0.001). The running speed at Fatmax of the training group was significantly higher than that of the sedentary group at inclinations of 20, 30, and 40° (P < 0.05). Blood lactate levels sharply increased in the sedentary group (7.33 ± 2.58 mM) compared to the training group (3.13 ± 1.00 mM, P < 0.01) when running speeds exceeded the Fatmax of sedentary mice. Vo2 at Fatmax significantly correlated to Vo2 peak, running time to fatigue, and lactic acid level during running (P < 0.05) although the reproducibility of Vo2 peak was higher than that of Vo2 at Fatmax. In conclusion, Fatmax can be used as a functional assessment of the endurance exercise performance of mice during submaximal exercise intensity. PMID:29474428

  10. Motor-skill learning in a novel running-wheel task is dependent on D1 dopamine receptors in the striatum

    PubMed Central

    Willuhn, Ingo; Steiner, Heinz

    2008-01-01

    Evidence indicates that dopamine receptors regulate processes of procedural learning in the sensorimotor striatum. Our previous studies revealed that the indirect dopamine receptor agonist cocaine alters motor-skill learning-associated gene regulation in the sensorimotor striatum. Cocaine-induced gene regulation in the striatum is principally mediated by D1 dopamine receptors. We investigated the effects of cocaine and striatal D1 receptor antagonism on motor-skill learning. Rats were trained on a running wheel (40–60 min, 2–5 days) to learn a new motor skill, that is, the ability to control the movement of the wheel. Immediately before each training session, the animals received an injection of vehicle or cocaine (25 mg/kg, i.p.), and/or the D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390 (0, 3, 10 μg/kg, i.p., or 0, 0.3, 1 μg, intrastriatal via chronically implanted cannula). The animal’s ability to control/balance the moving wheel (wheel skill) was tested before and repeatedly after the training. Normal wheel-skill memory lasted for at least 4 weeks. Cocaine administered before the training tended to attenuate skill learning. Systemic administration of SCH-23390 alone also impaired skill learning. However, cocaine given in conjunction with the lower SCH-23390 dose (3 μg/kg) reversed the inhibition of skill learning produced by the D1 receptor antagonist, enabling intact skill performance during the whole post-training period. In contrast, when cocaine was administered with the higher SCH-23390 dose (10 μg/kg), skill performance was normalized 1–6 days after the training, but these rats lost their improved wheel skill by day 18 after the training. Similar effects were produced by SCH-23390 (0.3–1 μg) infused into the striatum. Our results indicate that cocaine interferes with normal motor-skill learning, which seems to be dependent on optimal D1 receptor signaling. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that D1 receptors in the striatum are critical for

  11. Early motor deficits in mouse disease models are reliably uncovered using an automated home-cage wheel-running system: a cross-laboratory validation

    PubMed Central

    Mandillo, Silvia; Heise, Ines; Garbugino, Luciana; Tocchini-Valentini, Glauco P.; Giuliani, Alessandro; Wells, Sara; Nolan, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in motor function are debilitating features in disorders affecting neurological, neuromuscular and musculoskeletal systems. Although these disorders can vary greatly with respect to age of onset, symptomatic presentation, rate of progression and severity, the study of these disease models in mice is confined to the use of a small number of tests, most commonly the rotarod test. To expand the repertoire of meaningful motor function tests in mice, we tested, optimised and validated an automated home-cage-based running-wheel system, incorporating a conventional wheel with evenly spaced rungs and a complex wheel with particular rungs absent. The system enables automated assessment of motor function without handler interference, which is desirable in longitudinal studies involving continuous monitoring of motor performance. In baseline studies at two test centres, consistently significant differences in performance on both wheels were detectable among four commonly used inbred strains. As further validation, we studied performance in mutant models of progressive neurodegenerative diseases – Huntington’s disease [TgN(HD82Gln)81Dbo; referred to as HD mice] and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis [Tg(SOD1G93A)dl1/GurJ; referred to as SOD1 mice] – and in a mutant strain with subtle gait abnormalities, C-Snap25Bdr/H (Blind-drunk, Bdr). In both models of progressive disease, as with the third mutant, we could reliably and consistently detect specific motor function deficits at ages far earlier than any previously recorded symptoms in vivo: 7–8 weeks for the HD mice and 12 weeks for the SOD1 mice. We also conducted longitudinal analysis of rotarod and grip strength performance, for which deficits were still not detectable at 12 weeks and 23 weeks, respectively. Several new parameters of motor behaviour were uncovered using principal component analysis, indicating that the wheel-running assay could record features of motor function that are independent of rotarod

  12. Early motor deficits in mouse disease models are reliably uncovered using an automated home-cage wheel-running system: a cross-laboratory validation.

    PubMed

    Mandillo, Silvia; Heise, Ines; Garbugino, Luciana; Tocchini-Valentini, Glauco P; Giuliani, Alessandro; Wells, Sara; Nolan, Patrick M

    2014-03-01

    Deficits in motor function are debilitating features in disorders affecting neurological, neuromuscular and musculoskeletal systems. Although these disorders can vary greatly with respect to age of onset, symptomatic presentation, rate of progression and severity, the study of these disease models in mice is confined to the use of a small number of tests, most commonly the rotarod test. To expand the repertoire of meaningful motor function tests in mice, we tested, optimised and validated an automated home-cage-based running-wheel system, incorporating a conventional wheel with evenly spaced rungs and a complex wheel with particular rungs absent. The system enables automated assessment of motor function without handler interference, which is desirable in longitudinal studies involving continuous monitoring of motor performance. In baseline studies at two test centres, consistently significant differences in performance on both wheels were detectable among four commonly used inbred strains. As further validation, we studied performance in mutant models of progressive neurodegenerative diseases--Huntington's disease [TgN(HD82Gln)81Dbo; referred to as HD mice] and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis [Tg(SOD1G93A)(dl)1/GurJ; referred to as SOD1 mice]--and in a mutant strain with subtle gait abnormalities, C-Snap25(Bdr)/H (Blind-drunk, Bdr). In both models of progressive disease, as with the third mutant, we could reliably and consistently detect specific motor function deficits at ages far earlier than any previously recorded symptoms in vivo: 7-8 weeks for the HD mice and 12 weeks for the SOD1 mice. We also conducted longitudinal analysis of rotarod and grip strength performance, for which deficits were still not detectable at 12 weeks and 23 weeks, respectively. Several new parameters of motor behaviour were uncovered using principal component analysis, indicating that the wheel-running assay could record features of motor function that are independent of rotarod

  13. Treadmill running exercise prevents senile osteoporosis and upregulates the Wnt signaling pathway in SAMP6 mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Li, Lihui; Guo, Jianmin; Zhang, Lingli; Yuan, Yu; Chen, Binglin; Sun, Zhongguang; Xu, Jiake; Zou, Jun

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the effects of different exercise intensities and durations on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone strength in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 6 (SAMP6) and determined the involvement of the Wnt signaling pathway in exercise-induced osteogenesis. Three-month-old male SAMP6 mice were randomly assigned to different speeds of treadmill running exercise representing low, medium and high intensity, with the duration of five and nine weeks, respectively. We showed that medium-intensity exercise had positive effects on skeletal health, including BMD and bone strength, and the efficacy was higher than that of low-intensity exercise. Interestingly, high-intensity exercise can maintain or even increase bone strength, despite its negative effects on bone mass. Nine weeks of exercise was superior to 5 weeks of exercise, particularly for low-intensity exercise. Furthermore, these effects of exercise-induced osteogenesis are accompanied by activation of the Wnt signaling pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that the positive effects of exercise on osteoporosis prevention are intensity and duration-dependent, and may involve the regulation of Wnt signaling pathways.

  14. Treadmill running exercise prevents senile osteoporosis and upregulates the Wnt signaling pathway in SAMP6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Li, Lihui; Guo, Jianmin; Zhang, Lingli; Yuan, Yu; Chen, Binglin; Sun, Zhongguang; Xu, Jiake; Zou, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of different exercise intensities and durations on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone strength in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 6 (SAMP6) and determined the involvement of the Wnt signaling pathway in exercise-induced osteogenesis. Three-month-old male SAMP6 mice were randomly assigned to different speeds of treadmill running exercise representing low, medium and high intensity, with the duration of five and nine weeks, respectively. We showed that medium-intensity exercise had positive effects on skeletal health, including BMD and bone strength, and the efficacy was higher than that of low-intensity exercise. Interestingly, high-intensity exercise can maintain or even increase bone strength, despite its negative effects on bone mass. Nine weeks of exercise was superior to 5 weeks of exercise, particularly for low-intensity exercise. Furthermore, these effects of exercise-induced osteogenesis are accompanied by activation of the Wnt signaling pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that the positive effects of exercise on osteoporosis prevention are intensity and duration-dependent, and may involve the regulation of Wnt signaling pathways. PMID:27661008

  15. Running exercise protects the capillaries in white matter in a rat model of depression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin-Mu; Zhang, Ai-Pin; Wang, Fei-Fei; Tan, Chuan-Xue; Gao, Yuan; Huang, Chun-Xia; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Lin; Zhou, Chun-Ni; Chao, Feng-Lei; Zhang, Lei; Tang, Yong

    2016-12-01

    Running has been shown to improve depressive symptoms when used as an adjunct to medication. However, the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effects of running are not fully understood. Changes of capillaries in white matter have been discovered in clinical patients and depression model rats. Considering the important part of white matter in depression, running may cause capillary structural changes in white matter. Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) rats were provided with a 4-week running exercise (from the fifth week to the eighth week) for 20 minutes each day for 5 consecutive days each week. Anhedonia was measured by a behavior test. Furthermore, capillary changes were investigated in the control group, the CUS/Standard group, and the CUS/Running group using stereological methods. The 4-week running increased sucrose consumption significantly in the CUS/Running group and had significant effects on the total volume, total length, and total surface area of the capillaries in the white matter of depression rats. These results demonstrated that exercise-induced protection of the capillaries in white matter might be one of the structural bases for the exercise-induced treatment of depression. It might provide important parameters for further study of the vascular mechanisms of depression and a new research direction for the development of clinical antidepressant means. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3577-3586, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Exercise for Everyone: A randomized controlled trial of Project Workout On Wheels in promoting exercise among wheelchair users

    PubMed Central

    Froehlich-Grobe, Katherine; Lee, Jaehoon; Aaronson, Lauren; Nary, Dorothy E.; Washburn, Richard A; Little, Todd D

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of two home-based behavioral interventions to promote wheelchair users exercise adoption and maintenance over 12 months. Design Randomized controlled trial, with participants stratified into groups based on disability type (stable, episodic, progressive) and support partner availability. Setting Exercise occurred in participant preferred locations (e.g., home, recreation center), with physiological data collected at the university-based exercise lab. Participants One hundred twenty-eight inactive wheelchair users (64 women) with sufficient upper arm mobility for arm-based exercise enrolled. Participants on average were 45 years old, lived with their impairment for 22 years, with spinal cord injury (46.1%) most commonly reported as causing mobility impairment. Interventions Both groups received home-based exercise interventions. The staff-supported group (n= 69) received intensive exercise support, while the self-guided group (n= 59) received minimal support. Both received exercise information, resistance bands, instructions to self-monitor exercise, regularly-scheduled phone calls, and handwritten cards. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome derived from weekly self-reported exercise. Secondary outcomes included physical fitness (aerobic/muscular) and predictors of exercise participation. Results The staff-supported group reported significantly greater exercise (~ 16 minutes/week) than the self-guided group over the year (t=10.6, p=0.00), with no significant between group difference in aerobic capacity (t=0.76, p=0.45) and strength (t=1.5, p=0.14). Conclusions Although the staff-supported group reported only moderately more exercise, the difference is potentially clinically significant as they also exercised more frequently. The staff-supported approach holds promise for encouraging exercise among wheelchair users, yet additional support may be necessary to achieve more exercise to meet national recommendations. PMID

  17. Running for exercise mitigates age-related deterioration of walking economy.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Justus D; Beck, Owen N; Roby, Jaclyn M; Turney, Aria L; Kram, Rodger

    2014-01-01

    Impaired walking performance is a key predictor of morbidity among older adults. A distinctive characteristic of impaired walking performance among older adults is a greater metabolic cost (worse economy) compared to young adults. However, older adults who consistently run have been shown to retain a similar running economy as young runners. Unfortunately, those running studies did not measure the metabolic cost of walking. Thus, it is unclear if running exercise can prevent the deterioration of walking economy. To determine if and how regular walking vs. running exercise affects the economy of locomotion in older adults. 15 older adults (69 ± 3 years) who walk ≥ 30 min, 3x/week for exercise, "walkers" and 15 older adults (69 ± 5 years) who run ≥ 30 min, 3x/week, "runners" walked on a force-instrumented treadmill at three speeds (0.75, 1.25, and 1.75 m/s). We determined walking economy using expired gas analysis and walking mechanics via ground reaction forces during the last 2 minutes of each 5 minute trial. We compared walking economy between the two groups and to non-aerobically trained young and older adults from a prior study. Older runners had a 7-10% better walking economy than older walkers over the range of speeds tested (p = .016) and had walking economy similar to young sedentary adults over a similar range of speeds (p =  .237). We found no substantial biomechanical differences between older walkers and runners. In contrast to older runners, older walkers had similar walking economy as older sedentary adults (p =  .461) and ∼ 26% worse walking economy than young adults (p<.0001). Running mitigates the age-related deterioration of walking economy whereas walking for exercise appears to have minimal effect on the age-related deterioration in walking economy.

  18. Involuntary wheel running improves but does not fully reverse the deterioration of bone structure of obese rats despite decreasing adiposity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Excessive adiposity induced by a high-fat diet is detrimental to bone structure and strength in various animal models. This study investigated whether exercise or anti-oxidant supplementation with vitamin C and E during exercise counteracts bone structure deterioration at different skeletal sites an...

  19. Physical and Emotional Benefits of Different Exercise Environments Designed for Treadmill Running

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, Sarah M.; Brymer, Eric; Davids, Keith

    2017-01-01

    (1) Background: Green physical activity promotes physical health and mental wellbeing and interesting questions concern effects of this information on designing indoor exercise environments. This study examined the physical and emotional effects of different nature-based environments designed for indoor treadmill running; (2) Methods: In a counterbalanced experimental design, 30 participants performed three, twenty-minute treadmill runs at a self-selected pace while viewing either a static nature image, a dynamic nature image or self-selected entertainment. Distance ran, heart rate (HR) and five pre-and post-exercise emotional states were measured; (3) Results: Participants ran farther, and with higher HRs, with self-selected entertainment compared to the two nature-based environment designs. Participants attained lowered anger, dejection, anxiety and increased excitement post exercise in all of the designed environments. Happiness increased during the two nature-based environment designs compared with self-selected entertainment; (4) Conclusions: Self-selected entertainment encouraged greater physical performances whereas running in nature-based exercise environments elicited greater happiness immediately after running. PMID:28696384

  20. Physical and Emotional Benefits of Different Exercise Environments Designed for Treadmill Running.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Hsiao-Pu; Stone, Joseph A; Churchill, Sarah M; Brymer, Eric; Davids, Keith

    2017-07-11

    (1) Background: Green physical activity promotes physical health and mental wellbeing and interesting questions concern effects of this information on designing indoor exercise environments. This study examined the physical and emotional effects of different nature-based environments designed for indoor treadmill running; (2) Methods: In a counterbalanced experimental design, 30 participants performed three, twenty-minute treadmill runs at a self-selected pace while viewing either a static nature image, a dynamic nature image or self-selected entertainment. Distance ran, heart rate (HR) and five pre-and post-exercise emotional states were measured; (3) Results: Participants ran farther, and with higher HRs, with self-selected entertainment compared to the two nature-based environment designs. Participants attained lowered anger, dejection, anxiety and increased excitement post exercise in all of the designed environments. Happiness increased during the two nature-based environment designs compared with self-selected entertainment; (4) Conclusions: Self-selected entertainment encouraged greater physical performances whereas running in nature-based exercise environments elicited greater happiness immediately after running.

  1. The effects of 8 weeks voluntary wheel running on the contractile performance of isolated locomotory (soleus) and respiratory (diaphragm) skeletal muscle during early ageing.

    PubMed

    Tallis, Jason; Higgins, Matthew F; Seebacher, Frank; Cox, Val M; Duncan, Michael J; James, Rob S

    2017-10-15

    Decreased skeletal muscle performance with increasing age is strongly associated with reduced mobility and quality of life. Increased physical activity is a widely prescribed method of reducing the detrimental effects of ageing on skeletal muscle contractility. The present study used isometric and work loop testing protocols to uniquely investigate the effects of 8 weeks of voluntary wheel running on the contractile performance of isolated dynapenic soleus and diaphragm muscles of 38-week-old CD1 mice. When compared with untrained controls, voluntary wheel running induced significant improvements in maximal isometric stress and work loop power, a reduced resistance to fatigue, but greater cumulative work during fatiguing work loop contractions in isolated muscle. These differences occurred without appreciable changes in lactate dehydrogenase, citrate synthase, sarco-endoplasmic reticulum ATPase or myosin heavy chain expression synonymous with this form of training in younger rodent models. Despite the given improvement in contractile performance, the average running distance significantly declined over the course of the training period, indicating that this form of training may not be sufficient to fully counteract the longer-term ageing-induced decline in skeletal muscle contractile performance. Although these results indicate that regular low-intensity physical activity may be beneficial in offsetting the age-related decline in skeletal muscle contractility, future work focusing on the maintenance of a healthy body mass with increasing age and its effects on myosin-actin cross-bridge kinetics and Ca 2+ handling is needed to clarify the mechanisms causing the improved contractile performance in trained dynapenic skeletal muscle. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Effects of repeated bouts of squatting exercise on sub-maximal endurance running performance.

    PubMed

    Burt, Dean; Lamb, Kevin; Nicholas, Ceri; Twist, Craig

    2013-02-01

    It is well established that exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) has a detrimental effect on endurance exercise performed in the days that follow. However, it is unknown whether such effects remain after a repeated bout of EIMD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of repeated bouts of muscle-damaging exercise on sub-maximal running exercise. Nine male participants completed baseline measurements associated with a sub-maximal running bout at lactate turn point. These measurements were repeated 24-48 h after EIMD, comprising 100 squats (10 sets of 10 at 80 % body mass). Two weeks later, when symptoms from the first bout of EIMD had dissipated, all procedures performed at baseline were repeated. Results revealed significant increases in muscle soreness and creatine kinase activity and decreases in peak knee extensor torque and vertical jump performance at 24-48 h after the initial bout of EIMD. However, after the repeated bout, symptoms of EIMD were reduced from baseline at 24-48 h. Significant increases in oxygen uptake (.VO2), minute ventilation (.VE), blood lactate ([BLa]), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), stride frequency and decreases in stride length were observed during sub-maximal running at 24-48 h following the initial bout of EIMD. However, following the repeated bout of EIMD, .VO2, .VE, [BLa], RPE and stride pattern responses during sub-maximal running remained unchanged from baseline at all time points. These findings confirm that a single resistance session protects skeletal muscle against the detrimental effects of EIMD on sub-maximal running endurance exercise.

  3. Green tea extract improves running endurance in mice by stimulating lipid utilization during exercise.

    PubMed

    Murase, Takatoshi; Haramizu, Satoshi; Shimotoyodome, Akira; Tokimitsu, Ichiro; Hase, Tadashi

    2006-06-01

    A series of polyphenols known as catechins are abundant in green tea, which is consumed mainly in Asian countries. The effects of catechin-rich green tea extract (GTE) on running endurance and energy metabolism during exercise in BALB/c mice were investigated. Mice were divided into four groups: nonexercise control, exercise control (Ex-cont), exercise+0.2% GTE, and exercise+0.5% GTE groups. Treadmill running time to exhaustion, plasma biochemical parameters, skeletal muscle glycogen content, beta-oxidation activity, and malonyl-CoA content immediately after exercise were measured at 8-10 wk after the initiation of the experiment. Oxygen consumption and respiratory exchange ratio were measured using indirect calorimetry. Running times to exhaustion in mice fed 0.5% GTE were 30% higher than in Ex-cont mice and were accompanied by a lower respiratory exchange ratio, higher muscle beta-oxidation activity, and lower malonyl-CoA content. In addition, muscle glycogen content was high in the GTE group compared with the Ex-cont group. Plasma lactate concentrations in mice fed GTE were significantly lower after exercise, concomitant with an increase in free fatty acid concentrations. Catechins, which are the main constituents of GTE, did not show significant effects on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha or delta-dependent luciferase activities. These results suggest that the endurance-improving effects of GTE were mediated, at least partly, by increased metabolic capacity and utilization of fatty acid as a source of energy in skeletal muscle during exercise.

  4. [A comparison between wheel-running and ambulatory activities in young, adult and old rats based on long-term observation].

    PubMed

    Shinoda, M; Miura, T

    1994-01-01

    It has been considered that spontaneous motor activity (SMA) represented by wheel-running activity (WRA) or ambulatory activity (AA) is one of the most basic indicators in the behavioral-pharmacological test in small rodents. Since various differences are noticeable between WRA and AA in their characteristics or drug responses, both activities may be not considered as the same category of SMA. The main purpose of this study was to elucidate the background difference between WRA and AA in three different aged groups, based on their long-term observation. AA data obtained by Gundai type Ambulo-drinkometer were applied for comparison with WRA data obtained by Wheel-drinkometer. WRA, AA and drinking behavior all showed clear diurnal rhythms characterized by nocturnal animals under light-dark condition (LD = 12:12 h). WRA and AA, in particular the former, tended to decrease according to the aging. More than 30 days habituation was required in order to obtain stable daily WRA level in adult rats. AA of young rats was higher than the other aged rats. The present results suggest that indicators, conditions, measurement apparatus, age etc have to be considered in behavioral-pharmacological observations using WRA or AA.

  5. Influence of Post-Exercise Carbohydrate-Protein Ingestion on Muscle Glycogen Metabolism in Recovery and Subsequent Running Exercise.

    PubMed

    Alghannam, Abdullah F; Jedrzejewski, Dawid; Bilzon, James; Thompson, Dylan; Tsintzas, Kostas; Betts, James A

    2016-12-01

    We examined whether carbohydrate-protein ingestion influences muscle glycogen metabolism during short-term recovery from exhaustive treadmill running and subsequent exercise. Six endurance-trained individuals underwent two trials in a randomized double-blind design, each involving an initial run-to-exhaustion at 70% VO 2max (Run-1) followed by 4-h recovery (REC) and subsequent run-to-exhaustion at 70% VO 2max (Run-2). Carbohydrate-protein (CHO-P; 0.8 g carbohydrate·kg body mass [BM -1 ]·h -1 plus 0.4 g protein·kg BM -1 ·h -1 ) or isocaloric carbohydrate (CHO; 1.2 g carbohydrate·kg BM -1 ·h -1 ) beverages were ingested at 30-min intervals during recovery. Muscle biopsies were taken upon cessation of Run-1, postrecovery and fatigue in Run-2. Time-to-exhaustion in Run-1 was similar with CHO and CHO-P (81 ± 17 and 84 ± 19 min, respectively). Muscle glycogen concentrations were similar between treatments after Run-1 (99 ± 3 mmol·kg dry mass [dm -1 ]). During REC, muscle glycogen concentrations increased to 252 ± 45 mmol·kg dm -1 in CHO and 266 ± 30 mmol·kg dm -1 in CHO-P (p = .44). Muscle glycogen degradation during Run-2 was similar between trials (3.3 ± 1.4 versus 3.5 ± 1.9 mmol·kg dm -1 ·min -1 in CHO and CHO-P, respectively) and no differences were observed at the respective points of exhaustion (93 ± 21 versus 100 ± 11 mmol·kg dm -1 ; CHO and CHO-P, respectively). Similarly, time-to-exhaustion was not different between treatments in Run-2 (51 ± 13 and 49 ± 15 min in CHO and CHO-P, respectively). Carbohydrate-protein ingestion equally accelerates muscle glycogen resynthesis during short-term recovery from exhaustive running as when 1.2 g carbohydrate·kg BM -1 ·h -1 are ingested. The addition of protein did not alter muscle glycogen utilization or time to fatigue during repeated exhaustive running.

  6. Effect of post-exercise hydrotherapy water temperature on subsequent exhaustive running performance in normothermic conditions.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Alan; Crampton, David; Egaña, Mikel

    2013-09-01

    Despite the widespread use of cold water immersion (CWI) in normothermic conditions, little data is available on its effect on subsequent endurance performance. This study examined the effect of CWI as a recovery strategy on subsequent running performance in normothermic ambient conditions (∼22°C). Nine endurance-trained men completed two submaximal exhaustive running bouts on three separate occasions. The running bouts (Ex1 and Ex2) were separated by 15min of un-immersed seated rest (CON), hip-level CWI at 8°C (CWI-8) or hip-level CWI at 15°C (CWI-15). Intestinal temperature, blood lactate and heart rate were recorded throughout and V˙O2, running economy and exercise times were recorded during the running sessions. Running time to failure (min) during Ex2 was significantly (p<0.05, ES=0.7) longer following CWI-8 (27.7±6.3) than CON (23.3±5) but not different between CWI-15 (26.3±3.4) and CON (p=0.06, ES=0.7) or CWI-8 and CWI-15 (p=0.4, ES=0.2). Qualitative analyses showed a 95% and 89% likely beneficial effect of CWI-8 and CWI-15 during Ex2 compared with CON, respectively. Time to failure during Ex2 was significantly shorter than Ex1 only during the CON condition. Intestinal temperature and HR were significantly lower for most of Ex2 during CWI-8 and CWI-15 compared with CON but they were similar at failure for the three conditions. Blood lactate, running economy and V˙O2 were not altered by CWI. These data indicate that a 15min period of cold water immersion applied between repeated exhaustive exercise bouts significantly reduces intestinal temperature and enhances post-immersion running performance in normothermic conditions. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Running economy is impaired following a single bout of resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Palmer, C D; Sleivert, G G

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a low-volume high-intensity resistance training session influenced running economy during a subsequent aerobic treadmill run. Nine well trained distance runners (mean +/- SD; VO2max, 66.6 +/- 10.2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1); weight, 65.8 +/- 10.2 kg; height, 173.4 +/- 7.8 cm; age 20 +/- 1.1 years) with resistance training experience performed treadmill running at two different speeds (0.56 m x sec(-1) and 0.20 m x sec(-1) below speed corresponding to lactate equilibrium) either rested or 1, 8 or 24 hours after a 50-minute whole body resistance training session. Running economy was assessed using open circuit spirometry while heart rate was recorded telemetrically. The contractile properties of the quadriceps femoris were also determined following each resistance training session and prior to each treadmill run using percutaneous electrical stimulation. Submaximal oxygen consumption was significantly increased one hour (2.6 +/- 2.3%, p= 0.007), and eight hours (1.6 +/- 2.5%, p= 0.032), but not 24 hours after resistance training. No significant differences were found in exercising heart rate, ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio, ratings of perceived exertion, or running mechanics. Peak twitch torque, time to peak torque, and half relaxation time of the quadriceps femoris were significantly reduced immediately following resistance training while peak twitch torque was also lower one hour following resistance training. Running economy following a resistance training session is impaired for up to 8 hours. This change was not paralleled by a concomitant change in exercising heart rate. The mechanism responsible for increased oxygen consumption following resistance training may be related to impairment of the force generating capacity of skeletal muscle, as there was a significant decrement in the contractile properties of the quadriceps femoris following resistance training.

  8. Why Is It Harder to Run on an Inclined Exercise Treadmill?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nave, Carla M. A. P. F.; Amoreira, Luis J. M.

    2014-01-01

    It is a known fact that it takes a greater effort to run on an exercise treadmill when it is inclined with positive slope than when it is in a horizontal position. The reason seems simple: walking on an inclined treadmill is somehow equivalent to walking up a hill with the same inclination; when we walk up a hill, our own weight does negative work…

  9. Effect of continuous and intermittent bouts of isocaloric cycling and running exercise on excess postexercise oxygen consumption.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Felipe A; Midgley, Adrian W; McNaughton, Lars R; Farinatti, Paulo T V

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) induced by isocaloric bouts of continuous and intermittent running and cycling exercise. This was a counterbalanced randomized cross-over study. Ten healthy men, aged 23-34yr, performed six bouts of exercise: (a) two maximal cardiopulmonary exercise tests for running and cycling to determine exercise modality-specific peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak); and (b) four isocaloric exercise bouts (two continuous bouts expending 400kcal and two intermittent bouts split into 2×200kcal) performed at 75% of the running and cycling oxygen uptake reserve. Exercise bouts were separated by 72h and performed in a randomized, counter-balanced order. The VO2 was monitored for 60-min postexercise and for 60-min during a control non-exercise day. The VO2 was significantly greater in all exercise conditions compared to the control session (P<0.001). The combined magnitude of the EPOC from the two intermittent bouts was significantly greater than that of the continuous cycling (mean difference=3.5L, P=0.001) and running (mean difference=6.4L, P<0.001). The exercise modality had a significant effect on net EPOC, where running elicited a higher net EPOC than cycling (mean difference=2.2L, P<0.001). Intermittent exercise increased the EPOC compared to a continuous exercise bout of equivalent energy expenditure. Furthermore, the magnitude of EPOC was influenced by exercise modality, with the greatest EPOC occurring with isocaloric exercise involving larger muscle mass (i.e., treadmill running vs. cycling). Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Physiological responses to self-paced exercise: effort-matched comparisons across running and rowing modalities.

    PubMed

    Edwards, A M; Lander, P J

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not physiological responses to self-pacing are similar across different exercise modalities where the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) is matched. Ten recreationally active adult male subjects completed baseline tests of peak oxygen uptake (.VO2) and subsequently on two separate occasions performed 20-min exercise bouts at RPE 15 (Hard) on both a motorized treadmill and a rowing ergometer. Mean relative work intensity (% of baseline peak (.VO2) for treadmill running was significantly higher than for rowing (86.1% vs. 83.7%) (P<0.05). Mean heart rates (174.7±5.9 vs. 165.5±6.6 b∙min-1) and pre- to post-bout changes in blood lactate concentration (4.0±0.8 vs. 3.3±1.2 mmol/L) were also greater in the running trial than rowing (P<0.05). Baseline peak (.VO2 was positively correlated between modalities (r=0.63; P<0.05) as were the main trial mean (.VO2 (r=0.73; P<0.05) and heart rate (r=0.67; P<0.05) from the 20-min bouts. The elevated relative exercise intensity and physiological responses to motorized treadmill running suggests greater work outputs can be accomplished in this modality for the same perceived effort compared to rowing among recreationally active participants.

  11. Normobaric Hypoxia and Submaximal Exercise Effects on Running Memory and Mood State in Women.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yongsuk; Gerhart, Hayden D; Stavres, Jon; Fennell, Curtis; Draper, Shane; Glickman, Ellen L

    2017-07-01

    An acute bout of exercise can improve cognitive function in normoxic and hypoxic conditions. However, limited research supports the improvement of cognitive function and mood state in women. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of hypoxia and exercise on working memory and mood state in women. There were 15 healthy women (age = 22 ± 2 yr) who completed the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics-4th Edition (ANAM), including the Running Memory Continuous Performance Task (RMCPT) and Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) in normoxia (21% O2), at rest in normoxia and hypoxia (12.5% O2), and during cycling exercise at 60% and 40% Vo2max in hypoxia. RMCPT was not significantly impaired at 30 (100.3 ± 17.2) and 60 (96.6 ± 17.3) min rest in hypoxia compared to baseline in normoxia (97.0 ± 17.0). However, RMCPT was significantly improved during exercise (106.7 ± 20.8) at 60% Vo2max compared to 60 min rest in hypoxia. Following 30 (-89.4 ± 48.3) and 60 min of exposure to hypoxia (-79.8 ± 55.9) at rest, TMD was impaired compared with baseline (-107.1 ± 46.2). TMD was significantly improved during exercise (-108.5 ± 42.7) at 40% Vo2max compared with 30 min rest in hypoxia. Also, RMCPT was significantly improved during exercise (104.0 ± 19.1) at 60% Vo2max compared to 60 min rest in hypoxia (96.6 ± 17.3). Hypoxia and an acute bout of exercise partially influence RMCPT and TMD. Furthermore, a moderate-intensity bout of exercise (60%) may be a more potent stimulant for improving cognitive function than low-intensity (40%) exercise. The present data should be considered by aeromedical personnel performing cognitive tasks in hypoxia.Seo Y, Gerhart HD, Stavres J, Fennell C, Draper S, Glickman EL. Normobaric hypoxia and submaximal exercise effects on running memory and mood state in women. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(7):627-632.

  12. Differential effects of jump versus running exercise on trabecular architecture during remobilization after suspension-induced osteopenia in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Ju, Yong-In; Sone, Teruki; Ohnaru, Kazuhiro; Choi, Hak-Jin; Fukunaga, Masao

    2012-03-01

    High-impact exercise is considered to be very beneficial for bones. We investigated the ability of jump exercise to restore bone mass and structure after the deterioration induced by tail suspension in growing rats and made comparisons with treadmill running exercise. Five-week-old male Wistar rats (n = 28) were randomly assigned to four body weight-matched groups: a spontaneous recovery group after tail suspension (n = 7), a jump exercise group after tail suspension (n = 7), a treadmill running group after tail suspension (n = 7), and age-matched controls without tail suspension or exercise (n = 7). Treadmill running was performed at 25 m/min, 1 h/day, 5 days/wk. The jump exercise protocol consisted of 10 jumps/day, 5 days/wk, with a jump height of 40 cm. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the total right femur was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Three-dimensional trabecular bone architecture at the distal femoral metaphysis was evaluated using microcomputed tomography. After 5 wk of free remobilization, right femoral BMD, right hindlimb muscle weight, and body weight returned to age-matched control levels, but trabeculae remained thinner and less connected. Although both jump and running exercises during the remobilization period increased trabecular bone mass, jump exercise increased trabecular thickness, whereas running exercise increased trabecular number. These results indicate that restoration of trabecular bone architecture induced by jump exercise during remobilization is predominantly attributable to increased trabecular thickness, whereas running adds trabecular bone mass through increasing trabecular number, and suggest that jumping and running exercises have different mechanisms of action on structural characteristics of trabecular bone.

  13. Effects of Exergame and Music on Acute Exercise Responses to Graded Treadmill Running.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Pooya; Salesi, Mohsen

    2013-04-01

    Recreational athletes may listen to music or watch videos to prolong their exercise routines. In recent years, use of active videogames has increased. The effects of audiovisual encouragements have not been compared for their potential ergogenic effects on physiological variables during moderate- to high-intensity exercises. Here 60 sedentary healthy male students were divided into four groups-control (CON), audio feedback (A), videogame feedback (V), and a combination of A and V (AV)-based on previous measurement of maximum oxygen uptake using covariate adaptive randomization. Participants completed a bout of running (Balke treadmill test) until exhaustion based on the type of feedback. Exercise responses (time, heart rate, blood sugar level, and creatine kinase level) were compared in all groups before and after participation. Participants in group A ran significantly more than those in the CON group, and those in group AV ran significantly more than those in groups CON and V. In other physiological responses, the differences were not significant among groups. It is proposed that intentional functions from internal (physical feelings) to external perspective (music and video) may have been involved in increasing exercise time but were not strong enough to change levels of other physiological parameters. However, these findings have strong applications for improving fitness exercise programs while using a new generation of videogames.

  14. AMPK agonist AICAR delays the initial decline in lifetime-apex V̇o2 peak, while voluntary wheel running fails to delay its initial decline in female rats.

    PubMed

    Toedebusch, Ryan G; Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Braselton, Joshua F; Heese, Alexander J; Hofheins, John C; Childs, Tom E; Thyfault, John P; Booth, Frank W

    2016-02-01

    There has never been an outcome measure for human health more important than peak oxygen consumption (V̇o2 peak), yet little is known regarding the molecular triggers for its lifetime decline with aging. We examined the ability of physical activity or 5 wk of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) administration to delay the initial aging-induced decline in lifetime-apex V̇o2 peak and potential underlying molecular mechanisms. Experiment 1 consisted of female rats with (RUN) and without (NO RUN) running wheels, while experiment 2 consisted of female nonrunning rats getting the AMPK agonist AICAR (0.5 mg/g/day) subcutaneously for 5 wk beginning at 17 wk of age. All rats underwent frequent, weekly or biweekly V̇o2 peak tests beginning at 10 wk of age. In experiment 1, lifetime-apex V̇o2 peak occurred at 19 wk of age in both RUN and NO RUN and decreased thereafter. V̇o2 peak measured across experiment 1 was ∼25% higher in RUN than in NO RUN. In experiment 2, AICAR delayed the chronological age observed in experiment 1 by 1 wk, from 19 wk to 20 wk of age. RUN and NO RUN showed different skeletal muscle transcriptomic profiles both pre- and postapex. Additionally, growth and development pathways are differentially regulated between RUN and NO RUN. Angiomotin mRNA was downregulated postapex in RUN and NO RUN. Furthermore, strong significant correlations to V̇o2 peak and trends for decreased protein concentration supports angiomotin's potential importance in our model. Contrary to our primary hypothesis, wheel running was not sufficient to delay the chronological age of lifetime-apex V̇o2 peak decline, whereas AICAR delayed it 1 wk. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Effect of carbohydrate feeding during recovery from prolonged running on muscle glycogen metabolism during subsequent exercise.

    PubMed

    Tsintzas, K; Williams, C; Boobis, L; Symington, S; Moorehouse, J; Garcia-Roves, P; Nicholas, C

    2003-08-01

    This study examined the effect of carbohydrate (CHO) intake during a 4 h recovery from prolonged running on muscle glycogen metabolism during subsequent exercise. On 2 occasions, 7 male subjects ran for 90 min at 70 % maximum oxygen uptake VO(2 max) on a motorized treadmill (R1) followed by a 4 h rest period (REC) and a 15 min run (R2) consisting of 5 min at 60 % and 10 min at 70 % VO(2 max) During REC, each subject ingested a total of 2.7 l of an isotonic solution containing either 50 g of CHO (LOW) or 175 g of CHO (HIGH). Biopsy samples were obtained from the vastus lateralis immediately after R1, REC and R2. During REC, a higher muscle glycogen resynthesis was observed in HIGH when compared with LOW trial (75 +/- 20 vs. 31 +/- 11 mmol x kg dry matter (dm) -1, respectively; p < 0.01). Muscle glycogen utilization during R2 was similar between the HIGH and LOW trials (39 +/- 10 vs. 46 +/- 11 mmol x kg dm -1, respectively). These results suggest that ingestion of a large amount of CHO at frequent intervals during recovery from exercise does not affect the rate of muscle glycogen utilization during subsequent exercise.

  16. Exercise running and tetracycline as means to enhance skeletal muscle stem cell performance after external fixation.

    PubMed

    Shefer, G; Carmeli, E; Rauner, G; Yablonka-Reuveni, Z; Benayahu, D

    2008-04-01

    Prolonged limb immobilization, which is often the outcome of injury and illness, results in the atrophy of skeletal muscles. The basis of muscle atrophy needs to be better understood in order to allow development of effective countermeasures. The present study focused on determining whether skeletal muscle stem cells, satellite cells, are directly affected by long-term immobilization as well as on investigating the potential of pharmacological and physiological avenues to counterbalance atrophy-induced muscle deterioration. We used external fixation (EF), as a clinically relevant model, to gain insights into the relationships between muscle degenerative and regenerative conditions to the myogenic properties and abundance of bona fide satellite cells. Rats were treated with tetracycline (Tet) through the EF period, or exercise trained on a treadmill for 2 weeks after the cessation of the atrophic stimulus. EF induced muscle mass loss; declined expression of the muscle specific regulatory factors (MRFs) Myf5, MyoD, myogenin, and also of satellite cell numbers and myogenic differentiation aptitude. Tet enhanced the expression of MRFs, but did not prevent the decline of the satellite cell pool. After exercise running, however, muscle mass, satellite cell numbers (enumerated through the entire length of myofibers), and myogenic differentiation aptitude (determined by the lineal identity of clonal cultures of satellite cells) were re-gained to levels prior to EF. Together, our results point to Tet and exercise running as promising and relevant approaches for enhancing muscle recovery after atrophy. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Respiratory muscle fatigue does not limit exercise performance during moderate endurance run.

    PubMed

    Nava, S; Zanotti, E; Rampulla, C; Rossi, A

    1992-03-01

    The role of respiratory muscle fatigue in limiting exercise performance in well-trained subjects is still controversial, especially as far as relatively short runs are concerned. To determine the occurrence of respiratory muscle impairment, we studied six well-trained athletes before, during (middle of the run) and after a 17 km run. They were all asked to produce the maximum effort they could during the race. Strength was assessed by measuring maximal inspiratory mouth pressure against close airways (MIP), dynamic lung volumes were monitored using a spirometer. No changes in forced vital capacity (FVC), maximal expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) were observed throughout the experiment. This suggested that functional residual capacity and subsequently the initial length of respiratory muscle were unchanged. Respiratory muscle strength did not significantly vary at the different time of measurements (154.8 +/- 20.9 cm H2O at the beginning, 157.5 +/- 23.7 cm H2O after 7.5 km, 155.8 +/- 22.5 cm H2O at the end and 152.3 +/- 17.6 cm H2O after 30 min of recovery). We therefore conclude that respiratory muscle fatigue does not impair the exercise performance of well-trained athletes in a relatively short race. The difference between these results and others reported in literature, could be explained by the different degree of training of the subjects performing the race.

  18. Exercise to reduce the escalation of cocaine self-administration in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Zlebnik, Natalie E; Anker, Justin J; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2012-12-01

    Concurrent access to an exercise wheel decreases cocaine self-administration under short access (5 h/day for 5 days) conditions and suppresses cocaine-primed reinstatement in adult rats. The effect of exercise (wheel running) on the escalation of cocaine intake during long access (LgA, 6 h/day for 26 days) conditions was evaluated. Adolescent and adult female rats acquired wheel running, and behavior was allowed to stabilize for 3 days. They were then implanted with an iv catheter and allowed to self-administer cocaine (0.4 mg/kg, iv) during 6-h daily sessions for 16 days with concurrent access to either an unlocked or a locked running wheel. Subsequently, for ten additional sessions, wheel access conditions during cocaine self-administration sessions were reversed (i.e., locked wheels became unlocked and vice versa). In the adolescents, concurrent access to the unlocked exercise wheel decreased responding for cocaine and attenuated escalation of cocaine intake irrespective of whether the locked or unlocked condition came first. However, cocaine intake increased when the wheel was subsequently locked for the adolescents that had initial access to an unlocked wheel. Concurrent wheel access either before or after the locked wheel access did not reduce cocaine intake in adults. Wheel running reduced cocaine intake during LgA conditions in adolescent but not adult rats, and concurrent access to the running wheel was necessary. These results suggest that exercise prevents cocaine seeking and that this effect is more pronounced in adolescents than adults.

  19. Studies of wheel-running reinforcement: parameters of Herrnstein's (1970) response-strength equation vary with schedule order.

    PubMed

    Belke, T W

    2000-05-01

    Six male Wistar rats were exposed to different orders of reinforcement schedules to investigate if estimates from Herrnstein's (1970) single-operant matching law equation would vary systematically with schedule order. Reinforcement schedules were arranged in orders of increasing and decreasing reinforcement rate. Subsequently, all rats were exposed to a single reinforcement schedule within a session to determine within-session changes in responding. For each condition, the operant was lever pressing and the reinforcing consequence was the opportunity to run for 15 s. Estimates of k and R(O) were higher when reinforcement schedules were arranged in order of increasing reinforcement rate. Within a session on a single reinforcement schedule, response rates increased between the beginning and the end of a session. A positive correlation between the difference in parameters between schedule orders and the difference in response rates within a session suggests that the within-session change in response rates may be related to the difference in the asymptotes. These results call into question the validity of parameter estimates from Herrnstein's (1970) equation when reinforcer efficacy changes within a session.

  20. Depression-related behaviours displayed by female C57BL/6J mice during abstinence from chronic ethanol consumption are rescued by wheel-running.

    PubMed

    Pang, Terence Y; Renoir, Thibault; Du, Xin; Lawrence, Andrew J; Hannan, Anthony J

    2013-06-01

    Withdrawal from a chronic period of alcohol consumption is commonly associated with the manifestation of depression, potentially exerting a significant influence on treatment prospects and increasing the likelihood of relapse. Better therapeutic strategies need to be developed to assist with rehabilitation. Here, we report the detection of depression-related behaviours in a mouse model of 6-week free-choice ethanol (10%, v/v) consumption followed by 2-week abstinence. Mice abstinent from alcohol showed increased immobility time on the forced-swim test, reduced saccharin consumption and increased latency to feed in the novelty-suppressed feeding test. By comparison, there was no significant effect on anxiety-related behaviours as determined by testing on the light-dark box and elevated plus maze. We found that the provision of running-wheels through the duration of abstinence attenuated depressive behaviour in the forced-swim and novelty-suppressed feeding tests, and increased saccharin consumption. Given the link between withdrawal from addictive substances and depression, this model will be useful for the study of the pathophysiology underlying alcohol-related depression. The findings of this study establish an interaction between physical activity and the development of behavioural changes following cessation of alcohol consumption that could have implications for the development of rehabilitative therapies. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Moderate treadmill running exercise prior to tendon injury enhances wound healing in aging rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianying; Yuan, Ting; Wang, James H-C

    2016-02-23

    The effect of exercise on wound healing in aging tendon was tested using a rat moderate treadmill running (MTR) model. The rats were divided into an MTR group that ran on a treadmill for 4 weeks and a control group that remained in cages. After MTR, a window defect was created in the patellar tendons of all rats and wound healing was analyzed. We found that MTR accelerated wound healing by promoting quicker closure of wounds, improving the organization of collagen fibers, and decreasing senescent cells in the wounded tendons when compared to the cage control. MTR also lowered vascularization, increased the numbers of tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSCs) and TSC proliferation than the control. Besides, MTR significantly increased the expression of stem cell markers, OCT-4 and Nanog, and tenocyte genes, Collagen I, Collagen III and tenomodulin, and down-regulated PPAR-γ, Collagen II and Runx-2 (non-tenocyte genes). These findings indicated that moderate exercise enhances healing of injuries in aging tendons through TSC based mechanisms, through which exercise regulates beneficial effects in tendons. This study reveals that appropriate exercise may be used in clinics to enhance tendon healing in aging patients.

  2. Moderate treadmill running exercise prior to tendon injury enhances wound healing in aging rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianying; Yuan, Ting; Wang, James H-C.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of exercise on wound healing in aging tendon was tested using a rat moderate treadmill running (MTR) model. The rats were divided into an MTR group that ran on a treadmill for 4 weeks and a control group that remained in cages. After MTR, a window defect was created in the patellar tendons of all rats and wound healing was analyzed. We found that MTR accelerated wound healing by promoting quicker closure of wounds, improving the organization of collagen fibers, and decreasing senescent cells in the wounded tendons when compared to the cage control. MTR also lowered vascularization, increased the numbers of tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSCs) and TSC proliferation than the control. Besides, MTR significantly increased the expression of stem cell markers, OCT-4 and Nanog, and tenocyte genes, Collagen I, Collagen III and tenomodulin, and down-regulated PPAR-γ, Collagen II and Runx-2 (non-tenocyte genes). These findings indicated that moderate exercise enhances healing of injuries in aging tendons through TSC based mechanisms, through which exercise regulates beneficial effects in tendons. This study reveals that appropriate exercise may be used in clinics to enhance tendon healing in aging patients. PMID:26885754

  3. Gait-related risk factors for exercise-related lower-leg pain during shod running.

    PubMed

    Willems, Tine Marieke; Witvrouw, Erik; De Cock, Anneleen; De Clercq, Dirk

    2007-02-01

    Exercise-related lower-leg pain (ERLLP) is a common chronic sports injury. In clinical practice, deviant gait biomechanics are frequently considered to play a role in the development of ERLLP, although there is scarce scientific evidence that gait-related variables predispose athletes to this injury. The purpose of this study was to examine prospectively the gait-related risk factors for ERLLP during shod running in a young, physically active population. The gait pattern during shod running of 400 physical education students was evaluated at the beginning of their academic study. This was accomplished by means of plantar pressure measurements and 3D gait kinematics. After this evaluation, the same sports physician registered all sports injuries during this study. During the follow-up period, 46 subjects developed ERLLP, of whom 29 subjects had bilateral complaints. Thus, 75 symptomatic lower legs (35 left and 40 right) were classified into the ERLLP group. Bilateral feet of 167 subjects who sustained no injuries at the lower extremities served as the referent group. Cox regression analysis revealed that subjects who will develop ERLLP have an altered running pattern compared with the referent subjects. More specifically, these subjects showed a significantly increased pronation excursion, accompanied by more pressure underneath the medial side of the foot, a delayed maximal eversion, and an accelerated reinversion. The findings of this study suggest that altered gait biomechanics during shod running play a role in the genesis of ERLLP and, thus, should be considered in prevention and rehabilitation of this pathology.

  4. Differential effects of targeted tongue exercise and treadmill running on aging tongue muscle structure and contractile properties

    PubMed Central

    Kletzien, Heidi; Russell, John A.; Leverson, Glen E.

    2013-01-01

    Age-associated changes in tongue muscle structure and strength may contribute to dysphagia in elderly people. Tongue exercise is a current treatment option. We hypothesized that targeted tongue exercise and nontargeted exercise that activates tongue muscles as a consequence of increased respiratory drive, such as treadmill running, are associated with different patterns of tongue muscle contraction and genioglossus (GG) muscle biochemistry. Thirty-one young adult, 34 middle-aged, and 37 old Fischer 344/Brown Norway rats received either targeted tongue exercise, treadmill running, or no exercise (5 days/wk for 8 wk). Protrusive tongue muscle contractile properties and myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition in the GG were examined at the end of 8 wk across groups. Significant age effects were found for maximal twitch and tetanic tension (greatest in young adult rats), MHCIIb (highest proportion in young adult rats), MHCIIx (highest proportion in middle-aged and old rats), and MHCI (highest proportion in old rats). The targeted tongue exercise group had the greatest maximal twitch tension and the highest proportion of MHCI. The treadmill running group had the shortest half-decay time, the lowest proportion of MHCIIa, and the highest proportion of MHCIIb. Fatigue was significantly less in the young adult treadmill running group and the old targeted tongue exercise group than in other groups. Thus, tongue muscle structure and contractile properties were affected by both targeted tongue exercise and treadmill running, but in different ways. Studies geared toward optimizing dose and manner of providing targeted and generalized tongue exercise may lead to alternative tongue exercise delivery strategies. PMID:23264540

  5. Protein Supplementation During or Following a Marathon Run Influences Post-Exercise Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Michael J.; Luden, Nicholas D.; DeWitt, Cash R.; Gross, Melinda C.; Dillon Rios, Amanda

    2018-01-01

    The effects of protein supplementation on the ratings of energy/fatigue, muscle soreness [ascending (A) and descending (D) stairs], and serum creatine kinase levels following a marathon run were examined. Variables were compared between recreational male and female runners ingesting carbohydrate + protein (CP) during the run (CPDuring, n = 8) versus those that were consuming carbohydrate (CHODuring, n = 8). In a second study, outcomes were compared between subjects who consumed CP or CHO immediately following exercise [CPPost (n = 4) versus CHOPost (n = 4)]. Magnitude-based inferences revealed no meaningful differences between treatments 24 h post-marathon. At 72 h, recovery [Δ(72 hr-Pre)] was likely improved with CPDuring versus CHODuring, respectively, for Physical Energy (+14 ± 64 vs −74 ± 70 mm), Mental Fatigue (−52 ± 59 vs +1 ± 11 mm), and Soreness-D (+15 ± 9 vs +21 ± 70 mm). In addition, recovery at 72 h was likely-very likely improved with CPPost versus CHOPost for Physical Fatigue, Mental Energy, and Soreness-A. Thus, protein supplementation did not meaningfully alter recovery during the initial 24 h following a marathon. However, ratings of energy/fatigue and muscle soreness were improved over 72 h when CP was consumed during exercise, or immediately following the marathon. PMID:29534444

  6. Protein Supplementation During or Following a Marathon Run Influences Post-Exercise Recovery.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Michael J; Luden, Nicholas D; DeWitt, Cash R; Gross, Melinda C; Dillon Rios, Amanda

    2018-03-10

    The effects of protein supplementation on the ratings of energy/fatigue, muscle soreness [ascending (A) and descending (D) stairs], and serum creatine kinase levels following a marathon run were examined. Variables were compared between recreational male and female runners ingesting carbohydrate + protein (CP) during the run (CP During , n = 8) versus those that were consuming carbohydrate (CHO During, n = 8). In a second study, outcomes were compared between subjects who consumed CP or CHO immediately following exercise [CP Post ( n = 4) versus CHO Post ( n = 4)]. Magnitude-based inferences revealed no meaningful differences between treatments 24 h post-marathon. At 72 h, recovery [Δ( 72 hr-Pre )] was likely improved with CP During versus CHO During , respectively, for Physical Energy (+14 ± 64 vs -74 ± 70 mm), Mental Fatigue (-52 ± 59 vs +1 ± 11 mm), and Soreness -D (+15 ± 9 vs +21 ± 70 mm). In addition, recovery at 72 h was likely-very likely improved with CP Post versus CHO Post for Physical Fatigue, Mental Energy, and Soreness -A . Thus, protein supplementation did not meaningfully alter recovery during the initial 24 h following a marathon. However, ratings of energy/fatigue and muscle soreness were improved over 72 h when CP was consumed during exercise, or immediately following the marathon.

  7. How many days per week should rats undergo running exercise to increase BMD?

    PubMed

    Hagihara, Yoshinobu; Fukuda, Satoshi; Goto, Sumio; Iida, Haruzo; Yamazaki, Masashi; Moriya, Hideshige

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of different frequencies of running exercise on increasing bone mineral density (BMD) and improving bone histomorphology at various sites of the skeleton (tibia, femur, and second lumbar vertebra) in young rats. Twenty-five female Wistar rats, 8 weeks old, were divided into five groups, of 5 animals each according to running load: control group, no running (A group); running load (RL), 4 days per week (d/w; B group); RL, 5 d/w (C group); RL, 6 d/w (D group); and RL, 7 d/w (E group). Rats ran on a treadmill at a speed of 15 m/min for 30 min per day over an 8-week period. The results indicated that the BMD of the tibia in the B, C, D, and E groups and that of the femur in the B and E groups increased significantly over that of the A group. However, the cortical BMD and trabecular BMD of the second lumbar vertebra did not change. In regard to bone histomorphometry of the tibia, a parameter of bone resorption (eroded surface/bone surface) was significantly lower in the B and D groups than in the A group. There were no differences in the parameters of bone formation. Tartaric acid-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP) values were significantly lower in the B and C groups than in the A group. There were significant increases in body weight in the B group and in muscle weight in the C group. From the data obtained in this study, it was concluded that increases in BMD were obtained by a moderate running load at frequencies of 4 and 5 days per week.

  8. Exercise-induced changes in triceps surae tendon stiffness and muscle strength affect running economy in humans.

    PubMed

    Albracht, Kirsten; Arampatzis, Adamantios

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether increased tendon-aponeurosis stiffness and contractile strength of the triceps surae (TS) muscle-tendon units induced by resistance training would affect running economy. Therefore, an exercise group (EG, n = 13) performed a 14-week exercise program, while the control group (CG, n = 13) did not change their training. Maximum isometric voluntary contractile strength and TS tendon-aponeurosis stiffness, running kinematics and fascicle length of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle during running were analyzed. Furthermore, running economy was determined by measuring the rate of oxygen consumption at two running velocities (3.0, 3.5 ms(-1)). The intervention resulted in a ∼7 % increase in maximum plantarflexion muscle strength and a ∼16 % increase in TS tendon-aponeurosis stiffness. The EG showed a significant ∼4 % reduction in the rate of oxygen consumption and energy cost, indicating a significant increase in running economy, while the CG showed no changes. Neither kinematics nor fascicle length and elongation of the series-elastic element (SEE) during running were affected by the intervention. The unaffected SEE elongation of the GM during the stance phase of running, in spite of a higher tendon-aponeurosis stiffness, is indicative of greater energy storage and return and a redistribution of muscular output within the lower extremities while running after the intervention, which might explain the improved running economy.

  9. A randomized controlled trial of deep water running: clinical effectiveness of aquatic exercise to treat fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Assis, Marcos Renato; Silva, Luciana Eduardo; Alves, Adriana Martins Barros; Pessanha, Ana Paula; Valim, Valéria; Feldman, Daniel; Neto, Turíbio Leite de Barros; Natour, Jamil

    2006-02-15

    To compare the clinical effectiveness of aerobic exercise in the water with walking/jogging for women with fibromyalgia (FM). Sixty sedentary women with FM, ages 18-60 years, were randomly assigned to either deep water running (DWR) or land-based exercises (LBE). Patients were trained for 15 weeks at their anaerobic threshold. Visual analog scale of pain, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), Beck Depression Inventory, Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), and a patient's global assessment of response to therapy (PGART) were measured at baseline, week 8, and week 15. Statistical analysis included all patients. Four patients dropped out from each group. Both groups improved significantly at week 15 compared with baseline, with an average 36% reduction in pain intensity. For PGART, 40% of the DWR group and 30% of the LBE group answered "much better" at posttreatment. FIQ total score and FIQ depression improvements in the DWR group were faster (week 8) than the LBE group and kept improving (week 15; P < 0.05). Only the DWR group showed improvements in SF-36 role emotional (P = 0.006). No significant between-group differences were observed for peak oxygen uptake and other outcomes. DWR is a safe exercise that has been shown to be as effective as LBE regarding pain. However, it has been shown to bring more advantages related to emotional aspects. Aerobic gain was similar for both groups, regardless of symptom improvement. Therefore, DWR could be studied as an exercise option for patients with FM who have problems adapting to LBE or lower limbs limitations.

  10. Locomotion Mode Affects the Physiological Strain during Exercise at Walk-Run Transition Speed inElderly Men.

    PubMed

    Freire, Raul; Farinatti, Paulo; Cunha, Felipe; Silva, Brenno; Monteiro, Walace

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated cardiorespiratory responses and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during prolonged walking and running exercise performed at the walk-run transition speed (WRTS) in untrained healthy elderly men. 20 volunteers (mean±SE, age: 68.4±1.2 yrs; height: 170.0±0.02 cm; body mass: 74.7±2.3 kg) performed the following bouts of exercise: a) maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET); b) specific protocol to detect WRTS; and c) two 30-min walking and running bouts at WRTS. Expired gases were collected during exercise bouts via the Ultima CardiO 2 metabolic analyzer. Compared to walking, running at the WRTS resulted in higher oxygen uptake (>0.27 L·min -1 ), pulmonary ventilation (>7.7 L·min -1 ), carbon dioxide output (>0.23 L·min -1 ), heart rate (>15 beats·min -1 ), oxygen pulse (>0.88 15 mL·beats -1 ), energy expenditure (>27 kcal) and cost of oxygen transport (>43 mL·kg -1 ·km -1 ·bout -1 ). The increase of overall and local RPEs with exercise duration was similar across locomotion modes (P<0.001). In all participants, %HRR and %VO 2 R throughout walking and running bouts were around or above the gas exchange threshold. In conclusion, elderly men exhibited higher cardiorespiratory responses during 30-min bouts of running than walking at WRTS. Nevertheless, walking corresponded to relative metabolic intensities compatible with preservation or improvement of cardiorespiratory fitness and should be preferable over running at WRTS in the untrained elderly characterized by poor fitness and reduced exercise tolerance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Wearing Compression Tights on the Thigh during Prolonged Running Attenuated Exercise-Induced Increase in Muscle Damage Marker in Blood.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Sahiro; Arai, Mari; Todoko, Fumihiko; Yamada, Eri; Goto, Kazushige

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects of wearing a lower-body compression garment with different body coverage areas during prolonged running on exercise performance and muscle damage. Methods: Thirty male subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) wearing a compression tights with 15 mmHg to thigh [ n = 10, CT group], (2) wearing a compression socks with 15 mmHg to calf [ n = 10, CS group], and (3) wearing a lower-body garment with < 5 mmHg to thigh and calf [ n = 10, CON group]. The exercise consisted of 120 min of uphill running at 55% of [Formula: see text]O 2 max. Heart rate (HR), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and running economy (evaluated by VO 2 ) were monitored during exercise every 10 min. Changes in maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of knee extension and plantar flexion, height of counter movement jump (CMJ) and drop jump (DJ), and scores of subjective feelings of muscle soreness and fatigue were evaluated before exercise, and 60 and 180 min after exercise. Blood samples were collected to determine blood glucose, lactate, serum free fatty acid, myoglobin (Mb), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and plasma interleukin-6 concentrations before exercise (after 20 min of rest), at 60 min of exercise, immediately after exercise, and 60 and 180 min after exercise. Results: Changes in HR, RPE, and running economy during exercise did not differ significantly among the three groups. MVC of knee extension and plantar flexion, and DJ decreased significantly following exercise, with no difference among groups. The serum Mb concentration increased significantly with exercise in all groups, whereas the area under the curve for Mb concentration during 180 min post-exercise was significantly lower in the CT group (13,833 ± 1,397 pg/mL 180 min) than in the CON group (24,343 ± 3,370 pg/mL 180 min, P = 0.03). Conclusion: Wearing compression garment on the thigh significantly attenuated the increase in serum Mb concentration after exercise, suggesting

  12. Wearing Compression Tights on the Thigh during Prolonged Running Attenuated Exercise-Induced Increase in Muscle Damage Marker in Blood

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Sahiro; Arai, Mari; Todoko, Fumihiko; Yamada, Eri; Goto, Kazushige

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects of wearing a lower-body compression garment with different body coverage areas during prolonged running on exercise performance and muscle damage. Methods: Thirty male subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) wearing a compression tights with 15 mmHg to thigh [n = 10, CT group], (2) wearing a compression socks with 15 mmHg to calf [n = 10, CS group], and (3) wearing a lower-body garment with < 5 mmHg to thigh and calf [n = 10, CON group]. The exercise consisted of 120 min of uphill running at 55% of V˙O2max. Heart rate (HR), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and running economy (evaluated by VO2) were monitored during exercise every 10 min. Changes in maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of knee extension and plantar flexion, height of counter movement jump (CMJ) and drop jump (DJ), and scores of subjective feelings of muscle soreness and fatigue were evaluated before exercise, and 60 and 180 min after exercise. Blood samples were collected to determine blood glucose, lactate, serum free fatty acid, myoglobin (Mb), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and plasma interleukin-6 concentrations before exercise (after 20 min of rest), at 60 min of exercise, immediately after exercise, and 60 and 180 min after exercise. Results: Changes in HR, RPE, and running economy during exercise did not differ significantly among the three groups. MVC of knee extension and plantar flexion, and DJ decreased significantly following exercise, with no difference among groups. The serum Mb concentration increased significantly with exercise in all groups, whereas the area under the curve for Mb concentration during 180 min post-exercise was significantly lower in the CT group (13,833 ± 1,397 pg/mL 180 min) than in the CON group (24,343 ± 3,370 pg/mL 180 min, P = 0.03). Conclusion: Wearing compression garment on the thigh significantly attenuated the increase in serum Mb concentration after exercise, suggesting that exercise

  13. Effects of exercise-induced muscle damage on resting metabolic rate, sub-maximal running and post-exercise oxygen consumption.

    PubMed

    Burt, Dean Gareth; Lamb, Kevin; Nicholas, Ceri; Twist, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), described as the acute weakness of the musculature after unaccustomed eccentric exercise, increases oxidative metabolism at rest and during endurance exercise. However, it is not known whether oxygen uptake during recovery from endurance exercise is increased when experiencing symptoms of EIMD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of EIMD on physiological and metabolic responses before, during and after sub-maximal running. After a 12 h fast, eight healthy male participants completed baseline measurements comprising resting metabolic rate (RMR), indirect markers of EIMD, 10 min of sub-maximal running and 30 min of recovery to ascertain excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). Measurements were then repeated at 24 and 48 h after 100 Smith-machine squats. Data analysis revealed significant (P<0.05) increases in muscle soreness and creatine kinase (CK) and decreases in peak knee extensor torque at 24 and 48 h after squatting exercise. Moreover, RMR, physiological, metabolic and perceptual responses during sub-maximal running and EPOC were increased in the two days after squatting exercise (P<0.05). It is suggested that the elevated RMR was a consequence of a raised energy requirement for the degradation and resynthesis of damaged muscle fibres. The increased oxygen demand during sub-maximal running after muscle damage was responsible for the increase in EPOC. Individuals engaging in unaccustomed resistance exercise that results in muscle damage should be mindful of the increases in resting energy expenditure and increased metabolic demand to exercise in the days that follow.

  14. Cart Wheels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Edson R.

    1978-01-01

    This paper draws attention to cart wheels, two wheels rotating freely about a common axle and rolling on an inclined plane, both as a demonstration and as a satisfying application of dynamical analysis. (BB)

  15. Wheel Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-07

    In this picture, the Curiosity rover sports a set of six new wheels. The wheels were installed on June 28 and 29 in the Spacecraft Assembly Facility at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

  16. Influence of music on maximal self-paced running performance and passive post-exercise recovery rate.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Kimmerly, D

    2014-10-30

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of fast tempo music (FM) on self--paced running performance (heart rate, running speed, ratings of perceived exertion), and slow tempo music (SM) on post--exercise heart rate and blood lactate recovery rates. Twelve participants (5 Women) completed three randomly assigned conditions: static noise (control), FM and SM. Each condition consisted of self--paced treadmill running, and supine post--exercise recovery periods (20 min each). Average running speed, heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the treadmill running period, while HR and blood lactate were measured during the recovery period. Listening to FM during exercise resulted in a faster self--selected running speed (10.8 ± 1.7 vs. 9.9 ± 1.4 km•hour--1, p<0.001) and higher peak HR (184 ± 12 vs. 177 ± 17 beats•min--1, p< 0.01) without a corresponding difference in peak RPE (FM, 16.8 ± 1.8 vs. SM 15.7 ± 1.9, p= 0.10). Listening to SM during the post--exercise period reduced HR throughout (main effect p<0.001) and blood lactate at the end of recovery (2.8 ± 0.4 vs. 4.7 ± 0.8 mmol•L--1, p<0.05). Listening to FM during exercise can increase self--paced intensity without altering perceived exertion levels while listening to SM after exercise can accelerate the recovery rate back to resting levels.

  17. Increased brain L-arginine availability facilitates cutaneous heat loss induced by running exercise.

    PubMed

    Wanner, Samuel Penna; Leite, Laura Hora Rios; Guimarães, Juliana Bohnen; Coimbra, Cândido Celso

    2015-06-01

    The effects of increased brain availability of L-arginine (L-arg), a precursor for nitric oxide synthesis, on core body temperature (Tcore ) and cutaneous heat loss were evaluated in running rats. One week prior to the experiments, adult male Wistar rats received the following implants: a chronic guide cannula in the lateral cerebral ventricle and a temperature sensor in the abdominal cavity. On the day of the experiments, the rats were assigned to receive a 2-μL intracerebroventricular injection of either NaCl (0.15 mol/L) or L-arg solution (0.825, 1.65 or 3.30 mol/L); Tcore and tail skin temperature were measured while the rats ran at a speed of 18 m/min until they were fatigued. L-arginine induced a dose-dependent reduction in the threshold Tcore required for cutaneous heat loss (38.09 ± 0.20°C for 3.30-mol/L L-arg vs 38.61 ± 0.10°C for saline; P < 0.05), which attenuated the exercise-induced hyperthermia. Although the rats treated with L-arg presented a lower Tcore at the end of exercise (~0.7°C lower after treatment with the highest dose), no changes in the time to fatigue were observed relative to the control trial. These results suggest that brain L-arg controls heat loss during exercise, most likely by modulating the sympathetic vasoconstrictor tonus to skin vessels. Furthermore, despite facilitating cutaneous heat loss mechanisms, increased brain L-arg availability did not enhance physical performance. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Time to exhaustion at continuous and intermittent maximal lactate steady state during running exercise.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Naiandra; de Lucas, Ricardo Dantas; Beneke, Ralph; Guglielmo, Luiz Guilherme

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the time to exhaustion (TE) and the physiological responses at continuous and intermittent (ratio 5:1) maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) in well-trained runners. Ten athletes (32.7 ± 6.9 y, VO2max 61.7 ± 3.9 mL · kg-1 · min-1) performed an incremental treadmill test, three to five 30-min constant-speed tests to determine the MLSS continuous and intermittent (5 min of running, interspaced by 1 min of passive rest), and 2 randomized TE tests at such intensities. Two-way ANOVA with repeated measures was used to compare the changes in physiological variables during the TE tests and between continuous and intermittent exercise. The intermittent MLSS velocity (MLSSint = 15.26 ± 0.97 km/h) was higher than in the continuous model (MLSScon = 14.53 ± 0.93 km/h), while the TE at MLSScon was longer than MLSSint (68 ± 11 min and 58 ± 15 min, P < .05). Regarding the cardiorespiratory responses, VO2 and respiratory-exchange ratio remained stable during both TE tests while heart rate, ventilation, and rating of perceived exertion presented a significant increase in the last portion of the tests. The results showed a higher tolerance to exercising during MLSScon than during MLSSint in trained runners. Thus, the training volume of an extensive interval session (ratio 5:1) designed at MLSS intensity should take into consideration this higher speed at MLSS and also the lower TE than with continuous exercise.

  19. Effects of Post-Exercise Honey Drink Ingestion on Blood Glucose and Subsequent Running Performance in the Heat.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nur Syamsina; Ooi, Foong Kiew; Saat Ismail, Mohammed; Mohamed, Mahaneem

    2015-09-01

    Glycogen depletion and hypoglycemia have been associated with fatigue and decrement of performance during prolonged exercise. This study investigated the effectiveness of Acacia honey drink as a post-exercise recovery aid on glucose metabolism and subsequent running performance in the heat. Ten subjects participated in this randomized cross-over study. All subjects performed 2 trials. In each trial, all subjects went through a glycogen depletion phase (Run-1), 2-hour rehydration phase and time trial running phase (Run-2). In Run-1, subjects were required to run on a treadmill at 65% VO2max in the heat (31°C, 70% relative humidity) for 60 min. During 2-hour rehydration phase, subjects drank either plain water (PW) or honey drink (HD) with amount equivalent to 150% of body weight loss in 3 boluses (60%, 50% and 40% subsequently) at 0, 30 and 60 min. In Run-2, the longest distance covered in 20 min was recorded for determining running performance. Two-way repeated measured ANOVA and paired t-test were used for analysis. Running distance in Run-2 covered by the subjects in the honey drink HD trial (3420 ± 350 m) was significantly (P < 0.01) longer compared to plain water PW trial (3120 ± 340 m). In general, plasma glucose, serum insulin and osmolality were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in HD compared to PW during the rehydration phase and Run-2. These findings indicate that rehydration with honey drink improves running performance and glucose metabolism compared to plain water in the heat. Thus, honey drink can be recommended for rehydration purpose for athletes who compete in the heat.

  20. The influence of wearing compression stockings on performance indicators and physiological responses following a prolonged trail running exercise.

    PubMed

    Vercruyssen, Fabrice; Easthope, Christopher; Bernard, Thierry; Hausswirth, Christophe; Bieuzen, Francois; Gruet, Mathieu; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of wearing compression socks (CS) on performance indicators and physiological responses during prolonged trail running. Eleven trained runners completed a 15.6 km trail run at a competition intensity whilst wearing or not wearing CS. Counter movement jump, maximal voluntary contraction and the oxygenation profile of vastus lateralis muscle using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) method were measured before and following exercise. Run time, heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration and ratings of perceived exertion were evaluated during the CS and non-CS sessions. No significant difference in any dependent variables was observed during the run sessions. Run times were 5681.1 ± 503.5 and 5696.7 ± 530.7 s for the non-CS and CS conditions, respectively. The relative intensity during CS and non-CS runs corresponded to a range of 90.5-91.5% HRmax. Although NIRS measurements such as muscle oxygen uptake and muscle blood flow significantly increased following exercise (+57.7% and + 42.6%,+59.2% and + 32.4%, respectively for the CS and non-CS sessions, P<0.05), there was no difference between the run conditions. The findings suggest that competitive runners do not gain any practical or physiological benefits from wearing CS during prolonged off-road running.

  1. Effects of early-onset voluntary exercise on adult physical activity and associated phenotypes in mice.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Wendy; Meek, Thomas H; Schutz, Heidi; Dlugosz, Elizabeth M; Vu, Kim T; Garland, Theodore

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of early-life exercise on adult physical activity (wheel running, home-cage activity), body mass, food consumption, and circulating leptin levels in males from four replicate lines of mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running (High Runner or HR) and their four non-selected control (C) lines. Half of the mice were given wheel access shortly after weaning for three consecutive weeks. Wheel access was then removed for 52 days, followed by two weeks of adult wheel access for all mice. A blood sample taken prior to adult wheel testing was analyzed for circulating leptin concentration. Early-life wheel access significantly increased adult voluntary exercise on wheels during the first week of the second period of wheel access, for both HR and C mice, and HR ran more than C mice. During this same time period, activity in the home cages was not affected by early-age wheel access, and did not differ statistically between HR and C mice. Throughout the study, all mice with early wheel access had lower body masses than their sedentary counterparts, and HR mice had lower body masses than C mice. With wheel access, HR mice also ate significantly more than C mice. Early-life wheel access increased plasma leptin levels (adjusted statistically for fat-pad mass as a covariate) in C mice, but decreased them in HR mice. At sacrifice, early-life exercise had no statistically significant effects on visceral fat pad, heart (ventricle), liver or spleen masses (all adjusted statistically for variation in body mass). Results support the hypothesis that early-age exercise in mice can have at least transitory positive effects on adult levels of voluntary exercise, in addition to reducing body mass, and may be relevant for the public policy debates concerning the importance of physical education for children. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Housing in Environmental Complexity Following Wheel Running Augments Survival of Newly-Generated Hippocampal Neurons in a Rat Model of Binge Alcohol Exposure during the Third Trimester Equivalent

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Gillian F.; Boschen, Karen E.; Goodlett, Charles R.; Greenough, William T.; Klintsova, Anna Y.

    2011-01-01

    Background Binge-like alcohol exposure in neonatal rats during the brain growth spurt causes deficits in adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). Previous data from our lab demonstrated that twelve days of voluntary wheel-running (WR) beginning on postnatal day (PD) 30 significantly increased the number of newly-generated cells evident in the DG on PD42 in both alcohol-exposed and control rats, but 30 days later a sustained beneficial effect of WR was evident only in control rats. This study tested the hypothesis that housing rats in environmental complexity (EC) following WR would promote survival of the newly-generated cells stimulated by WR, particularly in alcohol-exposed rats. Methods On PD4-9, pups were intubated with alcohol in a binge-like manner (5.25g/kg/day), sham-intubated, or reared normally. In Experiment 1, animals were either assigned to WR during PD30-42 or were socially housed (SH). On PD42, animals were injected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU; 200mg/kg) and perfused two hours later to confirm the WR-induced stimulation of proliferation. In Experiment 2, all animals received WR on PD30-42 and were injected with BrdU on the last full day of WR. On PD42, animals were randomly assigned either to EC (WR/EC) or SH (WR/SH) for 30 days and subsequently perfused and brains were processed for immunohistochemical staining to identify BrdU+, Ki67+ and BrdU+/NeuN+ labeled cells in DG. Results In Exp. 1, WR exposure significantly increased the number of proliferating cells in all three postnatal conditions. In Exp. 2, the alcohol-exposed rats given WR/SH had significantly fewer BrdU+ cells compared to control rats given WR/SH. However, WR/EC experience significantly increased the number of surviving BrdU+ cells in both the alcohol-exposed and sham-intubated groups compared to WR/SH rats of the same neonatal treatment. Approximately 80% of the surviving BrdU+ cells in the DG across the conditions were co-labeled with NeuN. Conclusions WR followed

  3. Influence of music on maximal self-paced running performance and passive post-exercise recovery rate.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sam; Kimmerly, Derek S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of fast tempo music (FM) on self-paced running performance (heart rate, running speed, ratings of perceived exertion), and slow tempo music (SM) on post-exercise heart rate and blood lactate recovery rates. Twelve participants (5 women) completed three randomly assigned conditions: static noise (control), FM and SM. Each condition consisted of self-paced treadmill running, and supine postexercise recovery periods (20 min each). Average running speed, heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the treadmill running period, while HR and blood lactate were measured during the recovery period. Listening to FM during exercise resulted in a faster self-selected running speed (10.8±1.7 vs. 9.9±1.4 km•hour-1, P<0.001) and higher peak HR (184±12 vs. 177±17 beats•min-1, P<0.01) without a corresponding difference in peak RPE (FM, 16.8±1.8 vs. SM 15.7±1.9, P=0.10). Listening to SM during the post-exercise period resulted in faster HR recovery throughout (main effect P<0.001) and blood lactate at the end of recovery (2.8±0.4 vs. 4.7±0.8 mmol•L-1, P<0.05). Listening to FM during exercise can increase self-paced intensity without altering perceived exertion levels while listening to SM after exercise can accelerate the recovery rate back to resting levels.

  4. Wearing lower-body compression garment with medium pressure impaired exercise-induced performance decrement during prolonged running.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Sahiro; Arai, Mari; Todoko, Fumihiko; Yamada, Eri; Goto, Kazushige

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effect of wearing a lower body compression garment (CG) exerting different pressure levels during prolonged running on exercise-induced muscle damage and the inflammatory response. Eight male participants completed three exercise trials in a random order. The exercise consisted of 120 min of uphill running at 60% of VO2max. The exercise trials included 1) wearing a lower-body CG with 30 mmHg pressure [HIGH]; 2) wearing a lower-body CG with 15 mmHg pressure [MED]; and 3) wearing a lower-body garment with < 5 mmHg pressure [CON]. Heart rate (HR), and rate of perceived exertion for respiration and legs were monitored continuously during exercise. Time-course change in jump height was evaluated before and immediately after exercise. Blood samples were collected to determine blood glucose, lactate, serum creatine kinase, myoglobin, free fatty acids, glycerol, cortisol, and plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations before exercise, 60 min of the 120 min exercise period, immediately after exercise, and 60 min after exercise. Jump height was significantly higher immediately after the exercise in the MED trial compared with that in the HIGH trial (P = 0.04). Mean HR during the 120 min exercise was significantly lower in the MED trial (162 ± 4 bpm) than that in the CON trial (170 ± 4 bpm, P = 0.01). Plasma IL-6 concentrations increased significantly with exercise in all trials, but the area under the curve during exercise was significantly lower in the MED trial (397 ± 58 pg/ml·120 min) compared with that in the CON trial (670 ± 86 pg/ml·120 min, P = 0.04). Wearing a lower body CG exerting medium pressure (approximately 15 mmHg) significantly attenuated decrease in jump performance than that with wearing a lower body CG exerting high pressure (approximately 30 mmHg). Furthermore, exercise-induced increases in HR and the inflammatory response were significantly smaller with CG exerted 15mmHg than that with garment exerted < 5 mmHg.

  5. Wearing lower-body compression garment with medium pressure impaired exercise-induced performance decrement during prolonged running

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Sahiro

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of wearing a lower body compression garment (CG) exerting different pressure levels during prolonged running on exercise-induced muscle damage and the inflammatory response. Methods Eight male participants completed three exercise trials in a random order. The exercise consisted of 120 min of uphill running at 60% of VO2max. The exercise trials included 1) wearing a lower-body CG with 30 mmHg pressure [HIGH]; 2) wearing a lower-body CG with 15 mmHg pressure [MED]; and 3) wearing a lower-body garment with < 5 mmHg pressure [CON]. Heart rate (HR), and rate of perceived exertion for respiration and legs were monitored continuously during exercise. Time-course change in jump height was evaluated before and immediately after exercise. Blood samples were collected to determine blood glucose, lactate, serum creatine kinase, myoglobin, free fatty acids, glycerol, cortisol, and plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations before exercise, 60 min of the 120 min exercise period, immediately after exercise, and 60 min after exercise. Results Jump height was significantly higher immediately after the exercise in the MED trial compared with that in the HIGH trial (P = 0.04). Mean HR during the 120 min exercise was significantly lower in the MED trial (162 ± 4 bpm) than that in the CON trial (170 ± 4 bpm, P = 0.01). Plasma IL-6 concentrations increased significantly with exercise in all trials, but the area under the curve during exercise was significantly lower in the MED trial (397 ± 58 pg/ml·120 min) compared with that in the CON trial (670 ± 86 pg/ml·120 min, P = 0.04). Conclusion Wearing a lower body CG exerting medium pressure (approximately 15 mmHg) significantly attenuated decrease in jump performance than that with wearing a lower body CG exerting high pressure (approximately 30 mmHg). Furthermore, exercise-induced increases in HR and the inflammatory response were significantly smaller with CG exerted 15mmHg than that with garment

  6. Portrait of an Aging Wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This plot maps the increasing amounts of energy needed to spin Spirit's right front wheel drive, which has been showing signs of age. The wheel has now traveled six times farther than its design life. Since Spirit's 126th day on Mars, this wheel has required additional electric current to run at normal speeds, as indicated with blue diamonds on this graph. Efforts to improve the situation by redistributing the lubricant in the wheel with heat and rest were only mildly successful (pink squares). To cope with the condition, rover planners have come up with a creative solution: they will drive the rover backwards using five of six wheels. The sixth wheel will be activated only when the terrain demands it.

  7. The Free-Running Asthma Screening Test: An Approach to Screening for Exercise-Induced Asthma in Rural Alabama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaman, Doris J.; Estes, Jenny

    1997-01-01

    This study documented the prevalence of exercise-induced asthma (EIA) in rural elementary schools, examining the use of a free-running asthma screening test and peak expiratory flow-rate measurement for school screening. Results indicated that 5.7% of the students had EIA. Absenteeism and poverty were related to EIA. (SM)

  8. Lactate minimum test during incremental running after a submaximal cycling exercise: a novel test with training applications for triathletes.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Campous, D; Barbado, C; Nuñez, M J; Chicharro, J L

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether running speed determined in a lactate minimum test (lactate minimum intensity, LMI) during a treadmill incremental exercise performed just after submaximal cycling corresponds to the speed of a respiratory exchange ratio of 1.00 (RER-1) and, by extension, to the maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) previously obtained in a standard incremental exercise test. Eighteen moderately trained triathletes (15 men, 3 women) underwent two exercise sessions 72 h apart in random order: 1) a standard incremental treadmill test to identify the speed corresponding to RER-1, and 2) a submaximal exercise test on a bicycle-ergometer to obtain the LT (lactate threshold) followed by the incremental portion of the lactate minimum test on the treadmill. No significant differences were detected between running speed and heart rate at RER-1 and LMI (14.44±1.24 vs. 14.11±1.36 km·h-1 and 166.38±9.30 vs. 169.55±8.97 beats·min-1, respectively). Moreover, 95% of the differences between the results of the two incremental tests for running speed and heart rate were within the limits of agreement. These findings suggest the possibility of obtaining a valid physiological profile of a triathlete using a single test to assess the level of training in both cycling and running.

  9. Hyperlocomotor activity and stress vulnerability during adulthood induced by social isolation after early weaning are prevented by voluntary running exercise before normal weaning period.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Junko; Ogawa, Yuko; Owada, Yuji; Ishikawa, Akinori

    2014-05-01

    In rodents, the disruption of social-rearing conditions before normal weaning induces emotional behavioral abnormalities, such as anxiety, motor activity dysregulation, and stress vulnerability. The beneficial effects of exercise after normal weaning on emotional regulation have been well documented. However, effects of exercise before normal weaning on emotion have not been reported. We examined whether voluntary wheel running (R) during social isolation after early weaning (early weaning/isolation; EI) from postnatal day (PD) 14-30 could prevent EI-induced emotional behavioral abnormalities in Sprague-Dawley rats. Compared with control rats reared with their dam and siblings until PD30, rats performed R during EI (EI+R) and EI rats demonstrated greater locomotion and lower grooming activity in the open-field test (OFT) during the juvenile period. Juvenile EI ± R rats showed greater learned helplessness (LH) after exposure to inescapable stress (IS; electric foot shock) than IS-exposed control and EI rats. In contrast, EI rats showed increased locomotion in the OFT and LH after exposure to IS compared with control rats during adulthood; this was not observed in EI ± R rats. Both EI and EI ± R rats exhibited greater rearing activity in the OFT than controls during adulthood. EI did not increase anxiety in the OFT and elevated plus-maze. These results suggested that R during EI until normal weaning prevented some of the EI-induced behavioral abnormalities, including hyperlocomotor activity and greater LH, during adulthood but not in the juvenile period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Limited effect of fly-wheel and spinal mobilization exercise countermeasures on lumbar spine deconditioning during 90 d bed-rest in the Toulouse LTBR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belavý, Daniel L.; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Bareille, Marie-Pierre; Rittweger, Jörn; Felsenberg, Dieter

    2011-09-01

    We examined the effect of high-load fly-wheel (targeting the lower-limb musculature and concurrent loading of the spine via shoulder restraints) and spinal movement countermeasures against lumbar spine muscle atrophy, disc and spinal morphology changes and trunk isokinetic torque loss during prolonged bed-rest. Twenty-four male subjects underwent 90 d head-down tilt bed-rest and performed either fly-wheel (FW) exercises every three days, spinal movement exercises in lying five times daily (SpMob), or no exercise (Ctrl). There was no significant impact of countermeasures on losses of isokinetic trunk flexion/extension ( p≥0.65). Muscle volume change by day-89 of bed-rest in the psoas, iliacus, lumbar erector spinae, lumbar multifidus and quadratus lumborum, as measured via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), was statistically similar in all three groups ( p≥0.33). No significant effect on MRI-measures of lumbar intervertebral disc volume, spinal length and lordosis ( p≥0.09) were seen either, but there was some impact ( p≤0.048) on axial plane disc dimensions (greater reduction than in Ctrl) and disc height (greater increases than in Ctrl). MRI-data from subjects measured 13 and 90-days after bed-rest showed partial recovery of the spinal extensor musculature by day-13 after bed-rest with this process complete by day-90. Some changes in lumbar spine and disc morphology parameters were still persistent 90-days after bed-rest. The present results indicate that the countermeasures tested were not optimal to maintain integrity of the spine and trunk musculature during bed rest.

  11. Omnidirectional wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumrich, J. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The apparatus consists of a wheel having a hub with radially disposed spokes which are provided with a plurality of circumferential rim segments. These rim segments carry, between the spokes, rim elements which are rigid relative to their outer support surfaces, and defined in their outer contour to form a part of the circle forming the wheel diameter. The rim segments have provided for each of the rim elements an independent drive means selectively operable when the element is in ground contact to rotatably drive the rim element in a direction of movement perpendicularly lateral to the normal plane of rotation and movement of the wheel. This affords the wheel omnidirectional movement.

  12. Effect of whole-body microtitanium-treated garments on metabolic cost of exercise following strenuous hill running.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, David S; Graham, David F; Fink, Philip W; Wadsworth, Daniel P; Hughes, Jonathan D

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effect size of wearing sports garments treated with microscopic titanium particles (AQUA TITAN) during recovery from strenuous running on the restoration of running economy during subsequent exercise. A double-blind crossover was used to determine the effect of AQUA TITAN on running metabolic cost in 10 healthy men. Participants performed 40 min of treadmill running comprising 2×(10 min at 5% and 10 min at -10% grade), followed by random allocation to skin-tight nylon-polyurethane AQUA TITAN treated or non-treated placebo garments covering the torso, limbs, and feet. Garments were worn continuously throughout the next 48-h, during which time participants rested (day 2) then completed a graded treadmill run to determine metabolic outcome (day 3). Body-weight normalised running metabolic cost was evaluated by indirect calorimetry and the effect size referenced against the smallest meaningful change in economy (0.9%) for improvement in distance running performance. The fatigue effect while wearing control garments on metabolic cost at 48-h was small (2.2% 95%CL ±1.2%). In contrast, AQUA TITAN garments most certainly reduced running metabolic cost (-3.1% ±0.9%) vs. control. Additionally, AQUA TITAN increased the respiratory exchange ratio (0.011 ±0.005) and lowered minute ventilation at intensities below the ventilatory threshold (-4.0% ±0.9%). AQUA TITAN garments worn during recovery from strenuous exercise improved subsequent running economy to a magnitude likely to restore endurance performance. Future research should verify the magnitude of garment effects on performance outcomes, and on identifying the acute or passive neural, musculotendinous or metabolic mechanisms responsible. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ovariectomy-induced bone loss can be affected by different intensities of treadmill running exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Peng, Z Q; Väänänen, H K; Tuukkanen, J

    1997-05-01

    Fifty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were either ovariectomized (OVX, n = 24), sham-operated (Sham, n = 24), or sacrificed (n = 8) at the beginning of the experiment to serve as a baseline group. The OVX and Sham groups were further randomly divided into control (CTRL), slow running (R10), and faster running (R18) groups. R10 and R18 groups ran for 2 x 30 min/day for 8 weeks at speeds of 10 m/min and 18 m/min, respectively. Exercise did not affect the mechanical or histomorphometric parameters of bone in the sham-operated rats. There was no effect of exercise on body weight gain in the OVX-R10 group, but in OVX-R18 it decreased the gain of body weight. In the OVX-CTRL group the maximal load and energy absorption of the femoral neck were 16.7% (P < 0.001) and 30.0% (P < 0.001) lower than in the Sham-CTRL group, respectively. In OVX animals, slow running had a positive effect on the maximal load of the femoral neck (86.5 N) when compared with OVX-CTRL rats (77.1 N, P < 0.07). 51.7% of the trabecular bone was lost in the distal femur as a result of OVX and exercise reduced this loss to 30.2% (R10) and 39.9% (R18). Ovariectomy increased the bone formation rate (BFR) and the mineral apposition rate (MAR) on the periosteum of the femoral shaft. Exercise decreased the periosteal BFR and MAR in OVX rats, but increased it at the endosteum. Osteoclast numbers in the femoral metaphysis were increased after OVX and running exercise inhibited this effect significantly. The maximal bending load of the humerus increased after OVX by 12.1% (P < 0.05). Exercise enhanced this effect, the slow running being more effective. These results suggest that bone in OVX rats is either more sensitive to exercise than in sham-operated rats or that the higher body weight with slow running induces optimal loading and strengthens the bones.

  14. 5000 Meter Run Performance is not Enhanced 24 Hrs After an Intense Exercise Bout and Cold Water Immersion

    PubMed Central

    Stenson, Mary C.; Stenson, Matthew R.; Matthews, Tracey D.; Paolone, Vincent J.

    2017-01-01

    Cold water immersion (CWI) is used by endurance athletes to speed recovery between exercise bouts, but little evidence is available on the effects of CWI on subsequent endurance performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CWI following an acute bout of interval training on 5000 m run performance 24 hrs after interval training, perceived muscle soreness (PMS), range of motion (ROM), thigh circumference (TC), and perceived exertion (RPE). Nine endurance-trained males completed 2 trials, each consisting of an interval training session of 8 repetitions of 1200 m at a running pace equal to 75% of VO2peak, either a control or CWI treatment, and a timed 5000 m run 24 hrs post interval training session. CWI was performed for 12 min at 12 degrees Celsius on the legs. Recovery treatments were performed in a counterbalanced design. Run time for 5000 m was not different between the CWI and control trials (CWI = 1317.33 ± 128.33 sec, control = 1303.44 ± 105.53 sec; p = 0.48). PMS increased significantly from baseline to immediately post exercise (BL = 1.17 ± 0.22, POST = 2.81 ± 0.52; p = 0.02) and remained elevated from baseline to 24 hrs post exercise (POST24 = 2.19 ± 0.32; p = 0.02), but no difference was observed between the treatments. No differences were observed for the interaction between time and treatment for TC (λ = 0.73, p = 0.15) and ROM (λ = 0.49; p = 0.10). CWI performed immediately following an interval training exercise bout did not enhance subsequent 5000 m run performance or reduce PMS. CWI may not provide a recovery or performance advantage when athletes are accustomed to the demands of the prior exercise bout. Key points CWI is a popular recovery technique among endurance athletes, but the effect of CWI on subsequent performance is unclear. CWI does not enhance 5000 m run performance 24 hrs after a hard interval run session. As athletes become more accustomed to prolonged or intense exercise, CWI may not provide a recovery

  15. Effect of Maturation on Hemodynamic and Autonomic Control Recovery Following Maximal Running Exercise in Highly Trained Young Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Buchheit, Martin; Al Haddad, Hani; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Quod, Marc J.; Bourdon, Pitre C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of maturation on post-exercise hemodynamic and autonomic responses. Fifty-five highly trained young male soccer players (12–18 years) classified as pre-, circum-, or post-peak height velocity (PHV) performed a graded running test to exhaustion on a treadmill. Before (Pre) and after (5th–10th min, Post) exercise, heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), arterial pressure (AP), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were monitored. Parasympathetic (high frequency [HFRR] of HR variability (HRV) and baroreflex sensitivity [Ln BRS]) and sympathetic activity (low frequency [LFSAP] of systolic AP variability) were estimated. Post-exercise blood lactate [La]b, the HR recovery (HRR) time constant, and parasympathetic reactivation (time-varying HRV analysis) were assessed. In all three groups, exercise resulted in increased HR, CO, AP, and LFSAP (P < 0.001), decreased SV, HFRR, and Ln BRS (all P < 0.001), and no change in TPR (P = 0.98). There was no “maturation × time” interaction for any of the hemodynamic or autonomic variables (all P > 0.22). After exercise, pre-PHV players displayed lower SV, CO, and [La]b, faster HRR and greater parasympathetic reactivation compared with circum- and post-PHV players. Multiple regression analysis showed that lean muscle mass, [La]b, and Pre parasympathetic activity were the strongest predictors of HRR (r2 = 0.62, P < 0.001). While pre-PHV players displayed a faster HRR and greater post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation, maturation had little influence on the hemodynamic and autonomic responses following maximal running exercise. HRR relates to lean muscle mass, blood acidosis, and intrinsic parasympathetic function, with less evident impact of post-exercise autonomic function. PMID:22013423

  16. Effects of voluntary exercise on spontaneous physical activity and food consumption in mice: Results from an artificial selection experiment.

    PubMed

    Copes, Lynn E; Schutz, Heidi; Dlugosz, Elizabeth M; Acosta, Wendy; Chappell, Mark A; Garland, Theodore

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the effect of voluntary exercise on spontaneous physical activity (SPA) and food consumption in mice from 4 replicate lines bred for 57 generations for high voluntary wheel running (HR) and from 4 non-selected control (C) lines. Beginning at ~24 days of age, mice were housed in standard cages or in cages with attached wheels. Wheel activity and SPA were monitored in 1-min intervals. Data from the 8th week of the experiment were analyzed because mice were sexually mature and had plateaued in body mass, weekly wheel running distance, SPA, and food consumption. Body mass, length, and masses of the retroperitoneal fat pad, liver, and heart were recorded after the 13th week. SPA of both HR and C mice decreased with wheel access, due to reductions in both duration and average intensity of SPA. However, total activity duration (SPA+wheel running; min/day) was ~1/3 greater when mice were housed with wheels, and food consumption was significantly increased. Overall, food consumption in both HR and C mice was more strongly affected by wheel running than by SPA. Duration of wheel running had a stronger effect than average speed, but the opposite was true for SPA. With body mass as a covariate, chronic wheel access significantly reduced fat pad mass and increased heart mass in both HR and C mice. Given that both HR and C mice housed with wheels had increased food consumption, the energetic cost of wheel running was not fully compensated by concomitant reductions in SPA. The experiment demonstrates that both duration and intensity of both wheel running and SPA were significant predictors of food consumption. This sort of detailed analysis of the effects of different aspects of physical activity on food consumption has not previously been reported for a non-human animal, and it sets the stage for longitudinal examination of energy balance and its components in rodent models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bicycle Wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    An aerodynamic bicycle wheel developed by two DuPont engineers and a California company incorporates research into NASA airfoils. Computer modeling was accomplished with MSC/NASTRAN. Each of the three spokes in the wheel is, in effect, an airfoil, maximizing aerodynamic efficiency for racing.

  18. Examining the influence of hydration status on physiological responses and running speed during trail running in the heat with controlled exercise intensity.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Rebecca M; Casa, Douglas J; Jensen, Katherine A; DeMartini, Julie K; Pagnotta, Kelly D; Ruiz, Roberto C; Roti, Melissa W; Stearns, Rebecca L; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of dehydration at a controlled relative intensity on physiological responses and trail running speed. Using a randomized, controlled crossover design in a field setting, 14 male and female competitive, endurance runners aged 30 ± 10.4 years completed 2 (hydrated [HY] and dehydrated [DHY]) submaximal trail runs in a warm environment. For each trial, the subjects ran 3 laps (4 km per lap) on trails with 4-minute rests between laps. The DHY were fluid restricted 22 hours before the trial and during the run. The HY arrived euhydrated and were given water during rest breaks. The subjects ran at a moderate pace matched between trials by providing pacing feedback via heart rate (HR) throughout the second trial. Gastrointestinal temperature (T(GI)), HR, running time, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were monitored. Percent body mass (BM) losses were significantly greater for DHY pretrial (-1.65 ± 1.34%) than for HY (-0.03 ± 1.28%; p < 0.001). Posttrial, DHY BM losses (-3.64 ± 1.33%) were higher than those for HY (-1.38 ± 1.43%; p < 0.001). A significant main effect of T(GI) (p = 0.009) was found with DHY having higher T(GI) postrun (DHY: 39.09 ± 0.45°C, HY: 38.71 ± 0.45°C; p = 0.030), 10 minutes post (DHY: 38.85 ± 0.48°C, HY: 38.46 ± 0.46°C; p = 0.009) and 30 minutes post (DHY: 38.18 ± 0.41°C, HY: 37.60 ± 0.25°C; p = 0.000). The DHY had slower run times after lap 2 (p = 0.019) and lap 3 (p = 0.025). The DHY subjects completed the 12-km run 99 seconds slower than the HY (p = 0.027) subjects did. The RPE in DHY was slightly higher than that in HY immediately postrun (p = 0.055). Controlling relative intensity in hypohydrated runners resulted in slower run times, greater perceived effort, and elevated T(GI), which is clinically meaningful for athletes using HR as a gauge for exercise effort and performance.

  19. Carbohydrate-protein ingestion improves subsequent running capacity towards the end of a football-specific intermittent exercise.

    PubMed

    Alghannam, Abdullah F

    2011-10-01

    The majority of football players succumb to fatigue towards the end of the game. This study was designed to examine the influence of protein coingestion with carbohydrate (CHO) vs. an isocaloric CHO supplement on subsequent running capacity towards the end of a simulated football match. Six male amateur football players participated in 3 trials applied in a randomized cross-over experimental design. A laboratory-based, football-specific intermittent exercise was allocated for 75 min interspersed with a 15-min recovery, immediately followed by run time to fatigue (RTF) at 80% peak oxygen consumption. In each trial, prior to exercise and during half-time, participants randomly ingested a placebo (PLC), 6.9% CHO, or 4.8% CHO plus 2.1% protein (CHO-P) supplements matched for color and taste. CHO-P resulted in longer RTF (23.02 ± 5.27 min) than did CHO (16.49 ± 3.25 min) and PLC (11.00 ± 2.80 min) (p < 0.05). Blood glucose was higher in CHO-P at the point of fatigue (4.68 ± 0.64) compared with CHO and PLC (3.92 ± 0.29 and 3.66 ± 0.36, respectively; p < 0.05). Ratings of perceived exertion were lower in the CHO-P subjects at the onset of exercise and towards the end of intermittent exercise when compared with the PLC and CHO subjects (p < 0.05). When protein was added to a CHO supplement, subsequent running capacity following limited recovery from intermittent exercise was enhanced. This improvement suggests that protein coingestion may exert an ergogenic benefit upon endurance capacity during intermittent activity.

  20. Running exercise protects against myelin breakdown in the absence of neurogenesis in the hippocampus of AD mice.

    PubMed

    Chao, Feng-Lei; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Chun-Ni; Jiang, Lin; Xiao, Qian; Luo, Yan-Min; Lv, Fu-Lin; He, Qi; Tang, Yong

    2018-04-01

    Neurogenesis might influence oligodendrogenesis and selectively instruct myelination in the mammalian brain. Running exercise could induce neurogenesis and protect the myelin sheaths in the dentate gyrus of AD mice. It is unclear whether running exercise can protect myelin sheaths in the absence of neurogenesis in the hippocampus of AD mice. Six-month-old male APP/PS1 transgenic mice were randomly assigned to a control group (Tg control) or a running group (Tg runner), and age-matched non-transgenic littermates were used as a wild-type group (WT control). The Tg runner mice were subjected to a running protocol for four months. The behaviors of the mice in the three groups were then assessed using the Morris water maze, and related quantitative parameters of the myelin sheaths within the CA1 field were investigated using unbiased stereological and electron microscopy techniques. Learning and spatial memory performance, CA1 volume, the volumes of the myelinated fibers, and myelin sheaths in the CA1 field were all significantly worse in the Tg control mice than in the WT control mice. Learning and spatial memory performance, CA1 volume and the volume of the myelin sheaths in the CA1 field were all significantly greater in the Tg runner mice than in the Tg control mice. These results reveal demyelinating lesions in the CA1 field of Alzheimer's disease (AD) mice and indicate that running exercise could protect against myelin sheath degeneration in the absence of neurogenesis, thereby reducing CA1 atrophy and delaying the onset and progression of AD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Fast-start strategy increases the time spent above 95 %VO2max during severe-intensity intermittent running exercise.

    PubMed

    de Aguiar, Rafael Alves; Turnes, Tiago; de Oliveira Cruz, Rogério Santos; Caputo, Fabrizio

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to use the intermittent critical velocity (ICV) model to individualize intermittent exercise and analyze whether a fast-start strategy could increase the time spent at or above 95 %VO(2max) (t95VO(2max)) during intermittent exercise. After an incremental test, seven active male subjects performed three intermittent exercise tests until exhaustion at 100, 110, and 120 % of the maximal aerobic velocity to determine ICV. On three occasions, the subjects performed an intermittent exercise test until exhaustion at 105 % (IE105) and 125 % (IE125) of ICV, and at a speed that was initially set at 125 %ICV but which then decreased to 105 %ICV (IE125-105). The intermittent exercise consisted of repeated 30-s runs alternated with 15-s passive rest intervals. There was no difference between the predicted and actual Tlim for IE125 (300 ± 72 s and 284 ± 76 s) and IE105 (1,438 ± 423 s and 1,439 ± 518 s), but for IE125-105 the predicted Tlim underestimated the actual Tlim (888 ± 211 s and 1,051 ± 153 s, respectively). The t95VO(2max) during IE125-105 (289 ± 150 s) was significantly higher than IE125 (113 ± 40 s) and IE105 (106 ± 71 s), but no significant differences were found between IE125 and IE105. It can be concluded that predicting Tlim from the ICV model was affected by the fast-start protocol during intermittent exercise. Furthermore, fast-start protocol was able to increase the time spent at or above 95 %VO2max during intermittent exercise above ICV despite a longer total exercise time at IE105.

  2. Impact of pre-exercise rapid-acting insulin reductions on ketogenesis following running in Type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bracken, R M; West, D J; Stephens, J W; Kilduff, L P; Luzio, S; Bain, S C

    2011-02-01

    This study examined the effects of reductions to pre-exercise rapid-acting insulin dose on changes in blood beta-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, acid-base balance and counter-regulatory hormone responses to prolonged running in individuals with Type 1 diabetes. Following ethical approval, seven participants with Type 1 diabetes (34±2 years, BMI 27±1 kg/m(2) ) completed this study. After preliminary testing, participants attended the laboratory four times, each time consuming a 1.12 MJ meal (60 g carbohydrate, 2 g fat, 2 g protein), with randomized amounts of their rapid-acting insulin: Full dose (mean 7.3±0.2 units), 75% dose (mean 5.4±0.1 units), 50% dose (mean 3.7±0.1 units) or 25% dose (mean 1.8±0.1 units). After 2-h rest, participants completed 45 min running at 70±1% peak rate of oxygen consumption (VO(2peak) ). Blood metabolites and hormones were recorded over the 2-h rest and 3-h recovery. Data were analysed using repeated-measures ANOVA.   Serum insulin peaked at 60 min in all conditions and was lowest after 25% insulin dose compared with full dose (P=0.03). After the 25% insulin dose immediately pre-exercise glucose concentration was higher than after the full or 50% dose (P<0.05). Resting beta-hydroxybutyrate gradually decreased during 2-h rest (P<0.05) with a similar post-exercise peak of beta-hydroxybutyrate at 3 h (P>0.05). Post-exercise blood pH increased for 5 min to a similar extent with all insulin doses , but the rise with the 25% dose was less compared with the full dose (P=0.01). Blood lactate and plasma catecholamines increased after running similarly with all insulin reduction conditions (P<0.05). Blood glucose area under the curve (BG(auc) ) after the 25% insulin dose was greater than after the 75% dose (P=0.02). Ketogenesis following running was not influenced by reductions in pre-exercise rapid-acting insulin dose. This important preparatory strategy aids preservation of blood glucose but poses no greater risk to exercise-induced ketone

  3. The effect of exercise intensity on cognitive performance during short duration treadmill running

    PubMed Central

    Tallis, Jason; Miller, Amanda; Clarke, Neil D.; Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; Duncan, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study examined the effect of short duration, moderate and high-intensity exercise on a Go/NoGo task. Fifteen, habitually active (9 females and 6 males aged 28 ± 5 years) agreed to participate in the study and cognitive performance was measured in three sessions lasting 10 min each, performed at three different exercise intensities: rest, moderate and high. Results indicated significant exercise intensity main effects for reaction time (RT) (p = 0.01), the omission error rate (p = 0.027) and the decision error rate (p = 0.011), with significantly longer RTs during high intensity exercise compared to moderate intensity exercise (p = 0.039) and rest (p = 0.023). Mean ± SE of RT (ms) was 395.8 ± 9.1, 396.3 ± 9.1 and 433.5 ± 16.1 for rest, moderate and high intensity exercise, respectively. This pattern was replicated for the error rate with a significantly higher omission error and decision error rate during high intensity exercise compared to moderate intensity exercise (p = 0.003) and rest (p = 0.001). Mean ± SE of omission errors (%) was 0.88 ± 0.23, 0.8 ± 0.23 and 1.8 ± 0.46% for rest, moderate and high intensity exercise, respectively. Likewise, mean ± SE of decision errors (%) was 0.73 ± 0.24, 0.73 ± 0.21 and 1.8 ± 0.31 for rest, moderate and high intensity exercise, respectively. The present study’s results suggest that 10 min workout at high intensity impairs RT performances in habitually active adults compared to rest or moderate intensity exercise. PMID:28149365

  4. Are We Running From the Truth About the Risks and Benefits of Exercise?

    PubMed

    Legwold, G

    1985-05-01

    Basic assumptions about the benefits of exercise are being questioned. What may be heresy to the sports medicine old guard is making sense to some who think that exercisers in the United States are going overboard-and for the wrong reasons.

  5. Inadequate carbohydrate intake following prolonged exercise does not increase muscle soreness after 15 minutes of downhill running.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Matthew R; Conlee, Robert K; Parcell, Allen C

    2004-04-01

    In Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS), muscles become sore 24 to 48 hours after eccentric and unaccustomed activity. Fiber stiffness, due to decreased muscle glycogen, may predispose muscle to greater damage during eccentric exercise. This study sought to determine if inadequate carbohydrate intake following a protocol to decrease muscle glycogen would increase DOMS after 15 min of downhill running. Thirty-three male subjects (age, 18-35 years) were randomized into 3 groups for testing over a 7-day period. The depletion (DEP) group (n= 12) underwent a glycogen depletion protocol prior to a 15-min downhill run designed to induce DOMS. The repletion (FED) group (n = 10) underwent a glycogen depletion protocol followed by a carbohydrate repletion protocol (>80% CHO) prior to downhill running. The third (ECC) group (n = 11) performed only the downhill running protocol. Subjective muscle soreness, isometric force production, relaxed knee angle, and thigh circumference were measured pretreatment and on days 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 post treatment. Subjective muscle soreness for all groups increased from 0 cm pretreatment to 3.05 +/- 0.72 cm (on a 10-cm scale) on day 1 post treatment (p<.05). All groups were significantly different from baseline measurements until day 4 post treatment. Each group experienced a decline in isometric force from 281 +/- 45 N pre- to 253 +/- 13 N on day 1 post treatment (p <.05). The decrease in isometric force persisted in all groups for 4 days post treatment. Increases in thigh circumference and relaxed knee angle elevations in all 3 groups were statistically different (p <.05) from pretreatment until day 4. No differences were noted between groups for any of the parameters examined. In the current study, 15 min of downhill running is sufficient to cause DOMS with the associated functional and morphological changes; however, inadequate carbohydrate intake after a glycogen depleting exercise does not appear to exacerbate DOMS and the associated

  6. COMPARISON OF HAMSTRING MUSCLE ACTIVATION DURING HIGH-SPEED RUNNING AND VARIOUS HAMSTRING STRENGTHENING EXERCISES.

    PubMed

    van den Tillaar, Roland; Solheim, Jens Asmund Brevik; Bencke, Jesper

    2017-10-01

    Several studies have examined the effect of hamstring strength exercises upon hamstring strains in team sports that involve many sprints. However, there has been no cross comparison among muscle activation of these hamstring training exercises with actual sprinting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine different hamstring exercises and compare the muscle activity in the hamstring muscle group during various exercises with the muscular activity produced during maximal sprints. Twelve male sports students (age 25 ± 6.2 years, 1.80 ± 7.1 m, body mass 81.1 ± 15.6 kg) participated in this study. Surface EMG electrodes were placed on semimembranosus, semitendinosus and biceps femoris to measure muscle activity during seven hamstrings exercises and sprinting together with 3D motion capture to establish at what hip and knee angles maximal muscle activation (EMG) occurs. Maximal EMG activity during sprints for each muscle was used in order to express each exercise as a percentage of max activation during sprinting. The main findings were that maximal EMG activity of the different hamstring exercises were on average between 40-65% (Semitendinosus), 18-40% (biceps femoris) and 40-75% (Semimembranosus) compared with the max EMG activity in sprints, which were considered as 100%. The laying kick together with the Nordic hamstring exercises and its variations had the highest muscle activations, while the cranes showed the lowest muscle activation (in all muscles) together with the standing kick for the semimembranosus. In addition, angles at which the peak EMG activity of the hamstring muscle occurs were similar for the Nordic hamstring exercises and different for the two crane exercises (hip angle), standing kick (hip angle) and the laying kick (knee angle) compared with the sprint. Nordic hamstring exercises with its variation together with the laying kick activates the hamstrings at high levels and at angles similar to the joint angles at which

  7. COMPARISON OF HAMSTRING MUSCLE ACTIVATION DURING HIGH-SPEED RUNNING AND VARIOUS HAMSTRING STRENGTHENING EXERCISES

    PubMed Central

    Solheim, Jens Asmund Brevik; Bencke, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Purpose/Background Several studies have examined the effect of hamstring strength exercises upon hamstring strains in team sports that involve many sprints. However, there has been no cross comparison among muscle activation of these hamstring training exercises with actual sprinting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine different hamstring exercises and compare the muscle activity in the hamstring muscle group during various exercises with the muscular activity produced during maximal sprints. Methods Twelve male sports students (age 25 ± 6.2 years, 1.80 ± 7.1 m, body mass 81.1 ± 15.6 kg) participated in this study. Surface EMG electrodes were placed on semimembranosus, semitendinosus and biceps femoris to measure muscle activity during seven hamstrings exercises and sprinting together with 3D motion capture to establish at what hip and knee angles maximal muscle activation (EMG) occurs. Maximal EMG activity during sprints for each muscle was used in order to express each exercise as a percentage of max activation during sprinting. Results The main findings were that maximal EMG activity of the different hamstring exercises were on average between 40-65% (Semitendinosus), 18-40% (biceps femoris) and 40-75% (Semimembranosus) compared with the max EMG activity in sprints, which were considered as 100%. The laying kick together with the Nordic hamstring exercises and its variations had the highest muscle activations, while the cranes showed the lowest muscle activation (in all muscles) together with the standing kick for the semimembranosus. In addition, angles at which the peak EMG activity of the hamstring muscle occurs were similar for the Nordic hamstring exercises and different for the two crane exercises (hip angle), standing kick (hip angle) and the laying kick (knee angle) compared with the sprint. Conclusions Nordic hamstring exercises with its variation together with the laying kick activates the hamstrings at high levels and

  8. Aerobic energy cost and sensation responses during submaximal running exercise--positive effects of wearing compression tights.

    PubMed

    Bringard, A; Perrey, S; Belluye, N

    2006-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of wearing compression compared to classic elastic tights and conventional shorts (control trial) on oxygen cost and sensation responses during submaximal running exercise. In part I, aerobic energy cost was evaluated in six trained runners at 10, 12, 14, and 16 km x h(-1). In part II, the increase in energy cost over time (i. e., slow component expressed as difference in VO2 values between min 2 and end-exercise) was determined in six trained runners at a constant running pace corresponding to 80% of maximal VO2 for 15 min duration. All tests were performed on a 200-m indoor track with equivalent thermal stress conditions. VO2 was determined with a portable metabolic system (Cosmed K4b2, Rome, Italy) during all testing sessions. Runners were asked their ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and perceptions for clothing sweating, comfort, and whole thermal sensations following each trial. Results showed in part I a significant lower energy cost only at 12 km x h(-1) by wearing compression and elastic tights compared to conventional shorts. During part II, wearing compression tights decreased significantly VO2 slow component by 26 and 36% compared to elastic tights and conventional shorts, respectively. There were no differences in sweating and comfort sensations, RPE, and for whole thermal sensation between clothing conditions in parts I and II. Wearing compression tights during running exercise may enhance overall circulation and decrease muscle oscillation to promote a lower energy expenditure at a given prolonged submaximal speed.

  9. The repeated bout effect of traditional resistance exercises on running performance across 3 bouts.

    PubMed

    Doma, Kenji; Schumann, Moritz; Leicht, Anthony Scott; Heilbronn, Brian Edward; Damas, Felipe; Burt, Dean

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the repeated bout effect of 3 typical lower body resistance-training sessions on maximal and submaximal effort running performance. Twelve resistance-untrained men (age, 24 ± 4 years; height, 1.81 ± 0.10 m; body mass, 79.3 ± 10.9 kg; peak oxygen uptake, 48.2 ± 6.5 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 ; 6-repetition maximum squat, 71.7 ± 12.2 kg) undertook 3 bouts of resistance-training sessions at 6-repetitions maximum. Countermovement jump (CMJ), lower-body range of motion (ROM), muscle soreness, and creatine kinase (CK) were examined prior to and immediately, 24 h (T24), and 48 h (T48) after each resistance-training bout. Submaximal (i.e., below anaerobic threshold (AT)) and maximal (i.e., above AT) running performances were also conducted at T24 and T48. Most indirect muscle damage markers (i.e., CMJ, ROM, and muscle soreness) and submaximal running performance were significantly improved (P < 0.05; 1.9%) following the third resistance-training bout compared with the second bout. Whilst maximal running performance was also improved following the third bout (P < 0.05; 9.8%) compared with other bouts, the measures were still reduced by 12%-20% versus baseline. However, the increase in CK was attenuated following the second bout (P < 0.05) with no further protection following the third bout (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the initial bout induced the greatest change in CK; however, at least 2 bouts were required to produce protective effects on other indirect muscle damage markers and submaximal running performance measures. This suggests that submaximal running sessions should be avoided for at least 48 h after resistance training until the third bout, although a greater recovery period may be required for maximal running sessions.

  10. Telemetric analysis of haemodynamic regulation during voluntary exercise training in mouse models.

    PubMed

    Adlam, D; De Bono, J P; Danson, E J; Zhang, M H; Casadei, B; Paterson, D J; Channon, K M

    2011-11-01

    Regular physical exercise reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and improves outcome in patients with cardiovascular diseases. The dynamic changes in blood pressure and heart rate with acute exercise are independently predictive of prognosis. Quantification of the haemodynamic response to exercise training in genetically modified mouse models may provide insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of exercise. We describe, for the first time, the use of radiotelemetry to provide continuous blood pressure monitoring in C57BL/6J mice during a programme of voluntary wheel exercise with continuous simultaneous recording and analysis of wheel rotations and beat-by-beat haemodynamic parameters. We define distinct haemodynamic profiles at rest, during normal cage activity and during episodes of voluntary wheel running. We show that whilst cage activity is associated with significant rises both in blood pressure and in heart rate, voluntary wheel running leads to a further substantial rise in heart rate with only a small increment in blood pressure. With 5 weeks of chronic exercise training, resting heart rate progressively falls, but heart rate during episodes of wheel running initially increases. In contrast, there are minimal changes in blood pressure in response to chronic exercise training. Finally, we have quantified the acute changes in heart rate at the onset of and recovery from individual episodes of wheel running, revealing that changes in heart rate are extremely rapid and that the peak rate of change of heart rate increases with chronic exercise training. The results of this study have important implications for the use of genetically modified mouse models to investigate the beneficial haemodynamic effects of chronic exercise on blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Reduced Nonexercise Activity Attenuates Negative Energy Balance in Mice Engaged in Voluntary Exercise.

    PubMed

    Lark, Daniel S; Kwan, Jamie R; McClatchey, P Mason; James, Merrygay N; James, Freyja D; Lighton, John R B; Lantier, Louise; Wasserman, David H

    2018-05-01

    Exercise alone is often ineffective for treating obesity despite the associated increase in metabolic requirements. Decreased nonexercise physical activity has been implicated in this resistance to weight loss, but the mechanisms responsible are unclear. We quantified the metabolic cost of nonexercise activity, or "off-wheel" activity (OWA), and voluntary wheel running (VWR) and examined whether changes in OWA during VWR altered energy balance in chow-fed C57BL/6J mice ( n = 12). Energy expenditure (EE), energy intake, and behavior (VWR and OWA) were continuously monitored for 4 days with locked running wheels followed by 9 days with unlocked running wheels. Unlocking the running wheels increased EE as a function of VWR distance. The metabolic cost of exercise (kcal/m traveled) decreased with increasing VWR speed. Unlocking the wheel led to a negative energy balance but also decreased OWA, which was predicted to mitigate the expected change in energy balance by ∼45%. A novel behavioral circuit involved repeated bouts of VWR, and roaming was discovered and represented novel predictors of VWR behavior. The integrated analysis described here reveals that the weight loss effects of voluntary exercise can be countered by a reduction in nonexercise activity. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  12. Running for extinction? Aerobic exercise as an augmentation of exposure therapy in panic disorder with agoraphobia.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Sophie; Wieder, Gesine; Einsle, Franziska; Petzold, Moritz B; Janßen, Christiane; Mumm, Jennifer L M; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Fydrich, Thomas; Plag, Jens; Ströhle, Andreas

    2018-06-01

    Exposure-based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (eb-CBT) represents the most evidence-based psychotherapeutic approach in anxiety disorders. However, its efficacy may be limited by a delay in onset of action and a substantial number of patients does not respond sufficiently to treatment. In this context, aerobic exercise was found to be effective in reducing clinical anxiety as well as to improve (elements of) disorder-specific CBT in some mental disorders. We therefore investigated the effect of aerobic exercise supplementary to an eb-CBT in panic disorder and agoraphobia (PD/AG). 77 patients with PD/AG performed a 30 min treadmill task with moderate or low intensity (70% or 30% of the maximal oxygen uptake [VO 2max ]) prior to five exposure sessions within a standardized seven-week CBT. At baseline, after completing the treatment period (post) and six month after post (follow-up), several measures of (un)specific psychopathology (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale [Ham-A], Mobility Inventory [MI], Panic and Agoraphobia Scale [PAS], Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire [ACQ], Body Sensations Questionnaire [BSQ]) were established to assess for clinical changes. All patients experienced a significant improvement of symptoms from baseline to post (for all measures p < .001) but repeated-measures analyses of variance found a trend towards a significant time × group interaction in the Ham-A in favor for the moderate intense exercise group (f[1, 74] = 4.15, p = .045, α=.025). This trend, however, disappeared at follow-up since the low-intense exercise group further improved significantly in Ham-A after post. Our findings therefore might point to an accelerating effect of moderate-intense exercise within an exposure-based CBT for AG/PD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Is there really an eccentric action of the hamstrings during the swing phase of high-speed running? Part II: Implications for exercise.

    PubMed

    Van Hooren, Bas; Bosch, Frans

    2017-12-01

    We have previously argued that there may actually be no significant eccentric, but rather predominantly an isometric action of the hamstring muscle fibres during the swing phase of high-speed running when the attachment points of the hamstrings are moving apart. Based on this we suggested that isometric rather than eccentric exercises are a more specific way of conditioning the hamstrings for high-speed running. In this review we argue that some of the presumed beneficial adaptations following eccentric training may actually not be related to the eccentric muscle fibre action, but to other factors such as exercise intensity. Furthermore, we discuss several disadvantages associated with commonly used eccentric hamstring exercises. Subsequently, we argue that high-intensity isometric exercises in which the series elastic element stretches and recoils may be equally or even more effective at conditioning the hamstrings for high-speed running, since they also avoid some of the negative side effects associated with eccentric training. We provide several criteria that exercises should fulfil to effectively condition the hamstrings for high-speed running. Adherence to these criteria will guarantee specificity with regards to hamstrings functioning during running. Practical examples of isometric exercises that likely meet several criteria are provided.

  14. The Interaction of Voluntary Running Exercise and Food Restriction Induces Low Bone Strength and Low Bone Mineral Density in Young Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Yuki; Agata, Umon; Kakutani, Yuya; Higano, Michito; Hattori, Satoshi; Ogata, Hitomi; Ezawa, Ikuko; Omi, Naomi

    2015-07-01

    There is a concern that the combination of exercise with food intake reduction has a risk of reducing bone strength and bone mass in young female athletes. We examined the influence of the interaction of voluntary running exercise and food restriction on bone in young female rats. Seven-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: the sedentary and ad libitum feeding group (SED), voluntary running exercise and ad libitum feeding group (EX), sedentary and 30 % food restriction group (SED-FR), and voluntary running exercise and 30 % food restriction group (EX-FR). The experiment lasted 12 weeks. Statistical analysis was carried out by two-way analysis of variance with exercise and restriction as the between-subjects factors. As a result, there were significant interactions of running and restriction on energy availability, breaking force, breaking energy, and bone mineral density (BMD). Breaking force and energy in the EX group were significantly higher than in the SED group; breaking force and energy were significantly lower in the EX-FR group than in the EX group, and breaking force in the EX-FR group was significantly lower than that in the SED-FR group. BMD in the EX-FR group was significantly lower than in the EX and SED-FR groups. These results suggest that food restriction induced low bone strength in young female rats engaging in voluntary running exercise. Also, through the interaction of exercise and food restriction, voluntary running exercise combined food restriction, unlike ad libitum feeding conditions, induced low bone strength, and low BMD in young female rats.

  15. Effect of the coefficient of friction of a running surface on sprint time in a sled-towing exercise.

    PubMed

    Linthorne, Nicholas P; Cooper, James E

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of the coefficient of friction of a running surface on an athlete's sprint time in a sled-towing exercise. The coefficients of friction of four common sports surfaces (a synthetic athletics track, a natural grass rugby pitch, a 3G football pitch, and an artificial grass hockey pitch) were determined from the force required to tow a weighted sled across the surface. Timing gates were then used to measure the 30-m sprint time for six rugby players when towing a sled of varied weight across the surfaces. There were substantial differences between the coefficients of friction for the four surfaces (micro = 0.21-0.58), and in the sled-towing exercise the athlete's 30-m sprint time increased linearly with increasing sled weight. The hockey pitch (which had the lowest coefficient of friction) produced a substantially lower rate of increase in 30-m sprint time, but there were no significant differences between the other surfaces. The results indicate that although an athlete's sprint time in a sled-towing exercise is affected by the coefficient offriction of the surface, the relationship relationship between the athlete's rate of increase in 30-m sprint time and the coefficient of friction is more complex than expected.

  16. Inhibition of Glutathione Synthesis Induced by Exhaustive Running Exercise via the Decreased Influx Rate of L-Cysteine in Rat Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yanlian; Xiong, Yanlei; Zhou, Shuai; Yu, Zhenhai; Zhao, Dongmei; Wang, Zhiqiang; Li, Yuling; Yan, Jingtong; Cai, Yu; Zhang, Wenqian

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exhaustive exercise on L-cysteine uptake and its effect on erythrocyte glutathione (GSH) synthesis and metabolism. Rats were divided into three groups: sedentary control (C), exhaustive running exercise (ERE) and moderate running exercise (MRE) (n=12 rats/group). We determined the L-cysteine efflux and influx in vitro in rat erythrocytes and its relationship with GSH synthesis. Total anti-oxidant potential of plasma was measured in terms of the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) values for each exercise group. In addition, the glucose metabolism enzyme activity of erythrocytes was also measured under in vitro incubation conditions. Biochemical studies confirmed that exhaustive running exercise significantly increased oxidative damage parameters in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and methemoglobin levels. Pearson correlation analysis suggested that L-cysteine influx was positively correlated with erythrocyte GSH synthesis and FRAP values in both the control and exercise groups. In vitro oxidation incubation significantly decreased the level of glucose metabolism enzyme activity in the control group. We presented evidence of the exhaustive exercise-induced inhibition of GSH synthesis due to a dysfunction in L-cysteine transport. In addition, oxidative stress-induced changes in glucose metabolism were the driving force underlying decreased L-cysteine uptake in the exhaustive exercise group. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Relationships between V̇O2 and blood lactate responses after all-out running exercise.

    PubMed

    de Aguiar, Rafael Alves; Cruz, Rogério Santos de Oliveira; Turnes, Tiago; Pereira, Kayo Leonardo; Caputo, Fabrizio

    2015-03-01

    To verify the effects of training status and blood lactate concentration (BLC) responses on the early excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), 8 sprinters, 7 endurance runners, and 7 untrained subjects performed an incremental test to determine maximal oxygen uptake and a 1-min all-out test to determine BLC and oxygen uptake recovery curves. BLC kinetics was evaluated to assess the quantity of lactate accumulated during exercise (QlaA), lactate removal ability (k2), and quantity of lactate removed from 0 to 10 min postexercise (QlaR). Oxygen uptake off-kinetics was evaluated to assess the decay time constants (τ1 and τ2); moreover, EPOC was measured during the first 10 min after exercise. While sprinters had 98%-100% and 94%-100% likelihood of having the highest EPOC and decay time constants, endurance runners had 98%-100% and 95%-100% likelihood of having the lowest EPOC and decay time constants. EPOC was correlated with QlaA (r = 0.74) and QlaR (r = 0.61). τ1 and τ2 were correlated with maximal oxygen uptake (r > -0.57), k2 (r > -0.48), and QlaR relative to QlaA (r > -0.60). Our findings indicate that oxygen uptake recovery is associated with fast lactate removal and aerobic training. Furthermore, the metabolites derived from anaerobic energy production seem to induce a greater EPOC after all-out exercise.

  18. Voluntary and involuntary running in the rat show different patterns of theta rhythm, physical activity, and heart rate.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-Yi; Kuo, Terry B J; Yen, Jiin-Cherng; Tsai, Shih-Chih; Yang, Cheryl C H

    2014-05-01

    Involuntarily exercising rats undergo more physical and mental stress than voluntarily exercising rats; however, these findings still lack electrophysiological evidence. Many studies have reported that theta rhythm appears when there is mental stress and that it is affected by emotional status. Thus we hypothesized that the differences between voluntary and involuntary movement should also exist in the hippocampal theta rhythm. Using the wheel and treadmill exercise models as voluntary and involuntary exercise models, respectively, this study wirelessly recorded the hippocampal electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram, and three-dimensional accelerations of young male rats. Treadmill and wheel exercise produced different theta patterns in the rats before and during running. Even though the waking baselines for the two exercise types were recorded in different environments, there did not exist any significant difference after distinguishing the rats' sleep/wake status. When the same movement-related parameters are considered, the treadmill running group showed more changes in their theta frequency (4-12 Hz), in their theta power between 9.5-12 Hz, and in their heart rate than the wheel running group. A positive correlation between the changes in high-frequency (9.5-12 Hz) theta power and heart rate was identified. Our results reveal various voluntary and involuntary changes in hippocampal theta rhythm as well as divergences in heart rate and high-frequency theta activity that may represent the effects of an additional emotional state or the sensory interaction during involuntary running by rats. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Effects of prolonged head-down bed rest with and without fly-wheel exercise on heart rate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavy-Le Traon, Anne; Curnier, Daniel; Bernard, Jacques; Beroud, Stephane; Costes-Salon, Marie-Claude; Bareille, Marie-Pierre; Pathak, Atul; Galinier, Michel

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of prolonged Head down bed rest (HDBR) (90 days) on heart rate variability (HRV) in 25 healthy male volunteers (mean age: 33 y). Nine subjects performed flywheel resistance muscular training. 24h-ECG recordings were performed in pre- HDBR (D-12, D-3), HDBR (D 15, D 32, D 62, D 85) and recovery (D+4). The mean HR, SDNN and coefficient of variation (SDNN normalized by HR) reflecting overall HRV were calculated as well as the power in Low (LF) and High (HF) frequencies (24h- period). HDBR induced a significant decrease in HRV favoured by inactivity. LF and LF/HF mainly under sympathetic influence decreased significantly on D15 and then tended to stabilise around baseline values. HF reflecting parasympathetic modulation decreased with HDBR but some changes occurred in pre-HDBR, in relation with the experiment conditions, and raised the issue of reference values. No exercise effect was observed.

  20. Loss of ovarian estrogens causes only mild deterioration of glucose homeostasis in female ZDF rats preventable by voluntary running exercise.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, R; Mentor, J S; Côté, I; Ngo Sock, É T; Rabasa-Lhoret, R; Lavoie, J M

    2014-10-01

    Studies on normoglycemic ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats have provided insights about the effects of estrogen deficiency on insulin resistance in lean individuals. It is not completely clear if subjects with pre-established obesity and insulin resistance are at greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes when ovarian estrogens are no longer secreted, and if physical activity can protect against this susceptibility. Contrasting with their male counterparts, obese and insulin resistant female ZDF (Zucker diabetic fatty) rats do not become hyperglycemic when fed a standard diet. The aim of the study was to evaluate the hypothesis that withdrawal of ovarian estrogens in insulin resistant female ZDF rats would trigger overt hyperglycemia, provided they remain physically inactive. Female ZDF rats underwent either an ovariectomy (OVX) or a simulated surgery (SHAM). Thereafter, OVX rats engaged either in voluntary wheel cage running (OVX-Active), or like the Sham rats, remained sedentary (OVX-Sed) for 6 weeks. Fasting glycemia, insulinemia, and glucose tolerance were not altered in OVX-Sed as compared to SHAM-Sed rats. However, OVX-Sed rats showed altered liver triglyceride and glycogen contents, increased pancreatic insulin content and reduced insulin-stimulated muscle pAKT as compared to SHAM-Sed rats. Physical activity in OVX rats lowered fasting glucose and insulin levels, improved glucose tolerance and insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose uptake as compared to OVX-Sed rats. OVX-induced alterations in pancreatic insulin content and liver glycogen and triglyceride contents were significantly improved by physical activity. Loss of ovarian estrogens did not cause overt hyperglycemia in insulin-resistant female ZDF rats. Physical activity improved glucose homeostasis despite estrogen deficiency. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. The Long Run: Neuroprotective Effects of Physical Exercise on Adult Neurogenesis from Youth to Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Saraulli, Daniele; Costanzi, Marco; Mastrorilli, Valentina; Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Background The rapid lengthening of life expectancy has raised the problem of providing social programs to counteract the age-related cognitive decline in a growing number of older people. Physical activity stands among the most promising interventions aimed at brain wellbeing, because of its effective neuroprotective action and low social cost. The purpose of this review is to describe the neuroprotective role exerted by physical activity in different life stages. In particular, we focus on adult neurogenesis, a process which has proved being highly responsive to physical exercise and may represent a major factor of brain health over the lifespan. Methods The most recent literature related to the subject has been reviewed. The text has been divided into three main sections, addressing the effects of physical exercise during childhood/adolescence, adulthood and aging, respectively. For each one, the most relevant studies, carried out on both human participants and rodent models, have been described. Results The data reviewed converge in indicating that physical activity exerts a positive effect on brain functioning throughout the lifespan. However, uncertainty remains about the magnitude of the effect and its biological underpinnings. Cellular and synaptic plasticity provided by adult neurogenesis are highly probable mediators, but the mechanism for their action has yet to be conclusively established. Conclusion Despite alternative mechanisms of action are currently debated, age-appropriate physical activity programs may constitute a large-scale, relatively inexpensive and powerful approach to dampen the individual and social impact of age-related cognitive decline. PMID:27000776

  2. Cognitive improvement following ischemia/reperfusion injury induced by voluntary running‑wheel exercise is associated with LncMALAT1‑mediated apoptosis inhibition.

    PubMed

    Shang, Jin-Lin; Cheng, Qing; Duan, Sheng-Jie; Li, Lu; Jia, Li-Ya

    2018-05-01

    Previous human and animal studies demonstrated that voluntary exercise may improve cognitive function and facilitate neuronal plasticity in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) models. However, the possible underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Metastasis‑associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), may be associated with the functions and dysfunctions of endothelial cells. The present study investigated whether spontaneous running‑wheel (RW) exercise‑induced MALAT1 expression changes may be associated with the cognitive improvement of mice following I/R injury. The expression of MALAT1 was evaluated using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Artificial MALAT1 and MALAT1 lentiviral mall interfering (siRNA) were used to alter MALAT1 expression levels in vivo. The Morris Water Maze test was performed to evaluate spatial learning and memory retention in the mice. Changes in the apoptotic rates of hippocampal neurons and levels of apoptosis‑associated proteins were also detected. The data revealed that MALAT1 increased in the hippocampus of mice in the RW‑treated I/R group and that this was associated with neurological, learning and memory improvement, reduced infarction volumes, decreased apoptosis and alterations to expression levels of apoptosis‑associated proteins. Following RW training in I/R‑injured mice, lentiviral MALAT1 siRNA conduction partially attenuated the protections induced by voluntary RW. However, exogenous MALAT1 treatment increased the protection. The current findings suggested that voluntary RW protected hippocampal neurons from I/R injury and promoted cognitive restoration, which was associated with lncRNA MALAT1‑mediated apoptosis inhibition.

  3. Physical exercises on a bicycle-ergometer and running track to prevent hypodynamia in workers of intellectual labor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasilyeva, V. V.; Korableva, Y. N.; Trunin, V. V.

    1980-01-01

    A program of exercises was developed and tested, consisting of a 12 minute session on a variable load bicycle ergometer and a 10-11 min. run with brief stretching and resting sessions between. Physical performance capacity was measured before, during, and after the period of the experiment and physical exams conducted. After a 4 month test period involving 30 men, aged 25-35, the program was found to be successful in increasing physical performance capacity. The PWC170 increased an average of 22 percent and maximum oxygen consumption 14 percent. Arterial pressure dropped (120/75 to 114/68), vital capacity of lungs increased by 6 percent, strength of respiratory muscles by 8.8 percent, duration of respiratory delay by 18 percent. Duration of cardiac cycles increased, stress index decreased. Cardiac contraction rate 2 minutes after work on the ergometer decreased from 118 to 102 bt/min.

  4. The Long Run: Neuroprotective Effects of Physical Exercise on Adult Neurogenesis from Youth to Old Age.

    PubMed

    Saraulli, Daniele; Costanzi, Marco; Mastrorilli, Valentina; Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    The rapid lengthening of life expectancy has raised the problem of providing social programs to counteract the age-related cognitive decline in a growing number of older people. Physical activity stands among the most promising interventions aimed at brain wellbeing, because of its effective neuroprotective action and low social cost. The purpose of this review is to describe the neuroprotective role exerted by physical activity in different life stages. In particular, we focus on adult neurogenesis, a process which has proved being highly responsive to physical exercise and may represent a major factor of brain health over the lifespan. The most recent literature related to the subject has been reviewed. The text has been divided into three main sections, addressing the effects of physical exercise during childhood/ adolescence, adulthood and aging, respectively. For each one, the most relevant studies, carried out on both human participants and rodent models, have been described. The data reviewed converge in indicating that physical activity exerts a positive effect on brain functioning throughout the lifespan. However, uncertainty remains about the magnitude of the effect and its biological underpinnings. Cellular and synaptic plasticity provided by adult neurogenesis are highly probable mediators, but the mechanism for their action has yet to be conclusively established. Despite alternative mechanisms of action are currently debated, age-appropriate physical activity programs may constitute a large-scale, relatively inexpensive and powerful approach to dampen the individual and social impact of age-related cognitive decline. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Acute and 2 days delayed effects of exhaustive stretch-shortening cycle exercise on barefoot walking and running patterns.

    PubMed

    Morio, Cédric; Nicol, Caroline; Barla, Charlie; Barthèlemy, Joëlle; Berton, Eric

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the acute and 2 days delayed influences of exhaustive stretch-shortening cycle exercise (SSC) on barefoot walking and running gait patterns. The SSC exercise was performed on a sledge apparatus, on which the subjects (N = 10) repeated until exhaustion intermittent series of 25 bilateral submaximal rebounds. Maximal drop-jumps and submaximal barefoot treadmill walking and running were performed before (PRE) and after (POST) the exhaustive exercise and repeated 48 h (D2) later. Electromyographic activity and 3D kinematics of the right lower limb and foot were recorded for 15 s at gait initiation (BEG) and at the end (END: at 3 min of walk and 5 min of run). The exhaustive SSC exercise resulted in 6% reductions in maximal drop jump performance at POST and D2, and affected mostly both gait patterns at D2. The walking pattern presented compensatory neural adjustments within the triceps surae muscle group. This expected pain-induced protective strategy of the soleus muscle was sufficient to preserve the kinematics pattern. The running condition revealed a major knee strategy, which might support the concept of pain protective strategy of knee extensor muscles at the expense of impact cushioning. Regardless the testing session, most parameters showed fatigue-induced changes at gait initiation (BEG), which were opposite to subsequent BEG to END adjustments. This is likely to support anticipatory strategies rather than progressive adjustments during the exercise.

  6. Dietary nitrate markedly improves voluntary running in mice.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, Niklas; Schiffer, Tomas A; Hernández, Andrés; Lanner, Johanna T; Weitzberg, Eddie; Lundberg, Jon O; Westerblad, Håkan

    2017-01-01

    Nitrate supplementation is shown to increase submaximal force in human and mouse skeletal muscles. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the increased submaximal force induced by nitrate supplementation reduces the effort of submaximal voluntary running, resulting in increased running speed and distance. C57Bl/6N male mice were fed nitrate in the drinking water and housed with or without access to an in-cage running wheel. Nitrate supplementation in sedentary mice had no effect on endurance in a treadmill test, nor did it enhance mitochondrial function. However, after three weeks with in-cage running wheel, mice fed nitrate ran on average 20% faster and 30% further than controls (p<0.01). Compared to running controls, this resulted in ~13% improved endurance on a subsequent treadmill test (p<0.05) and increased mitochondrial oxidative capacity, as judged from a mean increase in citrate synthase activity of 14% (p<0.05). After six weeks with nitrate, the mice were running 58% longer distances per night. When nitrate supplementation was removed from the diet, the running distance and speed decreased to the control level, despite the improved endurance achieved during nitrate supplementation. In conclusion, low-frequency force improvement due to nitrate supplementation facilitates submaximal exercise such as voluntary running. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Voluntary exercise and tail shock have differential effects on amphetamine-induced dopaminergic toxicity in adult BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Kirsten M; Wagner, George C

    2006-09-01

    Exercise exerts neuroprotective effects and facilitates neural recovery in animal models of Parkinson's disease. In the present studies, effects of exercise on amphetamine-induced dopaminergic toxicity were assessed in mice housed individually either with or without access to run wheels. Mice in run wheel cages ran approximately 20 000 revolutions/day (over 10 km/day). Some mice received amphetamine (18.5 mg/kg x 4 injections) whereas controls received saline. Amphetamine caused a 90% dopamine depletion in mice housed either with or without run wheels. A precipitous drop was seen in run wheel activity following amphetamine, lasting at least 7 days. A significant decrease in food intake, water intake and body weight also occurred. The opportunity to exercise did not facilitate behavioral or neurochemical recovery at 1, 2 or 3 days, or 2 weeks after injections. Therefore, shock stress, a component of some forced exercise studies, was evaluated to determine whether stress without exercise provided neuroprotection against amphetamine. Results indicate that shock stress exerted neuroprotective effects, reducing the amphetamine-induced dopamine depletion. It is concluded that voluntary running does not afford either behavioral or neuroprotection nor facilitate recovery from amphetamine-induced dopaminergic toxicity; rather, elevated glucocorticoid levels following shock stress were associated with a reduction in the dopamine depletion.

  8. Circadian Periods of Sensitivity for Ramelteon on the onset of Running-wheel Activity and the Peak of Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Neuronal Firing Rhythms in C3H/HeN Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rawashdeh, Oliver; Hudson, Randall L.; Stepien, Iwona; Dubocovich, Margarita L.

    2016-01-01

    Ramelteon, an MT1/MT2 melatonin receptor agonist, is used for the treatment of sleep-onset insomnia and circadian sleep disorders. Ramelteon phase shifts circadian rhythms in rodents and humans when given at the end of the subjective day; however, its efficacy at other circadian times is not known. Here, the authors determined in C3H/ HeN mice the maximal circadian sensitivity for ramelteon in vivo on the onset of circadian running-wheel activity rhythms, and in vitro on the peak of circadian rhythm of neuronal firing in suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) brain slices. The phase response curve (PRC) for ramelteon (90 μg/mouse, subcutaneous [sc]) on circadian wheel-activity rhythms shows maximal sensitivity during the late mid to end of the subjective day, between CT8 and CT12 (phase advance), and late subjective night and early subjective day, between CT20 and CT2 (phase delay), using a 3-day-pulse treatment regimen in C3H/HeN mice. The PRC for ramelteon resembles that for melatonin in C3H/ HeN mice, showing the same magnitude of maximal shifts at CT10 and CT2, except that the range of sensitivity for ramelteon (CT8–CT12) during the subjective day is broader. Furthermore, in SCN brain slices in vitro, ramelteon (10 pM) administered at CT10 phase advances (5.6 ± 0.29 h, n = 3) and at CT2 phase delays (−3.2 ± 0.12 h, n = 6) the peak of circadian rhythm of neuronal firing, with the shifts being significantly larger than those induced by melatonin (10 pM) at the same circadian times (CT10: 2.7 ± 0.15 h, n = 4, p < .05; CT2: −1.13 ± 0.08 h, n = 6, p < .001, respectively). The phase shifts induced by both melatonin and ramelteon in the SCN brain slice at either CT10 or CT2 corresponded with the period of sensitivity observed in vivo. In conclusion, melatonin and ramelteon showed identical periods of circadian sensitivity at CT10 (advance) and CT2 (delay) to shift the onset of circadian activity rhythms in vivo and the peak of SCN neuronal firing rhythms in vitro

  9. The role of medial prefrontal corticosterone and dopamine in the antidepressant-like effect of exercise.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chong; Nakagawa, Shin; Kitaichi, Yuji; An, Yan; Omiya, Yuki; Song, Ning; Koga, Minori; Kato, Akiko; Inoue, Takeshi; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2016-07-01

    Despite the well-documented beneficial effect of exercise on stress coping and depression treatment, its underlying neurobiological mechanism remains unclear. This is further complicated by a 'side effect' of exercise: it increases basal glucocorticoid (CORT), the stress hormone, which has been shown to be a mediator linking stress to depressive disorders. Here we show that three weeks of voluntary wheel running reduced rats' immobility in the forced swim test (FST), an antidepressant-like effect. Monitoring extracellular fluids in the medial prefrontal cortex PFC (mPFC) using microdialysis we found that, wheel running was associated with higher baseline CORT, but lower FST-responsive CORT. Further, wheel running resulted in a higher dopamine (DA) both at baseline and following FST. Interestingly, the antidepressant-like effect of wheel running was completely abolished by intra-mPFC pre-microinjection of a D2R (haloperidol) but not D1R (SCH23390) antagonist, at a dose that does not affect normal rats' performance in the FST. It suggests that exercise exerts antidepressant-like effect through upregulated DA and in a D2R dependent way in the mPFC. Importantly, the antidepressant-like effect of wheel running was also abolished by intra-mPFC pre-microinjection of a GR antagonist (RU486). Finally, intra-mPFC pre-microinjection of RU486 also downregulated the originally elevated basal and FST-responsive DA in the mPFC of exercise rats. These results suggest a causal pathway linking CORT, GR, DA, and D2R, to the antidepressant-like effect of exercise. In conclusion, exercise achieves antidepressant-like effect through the CORT-GR-DA-D2R pathway and that the increased basal CORT by exercise itself may be beneficial rather than detrimental. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Exercise decreases speedball self-administration.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Ryan T; Strickland, Justin C; Brophy, Mary K; Witte, Maryam A; Smith, Mark A

    2014-10-02

    Epidemiological studies report that individuals who exercise are less likely to abuse drugs. Preclinical studies report that exercise, in the form of treadmill or wheel running, reliably decreases the self-administration of psychomotor stimulants and opioids. To date, preclinical studies have only examined the effects of exercise on responding maintained by individual drugs and not by combinations of multiple drugs. This limits the translational appeal of these studies because polydrug abuse is common among substance abusing populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercise on the self-administration of speedball, a combination of cocaine and heroin that is frequently encountered in intravenous drug abusing populations. Female rats were obtained at weaning and assigned to sedentary or exercising conditions. Sedentary rats were housed in standard cages that permitted no exercise beyond normal cage ambulation; exercising rats were housed in similar cages with an activity wheel. After 6weeks, rats were implanted with intravenous catheters and trained to self-administer cocaine, heroin, and dose combinations of cocaine and heroin (i.e., speedball) on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Doses of speedball maintained greater levels of responding than corresponding doses of cocaine and heroin alone. Importantly, responding maintained by cocaine, heroin, and speedball was lower in exercising rats than sedentary rats. These data indicate that exercise decreases the self-administration of speedball and suggest that exercise may reduce the abuse of drug combinations that have traditionally been resistant to treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Voluntary exercise slows breast tumor establishment and reduces tumor hypoxia in ApoE-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Buss, Linda A; Dachs, Gabi U

    2018-04-01

    Exercise reduces the risk of breast cancer development and improves survival in breast cancer patients. However, the underlying mechanisms of this protective effect remain to be fully elucidated, and it is unclear whether exercise can attenuate the protumor effects of obesity and related hyperlipidemia on breast cancer growth and development. We hypothesized that exercise attenuates the negative effect of hyperlipidemia through normalization of the tumor microenvironment and improved T cell infiltrate. Hyperlipidemic ApoE -/- mice with orthotopic EO771 breast tumors were randomly assigned to one of two voluntary running groups or sedentary controls, and muscular cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COX-IV) expression was used as a biomarker for the level of exercise. Tumors from mice with high muscular COX-IV expression took significantly longer to reach 100 mm 3 ( P = 0.008), but showed no difference in growth rate once the tumor was established. Wheel running appeared to reduce internal metastases, but did not affect T cell infiltrate or the proportion of regulatory and cytotoxic T cells within the tumor. Serum levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were significantly increased by tumor burden ( P = 0.02) and correlated with spleen weight ( P < 0.0001, R = 0.65). Furthermore, tumor hypoxia was significantly decreased in mice with high muscular COX-IV expression ( P = 0.01). Taken together, these results indicate that wheel running can slow the establishment of primary and secondary EO771 breast tumors and induce beneficial changes in the breast tumor microenvironment in ApoE -/- mice. NEW & NOTEWORTHY In this first study to investigate the effect of exercise on tumor behavior in a hyperlipidemic model, we hypothesized that wheel running would counteract the protumorigenic environment generated by hyperlipidemia. Wheel running slowed establishment of primary and secondary tumors and reduced tumor hypoxia but did not affect exponential tumor growth in Apo

  12. Maternal exercise during pregnancy promotes physical activity in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Eclarinal, Jesse D; Zhu, Shaoyu; Baker, Maria S; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe B; Coarfa, Cristian; Fiorotto, Marta L; Waterland, Robert A

    2016-07-01

    Previous rodent studies have shown that maternal voluntary exercise during pregnancy leads to metabolic changes in adult offspring. We set out to test whether maternal voluntary exercise during pregnancy also induces persistent changes in voluntary physical activity in the offspring. Adult C57BL/6J female mice were randomly assigned to be caged with an unlocked (U) or locked (L) running wheel before and during pregnancy. Maternal running behavior was monitored during pregnancy, and body weight, body composition, food intake, energy expenditure, total cage activity, and running wheel activity were measured in the offspring at various ages. U offspring were slightly heavier at birth, but no group differences in body weight or composition were observed at later ages (when mice were caged without access to running wheels). Consistent with our hypothesis, U offspring were more physically active as adults. This effect was observed earlier in female offspring (at sexual maturation). Remarkably, at 300 d of age, U females achieved greater fat loss in response to a 3-wk voluntary exercise program. Our findings show for the first time that maternal physical activity during pregnancy affects the offspring's lifelong propensity for physical activity and may have important implications for combating the worldwide epidemic of physical inactivity and obesity.-Eclarinal, J. D., Zhu, S., Baker, M. S., Piyarathna, D. B., Coarfa, C., Fiorotto, M. L., Waterland, R. A. Maternal exercise during pregnancy promotes physical activity in adult offspring. © FASEB.

  13. The Occurrence of Core Muscle Fatigue During High-Intensity Running Exercise and its Limitation to Performance: The Role of Respiratory Work

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Tomas K.; Wu, Shing; Nie, Jinlei; Baker, Julien S.; Lin, Hua

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of core muscle fatigue during high-intensity running exercise and its limitation to exercise performance. A secondary aim was to investigate whether respiratory muscle work performed during intense running periods, would contribute to core muscle fatigue. Nine male recreational runners were recruited for two reasons; (1) to perform a continuous treadmill run at 85% VO2max with and without core muscle fatigue in the CR_F and CR trials, respectively; and (2) to mimic the treadmill run-induced respiratory response recorded in the CR trial while subjects were free of whole-body exercise (Mimic trial). The changes in global core muscle function with fatigue in this study were evaluated by performing a sport-specific endurance plank test (SEPT), and the associated influence on running performance was examined by comparing the time to exhaustion during the treadmill run between the CR and CR_F trials. Subsequent to the treadmill run in the CR trial, SEPT (255.7 ± 85.3 vs 177.3 ± 80.6 s) was reduced from baseline in all runners. The reduction correlated (r = 0.67) with the concomitant decline in inspiratory muscle function revealed by maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (PImax: 151.3 ± 18.2 vs 133.3 ± 17.2 cmH2O, p < 0.05). In the Mimic trial, similar results in SEPT (212.3 ± 90.2 s), PImax (129.0 ± 26.7 cmH2O), and correlation (r = 0.77, p < 0.05) were observed following voluntary hyperpneic activity. With the preceded fatigued core muscle workout in the CR_F trial, the running capacity was impaired significantly (10.7 ± 4.5 vs 6.5 ± 2.0 min, p < 0.05). The impairment was correlated (r=0.72) to the SEPT reduction resulting from the workout. The results suggest that a high-intensity maximum run may induce core muscle fatigue in runners. The core muscle fatigue, which may be partly attributed to the corresponding respiratory work, may limit their running endurance. Inspiratory muscle function appears to be essential for core

  14. The occurrence of core muscle fatigue during high-intensity running exercise and its limitation to performance: the role of respiratory work.

    PubMed

    Tong, Tomas K; Wu, Shing; Nie, Jinlei; Baker, Julien S; Lin, Hua

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of core muscle fatigue during high-intensity running exercise and its limitation to exercise performance. A secondary aim was to investigate whether respiratory muscle work performed during intense running periods, would contribute to core muscle fatigue. Nine male recreational runners were recruited for two reasons; (1) to perform a continuous treadmill run at 85% VO2max with and without core muscle fatigue in the CR_F and CR trials, respectively; and (2) to mimic the treadmill run-induced respiratory response recorded in the CR trial while subjects were free of whole-body exercise (Mimic trial). The changes in global core muscle function with fatigue in this study were evaluated by performing a sport-specific endurance plank test (SEPT), and the associated influence on running performance was examined by comparing the time to exhaustion during the treadmill run between the CR and CR_F trials. Subsequent to the treadmill run in the CR trial, SEPT (255.7 ± 85.3 vs 177.3 ± 80.6 s) was reduced from baseline in all runners. The reduction correlated (r = 0.67) with the concomitant decline in inspiratory muscle function revealed by maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (PImax: 151.3 ± 18.2 vs 133.3 ± 17.2 cmH2O, p < 0.05). In the Mimic trial, similar results in SEPT (212.3 ± 90.2 s), PImax (129.0 ± 26.7 cmH2O), and correlation (r = 0.77, p < 0.05) were observed following voluntary hyperpneic activity. With the preceded fatigued core muscle workout in the CR_F trial, the running capacity was impaired significantly (10.7 ± 4.5 vs 6.5 ± 2.0 min, p < 0.05). The impairment was correlated (r=0.72) to the SEPT reduction resulting from the workout. The results suggest that a high-intensity maximum run may induce core muscle fatigue in runners. The core muscle fatigue, which may be partly attributed to the corresponding respiratory work, may limit their running endurance. Inspiratory muscle function appears to be essential for core

  15. Pre-Exercise Hyperhydration-Induced Bodyweight Gain Does Not Alter Prolonged Treadmill Running Time-Trial Performance in Warm Ambient Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gigou, Pierre-Yves; Dion, Tommy; Asselin, Audrey; Berrigan, Felix; Goulet, Eric D. B.

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the effect of pre-exercise hyperhydration (PEH) and pre-exercise euhydration (PEE) upon treadmill running time-trial (TT) performance in the heat. Six highly trained runners or triathletes underwent two 18 km TT runs (~28 °C, 25%–30% RH) on a motorized treadmill, in a randomized, crossover fashion, while being euhydrated or after hyperhydration with 26 mL/kg bodyweight (BW) of a 130 mmol/L sodium solution. Subjects then ran four successive 4.5 km blocks alternating between 2.5 km at 1% and 2 km at 6% gradient, while drinking a total of 7 mL/kg BW of a 6% sports drink solution (Gatorade, USA). PEH increased BW by 1.00 ± 0.34 kg (P < 0.01) and, compared with PEE, reduced BW loss from 3.1% ± 0.3% (EUH) to 1.4% ± 0.4% (HYP) (P < 0.01) during exercise. Running TT time did not differ between groups (PEH: 85.6 ± 11.6 min; PEE: 85.3 ± 9.6 min, P = 0.82). Heart rate (5 ± 1 beats/min) and rectal (0.3 ± 0.1 °C) and body (0.2 ± 0.1 °C) temperatures of PEE were higher than those of PEH (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in abdominal discomfort and perceived exertion or heat stress between groups. Our results suggest that pre-exercise sodium-induced hyperhydration of a magnitude of 1 L does not alter 80–90 min running TT performance under warm conditions in highly-trained runners drinking ~500 mL sports drink during exercise. PMID:23016126

  16. LXR activation prevents exhaustive exercise-induced hypoglycaemia and spares muscle glycogen but does not enhance running endurance in untrained rats.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, M; Zabielski, P; Błachnio-Zabielska, A U; Harasiuk, D; Górski, J

    2011-03-01

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that play an important role in regulation of hepatic lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. However, to date there is very few information on the role of LXRs in skeletal muscle. Moreover, it remains obscure whether LXR activation affects physical endurance. Therefore, we aimed to examine effects of selective LXR activator--T0901317--on running endurance and skeletal muscle exercise metabolism in rats. The animals were assigned to two groups (n=20) receiving either vehicle or T0901317 (10 mg kg(-1) day(-1) ) for 1 week. One day after the final administration, half of the rats in each group were exercised until exhaustion on the electrically driven treadmill. All animals were then anaesthetized and samples of the soleus, red and white sections of the gastrocnemius muscle, epididymal fat pad and liver were excised. We found that LXR activation prevented exhaustive exercise-induced hypoglycaemia. T0901317 also shifted substrate utilization in working muscles in favour of fatty acids as indicated by its glycogen sparing effect, enhanced consumption of intramuscular triacylglycerol and upregulation of genes promoting fatty acid oxidation and suppressing carbohydrate oxidation. However, running time to exhaustion was not improved. We conclude that LXR activation increases fatty acid utilization during exercise which, however, does not translate into measurable enhancement of exercise endurance. © 2010 The Authors. Acta Physiologica © 2010 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  17. Frontal-Plane Variability in Foot Orientation During Fatiguing Running Exercise in Individuals With Chronic Ankle Instability.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Denise; Patterson, Matthew; Persson, Ulrik McCarthy; Caulfield, Brian

    2017-11-01

      Researchers have reported increased variability in frontal-plane movement at the ankle during jumping in individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI), which may increase their risk of recurrent ankle sprain. It is not known if this behavior is present during running gait or how fatigue affects the amount of frontal-plane-movement variability in individuals with CAI.   To investigate the amount of roll-angle variability at the foot during a fatiguing exercise protocol in participants with CAI.   Controlled laboratory study.   Motion-analysis research laboratory.   A total of 18 volunteers with CAI (10 men, 8 women; age = 29.8 ± 9.2 years, height = 175.8 ± 11.2 cm, mass = 75.4 ± 10.7 kg) and 17 volunteers serving as controls (8 men, 9 women; age = 28.2 ± 6.3 years, height = 172.3 ± 10.6 cm, mass = 68.8 ± 12.9 kg).   Kinematic data for foot position were collected while participants performed a functional fatigue protocol based on shuttle runs.   Variability (ie, standard deviation) of the roll angle of the foot about the x-axis, corresponding to inversion-eversion, was measured at 2 discrete times: 50 milliseconds before foot strike and 65% of stance.   No differences in roll-angle range or variability were observed between limbs in either group. At 65% of stance, we found a main effect for time, whereby both groups demonstrated decreased roll-angle ranges at the end of the fatigue protocol ( P = .01). A between-groups effect in the roll-angle variability at 65% of stance was noted ( P = .04), with the CAI group exhibiting higher levels of variability. No between-groups differences were observed at 50 milliseconds before foot strike.   Chronic ankle instability is a complex, multifactorial condition that can affect patients in diverse ways. Identifying excessive foot-position variability in particular situations could potentially inform targeted rehabilitation programs.

  18. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in human progressive-intensity running: effects on exercise performance, skeletal muscle status, and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    De Marchi, Thiago; Leal Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; Bortoli, Celiana; Tomazoni, Shaiane Silva; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro Brandão; Salvador, Mirian

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on exercise performance, oxidative stress, and muscle status in humans. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial was performed with 22 untrained male volunteers. LLLT (810 nm, 200 mW, 30 J in each site, 30 s of irradiation in each site) using a multi-diode cluster (with five spots - 6 J from each spot) at 12 sites of each lower limb (six in quadriceps, four in hamstrings, and two in gastrocnemius) was performed 5 min before a standardized progressive-intensity running protocol on a motor-drive treadmill until exhaustion. We analyzed exercise performance (VO(2 max), time to exhaustion, aerobic threshold and anaerobic threshold), levels of oxidative damage to lipids and proteins, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and the markers of muscle damage creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Compared to placebo, active LLLT significantly increased exercise performance (VO(2 max) p = 0.01; time to exhaustion, p = 0.04) without changing the aerobic and anaerobic thresholds. LLLT also decreased post-exercise lipid (p = 0.0001) and protein (p = 0.0230) damages, as well as the activities of SOD (p = 0.0034), CK (p = 0.0001) and LDH (p = 0.0001) enzymes. LLLT application was not able to modulate CAT activity. The use of LLLT before progressive-intensity running exercise increases exercise performance, decreases exercise-induced oxidative stress and muscle damage, suggesting that the modulation of the redox system by LLLT could be related to the delay in skeletal muscle fatigue observed after the use of LLLT.

  19. Wheel inspection system environment.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-11-18

    International Electronic Machines Corporation (IEM) has developed and is now marketing a state-of-the-art Wheel Inspection System Environment (WISE). WISE provides wheel profile and dimensional measurements, i.e. rim thickness, flange height, flange ...

  20. Running exercise mitigates the negative consequences of chronic stress on dorsal hippocampal long-term potentiation in male mice.

    PubMed

    Miller, Roxanne M; Marriott, David; Trotter, Jacob; Hammond, Tyler; Lyman, Dane; Call, Timothy; Walker, Bethany; Christensen, Nathanael; Haynie, Deson; Badura, Zoie; Homan, Morgan; Edwards, Jeffrey G

    2018-03-01

    In the hippocampus, learning and memory are likely mediated by synaptic plasticity, known as long-term potentiation (LTP). While chronic intermittent stress is negatively correlated, and exercise positively correlated to LTP induction, we examined whether exercise could mitigate the negative consequences of stress on LTP when co-occurring with stress. Mice were divided into four groups: sedentary no stress, exercise no stress, exercise with stress, and sedentary with stress. Field electrophysiology performed on brain slices confirmed that stress alone significantly reduced dorsal CA1 hippocampal LTP and exercise alone increased LTP compared to controls. Exercise with stress mice exhibited LTP that was significantly greater than mice undergoing stress alone but were not different from sedentary no stress mice. An ELISA illustrated increased corticosterone in stressed mice compared to no stress mice. In addition, a radial arm maze was used to examine behavioral changes in memory during 6 weeks of stress and/or exercise. Exercised mice groups made fewer errors in week 2. RT-qPCR was used to examine the mRNA expression of components in the stress and exercise pathways in the four groups. Significant changes in the expression of the following targets were detected: BDNF, TrkB, glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, and dopamine 5 receptors. Collectively, exercise can mitigate some of the negative impact stress has on hippocampal function when both occur concurrently. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Circadian rhythms and depression: effects of exercise in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Solberg, L C; Horton, T H; Turek, F W

    1999-01-01

    There is a clear link between altered circadian rhythms and depressive disorders, although the nature of this relationship is unknown. In addition, exercise affects both mood and alters clock function. To investigate the relationship between circadian rhythms, depression, and exercise, 3-wk-old mice housed on a 12:12-h light-dark cycle were exposed to chronic stress (CS) for 6 wk before being placed into constant darkness (DD). One-half of both the control and stressed mice were given access to a running wheel. Stressed mice consumed significantly less of a 2% sucrose solution during CS and exhibited a significant increase in immobility in the forced swim test 3 wk after the termination of stress relative to control mice. These effects were more pronounced in mice without running wheels. Stressed mice also exhibited altered percent distribution of total activity and increased fragmentation of daily activity rhythms during CS relative to control mice. Alterations in percent distribution were more pronounced in animals without running wheels. No activity rhythm changes were seen in DD, and there were no differences in light-induced phase shifts between stressed and control mice. These results suggest that CS causes long-term depressive-like symptoms but does not have long-lasting effects on activity rhythms. These changes were more pronounced in mice without running wheels, suggesting that exercise may protect against the harmful effects of stress.

  2. The effects of a systematic increase in relative humidity on thermoregulatory and circulatory responses during prolonged running exercise in the heat

    PubMed Central

    Che Muhamed, Ahmad Munir; Atkins, Kerry; Stannard, Stephen R.; Mündel, Toby; Thompson, Martin William

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study examined the thermoregulatory and circulatory responses, and exercise performance of trained distance runners during exercise in the heat (31°C) at varying relative humidity (RH). In a randomized order, 11 trained male distance runners performed 5 60 min steady-state runs at a speed eliciting 70% of VO2max in RH of 23, 43, 52, 61 and 71%. This was followed immediately with an incremental exercise test to volitional exhaustion. Core (Tre) and mean skin temperature (T¯sk), cardiac output (Q), heart rate (HR), and stroke volume (SV) were recorded at regular intervals. A significant (P = 0.003) main effect was detected for RH on mean body temperature (Tb), with a significantly higher Tb detected during steady-state exercise in the 61 and 71% RH compared to that in the 23% RH. During the steady-state exercise, no differences were detected in whole body sweat loss (P = 0.183). However, a significant main effect of RH was observed for HR and SV (P = 0.001 and 0.006, respectively) but not Q (P = 0.156). The time to exhaustion of the incremental exercise test was significantly reduced at 61 and 71% RH compared with 23% RH (P = 0.045 and 0.005, respectively). Despite an increase in dry heat loss, a greater thermoregulatory and circulatory stress was evident during steady-state exercise at 61 and 71% RH. This ultimately limits the capacity to perform the subsequent incremental exercise to exhaustion. This study highlighted that in a warm environment, the range of the prescriptive zone progressively narrows as RH increases. PMID:28349085

  3. Effect of running exercise on the number of the neurons in the hippocampus of young transgenic APP/PS1 mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lin; Ma, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Chun-Ni; Zhang, Lei; Chao, Feng-Lei; Chen, Lin-Mu; Jiang, Rong; Wu, Hong; Tang, Yong

    2018-04-28

    To investigate the effect of running exercise on the number of the neurons in the hippocampus of young APP/PS1mice, twenty 6-month-old male APP/ PS1 transgenic mice were randomly divided into the APP/PS1 control (AD control) group and the APP/PS1 running (AD running) group (10 mice per group), and ten wild-type mice of the littermate were regarded as the wild-type (WT) group. The AD running mice ran on motorized treadmill machiene for 4 months, while the WT mice and AD control mice were housed in standard condition without running. Then, Morris water maze tests (MWM) were used to assess the special learning and memory abilities of mice in three groups. The stereological methods were used to quantitatively evaluate the volume of the hippocampus, CA1/2, CA3 and the dentate gyrus (DG) and count the number of the neurons in CA1/2, CA3 and DG. We found that 4-month running effectively shortened the escape latency of young APP/PS1 control mice in MWM. More importantly, 4-month running effectively increased the volumes of the hippocampus, CA1/2, CA3 and DG and increased the number of neurons in CA1/2, CA3 and DG in young APP/PS1 mice. The present results suggested that 4-month running has significant beneficial effects on the spatial learning and memory capacities of young APP/PS1 mice and could delay the progress of atrophy of hippocampus and the neuron death in CA1/2, CA3 and DG in young APP/PS1 mice. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Removal of a high-fat diet, but not voluntary exercise, reverses obesity and diabetic-like symptoms in male C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Hatzidis, Aikaterini; Hicks, Jasmin A; Gelineau, Rachel R; Arruda, Nicole L; Monteiro De Pina, Isabella; O'Connell, Karyn E; Seggio, Joseph A

    2017-01-01

    Both the consumption of high-fat diets and exercise are known to produce alterations in metabolism and behavior. This study focuses on the effects of a change to a low-fat diet from a high-fat diet and voluntary exercise on obesity, type-2 diabetic-like symptoms, and locomotor behavior in male C57BL/6J mice. Mice were initially given either a high-fat diet or regular chow, along with a cage with a running-wheel to mimic exercise, or one without, to determine to what extend exercise affects these symptoms. Then half of the mice given a high-fat diet were switched to regular chow to ascertain if the switch in diet would improve type-2 diabetic-like and obesity symptoms. Wheel-running alone produced an improvement in insulin in mice continuously fed a high-fat diet (p=0.006), but running-wheels did not produce any further improvements in mice with regular chow replacement (p=0.999) or in controls (p=0.996). Replacement of a high-fat diet with regular chow led to physiological improvements in insulin (p=0.012) and leptin (p <0.001), glucose tolerance (p <0.001), and obesity (p <0.001), more so than exercise alone. Mice consuming a high-fat diet without a wheel exhibited reduced home-cage activity compared to controls after the diet switch (p=0.030), while no reduction was found in running-wheel activity between high-fat diet and regular chow consuming mice after switching diets (p=0.516). These results suggest that exercise is only partially beneficial to improving health outcomes in mice consuming a high-fat diet, whereas incorporating a better diet, even without exercise, improves quality of health and can suppress T2DM symptoms and related conditions more so than exercise alone.

  5. Spontaneous running activity in male rats - Effect of age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mondon, C. E.; Dolkas, C. B.; Sims, C.; Reaven, G. M.

    1985-01-01

    Variations in the intensity and the patterns of spontaneous running activity in wheel cages were studied in male rats aged 7 weeks to one year. Daily running records were obtained for periods of 12 mo, and 24-hour recordings were made for selected runners in order to study variations in running activity during the day. The data indicate that for rats running over two miles/day, the maximum running intensity can be divided into two groups: a group of high achievers running 8 miles/day; and a group of moderate achievers running 4.8 miles/day. For both groups spontaneous activity reached a maximum after 4-5 weeks. An hourly pattern of running activity during the day was identified in rats of increasing age who averaged 9.0, 4.5, 2.6, and 1.2 miles/day, respectively. Progressive losses were observed in both the speed and the duration of spontaneous running as the rats increased in age, with the intensity of exercise falling below 2 miles/day after 7-8 months of age.

  6. Prevention of the incubation of cocaine seeking by aerobic exercise in female rats.

    PubMed

    Zlebnik, Natalie E; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2015-10-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that aerobic exercise can attenuate craving for drugs of abuse and reduce escalation and reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior in animal models. The present study examined the effects of aerobic exercise on the development of the incubation of cocaine-seeking behavior or the progressive increase in cocaine seeking over a protracted withdrawal period from cocaine self-administration. Female rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (0.4 mg/kg/inf) during daily 6-h sessions for 10 days. Subsequently, access to cocaine and cocaine-paired cues was discontinued during a 3- or 30-day withdrawal period when rats had access to either a locked or unlocked running wheel. At the end of the withdrawal period, rats were reintroduced to the operant conditioning chamber and reexposed to cocaine-paired cues to examine cocaine-seeking behavior under extinction conditions. Rats with access to a locked running wheel during 30 days of withdrawal had significantly greater cue-induced cocaine-seeking behavior than rats that had access to an unlocked running wheel for 30 days. Further, there was robust incubation of cocaine seeking in rats with access to a locked running wheel as cocaine seeking was notably elevated at 30 vs. 3 days of withdrawal. However, cocaine-seeking behavior did not differ between rats with access to an unlocked running wheel for 30 vs. 3 days, indicating that incubation of cocaine seeking was suppressed following access to exercise for 30 days. Aerobic exercise during extended withdrawal from cocaine self-administration decreased incubation of cue-induced cocaine-seeking behavior and may reduce vulnerability to relapse.

  7. Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... COPD Overview COPD Lifestyle Management COPD: Exercises COPD: Exercises Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... lifelong activity you enjoy. Medication to Help You Exercise People with COPD often use inhaled short acting ...

  8. Oestrogen-dependent satellite cell activation and proliferation following a running exercise occurs via the PI3K signalling pathway and not IGF-1.

    PubMed

    Mangan, G; Bombardier, E; Mitchell, A S; Quadrilatero, J; Tiidus, P M

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether 17β-estradiol (E2) enhances the activation, proliferation and differentiation of muscle satellite cells (SC) following eccentric exercise either via insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) or through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signalling. This study used 64, 9-week-old, ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats that were divided into eight treatments groups based on oestrogen status (0.25 mg oestrogen pellet or sham), exercise status (90 min run @ 17 m min(-1), -13.5° or unexercised) and PI3K signalling inhibition (0.7 mg wortmannin kg(-1) body weight or DMSO control). Significant increases in total SCs were found in both soleus and white gastrocnemius muscles (immunofluorescent co-localization of Pax7(+) nuclei) 72 h following eccentric exercise (P < 0.05). Oestrogen supplementation caused a further enhancement in total SCs in exercised rats (P < 0.05). In animals where the PI3K pathway was inhibited, regardless of oestrogen or exercise status, there was no significant enhancement of SC number in both the soleus or white gastrocnemius muscles. Interestingly, oestrogen supplementation lowered muscle levels of IGF-1 with this effect being most prominent in the soleus muscle. While IGF-1 was increased following exercise (P < 0.05), oestrogen supplementation abrogated this increase back to sedentary levels. These data suggest that the increase in SC population following exercise in oestrogen-supplemented females may be mediated via PI3K pathway signalling and not IGF-1. © 2014 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effects of acute bouts of running and swimming exercise on PGC-1alpha protein expression in rat epitrochlearis and soleus muscle.

    PubMed

    Terada, Shin; Tabata, Izumi

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms underlying low-intensity exercise-induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) protein expression in rat skeletal muscles. Rats (5-6 wk old) swam without a load and ran on the treadmill at a speed of 13 m/min, respectively, in two 3-h sessions separated by 45 min of rest. PGC-1alpha content in epitrochlearis muscle (EPI) was increased by 75 and 95%, immediately and 6 h after swimming, respectively, with no increase in PGC-1alpha content in the soleus (SOL). After running, PGC-1alpha content in EPI was unchanged, whereas a 107% increase in PGC-1alpha content was observed in SOL 6 h after running. Furthermore, in EPI and SOL as well as other muscles (triceps, plantaris, red and white gastrocnemius), PGC-1alpha expression was enhanced concomitant with reduced glycogen postexercise, suggesting that expression of PGC-1alpha occurs in skeletal muscle recruited during exercise. PGC-1alpha content in EPI was increased after 18-h in vitro incubation with 0.5 mM 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) and 4 mM caffeine. However, AICAR incubation did not affect PGC-1alpha content in the SOL, whereas caffeine incubation increased it. These results suggest that exercise-induced PGC-1alpha expression in skeletal muscle may be mediated by at least two exercise-induced signaling factors: AMPK activation and Ca2+ elevation. The number of factors involved (both AMPK and Ca2+, or Ca2+ only) in exercise-induced PGC-1alpha expression may differ among muscles.

  10. 49 CFR 230.113 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... tires may not have a seam running lengthwise that is within 33/4 inches of the flange. (g) Worn flanges... are turned or new tires applied to driving and trailing wheels. When a single tire is applied, the...

  11. 49 CFR 230.113 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... tires may not have a seam running lengthwise that is within 33/4 inches of the flange. (g) Worn flanges... are turned or new tires applied to driving and trailing wheels. When a single tire is applied, the...

  12. 49 CFR 230.113 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... tires may not have a seam running lengthwise that is within 33/4 inches of the flange. (g) Worn flanges... are turned or new tires applied to driving and trailing wheels. When a single tire is applied, the...

  13. 49 CFR 230.113 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... tires may not have a seam running lengthwise that is within 33/4 inches of the flange. (g) Worn flanges... are turned or new tires applied to driving and trailing wheels. When a single tire is applied, the...

  14. 49 CFR 230.113 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... tires may not have a seam running lengthwise that is within 33/4 inches of the flange. (g) Worn flanges... are turned or new tires applied to driving and trailing wheels. When a single tire is applied, the...

  15. Peculiarities of Clutch Forming Rails and Wheel Block Construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiler, V. V.; Galiev, I. I.; Shiler, A. V.

    2018-03-01

    The clutch of the wheel and rail is significantly influenced by the design features of the standard wheel pair, which are manifested in the presence of "parasitic" slipping of the wheels along the rails during its movement. The purpose of the presented work is to evaluate new design solutions for wheel sets. The research was carried out using methods of comparative simulation modelling and physical prototyping. A new design of the wheel pair (block wheel pair) is proposed, which features an independent rotation of all surfaces of the wheels in contact with the rails. The block construction of the wheel pair forms open mechanical contours with the track gauge, which completely eliminates the "parasitic" slippage. As a result, in the process of implementing traction or braking forces, the coupling coefficient of the block construction of the wheel pair is significantly higher than that of existing structures. In addition, in the run-out mode, the resistance to movement of the block wheel pair is half as much. All this will allow one to significantly reduce the energy consumption for traction of trains, wear of track elements and crew, and to increase the speed and safety of train traffic.

  16. Does running strengthen bone?

    PubMed

    Boudenot, Arnaud; Achiou, Zahra; Portier, Hugues

    2015-12-01

    Bone is a living tissue needing mechanical stress to maintain strength. Traditional endurance exercises offer only modest effects on bone. Walking and running produce low impact but lead to bone fatigue. This article is specifically addressed to therapists and explains the mechanisms involved for the effects of exercise on bone. Intermittent exercise limits bone fatigue, and downhill exercises increase ground impact forces and involve eccentric muscle contractions, which are particularly osteogenic.

  17. Effect of Immediate and Delayed Cold Water Immersion After a High Intensity Exercise Session on Subsequent Run Performance

    PubMed Central

    Brophy-Williams, Ned; Landers, Grant; Wallman, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of cold water immersion (CWI) performed immediately or 3 h after a high intensity interval exercise session (HIIS) on next-day exercise performance. Eight male athletes performed three HIIS at 90%VO2max velocity followed by either a passive recovery (CON), CWI performed immediately post-exercise (CWI(0)) or CWI performed 3 h post-exercise (CWI(3)). Recovery trials were performed in a counter balanced manner. Participants then returned 24 h later and completed a muscle soreness and a totally quality recovery perception (TQRP) questionnaire, which was then followed by the Yoyo Intermittent Recovery Test [level 1] (YRT). Venous blood samples were collected pre-HIIS and pre-YRT to determine C-Reactive Protein (CRP) levels. Significantly more shuttles were performed during the YRT following CWI(0) compared to the CON trial (p=0.017, ES = 0. 8), while differences between the CWI(3) and the CON trials approached significance (p = 0.058, ES = 0.5). Performance on the YRT between the CWI(0) and CWI(3) trials were similar (p = 0.147, ES = 0. 3). Qualitative analyses demonstrated a 98% and 92% likely beneficial effect of CWI(0) and CWI(3) on next day performance, compared to CON, respectively, while CWI(0) resulted in a 79% likely benefit when compared to CWI(3). CRP values were significantly lower pre-YRT, compared to baseline, following CWI(0) (p = 0.0.36) and CWI(3) (p = 0.045), but were similar for CON (p = 0.157). Muscle soreness scores were similar between trials (p = 1.10), while TQRP scores were significantly lower for CON compared to CWI(0) (p = 0.002 ) and CWI(3) (p = 0.024). Immediate CWI resulted in superior next-day YRT performance compared to CON, while delayed (3 h) CWI was also likely to be beneficial. Qualitative analyses suggested that CWI(0) resulted in better performance than CWI(3). These results are important for athletes who do not have immediate access to CWI following exercise. Key points

  18. Warning system against locomotive driving wheel flaccidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Peng

    2014-09-01

    Causes of locomotive relaxation are discussed. Alarm system against locomotive driving wheel flaccidity is designed by means of techniques of infrared temperature measurement and Hall sensor measurement. The design scheme of the system, the principle of detecting locomotive driving wheel flaccidity with temperature and Hall sensor is introduced, threshold temperature of infrared alarm is determined. The circuit system is designed by microcontroller technology and the software is designed with the assembly language. The experiment of measuring the flaccid displacement with Hall sensor measurement is simulated. The results show that the system runs well with high reliability and low cost, which has a wide prospect of application and popularization.

  19. The effects of acute post exercise consumption of two cocoa-based beverages with varying flavanol content on indices of muscle recovery following downhill treadmill running.

    PubMed

    Peschek, Katelyn; Pritchett, Robert; Bergman, Ethan; Pritchett, Kelly

    2013-12-20

    Dietary flavanols have been associated with reduced oxidative stress, however their efficacy in promoting recovery after exercise induced muscle damage is unclear. This study examined the effectiveness of acute consumption of cocoa-flavanols on indices of muscle recovery including: subsequent exercise performance, creatine kinase, muscle tenderness, force, and self-perceived muscle soreness. Eight endurance-trained athletes (VO2max 64.4±7.6 mL/kg/min) completed a downhill running protocol to induce muscle soreness, and 48-h later completed a 5-K (kilometer) time trial. Muscle recovery measurements were taken at PRE, 24 h-POST, 48 h-POST, and POST-5K. Participants consumed 1.0 g of carbohydrate per kilogram of body weight of a randomly assigned beverage (CHOC: 0 mg flavanols vs. CocoaCHOC: 350 mg flavanols per serving) immediately after the downhill run and again 2 h later. The same protocol was repeated three weeks later with the other beverage. An ANOVA revealed no significant difference (p=0.97) between trials for 5 K completion time (CHOC 1198.3±160.6 s, CocoaCHOC 1195.5±148.8 s). No significant difference was found for creatine kinase (CK) levels (p=0.31), or muscle soreness (p=0.21) between groups over time. These findings suggest that the acute addition of cocoa flavanols to low-fat chocolate milk offer no additional recovery benefits.

  20. The Effects of Acute Post Exercise Consumption of Two Cocoa-Based Beverages with Varying Flavanol Content on Indices of Muscle Recovery Following Downhill Treadmill Running

    PubMed Central

    Peschek, Katelyn; Pritchett, Robert; Bergman, Ethan; Pritchett, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Dietary flavanols have been associated with reduced oxidative stress, however their efficacy in promoting recovery after exercise induced muscle damage is unclear. This study examined the effectiveness of acute consumption of cocoa-flavanols on indices of muscle recovery including: subsequent exercise performance, creatine kinase, muscle tenderness, force, and self-perceived muscle soreness. Eight endurance-trained athletes (VO2max 64.4 ± 7.6 mL/kg/min) completed a downhill running protocol to induce muscle soreness, and 48-h later completed a 5-K (kilometer) time trial. Muscle recovery measurements were taken at PRE, 24 h-POST, 48 h-POST, and POST-5K. Participants consumed 1.0 g of carbohydrate per kilogram of body weight of a randomly assigned beverage (CHOC: 0 mg flavanols vs. CocoaCHOC: 350 mg flavanols per serving) immediately after the downhill run and again 2 h later. The same protocol was repeated three weeks later with the other beverage. An ANOVA revealed no significant difference (p = 0.97) between trials for 5 K completion time (CHOC 1198.3 ± 160.6 s, CocoaCHOC 1195.5 ± 148.8 s). No significant difference was found for creatine kinase (CK) levels (p = 0.31), or muscle soreness (p = 0.21) between groups over time. These findings suggest that the acute addition of cocoa flavanols to low-fat chocolate milk offer no additional recovery benefits. PMID:24362706

  1. Man and Running. Russia's Best-Selling Book on Exercise, Health, and Medicine. A Worldwide Literature Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkov, Vladimir M.; Milner, Evgeny G.

    This book attempts to systematize and generalize the data of world literature concerning the advantages of fast walking and slow running for persons with various cardiovascular diseases. The information and the fitness program outlined are based on experience and research conducted at the Nadezha Health Club in Smolensk, Russia. Major risk factors…

  2. The effect of exercise on carbohydrate preference in female rats.

    PubMed

    Keeley, R J; Zelinski, E L; Fehr, L; McDonald, R J

    2014-02-01

    Exercise has a myriad of health benefits, including positive effects against heart disease, diabetes, and dementia. Cognitive performance improves following chronic exercise, both in animal models and humans. Studies have examined the effect of exercise on feeding, demonstrating a preference towards increased food consumption. Further, sex differences exist such that females tend to prefer carbohydrates over other macronutrients following exercise. However, no clear effect of exercise on macronutrient or carbohydrate selection has been described in animal or human studies. This research project sought to determine the effect of voluntary exercise on carbohydrate selection in female rats. Preference for a complex (starch) versus a simple (dextrose) carbohydrate was assessed using a discriminative preference to context paradigm in non-exercising and voluntarily exercising female rats. In addition, fasting blood glucose and performance in the Morris water task was examined in order to verify the effects of exercise on performance in this task. Female rats given access to running wheels preferred a context previously associated with starch, whereas females with no running wheel access preferred a context previously associated with dextrose. No changes in blood glucose were observed. However, cognitive differences in the Morris water task were observed such that voluntary exercise allowed rats to find a new location of a hidden platform following 4 days of training to an old platform location. These results suggest that voluntary exercise may decrease preservative behaviors in a spatial navigation task through the facilitation of plasticity mechanisms. This study is the first of its kind to demonstrate the influence of exercise on taste preference for complex and simple carbohydrates with this context conditioning paradigm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Grinding Wheel System

    DOEpatents

    Malkin, Stephen; Gao, Robert; Guo, Changsheng; Varghese, Biju; Pathare, Sumukh

    2003-08-05

    A grinding wheel system includes a grinding wheel with at least one embedded sensor. The system also includes an adapter disk containing electronics that process signals produced by each embedded sensor and that transmits sensor information to a data processing platform for further processing of the transmitted information.

  4. Grinding Wheel System

    DOEpatents

    Malkin, Stephen; Gao, Robert; Guo, Changsheng; Varghese, Biju; Pathare, Sumukh

    2006-01-10

    A grinding wheel system includes a grinding wheel with at least one embedded sensor. The system also includes an adapter disk containing electronics that process signals produced by each embedded sensor and that transmits sensor information to a data processing platform for further processing of the transmitted information.

  5. Why Wheels Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepp, Richard D.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses how the wheel works. The inherent mechanical advantage of wheel-and-axle system is that it reduced the distance the load-bearing surfaces have to slip relative to one another when the whole apparatus advances some given distance reducing (with leverage) the force needed to propel the system. (Author/JN)

  6. Ultrasonic search wheel probe

    DOEpatents

    Mikesell, Charles R.

    1978-01-01

    A device is provided for reducing internal reflections from the tire of an ultrasonic search wheel probe or from within the material being examined. The device includes a liner with an anechoic chamber within which is an ultrasonic transducer. The liner is positioned within the wheel and includes an aperture through which the ultrasonic sound from the transducer is directed.

  7. Two wheeled lunar dumptruck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brus, Michael R.; Haleblain, Ray; Hernandez, Tomas L.; Jensen, Paul E.; Kraynick, Ronald L.; Langley, Stan J.; Shuman, Alan G.

    1988-01-01

    The design of a two wheel bulk material transport vehicle is described in detail. The design consists of a modified cylindrical bowl, two independently controlled direct drive motors, and two deformable wheels. The bowl has a carrying capacity of 2.8 m (100 ft) and is constructed of aluminum. The low speed, high HP motors are directly connected to the wheels, thus yielding only two moving parts. The wheels, specifically designed for lunar applications, utilize the chevron tread pattern for optimum traction. The vehicle is maneuvered by varying the relative angular velocities of the wheels. The bulk material being transported is unloaded by utilizing the motors to oscillate the bowl back and forth to a height at which dumping is achieved. The analytical models were tested using a scaled prototype of the lunar transport vehicle. The experimental data correlated well with theoretical predictions. Thus, the design established provides a feasible alternative for the handling of bulk material on the moon.

  8. Online measurement for geometrical parameters of locomotive wheel set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kaihua; Li, Zhengjie; Ban, Tao

    2009-11-01

    Locomotive is the most important parts of a train. Wheel set is the major running components of a locomotive. Wheel set tread is the contacting part with the rail and tread will be worn down gradually. The wearing degree of the wheel set tread is one of the main factors that influence the safety and stability of running train. The measurement of wheel set wear is usually static and by handwork, which limits the accuracy and reliability. An automatic measurement method for geometrical parameters of locomotive wheel set based on optoelectronic technique was proposed. Geometrical parameters include flange thickness, flange height and rim inside distance. Linear structured laser light was projected on the wheel tread surface. The geometrical parameters can be deduced from the profile image. An online image acquisition system was designed based on asynchronous reset of CCD. Precision hardware time-delay and asynchronous reset pulse generation circuits were designed. The entire time sequence of asynchronous reset was researched. Images were acquired only when wheel sets moved into the designed position. The image acquisition was fulfilled by hardware interrupt mode. The measuring system was installed along the straight railway section. When the locomotive was running in a limited speed, the devices placed alone railway line can measure the geometrical parameters automatically.

  9. Ecologically Valid Carbohydrate Intake during Soccer-Specific Exercise Does Not Affect Running Performance in a Fed State.

    PubMed

    Funnell, Mark P; Dykes, Nick R; Owen, Elliot J; Mears, Stephen A; Rollo, Ian; James, Lewis J

    2017-01-05

    This study assessed the effect of carbohydrate intake on self-selected soccer-specific running performance. Sixteen male soccer players (age 23 ± 4 years; body mass 76.9 ± 7.2 kg; predicted VO 2max = 54.2 ± 2.9 mL∙kg -1 ∙min -1 ; soccer experience 13 ± 4 years) completed a progressive multistage fitness test, familiarisation trial and two experimental trials, involving a modified version of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST) to simulate a soccer match in a fed state. Subjects completed six 15 min blocks (two halves of 45 min) of intermittent shuttle running, with a 15-min half-time. Blocks 3 and 6, allowed self-selection of running speeds and sprint times, were assessed throughout. Subjects consumed 250 mL of either a 12% carbohydrate solution (CHO) or a non-caloric taste matched placebo (PLA) before and at half-time of the LIST. Sprint times were not different between trials (CHO 2.71 ± 0.15 s, PLA 2.70 ± 0.14 s; p = 0.202). Total distance covered in self-selected blocks (block 3: CHO 2.07 ± 0.06 km; PLA 2.09 ± 0.08 km; block 6: CHO 2.04 ± 0.09 km; PLA 2.06 ± 0.08 km; p = 0.122) was not different between trials. There was no difference between trials for distance covered ( p ≥ 0.297) or mean speed ( p ≥ 0.172) for jogging or cruising. Blood glucose concentration was greater ( p < 0.001) at the end of half-time during the CHO trial. In conclusion, consumption of 250 mL of 12% CHO solution before and at half-time of a simulated soccer match does not affect self-selected running or sprint performance in a fed state.

  10. Genetic influences on exercise-induced adult hippocampal neurogenesis across 12 divergent mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Clark, P J; Kohman, R A; Miller, D S; Bhattacharya, T K; Brzezinska, W J; Rhodes, J S

    2011-04-01

    New neurons are continuously born in the hippocampus of several mammalian species throughout adulthood. Adult neurogenesis represents a natural model for understanding how to grow and incorporate new nerve cells into preexisting circuits in the brain. Finding molecules or biological pathways that increase neurogenesis has broad potential for regenerative medicine. One strategy is to identify mouse strains that display large vs. small increases in neurogenesis in response to wheel running so that the strains can be contrasted to find common genes or biological pathways associated with enhanced neuron formation. Therefore, mice from 12 different isogenic strains were housed with or without running wheels for 43 days to measure the genetic regulation of exercise-induced neurogenesis. During the first 10 days mice received daily injections of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells. Neurogenesis was measured as the total number of BrdU cells co-expressing NeuN mature neuronal marker in the hippocampal granule cell layer by immunohistochemistry. Exercise increased neurogenesis in all strains, but the magnitude significantly depended on genotype. Strain means for distance run on wheels, but not distance traveled in cages without wheels, were significantly correlated with strain mean level of neurogenesis. Furthermore, certain strains displayed greater neurogenesis than others for a fixed level of running. Strain means for neurogenesis under sedentary conditions were not correlated with neurogenesis under runner conditions suggesting that different genes influence baseline vs. exercise-induced neurogenesis. Genetic contributions to exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis suggest that it may be possible to identify genes and pathways associated with enhanced neuroplastic responses to exercise. © 2011 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  11. Use of blood lactate measurements for prediction of exercise performance and for control of training. Recommendations for long-distance running.

    PubMed

    Billat, L V

    1996-09-01

    Time over a distance, i.e. speed, is the reference for performance for all events whose rules are based on locomotion in different mechanical constraints. A certain power output has to be maintained during a distance or over time. The energy requirements and metabolic support for optimal performance are functions of the length of the race and the intensity at which it is completed. However, despite the complexity of the regulation of lactate metabolism, blood lactate measurements can be used by coaches for prediction of exercise performance. The anaerobic threshold, commonly defined as the exercise intensity, speed or fraction of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) at a fixed blood lactate level or at a maximal lactate steady-state (MLSS), has been accepted as a measure of the endurance. The blood lactate threshold, expressed as a fraction of the velocity associated with VO2max, depends on the relationship between velocity and oxygen uptake (VO2). The measurement of the post-competition blood lactate in short events (lasting 1 to 2 minutes) has been found to be related to the performance in events (400 to 800m in running). Blood lactate levels can be used to assist with determining training exercise intensity. However, to interpret the training effect on the blood lactate profile, the athlete's nutritional state and exercise protocol have also to be controlled. Moreover, improvement of fractional utilisation of VO2max at the MLSS has to be considered among all discriminating factors of the performance, such as the velocity associated with VO2max.

  12. Diet choice patterns in rodents depend on novelty of the diet, exercise, species, and sex.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tiffany; Xu, Wei-Jie; York, Haley; Liang, Nu-Chu

    2017-07-01

    Prolonged consumption of a palatable, high fat (HF) diet paired with a lack of physical activity can exacerbate the development of obesity. Exercise can facilitate the maintenance of a healthy body weight, possibly though mediating changes in diet preference. Using a two-diet choice and wheel running (WR) paradigm, our laboratory previously demonstrated that WR induces HF diet avoidance with different persistency in male and female rats when HF diet and WR are introduced simultaneously. The aims of this study were to examine whether this behavior is species dependent and to what extent the novelty of the diet affects WR induced HF diet avoidance. Experiment 1 utilized male C57BL6 mice in a two-diet choice and WR paradigm. Results show that all mice preferred HF to chow diet regardless of exercise and the order in which exercise and HF diet were presented. Experiment 2A (diet novelty) utilized Sprague-Dawley rats that were first habituated to a 45% HF diet prior to the simultaneous introduction of WR and a novel high-carbohydrate, low-fat (DK) diet. All rats avoided the novel high-carbohydrate diet and neither male nor female wheel running rats exhibited reduction in HF diet intake or HF diet avoidance. After all rats were returned to a sedentary condition, female rats consumed significantly more of the DK diet than the male rats. In Experiment 2B (diet familiarity), rats remained sedentary and were re-habituated to the DK diet until intake stabilized. Subsequently, a 60% HF diet was introduced for all rats and for running rats, access to the running wheels were provided simultaneously. Consistent with our previous findings, HF diet intake and preference was significantly reduced in all wheel running rats. These data suggest that exercise induced HF diet avoidance is affected by species and the novelty of the diet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Exercise Decreases Speedball Self-Administration

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Ryan T.; Strickland, Justin C.; Brophy, Mary K.; Witte, Maryam A.; Smith, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Epidemiological studies report that individuals who exercise are less likely to abuse drugs. Preclinical studies report that exercise, in the form of treadmill or wheel running, reliably decreases the self-administration of psychomotor stimulants and opioids. To date, preclinical studies have only examined the effects of exercise on responding maintained by individual drugs and not by combinations of multiple drugs. This limits the translational appeal of these studies because polydrug abuse is common among substance abusing populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercise on the self-administration of speedball, a combination of cocaine and heroin that is frequently encountered in intravenous drug abusing populations. Materials and Methods Female rats were obtained at weaning and assigned to sedentary or exercising conditions. Sedentary rats were housed in standard cages that permitted no exercise beyond normal cage ambulation; exercising rats were housed in similar cages with an activity wheel. After 6 weeks, rats were implanted with intravenous catheters and trained to self-administer cocaine, heroin, and dose combinations of cocaine and heroin (i.e., speedball) on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Key Findings Doses of speedball maintained greater levels of responding than corresponding doses of cocaine and heroin alone. Importantly, responding maintained by cocaine, heroin, and speedball was lower in exercising rats than sedentary rats. Significance These data indicate that exercise decreases the self-administration of speedball and suggest that exercise may reduce the abuse of drug combinations that have traditionally been resistant to treatment. PMID:25132360

  14. Exercise addiction- diagnosis, bio-psychological mechanisms and treatment issues.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Aviv; Weinstein, Yitzhak

    2014-01-01

    Exercise and sports activity are beneficial both physically and psychologically but excessive exercise may have adverse physiological and psychological effects. There are methodological issues in the definition, diagnosis and etiology of exercise addiction. Several questionnaires and diagnostic tools have been developed and validated and they show high validity and reliability. Exercise addiction has been suggested as having an obsessive-compulsive dimension as well as rewarding aspects that may include it among the behavioral addictions. Biological studies show that in rodents, exercise such as wheel running activates the dopamine reward system and thus contributing to stress reduction. Further evidence suggests that running is associated with endorphins and cannabinoids thus explaining the "runners high" or euphoric feelings that may lead to exercise addiction. Genetic studies suggest that genes which control preference for drugs also control the preference for naturally rewarding behaviors such as exercise. Psychological studies also explain exercise addiction in terms of reward, habituation, social support, stress-relief, avoidance of withdrawal and reduction of anxiety. It has been suggested that exercise addiction is a part of a continuum of sportive activity that develops in stages from the recreational exercise to at-risk exercise, problematic exercise and finally into exercise addiction. Assessment and treatment should take into account the various stages of exercise addiction development, its comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders such as eating disorders or substance use and alcohol disorders. Treatment approaches for exercise addiction are based on the cognitive-behavioral approach but little is known about their effectiveness. A single-case study shows promise of pharmacological treatment for exercise addiction and further studies are required. This review summarizes diagnostic and phenomenology of exercise addiction with emphasis on

  15. The Power of Exercise and the Exercise of Power: The Harvard Fatigue Laboratory, Distance Running, and the Disappearance of Work, 1919-1947.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Robin Wolfe

    2015-08-01

    In the early twentieth century, fatigue research marked an area of conflicting scientific, industrial, and cultural understandings of working bodies. These different understandings of the working body marked a key site of political conflict during the growth of industrial capitalism. Many fatigue researchers understood fatigue to be a physiological fact and allied themselves with Progressive-era reformers in urging industrial regulation. Opposed to these researchers were advocates of Taylorism and scientific management, who held that fatigue was a mental event and that productivity could be perpetually increased through managerial efficiency. Histories of this conflict typically cease with the end of the First World War, when it is assumed that industrial fatigue research withered away. This article extends the history of fatigue research through examining the activities of the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory in the 1920s and 1930s. The Laboratory developed sophisticated biochemical techniques to study the blood of exercising individuals. In particular, it found that exercising individuals could attain a biochemically "steady state," or equilibrium, and extrapolated from this to assert that fatigue was psychological, not physiological, in nature. In contrast to Progressive-era research, the Laboratory reached this conclusion through laboratory examination, not of industrial workers, but of Laboratory staff members and champion marathon runners. The translation of laboratory research to industrial settings, and the eventual erasure of physiological fatigue from discussions of labor, was a complex function of institutional settings, scientific innovation, and the cultural meanings of work and sport.

  16. A Nontoxic Barlow's Wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daffron, John A.; Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    Barlow's wheel has been a favorite demonstration since its invention by Peter Barlow (1776-1862) in 1822.1 In the form shown in Fig. 1, it represents the first electric motor. The interaction between the electric current passing from the axle of the wheel to the rim and the magnetic field produced by the U-magnet produces a torque that turns the wheel. The original device used mercury to provide electrical contact to the rim, and the dangers involved with the use of this heavy metal have caused the apparatus to disappear from the lecture hall.

  17. The V[Combining Dot Above]O2 Kinetics of Maximal and Supramaximal Running Exercises in Sprinters and Middle-Distance Runners.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento Salvador, Paulo C; Dal Pupo, Juliano; De Lucas, Ricardo D; de Aguiar, Rafael A; Arins, Francimara B; Guglielmo, Luiz G A

    2016-10-01

    do Nascimento Salvador, PC, Dal Pupo, J, De Lucas, RD, de Aguiar, RA, Arins, FB, and Guglielmo, LGA. The V[Combining Dot Above]O2 kinetics of maximal and supramaximal running exercises in sprinters and middle-distance runners. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2857-2863, 2016-The aim of this study was to compare the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 kinetics parameters during maximal and supramaximal running exercises in sprinters (SPR) and middle-distance runners (MDR). Twelve SPR (age 20.6 ± 3.4 years; and body mass 74.9 ± 6.2 kg) and 10 MDR (age 17.6 ± 1.4 years; and body mass 70.1 ± 11.8 kg) performed, on different days, a maximal incremental running test for determination of the velocity at maximum oxygen uptake (vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max) and 2 constant-speed tests for analysis of V[Combining Dot Above]O2 kinetics at 100 and 120% of vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max. The MDR presented significantly higher values for the critical speed (18.0 ± 1.0 vs. 14.2 ± 1.0 km·h), vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max (19.4 ± 0.7 vs. 17.2 ± 0.8 km·h), and time to exhaustion at 100% (437 ± 53 vs. 366 ± 49 seconds) than the SPR (p ≤ 0.05). However, the SPR demonstrated greater values for the anaerobic distance capacity (281.3 ± 66.1 vs. 208.0 ± 43.4 m). Although the mean response time and the time to attain the V[Combining Dot Above]O2max of the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 kinetics was higher in the maximal than supramaximal running speed (p ≤ 0.05), no difference was found in these parameters as well for V[Combining Dot Above]O2 slow component (p > 0.05) between the groups. This study showed that different aerobic and anaerobic characteristics in MDR and SPR did not affect the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 kinetics in maximal and supramaximal intensities within the severe-intensity domain. From a practical perspective, parameters of V[Combining Dot Above]O2 response may provide helpful information for training control as the duration of stimulus close to V[Combining Dot Above]O2max.

  18. Curiosity Wheel During Descent

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-07

    This color thumbnail image was obtained by NASA Curiosity rover illustrating the first appearance of the left front wheel of the Curiosity rover after deployment of the suspension system as the vehicle was about to touch down on Mars.

  19. Wheels and a Destination

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-09-10

    This view of the three left wheels of NASA Mars rover Curiosity combines two images that were taken by the rover Mars Hand Lens Imager MAHLI during the 34th Martian day, or sol, on Mars Sept. 9, 2012.

  20. Wheeled hopping robot

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Gary J [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-08-17

    The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.

  1. Thermoregulatory responses to acute heat loads in rats following spontaneous running.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, N; Shido, O; Sakurada, S; Nagasaka, T

    1999-02-01

    Earlier studies showed that spontaneous exercise training in rodents shifted their core temperature and thermoeffector thresholds to high levels. The present study investigated heat loss and heat production responses to acute heat loads of exercise-trained rats. The exercise-trained rats were allowed to run in a running wheel freely for 6 months, while the sedentary controls were denied access to the wheel during the same period. Then, they were loosely restrained and put in a direct calorimeter. After thermal equilibrium had been attained, they were warmed for 30 min with an intraperitoneal electric heater (internal heating). At least 2 h later, the rats were externally warmed for 90 min by raising the ambient temperature from 24 to 38C (external warming). Hypothalamic temperature (Thy), evaporative and nonevaporative heat loss (R+C+K) and heat production were measured. Internal and external heating significantly increased Thy. During internal heating, the magnitude of the increase in Thy was significantly smaller and the amount of increase in (R+C+K) was significantly greater in the exercise-trained rats than in the controls. The slope showing the relationship between Thy and (R+C+K) in the trained rats was significantly steeper than that in the controls. During external warming, the magnitude of increase in Thy of the exercise-trained rats was significantly greater than that of the controls. The slope showing the relationship between Thy and (R+C+K) in the trained rats was not different from that in the controls. Changes in evaporative heat loss and heat production during the two types of heat load did not differ between the two groups. The results suggest that, in rats, exercise training with voluntary running improves heat tolerance through enhancing nonevaporative heat loss response. However, this may be the case only when the rats are subjected to a direct internal heat load.

  2. Influence of estrogen on individual exercise motivation and bone protection in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Müller, Sebastian T; Keiler, Annekathrin M; Kräker, Kristin; Zierau, Oliver; Bernhardt, Ricardo

    2018-01-01

    Bone protection and metabolism are directly linked to estrogen levels, but exercise is also considered to have bone protective effects. Reduced estrogen levels lead to a variety of disorders, for example, bone loss and reduced movement drive. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of estrogen on individual voluntary exercise motivation and bone protection. We investigated sham operated, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized with estrogen supplemented Wistar rats (20 weeks old) either with or without access to exercise wheels. We selected an experimental approach where we could monitor the individual exercise of group-housed rats with ad libitum access to a running wheel with the help of a subcutaneous chip. In vivo and ex vivo microcomputed tomography analyses of the tibia were performed at two-week intervals from week 0 to week 6. Furthermore, tibial trabecular structure was evaluated based on histomorphometric analyses. We observed a significant bone protective effect of E2. For exercise performance, a substantially high intra-group variability was observed, especially in the E2 group. We presume that dominant behavior occurs within the group-housed rats resulting in a hierarchical access to the running wheel and a high variability of distance run. Exercise did not prevent ovariectomy-induced bone loss. However, lack of estrogen within the ovariectomized rats led to a drastically reduced activity prevented by estrogen supplementation. Our findings are important for future studies working with group-housed rats and exercise. The reason for the high intra-group variability in exercise needs to be investigated in future studies.

  3. The protective effects of voluntary exercise against the behavioral consequences of uncontrollable stress persist despite an increase in anxiety following forced cessation of exercise.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Benjamin N; Loughridge, Alice B; Sadaoui, Nouara; Christianson, John P; Fleshner, Monika

    2012-08-01

    Humans who exercise are less likely to suffer from stress-related mood disorders. Similarly, rats allowed voluntary access to running wheels have constrained corticosterone responses to mild stressors and are protected against several behavioral consequences of uncontrollable stress which resemble symptoms of human anxiety and depression, including exaggerated fear and deficits in shuttle box escape learning. Although exercise conveys clear stress resistance, the duration of time the protective effects of exercise against the behavioral consequences of uncontrollable stress persist following exercise cessation is unknown. The current studies investigated (1) whether exercise-induced stress resistance extends to social avoidance, another anxiety-like behavior elicited by uncontrollable stressor exposure, and (2) the duration of time the protective effects of exercise persist following forced cessation of exercise. Six weeks of wheel running constrained the increase in corticosterone elicited by social exploration testing, and prevented the reduction in social exploration, exaggerated shock-elicited fear, and deficits in escape learning produced by uncontrollable stress. The protective effect of voluntary exercise against stress-induced interference with escape learning persisted for 15 days, but was lost by 25 days, following cessation of exercise. An anxiogenic effect, as revealed by a reduction in social exploration and an increase in fear behavior immerged as a function of time following cessation of exercise. Results demonstrate that the protective effect of voluntary exercise against the behavioral consequences of uncontrollable stress extends to include social avoidance, and can persist for several days following exercise cessation despite an increase in anxiety produced by forced cessation of exercise. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Grasping physical exercise through recreational running and non-representational theory: a case study from Sofia, Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Barnfield, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    To become and maintain being physically active encompasses more than purely mindful and rational decision-making. Physical activity requires theoretical-methodological approaches that provide more subtle understandings of the variety of contextual factors. Nettleton and Green have recently argued persuasively for the need for the sociology of public health to embrace social practices. It is also necessary to think about the spaces, affects and technologies of engagement in physical exercise. This article examines the practices of recreational runners in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. The article has three aims; (i) to draw attention to the promise of non-representational theory as an additive for health research and the contextual factors of health practices, (ii) to examine recreational runner's practices and techniques of engagement in light of non-representational theory, and (iii) to highlight how interventions in Sofia and beyond can incorporate elements of non-representational theory into their strategies for improved public health. In drawing attention to the promise of non-representational theory and social practices this article concludes by emphasising their importance for public health interventions in physical activity strategies. © 2016 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  5. Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... d Get Involved d Volunteer Volunteer Information Volunteer Recognition d Advocate for Change Become an MS Activist ... confirmed the benefits of exercise, including improvement in cognitive function and mood enhancement. Inactivity in people with ...

  6. Adaptive Changes in the Sensitivity of the Dorsal Raphe and Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nuclei to Acute Exercise, and Hippocampal Neurogenesis May Contribute to the Antidepressant Effect of Regular Treadmill Running in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nishii, Ayu; Amemiya, Seiichiro; Kubota, Natsuko; Nishijima, Takeshi; Kita, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    Increasing clinical evidence suggests that regular physical exercise can prevent or reduce the incidence of stress-related psychiatric disorders including depressive symptoms. Antidepressant effect of regular exercise may be implicated in monoaminergic transmission including serotonergic transmission, activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and hippocampal neurogenesis, but few general concepts regarding the optimal exercise regimen for stimulating neural mechanisms involved in antidepressant properties have been developed. Here, we examined how 4 weeks of treadmill running at different intensities (0, 15, 25 m/min, 60 min/day, 5 times/week) alters neuronal activity in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), which is the major source of serotonin (5-HT) neurons in the central nervous system, and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), in which corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons initiate the activation of the HPA axis, during one session of acute treadmill running at different speeds (0, 15, 25 m/min, 30 min) in male Wistar rats, using c-Fos immunohistochemistry. We also examined neurogenesis in the hippocampus using immunohistochemistry for doublecortin (DCX) and assessed depressive-like behavior using the forced swim test after regular exercise for 4 weeks. In the pre-training period, acute treadmill running at low speed, but not at high speed, increased c-Fos positive nuclei in the DRN compared with the sedentary control. The number of c-Fos positive nuclei in the PVN during acute treadmill running was increased in a running speed-dependent manner. Regular exercise for 4 weeks, regardless of the training intensity, induced an enhancement of c-Fos expression in the DRN during not only low-speed but also high-speed acute running, and generally reduced c-Fos expression in the PVN during acute running compared with pre-training. Furthermore, regular treadmill running for 4 weeks enhanced DCX immunoreactivity in the hippocampal dentate

  7. No exercise-associated hyponatremia found in an observational field study of male ultra-marathoners participating in a 24-hour ultra-run.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-12-01

    In a recent study of male ultra-marathoners who participated in a 161-km ultra-run, the prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) was reported to be 50%, which is a considerably higher percentage than that seen in marathoners. We investigated the prevalence of EAH in male ultra-marathoners competing in a 24-hour run held in Basel, Switzerland. Body weight, hematocrit levels, plasma volume, plasma sodium concentration, urine specific gravity, and fluid intake were recorded in 15 male ultra-marathoners (mean age ± standard deviation [SD], 46.7 [5.8] years; plasma sodium, 71.1 [6.8] kg; height, 1.76 [0.07] m; body weight, 23.1 [1.84] kg/m(2)). Plasma sodium was measured at 135.3 (2.8) mmol/L before the race and remained unchanged at 135.4 (3.6) mmol/L after the race. The competitors consumed a total of 15.1 (5.1) L during the race, equal to 0.62 (0.21) L/hour. Fluid intake correlated to the mean running speed (r = -0.87; P = 0.0001). Body weight decreased significantly (P = 0.0009) by 2.2 kg. Hematocrit remained unchanged, and urine specific gravity increased significantly (P = 0.0005). Plasma volume increased by 4.9% (15.8%). Changes in body weight showed no association with post-race plasma sodium. The normal resting value should be 140 mmol/L so that a decrease of 5 mmol/L is described as EAH. Because the starting plasma sodium in this study was 135 mmol/L, it is not possible to define EAH as a value that is < 135 mmol/L. Instead, the correct definition should be a plasma sodium concentration of 130 mmol/L (ie, 5 mmol/L below the normal resting value). Following this definition, it was determined that no athlete developed EAH in this 24-hour run.

  8. Wheel Electrometer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Carlos I.; Buehler, Martin G.; Mantovani, James G.; Buhler, Charles; Nomicki, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Two documents describe a prototype system of electrometers for measuring electrostatic fields and electrostatic responses of soils on Mars and the Moon. The electrodes of this electrometer are embedded in a wheel of an exploratory robotic vehicle, utilizing the wheel motion to bring the electrodes into proximity or contact with the soil. Each electrode resides in one of two types of sensor modules: electric-field (ELF) or triboelectric (TRIBO). In either type, what is measured is simply the electric charge induced on the electrode by exposure to the external distribution of electrostatic charge. In an ELF module, the electrode is bare and recessed radially from the wheel surface. The ELF sensor provides a measure of the charge on a small patch of undisturbed soil as the wheel rolls forward. In a TRIBO module, the electrode is only slightly recessed and covered with a polymeric insulator flush with the wheel surface. Through contact electrification, the insulator exchanges charge with the soil. There are five TRIBO sensors, each containing an insulator made of a different polymer. The charge data gathered by the five TRIBO sensors can be used to determine how the soil fits into a triboelectric series.

  9. 129. SECTION OF BREAST WHEEL AND FOREBAY, REBUILT WHEELS 1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. SECTION OF BREAST WHEEL AND FOREBAY, REBUILT WHEELS 1, 2, 3, 1843 Frederic Graff, Jr., Collection of the Franklin Institute - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. 14. MACHINERY DETAILS: CENTER WHEEL FRAME AND AXEL, JACK WHEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. MACHINERY DETAILS: CENTER WHEEL FRAME AND AXEL, JACK WHEEL FRAME, JACK NUT HOUSING, JACK NUT, ETC. - Niantic River Swing Bridge, Spanning Niantic River between East Lyme & Waterford, Old Lyme, New London County, CT

  11. Ventricular action potential adaptation to regular exercise: role of β-adrenergic and KATP channel function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinrui; Fitts, Robert H

    2017-08-01

    Regular exercise training is known to affect the action potential duration (APD) and improve heart function, but involvement of β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) subtypes and/or the ATP-sensitive K + (K ATP ) channel is unknown. To address this, female and male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to voluntary wheel-running or control groups; they were anesthetized after 6-8 wk of training, and myocytes were isolated. Exercise training significantly increased APD of apex and base myocytes at 1 Hz and decreased APD at 10 Hz. Ca 2+ transient durations reflected the changes in APD, while Ca 2+ transient amplitudes were unaffected by wheel running. The nonselective β-AR agonist isoproterenol shortened the myocyte APD, an effect reduced by wheel running. The isoproterenol-induced shortening of APD was largely reversed by the selective β 1 -AR blocker atenolol, but not the β 2 -AR blocker ICI 118,551, providing evidence that wheel running reduced the sensitivity of the β 1 -AR. At 10 Hz, the K ATP channel inhibitor glibenclamide prolonged the myocyte APD more in exercise-trained than control rats, implicating a role for this channel in the exercise-induced APD shortening at 10 Hz. A novel finding of this work was the dual importance of altered β 1 -AR responsiveness and K ATP channel function in the training-induced regulation of APD. Of physiological importance to the beating heart, the reduced response to adrenergic agonists would enhance cardiac contractility at resting rates, where sympathetic drive is low, by prolonging APD and Ca 2+ influx; during exercise, an increase in K ATP channel activity would shorten APD and, thus, protect the heart against Ca 2+ overload or inadequate filling. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Our data demonstrated that regular exercise prolonged the action potential and Ca 2+ transient durations in myocytes isolated from apex and base regions at 1-Hz and shortened both at 10-Hz stimulation. Novel findings were that wheel running shifted the

  12. Exercise increases utrophin protein expression in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Bradley S; Lowe, Dawn A; Kostek, Matthew C

    2014-06-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal genetic disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene resulting in chronic muscle damage, muscle wasting, and premature death. Utrophin is a dystrophin protein homologue that increases dystrophic muscle function and reduces pathology. Currently, no treatments that increase utrophin protein expression exist. However, exercise increases utrophin mRNA expression in healthy humans. Therefore, the purpose was to determine whether exercise increases utrophin protein expression in dystrophic muscle. Utrophin protein was measured in the quadriceps and soleus muscles of mdx mice after 12 weeks of voluntary wheel running exercise or sedentary controls. Muscle pathology was measured in the quadriceps. Exercise increased utrophin protein expression 334 ± 63% in the quadriceps relative to sedentary controls. Exercise increased central nuclei 4 ± 1% but not other measures of pathology. Exercise may be an intervention that increases utrophin expression in patients with DMD. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. 49 CFR 230.114 - Wheel centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.114 Wheel centers. (a) Filling blocks and shims. Driving and trailing wheel... provided in paragraph (b)(4) of this section; or (4) Driving or trailing wheel center with three adjacent...

  14. 49 CFR 230.114 - Wheel centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.114 Wheel centers. (a) Filling blocks and shims. Driving and trailing wheel... provided in paragraph (b)(4) of this section; or (4) Driving or trailing wheel center with three adjacent...

  15. 49 CFR 230.114 - Wheel centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.114 Wheel centers. (a) Filling blocks and shims. Driving and trailing wheel... provided in paragraph (b)(4) of this section; or (4) Driving or trailing wheel center with three adjacent...

  16. 49 CFR 230.114 - Wheel centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.114 Wheel centers. (a) Filling blocks and shims. Driving and trailing wheel... provided in paragraph (b)(4) of this section; or (4) Driving or trailing wheel center with three adjacent...

  17. 49 CFR 230.114 - Wheel centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.114 Wheel centers. (a) Filling blocks and shims. Driving and trailing wheel... provided in paragraph (b)(4) of this section; or (4) Driving or trailing wheel center with three adjacent...

  18. Experiments on a Tail-wheel Shimmy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harling, R; Dietz, O

    1954-01-01

    Model tests on the "running belt" and tests with a full-scale tail wheel were made on a rotating drum as well as on a runway in order to investigate the causes of the undesirable shimmy phenomena frequently occurring on airplane tail wheels, and the means of avoiding them. The small model (scale 1:10) permitted simulation of the mass, moments of inertia, and fuselage stiffness of the airplane and determination of their influence on the shimmy, whereas by means of the larger model with pneumatic tires (scale 1:2) more accurate investigations were made on the tail wheel itself. The results of drum and road tests show good agreement with one another and with model values. Detailed investigations were made regarding the dependence of the shimmy tendency on trail, rolling speed, load, size of tires, ground friction,and inclination of the swivel axis; furthermore, regarding the influence of devices with restoring effect on the tail wheel, and the friction damping required for prevention of shimmy. Finally observations from slow-motion pictures are reported and conclusions drawn concerning the influence of tire deformation.

  19. Magnetically suspended reaction wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabnis, A. V.; Stocking, G. L.; Dendy, J. B.

    1975-01-01

    Magnetic suspensions offer several advantages over conventional bearings, arising because of the contactless nature of the load support. In application to spacecraft reaction wheels, the advantages are low drag torque, wearfree, unlubricated, vacuum-compatible operation, and unlimited life. By the provision of redundancy in the control electronics, single-point failures are eliminated. The rational for selection of a passive radial, active axial, dc magnetic suspension is presented, and the relative merits of 3-loop and single-loop magnetic suspensions are discussed. The design of a .678 N-m-sec (.5 ft-lb-sec) reaction wheel using the single loop magnetic suspension was developed; the design compares favorably with current ball bearing wheels in terms of weight and power.

  20. Kinetic and physiological analysis of the GAME(Wheels) system.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Thomas J; Fitzgerald, Shirley G; Cooper, Rory A; Thorman, Tricia A; Boninger, Michael L

    2002-01-01

    For individuals with a spinal cord injury or dysfunction (SCI/D), opportunities to exercise are limited and are usually not highly motivating experiences. Exercise programs or extracurricular activities may help increase or maintain the cardiovascular fitness level of individuals with SCI/D. The GAME(Wheels) system, an interface between a portable roller system and a computer, enables an individual to control a video game by propelling his or her wheelchair. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the propulsive forces used during video play, both with and without the GAME(Wheels) system, were different. A secondary purpose was to examine differences in metabolic parameters during exercise under these two conditions. Ten manual wheelchair users exercised on the GAME(Wheels) system with and without controlling a video game. Physiological and kinetic data were collected six times during two exercise trials. Kinetic data were recorded with the SMART(Wheel) and used to investigate propulsion forces. No significant differences were found in the resultant force, rate of rise, or number of hand contacts with the pushrims. This study showed that propulsion pattern did not change significantly when wheelchair users exercised while playing a computer video game. Oxygen consumption, ventilation, and heart rate were significantly different (p < 0.05) between the two groups during the last three exercise intervals and cooldown. Playing a video game while exercising may help to motivate manual wheelchair users to exercise longer and regularly, something that was reported by this study's subjects; likewise, exercising while playing a video game may not be associated with higher pushrim forces and stroke frequencies.

  1. The effects of post-extinction exercise on cocaine-primed and stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ogbonmwan, Yvonne E.; Schroeder, Jason P.; Holmes, Philip V.; Weinshenker, David

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Voluntary aerobic exercise has shown promise as a treatment for substance abuse, reducing relapse in cocaine-dependent people. Wheel running also attenuates drug-primed and cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking in rats, an animal model of relapse. However, in most of these studies, wheel access was provided throughout cocaine self-administration and/or extinction and had effects on several parameters of drug seeking. Moreover, the effects of exercise on footshock stress-induced reinstatement have not been investigated. Objectives The purposes of this study were to isolate and specifically examine the protective effect of exercise on relapse-like behavior elicited by a drug prime or stress. Methods Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine at a stable level, followed by extinction training. Once extinction criteria were met, rats were split into exercise (24 h, continuous access to running wheel) and sedentary groups for three weeks, after which drug-seeking behavior was assessed following a cocaine prime or footshock. We also measured galanin mRNA in the locus coeruleus and A2 noradrenergic nucleus. Results Exercising rats ran ~4-6 km/d, comparable to levels previously reported for rats without a history of cocaine self-administration. Post-extinction exercise significantly attenuated cocaine-primed, but not footshock stress-induced, reinstatement of cocaine seeking, and increased galanin mRNA expression in the LC but not A2. Conclusion These results indicate that chronic wheel running can attenuate some forms of reinstatement, even when initiated after the cessation of cocaine self-administration, supporting the idea that voluntary exercise programs may help maintain abstinence in clinical populations. PMID:25358851

  2. Fracture Resistance of Railroad Wheels

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1974-09-01

    The effects of manufacturing method, chemical composition, heat treatment, temperature, and loading rate on the plane strain fracture toughness KIC of railroad wheels have been determined. Carbon content of the wheels is shown to be the principal fac...

  3. Wheel-rail interaction and damage in switches and crossings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pålsson, Björn A.; Nielsen, Jens C. O.

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic interaction between a railway freight vehicle and a switch and crossing (S&C) is studied by simulations of vehicle dynamics. In particular, the influence of a stochastic spread (scatter) in traffic parameters on damage in the S&C is assessed. The considered parameters are wheel profile and wheel-rail friction coefficient. To form a database for sampling, 120 wheel profiles from freight wagons in regular traffic have been measured and categorised with respect to wear. Among the investigated parameters, it is shown that equivalent conicity is the wheel profile parameter correlating best to damage in the S&C panels. The influence of hollow worn wheels on damage is also investigated, and it is found that such wheel profiles display a different running behaviour at the crossing transition. Convergence properties for samples of runs generated by Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) are compared with the corresponding properties obtained by pure random sampling. It is concluded that the LHS-generated samples exhibit similar or smaller variance in damage compared with the randomly generated samples.

  4. Voluntary exercise during extinction of auditory fear conditioning reduces the relapse of fear associated with potentiated activity of striatal direct pathway neurons

    PubMed Central

    Mika, Agnieszka; Bouchet, Courtney A.; Bunker, Preston; Hellwinkel, Justin E.; Spence, Katie G.; Day, Heidi E.W.; Campeau, Serge; Fleshner, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Relapse of previously extinguished fear presents a significant, pervasive obstacle to the successful long-term treatment of anxiety and trauma-related disorders. Thus, identification of a novel means to enhance fear extinction to stand the passage of time and generalize across contexts is of the utmost importance. Acute bouts of exercise can be used as inexpensive, noninvasive treatment strategies to reduce anxiety, and have been shown to enhance memory for extinction when performed in close temporal proximity to the extinction session. However, it is unclear whether acute exercise can be used to prevent relapse of fear, and the neural mechanisms underlying this potential effect are unknown. The current study therefore examined whether acute exercise during extinction of auditory fear can protect against the later relapse of fear. Male, F344 rats lacking an extended history of wheel running were conditioned to fear a tone CS and subsequently extinguished within either a freely mobile running wheel, a locked wheel, or a control context lacking a wheel. Rats exposed to fear extinction within a freely mobile wheel ran during fear extinction, and demonstrated reduced fear as well as attenuated corticosterone levels during re-exposure to the extinguished CS during the relapse test in a novel context 1 week later. Examination of cfos mRNA patterns elicited by re-exposure to the extinguished CS during the relapse test revealed that acute exercise during extinction decreased activation of brain circuits classically involved in driving fear expression and interestingly, increased activity within neurons of the direct striatal pathway involved in reward signaling. These data suggest that exercise during extinction reduces relapse through a mechanism involving the direct pathway of the striatum. It is suggested that a positive affective state could become associated with the CS during exercise during extinction, thus resulting in a relapse-resistant extinction memory. PMID

  5. Voluntary exercise during extinction of auditory fear conditioning reduces the relapse of fear associated with potentiated activity of striatal direct pathway neurons.

    PubMed

    Mika, Agnieszka; Bouchet, Courtney A; Bunker, Preston; Hellwinkel, Justin E; Spence, Katie G; Day, Heidi E W; Campeau, Serge; Fleshner, Monika; Greenwood, Benjamin N

    2015-11-01

    Relapse of previously extinguished fear presents a significant, pervasive obstacle to the successful long-term treatment of anxiety and trauma-related disorders. Thus, identification of a novel means to enhance fear extinction to stand the passage of time and generalize across contexts is of the utmost importance. Acute bouts of exercise can be used as inexpensive, noninvasive treatment strategies to reduce anxiety, and have been shown to enhance memory for extinction when performed in close temporal proximity to the extinction session. However, it is unclear whether acute exercise can be used to prevent relapse of fear, and the neural mechanisms underlying this potential effect are unknown. The current study therefore examined whether acute exercise during extinction of auditory fear can protect against the later relapse of fear. Male F344 rats lacking an extended history of wheel running were conditioned to fear a tone CS and subsequently extinguished within either a freely mobile running wheel, a locked wheel, or a control context lacking a wheel. Rats exposed to fear extinction within a freely mobile wheel ran during fear extinction, and demonstrated reduced fear as well as attenuated corticosterone levels during re-exposure to the extinguished CS during the relapse test in a novel context 1week later. Examination of cfos mRNA patterns elicited by re-exposure to the extinguished CS during the relapse test revealed that acute exercise during extinction decreased activation of brain circuits classically involved in driving fear expression and interestingly, increased activity within neurons of the direct striatal pathway involved in reward signaling. These data suggest that exercise during extinction reduces relapse through a mechanism involving the direct pathway of the striatum. It is suggested that a positive affective state could become associated with the CS during exercise during extinction, thus resulting in a relapse-resistant extinction memory. Copyright

  6. Drive Diagnostic Filter Wheel Control

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlich, D.

    2007-07-17

    DrD Filter Wheel Control is National Instrument's Labview software that drives a Drive Diagnostic filter wheel. The software can drive the filter wheel between each end limit, detect the positive and negative limit and each home position and post the stepper motot values to an Excel spreadsheet. The software can also be used to cycle the assembly between the end limits.

  7. Broken rims in railroad wheels.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-12-01

    Broken wheels are one of the most common types of equipment-caused train accidents. The failure of rail car wheel rims, which : are usually the result of shattered rims or vertical split rims (VSR), are the leading cause of wheel-related accidents, a...

  8. Wheel Diameter and Speedometer Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Clifton

    2010-01-01

    Most introductory physics students have seen vehicles with nonstandard wheel diameters; some may themselves drive "low-rider" cars or "big-wheel" pickup trucks. But how does changing wheel diameter affect speedometer readout for a given speed? Deriving the answer can be followed readily by students who have been introduced to rotation, and it…

  9. Tread buildup on railroad wheels.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-04-01

    Based on the results of wheel slide tests and an inspection of wheels, the root cause of tread buildup (TBU) was identified as : wheel slide caused by excessive brake force. During the tests, TBU accumulated to the greatest heights under dry conditio...

  10. Wheel slip dump valve for railway braking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, LiHao; Li, QingXuan; Shi, YanTao

    2017-09-01

    As we all know, pneumatic braking system plays an important role in the safety of the whole vehicle. In the anti slip braking system, the pressure of braking cylinder can be adjusted by the quick power response of wheel slip dump valve, so that the lock situation won’t occur during vehicle service. During the braking of railway vehicles, the braking force provided by braking disc reduces vehicle’s speed. But the locking slip will happen due to the oversize of braking force or the reduction of sticking coefficient between wheel and rail. It will cause not only the decline of braking performance but also the increase of braking distance. In the meanwhile, it will scratch the wheel and influence the stable running of vehicles. Now, the speed of passenger vehicle has been increased. In order to shorten the braking distance as far as possible, sticking stickiness must be fully applied. So the occurrence probability of wheel slip is increased.

  11. Wheeled hopping mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Gary J.

    2005-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a mesoscale wheeled hopping vehicle (WHV) to overcome the longstanding problems of mobility and power in small scale unmanned vehicles. The system provides mobility in situations such as negotiating obstacles in the vertical dimension and rough terrain that are prohibitive for other small ground base vehicles.

  12. 3-D Color Wheels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBois, Ann

    2010-01-01

    The blending of information from an academic class with projects from art class can do nothing but strengthen the learning power of the student. Creating three-dimensional color wheels provides the perfect opportunity to combine basic geometry knowledge with color theory. In this article, the author describes how her seventh-grade painting…

  13. Color Wheel Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  14. [Fatal penetrating injuries caused by incorrect use of angular abrasive wheels].

    PubMed

    Lemke, R

    1989-06-01

    Two workmen suffered avoidable fatal injuries from broken parts of abrasive wheels during inexpert handling of these machine tools. The high kinetic energy of these broken machine parts can exercise an effect like bullets.

  15. Exercise-induced improvement in cognitive performance after fimbria-fornix transection depends on the timing of exercise administration.

    PubMed

    Gram, Marie Gajhede; Wogensen, Elise; Moseholm, Kristine; Mogensen, Jesper; Malá, Hana

    2016-07-01

    Exercise after brain injury holds major therapeutic potentials, but it is still uncertain whether such an intervention should take place during the critical time window of intrinsic repair mechanisms. To assess the effects of acute or delayed voluntary exercise in running wheels on post-injury allocentric place learning in an 8-arm radial maze. Forty-eight pre-shaped male rats underwent fimbria-fornix transection (FF) or control surgery (Sham). The animals were divided into six groups: FF group with no access to exercise (FF/NE); FF group starting exercise 1day post-surgery (FF/E+1); FF group starting exercise 8days post-surgery (FF/E+8); FF group starting exercise 21days post-surgery (FF/E+21); Sham group with no access to exercise (Sham/NE), and Sham group starting exercise 1day post-surgery (Sham/E+1). After 7days of exercise 6h/day, all animals underwent 28 place learning acquisition sessions. The FF/E+21 group showed an enhanced acquisition of the task compared to FF/NE. The FF/E+1 and FF/E+8 groups also showed an enhanced task acquisition relative to FF/NE, however with a slower acquisition than the FF/E+21 group. The data underscores the link between exercise and functional recovery after brain injury and emphasizes the importance of optimal timing of this intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Voluntary exercise impact on cognitive impairments in sleep-deprived intact female rats.

    PubMed

    Rajizadeh, Mohammad Amin; Esmaeilpour, Khadijeh; Masoumi-Ardakani, Yaser; Bejeshk, Mohammad Abbas; Shabani, Mohammad; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Ranjbar, Mohammad Pour; Borzadaran, Fatemeh Mohtashami; Sheibani, Vahid

    2018-05-01

    Sleep loss is a common problem in modern societies affecting different aspects of individuals' lives. Many studies have reported that sleep deprivation (SD) leads to impairments in various types of learning and memory. Physical exercise has been suggested to attenuate the cognitive impairments induced by sleep deprivation in male rats. Our previous studies have shown that forced exercise by treadmill improved learning and memory impairments following SD. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of voluntary exercise by running wheel on cognitive, motor and anxiety-like behavior functions of female rats following 72 h SD. Intact female rats were used in the present study. The multiple platform method was applied for the induction of 72 h SD. The exercise protocol was 4 weeks of running wheel and the cognitive function was evaluated using Morris water maze (MWM), passive avoidance and novel object recognition tests. Open field test and measurement of plasma corticosterone level were performed for evaluation of anxiety-like behaviors. Motor balance evaluation was surveyed by rotarod test. In this study, remarkable learning and long-term memory impairments were observed in sleep deprived rats in comparison to the other groups. Running wheel exercise ameliorated the SD-induced learning and memory impairments. Voluntary and mandatory locomotion and balance situation were not statistically significant among the different groups. Our study confirmed the negative effects of SD on cognitive function and approved protective effects of voluntary exercise on these negative effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Methamphetamine blocks exercise effects on Bdnf and Drd2 gene expression in frontal cortex and striatum.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Andrew B; Stolyarova, Alexandra; Ying, Zhe; Zhuang, Yumei; Gómez-Pinilla, Fernando; Izquierdo, Alicia

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to drugs of abuse can produce many neurobiological changes which may lead to increased valuation of rewards and decreased sensitivity to their costs. Many of these behavioral alterations are associated with activity of D2-expressing medium spiny neurons in the striatum. Additionally, Bdnf in the striatum has been shown to play a role in flexible reward-seeking behavior. Given that voluntary aerobic exercise can affect the expression of these proteins in healthy subjects, and that exercise has shown promise as an anti-addictive therapy, we set out to quantify changes in D2 and Bdnf expression in methamphetamine-exposed rats given access to running wheels. Sixty-four rats were treated for two weeks with an escalating dose of methamphetamine or saline, then either sacrificed, housed in standard cages, or given free access to a running wheel for 6 weeks prior to sacrifice. Rats treated with methamphetamine ran significantly greater distances than saline-treated rats, suggesting an augmentation in the reinforcement value of voluntary wheel running. Transcription of Drd2 and Bdnf was assessed via RT-qPCR. Protein expression levels of D2 and phosphorylation of the TrkB receptor were measured via western blot. Drd2 and Bdnf mRNA levels were impacted independently by exercise and methamphetamine, but exposure to methamphetamine prior to the initiation of exercise blocked the exercise-induced changes seen in rats treated with saline. Expression levels of both proteins were elevated immediately after methamphetamine, but returned to baseline after six weeks, regardless of exercise status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Methamphetamine blocks exercise effects on Bdnf and Drd2 gene expression in frontal cortex and striatum

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Andrew B.; Stolyarova, Alexandra; Ying, Zhe; Zhuang, Yumei; Gómez-Pinilla, Fernando; Izquierdo, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to drugs of abuse can produce many neurobiological changes which may lead to increased valuation of rewards and decreased sensitivity to their costs. Many of these behavioral alterations are associated with activity of D2-expressing medium spiny neurons in the striatum. Additionally, Bdnf in the striatum has been shown to play a role in flexible reward-seeking behavior. Given that voluntary aerobic exercise can affect the expression of these proteins in healthy subjects, and that exercise has shown promise as an anti-addictive therapy, we set out to quantify changes in D2 and Bdnf expression in methamphetamine-exposed rats given access to running wheels. Sixty-four rats were treated for two weeks with an escalating dose of methamphetamine or saline, then either sacrificed, housed in standard cages, or given free access to a running wheel for 6 weeks prior to sacrifice. Rats treated with methamphetamine ran significantly greater distances than saline-treated rats, suggesting an augmentation in the reinforcement value of voluntary wheel running. Transcription of Drd2 and Bdnf was assessed via RT-qPCR. Protein expression levels of D2 and phosphorylation of the TrkB receptor were measured via western blot. Drd2 and Bdnf mRNA levels were impacted independently by exercise and methamphetamine, but exposure to methamphetamine prior to the initiation of exercise blocked the exercise-induced changes seen in rats treated with saline. Expression levels of both proteins were elevated immediately after methamphetamine, but returned to baseline after six weeks, regardless of exercise status. PMID:26334786

  19. A combination of exercise and capsinoid supplementation additively suppresses diet-induced obesity by increasing energy expenditure in mice.

    PubMed

    Ohyama, Kana; Nogusa, Yoshihito; Suzuki, Katsuya; Shinoda, Kosaku; Kajimura, Shingo; Bannai, Makoto

    2015-02-15

    Exercise effectively prevents the development of obesity and obesity-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Capsinoids (CSNs) are capsaicin analogs found in a nonpungent pepper that increase whole body energy expenditure. Although both exercise and CSNs have antiobesity functions, the effectiveness of exercise with CSN supplementation has not yet been investigated. Here, we examined whether the beneficial effects of exercise could be further enhanced by CSN supplementation in mice. Mice were randomly assigned to four groups: 1) high-fat diet (HFD, Control), 2) HFD containing 0.3% CSNs, 3) HFD with voluntary running wheel exercise (Exercise), and 4) HFD containing 0.3% CSNs with voluntary running wheel exercise (Exercise + CSN). After 8 wk of ingestion, blood and tissues were collected and analyzed. Although CSNs significantly suppressed body weight gain under the HFD, CSN supplementation with exercise additively decreased body weight gain and fat accumulation and increased whole body energy expenditure compared with exercise alone. Exercise together with CSN supplementation robustly improved metabolic profiles, including the plasma cholesterol level. Furthermore, this combination significantly prevented diet-induced liver steatosis and decreased the size of adipocyte cells in white adipose tissue. Exercise and CSNs significantly increased cAMP levels and PKA activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT), indicating an increase of lipolysis. Moreover, they significantly activated both the oxidative phosphorylation gene program and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. These results indicate that CSNs efficiently promote the antiobesity effect of exercise, in part by increasing energy expenditure via the activation of fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and lipolysis in BAT. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. A combination of exercise and capsinoid supplementation additively suppresses diet-induced obesity by increasing energy expenditure in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ohyama, Kana; Nogusa, Yoshihito; Suzuki, Katsuya; Shinoda, Kosaku; Kajimura, Shingo

    2014-01-01

    Exercise effectively prevents the development of obesity and obesity-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Capsinoids (CSNs) are capsaicin analogs found in a nonpungent pepper that increase whole body energy expenditure. Although both exercise and CSNs have antiobesity functions, the effectiveness of exercise with CSN supplementation has not yet been investigated. Here, we examined whether the beneficial effects of exercise could be further enhanced by CSN supplementation in mice. Mice were randomly assigned to four groups: 1) high-fat diet (HFD, Control), 2) HFD containing 0.3% CSNs, 3) HFD with voluntary running wheel exercise (Exercise), and 4) HFD containing 0.3% CSNs with voluntary running wheel exercise (Exercise + CSN). After 8 wk of ingestion, blood and tissues were collected and analyzed. Although CSNs significantly suppressed body weight gain under the HFD, CSN supplementation with exercise additively decreased body weight gain and fat accumulation and increased whole body energy expenditure compared with exercise alone. Exercise together with CSN supplementation robustly improved metabolic profiles, including the plasma cholesterol level. Furthermore, this combination significantly prevented diet-induced liver steatosis and decreased the size of adipocyte cells in white adipose tissue. Exercise and CSNs significantly increased cAMP levels and PKA activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT), indicating an increase of lipolysis. Moreover, they significantly activated both the oxidative phosphorylation gene program and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. These results indicate that CSNs efficiently promote the antiobesity effect of exercise, in part by increasing energy expenditure via the activation of fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and lipolysis in BAT. PMID:25516550

  1. Impaired voluntary running capacity of creatine kinase-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Momken, Iman; Lechêne, Patrick; Koulmann, Nathalie; Fortin, Dominique; Mateo, Philippe; Doan, Bich Thuy; Hoerter, Jacqueline; Bigard, Xavier; Veksler, Vladimir; Ventura-Clapier, Renée

    2005-06-15

    The creatine kinase system (CK) is important for energy delivery in skeletal and cardiac muscles. The two main isoforms of this enzyme, cytosolic MM-CK and mitochondrial mi-CK, are expressed in a developmental and muscle-type specific manner. Mice deficient in one or both of these isoforms are viable and fertile but exhibit profound functional, metabolic and structural muscle remodelling that primarily affects fast skeletal muscles, which show an increased contribution of oxidative metabolism to contractile function. However, the consequences of these alterations in terms of physical capabilities have not yet been characterized. Consequently, we compared the voluntary exercise capacity of 9-month-old male wild-type (WT), M-CK knockout (M-CK(-/-)), and M-CK and mi-CK double knockout (CK(-/-)) mice, using cages equipped with running wheels. Exercise performance, calculated by total distance covered and by work done during the training period, was more than 10-fold lower in CK(-/-) mice than controls, with M-CK(-/-) mice exhibiting intermediate performance. Similarly, the mean distance run per activation was lower in M-CK(-/-) and even lower in CK(-/-) mice. However, the maximal running speed (V(max)) was lower only for CK(-/-) mice. This was accompanied by severe skeletal muscle mass decrease in CK(-/-) mice, with signs of histological damage that included enlarged interstitial areas, aggregations of mononuclear cells in the interstitium, heterogeneity of myofibre size and the presence of very small fibres. No overt sign of cardiac dysfunction was observed by magnetic resonance imaging during dobutamine stimulation. These results show that metabolic failure induced by CK deficiency profoundly affects the ability of mice to engage in chronic bouts of endurance running exercise and that this decrease in performance is also associated with muscle wasting.

  2. Differential sensitivity of Pak5, Pak6, and Pak5/Pak6 double-knockout mice to the stimulant effects of amphetamine and exercise-induced alterations in body weight.

    PubMed

    Furnari, Melody A; Jobes, Michelle L; Nekrasova, Tanya; Minden, Audrey; Wagner, George C

    2014-04-01

    PAK5 and PAK6 are protein kinases highly expressed in the brain. Previously, we observed that Pak6 knockout mice gained significantly more weight during development than Pak5 knockout mice as well as wild-type controls and double-knockout mice lacking both Pak5 and Pak6. In this study, we assessed the effects of exercise on food intake and weight gain of these mice as well as their sensitivity to the stimulant effects of amphetamine. Mice of each genotype were placed in cages with free access to run wheel exercise or in cages without run wheels for a total of 74 days. Food and fluid intake as well as body weight of each mouse were measured on a weekly basis. Finally, mice were given a high dose of amphetamine and activity levels were observed immediately thereafter for 90 minutes. Brains and testes of mice were assayed for protein levels of the estrogen alpha and progesterone receptors. While run wheel mice consumed significantly more food, they weighed less than non-run wheel mice. In addition, although Pak6 knockout mice consumed the same amount of food as wild-type mice, they were significantly heavier regardless of run wheel condition. Pak5 knockout mice were found to be more active than other genotypes after amphetamine treatment. Finally, protein levels of the progesterone and estrogen alpha receptors were altered in brain and testes of the Pak6 knockout mice. Collectively, these data suggest that PAK6 play a role in weight gain unrelated to exercise and caloric intake and that Pak5 knockout mice are more sensitive to the stimulant effects of amphetamine.

  3. Wheels With Sense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cambridge, Dwayne; Clauss, Douglas; Hewson, Fraser; Brown, Robert; Hisrich, Robert; Taylor, Cyrus

    2002-10-01

    We describe a student intrapreneurial project in the Physics Entrepreneurship Program at Case Western Reserve University. At the request of a major fortune 100 company, a study has been made of the technical and marketing issues for a new business of selling sensors on commercial vehicle wheels for monitoring pressure, temperature, rotations, and vibrations, as well as providing identification. The nature of the physics involved in the choice of the appropriate device such as capacitive or piezoresistive sensors is discussed, along with the possibility of MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) technology and RFID (radiofrequency identification) readout on wheels. Five options (status quo, in-house development, external business acquisition, a large business national partnership, and a small-business Cleveland consortium partnership) were studied from both technological and business perspectives to commercialize the technology. The decision making process for making a choice is explained.

  4. Voluntary exercise prevents cisplatin-induced muscle wasting during chemotherapy in mice.

    PubMed

    Hojman, Pernille; Fjelbye, Jonas; Zerahn, Bo; Christensen, Jesper F; Dethlefsen, Christine; Lonkvist, Camilla K; Brandt, Claus; Gissel, Hanne; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Gehl, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Loss of muscle mass related to anti-cancer therapy is a major concern in cancer patients, being associated with important clinical endpoints including survival, treatment toxicity and patient-related outcomes. We investigated effects of voluntary exercise during cisplatin treatment on body weight, food intake as well as muscle mass, strength and signalling. Mice were treated weekly with 4 mg/kg cisplatin or saline for 6 weeks, and randomized to voluntary wheel running or not. Cisplatin treatment induced loss of body weight (29.8%, P < 0.001), lean body mass (20.6%, P = 0.001), as well as anorexia, impaired muscle strength (22.5% decrease, P < 0.001) and decreased glucose tolerance. In addition, cisplatin impaired Akt-signalling, induced genes related to protein degradation and inflammation, and reduced muscle glycogen content. Voluntary wheel running during treatment attenuated body weight loss by 50% (P < 0.001), maintained lean body mass (P < 0.001) and muscle strength (P < 0.001), reversed anorexia and impairments in Akt and protein degradation signalling. Cisplatin-induced muscular inflammation was not prevented by voluntary wheel running, nor was glucose tolerance improved. Exercise training may preserve muscle mass in cancer patients receiving cisplatin treatment, potentially improving physical capacity, quality of life and overall survival.

  5. Voluntary Exercise Prevents Cisplatin-Induced Muscle Wasting during Chemotherapy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hojman, Pernille; Fjelbye, Jonas; Zerahn, Bo; Christensen, Jesper F.; Dethlefsen, Christine; Lonkvist, Camilla K.; Brandt, Claus; Gissel, Hanne; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Gehl, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Loss of muscle mass related to anti-cancer therapy is a major concern in cancer patients, being associated with important clinical endpoints including survival, treatment toxicity and patient-related outcomes. We investigated effects of voluntary exercise during cisplatin treatment on body weight, food intake as well as muscle mass, strength and signalling. Mice were treated weekly with 4 mg/kg cisplatin or saline for 6 weeks, and randomized to voluntary wheel running or not. Cisplatin treatment induced loss of body weight (29.8%, P<0.001), lean body mass (20.6%, P = 0.001), as well as anorexia, impaired muscle strength (22.5% decrease, P<0.001) and decreased glucose tolerance. In addition, cisplatin impaired Akt-signalling, induced genes related to protein degradation and inflammation, and reduced muscle glycogen content. Voluntary wheel running during treatment attenuated body weight loss by 50% (P<0.001), maintained lean body mass (P<0.001) and muscle strength (P<0.001), reversed anorexia and impairments in Akt and protein degradation signalling. Cisplatin-induced muscular inflammation was not prevented by voluntary wheel running, nor was glucose tolerance improved. Exercise training may preserve muscle mass in cancer patients receiving cisplatin treatment, potentially improving physical capacity, quality of life and overall survival. PMID:25268807

  6. Sensor set-up for wireless measurement of automotive rim and wheel parameters in laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borecki, M.; Prus, P.; Korwin-Pawlowski, M. L.; Rychlik, A.; Kozubel, W.

    2017-08-01

    Modern rims and wheels are tested at the design and production stages. Tests can be performed in laboratory conditions and on the ride. In the laboratory, complex and costly equipment is used, as for example wheel balancers and impact testers. Modern wheel balancers are equipped with electronic and electro-mechanical units that enable touch-less measurement of dimensions, including precision measurement of radial and lateral wheel run-out, automatic positioning and application of the counterweights, and vehicle wheel set monitoring - tread wear, drift angles and run-out unbalance. Those tests are performed by on-wheel axis measurements with laser distance meters. The impact tester enables dropping of weights from a defined height onto a wheel. Test criteria are the loss of pressure of the tire and generation of cracks in the wheel without direct impact of the falling weights. In the present paper, a set up composed of three accelerometers, a temperature sensor and a pressure sensor is examined as the base of a wheel tester. The sensor set-up configuration, on-line diagnostic and signal transmission are discussed.

  7. Voluntary exercise protects against methamphetamine-induced oxidative stress in brain microvasculature and disruption of the blood–brain barrier

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is no effective therapeutic intervention developed targeting cerebrovascular toxicity of drugs of abuse, including methamphetamine (METH). We hypothesize that exercise protects against METH-induced disruption of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) by enhancing the antioxidant capacity of cerebral microvessels and modulating caveolae-associated signaling. Mice were subjected to voluntary wheel running for 5 weeks resembling the voluntary pattern of human exercise, followed by injection with METH (10 mg/kg). The frequency, duration, and intensity of each running session were monitored for each mouse via a direct data link to a computer and the running data are analyzed by Clock lab™ Analysis software. Controls included mice sedentary that did not have access to running wheels and/or injections with saline. Results METH induced oxidative stress in brain microvessels, resulting in up regulation of caveolae-associated NAD(P)H oxidase subunits, and phosphorylation of mitochondrial protein 66Shc. Treatment with METH disrupted also the expression and colocalization of tight junction proteins. Importantly, exercise markedly attenuated these effects and protected against METH-induced disruption of the BBB integrity. Conclusions The obtained results indicate that exercise is an important modifiable behavioral factor that can protect against METH-induced cerebrovascular toxicity. These findings may provide new strategies in preventing the toxicity of drug of abuse. PMID:23799892

  8. Hopping Robot with Wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, Edward; Marzwell, Nevellie; Fuller, Sawyer; Fionni, Paolo; Tretton, Andy; Burdick, Joel; Schell, Steve

    2003-01-01

    A small prototype mobile robot is capable of (1) hopping to move rapidly or avoid obstacles and then (2) moving relatively slowly and precisely on the ground by use of wheels in the manner of previously reported exploratory robots of the "rover" type. This robot is a descendant of a more primitive hopping robot described in "Minimally Actuated Hopping Robot" (NPO- 20911), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 11 (November 2002), page 50. There are many potential applications for robots with hopping and wheeled-locomotion (roving) capabilities in diverse fields of endeavor, including agriculture, search-and-rescue operations, general military operations, removal or safe detonation of land mines, inspection, law enforcement, and scientific exploration on Earth and remote planets. The combination of hopping and roving enables this robot to move rapidly over very rugged terrain, to overcome obstacles several times its height, and then to position itself precisely next to a desired target. Before a long hop, the robot aims itself in the desired hopping azimuth and at a desired takeoff angle above horizontal. The robot approaches the target through a series of hops and short driving operations utilizing the steering wheels for precise positioning.

  9. Experiments with Electrodynamic Wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaul, Nathan; Corey, Daniel; Cordrey, Vincent; Majewski, Walerian

    2015-04-01

    Our experiments were involving inductive magnetic levitation. A Halbach array is a system in which a series of magnets is arranged in a manner such that the magnetic field is cancelled on one side of the array while strengthening the field on the other. We constructed two circular Halbach wheels, making the strong magnetic field on the outer rim of the ring. Such system is usually dubbed as an Electrodynamic Wheel (EDW). Rotating this wheel around a horizontal axis above a flat conducting surface should induce eddy currents in said surface through the variable magnetic flux. The eddy currents produce, in turn, their own magnetic fields which interact with the magnets of the EDW. We demonstrated that these interactions produce both drag and lift forces on the EDW which can theoretically be used for lift and propulsion of the EDW. The focus of our experiments is determining how to maximize the lift-to-drag ratio by the proper choice of the induction element. We will also describe our experiments with a rotating circular Halbach array having the strong magnetic field of about 1 T on the flat side of the ring, and acting as a hovercraft.

  10. The Effects of Exercise on Adolescent Hippocampal Neurogenesis in a Rat Model of Binge Alcohol Exposure During the Brain Growth Spurt

    PubMed Central

    Helfer, Jennifer L.; Goodlett, Charles R.; Greenough, William T.; Klintsova, Anna Y.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol during the brain growth spurt results in impaired cognition and learning in adulthood. This impairment is accompanied by permanent structural changes in the hippocampal formation. Exercise improves performance on hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks and increases adult neurogenesis in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus. The present study examined the effects of wheel running during adolescence on dentate gyrus cell proliferation and neurogenesis after postnatal binge-like alcohol exposure. On postnatal days (PD) 4-9, pups were either intubated with alcohol in a binge-like manner, sham-intubated, or reared normally. On PD30-42 all animals were randomly assigned to two adolescent conditions: wheel running or inactive control. Animals were injected with BrdU every day between PD32-42 and perfused on PD42 or PD72. In inactive control animals at both PD42 and 72, cell proliferation and neurogenesis did not differ between postnatal treatment groups. Wheel running significantly increased the number of BrdU labeled cells on PD42 in all three postnatal treatments. On PD72, only the normal controls showed significant increases in survival of newly generated cells resulting from the wheel running. These results indicate that adolescent wheel running can induce comparable increases in cell proliferation and neurogenesis in alcohol-exposed and control rats, but the long-term survival of those newly-generated cells is impaired relative normal controls. Exercise may provide a means to stimulate neurogenesis, with implications for amelioration of hippocampal-dependent learning impairments associated with alcohol exposure. However, benefits requiring long-lasting survival of the newly generated cells will depend on identifying ways to promote survival. PMID:19647724

  11. Automatic Mechetronic Wheel Light Device

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Mohammed John Fitzgerald

    2004-09-14

    A wheel lighting device for illuminating a wheel of a vehicle to increase safety and enhance aesthetics. The device produces the appearance of a "ring of light" on a vehicle's wheels as the vehicle moves. The "ring of light" can automatically change in color and/or brightness according to a vehicle's speed, acceleration, jerk, selection of transmission gears, and/or engine speed. The device provides auxiliary indicator lights by producing light in conjunction with a vehicle's turn signals, hazard lights, alarm systems, and etc. The device comprises a combination of mechanical and electronic components and can be placed on the outer ormore » inner surface of a wheel or made integral to a wheel or wheel cover. The device can be configured for all vehicle types, and is electrically powered by a vehicle's electrical system and/or battery.« less

  12. Automatic Mechetronic Wheel Light Device

    DOEpatents

    Khan, Mohammed John Fitzgerald

    2004-09-14

    A wheel lighting device for illuminating a wheel of a vehicle to increase safety and enhance aesthetics. The device produces the appearance of a "ring of light" on a vehicle's wheels as the vehicle moves. The "ring of light" can automatically change in color and/or brightness according to a vehicle's speed, acceleration, jerk, selection of transmission gears, and/or engine speed. The device provides auxiliary indicator lights by producing light in conjunction with a vehicle's turn signals, hazard lights, alarm systems, and etc. The device comprises a combination of mechanical and electronic components and can be placed on the outer or inner surface of a wheel or made integral to a wheel or wheel cover. The device can be configured for all vehicle types, and is electrically powered by a vehicle's electrical system and/or battery.

  13. Control of Single Wheel Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yangsheng; Ou, Yongsheng

    This monograph presents a novel concept of a mobile robot, which is a single-wheel, gyroscopically stabilized robot. The robot is balanced by a spinning wheel attached through a two-link manipulator at the wheel bearing, and actuated by a drive motor. This configuration conveys significant advantages including insensitivity to attitude disturbances, high maneuverability, low rolling resistance, ability to recover from falls, and amphibious capability for potential applications on both land and water.

  14. Robotic Two-Wheeled Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesnas, Issa A. D. (Inventor); Matthews, Jaret B. (Inventor); Edlund, Jeffrey E. (Inventor); Burdick, Joel (Inventor); Abad-Manterola, Pablo (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A robotic two-wheeled vehicle comprising a connection body interposed between the two wheels are described. A drum can be coaxially located in a central region of the connection body and can support a hollow arm projecting radially from the drum. A tether can be inserted in the arm and connected to a second drum. Instruments and sensors can be accommodated in a case housed inside each wheel.

  15. Robotic Two-Wheeled Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesnas, Issa A. D. (Inventor); Matthews, Jaret B. (Inventor); Edlund, Jeffrey E. (Inventor); Burdick, Joel (Inventor); Abad-Manterola, Pablo (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A robotic two-wheeled vehicle comprising a connection body interposed between the two wheels are described. A drum can be coaxially located in a central region of the connection body and can support a hollow arm projecting radially from the drum. A tether can be inserted in the arm and connected to a second drum. Instruments and sensors can be accommodated in a case housed inside each wheel.

  16. Negative rebound in hippocampal neurogenesis following exercise cessation.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Takeshi; Kamidozono, Yoshika; Ishiizumi, Atsushi; Amemiya, Seiichiro; Kita, Ichiro

    2017-03-01

    Physical exercise can improve brain function, but the effects of exercise cessation are largely unknown. This study examined the time-course profile of hippocampal neurogenesis following exercise cessation. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to either a control (Con) or an exercise cessation (ExC) group. Mice in the ExC group were reared in a cage with a running wheel for 8 wk and subsequently placed in a standard cage to cease the exercise. Exercise resulted in a significant increase in the density of doublecortin (DCX)-positive immature neurons in the dentate gyrus (at week 0 ). Following exercise cessation, the density of DCX-positive neurons gradually decreased and was significantly lower than that in the Con group at 5 and 8 wk after cessation, indicating that exercise cessation leads to a negative rebound in hippocampal neurogenesis. Immunohistochemistry analysis suggests that the negative rebound in neurogenesis is caused by diminished cell survival, not by suppression of cell proliferation and neural maturation. Neither elevated expression of ΔFosB, a transcription factor involved in neurogenesis regulation, nor increased plasma corticosterone, were involved in the negative neurogenesis rebound. Importantly, exercise cessation suppressed ambulatory activity, and a significant correlation between change in activity and DCX-positive neuron density suggested that the decrease in activity is involved in neurogenesis impairment. Forced treadmill running following exercise cessation failed to prevent the negative neurogenesis rebound. This study indicates that cessation of exercise or a decrease in physical activity is associated with an increased risk for impaired hippocampal function, which might increase vulnerability to stress-induced mood disorders. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Reduced voluntary running performance is associated with impaired coordination as a result of muscle satellite cell depletion in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Janna R; Kirby, Tyler J; Fry, Christopher S; Cooper, Robin L; McCarthy, John J; Peterson, Charlotte A; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E

    2015-01-01

    Satellite cells, or muscle stem cells, have been thought to be responsible for all muscle plasticity, but recent studies using genetically modified mouse models that allow for the conditional ablation of satellite cells have challenged this dogma. Results have confirmed the absolute requirement of satellite cells for muscle regeneration but surprisingly also showed that they are not required for adult muscle growth. While the function of satellite cells in muscle growth and regeneration is becoming better defined, their role in the response to aerobic activity remains largely unexplored. The purpose of the current study was to assess the involvement of satellite cells in response to aerobic exercise by evaluating the effect of satellite cell depletion on wheel running performance. Four-month-old female Pax7/DTA mice (n = 8-12 per group) were satellite cell depleted via tamoxifen administration; at 6 months of age, mice either remained sedentary or were provided with running wheels for 8 weeks. Plantaris muscles were significantly depleted of Pax7+cells (≥90 % depleted), and 8 weeks of wheel running did not result in an increase in Pax7+ cells, or in myonuclear accretion. Interestingly, satellite cell-depleted animals ran ~27 % less distance and were 23 % slower than non-depleted animals. Wheel running was associated with elevated succinate dehydrogenase activity, muscle vascularization, lipid accumulation, and a significant shift toward more oxidative myosin heavy chain isoforms, as well as an increase in voltage dependent anion channel abundance, a marker of mitochondrial density. Importantly, these changes were independent of satellite cell content. Interestingly, depletion of Pax7+ cells from intra- as well as extrafusal muscle fibers resulted in atrophy of intrafusal fibers, thickening of muscle spindle-associated extracellular matrix, and a marked reduction of functional outcomes including grip strength, gait fluidity, and balance, which likely

  18. Voluntary exercise does not ameliorate context memory and hyperarousal in a mouse model for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    PubMed

    Cacciaglia, Raffaele; Krause-Utz, Annegret; Vogt, Miriam A; Schmahl, Christian; Flor, Herta; Gass, Peter

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the effects of voluntary wheel running as model for intervention on the development of contextual fear and hyperarousal in a mouse model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Physical exercise in general has been associated with improved hippocampus-dependent memory performance both in animals and humans. However, studies that have tried to link physical exercise and contextual conditioning in an animal model of PTSD, revealed mixed findings. Here we tested contextual fear conditioning, generalized fear response, acoustic startle response and emotionality in C57BL/6NCrl mice which had free access to a running wheel for 28 days, compared with control animals which did not run and mice which did not receive a shock during the conditioning phase. We found no significant effects of voluntary running on the above-mentioned variables, except for enhanced anxiety levels in the Dark-Light-Box and O-Maze tests of running mice. Our results suggest that running as a model for intervention does not ameliorate contextual aversive learning but has the potency to change emotional behaviours.

  19. Four-wheel dual braking for automobiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, H. B.

    1981-01-01

    Each master cylinder applies braking power to all four wheels unlike conventional systems where cylinder operates only two wheels. If one master system fails because of fluid loss, other stops car by braking all four wheels although at half force.

  20. Long-term exercise in mice has sex-dependent benefits on body composition and metabolism during aging.

    PubMed

    McMullan, Rachel C; Kelly, Scott A; Hua, Kunjie; Buckley, Brian K; Faber, James E; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando; Pomp, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Aging is associated with declining exercise and unhealthy changes in body composition. Exercise ameliorates certain adverse age-related physiological changes and protects against many chronic diseases. Despite these benefits, willingness to exercise and physiological responses to exercise vary widely, and long-term exercise and its benefits are difficult and costly to measure in humans. Furthermore, physiological effects of aging in humans are confounded with changes in lifestyle and environment. We used C57BL/6J mice to examine long-term patterns of exercise during aging and its physiological effects in a well-controlled environment. One-year-old male (n = 30) and female (n = 30) mice were divided into equal size cohorts and aged for an additional year. One cohort was given access to voluntary running wheels while another was denied exercise other than home cage movement. Body mass, composition, and metabolic traits were measured before, throughout, and after 1 year of treatment. Long-term exercise significantly prevented gains in body mass and body fat, while preventing loss of lean mass. We observed sex-dependent differences in body mass and composition trajectories during aging. Wheel running (distance, speed, duration) was greater in females than males and declined with age. We conclude that long-term exercise may serve as a preventive measure against age-related weight gain and body composition changes, and that mouse inbred strains can be used to characterize effects of long-term exercise and factors (e.g. sex, age) modulating these effects. These findings will facilitate studies on relationships between exercise and health in aging populations, including genetic predisposition and genotype-by-environment interactions. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  1. Mechanical Design Engineering Enabler Project wheel and wheel drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nutt, Richard E.; Couch, Britt K.; Holley, John L., Jr.; Garris, Eric S.; Staut, Paul V.

    Our group was assigned the responsibility of designing the wheel and wheel drive system for a proof-of-concept model of the lunar-based ENABLER. ENABLER is a multi-purpose, six wheeled vehicle designed to lift and transport heavy objects associated with the construction of a lunar base. The resulting design was based on the performance criteria of the ENABLER. The drive system was designed to enable the vehicle to achieve a speed of 7 mph on a level surface, climb a 30 percent grade, and surpass a one meter high object and one meter wide crevice. The wheel assemblies were designed to support the entire weight of the vehicle on two wheels. The wheels were designed to serve as the main component of the vehicle's suspension and will provide suitable traction for lunar-type surfaces. The expected performance of the drive system for the ENABLER was influenced by many mechanical factors. The expected top speed on a level sandy surface is 4 mph instead of the desired 7 mph. This is due to a lack of necessary power at the wheels. The lack of power resulted from dimension considerations that allowed only an eight horsepower engine and also from mechanical inefficiencies of the hydraulic system. However, the vehicle will be able to climb a 30 percent grade, surpass a one meter high object and one meter wide crevice. The wheel assemblies will be able to support the entire weight of the vehicle on two wheels. The wheels will also provide adequate suspension for the vehicle and sufficient traction for lunar-type surfaces.

  2. Mechanical Design Engineering Enabler Project wheel and wheel drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nutt, Richard E.; Couch, Britt K.; Holley, John L., Jr.; Garris, Eric S.; Staut, Paul V.

    1992-01-01

    Our group was assigned the responsibility of designing the wheel and wheel drive system for a proof-of-concept model of the lunar-based ENABLER. ENABLER is a multi-purpose, six wheeled vehicle designed to lift and transport heavy objects associated with the construction of a lunar base. The resulting design was based on the performance criteria of the ENABLER. The drive system was designed to enable the vehicle to achieve a speed of 7 mph on a level surface, climb a 30 percent grade, and surpass a one meter high object and one meter wide crevice. The wheel assemblies were designed to support the entire weight of the vehicle on two wheels. The wheels were designed to serve as the main component of the vehicle's suspension and will provide suitable traction for lunar-type surfaces. The expected performance of the drive system for the ENABLER was influenced by many mechanical factors. The expected top speed on a level sandy surface is 4 mph instead of the desired 7 mph. This is due to a lack of necessary power at the wheels. The lack of power resulted from dimension considerations that allowed only an eight horsepower engine and also from mechanical inefficiencies of the hydraulic system. However, the vehicle will be able to climb a 30 percent grade, surpass a one meter high object and one meter wide crevice. The wheel assemblies will be able to support the entire weight of the vehicle on two wheels. The wheels will also provide adequate suspension for the vehicle and sufficient traction for lunar-type surfaces.

  3. Effects of repeated snowboard exercise in virtual reality with time lags of visual scene behind body rotation on head stability and subjective slalom run performance in healthy young subjects.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yoshiro; Nishiike, Suetaka; Kitahara, Tadashi; Yamanaka, Toshiaki; Imai, Takao; Ito, Taeko; Sato, Go; Matsuda, Kazunori; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Takeda, Noriaki

    2016-11-01

    After repeated snowboard exercises in the virtual reality (VR) world with increasing time lags in trials 3-8, it is suggested that the adaptation to repeated visual-vestibulosomatosensory conflict in the VR world improved dynamic posture control and motor performance in the real world without the development of motion sickness. The VR technology was used and the effects of repeated snowboard exercise examined in the VR world with time lags between visual scene and body rotation on the head stability and slalom run performance during exercise in healthy subjects. Forty-two healthy young subjects participated in the study. After trials 1 and 2 of snowboard exercise in the VR world without time lag, trials 3-8 were conducted with 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 s time lags of the visual scene that the computer creates behind board rotation, respectively. Finally, trial 9 was conducted without time lag. Head linear accelerations and subjective slalom run performance were evaluated. The standard deviations of head linear accelerations in inter-aural direction were significantly increased in trial 8, with a time lag of 0.6 s, but significantly decreased in trial 9 without a time lag, compared with those in trial 2 without a time lag. The subjective scores of slalom run performance were significantly decreased in trial 8, with a time lag of 0.6 s, but significantly increased in trial 9 without a time lag, compared with those in trial 2 without a time lag. Motion sickness was not induced in any subjects.

  4. Voluntary exercise blocks Western diet-induced gene expression of the chemokines CXCL10 and CCL2 in the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Carlin, Jesse L; Grissom, Nicola; Ying, Zhe; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando; Reyes, Teresa M

    2016-11-01

    Obesity increases inflammation, both peripherally and centrally, and exercise can ameliorate some of the negative health outcomes associated with obesity. Within the brain, the effect of obesity on inflammation has been well characterized in the hypothalamus and hippocampus, but has been relatively understudied in other brain regions. The current study was designed to address two primary questions; (1) whether western diet (high fat/high sucrose) consumption would increase markers of inflammation in the prefrontal cortex and (2) whether concurrent voluntary wheel running would ameliorate any inflammation. Adult male mice were exposed to a western diet or a control diet for 8weeks. Concurrently, half the animals were given running wheels in their home cages, while half did not have access to wheels. At the conclusion of the study, prefrontal cortex was removed and expression of 18 proinflammatory genes was assayed. Expression of a number of proinflammatory molecules was upregulated by consumption of the western diet. For two chemokines, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10), voluntary exercise blocked the increase in the expression of these genes. Cluster analysis confirmed that the majority of the tested genes were upregulated by western diet, and identified another small cluster of genes that were downregulated by either diet or exercise. These data identify a proinflammatory phenotype within the prefrontal cortex of mice fed a western diet, and indicate that chemokine induction can be blocked by voluntary exercise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mouse shoulder morphology responds to locomotor activity and the kinematic differences of climbing and running.

    PubMed

    Green, David J; Richmond, Brian G; Miran, Sara L

    2012-12-01

    Mechanical loads play a significant role in determining long bone shape and strength, but less work has explored how these loads influence flat bones like the scapula, which has been shown to vary with locomotor preference among primate taxa. Here, we tested the effects of voluntary running and climbing exercise in mice to examine how the mechanical loads borne from different locomotor patterns influence shoulder morphological development. Ninety-nine female wild-type mice were distributed equally among sedentary control, activity-wheel running, and vertical climbing experimental conditions. Running mice had the lowest body masses, larger intrinsic shoulder muscles, and the most pronounced differences in scapular size and shape relative to the other groups. Climbing mouse scapular morphology also differed significantly from the control individuals, but these differences were not as marked as those between the running and control mice. This might be attributable in part to greater levels of activity in the wheel-runners relative to the climbers. Additionally, climbing mice held their bodies closer to the substrate and maintained more flexed limbs and posterior hand positions compared with the kinematics of running. As a result, climbers differed significantly from both the running and control mice in developing a relatively broader infraspinous region, which is likely related to preferential recruitment of the infraspinatus and teres minor muscles to maintain flexed shoulder postures. The results of this study demonstrate that variation in activity level and type of locomotor regime over a significant portion of the life history influences muscle and bone development in the shoulder. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Physiological demands of running during long distance runs and triathlons.

    PubMed

    Hausswirth, C; Lehénaff, D

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this review article is to identify the main metabolic factors which have an influence on the energy cost of running (Cr) during prolonged exercise runs and triathlons. This article proposes a physiological comparison of these 2 exercises and the relationship between running economy and performance. Many terms are used as the equivalent of 'running economy' such as 'oxygen cost', 'metabolic cost', 'energy cost of running', and 'oxygen consumption'. It has been suggested that these expressions may be defined by the rate of oxygen uptake (VO2) at a steady state (i.e. between 60 to 90% of maximal VO2) at a submaximal running speed. Endurance events such as triathlon or marathon running are known to modify biological constants of athletes and should have an influence on their running efficiency. The Cr appears to contribute to the variation found in distance running performance among runners of homogeneous level. This has been shown to be important in sports performance, especially in events like long distance running. In addition, many factors are known or hypothesised to influence Cr such as environmental conditions, participant specificity, and metabolic modifications (e.g. training status, fatigue). The decrease in running economy during a triathlon and/or a marathon could be largely linked to physiological factors such as the enhancement of core temperature and a lack of fluid balance. Moreover, the increase in circulating free fatty acids and glycerol at the end of these long exercise durations bear witness to the decrease in Cr values. The combination of these factors alters the Cr during exercise and hence could modify the athlete's performance in triathlons or a prolonged run.

  7. Running out of brain.

    PubMed

    Ganesalingam, J; Jenkins, I H; Vaughan, J

    2014-06-01

    Stroke is the third most common cause of death after coronary artery disease and cancer in the UK, and running is a popular form of exercise, and increasingly, people are participating in large scale endurance events such as marathons and half-marathons. We describe here two cases of young men suffering a stroke after running a marathon and who were subsequently found to have a patent foramen ovale (PFO). We have reviewed the existing literature concerning stroke in those undertaking long-distance running, and suggest why PFO may have been important etiologically in our two patients. We tentatively suggest that individuals with a PFO who engage in long distance running may be at increased risk of stroke, independent of other cerebrovascular risk factors.

  8. Inclusion of Exercise Intensities Above the Lactate Threshold in VO2/Running Speed Regression Does not Improve the Precision of Accumulated Oxygen Deficit Estimation in Endurance-Trained Runners.

    PubMed

    Reis, Victor M; Silva, António J; Ascensão, António; Duarte, José A

    2005-12-01

    The present study intended to verify if the inclusion of intensities above lactate threshold (LT) in the VO2/running speed regression (RSR) affects the estimation error of accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD) during a treadmill running performed by endurance-trained subjects. Fourteen male endurance-trained runners performed a sub maximal treadmill running test followed by an exhaustive supra maximal test 48h later. The total energy demand (TED) and the AOD during the supra maximal test were calculated from the RSR established on first testing. For those purposes two regressions were used: a complete regression (CR) including all available sub maximal VO2 measurements and a sub threshold regression (STR) including solely the VO2 values measured during exercise intensities below LT. TED mean values obtained with CR and STR were not significantly different under the two conditions of analysis (177.71 ± 5.99 and 174.03 ± 6.53 ml·kg(-1), respectively). Also the mean values of AOD obtained with CR and STR did not differ under the two conditions (49.75 ± 8.38 and 45.8 9 ± 9.79 ml·kg(-1), respectively). Moreover, the precision of those estimations was also similar under the two procedures. The mean error for TED estimation was 3.27 ± 1.58 and 3.41 ± 1.85 ml·kg(-1) (for CR and STR, respectively) and the mean error for AOD estimation was 5.03 ± 0.32 and 5.14 ± 0.35 ml·kg(-1) (for CR and STR, respectively). The results indicated that the inclusion of exercise intensities above LT in the RSR does not improve the precision of the AOD estimation in endurance-trained runners. However, the use of STR may induce an underestimation of AOD comparatively to the use of CR. Key PointsIt has been suggested that the inclusion of exercise intensities above the lactate threshold in the VO2/power regression can significantly affect the estimation of the energy cost and, thus, the estimation of the AOD.However data on the precision of those AOD measurements is rarely provided.We have

  9. Methods to Record Circadian Rhythm Wheel Running Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Siepka, Sandra M.; Takahashi, Joseph S.

    2013-01-01

    Forward genetic approaches (phenotype to gene) are powerful methods to identify mouse circadian clock components. The success of these approaches, however, is highly dependent on the quality of the phenotype— specifically, the ability to measure circadian rhythms in individual mice. This article outlines the factors necessary to measure mouse circadian rhythms, including choice of mouse strain, facilities and equipment design and construction, experimental design, high-throughput methods, and finally methods for data analysis. PMID:15817291

  10. Diet and sex modify exercise and cardiac adaptation in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hao; Luczak, Elizabeth; McKee, Laurel A.; Regan, Jessica; Watson, Peter A.; Stauffer, Brian L.; Khalpey, Zain I; Mckinsey, Timothy A.; Horn, Todd; LaFleur, Bonnie; Leinwand, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    The heart adapts to exercise stimuli in a sex-dimorphic manner when mice are fed the traditional soy-based chow. Females undergo more voluntary exercise (4 wk) than males and exhibit more cardiac hypertrophy per kilometer run (18, 32). We have found that diet plays a critical role in cage wheel exercise and cardiac adaptation to the exercise stimulus in this sex dimorphism. Specifically, feeding male mice a casein-based, soy-free diet increases daily running distance over soy-fed counterparts to equal that of females. Moreover, casein-fed males have a greater capacity to increase their cardiac mass in response to exercise compared with soy-fed males. To further explore the biochemical mechanisms for these differences, we performed a candidate-based RT-PCR screen on genes previously implicated in diet- or exercise-based cardiac hypertrophy. Of the genes screened, many exhibit significant exercise, diet, or sex effects but only transforming growth factor-β1 shows a significant three-way interaction with no genes showing a two-way interaction. Finally, we show that the expression and activity of adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase-α2 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase is dependent on exercise, diet, and sex. PMID:25398983

  11. Diet and sex modify exercise and cardiac adaptation in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Konhilas, John P; Chen, Hao; Luczak, Elizabeth; McKee, Laurel A; Regan, Jessica; Watson, Peter A; Stauffer, Brian L; Khalpey, Zain I; Mckinsey, Timothy A; Horn, Todd; LaFleur, Bonnie; Leinwand, Leslie A

    2015-01-15

    The heart adapts to exercise stimuli in a sex-dimorphic manner when mice are fed the traditional soy-based chow. Females undergo more voluntary exercise (4 wk) than males and exhibit more cardiac hypertrophy per kilometer run (18, 32). We have found that diet plays a critical role in cage wheel exercise and cardiac adaptation to the exercise stimulus in this sex dimorphism. Specifically, feeding male mice a casein-based, soy-free diet increases daily running distance over soy-fed counterparts to equal that of females. Moreover, casein-fed males have a greater capacity to increase their cardiac mass in response to exercise compared with soy-fed males. To further explore the biochemical mechanisms for these differences, we performed a candidate-based RT-PCR screen on genes previously implicated in diet- or exercise-based cardiac hypertrophy. Of the genes screened, many exhibit significant exercise, diet, or sex effects but only transforming growth factor-β1 shows a significant three-way interaction with no genes showing a two-way interaction. Finally, we show that the expression and activity of adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase-α2 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase is dependent on exercise, diet, and sex.

  12. Running to well-being: A comparative study on the impact of exercise on the physical and mental health of law and psychology students.

    PubMed

    Skead, Natalie K; Rogers, Shane L

    Research indicates that, in comparison to other university students, law students are at greater risk of experiencing high levels of psychological distress. There is also a large body of literature supporting a general negative association between exercise and stress, anxiety and depression. However, we are not aware of any studies exploring the impact of exercise on the mental health of law students specifically. This article reports evidence of a negative association between exercise and psychological distress in 206 law and psychology students. Compared to psychology students, the law students not only reported greater psychological distress, but, in addition, there was a stronger association between their levels of distress and their levels of exercise. Based on the results of this study, we suggest a simple yet effective way law schools might support the mental health of their students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The yeast product Milmed enhances the effect of physical exercise on motor performance and dopamine neurochemistry recovery in MPTP-lesioned mice.

    PubMed

    Archer, Trevor; Fredriksson, Anders

    2013-10-01

    Both clinical and laboratory studies have demonstrated that different types of physical exercise may alleviate Parkinsonism yet evidence for complete restoration of motor function and biomarker integrity are difficult to identify. MPTP (1 × 30 mg/kg, s.c., 4 groups) or saline (vehicle 1 × 5 ml/kg, s.c., 1 group) were administered in a single dose regime over three consecutive weeks on Fridays. Three MPTP groups were given four 30-min periods/week (Mondays to Thursdays), of these two groups, MPTP + Exer + M(i) and MPTP + Exer + M(ii); the former were introduced to exercise and Milmed (oral injection) on the week following the 1st MPTP injection and the latter on the Monday prior to the 1st injection of MPTP onwards. One MPTP group, MPTP + Exer, was given access to exercise (running wheels) from the week following the 1st MPTP injection onwards. The fourth MPTP group, MPTP-NoEx, and the Vehicle group were only given access to exercise on a single day each week (Wednesdays, exercise test) from the week following the 1st MPTP injection onwards. The exercise/exercise + Milmed regime was maintained for a further 9 weeks. It was observed that exercise by itself ameliorated MPTP-induced deficits regarding motor function and dopamine loss only partially whereas in the groups combining exercise with twice weekly dosages of Milmed the MPTP-induced deficits were abolished by the 10th week of the intervention. The three main conclusions that were drawn from correlational analyses of individual mice were: (i) that DA integrity was observed to be a direct function of ability to express running exercise in a treadmill wheel-running arrangement, and (ii) that DA integrity was observed to be a direct function of the capacity for motor performance as measured by spontaneous motor activity and subthreshold L-Dopa (5 mg/kg) induced activity in the motor activity test chambers, and (iii) that the extent to which running exercise in a running wheel was predictive of later motor

  14. Voluntary running depreciates the requirement of Ca2+-stimulated cAMP signaling in synaptic potentiation and memory formation

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fei; Zhang, Ming; Ding, Qi; Sethna, Ferzin; Yan, Lily; Moon, Changjong; Yang, Miyoung

    2016-01-01

    Mental health and cognitive functions are influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Although having active lifestyle with physical exercise improves learning and memory, how it interacts with the specific key molecular regulators of synaptic plasticity is largely unknown. Here, we examined the effects of voluntary running on long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory formation in mice lacking type 1 adenylyl cyclase (AC1), a neurospecific synaptic enzyme that contributes to Ca2+-stimulated cAMP production. Following 1 mo of voluntary running-wheel exercise, the impaired LTP and object recognition memory in AC1 knockout (KO) mice were significantly attenuated. Running up-regulated exon II mRNA level of BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), though it failed to increase exon I and IV mRNAs in the hippocampus of AC1 KO mice. Intrahippocampal infusion of recombinant BDNF was sufficient to rescue LTP and object recognition memory defects in AC1 KO mice. Therefore, voluntary running and exogenous BDNF application overcome the defective Ca2+-stimulated cAMP signaling. Our results also demonstrate that alteration in Ca2+-stimulated cAMP can affect the molecular outcome of physical exercise. PMID:27421897

  15. Lanthanide-potassium wheels.

    PubMed

    Gamer, Michael T; Roesky, Peter W

    2005-08-22

    Mixed potassium-lanthanide wheel-shaped-structured, hexanuclear coordination oligomers of composition [(eta5-C5H5)Ln(NPh2)2{N(PPh2)2}2K2(THF)4]2 (Ln = Er (1a), Yb (1b)) and an octanuclear coordination polymer of composition [(eta5-C5H5)Sm(NPh2)2{N(PPh2)2}K]infinity (2) were synthesized. All presented compounds can be obtained in moderate yields in a one-pot procedure, in which the potassium salts KNPh2 and [K(THF)(n)N(PPh2)2] as well as NaC5H5 are reacted with anhydrous samarium, erbium, and ytterbium trichloride in THF.

  16. Running Away

    MedlinePlus

    ... the streets in the United States. Why Kids Run Away Remember how you felt the last time you got in ... how to express angry feelings without violence. Know how to calm yourself down after you're upset. Maybe you need to run around outside, listen to music, draw, or write ...

  17. Exercise prevention of unloading-induced bone and muscle loss in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Roland, M; Hanson, A M; Cannon, C M A; Stodieck, L S; Ferguson, V L

    2005-01-01

    Skeletal unloading causes bone and muscle loss that may be reversed by post-unloading exercise. This study examines the effects of unloading and exercise, using tail-suspension for 14 days combined with a week of post-suspension cage wheel running in mice. Twenty-four adult, male, C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups (n = 6 mice/group); unsuspended non-running, tail-suspended non-running, unsuspended running, and tail-suspended running. At sacrifice, the calf (soleus, gastrocnemeius and plantaris complex), heart, tibia and femur were collected and weighed. The femora and tibiae were cleaned of non-osseous tissue, subjected to 3-point bending (femurs only), and weighed for dry (105 degrees C; 24h) and ash mass (800 degrees C; 24h). The mean calf mass from the tail-suspended groups (157.13 +/- 2.83 mg) was significantly less than in the unsuspended groups (167.33 +/- 2.83 mg; p = 0.019), with no significant effect of cage wheel running. The mean heart mass in running groups (166.58 +/- 4.78 mg) was significantly greater than the non-running groups (148.17 +/- 4.78 mg; p = 0.013), with no effect of hindlimb suspension. The mean femur ash mass from tail-suspended groups (24.02 +/- 0.38 mg) were significantly less than the unsuspended groups (25.11 +/- 0.34 mg; p = 0.050), and the running groups (25.13 +/- 0.38 mg) were significantly greater than the non-running groups (24.00 +/- 0.34 mg; p = 0.043). No effect was observed for the femur dry mass or percent mineralization. Measurements of mechanical length tended to be lower in tail-suspension, with no significant affects do to cage wheel running. This study suggests that tail-suspension in adult mice significantly decreases skeletal muscle and bone mass, with no change in percent mineralization. Furthermore, one week of running does not reverse the effects on the skeletal muscle and bone mass.

  18. Orbiter wheel and tire certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, C. C., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The orbiter wheel and tire development has required a unique series of certification tests to demonstrate the ability of the hardware to meet severe performance requirements. Early tests of the main landing gear wheel using conventional slow roll testing resulted in hardware failures. This resulted in a need to conduct high velocity tests with crosswind effects for assurance that the hardware was safe for a limited number of flights. Currently, this approach and the conventional slow roll and static tests are used to certify the wheel/tire assembly for operational use.

  19. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Barclay, John A.

    1983-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load.

  20. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Barclay, J.A.

    1983-10-11

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load. 7 figs.

  1. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Barclay, J.A.

    1982-01-20

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load.

  2. Metabolomic analysis of long-term spontaneous exercise in mice suggests increased lipolysis and altered glucose metabolism when animals are at rest.

    PubMed

    Monleon, Daniel; Garcia-Valles, Rebeca; Morales, Jose Manuel; Brioche, Thomas; Olaso-Gonzalez, Gloria; Lopez-Grueso, Raul; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; Viña, Jose

    2014-11-15

    Exercise has been associated with several beneficial effects and is one of the major modulators of metabolism. The working muscle produces and releases substances during exercise that mediate the adaptation of the muscle but also improve the metabolic flexibility of the complete organism, leading to adjustable substrate utilization. Metabolomic studies on physical exercise are scarce and most of them have been focused on the effects of intense exercise in professional sportsmen. The aim of our study was to determine plasma metabolomic adaptations in mice after a long-term spontaneous exercise intervention study (18 mo). The metabolic changes induced by long-term spontaneous exercise were sufficient to achieve complete discrimination between groups in the principal component analysis scores plot. We identified plasma indicators of an increase in lipolysis (elevated unsaturated fatty acids and glycerol), a decrease in glucose and insulin plasma levels and in heart glucose consumption (by PET), and altered glucose metabolism (decreased alanine and lactate) in the wheel running group. Collectively these data are compatible with an increase in skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity in the active mice. We also found an increase in amino acids involved in catecholamine synthesis (tyrosine and phenylalanine), in the skeletal muscle pool of creatine phosphate and taurine, and changes in phospholipid metabolism (phosphocholine and choline in lipids) between the sedentary and the active mice. In conclusion, long-term spontaneous wheel running induces significant plasma and tissue (heart) metabolic responses that remain even when the animal is at rest. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Voluntary Running in Young Adult Mice Reduces Anxiety-Like Behavior and Increases the Accumulation of Bioactive Lipids in the Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Soto, Iván J.; Chorna, Nataliya; Carballeira, Néstor M.; Vélez-Bartolomei, José G.; Méndez-Merced, Ana T.; Chornyy, Anatoliy P.; de Ortiz, Sandra Peña

    2013-01-01

    Combinatorial therapies using voluntary exercise and diet supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids have synergistic effects benefiting brain function and behavior. Here, we assessed the effects of voluntary exercise on anxiety-like behavior and on total FA accumulation within three brain regions: cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of running versus sedentary young adult male C57/BL6J mice. The running group was subjected to one month of voluntary exercise in their home cages, while the sedentary group was kept in their home cages without access to a running wheel. Elevated plus maze (EPM), several behavioral postures and two risk assessment behaviors (RABs) were then measured in both animal groups followed immediately by blood samplings for assessment of corticosterone levels. Brains were then dissected for non-targeted lipidomic analysis of selected brain regions using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Results showed that mice in the running group, when examined in the EPM, displayed significantly lower anxiety-like behavior, higher exploratory and risky behaviors, compared to sedentary mice. Notably, we found no differences in blood corticosterone levels between the two groups, suggesting that the different EPM and RAB behaviors were not related to reduced physiological stress in the running mice. Lipidomics analysis revealed a region-specific cortical decrease of the saturated FA: palmitate (C16:0) and a concomitant increase of polyunsaturated FA, arachidonic acid (AA, omega 6-C20: 4) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, omega 3-C22: 6), in running mice compared to sedentary controls. Finally, we found that running mice, as opposed to sedentary animals, showed significantly enhanced cortical expression of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) protein, a signaling molecule required in the production of both AA and DHA. In summary, our data support the anxiolytic effects of exercise and provide insights into the molecular processes modulated by

  4. Effects of treadmill running exercise during the adolescent period of life on behavioral deficits in juvenile rats induced by prenatal morphine exposure.

    PubMed

    Ahmadalipour, Ali; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2015-02-01

    Prenatal exposure to morphine throughout pregnancy results in an array of prolonged or permanent neurochemical and behavioral deficits, including deficits in learning and memory in children of addicted mothers. This study investigated the effects of forced exercise on behavioral deficits of pups born to mothers addicted to morphine in rats. After mating and ensuring of pregnancy of female Wistar rats, they were divided into morphine or saline groups and in the second half of pregnancy (on days 11-18 of gestation) were injected subcutaneously with morphine or saline, respectively. Pups were weaned at postnatal day (PND) 21 and trained at mild intensity on a treadmill 20 days. On PND 41-47, the behavioral responses were studied. Light/dark (L/D) box and elevated plus maze (EPM) apparatus were used for investigation of anxiety, shuttle box and forced swimming tests were used to assess passive avoidance learning and memory and depression behavior, respectively. The results showed that prenatal morphine exposure caused reductions in time spent in light compartment of L/D box and EPM open arm, while postnatal exercise reversed these effects. We also found that prenatal morphine exposure caused a reduction in step through latency in passive avoidance memory test and exercise counteracted with this effect. Performance in the forced swimming test did not affected by prenatal morphine exposure or postnatal exercise. Exercise seems to be one of the strategies in reduction of behavioral deficits of children born to addicted mothers to morphine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Self-steering ability of the proposed new concept of independently rotating wheels using inverse tread conicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suda, Yoshihiro; Wang, Wenjun; Nishina, Minoru; Lin, Shihpin; Michitsuji, Yohei

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of independently rotating wheels with inverse tread conicity to get self-steering ability without any complex bogie structure. The effectiveness of the vehicle with two single-axle bogies that use two independently rotating wheel units with inverse tread conicity is proved by the 1/10 scale model experiment. The full vehicle model is made by means of multibody dynamics software SIMPACKTM. Both the experiment and simulation results show that the proposed inverse tread with independently rotating wheels have good performance. Running stability and curving ability of the proposed inverse tread for independently rotating wheels can be realised by using the semi-active yaw damper.

  6. Estrogen and voluntary exercise interact to attenuate stress-induced corticosterone release but not anxiety-like behaviors in female rats.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alexis B; Gupton, Rebecca; Curtis, Kathleen S

    2016-09-15

    The beneficial effects of physical exercise to reduce anxiety and depression and to alleviate stress are increasingly supported in research studies. The role of ovarian hormones in interactions between exercise and anxiety/stress has important implications for women's health, given that women are at increased risk of developing anxiety-related disorders, particularly during and after the menopausal transition. In these experiments, we tested the hypothesis that estrogen enhances the positive impact of exercise on stress responses by investigating the combined effects of exercise and estrogen on anxiety-like behaviors and stress hormone levels in female rats after an acute stressor. Ovariectomized female rats with or without estrogen were given access to running wheels for one or three days of voluntary running immediately after or two days prior to being subjected to restraint stress. We found that voluntary running was not effective at reducing anxiety-like behaviors, whether or not rats were subjected to restraint stress. In contrast, stress-induced elevations of stress hormone levels were attenuated by exercise experience in estrogen-treated rats, but were increased in rats without estrogen. These results suggest that voluntary exercise may be more effective at reducing stress hormone levels if estrogen is present. Additionally, exercise experience, or the distance run, may be important in reducing stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Wheel Scuff Mark at Rocknest

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-04

    NASA Mars rover Curiosity cut a wheel scuff mark into a wind-formed ripple at the Rocknest site to give researchers a better opportunity to examine the particle-size distribution of the material forming the ripple.

  8. Wind wheel electric power generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, J. W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Wind wheel electric power generator apparatus includes a housing rotatably mounted upon a vertical support column. Primary and auxiliary funnel-type, venturi ducts are fixed onto the housing for capturing wind currents and conducting to a bladed wheel adapted to be operatively connected with the generator apparatus. Additional air flows are also conducted onto the bladed wheel; all of the air flows positively effecting rotation of the wheel in a cumulative manner. The auxiliary ducts are disposed at an acute angle with respect to the longitudinal axis of the housing, and this feature, together with the rotatability of the housing and the ducts, permits capture of wind currents within a variable directional range.

  9. High-Clearance Six-Wheel Suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickler, Donald B.

    1992-01-01

    Multilevered suspension system gives body of vehicle high clearance and allows wheels to be steered independently. Suspension linkages above wheels enable body to skim over obstacles as high as wheel. Levers and independently steered wheels enable vehicle to climb steps 1 1/2 wheel diameters high and cross gaps 1 3/4 wide. Adaptable to off-the-road recreational vehicles, military scout vehicles, and robotic emergency vehicles.

  10. Grinding Wheel Profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This graphic dubbed by engineers as the 'Grinding Wheel Profile' is the detective's tool used by the Opportunity team to help them understand one of the processes that formed the interior of a rock called 'McKittrick.' Scientists are looking for clues as to how layers, grains and minerals helped create this rock, and the engineers who built the rock abrasion tool (RAT) wanted to ensure that their instrument's handiwork did not get confused with natural processes.

    In the original microscopic image underlaying the graphics, engineers and scientists noticed 'layers' or 'scratches' on the spherical object nicknamed 'blueberry' in the lower right part of the image. The designers of the rock abrasion tool noticed that the arc length and width of the scratches were similar to the shape and size of the rock abrasion tool's grinding wheel, which is made out of a pad of diamond teeth.

    The scrapes on the bottom right blueberry appear to be caused by the fact that the berry got dislodged slightly and its surface was scraped with the grinding pad. In this image, the largest yellow circle is the overall diameter of the hole ground by the rock abrasion tool and the largest yellow rectangular shape is the area of the grinding wheel bit. The smaller yellow semi-circle is the path that the center of the grinding tool follows. The orange arrow arcing around the solid yellow circle (center of grinding tool) indicates the direction that the grinding tool spins around its own center at 3,000 revolutions per minute. The tool simultaneously spins in an orbit around the center of the hole, indicated by the larger orange arrow to the left.

    The grinding tool is 22 millimeters (0.9 inches) in length and the actual grinding surface, which consists of the diamond pad, is 1.5 millimeters (0.06 inches) in length, indicated by the two smaller rectangles. You can see that the smaller bottom rectangle fits exactly the width of the scrape marks.

    The grooves on the blueberry are also the

  11. Rim seal for turbine wheel

    DOEpatents

    Glezer, Boris; Boyd, Gary L.; Norton, Paul F.

    1996-01-01

    A turbine wheel assembly includes a disk having a plurality of blades therearound. A ceramic ring is mounted to the housing of the turbine wheel assembly. A labyrinth rim seal mounted on the disk cooperates with the ceramic ring to seal the hot gases acting on the blades from the disk. The ceramic ring permits a tighter clearance between the labyrinth rim seal and the ceramic ring.

  12. Exercise and Nutritional Benefits in PD: Rodent Models and Clinical Settings.

    PubMed

    Archer, Trevor; Kostrzewa, Richard M

    Physical exercise offers a highly effective health-endowering activity as has been evidence using rodent models of Parkinson's disease (PD). It is a particularly useful intervention in individuals employed in sedentary occupations or afflicted by a neurodegenerative disorder, such as PD. The several links between exercise and quality-of-life, disorder progression and staging, risk factors and symptoms-biomarkers in PD all endower a promise for improved prognosis. Nutrition provides a strong determinant for disorder vulnerability and prognosis with fish oils and vegetables with a mediterranean diet offering both protection and resistance. Three factors determining the effects of exercise on disorder severity of patients may be presented: (i) Exercise effects upon motor impairment, gait, posture and balance, (ii) Exercise reduction of oxidative stress, stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and up-regulation of autophagy, and (iii) Exercise stimulation of dopamine (DA) neurochemistry and trophic factors. Running-wheel performance, as measured by distance run by individual mice from different treatment groups, was related to DA-integrity, indexed by striatal DA levels. Finally, both nutrition and exercise may facilitate positive epigenetic outcomes, such as lowering the dosage of L-Dopa required for a therapeutic effect.

  13. Estimating the Backup Reaction Wheel Orientation Using Reaction Wheel Spin Rates Flight Telemetry from a Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizvi, Farheen

    2013-01-01

    A report describes a model that estimates the orientation of the backup reaction wheel using the reaction wheel spin rates telemetry from a spacecraft. Attitude control via the reaction wheel assembly (RWA) onboard a spacecraft uses three reaction wheels (one wheel per axis) and a backup to accommodate any wheel degradation throughout the course of the mission. The spacecraft dynamics prediction depends upon the correct knowledge of the reaction wheel orientations. Thus, it is vital to determine the actual orientation of the reaction wheels such that the correct spacecraft dynamics can be predicted. The conservation of angular momentum is used to estimate the orientation of the backup reaction wheel from the prime and backup reaction wheel spin rates data. The method is applied in estimating the orientation of the backup wheel onboard the Cassini spacecraft. The flight telemetry from the March 2011 prime and backup RWA swap activity on Cassini is used to obtain the best estimate for the backup reaction wheel orientation.

  14. Aerobic Exercise Decreases the Positive-Reinforcing Effects of Cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Mark A.; Schmidt, Karl T.; Iordanou, Jordan C.; Mustroph, Martina L.

    2008-01-01

    Aerobic exercise can serve as an alternative, non-drug reinforcer in laboratory animals and has been recommended as a potential intervention for substance abusing populations. Unfortunately, relatively little empirical data have been collected that specifically address the possible protective effects of voluntary, long-term exercise on measures of drug self-administration. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of chronic exercise on sensitivity to the positive-reinforcing effects of cocaine in the drug self-administration procedure. Female rats were obtained at weaning and immediately divided into two groups. Sedentary rats were housed individually in standard laboratory cages that permitted no exercise beyond normal cage ambulation; exercising rats were housed individually in modified cages equipped with a running wheel. After 6 weeks under these conditions, rats were surgically implanted with venous catheters and trained to self-administer cocaine on a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement. Once self-administration was acquired, cocaine was made available on a progressive ratio schedule and breakpoints were obtained for various doses of cocaine. Sedentary and exercising rats did not differ in the time to acquire cocaine self-administration or responding on the fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement. However, on the progressive ratio schedule, breakpoints were significantly lower in exercising rats than sedentary rats when responding was maintained by both low (0.3 mg/kg/infusion) and high (1.0 mg/kg/infusion) doses of cocaine. In exercising rats, greater exercise output prior to catheter implantation was associated with lower breakpoints at the high dose of cocaine. These data indicate that chronic exercise decreases the positive-reinforcing effects of cocaine and support the possibility that exercise may be an effective intervention in drug abuse prevention and treatment programs. PMID:18585870

  15. An Epidemiologic Perspective. Does Running Cause Osteoarthritis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1989-01-01

    A review of literature on exercise and arthritis considers relevant epidemiologic and experimental studies of animals and humans, focusing on the relationship between running and osteoarthritis. No conclusive evidence exists that running causes osteoarthritis; research trends suggest that running may slow the functional aspects of musculoskeletal…

  16. Evaluation of oxidative stress in mice subjected to aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Lima, Mônica Cruvinel de; Marks, Guido; Silva, Iandara Schettert; Silva, Baldomero Antonio Kato da; Cônsolo, Lourdes Zélia Zanoni; Nogueira, Gabriel Bogalho

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the influence of aerobic exercise on oxidative stress in mice. The study included twenty female mice Mus musculus-Swiss divided into two groups: sedentary control (GA) and exercise (GB), each containing ten animals. All animals underwent an adaptation period of seven days isolated in individual boxes. After this period, the animals in the exercise group (GB) were trained in angled running wheel with circumference of 25 cm assembled on an articulated axle during five minutes for three consecutive days. On the fourth day, they underwent an exercise program of one session lasting 45 minutes. The evaluation of oxidative stress was performed by determining the levels of malondialhyde derived of lipid peroxidation by the TBA method. The samples were read in a spectrophotometer at 535 nm. No significant difference was observed in the intergroup comparison of MDA levels in the tissues evaluated. A significant difference was observed in the intragroup comparison of MDA levels in the control group (p = 0.0201).The Tukeys' post hoc test indicated significantly lower values of MDA in the smooth muscle in relation to plasma. In the analysis of variance in the exercise group, a significant difference between tissues (p = 0.0009), with significantly lower values in the smooth muscle in relation to plasma (p<0.001) and higher in striated muscle in relation to smooth muscle (p<0.05) was observed. There was no change in the analysis of oxidative stress in mice which were undergone a single session of aerobic exercise.

  17. Exercise offers anxiolytic potential: A role for stress and brain noradrenergic-galaninergic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Sciolino, Natale R.; Holmes, Philip V.

    2016-01-01

    Although physical activity reduces anxiety in humans, the neural basis for this response is unclear. Rodent models are essential to understand the mechanisms that underlie the benefits of exercise. However, it is controversial whether exercise exerts anxiolytic-like potential in rodents. Evidence is reviewed to evaluate the effects of wheel running, an experimental mode of exercise in rodents, on behavior in tests of anxiety and on norepinephrine and galanin systems in neural circuits that regulate stress. Stress is proposed to account for mixed behavioral findings in this literature. Indeed, running promotes an adaptive response to stress and alters anxiety-like behaviors in a manner dependent on stress. Running amplifies galanin expression in noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) and suppresses stress-induced activity of the LC and norepinephrine output in LC-target regions. Thus, enhanced galanin-mediated suppression of brain norepinephrine in runners is supported by current literature as a mechanism that may contribute to the stress-protective effects of exercise. These data support the use of rodents to study the emotional and neurobiological consequences of exercise. PMID:22771334

  18. Phenotypic and molecular differences between rats selectively bred to voluntarily run high vs. low nightly distances.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Michael D; Brown, Jacob D; Company, Joseph M; Oberle, Lauren P; Heese, Alexander J; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Wells, Kevin D; Cruthirds, Clayton L; Knouse, John A; Ferreira, J Andries; Childs, Thomas E; Brown, Marybeth; Booth, Frank W

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to partially phenotype male and female rats from generations 8-10 (G8-G10) that had been selectively bred to possess low (LVR) vs. high voluntary running (HVR) behavior. Over the first 6 days with wheels, 34-day-old G8 male and female LVRs ran shorter distances (P < 0.001), spent less time running (P < 0.001), and ran slower (P < 0.001) than their G8 male and female HVR counterparts, respectively. HVR and LVR lines consumed similar amounts of standard chow with or without wheels. No inherent difference existed in PGC-1α mRNA in the plantaris and soleus muscles of LVR and HVR nonrunners, although G8 LVR rats inherently possessed less NADH-positive superficial plantaris fibers compared with G8 HVR rats. While day 28 body mass tended to be greater in both sexes of G9-G10 LVR nonrunners vs. G9-G10 HVR nonrunners (P = 0.06), body fat percentage was similar between lines. G9-G10 HVRs had fat mass loss after 6 days of running compared with their prerunning values, while LVR did not lose or gain fat mass during the 6-day voluntary running period. RNA deep sequencing efforts in the nucleus accumbens showed only eight transcripts to be >1.5-fold differentially expressed between lines in HVR and LVR nonrunners. Interestingly, HVRs presented less Oprd1 mRNA, which ties in to potential differences in dopaminergic signaling between lines. This unique animal model provides further evidence as to how exercise may be mechanistically regulated.

  19. Phenotypic and molecular differences between rats selectively bred to voluntarily run high vs. low nightly distances

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Michael D.; Brown, Jacob D.; Company, Joseph M.; Oberle, Lauren P.; Heese, Alexander J.; Toedebusch, Ryan G.; Wells, Kevin D.; Cruthirds, Clayton L.; Knouse, John A.; Ferreira, J. Andries; Childs, Thomas E.; Brown, Marybeth

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to partially phenotype male and female rats from generations 8–10 (G8–G10) that had been selectively bred to possess low (LVR) vs. high voluntary running (HVR) behavior. Over the first 6 days with wheels, 34-day-old G8 male and female LVRs ran shorter distances (P < 0.001), spent less time running (P < 0.001), and ran slower (P < 0.001) than their G8 male and female HVR counterparts, respectively. HVR and LVR lines consumed similar amounts of standard chow with or without wheels. No inherent difference existed in PGC-1α mRNA in the plantaris and soleus muscles of LVR and HVR nonrunners, although G8 LVR rats inherently possessed less NADH-positive superficial plantaris fibers compared with G8 HVR rats. While day 28 body mass tended to be greater in both sexes of G9–G10 LVR nonrunners vs. G9–G10 HVR nonrunners (P = 0.06), body fat percentage was similar between lines. G9–G10 HVRs had fat mass loss after 6 days of running compared with their prerunning values, while LVR did not lose or gain fat mass during the 6-day voluntary running period. RNA deep sequencing efforts in the nucleus accumbens showed only eight transcripts to be >1.5-fold differentially expressed between lines in HVR and LVR nonrunners. Interestingly, HVRs presented less Oprd1 mRNA, which ties in to potential differences in dopaminergic signaling between lines. This unique animal model provides further evidence as to how exercise may be mechanistically regulated. PMID:23552494

  20. Skeletal muscle metabolic adaptations to endurance exercise training are attainable in mice with simvastatin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Southern, William M.; Nichenko, Anna S.; Shill, Daniel D.; Spencer, Corey C.; Jenkins, Nathan T.; McCully, Kevin K.

    2017-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a 6-week regimen of simvastatin would attenuate skeletal muscle adaptation to low-intensity exercise. Male C57BL/6J wildtype mice were subjected to 6-weeks of voluntary wheel running or normal cage activities with or without simvastatin treatment (20 mg/kg/d, n = 7–8 per group). Adaptations in in vivo fatigue resistance were determined by a treadmill running test, and by ankle plantarflexor contractile assessment. The tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, and plantaris muscles were evaluated for exercised-induced mitochondrial adaptations (i.e., biogenesis, function, autophagy). There was no difference in weekly wheel running distance between control and simvastatin-treated mice (P = 0.51). Trained mice had greater treadmill running distance (296%, P<0.001), and ankle plantarflexor contractile fatigue resistance (9%, P<0.05) compared to sedentary mice, independent of simvastatin treatment. At the cellular level, trained mice had greater mitochondrial biogenesis (e.g., ~2-fold greater PGC1α expression, P<0.05) and mitochondrial content (e.g., 25% greater citrate synthase activity, P<0.05), independent of simvastatin treatment. Mitochondrial autophagy-related protein contents were greater in trained mice (e.g., 40% greater Bnip3, P<0.05), independent of simvastatin treatment. However, Drp1, a marker of mitochondrial fission, was less in simvastatin treated mice, independent of exercise training, and there was a significant interaction between training and statin treatment (P<0.022) for LC3-II protein content, a marker of autophagy flux. These data indicate that whole body and skeletal muscle adaptations to endurance exercise training are attainable with simvastatin treatment, but simvastatin may have side effects on muscle mitochondrial maintenance via autophagy, which could have long-term implications on muscle health. PMID:28207880

  1. Physiological Parameters in the Blood of a Murine Stress-Induced Depression Model before and after Repeated Passive Exercise.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Kyung; Park, Jin Young; Han, Pyung Lim

    2015-09-01

    Animal models are necessary to study the mechanism underlying the effects of exercise on depression but an effective procedure for exercise treatment and exercise effects on physiological parameters in a specific depression model need to be characterized. Physiological parameters including lactate, partial pressue of O₂ (pO₂) and CO₂ (pCO₂) saturated O₂ (sO₂), pH, HCO₃, total CO₂ (TCO₂), and base excess extracellular fluid (BEecf) levels in the blood were measured after treatment with passive exercise in normal mice and a stress-induced depression model. Normal mice or mice that were subjected to daily 2-hour restraint for 14 days (2 hours × 14 days of restraint) were placed on a running wheel that was rotating at a speed of 9 m/min for 1 hour per day for 1 to 21 days. After repeated exercise in mice that were previously subjected to 2 hours × 14 days restraint, plasma lactate levels decreased, the levels of pO₂, sO₂, and pH tended to increase, and the levels of pCO₂ decreased in the absence of significant changes in HCO₃, TCO₂, and BEecf. However, none of these changes were additive to the stress effects or were much more severe than those induced after repeated passive exercise in normal mice. These results suggest that passive exercise for 1 hour daily for 14 to 21 consecutive days on a running wheel rotating at a speed of 9 m/min may be used as an exercise protocol without inducing severe additive effects on physiological burdens.

  2. A Bout of Voluntary Running Enhances Context Conditioned Fear, Its Extinction, and Its Reconsolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siette, Joyce; Reichelt, Amy C.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments used rats to examine the effect of a single bout of voluntary activity (wheel running) on the acquisition, extinction, and reconsolidation of context conditioned fear. In Experiment 1, rats provided with access to a wheel for 3 h immediately before or after a shocked exposure to a context froze more when tested in that context…

  3. Fibroblast growth factor 21 is required for beneficial effects of exercise during chronic high-fat feeding

    PubMed Central

    Loyd, Christine; Magrisso, I. Jack; Haas, Michael; Balusu, Sowmya; Krishna, Radha; Itoh, Nobuyuki; Sandoval, Darleen A.; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Obici, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is an effective therapy against the metabolic syndrome. However, the molecular pathways underlying the advantageous effects of exercise are elusive. Glucagon receptor signaling is essential for exercise benefits, and recent evidence indicates that a downstream effector of glucagon, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), is implicated in this response. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that FGF21 action is necessary in mediating metabolic effects of exercise. We utilized acute exhaustive treadmill exercise in Wistar rats to identify a putative, concomitant increase in plasma glucagon and FGF21 with the increase in glucose and lactate following exercise. To test the necessity of FGF21 action in the exercise response, we exposed FGF21 congenitally deficient mice (Fgf21−/−) and their wild-type (Wt) littermates to chronic high-fat (HF) feeding and inoperable (sedentary) or operable (exercise) voluntary running wheels. Physiological tests were performed to assess the role of FGF21 in the beneficial effect of exercise on glucose metabolism. Wt and Fgf21−/− littermates exhibited similar running behavior, and exercise was effective in suppressing weight and fat mass gain and dyslipidemia independently of genotype. However, exercise failed to positively affect hepatic triglyceride content and glucose tolerance in HF diet-fed Fgf21−/− mice. Furthermore, Fgf21−/− mice exhibited an impaired adaptation to exercise training, including reduced AMP-activated protein kinase activity in skeletal muscle. This study demonstrates that FGF21 action is necessary to achieve the full metabolic benefits of exercise during chronic HF feeding. PMID:27445299

  4. Voluntary Running Attenuates Memory Loss, Decreases Neuropathological Changes and Induces Neurogenesis in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Tapia-Rojas, Cheril; Aranguiz, Florencia; Varela-Nallar, Lorena; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of memory and cognitive abilities, and the appearance of amyloid plaques composed of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles formed of tau protein. It has been suggested that exercise might ameliorate the disease; here, we evaluated the effect of voluntary running on several aspects of AD including amyloid deposition, tau phosphorylation, inflammatory reaction, neurogenesis and spatial memory in the double transgenic APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mouse model of AD. We report that voluntary wheel running for 10 weeks decreased Aβ burden, Thioflavin-S-positive plaques and Aβ oligomers in the hippocampus. In addition, runner APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mice showed fewer phosphorylated tau protein and decreased astrogliosis evidenced by lower staining of GFAP. Further, runner APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mice showed increased number of neurons in the hippocampus and exhibited increased cell proliferation and generation of cells positive for the immature neuronal protein doublecortin, indicating that running increased neurogenesis. Finally, runner APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mice showed improved spatial memory performance in the Morris water maze. Altogether, our findings indicate that in APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mice, voluntary running reduced all the neuropathological hallmarks of AD studied, reduced neuronal loss, increased hippocampal neurogenesis and reduced spatial memory loss. These findings support that voluntary exercise might have therapeutic value on AD. © 2015 International Society of Neuropathology.

  5. Unexpected effects of voluntary exercise training on natriuretic peptide and receptor mRNA expression in the ob/ob mouse heart.

    PubMed

    Broderick, Tom L; Wang, Donghao; Jankowski, Marek; Gutkowska, Jolanta

    2014-01-10

    Regular exercise is generally recommended for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Exercise reduces body weight, improves glycemic control and cardiovascular (CV) function. This study was designed to determine the impact of voluntary wheel running on the cardiac oxytocin (OT)-natriuretic peptide (NP) system and plasma CV risk factors in the ob/ob mouse, a model of insulin resistance coupled with severe obesity. Five-week-old male ob/ob mice and non-obese heterozygote control littermates were assigned to either a sedentary or running group. Voluntary running was performed using a wheel system for a period of 8 weeks. Compared to non-obese mice, daily running activity expressed in kilometers, was significantly lower in ob/ob mice. In these mice, voluntary running improved body weight, but exacerbated CV markers, including plasma glucose and triglyceride levels. OT receptor gene expression was decreased in hearts of ob/ob mice compared to non-obese mice, and no improvement in the expression of this receptor was observed after voluntary running. Hearts from ob/ob mice also expressed lower BNP mRNA, whereas no differences in A- and C-type NP were observed between non-obese and ob/ob mice. After voluntary running, a downregulation in the expression of all three NPs coupled with increased apoptosis was observed in ob/ob hearts. Our results show that voluntary exercise running activity was decreased in the ob/ob mouse. Surprisingly, this was associated with a worsening of common CV plasma markers, reduced expression of peptides linked to the cardioprotective OT-NP system, and increased expression of cardiac apoptotic markers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Running for REST: Physical activity attenuates neuroinflammation in the hippocampus of aged mice.

    PubMed

    Dallagnol, Karine Mathilde Campestrini; Remor, Aline Pertile; da Silva, Rodrigo Augusto; Prediger, Rui Daniel; Latini, Alexandra; Aguiar, Aderbal Silva

    2017-03-01

    Exercise improves mental health and synaptic function in the aged brain. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in exercise-induced healthy brain aging are not well understood. Evidence supports the role of neurogenesis and neurotrophins in exercise-induced neuroplasticity. The gene silencing transcription factor neuronal RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST)/neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF) and an anti-inflammatory role of exercise are also candidate mechanisms. We evaluate the effect of 8weeks of physical activity on running wheels (RW) on motor and depressive-like behavior and hippocampal gene expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), REST, and interleukins IL-1β and IL-10 of adult and aged C57BL/6 mice. The aged animals exhibited impaired motor function and a depressive-like behavior: decreased mobility in the RW and open field and severe immobility in the tail suspension test. The gene expression of REST, IL-1β, and IL-10 was increased in the hippocampus of aged mice. Physical activity was anxiolytic and antidepressant and improved motor behavior in aged animals. Physical activity also boosted BDNF and REST expression and decreased IL-1β and IL-10 expression in the hippocampus of aged animals. These results support the beneficial role of REST in the aged brain, which can be further enhanced by regular physical activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Space Art "Wheel of Optimism"

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-12-14

    Artist EV Day visited the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to learn about the Mars Exploration Rovers. She so intrigued the Mars scientists that she was given a sample rover wheel to work with in creating a piece of art titled "Wheel of Optimism" for NASA. Day took the wheel and created a Martian world within it complete with organic plantlife, rocks and a Martian landscape in the background. Day poetically grapples with the age old question of whether life on Mars exists or whether it is just an figment of our science fiction imaginations. Rover Tire, mixed media, 9-1/4 (diameter)x8 (depth). 2006. Copyrighted: For more information contact Curator, NASA Art Program.

  8. Optical wheel-rotation sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veeser, Lynn R.; Rodriguez, Patrick A.; Forman, Peter; Deeter, Merritt N.

    1994-09-01

    We describe a fiber-optic rotation sensor being developed for anti-lock braking systems. The basis of the sensor is the magneto-optic detection of the magnetic fields generated by a wheel of alternating magnetized magnets fixed to a wheel of the automobile. Highly sensitive iron garnet crystals serve as the magneto-optic sensing elements. For films with perpendicularly- magnetized domains, the domain structure produces diffraction which is magnetic-field dependent. Exploitation of this effect permits the construction of magneto-optic magnetic field sensors requiring no polarization elements or lenses.

  9. Propulsion Wheel Motor for an Electric Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figuered, Joshua M. (Inventor); Herrera, Eduardo (Inventor); Waligora, Thomas M. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Farrell, Logan Christopher (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Winn, Ross Briant (Inventor); Eggleston, IV, Raymond Edward (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); hide

    2016-01-01

    A wheel assembly for an electric vehicle includes a wheel rim that is concentrically disposed about a central axis. A propulsion-braking module is disposed within an interior region of the wheel rim. The propulsion-braking module rotatably supports the wheel rim for rotation about the central axis. The propulsion-braking module includes a liquid cooled electric motor having a rotor rotatable about the central axis, and a stator disposed radially inside the rotor relative to the central axis. A motor-wheel interface hub is fixedly attached to the wheel rim, and is directly attached to the rotor for rotation with the rotor. The motor-wheel interface hub directly transmits torque from the electric motor to the wheel rim at a 1:1 ratio. The propulsion-braking module includes a drum brake system having an electric motor that rotates a cam device, which actuates the brake shoes.

  10. 14 CFR 29.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... landing gear wheel must be approved. (b) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less than the corresponding static ground reaction with— (1) Maximum weight; and (2) Critical center of gravity...

  11. 14 CFR 25.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and nose wheel must be approved. (b) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less than the corresponding static ground reaction with— (1) Design maximum weight; and (2) Critical center of...

  12. 14 CFR 23.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 23.731 Wheels. (a) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less than the corresponding static ground reaction with— (1) Design maximum weight; and (2) Critical center of gravity. (b...

  13. 14 CFR 27.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... gear wheel must be approved. (b) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less than the corresponding static ground reaction with— (1) Maximum weight; and (2) Critical center of gravity. (c) The...

  14. Experimental heat and mass transfer of the separated and coupled rotating desiccant wheel and heat wheel

    SciTech Connect

    Enteria, Napoleon; Yoshino, Hiroshi; Mochida, Akashi

    2010-07-15

    The experimental evaluation of the separated and coupled rotating desiccant wheel and heat wheel is reported. The study aims to investigate the performance of the desiccant wheel and of the heat wheel both when operated separately and jointly. The performance evaluation of the desiccant wheel is based on its moisture removal capacity (MRC), moisture removal regeneration (MRR), and moisture mass balance (MMB). In addition, the study used the total energy balance (TEB), sensible coefficient of performance (COP{sub Sensible}), latent coefficient of performance (COP{sub Latent}) and, total coefficient of performance (COP{sub Total}). The performance of the heat wheel is based onmore » its effectiveness. The COP{sub Sensible}, COP{sub Latent} and, COP{sub Total} are