Science.gov

Sample records for runway incursions

  1. Modelling runway incursion severity.

    PubMed

    Wilke, Sabine; Majumdar, Arnab; Ochieng, Washington Y

    2015-06-01

    Analysis of the causes underlying runway incursions is fundamental for the development of effective mitigation measures. However, there are significant weaknesses in the current methods to model these factors. This paper proposes a structured framework for modelling causal factors and their relationship to severity, which includes a description of the airport surface system architecture, establishment of terminological definitions, the determination and collection of appropriate data, the analysis of occurrences for severity and causes, and the execution of a statistical analysis framework. It is implemented in the context of U.S. airports, enabling the identification of a number of priority interventions, including the need for better investigation and causal factor capture, recommendations for airfield design, operating scenarios and technologies, and better training for human operators in the system. The framework is recommended for the analysis of runway incursions to support safety improvements and the methodology is transferable to other areas of aviation safety risk analysis.

  2. Analysis of Runway Incursion Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.

    2013-01-01

    A statistical analysis of runway incursion (RI) events was conducted to ascertain relevance to the top ten challenges of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). The information contained in the RI database was found to contain data that may be relevant to several of the AvSP top ten challenges. When combined with other data from the FAA documenting air traffic volume from calendar year 2000 through 2011, the structure of a predictive model emerges that can be used to forecast the frequency of RI events at various airports for various classes of aircraft and under various environmental conditions.

  3. Runway Incursion Prevention for General Aviation Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III

    2006-01-01

    A Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) and additional incursion detection algorithm were adapted for general aviation operations and evaluated in a simulation study at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) in the fall of 2005. RIPS has been designed to enhance surface situation awareness and provide cockpit alerts of potential runway conflicts in order to prevent runway incidents while also improving operational capability. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the airborne incursion detection algorithms and associated alerting and airport surface display concepts for general aviation operations. This paper gives an overview of the system, simulation study, and test results.

  4. Runway Incursion Prevention: A Technology Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Steven D.; Jones, Denise R.

    2001-01-01

    A runway incursion occurs any time an airplane, vehicle, person or object on the ground creates a collision hazard with an airplane that is taking off or landing at an airport under the supervision of Air Traffic Control (ATC). Despite the best efforts of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), runway incursions continue to occur more frequently. The number of incursions reported in the U.S. rose from 186 in 1993 to 431 in 2000, an increase of 132 percent. Recently, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) has made specific recommendations for reducing runway incursions including a recommendation that the FAA require, at all airports with scheduled passenger service, a ground movement safety system that will prevent runway incursions; the system should provide a direct warning capability to flight crews. To this end, NASA and its industry partners have developed an advanced surface movement guidance and control system (A-SMGCS) architecture and operational concept that are designed to prevent runway incursions while also improving operational capability. This operational concept and system design have been tested in both full-mission simulation and operational flight test experiments at major airport facilities. Anecdotal, qualitative, and specific quantitative results will be presented along with an assessment of technology readiness with respect to equipage.

  5. Runway Safety Monitor Algorithm for Runway Incursion Detection and Alerting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, David F., Jr.; Jones, Denise R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Runway Safety Monitor (RSM) is an algorithm for runway incursion detection and alerting that was developed in support of NASA's Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) research conducted under the NASA Aviation Safety Program's Synthetic Vision System element. The RSM algorithm provides pilots with enhanced situational awareness and warnings of runway incursions in sufficient time to take evasive action and avoid accidents during landings, takeoffs, or taxiing on the runway. The RSM currently runs as a component of the NASA Integrated Display System, an experimental avionics software system for terminal area and surface operations. However, the RSM algorithm can be implemented as a separate program to run on any aircraft with traffic data link capability. The report documents the RSM software and describes in detail how RSM performs runway incursion detection and alerting functions for NASA RIPS. The report also describes the RIPS flight tests conducted at the Dallas-Ft Worth International Airport (DFW) during September and October of 2000, and the RSM performance results and lessons learned from those flight tests.

  6. Electronic System for Preventing Airport Runway Incursions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Richard; Elrod, Susan

    2009-01-01

    A proposed system of portable illuminated signs, electronic monitoring equipment, and radio-communication equipment for preventing (or taking corrective action in response to) improper entry of aircraft, pedestrians, or ground vehicles onto active airport runways is described. The main overall functions of the proposed system would be to automatically monitor aircraft ground traffic on or approaching runways and to generate visible and/or audible warnings to affected pilots, ground-vehicle drivers, and control-tower personnel when runway incursions take place.

  7. Runway Incursion Prevention System Simulation Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.

    2002-01-01

    A Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) was evaluated in a full mission simulation study at the NASA Langley Research center in March 2002. RIPS integrates airborne and ground-based technologies to provide (1) enhanced surface situational awareness to avoid blunders and (2) alerts of runway conflicts in order to prevent runway incidents while also improving operational capability. A series of test runs was conducted in a high fidelity simulator. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the RIPS airborne incursion detection algorithms and associated alerting and airport surface display concepts. Eight commercial airline crews participated as test subjects completing 467 test runs. This paper gives an overview of the RIPS, simulation study, and test results.

  8. Cockpit Technology for Prevention of General Aviation Runway Incursions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Jones, Denise R.

    2007-01-01

    General aviation accounted for 74 percent of runway incursions but only 57 percent of the operations during the four-year period from fiscal year (FY) 2001 through FY2004. Elements of the NASA Runway Incursion Prevention System were adapted and tested for general aviation aircraft. Sixteen General Aviation pilots, of varying levels of certification and amount of experience, participated in a piloted simulation study to evaluate the system for prevention of general aviation runway incursions compared to existing moving map displays. Pilots flew numerous complex, high workload approaches under varying weather and visibility conditions. A rare-event runway incursion scenario was presented, unbeknownst to the pilots, which represented a typical runway incursion situation. The results validated the efficacy and safety need for a runway incursion prevention system for general aviation aircraft.

  9. Runway Incursion Prevention System for General Aviation Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Prinzel III, Lawrence J.

    2006-01-01

    A Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) and additional incursion detection algorithm were adapted for general aviation operations and evaluated in a simulation study at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) in the fall of 2005. RIPS has been designed to enhance surface situation awareness and provide cockpit alerts of potential runway conflicts in order to prevent runway incidents while also improving operational capability. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the airborne incursion detection algorithms and associated alerting and airport surface display concepts for general aviation operations. This paper gives an overview of the system, simulation study, and test results.

  10. Runway Safety Monitor Algorithm for Single and Crossing Runway Incursion Detection and Alerting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, David F., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The Runway Safety Monitor (RSM) is an aircraft based algorithm for runway incursion detection and alerting that was developed in support of NASA's Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) research conducted under the NASA Aviation Safety and Security Program's Synthetic Vision System project. The RSM algorithm provides warnings of runway incursions in sufficient time for pilots to take evasive action and avoid accidents during landings, takeoffs or when taxiing on the runway. The report documents the RSM software and describes in detail how RSM performs runway incursion detection and alerting functions for NASA RIPS. The report also describes the RIPS flight tests conducted at the Reno/Tahoe International Airport (RNO) and the Wallops Flight Facility (WAL) during July and August of 2004, and the RSM performance results and lessons learned from those flight tests.

  11. Runway Incursion Prevention System Testing at the Wallops Flight Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.

    2005-01-01

    A Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) integrated with a Synthetic Vision System concept (SVS) was tested at the Reno/Tahoe International Airport (RNO) and Wallops Flight Facility (WAL) in the summer of 2004. RIPS provides enhanced surface situational awareness and alerts of runway conflicts in order to prevent runway incidents while also improving operational capability. A series of test runs was conducted using a Gulfstream-V (G-V) aircraft as the test platform and a NASA test aircraft and a NASA test van as incurring traffic. The purpose of the study, from the RIPS perspective, was to evaluate the RIPS airborne incursion detection algorithms and associated alerting and airport surface display concepts, focusing on crossing runway incursion scenarios. This paper gives an overview of the RIPS, WAL flight test activities, and WAL test results.

  12. Runway incursion prevention system testing at the Wallops Flight Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Denise R.

    2005-05-01

    A Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) integrated with a Synthetic Vision System concept (SVS) was tested at the Reno/Tahoe International Airport (RNO) and Wallops Flight Facility (WAL) in the summer of 2004. RIPS provides enhanced surface situational awareness and alerts of runway conflicts in order to prevent runway incidents while also improving operational capability. A series of test runs was conducted using a Gulfstream-V (G-V) aircraft as the test platform and a NASA test aircraft and a NASA test van as incurring traffic. The purpose of the study, from the RIPS perspective, was to evaluate the RIPS airborne incursion detection algorithms and associated alerting and airport surface display concepts, focusing on crossing runway incursion scenarios. This paper gives an overview of the RIPS, WAL flight test activities, and WAL test results.

  13. Development of a Bayesian Belief Network Runway Incursion Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.

    2014-01-01

    In a previous paper, a statistical analysis of runway incursion (RI) events was conducted to ascertain their relevance to the top ten Technical Challenges (TC) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). The study revealed connections to perhaps several of the AvSP top ten TC. That data also identified several primary causes and contributing factors for RI events that served as the basis for developing a system-level Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) model for RI events. The system-level BBN model will allow NASA to generically model the causes of RI events and to assess the effectiveness of technology products being developed under NASA funding. These products are intended to reduce the frequency of RI events in particular, and to improve runway safety in general. The development, structure and assessment of that BBN for RI events by a Subject Matter Expert panel are documented in this paper.

  14. Prevention of runway incursions due to closed runways or unsuitable runway choices by enhanced crew situational awareness and alerting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernaleken, Christoph; Urvoy, Carole; Klingauf, Uwe

    2007-04-01

    Of all incidents on the aerodrome surface, Runway Incursions, i.e. the incorrect presence of an aircraft on a runway, are the by far most safety-critical, resulting in many fatalities if they lead to an accident. A lack of flight crew situational awareness is almost always a causal factor in these occurrences, and like any Runway Incursion, the special case of choosing a closed or unsuitable runway - including mistaking a taxiway for a runway - may have catastrophic consequences, as the Singapore Airlines Flight SQ006 accident at Taipei in 2000 and, most recently, Comair Flight 5191, tragically show. In other incidents, such as UPS Flight 896 at Denver in 2001 departing from a closed runway or China Airlines Flight 11 taking off from a taxiway at Anchorage in 2002, a disaster was only avoided by mere luck. This paper describes how the concept for an onboard Surface Movement Awareness and Alerting System (SMAAS) can be applied to this special case and might help to prevent flight crews from taking off or landing on closed runways, unsuitable runways or taxiways, and presents initial evaluation results. An airport moving map based on an ED-99A/DO- 272A compliant Aerodrome Mapping Database (AMDB) is used to visualize runway closures and other applicable airport restrictions, based on NOTAM and D-ATIS data, to provide the crew with enhanced situational awareness in terms of position and operational environment. If this is not sufficient to prevent a hazardous situation, e.g. in case the crew is distracted, a tailored alerting concept consisting of both visual and aural alerts consistent with existing warning systems catches the crew's attention. For runway closures and restrictions, particularly those of temporary nature, the key issue for both extended situational awareness and alerting is how to get the corresponding data to the aircraft's avionics. Therefore, this paper also develops the concept of a machine-readable electronic Pre-flight Information Bulletin (e

  15. Autonomous UV-enhanced-vision system that prevents runway incursions at medium-size airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Victor J., Jr.

    2001-08-01

    Runway incursions have been declared the nation's foremost aviation safety issue by the National Transportation Safety Board and the Federal Aviation Administration in testimony before congressional aviation committees. Technology solutions to date have been disappointing. After 12 years of development, the frequency of runway incursions shows no sign of abating, even as the cost for such systems continues to rise beyond $DLR9 million per airport. Application of ultraviolet technology offers incremental, low-cost, near- term improvements in runway incursion prevention and other enhancements to aviation safety, as well as increases in airport throughput capability, i.e., a reduction in delays.

  16. NASA Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) Dallas-Fort Worth Demonstration Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassell, Rick; Evers, Carl; Esche, Jeff; Sleep, Benjamin; Jones, Denise R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Aviation Safety Program Synthetic Vision System project conducted a Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) flight test at the Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport in October 2000. The RIPS research system includes advanced displays, airport surveillance system, data links, positioning system, and alerting algorithms to provide pilots with enhanced situational awareness, supplemental guidance cues, a real-time display of traffic information, and warnings of runway incursions. This report describes the aircraft and ground based runway incursion alerting systems and traffic positioning systems (Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) and Traffic Information Service - Broadcast (TIS-B)). A performance analysis of these systems is also presented.

  17. An assessment of predominant causal factors of pilot deviations that contribute to runway incursions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Denado M.

    The aim of this study was to identify predominant causal factors of pilot deviations in runway incursions over a two-year period. Runway incursion reports were obtained from NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), and a qualitative method was used by classifying and coding each report to a specific causal factor(s). The causal factors that were used were substantiated by research from the Aircraft Owner's and Pilot's Association that found that these causal factors were the most common in runway incursion incidents and accidents. An additional causal factor was also utilized to determine the significance of pilot training in relation to runway incursions. From the reports examined, it was found that miscommunication and situational awareness have the greatest impact on pilots and are most often the major causes of runway incursions. This data can be used to assist airports, airlines, and the FAA to understand trends in pilot deviations, and to find solutions for specific problem areas in runway incursion incidents.

  18. Development of the Runway Incursion Advisory and Alerting System (RIAAS): Research Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R. (Technical Monitor); Cassell, Rick

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted on an aircraft based Runway Incursion Advisory and Alerting System (RIAAS) developed under a cooperative agreement between Rannoch Corporation and the NASA Langley Research Center. A summary of RIAAS is presented along with results from simulation and flight testing, safety benefits, and key technical issues.

  19. Simulator Evaluation of Runway Incursion Prevention Technology for General Aviation Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III

    2011-01-01

    A Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) has been designed under previous research to enhance airport surface operations situation awareness and provide cockpit alerts of potential runway conflict, during transport aircraft category operations, in order to prevent runway incidents while also improving operations capability. This study investigated an adaptation of RIPS for low-end general aviation operations using a fixed-based simulator at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC). The purpose of the study was to evaluate modified RIPS aircraft-based incursion detection algorithms and associated alerting and airport surface display concepts for low-end general aviation operations. This paper gives an overview of the system, simulation study, and test results.

  20. Runway Incursion Prevention System: Demonstration and Testing at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Quach, Cuong C.; Young, Steven D.

    2007-01-01

    A Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) was tested at the Dallas-Ft. Worth International Airport (DFW) in October 2000. The system integrated airborne and ground components to provide both pilots and controllers with enhanced situational awareness, supplemental guidance cues, a real-time display of traffic information, and warning of runway incursions in order to prevent runway incidents while also improving operational capability. A series of test runs was conducted using NASA s Boeing 757 research aircraft and a test van equipped to emulate an incurring aircraft. The system was also demonstrated to over 100 visitors from the aviation community. This paper gives an overview of the RIPS, DFW flight test activities, and quantitative and qualitative results of the testing.

  1. A fresh look at runway incursions: onboard surface movement awareness and alerting system based on SVS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernaleken, Christoph; Mihalic, Lamir; Güttler, Mathias; Klingauf, Uwe

    2006-05-01

    Increasing traffic density on the aerodrome surface due to the continuous worldwide growth in the number of flight operations does not only cause capacity and efficiency problems, but also increases the risk of serious incidents and accidents on the airport movement area. Of these, Runway Incursions are the by far most safety-critical. In fact, the worst-ever accident in civil aviation, the collision of two Boeing B747s on Tenerife in 1977 with 583 fatalities, was caused by a Runway Incursion. Therefore, various Runway Safety programs have recently been initiated around the globe, often focusing on ground-based measures such as improved surveillance. However, as a lack of flight crew situational awareness is a key causal factor in many Runway Incursion incidents and accidents, there is a strong need for an onboard solution, which should be capable of interacting cooperatively with ground-based ATM systems, such as A-SMGCS where available. This paper defines the concept of preventive and reactive Runway Incursion avoidance and describes a Surface Movement Awareness & Alerting System (SMAAS) designed to alert the flight crew if they are at risk of infringing a runway. Both the SVS flight deck displays and the corresponding alerting algorithms utilize an ED 99A/RTCA DO-272A compliant aerodrome database, as well as airport operational, traffic and clearance data received via ADS-B or other data links, respectively. The displays provide the crew with enhanced positional, operational, clearance and traffic awareness, and they are used to visualize alerts. A future enhancement of the system will provide intelligent alerting for conflicts caused by surrounding traffic.

  2. Los Angeles International Airport Runway Incursion Studies: Phase III--Center-Taxiway Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madson, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    Phase III of the Los Angeles International Airport Runway Incursion Studies was conducted, under an agreement with HNTB Corporation, at the NASA Ames FutureFlight Central (FFC) facility in June 2003. The objective of the study was the evaluation of a new center-taxiway concept at LAX. This study is an extension of the Phase I and Phase II studies previously conducted at FFC. This report presents results from Phase III of the study, in which a center-taxiway concept between runways 25L and 25R was simulated and evaluated. Phase III data were compared objectively against the Baseline data. Subjective evaluations by participating LAX controllers were obtained with regard to workload, efficiency, and safety criteria. To facilitate a valid comparison between Baseline and Phase III data, the same scenarios were used for Phase III that were tested during Phases I and II. This required briefing participating controllers on differences in airport and airline operations between 2001 and today.

  3. Development of a Bayesian Belief Network Runway Incursion and Excursion Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.

    2014-01-01

    In a previous work, a statistical analysis of runway incursion (RI) event data was conducted to ascertain the relevance of this data to the top ten Technical Challenges (TC) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). The study revealed connections to several of the AvSP top ten TC and identified numerous primary causes and contributing factors of RI events. The statistical analysis served as the basis for developing a system-level Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) model for RI events, also previously reported. Through literature searches and data analysis, this RI event network has now been extended to also model runway excursion (RE) events. These RI and RE event networks have been further modified and vetted by a Subject Matter Expert (SME) panel. The combined system-level BBN model will allow NASA to generically model the causes of RI and RE events and to assess the effectiveness of technology products being developed under NASA funding. These products are intended to reduce the frequency of runway safety incidents/accidents, and to improve runway safety in general. The development and structure of the BBN for both RI and RE events are documented in this paper.

  4. Runway Incursion Prevention System ADS-B and DGPS Data Link Analysis Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmerman, J.; Jones, Denise R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) was tested at the Dallas - Ft. Worth International Airport in October 2000. The system integrated airborne and ground components to provide both pilots and controllers with enhanced situational awareness, supplemental guidance cues, a real-time display of traffic information, and warning of runway incursions in order to prevent runway incidents while also improving operational capability. Rockwell Collins provided and supported a prototype Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) system using 1090 MHz and a prototype Differential GPS (DGPS) system onboard the NASA Boeing 757 research aircraft. This report describes the Rockwell Collins contributions to the RIPS flight test, summarizes the development process, and analyzes both ADS-B and DGPS data collected during the flight test. In addition, results are report on interoperability tests conducted between the NASA Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments (AGATE) ADS-B flight test system and the NASA Boeing 757 ADS-B system.

  5. Positioning System Accuracy Assessment for the Runway Incursion Prevention System Flight Test at the Dallas/Ft. Worth International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quach, Cuong C.

    2004-01-01

    NASA/Langley Research Center collaborated with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to test a Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) at the Dallas Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) in October 2000. The RIPS combines airborne and ground sensor data with various cockpit displays to improve pilots' awareness of traffic conditions on the airport surface. The systems tested at DFW involved surface radar and data systems that gather and send surface traffic information to a research aircraft outfitted with the RIPS software, cockpit displays, and data link transceivers. The data sent to the airborne systems contained identification and GPS location of traffic. This information was compared with the own-ship location from airborne GPS receivers to generate incursion alerts. A total of 93 test tracks were flown while operating RIPS. This report compares the accuracy of the airborne GPS systems that gave the own-ship position of the research aircraft for the 93 test tracks.

  6. Pilot Evaluations of Runway Status Light System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Steven D.; Wills, Robert W.; Smith, R. Marshall

    1996-01-01

    This study focuses on use of the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) Simulator at the Langley Research Center to obtain pilot opinion and input on the Federal Aviation Administration's Runway Status Light System (RWSL) prior to installation in an operational airport environment. The RWSL has been designed to reduce the likelihood of runway incursions by visually alerting pilots when a runway is occupied. Demonstrations of the RWSL in the TSRV Simulator allowed pilots to evaluate the system in a realistic cockpit environment.

  7. Elements affecting runway traction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    The five basic elements affecting runway traction for jet transport aircraft operation are identified and described in terms of pilot, aircraft system, atmospheric, tire, and pavement performance factors or parameters. Where possible, research results are summarized, and means for restoring or improving runway traction for these different conditions are discussed.

  8. Status of runway slipperiness research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. B.

    1976-01-01

    Runway slipperiness research performed in the United States and Europe since 1968 is reviewed. Topics discussed include: (1) runway flooding during rainstorms; (2) hydroplaning; (3) identification of slippery runways including the results from ground vehicle friction measurements and attempts to correlate these measurements with aircraft stopping performance; (4) progress and problems associated with the development of antihydroplaning runway surface treatments such as pavement grooving and porous friction course (PFC); and (5) runway rubber deposits and their removal.

  9. Development and Execution of the RUNSAFE Runway Safety Bayesian Belief Network Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.

    2015-01-01

    One focus area of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is to improve aviation safety. Runway safety is one such thrust of investigation and research. The two primary components of this runway safety research are in runway incursion (RI) and runway excursion (RE) events. These are adverse ground-based aviation incidents that endanger crew, passengers, aircraft and perhaps other nearby people or property. A runway incursion is the incorrect presence of an aircraft, vehicle or person on the protected area of a surface designated for the landing and take-off of aircraft; one class of RI events simultaneously involves two aircraft, such as one aircraft incorrectly landing on a runway while another aircraft is taking off from the same runway. A runway excursion is an incident involving only a single aircraft defined as a veer-off or overrun off the runway surface. Within the scope of this effort at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), generic RI, RE and combined (RI plus RE, or RUNSAFE) event models have each been developed and implemented as a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN). Descriptions of runway safety issues from the literature searches have been used to develop the BBN models. Numerous considerations surrounding the process of developing the event models have been documented in this report. The event models were then thoroughly reviewed by a Subject Matter Expert (SME) panel through multiple knowledge elicitation sessions. Numerous improvements to the model structure (definitions, node names, node states and the connecting link topology) were made by the SME panel. Sample executions of the final RUNSAFE model have been presented herein for baseline and worst-case scenarios. Finally, a parameter sensitivity analysis for a given scenario was performed to show the risk drivers. The NASA and LaRC research in runway safety event modeling through the use of BBN technology is important for several reasons. These include: 1) providing a means to clearly

  10. Progress Toward Future Runway Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohr, Gary W.; Brown, Sherilyn A.; Atkins, Stephen; Eisenhawer, Stephen W.; Bott, Terrance F.; Long, Dou; Hasan, Shahab

    2011-01-01

    The runway is universally acknowledged as a constraining factor to capacity in the National Airspace System (NAS). It follows that investigation of the effective use of runways, both in terms of selection and assignment, is paramount to the efficiency of future NAS operations. The need to address runway management is not a new idea; however, as the complexities of factors affecting runway selection and usage increase, the need for effective research in this area correspondingly increases. Under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Airspace Systems Program, runway management is a key research area. To address a future NAS which promises to be a complex landscape of factors and competing interests among users and operators, effective runway management strategies and capabilities are required. This effort has evolved from an assessment of current practices, an understanding of research activities addressing surface and airspace operations, traffic flow management enhancements, among others. This work has yielded significant progress. Systems analysis work indicates that the value of System Oriented Runway Management tools is significantly increased in the metroplex environment over that of the single airport case. Algorithms have been developed to provide runway configuration recommendations for a single airport with multiple runways. A benefits analysis has been conducted that indicates the SORM benefits include supporting traffic growth, cost reduction as a result of system efficiency, NAS optimization from metroplex operations, fairness in aircraft operations, and rational decision making.

  11. Recent Studies of Runway Roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Garland; Hall, Albert W.

    1965-01-01

    Recent studies of NASA research related to aircraft operating problems on rough runways are presented. Some of these investigations were conducted cooperatively with the airport operators, with the Federal Aviation Agency, and with the U.S. Air Force. The studies show that criteria based on power spectral levels of runway-profile data are not sufficient to define acceptable levels of runway roughness from the piloting viewpoint. Because of the large variation in response characteristics between various types of aircraft, a runway may be acceptable for some aircraft and unacceptable for others. A criterion for roughness, therefore, should be expressed in terms of aircraft response - preferably, cockpit acceleration. A criterion suggested is that the maximum vertical acceleration in the cockpit should not exceed +/- 0.4 g for sections of the runway where precise aircraft control is required.

  12. Conceptual model for collision detection and avoidance for runway incursion prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latimer, Bridgette A.

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), National Transportation and Safety Board (NTSB), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), numerous corporate entities, and research facilities have each come together to determine ways to make air travel safer and more efficient. These efforts have resulted in the development of a concept known as the Next Generation (Next Gen) of Aircraft or Next Gen. The Next Gen concept promises to be a clear departure from the way in which aircraft operations are performed today. The Next Gen initiatives require that modifications are made to the existing National Airspace System (NAS) concept of operations, system level requirements, software (SW) and hardware (HW) requirements, SW and HW designs and implementations. A second example of the changes in the NAS is the shift away from air traffic controllers having the responsibility for separation assurance. In the proposed new scheme of free flight, each aircraft would be responsible for assuring that it is safely separated from surrounding aircraft. Free flight would allow the separation minima for enroute aircraft to be reduced from 2000 nautical miles (nm) to 1000 nm. Simply put "Free Flight is a concept of air traffic management that permits pilots and controllers to share information and work together to manage air traffic from pre-flight through arrival without compromising safety [107]." The primary goal of this research project was to create a conceptual model that embodies the essential ingredients needed for a collision detection and avoidance system. This system was required to operate in two modes: air traffic controller's perspective and pilot's perspective. The secondary goal was to demonstrate that the technologies, procedures, and decision logic embedded in the conceptual model were able to effectively detect and avoid collision risks from both perspectives. Embodied in the conceptual model are five distinct software modules: Data Acquisition, State Processor, Projection, Collision Detection, and Alerting and Resolution. The underlying algorithms in the Projection module are linear projection and Kalman filtering which are used to estimate the future state of the aircraft. The Resolution and Alerting module is comprised of two algorithms: a generic alerting algorithm and the potential fields algorithm [71]. The conceptual model was created using Enterprise Architect RTM and MATLAB RTM was used to code the methods and to simulate conflict scenarios.

  13. Tire and runway surface research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1986-01-01

    The condition of aircraft tires and runway surfaces can be crucial in meeting the stringent demands of aircraft ground operations, particularly under adverse weather conditions. Gaining a better understanding of the factors influencing the tire/pavement interface is the aim of several ongoing NASA Langley research programs which are described in this paper. Results from several studies conducted at the Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility, tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and some recent aircraft accident investigations are summarized to indicate effects of different tire and runway properties. The Joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program is described together with some preliminary test findings. The scope of future NASA Langley research directed towards solving aircraft ground operational problems related to the tire/pavement interface is given.

  14. Preliminary Human-in-the-Loop Assessment of Procedures for Very-Closely-Spaced Parallel Runways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, Savita; Lozito, Sandra C.; Ballinger, Deborah S.; Trot, Greg; Hardy, Gordon H.; Panda, Ramesh C.; Lehmer, Ronald D.; Kozon, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Demand in the future air transportation system concept is expected to double or triple by 2025 [1]. Increasing airport arrival rates will help meet the growing demand that could be met with additional runways but the expansion airports is met with environmental challenges for the surrounding communities when using current standards and procedures. Therefore, changes to airport operations can improve airport capacity without adding runways. Building additional runways between current ones, or moving them closer, is a potential solution to meeting the increasing demand, as addressed by the Terminal Area Capacity Enhancing Concept (TACEC). TACEC requires robust technologies and procedures that need to be tested such that operations are not compromised under instrument meteorological conditions. The reduction of runway spacing for independent simultaneous operations dramatically exacerbates the criticality of wake vortex incursion and the calculation of a safe and proper breakout maneuver. The study presented here developed guidelines for such operations by performing a real-time, human-in-the-loop simulation using precision navigation, autopilot-flown approaches, with the pilot monitoring aircraft spacing and the wake vortex safe zone during the approach.

  15. Aerial view of Runway 33 at SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This aerial view shows the approach on Runway 33 at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility. The runway is 15,000 feet long, with 1,000-foot paved overruns at each end; 300 feet wide (about length of football field), with 50-foot asphalt shoulders each side; 16 inches thick in the center, and 15 inches thick on sides. It has a slope of 24 inches from the center line to the edge for drainage. The single landing strip is considered two runways, depending on approach -- Runway 15 from northwest, Runway 33 from southeast.

  16. Tire/runway friction interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of NASA Langley's tire/runway pavement interface studies. The National Tire Modeling Program, evaluation of new tire and landing gear designs, tire wear and friction tests, and tire hydroplaning studies are examined. The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility is described along with some ground friction measuring vehicles. The major goals and scope of several joint FAA/NASA programs are identified together with current status and plans.

  17. Traction of Pneumatic Tires on Wet Runways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, Walter B.; Joyner, Upshur T.

    1965-01-01

    Recent work on the traction of pneumatic tires on wet runways is discussed, and it is shown that a loss of tire traction adversely affects cross-wind landings. The effect of runway surface texture is discussed,, and a simple method for measuring surface texture is described. A preliminary correlation of tire traction with surface texture is shown. Results of work at Langley Research Center on the use of air jets to improve tire traction on wet or flooded runways indicate that this is a promising approach for alleviating the large losses in tire braking and sideways traction that occur when tire hydroplaning occurs on a flooded runway.

  18. 14 CFR 151.80 - Runway paving: Additional runway; other conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Runway paving: Additional runway; other conditions. 151.80 Section 151.80 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.80 Runway...

  19. 14 CFR 151.79 - Runway paving: Second runway; wind conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Runway paving: Second runway; wind conditions. 151.79 Section 151.79 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.79 Runway...

  20. 14 CFR 151.80 - Runway paving: Additional runway; other conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Runway paving: Additional runway; other conditions. 151.80 Section 151.80 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.80 Runway...

  1. 14 CFR 151.79 - Runway paving: Second runway; wind conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Runway paving: Second runway; wind conditions. 151.79 Section 151.79 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.79 Runway...

  2. 14 CFR 151.80 - Runway paving: Additional runway; other conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Runway paving: Additional runway; other conditions. 151.80 Section 151.80 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.80 Runway...

  3. 14 CFR 151.80 - Runway paving: Additional runway; other conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Runway paving: Additional runway; other conditions. 151.80 Section 151.80 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.80 Runway...

  4. 14 CFR 151.79 - Runway paving: Second runway; wind conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Runway paving: Second runway; wind conditions. 151.79 Section 151.79 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.79 Runway...

  5. 14 CFR 151.80 - Runway paving: Additional runway; other conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Runway paving: Additional runway; other conditions. 151.80 Section 151.80 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.80 Runway...

  6. 14 CFR 151.79 - Runway paving: Second runway; wind conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Runway paving: Second runway; wind conditions. 151.79 Section 151.79 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.79 Runway...

  7. 14 CFR 151.79 - Runway paving: Second runway; wind conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Runway paving: Second runway; wind conditions. 151.79 Section 151.79 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.79 Runway...

  8. Current Practices in Runway Configuration Management (RCM) and Arrival/Departure Runway Balancing (ADRB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohr, Gary W.; Williams, Daniel M.

    2008-01-01

    Significant air traffic increases are anticipated for the future of the National Airspace System (NAS). To cope with future traffic increases, fundamental changes are required in many aspects of the air traffic management process including the planning and use of NAS resources. Two critical elements of this process are the selection of airport runway configurations, and the effective management of active runways. Two specific research areas in NASA's Airspace Systems Program (ASP) have been identified to address efficient runway management: Runway Configuration Management (RCM) and Arrival/Departure Runway Balancing (ADRB). This report documents efforts in assessing past as well as current work in these two areas.

  9. Wet runways. [aircraft landing and directional control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. B.

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft stopping and directional control performance on wet runways is discussed. The major elements affecting tire/ground traction developed by jet transport aircraft are identified and described in terms of atmospheric, pavement, tire, aircraft system and pilot performance factors or parameters. Research results are summarized, and means for improving or restoring tire traction/aircraft performance on wet runways are discussed.

  10. Spot and Runway Departure Advisor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Yoon Chul

    2013-01-01

    The Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) is a research prototype of a decision support tool for ATC tower controllers to assist in manging and controlling traffic on the surface of an airport. SARDA employs a scheduler to generate an optimal runway schedule and gate push-back - spot release sequence and schedule that improves efficiency of surface operations. The advisories for ATC tower controllers are displayed on an Electronic Flight Strip (EFS) system. The human-in-the-loop simulation of the SARDA tool was conducted for east operations of Dallas-Ft. Worth International Airport (DFW) to evaluate performance of the SARDA tool and human factors, such as situational awareness and workload. The results indicates noticeable taxi delay reduction and fuel savings by using the SARDA tool. Reduction in controller workload were also observed throughout the scenario runs. The future plan includes modeling and simulation of the ramp operations of the Charlotte International Airport, and develop a decision support tool for the ramp controllers.

  11. System Oriented Runway Management: A Research Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohr, Gary W.; Brown, Sherilyn A.; Stough, Harry P., III; Eisenhawer, Steve; Atkins, Stephen; Long, Dou

    2011-01-01

    The runway configuration used by an airport has significant implications with respect to its capacity and ability to effectively manage surface and airborne traffic. Aircraft operators rely on runway configuration information because it can significantly affect an airline's operations and planning of their resources. Current practices in runway management are limited by a relatively short time horizon for reliable weather information and little assistance from automation. Wind velocity is the primary consideration when selecting a runway configuration; however when winds are below a defined threshold, discretion may be used to determine the configuration. Other considerations relevant to runway configuration selection include airport operator constraints, weather conditions (other than winds) traffic demand, user preferences, surface congestion, and navigational system outages. The future offers an increasingly complex landscape for the runway management process. Concepts and technologies that hold the potential for capacity and efficiency increases for both operations on the airport surface and in terminal and enroute airspace are currently under investigation. Complementary advances in runway management are required if capacity and efficiency increases in those areas are to be realized. The System Oriented Runway Management (SORM) concept has been developed to address this critical part of the traffic flow process. The SORM concept was developed to address all aspects of runway management for airports of varying sizes and to accommodate a myriad of traffic mixes. SORM, to date, addresses the single airport environment; however, the longer term vision is to incorporate capabilities for multiple airport (Metroplex) operations as well as to accommodate advances in capabilities resulting from ongoing research. This paper provides an update of research supporting the SORM concept including the following: a concept of overview, results of a TRCM simulation, single

  12. Effect of Uncertainty on Deterministic Runway Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Gautam; Malik, Waqar; Jung, Yoon C.

    2012-01-01

    Active runway scheduling involves scheduling departures for takeoffs and arrivals for runway crossing subject to numerous constraints. This paper evaluates the effect of uncertainty on a deterministic runway scheduler. The evaluation is done against a first-come- first-serve scheme. In particular, the sequence from a deterministic scheduler is frozen and the times adjusted to satisfy all separation criteria; this approach is tested against FCFS. The comparison is done for both system performance (throughput and system delay) and predictability, and varying levels of congestion are considered. The modeling of uncertainty is done in two ways: as equal uncertainty in availability at the runway as for all aircraft, and as increasing uncertainty for later aircraft. Results indicate that the deterministic approach consistently performs better than first-come-first-serve in both system performance and predictability.

  13. Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) is a decision support tool to assist airline ramp controllers and ATC tower controllers to manage traffic on the airport surface to significantly improve efficiency and predictability in surface operations. The core function of the tool is the runway scheduler which generates an optimal solution for runway sequence and schedule of departure aircraft, which would minimize system delay and maximize runway throughput. The presentation also discusses the latest status of NASA's current surface research through a collaboration with an airline partner, where a tool is developed for airline ramp operators to assist departure pushback operations. The presentation describes the concept of the SARDA tool and results from human-in-the-loop simulations conducted in 2012 for Dallas-Ft. Worth International Airport and 2014 for Charlotte airport ramp tower.

  14. TRIZ Tool for Optimization of Airport Runway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. Venkata; Selladurai, V.; Saravanan, R.

    TRIZ tool is used for conceptual design and layout of the novel ascending and descending runway model for the effective utilization of short length airports. Handling bigger aircrafts at smaller airports become the necessity for economic consideration and for the benefit of vast airliners and the aspiring air travelers of the region. The authors’ proposal of ascending and descending runway would enable the operational need of wide body aircrafts such as Boeing 747 and Airbus A380-800. Negotiating take-off and landing of bigger aircrafts at less than 10000 feet runway is an optimization solution. This conceptual model and the theoretical design with its layout is dealt in this paper as Part - I. The computer-aided design and analysis using MATLAB with Simulink tool box to confirm the adequacy of the runway length for the bigger aircrafts at smaller airports is however dealt in subsequent papers.

  15. Joint Winter Runway Friction Program Accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Wambold, James C.; Henry, John J.; Andresen, Arild; Bastian, Matthew

    2002-01-01

    The major program objectives are: (1) harmonize ground vehicle friction measurements to report consistent friction value or index for similar contaminated runway conditions, for example, compacted snow, and (2) establish reliable correlation between ground vehicle friction measurements and aircraft braking performance. Accomplishing these objectives would give airport operators better procedures for evaluating runway friction and maintaining acceptable operating conditions, providing pilots information to base go/no go decisions, and would contribute to reducing traction-related aircraft accidents.

  16. Airplane-Runway-Performance Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B.; Person, Lee H., Jr.; Srivatsan, Raghavachari

    1992-01-01

    Airplane-Runway-Performance Monitoring System (ARPMS) increases safety during takeoffs and landings by providing pilots with symbolic "head-up" and "head-down" information pertinent to decisions to continue or abort takeoffs or landings. Provides graphic information concerning where airplane could be stopped. Pilot monitors ground speed and predicted stopping point while looking at actual runway. High potential for incorporation into cockpit environment for entire aerospace community.

  17. Runway Scheduling Using Generalized Dynamic Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, Justin; Wood, Zachary; Rathinam, Sivakumar

    2011-01-01

    A generalized dynamic programming method for finding a set of pareto optimal solutions for a runway scheduling problem is introduced. The algorithm generates a set of runway fight sequences that are optimal for both runway throughput and delay. Realistic time-based operational constraints are considered, including miles-in-trail separation, runway crossings, and wake vortex separation. The authors also model divergent runway takeoff operations to allow for reduced wake vortex separation. A modeled Dallas/Fort Worth International airport and three baseline heuristics are used to illustrate preliminary benefits of using the generalized dynamic programming method. Simulated traffic levels ranged from 10 aircraft to 30 aircraft with each test case spanning 15 minutes. The optimal solution shows a 40-70 percent decrease in the expected delay per aircraft over the baseline schedulers. Computational results suggest that the algorithm is promising for real-time application with an average computation time of 4.5 seconds. For even faster computation times, two heuristics are developed. As compared to the optimal, the heuristics are within 5% of the expected delay per aircraft and 1% of the expected number of runway operations per hour ad can be 100x faster.

  18. Review of factors affecting aircraft wet runway performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from investigations conducted at the Langley Aircraft Landing Loads and Traction Facility and from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  19. Late Neogene marine incursions and the ancestral Gulf of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDougall, K.

    2008-01-01

    The late Neogene section in the Salton Trough, California, and along the lower Colorado River in Arizona is composed of marine units bracketed by nonmarine units. Microfossils from the marine deposits indicate that a marine incursion inundated the Salton Trough during the late Miocene. Water depths increased rapidly in the Miocene and eventually flooded the region now occupied by the Colorado River as far north as Parker, Arizona. Marine conditions were restricted in the Pliocene as the Colorado River filled the Salton Trough with sediments and the Gulf of California assumed its present configuration. Microfossils from the early part of this incursion include a diverse assemblage of benthic foraminifers (Amphistegina gibbosa, Uvigerina peregrina, Cassidulina delicata, and Bolivina interjuncta), planktic foraminifers (Globigerinoides obliquus, G. extremus, and Globigerina nepenthes), and calcareous nannoplankton (Discoaster brouweri, Discoaster aff. Discoaster surculus, Sphenolithus abies, and S. neoabies), whereas microfossils in the final phase contain a less diverse assemblage of benthic foraminifers that are diagnostic of marginal shallow-marine conditions (Ammonia, Elphidium, Bolivina, Cibicides, and Quinqueloculina). Evidence of an earlier middle Miocene marine incursion comes from reworked microfossils found near Split Mountain Gorge in the Fish Creek Gypsum (Sphenolithus moriformis) and near San Gorgonio Pass (Cyclicargolithus floridanus and Sphenolithus heteromorphus and planktic foraminifers). The middle Miocene incursion may also be represented by the older marine sedimentary rocks encountered in the subsurface near Yuma, Arizona, where rare middle Miocene planktic foraminifers are found. ?? 2008 The Geological Society of America.

  20. NASA tire/runway friction projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    The paper reviews several aspects of NASA Langley Research Center's tire/runway friction evaluations directed towards improving the safety and economy of aircraft ground operations. The facilities and test equipment used in implementing different aircraft tire friction studies and other related aircraft ground performance investigations are described together with recent workshop activities at NASA Wallops Flight Facility. An overview of the pending Joint NASA/Transport Canada/FM Winter Runway Friction Program is given. Other NASA ongoing studies and on-site field tests are discussed including tire wear performance and new surface treatments. The paper concludes with a description of future research plans.

  1. Probabilistic computer model of optimal runway turnoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoen, M. L.; Preston, O. W.; Summers, L. G.; Nelson, B. A.; Vanderlinden, L.; Mcreynolds, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    Landing delays are currently a problem at major air carrier airports and many forecasters agree that airport congestion will get worse by the end of the century. It is anticipated that some types of delays can be reduced by an efficient optimal runway exist system allowing increased approach volumes necessary at congested airports. A computerized Probabilistic Runway Turnoff Model which locates exits and defines path geometry for a selected maximum occupancy time appropriate for each TERPS aircraft category is defined. The model includes an algorithm for lateral ride comfort limits.

  2. Some effects of grooved runway configurations on aircraft tire braking traction under flooded runway conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrdsong, T. A.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effect of grooved runway configurations on aircraft tire braking traction on flooded runway surfaces. The investigation was performed, utilizing size 49 x 17, type VII, aircraft tires with an inflation pressure of 170 lb per square inch at ground speeds up to approximately 120 knots. The results of this investigation indicate that when the runway is flooded, grooved surfaces provide better braking traction than an ungrooved surface and, in general, the level of braking traction was found to improve as the tire bearing pressure was increased because of an increase in the groove area of either the surface or the tire tread. Rounding the groove edges tended to degrade the tire braking capability from that developed on the same groove configuration with sharp edges. Results also indicate that braking friction coefficients for the test tires and runway surfaces decreased as ground speed was increased because of the hydroplaning effects.

  3. Evaluation of Scheduling Methods for Multiple Runways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolender, Michael A.; Slater, G. L.

    1996-01-01

    Several scheduling strategies are analyzed in order to determine the most efficient means of scheduling aircraft when multiple runways are operational and the airport is operating at different utilization rates. The study compares simulation data for two and three runway scenarios to results from queuing theory for an M/D/n queue. The direction taken, however, is not to do a steady-state, or equilibrium, analysis since this is not the case during a rush period at a typical airport. Instead, a transient analysis of the delay per aircraft is performed. It is shown that the scheduling strategy that reduces the delay depends upon the density of the arrival traffic. For light traffic, scheduling aircraft to their preferred runways is sufficient; however, as the arrival rate increases, it becomes more important to separate traffic by weight class. Significant delay reduction is realized when aircraft that belong to the heavy and small weight classes are sent to separate runways with large aircraft put into the 'best' landing slot.

  4. Machine vision for airport runway identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Matthew; Moore, Andrew J.; Dolph, Chester; Woodell, Glenn

    2015-03-01

    For rigid objects and fixed scenes, current machine vision technology is capable of identifying imagery rapidly and with specificity over a modest range of camera viewpoints and scene illumination. We applied that capability to the problem of runway identification using video of sixteen runway approaches at nine locations, subject to two simplifying assumptions. First, by using approach video from just one of the several possible seasonal variations (no snow cover and full foliage), we artificially removed one source of scene variation in this study. Secondly, by not using approach video at dawn and dusk, we limited the study to two illumination variants (day and night). We did allow scene variation due to atmospheric turbidity by using approach video from rainy and foggy days in some daytime approaches. With suitable ensemble statistics to account for temporal continuity in video, we observed high location specificity (<90% Bayesian posterior probability). We also tested repeatability, i.e., identification of a given runway across multiple videos, and observed robust repeatability only if illumination (day vs. night) was the same and approach visibility was good. Both specificity and repeatability degraded in poor weather conditions. The results of this simplified study show that geolocation via real-time comparison of cockpit image sensor video to a database of runway approach imagery is feasible, as long as the database contains imagery from about the same time of day (complete daylight and nighttime, excluding dawn and dusk) and the weather is clear at the time of the flight.

  5. A late Wisconsinan marine incursion into Cape Cod Bay, Massachusetts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldale, Robert N.

    1988-11-01

    Reinterpretation of seismic-reflection data from Cape Cod Bay has produced a revised late Wisconsinan history. Acoustically laminated deposits, originally inferred to be glaciolacustrine, are shown to be glaciomarine by tracing them to glaciomarine mud in Stellwagen Basin, north of Cape Cod Bay. A late Wisconsinan marine deposit of nonglacial origin overlies the glaciomarine deposits in Cape Cod Bay. Both deposits indicate that the crust was isostatically depressed below the late Wisconsinan eustatic sea level and that deglaciation and marine submergence occurred simultaneously. Valleys cut into the marine deposits, both glacial and nonglacial, indicate that a low sea-level stand, the result of isostatic rebound, occurred shortly after the marine incursion. A transgressive uncomformity and marine deposits, both mostly of Holocene age, overlie the late Wisconsinan deposits. The marine incursion, regression, and Holocene transgression represent the northward passage of an isostatically induced peripheral bulge following deglaciation. In turn, the bulge, a response to crustal loading and unloading, indicates thick glacier ice in the terminal zone and lends support to arguments for a maximum Laurentide ice model. Evidence for a late Wisconsinan marine incursion, regression, and the passage of a peripheral bulge should be sought in the other bays and sounds of the New England terminal zone.

  6. A late Wisconsinan marine incursion into Cape Cod Bay, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oldale, R.N.

    1988-01-01

    Reinterpretation of seismic-reflection data from Cape Cod Bay has produced a revised late Wisconsinan history. Acoustically laminated deposits, originally inferred to be glaciolacustrine, are shown to be glaciomarine by tracing them to glaciomarine mud in Stellwagen Basin, north of Cape Cod Bay. A late Wisconsinan marine deposit of nonglacial origin overlies the glaciomarine deposits in Cape Cod Bay. Both deposits indicate that the crust was isostatically depressed below the late Wisconsinan eustatic sea level and that deglaciation and marine submergence occurred simultaneously. Valleys cut into the marine deposits, both glacial and nonglacial, indicate that a low sea-level stand, the result of isostatic rebound, occurred shortly after the marine incursion. A transgressive uncomformity and marine deposits, both mostly of Holocene age, overlie the late Wisconsinan deposits. The marine incursion, regression, and Holocene transgression represent the northward passage of an isostatically induced peripheral bulge following deglaciation. In turn, the bulge, a response to crustal loading and unloading, indicates thick glacier ice in the terminal zone and lends support to arguments for a maximum Laurentide ice model. Evidence for a late Wisconsinan marine incursion, regression, and the passage of a peripheral bulge should be sought in the other bays and sounds of the New England terminal zone. ?? 1988.

  7. Runway Operations Planning: A Two-Stage Solution Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anagnostakis, Ioannis; Clarke, John-Paul

    2003-01-01

    The airport runway is a scarce resource that must be shared by different runway operations (arrivals, departures and runway crossings). Given the possible sequences of runway events, careful Runway Operations Planning (ROP) is required if runway utilization is to be maximized. Thus, Runway Operations Planning (ROP) is a critical component of airport operations planning in general and surface operations planning in particular. From the perspective of departures, ROP solutions are aircraft departure schedules developed by optimally allocating runway time for departures given the time required for arrivals and crossings. In addition to the obvious objective of maximizing throughput, other objectives, such as guaranteeing fairness and minimizing environmental impact, may be incorporated into the ROP solution subject to constraints introduced by Air Traffic Control (ATC) procedures. Generating optimal runway operations plans was approached in with a 'one-stage' optimization routine that considered all the desired objectives and constraints, and the characteristics of each aircraft (weight class, destination, Air Traffic Control (ATC) constraints) at the same time. Since, however, at any given point in time, there is less uncertainty in the predicted demand for departure resources in terms of weight class than in terms of specific aircraft, the ROP problem can be parsed into two stages. In the context of the Departure Planner (OP) research project, this paper introduces Runway Operations Planning (ROP) as part of the wider Surface Operations Optimization (SOO) and describes a proposed 'two stage' heuristic algorithm for solving the Runway Operations Planning (ROP) problem. Focus is specifically given on including runway crossings in the planning process of runway operations. In the first stage, sequences of departure class slots and runwy crossings slots are generated and ranked based on departure runway throughput under stochastic conditions. In the second stage, the

  8. Runway Operations Planning: A Two-Stage Heuristic Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anagnostakis, Ioannis; Clarke, John-Paul

    2003-01-01

    The airport runway is a scarce resource that must be shared by different runway operations (arrivals, departures and runway crossings). Given the possible sequences of runway events, careful Runway Operations Planning (ROP) is required if runway utilization is to be maximized. From the perspective of departures, ROP solutions are aircraft departure schedules developed by optimally allocating runway time for departures given the time required for arrivals and crossings. In addition to the obvious objective of maximizing throughput, other objectives, such as guaranteeing fairness and minimizing environmental impact, can also be incorporated into the ROP solution subject to constraints introduced by Air Traffic Control (ATC) procedures. This paper introduces a two stage heuristic algorithm for solving the Runway Operations Planning (ROP) problem. In the first stage, sequences of departure class slots and runway crossings slots are generated and ranked based on departure runway throughput under stochastic conditions. In the second stage, the departure class slots are populated with specific flights from the pool of available aircraft, by solving an integer program with a Branch & Bound algorithm implementation. Preliminary results from this implementation of the two-stage algorithm on real-world traffic data are presented.

  9. Formal Verification of the Runway Safety Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siminiceanu, Radu; Ciardo, Gianfranco

    2006-01-01

    The Runway Safety Monitor (RSM) designed by Lockheed Martin is part of NASA's effort to reduce runway accidents. We developed a Petri net model of the RSM protocol and used the model checking functions of our tool SMART to investigate a number of safety properties in RSM. To mitigate the impact of state-space explosion, we built a highly discretized model of the system, obtained by partitioning the monitored runway zone into a grid of smaller volumes and by considering scenarios involving only two aircraft. The model also assumes that there are no communication failures, such as bad input from radar or lack of incoming data, thus it relies on a consistent view of reality by all participants. In spite of these simplifications, we were able to expose potential problems in the RSM conceptual design. Our findings were forwarded to the design engineers, who undertook corrective action. Additionally, the results stress the efficiency attained by the new model checking algorithms implemented in SMART, and demonstrate their applicability to real-world systems.

  10. Runway Positioning and Moving Object Detection Prior to Landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamza, Rida; Mohamed, M. Ibrahim; Ramegowda, Dinesh; Rao, Venkatagiri

    Safe navigation of both manned and unmanned aircraft requires a robust runway identification process and reliable obstacle detection to determine the runway status before landing. The navigation data extracted from multiple sources of current synthetic navigation sources are not adequate for positioning an aircraft, and it cannot detect moving obstacles on runways, especially during reduced visibility conditions. The enhanced vision system (EVS) described in this article can augment current synthetic vision database capabilities by providing more accurate positioning of a runway and detecting moving objects on it from an onboard infrared sensor. Our EVS is based on a two-step process. We first analyze the sensor image to identify and segment the runway coordinates. These estimates are then used to locate the runway structure and detect moving obstacles. In the segmentation process, we apply an adaptive thresholding technique to calculate the edges of a runway based on the predicted synthetic data. To match a runway template on the edges, we examine alternative fitting models. The predicted coordinates and the detected edges are then correlated to determine the location of the actual runway coordinates within the sensor image. These coordinate estimates are fed to the dynamic stabilization of the image sequence in the obstacle detection process. We also use feature points beyond the estimated runway coordinates to further improve the stabilization process. Next, we normalize the stabilized sequence to compensate for the global intensity variations caused by the gain control of the infrared sensor. We then create a background model to create an appearance model of the runway. Finally, we identify moving objects by comparing the image sequence with the background model. We have tested our EVS and reported significant improvements over the synthetic navigation data. We have been able to detect distant moving objects around the runway.

  11. 14 CFR 151.9 - Runway clear zones: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Runway clear zones: General. 151.9 Section 151.9 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... above the elevation of the runway or 50 feet above the terrain at the outer extremity of the clear...

  12. 14 CFR 151.9 - Runway clear zones: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Runway clear zones: General. 151.9 Section 151.9 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... above the elevation of the runway or 50 feet above the terrain at the outer extremity of the clear...

  13. 14 CFR 151.9 - Runway clear zones: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Runway clear zones: General. 151.9 Section 151.9 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... above the elevation of the runway or 50 feet above the terrain at the outer extremity of the clear...

  14. 14 CFR 151.9 - Runway clear zones: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Runway clear zones: General. 151.9 Section 151.9 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... above the elevation of the runway or 50 feet above the terrain at the outer extremity of the clear...

  15. 14 CFR 151.77 - Runway paving: General rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Runway paving: General rules. 151.77 Section 151.77 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.77 Runway paving:...

  16. 14 CFR 151.77 - Runway paving: General rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Runway paving: General rules. 151.77 Section 151.77 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.77 Runway paving:...

  17. 14 CFR 151.77 - Runway paving: General rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Runway paving: General rules. 151.77 Section 151.77 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.77 Runway paving:...

  18. 14 CFR 151.77 - Runway paving: General rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Runway paving: General rules. 151.77 Section 151.77 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.77 Runway paving:...

  19. 14 CFR 151.77 - Runway paving: General rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Runway paving: General rules. 151.77 Section 151.77 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.77 Runway paving:...

  20. View from the center of the 1922 Seaplane Runway, with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from the center of the 1922 Seaplane Runway, with the 1930s Seaplane Beach angling off to the right - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Seaplane Runway, Southern tip of Ford Island, near Lexington Boulevard, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. 32 CFR 256.6 - Runway classification by aircraft type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Runway classification by aircraft type. 256.6 Section 256.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS AIR INSTALLATIONS COMPATIBLE USE ZONES § 256.6 Runway classification by...

  2. 32 CFR 256.6 - Runway classification by aircraft type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Runway classification by aircraft type. 256.6 Section 256.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS AIR INSTALLATIONS COMPATIBLE USE ZONES § 256.6 Runway classification by...

  3. Throughput Benefit Assessment for Tactical Runway Configuration Management (TRCM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa M.; Lohr, Gary W.; Fenbert, James W.

    2014-01-01

    The System-Oriented Runway Management (SORM) concept is a collection of needed capabilities focused on a more efficient use of runways while considering all of the factors that affect runway use. Tactical Runway Configuration Management (TRCM), one of the SORM capabilities, provides runway configuration and runway usage recommendations, monitoring the active runway configuration for suitability given existing factors, based on a 90 minute planning horizon. This study evaluates the throughput benefits using a representative sample of today's traffic volumes at three airports: Memphis International Airport (MEM), Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFW), and John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK). Based on this initial assessment, there are statistical throughput benefits for both arrivals and departures at MEM with an average of 4% for arrivals, and 6% for departures. For DFW, there is a statistical benefit for arrivals with an average of 3%. Although there is an average of 1% benefit observed for departures, it is not statistically significant. For JFK, there is a 12% benefit for arrivals, but a 2% penalty for departures. The results obtained are for current traffic volumes and should show greater benefit for increased future demand. This paper also proposes some potential TRCM algorithm improvements for future research. A continued research plan is being worked to implement these improvements and to re-assess the throughput benefit for today and future projected traffic volumes.

  4. Marine incursion into East Asia: a forgotten driving force of biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lu; Hou, Zhonge; Li, Shuqiang

    2013-01-01

    Episodic marine incursion has been a major driving force in the formation of present-day diversity. Marine incursion is considered to be one of the most productive ‘species pumps’ particularly because of its division and coalescence effects. Marine incursion events and their impacts on diversity are well documented from South America, North America and Africa; however, their history and impacts in continental East Asia largely remain unknown. Here, we propose a marine incursion scenario occurring in East Asia during the Miocene epoch, 10–17 Ma. Our molecular phylogenetic analysis of Platorchestia talitrids revealed that continental terrestrial populations (Platorchestia japonica) form a monophyletic group that is the sister group to the Northwest Pacific coastal species Platorchestia pacifica. The divergence time between the two species coincides with Middle Miocene high global sea levels. We suggest that the inland form arose as a consequence of a marine incursion event. This is the first solid case documenting the impact of marine incursion on extant biodiversity in continental East Asia. We believe that such incursion event has had major impacts on other organisms and has played an important role in the formation of biodiversity patterns in the region. PMID:23446524

  5. Marine incursion into East Asia: a forgotten driving force of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lu; Hou, Zhonge; Li, Shuqiang

    2013-04-22

    Episodic marine incursion has been a major driving force in the formation of present-day diversity. Marine incursion is considered to be one of the most productive 'species pumps' particularly because of its division and coalescence effects. Marine incursion events and their impacts on diversity are well documented from South America, North America and Africa; however, their history and impacts in continental East Asia largely remain unknown. Here, we propose a marine incursion scenario occurring in East Asia during the Miocene epoch, 10-17 Ma. Our molecular phylogenetic analysis of Platorchestia talitrids revealed that continental terrestrial populations (Platorchestia japonica) form a monophyletic group that is the sister group to the Northwest Pacific coastal species Platorchestia pacifica. The divergence time between the two species coincides with Middle Miocene high global sea levels. We suggest that the inland form arose as a consequence of a marine incursion event. This is the first solid case documenting the impact of marine incursion on extant biodiversity in continental East Asia. We believe that such incursion event has had major impacts on other organisms and has played an important role in the formation of biodiversity patterns in the region.

  6. Evaluation of a tritium runway-lighting system. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, E.S.

    1992-04-01

    A tritium powered runway lighting system was installed and evaluated at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Technical Center. The purpose of this evaluation was to determine if the tritium runway lighting system would safely support Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) Part 135 commercial operations, during nighttime visual flight rules (VFR) conditions at remote airports. Subject pilots having flight experience levels appropriate for pilots conducting FAR Part 135 air taxi operations were afforded the opportunity of flight testing the system. Results of the evaluation indicate that the tritium runway lighting system does not meet all of the minimum criteria necessary for FAA approval and, therefore, would not guarantee an acceptable level of safety. Tritium Runway Lighting System, Remote Airports.

  7. An automatic registration method based on runway detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiuqiong; Yu, Li; Huang, Guo

    2014-04-01

    Runway is seen distinctly that is a crucial condition in the process of approaching and landing. One of the enhanced vision methods is image fusion method between the infrared and visible images in EVS (Enhanced Vision System). The image registration plays a very important role in image fusion. So, an automatic image registration method is proposed based on the accurate runway detection. Firstly, runway is detected using DWT (discrete wavelets transform) from the infrared and visible images respectively. Then, a fitting triangle is constructed according to the edges of runway. The corresponding feature points extracted from the middle points of edges and the centroid of triangle are used to compute the transform parameters. The results of registration are more accurate and efficient than those of registration based on mutual information. This method is robust and has less computation which can be applied to real-time system.

  8. Iron clad wetlands: Soil iron-sulfur buffering determines coastal wetland response to salt water incursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoepfer, Valerie A.; Bernhardt, Emily S.; Burgin, Amy J.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal freshwater wetland chemistry is rapidly changing due to increased frequency of salt water incursion, a consequence of global change. Seasonal salt water incursion introduces sulfate, which microbially reduces to sulfide. Sulfide binds with reduced iron, producing iron sulfide (FeS), recognizable in wetland soils by its characteristic black color. The objective of this study is to document iron and sulfate reduction rates, as well as product formation (acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and chromium reducible sulfide (CRS)) in a coastal freshwater wetland undergoing seasonal salt water incursion. Understanding iron and sulfur cycling, as well as their reduction products, allows us to calculate the degree of sulfidization (DOS), from which we can estimate how long soil iron will buffer against chemical effects of sea level rise. We show that soil chloride, a direct indicator of the degree of incursion, best predicted iron and sulfate reduction rates. Correlations between soil chloride and iron or sulfur reduction rates were strongest in the surface layer (0-3 cm), indicative of surface water incursion, rather than groundwater intrusion at our site. The interaction between soil moisture and extractable chloride was significantly related to increased AVS, whereas increased soil chloride was a stronger predictor of CRS. The current DOS in this coastal plains wetland is very low, resulting from high soil iron content and relatively small degree of salt water incursion. However, with time and continuous salt water exposure, iron will bind with incoming sulfur, creating FeS complexes, and DOS will increase.

  9. Human risk factors associated with pilots in runway excursions.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Hern; Yang, Hui-Hua; Hsiao, Yu-Jung

    2016-09-01

    A breakdown analysis of civil aviation accidents worldwide indicates that the occurrence of runway excursions represents the largest portion among all aviation occurrence categories. This study examines the human risk factors associated with pilots in runway excursions, by applying a SHELLO model to categorize the human risk factors and to evaluate the importance based on the opinions of 145 airline pilots. This study integrates aviation management level expert opinions on relative weighting and improvement-achievability in order to develop four kinds of priority risk management strategies for airline pilots to reduce runway excursions. The empirical study based on experts' evaluation suggests that the most important dimension is the liveware/pilot's core ability. From the perspective of front-line pilots, the most important risk factors are the environment, wet/containment runways, and weather issues like rain/thunderstorms. Finally, this study develops practical strategies for helping management authorities to improve major operational and managerial weaknesses so as to reduce the human risks related to runway excursions. PMID:27344128

  10. A Runway Surface Monitor using Internet of Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troiano, Amedeo; Pasero, Eros

    2014-05-01

    The monitoring of runway surfaces, for the detection of ice formation or presence of water, is an important issue for reducing maintenance costs and improving traffic safety. An innovative sensor was developed to detect the presence of ice or water on its surface, and its repeatability, stability and reliability were assessed in different simulations and experiments, performed both in laboratory and in the field. Three sensors were embedded in the runway of the Turin-Caselle airport, in the north-west of Italy, to check the state of its surface. Each sensor was connected to a GPRS modem to send the collected data to a common database. The entire system was installed about three years ago, and up to now it shows correct work and automatic reactivation after malfunctions without any external help. The state of the runway surface is virtual represented in an internet website, using the Internet of Things features and opening new scenarios.

  11. Aircraft and Ground Vehicle Winter Runway Friction Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1999-01-01

    Some background information is given together with the scope and objectives of a 5-year, Joint Winter Runway Friction Measurement Program between the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA), Transport Canada (TC), and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The primary objective of this effort is to perform instrumented aircraft and ground vehicle tests aimed at identifying a common number that all the different ground vehicle devices would report. This number, denoted the International Runway Friction Index (IRFI), will be related to all types of aircraft stopping performance. The range of test equipment, the test sites, test results and accomplishments, the extent of the substantial friction database compiled, and future test plans will be described. Several related studies have also been implemented including the effects of contaminant type on aircraft impingement drag, and the effectiveness of various runway and aircraft de-icing chemical types, and application rates.

  12. Aluminum runway surface as possible aid to aircraft braking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. D.; Pinkel, I. I.

    1973-01-01

    Several concepts are described for use singly or in combination to improve aircraft braking. All involve a thin layer of aluminum covering all or part of the runway. Advantage would derive from faster heat conduction from the tire-runway interface. Heating of tread surface with consequent softening and loss of friction coefficient should be reduced. Equations are developed indicating that at least 99 percent of friction heat should flow into the aluminum. Preliminary test results indicate a coefficient of sliding friction of 1.4, with predictably slight heating of tread. Elimination of conventional brakes is at least a remote possibility.

  13. Measures to increase airfield capacity by changing aircraft runway occupancy characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosling, G. D.; Kanafani, A.; Rockaday, S. L. M.

    1981-01-01

    Airfield capacity and aircraft runway occupancy characteristics were studied. Factors that caused runway congestion and airfield crowding were identified. Several innovations designed to alleviate the congestion are discussed. Integrated landing management, the concept that the operation of the final approach and runway should be considered in concert, was identified as underlying all of the innovations.

  14. 76 FR 67018 - Notice to Manufacturers of Airport In-Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice to Manufacturers of Airport In-Pavement Stationary Runway Weather... of In-Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems. SUMMARY: Projects funded under the... Active or Passive In- Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems that meet the...

  15. Runway drainage characteristics related to tire friction performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    The capability of a runway pavement to rapidly drain water buildup during periods of precipitation is crucial to minimize tire hydroplaning potential and maintain adequate aircraft ground operational safety. Test results from instrumented aircraft, ground friction measuring vehicles, and NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) track have been summarized to indicate the adverse effects of pavement wetness conditions on tire friction performance. Water drainage measurements under a range of rainfall rates have been evaluated for several different runway surface treatments including the transversely grooved and longitudinally grinded concrete surfaces at the Space Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) runway at NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The major parameters influencing drainage rates and extent of flooding/drying conditions are identified. Existing drainage test data are compared to a previously derived empirical relationship and the need for some modification is indicated. The scope of future NASA Langley research directed toward improving empirical relationships to properly define runway drainage capability and consequently, enhance aircraft ground operational safety, is given.

  16. General view of the Orbiter Discovery on runway 33 at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the Orbiter Discovery on runway 33 at Kennedy Space Center shortly after landing. The orbiter is processed and prepared for being towed to the Orbiter Processing Facility for continued post flight processing and pre flight preparations for its next mission. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  17. General view of runway 33 at the Kennedy Space Center ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of runway 33 at the Kennedy Space Center looking at the ground support equipment and the aft and starboard side of the Orbiter Discovery as the orbiter is undergoing post flight processing and preparations to be towed to the Orbiter Processing Facility. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  18. General view of runway 33 at the Kennedy Space Center ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of runway 33 at the Kennedy Space Center looking at the ground support equipment and the aft and port side of the Orbiter Discovery as the orbiter is undergoing post flight processing and preparations to be towed to the Orbiter Processing Facility. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  19. General view of runway 33 at the Kennedy Space Center ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of runway 33 at the Kennedy Space Center looking at the ground support equipment and the port side of the Orbiter Discovery as the orbiter is undergoing post flight processing and preparations to be towed to the Orbiter Processing Facility. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  20. Parallel runway requirement analysis study. Volume 2: Simulation manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebrahimi, Yaghoob S.; Chun, Ken S.

    1993-01-01

    This document is a user manual for operating the PLAND_BLUNDER (PLB) simulation program. This simulation is based on two aircraft approaching parallel runways independently and using parallel Instrument Landing System (ILS) equipment during Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). If an aircraft should deviate from its assigned localizer course toward the opposite runway, this constitutes a blunder which could endanger the aircraft on the adjacent path. The worst case scenario would be if the blundering aircraft were unable to recover and continue toward the adjacent runway. PLAND_BLUNDER is a Monte Carlo-type simulation which employs the events and aircraft positioning during such a blunder situation. The model simulates two aircraft performing parallel ILS approaches using Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) or visual procedures. PLB uses a simple movement model and control law in three dimensions (X, Y, Z). The parameters of the simulation inputs and outputs are defined in this document along with a sample of the statistical analysis. This document is the second volume of a two volume set. Volume 1 is a description of the application of the PLB to the analysis of close parallel runway operations.

  1. 14 CFR 151.11 - Runway clear zones; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Runway clear zones; requirements. 151.11 Section 151.11 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION.... (a) In projects involving grants-in-aid under the Federal-aid Airport Program, a sponsor must...

  2. System-Oriented Runway Management Concept of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohr, Gary W.; Atkins, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This document describes a concept for runway management that maximizes the overall efficiency of arrival and departure operations at an airport or group of airports. Specifically, by planning airport runway configurations/usage, it focuses on the efficiency with which arrival flights reach their parking gates from their arrival fixes and departure flights exit the terminal airspace from their parking gates. In the future, the concept could be expanded to include the management of other limited airport resources. While most easily described in the context of a single airport, the concept applies equally well to a group of airports that comprise a metroplex (i.e., airports in close proximity that share resources such that operations at the airports are at least partially dependent) by including the coordination of runway usage decisions between the airports. In fact, the potential benefit of the concept is expected to be larger in future metroplex environments due to the increasing need to coordinate the operations at proximate airports to more efficiently share limited airspace resources. This concept, called System-Oriented Runway Management (SORM), is further broken down into a set of airport traffic management functions that share the principle that operational performance must be measured over the complete surface and airborne trajectories of the airport's arrivals and departures. The "system-oriented" term derives from the belief that the traffic management objective must consider the efficiency of operations over a wide range of aircraft movements and National Airspace System (NAS) dynamics. The SORM concept is comprised of three primary elements: strategic airport capacity planning, airport configuration management, and combined arrival/departure runway planning. Some aspects of the SORM concept, such as using airport configuration management1 as a mechanism for improving aircraft efficiency, are novel. Other elements (e.g., runway scheduling, which is a part

  3. Enhanced detection of LED runway/approach lights for EVS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, J. Richard

    2008-04-01

    The acquisition of approach and runway lights by an imager is critical to landing-credit operations with EVS. Using a GPS clock, LED sources are pulsed at one-half the EVS video rate of 60 Hz or more. The camera then uses synchronous (lock-in) detection to store the imaged lights in alternate frames, with digital subtraction of the background for each respective frame-pair. Range and weather penetration, limited only by detector background shot-noise (or camera system noise at night), substantially exceed that of the human eye. An alternative is the use of short-wave infrared cameras with eyesafe laser diode emitters. Also, runway identification may be encoded on the pulses. With standardized cameras and emitters, an "instrument qualified visual range" may be established. The concept extends to portable beacons at austere airfields, and to see-and-avoid sensing of other aircraft including UAVs.

  4. NASA Research For Instrument Approaches To Closely Spaced Parallel Runways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Dawn M.; Perry, R. Brad

    2000-01-01

    Within the NASA Aviation Systems Capacity Program, the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Project is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological condition (IMC). The Airborne Information for Lateral Spacing (AILS) research within TAP has focused on an airborne centered approach for independent instrument approaches to closely spaced parallel runways using Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) technologies. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), working in partnership with Honeywell, Inc., completed in AILS simulation study, flight test, and demonstration in 1999 examining normal approaches and potential collision scenarios to runways with separation distances of 3,400 and 2,500 feet. The results of the flight test and demonstration validate the simulation study.

  5. Runway Exit Designs for Capacity Improvement Demonstrations. Phase 1: Algorithm Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trani, A. A.; Hobeika, A. G.; Sherali, H.; Kim, B. J.; Sadam, C. K.

    1990-01-01

    A description and results are presented of a study to locate and design rapid runway exits under realistic airport conditions. The study developed a PC-based computer simulation-optimization program called REDIM (runway exit design interactive model) to help future airport designers and planners to locate optimal exits under various airport conditions. The model addresses three sets of problems typically arising during runway exit design evaluations. These are the evaluations of existing runway configurations, addition of new rapid runway turnoffs, and the design of new runway facilities. The model is highly interactive and allows a quick estimation of the expected value of runway occupancy time. Aircraft populations and airport environmental conditions are among the multiple inputs to the model to execute a viable runway location and geometric design solution. The results presented suggest that possible reductions on runway occupancy time (ROT) can be achieved with the use of optimally tailored rapid runway designs for a given aircraft population. Reductions of up to 9 to 6 seconds are possible with the implementation of 30 m/sec variable geometry exits.

  6. The noise impact of proposed runway alternatives at Craig Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, R.

    1982-01-01

    Four proposed runway expansion alternatives at Craig Airport in Jacksonville, Florida have been assessed with respect to their forecasted noise impact in the year 2005. The assessment accounts for population distributions around the airport and human subjective response to noise, as well as the distribution of noise levels in the surrounding community (footprints). The impact analysis was performed using the Airport-noise Levels and Annoyance Model (ALAMO), an airport community response model recently developd at Langley Research Center.

  7. Benefits Assessment for Tactical Runway Configuration Management Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa; Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Lohr, Gary; Fenbert, James W.

    2013-01-01

    The Tactical Runway Configuration Management (TRCM) software tool was developed to provide air traffic flow managers and supervisors with recommendations for airport configuration changes and runway usage. The objective for this study is to conduct a benefits assessment at Memphis (MEM), Dallas Fort-Worth (DFW) and New York's John F. Kennedy (JFK) airports using the TRCM tool. Results from simulations using the TRCM-generated runway configuration schedule are compared with results using historical schedules. For the 12 days of data used in this analysis, the transit time (arrival fix to spot on airport movement area for arrivals, or spot to departure fix for departures) for MEM departures is greater (7%) than for arrivals (3%); for JFK, there is a benefit for arrivals (9%) but not for departures (-2%); for DFW, arrivals show a slight benefit (1%), but this is offset by departures (-2%). Departure queue length benefits show fewer aircraft in queue for JFK (29%) and MEM (11%), but not for DFW (-13%). Fuel savings for surface operations at MEM are seen for both arrivals and departures. At JFK there are fuel savings for arrivals, but these are offset by increased fuel use for departures. In this study, no surface fuel benefits resulted for DFW. Results suggest that the TRCM algorithm requires modifications for complex surface traffic operations that can cause taxi delays. For all three airports, the average number of changes in flow direction (runway configuration) recommended by TRCM was many times greater than the historical data; TRCM would need to be adapted to a particular airport's needs, to limit the number of changes to acceptable levels. The results from this analysis indicate the TRCM tool can provide benefits at some high-capacity airports. The magnitude of these benefits depends on many airport-specific factors and would require adaptation of the TRCM tool; a detailed assessment is needed prior to determining suitability for a particular airport.

  8. Parallel runway requirement analysis study. Volume 1: The analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebrahimi, Yaghoob S.

    1993-01-01

    The correlation of increased flight delays with the level of aviation activity is well recognized. A main contributor to these flight delays has been the capacity of airports. Though new airport and runway construction would significantly increase airport capacity, few programs of this type are currently underway, let alone planned, because of the high cost associated with such endeavors. Therefore, it is necessary to achieve the most efficient and cost effective use of existing fixed airport resources through better planning and control of traffic flows. In fact, during the past few years the FAA has initiated such an airport capacity program designed to provide additional capacity at existing airports. Some of the improvements that that program has generated thus far have been based on new Air Traffic Control procedures, terminal automation, additional Instrument Landing Systems, improved controller display aids, and improved utilization of multiple runways/Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) approach procedures. A useful element to understanding potential operational capacity enhancements at high demand airports has been the development and use of an analysis tool called The PLAND_BLUNDER (PLB) Simulation Model. The objective for building this simulation was to develop a parametric model that could be used for analysis in determining the minimum safety level of parallel runway operations for various parameters representing the airplane, navigation, surveillance, and ATC system performance. This simulation is useful as: a quick and economical evaluation of existing environments that are experiencing IMC delays, an efficient way to study and validate proposed procedure modifications, an aid in evaluating requirements for new airports or new runways in old airports, a simple, parametric investigation of a wide range of issues and approaches, an ability to tradeoff air and ground technology and procedures contributions, and a way of considering probable

  9. Marine biosecurity: the importance of awareness, support and cooperation in managing a successful incursion response.

    PubMed

    Piola, Richard F; McDonald, Justin I

    2012-09-01

    Shipping is almost certainly the most prevalent human-mediated transport vector for non-indigenous species (NIS) within the marine environment. The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) has long acknowledged the importance of sound environmental management and in recent years has taken a proactive approach to addressing risks associated with marine biosecurity. primarily as a result of biofouling on Navy vessel returning from overseas operations. This paper describes two case studies that highlight the effectiveness of the RAN marine biosecurity management framework in identifying an unwanted marine species on Navy vessels, and the successful biosecurity management program that ensued. In particular, the early detection and identification of a suspect NIS, the quick response to the discovery and the collaborative approach adopted between the RAN and the Government regulatory agency (Western Australian Department of Fisheries) charged with coordinating the incursion response serves as a model for how future incursion responses should be reported and managed.

  10. Drought-induced saltwater incursion leads to increased wetland nitrogen export.

    PubMed

    Ardón, Marcelo; Morse, Jennifer L; Colman, Benjamin P; Bernhardt, Emily S

    2013-10-01

    Coastal wetlands have the capacity to retain and denitrify large quantities of reactive nitrogen (N), making them important in attenuating increased anthropogenic N flux to coastal ecosystems. The ability of coastal wetlands to retain and transform N is being reduced by wetland losses resulting from land development. Nitrogen retention in coastal wetlands is further threatened by the increasing frequency and spatial extent of saltwater inundation in historically freshwater ecosystems, due to the combined effects of dredging, declining river discharge to coastal areas due to human water use, increased drought frequency, and accelerating sea-level rise. Because saltwater incursion may affect N cycling through multiple mechanisms, the impacts of salinization on coastal freshwater wetland N retention and transformation are not well understood. Here, we show that repeated annual saltwater incursion during late summer droughts in the coastal plain of North Carolina changed N export from organic to inorganic forms and led to a doubling of annual NH(4)(+) export from a 440 hectare former agricultural field undergoing wetland restoration. Soil solution NH(4)(+) concentrations in two mature wetlands also increased with salinization, but the magnitude of increase was smaller than that in the former agricultural field. Long-term saltwater exposure experiments with intact soil columns demonstrated that much of the increase in reactive N released could be explained by exchange of salt cations with sediment NH(4)(+). Using these findings together with the predicted flooding of 1661 km(2) of wetlands along the NC coast by 2100, we estimate that saltwater incursion into these coastal areas could release up to 18 077 Mg N, or approximately half the annual NH(4)(+) flux of the Mississippi River. Our results suggest that saltwater incursion into coastal freshwater wetlands globally could lead to increased N loading to sensitive coastal waters.

  11. Nanoscale Assessment of Water Incursion to the Metal/Coating Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyungjin; Browning, Jim; Foster, Mark

    2012-04-01

    While a great deal of research on macroscopic corrosion phenomena has been done and an empirical knowledge of effective corrosion mitigation strategies is available, a fundamental understanding of many nanoscale aspects of corrosion or precorrosion processes at metal interface is lacking. Neutron reflectometry (NR) can be used to nondestructively determine depth profile of a substance near an interface with a resolution of 1-2 nm. Key precorrosion phenomena that we have focused on are ingress of small molecules such as water and salt into coating or coating/metal interface. To simulate a practical precorrosion process, an in situ experiment in which the sample is in the presence of water vapor can be performed. Samples of a thin epoxy coating containing siloxane on an aluminum substrate having a native oxide have been studied by NR. Composition depth profile of water at coating/oxide interface can be inferred using a comparison of the data from samples under dry and humid conditions. We have shown that water incursion along coating/metal interface is fast compared to incursion through face of coating. Also, our work has provided evidence that, with a more highly crosslinked coating, after a small amount of water has entered along the interface water incursion slows dramatically.

  12. Circulation regimes associated with incursions of Bluetongue disease to the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgin, Laura; Ekstrom, Marie

    2010-05-01

    Bluetongue, an economically important insect-borne animal disease, can be spread over long distances by carriage of its biting midge vectors on the wind. The weather conditions which influence the midge's flight and subsequent transport are controlled by synoptic scale atmospheric circulations. Results from an atmospheric dispersion model, NAME, were used in combination with principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis to determine the main synoptic situations present during times of midge incursions into the UK from the main European continent. The PCA was conducted on high-pass filtered mean sea level pressure data for a domain centred over north-west Europe from 2005 to 2007. A clustering algorithm applied to the PCA scores indicated the data should be divided into 5 classes for which averages were calculated, providing a classification of the main circulation regimes present. Midge incursion events into the UK were found to mainly occur in two categories; 64.8% were associated with a pattern displaying a pressure gradient over the North Atlantic leading to moderate south-westerly flow over the UK and 17.9% of the events occurred when high pressure dominated the region leading to south-easterly or easterly winds in the area at risk. The winds indicated by the pressure maps generally compared well against observations from a surface station and analysis charts. This technique could be used to assess the frequency and timings of disease incursions in the future on seasonal or decadal timescales, currently not possible with dispersion modelling methods.

  13. A new method for measuring slipperiness of airport runways and other paved surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. B.; Yager, T. J.

    1970-01-01

    Aircraft stopping distances on wet runways are accurately predicted by measurements taken with a conventional automobile equipped with diagonal braking system and simple instrumentation for recording stopping distances.

  14. Benefit Assessment for Metroplex Tactical Runway Configuration Management (mTRCM) in a Simulated Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa M.; Lohr, Gary W.; Robbins, Steven W.; Fenbert, James W.; Hartman, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    The System-Oriented Runway Management (SORM) concept is a collection of capabilities focused on a more efficient use of runways while considering all of the factors that affect runway use. Tactical Runway Configuration Management (TRCM), one of the SORM capabilities, provides runway configuration and runway usage recommendations, and monitoring the active runway configuration for suitability given existing factors. This report focuses on the metroplex environment, with two or more proximate airports having arrival and departure operations that are highly interdependent. The myriad of factors that affect metroplex opeations require consideration in arriving at runway configurations that collectively best serve the system as a whole. To assess the metroplex TRCM (mTRCM) benefit, the performance metrics must be compared with the actual historical operations. The historical configuration schedules can be viewed as the schedules produced by subject matter experts (SMEs), and therefore are referred to as the SMEs' schedules. These schedules were obtained from the FAA's Aviation System Performance Metrics (ASPM) database; this is the most representative information regarding runway configuration selection by SMEs. This report focused on a benefit assessment of total delay, transit time, and throughput efficiency (TE) benefits using the mTRCM algorithm at representative volumes for today's traffic at the New York metroplex (N90).

  15. Factors that determine depth perception of trapezoids, windsurfers, runways

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Chia-Huei; Gobell, Joetta L.; Sperling, George

    2015-01-01

    We report here a windsurfer1 illusion, a naturally occurring trapezoidal illusion in which the small end of the sail viewed at a distance appears to be pointed away from the observer even when it is closer. This naturally occurring illusion is so compelling that observers are unaware of their gross perceptual misinterpretation of the scene. Four laboratory experiment of this kind of trapezoidal illusion investigated the joint effects of retinal orientation, head position, relative motion, and the relative direction of gravity on automatic depth perception. Observers viewed two adjacent white trapezoids outlined on a black background rotating back and forth ± 20° on a vertical axis much like the sails of two adjacent windsurfers. Observers reported which side of the trapezoids (long or short) appeared to be closer to them (i.e., in front). The longer edge of the trapezoid was reported in front 76 ± 2% of trials (“windsurfer effect”) whether it was on the left or on the right. When the display was rotated 90°to produce a runway configuration, there was a striking asymmetry: the long edge was perceived to be in front 97% when it was on the bottom but only 43% when it was on top (“runway effect”). The runway effect persisted when the head was tilted 90° or when displays on the ceiling were viewed from the floor. Ninety-five percent of the variance of the variance in the strikingly different 3D perceptions produced by the same 2D trapezoid image was quantitatively explained by a model that assumes there are just three additive bias factors that account for perceiving an edge as closer: Implicit linear perspective, lower position on the retina (based on an automatic assumption of viewing from above), and being lower in world coordinates. PMID:26029073

  16. Factors that determine depth perception of trapezoids, windsurfers, runways.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chia-Huei; Gobell, Joetta L; Sperling, George

    2015-01-01

    We report here a windsurfer illusion, a naturally occurring trapezoidal illusion in which the small end of the sail viewed at a distance appears to be pointed away from the observer even when it is closer. This naturally occurring illusion is so compelling that observers are unaware of their gross perceptual misinterpretation of the scene. Four laboratory experiment of this kind of trapezoidal illusion investigated the joint effects of retinal orientation, head position, relative motion, and the relative direction of gravity on automatic depth perception. Observers viewed two adjacent white trapezoids outlined on a black background rotating back and forth ± 20° on a vertical axis much like the sails of two adjacent windsurfers. Observers reported which side of the trapezoids (long or short) appeared to be closer to them (i.e., in front). The longer edge of the trapezoid was reported in front 76 ± 2% of trials ("windsurfer effect") whether it was on the left or on the right. When the display was rotated 90°to produce a runway configuration, there was a striking asymmetry: the long edge was perceived to be in front 97% when it was on the bottom but only 43% when it was on top ("runway effect"). The runway effect persisted when the head was tilted 90° or when displays on the ceiling were viewed from the floor. Ninety-five percent of the variance of the variance in the strikingly different 3D perceptions produced by the same 2D trapezoid image was quantitatively explained by a model that assumes there are just three additive bias factors that account for perceiving an edge as closer: Implicit linear perspective, lower position on the retina (based on an automatic assumption of viewing from above), and being lower in world coordinates.

  17. Runway detection of an unmanned landing aerial vehicle based on vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongqun; Peng, Jiaxiong; Li, Lingling

    2005-10-01

    When an monocular vision-based unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based on vision is flown to the final approach fix to intercept the glide slope without the navigation of Global Positioning System (GPS), the position and orientation of the airport runway in image must be detected accurately so as to a host of suitable procedures have to be followed. The optimum length of the final approach is about five miles from the runway threshold. The front view of the runway, which is achieved at the moment, is very illegible. The approaching marking (cross bar) of the runway are showed as some white spots of high intensity and the complicated backgrounds of the airport are included in the images. In this case, spots with high intensity should be extracted and classified, some of these spots are just the images of the background noises and the pseudo-targets, which can't be separated with the spots of the runway as in the view there is no significant characteristic difference among them ostensibly. Fortunately, in the terrestrial coordinate space, most of the runway marks are located at the apexes of a rectangle, having some geometric relationships. The relationship among the projection coordinates of the runway spots in the images can be determined according to the perspective principle, the constraint condition of the rectangle as well as the front shot constraint condition of the target, by using this relationship, the runway approaching marks can be separated, the position and the direction of the runway in the images can be identified. In this paper, the clustering management is adopted so as to greatly reduce the computing time. The consequence of the experiments shows that by this algorithm, even from a place far away from the runway whose marks are unclear, we also can effectively detect the runway.

  18. 76 FR 21938 - Potential Environmental Impacts of the Proposed Runway 13 Extension and Associated Actions for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Potential Environmental Impacts of the Proposed Runway 13 Extension and... extension and associated actions for Devils Lake Regional Airport in Devils Lake, North Dakota. SUMMARY: The FAA has issued the final EA and FONSI/ROD for the proposed Runway 13 extension and associated...

  19. Graphical User Interface Development and Design to Support Airport Runway Configuration Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Debra G.; Lenox, Michelle; Onal, Emrah; Latorella, Kara A.; Lohr, Gary W.; Le Vie, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this effort was to develop a graphical user interface (GUI) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) System Oriented Runway Management (SORM) decision support tool to support runway management. This tool is expected to be used by traffic flow managers and supervisors in the Airport Traffic Control Tower (ATCT) and Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) facilities.

  20. STS-40 Columbia, OV-102, lands on concrete runway 22 at EAFB, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-40 Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, main landing gear (MLG) touches down on concrete runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California at 8:29:11 am (Pacific Daylight Time (PDT)). OV-102's port side is captured in this profile view as its nose landing gear (NLG) glides above the runway before touch down and wheel stop.

  1. STS-33 Discovery, OV-103, MLG touches down on concrete runway 04 at EAFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-33 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, main landing gear (MLG) touches down on concrete runway 04 at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California, at 16:31:02 pm Pacific Standard Time (PST). This view captures OV-103's profile (port side) as it glides down the runway.

  2. STS-33 Discovery, OV-103, MLG touches down on EAFB concrete runway 04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-33 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, main landing gear (MLG) touchdown is documented at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California, on concrete runway 04. Views look forward from the space shuttle main engines (SSMEs) to the crew compartment as OV-103 glides down the runway. The landing occurred at 16:31:02 pm Pacific Standard Time (PST).

  3. STS-40 Columbia, OV-102, lands on concrete runway 22 at EAFB, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-40 Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, main landing gear (MLG) touches down on concrete runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California at 8:29:11 am (Pacific Daylight Time (PDT)). OV-102's starboard side is captured in this profile view as its nose landing gear (NLG) glides above the runway before touch down and wheel stop.

  4. STS-29 Discovery, OV-103, lands on Edwards AFB concrete runway 22

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-29 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, main landing gear (MLG) touches down at a speed of approximately 205 knots (235 miles per hour) on concrete runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base (AFB), California. Nose landing gear (NLG) is deployed and rides above runway surface prior touchdown. Mojave desert scrub brush appears in the foreground with mountain range appearing in the background.

  5. Tests of highly loaded skids on a concrete runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbs, Sandy M.; Daugherty, Robert H.

    1994-01-01

    Skids have been used at various times for aircraft landing gear ever since the Wright Flyer appeared in the early 1900's. Typically, skids have been employed as aircraft landing gear either at low speeds or at low bearing pressures. Tests were conducted to examine the friction and wear characteristics of various metals sliding on a rough, grooved concrete runway. The metals represented potential materials for an overload protection skid for the Space Shuttle orbiter. Data from tests of six skid specimens conducted at higher speeds and bearing pressures than those of previous tests in the open literature are presented. Skids constructed of tungsten with embedded carbide chips exhibited the lowest wear, whereas a skid constructed of Inconel 718 exhibited high wear rates. Friction coefficients for all the skid specimens were moderate and would provide adequate stopping performance on a long runway. Because of its low wear rate, a skid constructed of tungsten with embedded carbide chips is considered to be a likely candidate for an aircraft skid or overload protection skid.

  6. Comparison of Procedures for Dual and Triple Closely Spaced Parallel Runways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, Savita; Ballinger, Deborah; Subramanian Shobana; Kozon, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop high fidelity flight simulation experiment was conducted, which investigated and compared breakout procedures for Very Closely Spaced Parallel Approaches (VCSPA) with two and three runways. To understand the feasibility, usability and human factors of two and three runway VCSPA, data were collected and analyzed on the dependent variables of breakout cross track error and pilot workload. Independent variables included number of runways, cause of breakout and location of breakout. Results indicated larger cross track error and higher workload using three runways as compared to 2-runway operations. Significant interaction effects involving breakout cause and breakout location were also observed. Across all conditions, cross track error values showed high levels of breakout trajectory accuracy and pilot workload remained manageable. Results suggest possible avenues of future adaptation for adopting these procedures (e.g., pilot training), while also showing potential promise of the concept.

  7. An early warning system for incursions of Bluetongue disease to the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgin, Laura; Sanders, Christopher; Carpenter, Simon; Mellor, Philip; Gloster, John

    2010-05-01

    Since 2006 northern Europe has been in the midst of an extensive epidemic of the animal disease, Bluetongue, which has cost the European economy hundreds of millions of euros due to death, sickness and movement restrictions of livestock. Bluetongue is spread by biting midges which can be carried for hundreds of kilometers on the wind. A scheme within the UK Met Office's dispersion model, the Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment (NAME), has been developed to reflect the effects of meteorology on the long-distance transport of these midge vectors. The scheme is based on data from field and laboratory experiments carried out at the Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright. From these experiments, certain threshold values which define when midges do not become airborne have been obtained for several meteorological variables. Within NAME, particles representing midges are removed from the model atmosphere if these thresholds are exceeded. Following outbreaks of the disease in Belgium and the Netherlands in 2006, an early-warning website was developed based on the model, to provide the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) advance knowledge of potential disease incursions by infected midges carried on the wind across the English Channel. The service has been in daily operation since April 2007 and correctly warned of the high risk of an incursion of infected midges causing the first UK outbreak in Suffolk on 4 August 2007. The website has since been expanded to predict potential incursions of disease into the Channel Islands and Northern Ireland and was used to inform on vaccination policy decisions by Defra and the Scottish government.

  8. Exploration of the Theoretical Physical Capacity of the John F. Kennedy International Airport Runway System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neitzke, Kurt W.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.

    2014-01-01

    A design study was completed to explore the theoretical physical capacity (TPC) of the John F. Kennedy International Airport (KJFK) runway system for a northflow configuration assuming impedance-free (to throughput) air traffic control functionality. Individual runways were modeled using an agent-based, airspace simulation tool, the Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES), with all runways conducting both departures and arrivals on a first-come first-served (FCFS) scheduling basis. A realistic future flight schedule was expanded to 3.5 times the traffic level of a selected baseline day, September 26, 2006, to provide a steady overdemand state for KJFK runways. Rules constraining departure and arrival operations were defined to reflect physical limits beyond which safe operations could no longer be assumed. Safety buffers to account for all sources of operational variability were not included in the TPC estimate. Visual approaches were assumed for all arrivals to minimize inter-arrival spacing. Parallel runway operations were assumed to be independent based on lateral spacing distances. Resulting time intervals between successive airport operations were primarily constrained by same-runway and then by intersecting-runway spacing requirements. The resulting physical runway capacity approximates a theoretical limit that cannot be exceeded without modifying runway interaction assumptions. Comparison with current KJFK operational limits for a north-flow runway configuration indicates a substantial throughput gap of approximately 48%. This gap may be further analyzed to determine which part may be feasibly bridged through the deployment of advanced systems and procedures, and which part cannot, because it is either impossible or not cost-effective to control. Advanced systems for bridging the throughput gap may be conceptualized and simulated using this same experimental setup to estimate the level of gap closure achieved.

  9. A Survey of Dog Owners in Remote Northern Australian Indigenous Communities to Inform Rabies Incursion Planning

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Emily G.; Dhand, Navneet; Dürr, Salome; Ward, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Australia is underprepared for a rabies incursion due to a lack of information about how a rabies outbreak would spread within the susceptible canine populations and which control strategies would be best to control it. The aim of this study was to collect information to parameterize a recently developed dog rabies spread model as well as use this information to gauge how the community would accept potential control strategies. Such information–together with model outputs–would be used to inform decision makers on the best control strategies and improve Australia’s preparedness against a canine rabies incursion. The parameters this study focussed on were detection time, vaccination rates and dog-culling and dog movement restriction compliance. A cross-sectional survey of 31 dog-owners, using a questionnaire, was undertaken in the five communities of the Northern Peninsular Area (NPA) in northern Australia regarding community dog movements, veterinary visits, reporting systems, perceptions of sick dogs and potential human behaviours during hypothetical rabies outbreaks. It highlighted the significant shortfalls in veterinary care that would need to be vastly improved during an outbreak, who educational programs should be targeted towards and which dog movements should be restricted. The results indicate that men were significantly more likely than women to allow their dogs to roam and to move their dogs. The current low vaccination rate of 12% highlighted the limited veterinary services that would need to be substantially increased to achieve effective rabies control. Participation in mass vaccination was accepted by 100% of the respondents. There was lower acceptance for other possible rabies control strategies with 10–20% of the respondents stating a resistance to both a mass culling program and a ban on dog movements. Consequently, movement bans and mass dog culling would have limited effectiveness as a control strategy in the NPA community. More than

  10. A Survey of Dog Owners in Remote Northern Australian Indigenous Communities to Inform Rabies Incursion Planning.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Emily G; Dhand, Navneet; Dürr, Salome; Ward, Michael P

    2016-04-01

    Australia is underprepared for a rabies incursion due to a lack of information about how a rabies outbreak would spread within the susceptible canine populations and which control strategies would be best to control it. The aim of this study was to collect information to parameterize a recently developed dog rabies spread model as well as use this information to gauge how the community would accept potential control strategies. Such information-together with model outputs-would be used to inform decision makers on the best control strategies and improve Australia's preparedness against a canine rabies incursion. The parameters this study focussed on were detection time, vaccination rates and dog-culling and dog movement restriction compliance. A cross-sectional survey of 31 dog-owners, using a questionnaire, was undertaken in the five communities of the Northern Peninsular Area (NPA) in northern Australia regarding community dog movements, veterinary visits, reporting systems, perceptions of sick dogs and potential human behaviours during hypothetical rabies outbreaks. It highlighted the significant shortfalls in veterinary care that would need to be vastly improved during an outbreak, who educational programs should be targeted towards and which dog movements should be restricted. The results indicate that men were significantly more likely than women to allow their dogs to roam and to move their dogs. The current low vaccination rate of 12% highlighted the limited veterinary services that would need to be substantially increased to achieve effective rabies control. Participation in mass vaccination was accepted by 100% of the respondents. There was lower acceptance for other possible rabies control strategies with 10-20% of the respondents stating a resistance to both a mass culling program and a ban on dog movements. Consequently, movement bans and mass dog culling would have limited effectiveness as a control strategy in the NPA community. More than half of the

  11. A Survey of Dog Owners in Remote Northern Australian Indigenous Communities to Inform Rabies Incursion Planning.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Emily G; Dhand, Navneet; Dürr, Salome; Ward, Michael P

    2016-04-01

    Australia is underprepared for a rabies incursion due to a lack of information about how a rabies outbreak would spread within the susceptible canine populations and which control strategies would be best to control it. The aim of this study was to collect information to parameterize a recently developed dog rabies spread model as well as use this information to gauge how the community would accept potential control strategies. Such information-together with model outputs-would be used to inform decision makers on the best control strategies and improve Australia's preparedness against a canine rabies incursion. The parameters this study focussed on were detection time, vaccination rates and dog-culling and dog movement restriction compliance. A cross-sectional survey of 31 dog-owners, using a questionnaire, was undertaken in the five communities of the Northern Peninsular Area (NPA) in northern Australia regarding community dog movements, veterinary visits, reporting systems, perceptions of sick dogs and potential human behaviours during hypothetical rabies outbreaks. It highlighted the significant shortfalls in veterinary care that would need to be vastly improved during an outbreak, who educational programs should be targeted towards and which dog movements should be restricted. The results indicate that men were significantly more likely than women to allow their dogs to roam and to move their dogs. The current low vaccination rate of 12% highlighted the limited veterinary services that would need to be substantially increased to achieve effective rabies control. Participation in mass vaccination was accepted by 100% of the respondents. There was lower acceptance for other possible rabies control strategies with 10-20% of the respondents stating a resistance to both a mass culling program and a ban on dog movements. Consequently, movement bans and mass dog culling would have limited effectiveness as a control strategy in the NPA community. More than half of the

  12. Evaluation of high pressure water blast with rotating spray bar for removing paint and rubber deposits from airport runways, and review of runway slipperiness problems created by rubber contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. B.; Griswold, G. D.

    1975-01-01

    A high pressure water blast with rotating spray bar treatment for removing paint and rubber deposits from airport runways is studied. The results of the evaluation suggest that the treatment is very effective in removing above surface paint and rubber deposits to the point that pavement skid resistance is restored to trafficked but uncontaminated runway surface skid resistance levels. Aircraft operating problems created by runway slipperiness are reviewed along with an assessment of the contributions that pavement surface treatments, surface weathering, traffic polishing, and rubber deposits make in creating or alleviating runway slipperiness. The results suggest that conventional surface treatments for both portland cement and asphaltic concrete runways are extremely vulnerable to rubber deposit accretions which can produce runway slipperiness conditions for aircraft operations as or more slippery than many snow and ice-covered runway conditions. Pavement grooving surface treatments are shown to be the least vulnerable to rubber deposits accretion and traffic polishing of the surface treatments examined.

  13. KSC off-runway contingency operation - Mode 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maples, Arthur; Doerr, Donald

    1991-01-01

    The possibility of a mishap during a space shuttle landing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) dictates the need for plans to rescue astronauts from areas other than the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF). All shuttle landings are unpowered, gliding flight maneuvers, and a deviation from the planned flight profile could result in a shuttle landing or crashing somewhere other than the SLF runway. The geography of the Kennedy Space Center makes helicopter airlifting the only universal means of transportation for the rescue crew. This rescue crew is composed of KSC contractor fire-rescuemen who would ride to the crash scene on USAF HH-3 helicopters. These crews are provided with personal protective suits and training in shallow water, swamp, and dry land rescues. They aid the egress of the crew to a safe area for helicopter pickup and subsequent triage and medevac.

  14. Incorporating Active Runway Crossings in Airport Departure Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Gautam; Malik, Waqar; Jung, Yoon C.

    2010-01-01

    A mixed integer linear program is presented for deterministically scheduling departure and ar rival aircraft at airport runways. This method addresses different schemes of managing the departure queuing area by treating it as first-in-first-out queues or as a simple par king area where any available aircraft can take-off ir respective of its relative sequence with others. In addition, this method explicitly considers separation criteria between successive aircraft and also incorporates an optional prioritization scheme using time windows. Multiple objectives pertaining to throughput and system delay are used independently. Results indicate improvement over a basic first-come-first-serve rule in both system delay and throughput. Minimizing system delay results in small deviations from optimal throughput, whereas minimizing throughput results in large deviations in system delay. Enhancements for computational efficiency are also presented in the form of reformulating certain constraints and defining additional inequalities for better bounds.

  15. Remote sensing over North Merritt Island. [space shuttle runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poonai, P. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. For monitoring the surface environment of North Merritt Island, two methods are studied, namely, color infrared photography and machine processing of LANDSAT multispectral scanner data. C.I.R. photos made at a height of about 12,000 ft were found to define the borders of ground features around the space shuttle runway with a nonsignificant mean error of 0.138 meters but a wide range, which can be reduced with photos taken at about 6,000 ft. LANDSAT multispectral scanner data, transformed by use of the function f(g) = g1 + g2 -g3 -g4 where g1, g2, g3, and g4 represent reflectance or grey levels of multispectral channels 1,2,3, and 4, gave values which are classifiable into a relatively small number of categories.

  16. Wake Encounter Analysis for a Closely Spaced Parallel Runway Paired Approach Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckissick,Burnell T.; Rico-Cusi, Fernando J.; Murdoch, Jennifer; Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa M.; Stough, Harry P, III; O'Connor, Cornelius J.; Syed, Hazari I.

    2009-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation of simultaneous approaches performed by two transport category aircraft from the final approach fix to a pair of closely spaced parallel runways was conducted to explore the aft boundary of the safe zone in which separation assurance and wake avoidance are provided. The simulation included variations in runway centerline separation, initial longitudinal spacing of the aircraft, crosswind speed, and aircraft speed during the approach. The data from the simulation showed that the majority of the wake encounters occurred near or over the runway and the aft boundaries of the safe zones were identified for all simulation conditions.

  17. A multi-proxy approach to identifying short-lived marine incursions in the Early Carboniferous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Carys; Davies, Sarah; Leng, Melanie; Snelling, Andrea; Millward, David; Kearsey, Timothy; Marshall, John; Reves, Emma

    2015-04-01

    This study is a contribution to the TW:eed Project (Tetrapod World: early evolution and diversification), which examines the rebuilding of Carboniferous ecosystems following a mass extinction at the end of the Devonian. The project focuses on the Tournaisian Ballagan Formation of Scotland and the Borders, which contains rare fish and tetrapod material. The Ballagan Formation is characterised by sandstones, dolomitic cementstones, paleosols, siltstones and gypsum deposits. The depositional environment ranges from fluvial, alluvial-plain to marginal-marine environments, with fluvial, floodplain and lacustrine deposition dominant. A multi-proxy approach combining sedimentology, palaeontology, micropalaeontology, palynology and geochemistry is used to identify short-lived marine transgressions onto the floodplain environment. Rare marginal marine fossils are: Chondrites-Phycosiphon, Spirorbis, Serpula, certain ostracod species, rare orthocones, brachiopods and putative marine sharks. More common non-marine fauna include Leiocopida and Podocopida ostracods, Mytilida and Myalinida bivalves, plants, eurypterids, gastropods and fish. Thin carbonate-bearing dolomitic cementstones and siltstone contain are the sedimentary deposits of marine incursions and occur throughout the formation. Over 600 bulk carbon isotope samples were taken from the 500 metre thick Norham Core (located near Berwick-Upon-Tweed), encompassing a time interval of around 13 million years. The results range from -26o to -19 δ13Corg, with an average of -19o much lighter than the average value for Early Carboniferous marine bulk organic matter (δ13C of -28 to -30). The isotope results correspond to broad-scale changes in the depositional setting, with more positive δ13C in pedogenic sediments and more negative δ13C in un-altered grey siltstones. They may also relate to cryptic (short-lived) marine incursions. A comparison of δ13C values from specific plant/wood fragments, palynology and bulk

  18. Effects of various runway lighting parameters upon the relation between runway visual range and visual range of centerline and edge lights in fog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.

    1973-01-01

    Thirty six students and 54 commercial airline pilots were tested in the fog chamber to determine the effect of runway edge and centerline light intensity and spacing, fog density, ambient luminance level, and lateral and vertical offset distance of the subject from the runway's centerline upon horizontal visual range. These data were obtained to evaluate the adequacy of a balanced lighting system to provide maximum visual range in fog viewing both centerline and runway edge lights. The daytime system was compared against two other candidate lighting systems; the nighttime system was compared against other candidate lighting systems. The second objective was to determine if visual range is affected by lights between the subject and the farthestmost light visible through the fog. The third objective was to determine if college student subjects differ from commercial airline pilots in their horizontal visual range through fog. Two studies were conducted.

  19. White Sands Space Harbor Area 1, Runway 17/35, Extending 35,000 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    White Sands Space Harbor Area 1, Runway 17/35, Extending 35,000 feet north from Range Road 10, beginning approximately 4.2 miles northeast of intersection with Range Road 7, White Sands, Dona Ana County, NM

  20. Three-track runway and taxiway profiles measured at international airports G and H

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    Three-track runway and taxiway profiles are presented for use in studies of airplane response to ground roughness. This report presents the tabulated and plotted data for two international airports (designated airports G and H).

  1. Three-track runway and taxiway profiles measured at International Airports E and F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, A. W.

    1971-01-01

    Three-track runway and taxiway profiles are presented for use in studies of airplane response to ground roughness. This report presents the tabulated and plotted data for two international airports (designed airports E and F).

  2. 31. CRANE RUNWAY FOR 5TON PUSH TYPE CRANE, SANTA ANA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. CRANE RUNWAY FOR 5-TON PUSH TYPE CRANE, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 3, SEPT. 4, 1945. SCE drawing no. 523856-2. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-3 Powerhouse, San Bernardino National Forest, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  3. STS-41 Discovery, OV-103, glides over concrete runway 22 at EAFB, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-41 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, with nose landing gear (NLG) and main landing gear (MLG) deployed, glides over concrete runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California, prior to touchdown.

  4. Evaluation of Winter Operational Runway Friction Measurement Equipment, Procedures, and Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This document produced by the FAA/Industry Winter Runway Friction Measurement and Reporting Working Group, is designed to provide an overview of current information on the present guidance, practices, and procedures for reporting runway pavement surface conditions during winter operations at airports. It contains recommendations on the desirability of providing the best procedural consistency and standardization and discusses the available means to implement the guidance that will result in improved aviation safety at airports during hazardous winter conditions.

  5. STS-31 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, lands on EAFB concrete runway 22

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The main landing gear (MLG) of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, rides along concrete runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California, bringing mission STS-31 to an end. The nose landing gear (NLG) is suspended above the runway prior to touchdown and wheel stop which occurred at 6:51:00 am (Pacific Daylight Time (PDT)). View shows OV-103's starboard side and deployed rudder/speedbrake. EAFB facilities are seen in the distance.

  6. Determination of optimal trajectories for an aircraft returning to the runway following a complete loss of thrust after takeoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Craig A.

    This thesis examines the ability of a small, single-engine airplane to return to the runway following an engine failure shortly after takeoff. Two sets of trajectories are examined. One set of trajectories has the airplane fly a straight climb on the runway heading until engine failure. The other set of trajectories has the airplane perform a 90° turn at an altitude of 500 feet and continue until engine failure. Various combinations of wind speed, wind direction, and engine failure times are examined. The runway length required to complete the entire flight from the beginning of the takeoff roll to wheels stop following the return to the runway after engine failure is calculated for each case. The optimal trajectories following engine failure consist of three distinct segments: a turn back toward the runway using a large bank angle and angle of attack; a straight glide; and a reversal turn to align the airplane with the runway. The 90° turn results in much shorter required runway lengths at lower headwind speeds. At higher headwind speeds, both sets of trajectories are limited by the length of runway required for the landing rollout, but the straight climb cases generally require a lower angle of attack to complete the flight. The glide back to the runway is performed at an airspeed below the best glide speed of the airplane due to the need to conserve potential energy after the completion of the turn back toward the runway. The results are highly dependent on the rate of climb of the airplane during powered flight. The results of this study can aid the pilot in determining whether or not a return to the runway could be performed in the event of an engine failure given the specific wind conditions and runway length at the time of takeoff. The results can also guide the pilot in determining the takeoff profile that would offer the greatest advantage in returning to the runway.

  7. STS-74 lands at KSC Runway 33 (Parachute Deploy)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The highly successful Mission STS-74 comes to a smooth conclusion as the orbiter Atlantis returns to Kennedy Space Center. Atlantis touched down on Runway 33 of the Shuttle Landing Facility at 12:01:27 p.m. EST, November 20. The final Space Shuttle flight of 1995 marked the second docking of the U.S. Space Shuttle to the Russian Space Station Mir. To simplify the remaining five Shuttle-Mir docking currently scheduled, the five astronauts on Atlantis attached a Russian-built Docking Module to Mir during the eight-day mission. Two solar arrays were stowed on the module, which will serve as a permanent extension to the Kristall docking port on the station. Atlantis' crew and the three cosmonauts on Mir also transferred materials to and from the station. Leading the STS-74 crew is Commander Kenneth D. Cameron; James D. Halsell Jr. is the pilot; the three mission specialists are Jerry L. Ross, William S. 'Bill' McArthur Jr. and Chris A. Hadfield, who represents the Canadian Space Agency. This was the 27th end-of-mission landing at KSC in Shuttle program history. The Shuttle-Mir dockings are one aspect of Phase 1 activities leading the way toward the international space station; the United States, Russian, Canada, Japan and a group of European nations have joined together to build the orbiting outpost in space later this decade.

  8. Fuel dispersal modeling for aircraft-runway impact scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Tieszen, S.R.

    1995-11-01

    A fuel dispersal model for C-141 transport accidents was developed for the Defense Nuclear Agency`s Fuel Fire Technology Base Program to support Weapon System Safety Assessments. The spectrum of accidents resulting from aircraft impact on a runway was divided into three fuel dispersal regimes: low, intermediate, and high-velocity impact. Sufficient data existed in the accident, crash test, and fuel-filled bomb literature to support development of a qualitative framework for dispersal models, but not quantitative models for all regimes. Therefore, a test series at intermediate scale was conducted to generate data on which to base the model for the high-velocity regime. Tests were conducted over an impact velocity range from 12 m/s to 91 m/s and angles of impact from 22.5{degrees} to 67.5{degrees}. Dependent variables were area covered by dispersed fuel, amount of mass in that area, and location of the area relative to the impact line. Test results showed that no liquid pooling occurred for impact velocities greater than 61 m/s, independent of the angle of impact. Some pooling did occur at lower velocities, but in no test was the liquid-layer thickness greater than 5.25 mm.

  9. STS-113 Endeavour on runway of SLF after landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A technician, outlined against the setting sun, checks the main engines on Space Shuttle Endeavour on runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility at the conclusion of the 13-day, 18-hour, 48-minute, 5.74-million mile STS-113 mission to the International Space Station. The landing convoy's purpose is to safe the vehicle and provide support for the disembarking crew and experiments. Main gear touchdown was at 2:37:12 p.m. EST, nose gear touchdown was at 2:37:23 p.m., and wheel stop was at 2:38:25 p.m. Poor weather conditions thwarted landing opportunities until a fourth day, the first time in Shuttle program history that a landing has been waved off for three consecutive days. The vehicle carries the STS-113 crew, Commander James Wetherbee, Pilot Paul Lockhart and Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington, as well as the returning Expedition Five crew, Commander Valeri Korzun, ISS Science Officer Peggy Whitson and Flight Engineer Sergei Treschev. The installation of the P1 truss on the International Space Station was accomplished during the mission.

  10. Hydroelastic response of a floating runway to cnoidal waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertekin, R. C.; Xia, Dingwu

    2014-02-01

    The hydroelastic response of mat-type Very Large Floating Structures (VLFSs) to severe sea conditions, such as tsunamis and hurricanes, must be assessed for safety and survivability. An efficient and robust nonlinear hydroelastic model is required to predict accurately the motion of and the dynamic loads on a VLFS due to such large waves. We develop a nonlinear theory to predict the hydroelastic response of a VLFS in the presence of cnoidal waves and compare the predictions with the linear theory that is also developed here. This hydroelastic problem is formulated by directly coupling the structure with the fluid, by use of the Level I Green-Naghdi theory for the fluid motion and the Kirchhoff thin plate theory for the runway. The coupled fluid structure system, together with the appropriate jump conditions are solved in two-dimensions by the finite-difference method. The numerical model is used to study the nonlinear response of a VLFS to storm waves which are modeled by use of the cnoidal-wave theory. Parametric studies show that the nonlinearity of the waves is very important in accurately predicting the dynamic bending moment and wave run-up on a VLFS in high seas.

  11. Runway Independent Aircraft Extremely Short Takeoff and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, David W.; Pasman, Renee

    2004-01-01

    This report Summarizes the work done is support of NASA/Ames Runway Independent Aircraft Research during the summer of 2003. This work centered on the tasks laid out by the Statement of Work, which was to: Identify and assess operational scenarios including airport air and ground operations and how RIA operations would interface; 2) Identify critical technologies and create a list of technologies that might be pushed to provide a quantum jump in operating economy, reliability, and safety should sufficient finding be available; 3) Create public domain powered high lift methodologies; and 4) Identify and assess vehicle concepts that provide innovative approaches to RIA operations. All these tasks were accomplished, with certain areas needing additional exploration in future grant work. Three designs were analyzed to provide strawman configurations for the RIA operations. All three aircraft carried 60 passengers, with a stage length of 1,000 nautical miles. They were capable of operating with a balanced field length of 2000 feet or less. Three different technology approaches were explored. The first, the Model 115, was a mid-wing USB design, developed as a near-term, low risk concept. The second aircraft, the EMAX, used a directed thrust system, was a far-term, high-risk approach. The third configuration was the Model 114, whose development began in summer 2002. In addition, further research was conducted on issues related to STOL operations, such as noise concerns, SNI operations, and other areas of interest.

  12. Hydroelastic response of a floating runway to cnoidal waves

    SciTech Connect

    Ertekin, R. C.; Xia, Dingwu

    2014-02-15

    The hydroelastic response of mat-type Very Large Floating Structures (VLFSs) to severe sea conditions, such as tsunamis and hurricanes, must be assessed for safety and survivability. An efficient and robust nonlinear hydroelastic model is required to predict accurately the motion of and the dynamic loads on a VLFS due to such large waves. We develop a nonlinear theory to predict the hydroelastic response of a VLFS in the presence of cnoidal waves and compare the predictions with the linear theory that is also developed here. This hydroelastic problem is formulated by directly coupling the structure with the fluid, by use of the Level I Green-Naghdi theory for the fluid motion and the Kirchhoff thin plate theory for the runway. The coupled fluid structure system, together with the appropriate jump conditions are solved in two-dimensions by the finite-difference method. The numerical model is used to study the nonlinear response of a VLFS to storm waves which are modeled by use of the cnoidal-wave theory. Parametric studies show that the nonlinearity of the waves is very important in accurately predicting the dynamic bending moment and wave run-up on a VLFS in high seas.

  13. STS-90 Columbia landing at KSC's runway 33

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A flock of birds takes flight as the orbiter Columbia, with its drag chute deployed, touches down on Runway 33 of KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility to complete the nearly 16-day STS-90 mission. Main gear touchdown was at 12:08:59 p.m. EDT on May 3, 1998, landing on orbit 256 of the mission. The wheels stopped at 12:09:58 EDT, completing a total mission time of 15 days, 21 hours, 50 minutes and 58 seconds. The 90th Shuttle mission was Columbia's 13th landing at the space center and the 43rd KSC landing in the history of the Space Shuttle program. During the mission, the crew conducted research to contribute to a better understanding of the human nervous system. The crew of the STS-90 Neurolab mission include Commander Richard Searfoss; Pilot Scott Altman; Mission Specialists Richard Linnehan, D.V.M., Dafydd (Dave) Williams, M.D., with the Canadian Space Agency, and Kathryn (Kay) Hire; and Payload Specialists Jay Buckey, M.D., and James Pawelczyk, Ph.D.

  14. STS-94 Columbia Landing at KSC (South Runway)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia touches down on Runway 33 at KSCs Shuttle Landing Facility at 6:46:34 a.m. EDT with Mission Commander James D. Halsell Jr. and Pilot Susan L. Still at the controls to complete the STS-94 mission. Also on board are Mission Specialist Donald A. Thomas, Mission Specialist Michael L. Gernhardt, Payload Commander Janice Voss, and Payload Specialists Roger K. Crouch and Gregory T. Linteris. During the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 (MSL-1) mission, the Spacelab module was used to test some of the hardware, facilities and procedures that are planned for use on the International Space Station while the flight crew conducted combustion, protein crystal growth and materials processing experiments. This mission was a reflight of the STS-83 mission that lifted off from KSC in April of this year. That space flight was cut short due to indications of a faulty fuel cell. This was Columbias 11th landing at KSC and the 38th landing at the space center in the history of the Shuttle program.

  15. Stochastic programming methods for scheduling of airport runway operations under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solveling, Gustaf

    Runway systems at airports have been identified as a major source of delay in the aviation system and efficient runway operations are, therefore, important to maintain and/or increase the capacity of the entire aviation system. The goal of the airport runway scheduling problem is to schedule a set of aircraft and minimize a given objective while maintaining separation requirements and enforcing other operational constraints. Uncertain factors such as weather, surrounding traffic and pilot behavior affect when aircraft can be scheduled, and these factors need to be considered in planning models. In this thesis we propose two stochastic programs to address the stochastic airport runway scheduling problem and similarly structured machine scheduling problems. In the first part, we develop a two-stage stochastic integer programming model and analyze it by developing alternative formulations and solution methods. As part of our analysis, we first show that a restricted version of the stochastic runway scheduling problem is equivalent to a machine scheduling problem on a single machine with sequence dependent setup times and stochastic due dates. We then extend this restricted model by considering characteristics specific to the runway scheduling problem and present two different stochastic integer programming models. We derive some tight valid inequalities for these formulations, and we propose a solution methodology based on sample average approximation and Lagrangian based scenario decomposition. Realistic data sets are then used to perform a detailed computational study involving implementations and analyses of several different configurations of the models. The results from the computational tests indicate that practically implementable truncated versions of the proposed solution algorithm almost always produce very high quality solutions. In the second part, we propose a sampling based stochastic program for a general machine scheduling problem with similar

  16. Aircraft and runway deicers at General Mitchell International Airport, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. 2. Toxicity of aircraft and runway deicers.

    PubMed

    Corsi, S R; Hall, D W; Geis, S W

    2001-07-01

    Streams receiving runoff from General Mitchell International Airport (GMIA), Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, were studied to assess toxic impacts of aircraft and runway deicers. Elevated levels of constituents related to deicing (propylene glycol, ethylene glycol, and ammonia) were observed in stream samples. The LC50s of type I deicer for Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephelas promelas, Hyalela azteca, and Chironimus tentans and the EC50 for Microtox were less than 5,000 mg/L of propylene glycol. Concentrations up to 39,000 mg/L were observed at airport outfall sites in samples collected during deicing events. The IC25s of type I deicer for C. dubia and P. promelas were less than 1,500 mg/L of propylene glycol. Concentrations up to 960 mg/L were observed in low-flow samples at an airport outfall site. Measured toxicity of stream water was greatest during winter storms when deicers were applied. Chronic toxicity was observed at airport outfall samples from low-flow periods in the winter and the summer, with the greater toxic impacts from the winter sample. All forms of toxicity in stream-water samples decreased as downstream flows increased.

  17. Aircraft and runway deicers at General Mitchell International Airport, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. 2. Toxicity of aircraft and runway deicer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corsi, Steven; Hall, David W.; Geis, Steven W.

    2001-01-01

    Streams receiving runoff from General Mitchell International Airport (GMIA), Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, were studied to assess toxic impacts of aircraft and runway deicers. Elevated levels of constituents related to deicing (propylene glycol, ethylene glycol, and ammonia) were observed in stream samples. The LC50s of type I deicer for Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephelas promelas, Hyalela azteca, and Chironimus tentans and the EC50 for Microtox® were less than 5,000 mg/L of propylene glycol. Concentrations up to 39,000 mg/L were observed at airport outfall sites in samples collected during deicing events. The IC25s of type I deicer for C. dubia and P. promelas were less than 1,500 mg/L of propylene glycol. Concentrations up to 960 mg/L were observed in low-flow samples at an airport outfall site. Measured toxicity of stream water was greatest during winter storms when deicers were applied. Chronic toxicity was observed at airport outfall samples from low-flow periods in the winter and the summer, with the greater toxic impacts from the winter sample. All forms of toxicity in stream-water samples decreased as downstream flows increased.

  18. STS-31 on Runway 22 at Edwards with Recovery Personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Personnel and equipment converge on the orbiter Discovery to begin servicing the spacecraft following its landing April 29, 1990, at NASA's then Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California. Post-landing servicing by the recovery convoy is carried out after each Space Shuttle landing and includes safety checks for flammable and toxic gases escaping from systems aboard the orbiters, hooking up engine fuel purge and equipment coolant lines, and inspecting the brakes before the vehicle is towed from the runway to the shuttle facility at Dryden where it is prepared for the ferry flight back to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Up to 24 vehicles and scores of personnel make up the landing recovery convoys at Dryden. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain

  19. From Runway to Orbit: Reflections of a NASA Engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Peebles, Curtis L.

    2004-01-01

    In his remarkable memoir Runway to Orbit, Dr. Kenneth W. Iliff - the recently retired Chief Scientist of the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center- tells a highly personal, yet a highly persuasive account of the last forty years of American aeronautical research. His interpretation of events commands respect, because over these years he has played pivotal roles in many of the most important American aeronautics and spaceflight endeavors. Moreover, his narrative covers much of the second half of the first 100 years of flight, a centennial anniversary being celebrated this year. aerospace knowledge. He arrived at the then NASA Flight Research Center in 1962 as a young aeronautical engineer and quickly became involved in two of the seminal projects of modern flight, the X-15 and the lifting bodies. In the process, he pioneered (with Lawrence Taylor) the application of digital computing to the reduction of flight data, arriving at a method known as parameter estimation, now applied the world over. Parameter estimation not only enabled researchers to acquire stability and control derivatives from limited flight data, but in time allowed them to obtain a wide range of aerodynamic effects. Although subsequently involved in dozens of important projects, Dr. Iliff devoted much of his time and energy to hypersonic flight, embodied in the Shuttle orbiter (or as he refers to it, the world s fastest airplane). To him, each Shuttle flight, instrumented to obtain a variety of data, represents a research treasure trove, one that he has mined for years. This book, then, represents the story of Dr. Ken Iliff s passion for flight, his work, and his long and astoundingly productive career. It can be read with profit not just by scientists and engineers, but equally by policy makers, historians, and journalists wishing to better comprehend advancements in flight during the second half of the twentieth century. Dr. Iliff's story is one of immense contributions to the nation s repository of

  20. Benefits Assessment for Single-Airport Tactical Runway Configuration Management Tool (TRCM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa; Phojanamonogkolkij, Nipa; Lohr, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    The System-Oriented Runway Management (SORM) concept was developed as part of the Airspace Systems Program (ASP) Concepts and Technology Development (CTD) Project, and is composed of two basic capabilities: Runway Configuration Management (RCM), and Combined Arrival/Departure Runway Scheduling (CADRS). RCM is the process of designating active runways, monitoring the active runway configuration for suitability given existing factors, and predicting future configuration changes; CADRS is the process of distributing arrivals and departures across active runways based on local airport and National Airspace System (NAS) goals. The central component in the SORM concept is a tool for taking into account all the various factors and producing a recommendation for what would be the optimal runway configuration, runway use strategy, and aircraft sequence, considering as many of the relevant factors required in making this type of decision, and user preferences, if feasible. Three separate tools were initially envisioned for this research area, corresponding to the time scale in which they would operate: Strategic RCM (SRCM), with a planning horizon on the order of several hours, Tactical RCM (TRCM), with a planning horizon on the order of 90 minutes, and CADRS, with a planning horizon on the order of 15-30 minutes[1]. Algorithm development was initiated in all three of these areas, but the most fully developed to date is the TRCM algorithm. Earlier studies took a high-level approach to benefits, estimating aggregate benefits across most of the major airports in the National Airspace Systems (NAS), for both RCM and CADRS [2]. Other studies estimated the benefit of RCM and CADRS using various methods of re-sequencing arrivals to reduce delays3,4, or better balancing of arrival fixes5,6. Additional studies looked at different methods for performing the optimization involved in selecting the best Runway Configuration Plan (RCP) to use7-10. Most of these previous studies were high

  1. Incursions of southern-sourced water into the deep North Atlantic during late Pliocene glacial intensification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, David C.; Bailey, Ian; Wilson, Paul A.; Chalk, Thomas B.; Foster, Gavin L.; Gutjahr, Marcus

    2016-05-01

    The circulation and internal structure of the oceans exert a strong influence on Earth's climate because they control latitudinal heat transport and the segregation of carbon between the atmosphere and the abyss. Circulation change, particularly in the Atlantic Ocean, is widely suggested to have been instrumental in the intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation when large ice sheets first developed on North America and Eurasia during the late Pliocene, approximately 2.7 million years ago. Yet the mechanistic link and cause/effect relationship between ocean circulation and glaciation are debated. Here we present new records of North Atlantic Ocean structure using the carbon and neodymium isotopic composition of marine sediments recording deep water for both the Last Glacial to Holocene (35-5 thousand years ago) and the late Pliocene to earliest Pleistocene (3.3-2.4 million years ago). Our data show no secular change. Instead we document major southern-sourced water incursions into the deep North Atlantic during prominent glacials from 2.7 million years ago. Our results suggest that Atlantic circulation acts as a positive feedback rather than as an underlying cause of late Pliocene Northern Hemisphere glaciation. We propose that, once surface Southern Ocean stratification and/or extensive sea-ice cover was established, cold-stage expansions of southern-sourced water such as those documented here enhanced carbon dioxide storage in the deep ocean, helping to increase the amplitude of glacial cycles.

  2. Seawater Incursion Events in a Cretaceous Paleo-lake Revealed by Specific Marine Biological Markers.

    PubMed

    Hu, J F; Peng, P A; Liu, M Y; Xi, D P; Song, J Z; Wan, X Q; Wang, C S

    2015-01-01

    Many large paleo-lakes in North China were formed after the Triassic Era. Seawater incursion events (SWIEs) in these lakes have been extensively discussed in the literature, yet lack reliable methodology and solid evidence, which are essential for reconstructing and confirming SWIEs. The present study employs specific marine biological markers (24-n-propyl and 24-isopropyl cholestanes) to trace SWIEs in a dated core taken from the Songliao Basin (SLB). Two SWIEs were identified. The first SWIE from 91.37 to 89.00 Ma, was continuous and variable but not strong, while the second SWIE from 84.72 to 83.72 Ma was episodic and strong. SWIEs caused high total organic carbon (TOC) and negative δ(13)Corg values in the sediments, which were interpreted as an indication of high productivity in the lake, due to the enhancement of nutrient supplies as well as high levels of aqueous CO2, due to the mixing of alkaline seawater and acidic lake water. The SWIEs in SLB were controlled by regional tectonic activity and eustatic variation. Movement direction changes of the Izanagi/Kula Plate in 90 Ma and 84 Ma created faults and triggered SWIEs. A high sea level, from 90 to 84 Ma, also facilitated the occurrence of SWIEs in SLB. PMID:25946976

  3. Seawater Incursion Events in a Cretaceous Paleo-lake Revealed by Specific Marine Biological Markers

    PubMed Central

    Hu, J. F.; Peng, P. A.; Liu, M. Y.; Xi, D. P.; Song, J. Z.; Wan, X. Q.; Wang, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Many large paleo-lakes in North China were formed after the Triassic Era. Seawater incursion events (SWIEs) in these lakes have been extensively discussed in the literature, yet lack reliable methodology and solid evidence, which are essential for reconstructing and confirming SWIEs. The present study employs specific marine biological markers (24-n-propyl and 24-isopropyl cholestanes) to trace SWIEs in a dated core taken from the Songliao Basin (SLB). Two SWIEs were identified. The first SWIE from 91.37 to 89.00 Ma, was continuous and variable but not strong, while the second SWIE from 84.72 to 83.72 Ma was episodic and strong. SWIEs caused high total organic carbon (TOC) and negative δ13Corg values in the sediments, which were interpreted as an indication of high productivity in the lake, due to the enhancement of nutrient supplies as well as high levels of aqueous CO2, due to the mixing of alkaline seawater and acidic lake water. The SWIEs in SLB were controlled by regional tectonic activity and eustatic variation. Movement direction changes of the Izanagi/Kula Plate in 90 Ma and 84 Ma created faults and triggered SWIEs. A high sea level, from 90 to 84 Ma, also facilitated the occurrence of SWIEs in SLB. PMID:25946976

  4. Investigating incursions of bluetongue virus using a model of long-distance Culicoides biting midge dispersal.

    PubMed

    Burgin, L E; Gloster, J; Sanders, C; Mellor, P S; Gubbins, S; Carpenter, S

    2013-06-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an economically important pathogen of ruminants that is the aetiological agent of the haemorrhagic disease bluetongue. Bluetongue virus is biologically transmitted by Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), and long-range dispersal of infected vector species contributes substantially to the rapid spread of the virus. The range of semi-passive flights of infected Culicoides on prevailing winds has been inferred to reach several hundred kilometres in a single night over water bodies. In this study, an atmospheric dispersion model was parameterized to simulate Culicoides flight activity based on dedicated entomological data sets collected in the UK. Five outbreaks of BTV in Europe were used to evaluate the model for use as an early warning tool and for retrospective analyses of BTV incursions. In each case, the generated predictions were consistent with epidemiological observations confirming its reliability for use in disease outbreak management. Furthermore, the model aided policy makers to predict, contain and eradicate BTV outbreaks in the UK during 2007 and 2008.

  5. Long-distance aerial dispersal modelling of Culicoides biting midges: case studies of incursions into Australia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies investigating long-distance, wind-borne dispersal of Culicoides have utilised outbreaks of clinical disease (passive surveillance) to assess the relationship between incursion and dispersal event. In this study, species of exotic Culicoides and isolates of novel bluetongue viruses, collected as part of an active arbovirus surveillance program, were used for the first time to assess dispersal into an endemic region. Results A plausible dispersal event was determined for five of the six cases examined. These include exotic Culicoides specimens for which a possible dispersal event was identified within the range of two days – three weeks prior to their collection and novel bluetongue viruses for which a dispersal event was identified between one week and two months prior to their detection in cattle. The source location varied, but ranged from Lombok, in eastern Indonesia, to Timor-Leste and southern Papua New Guinea. Conclusions Where bluetongue virus is endemic, the concurrent use of an atmospheric dispersal model alongside existing arbovirus and Culicoides surveillance may help guide the strategic use of limited surveillance resources as well as contribute to continued model validation and refinement. Further, the value of active surveillance systems in evaluating models for long-distance dispersal is highlighted, particularly in endemic regions where knowledge of background virus and vector status is beneficial. PMID:24943652

  6. Non-airborne conflicts: The causes and effects of runway transgressions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarrel, Richard J.

    1985-01-01

    The 1210 ASRS runway transgression reports are studied and expanded to yield descriptive statistics. Additionally, a one of three subset was studied in detail for purposes of evaluating the causes, risks, and consequences behind trangression events. Occurrences are subdivided by enabling factor and flight phase designations. It is concluded that a larger risk of collision is associated with controller enabled departure transgressions over all other categories. The influence of this type is especially evident during the period following the air traffic controllers' strike of 1981. Causal analysis indicates that, coincidentally, controller enabled departure transgressions also, show the strongest correlations between causal factors. It shows that departure errors occur more often when visibility is reduced, and when multiple takeoff runways or intersection takeoffs are employed. In general, runway transgressions attributable to both pilot and controller errors arise from three problem areas: information transfer, awareness, and spatial judgement. Enhanced awareness by controllers will probably reduce controller enabled incidents.

  7. Runway exit designs for capacity improvement demonstrations. Phase 2: Computer model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trani, A. A.; Hobeika, A. G.; Kim, B. J.; Nunna, V.; Zhong, C.

    1992-01-01

    The development is described of a computer simulation/optimization model to: (1) estimate the optimal locations of existing and proposed runway turnoffs; and (2) estimate the geometric design requirements associated with newly developed high speed turnoffs. The model described, named REDIM 2.0, represents a stand alone application to be used by airport planners, designers, and researchers alike to estimate optimal turnoff locations. The main procedures are described in detail which are implemented in the software package and possible applications are illustrated when using 6 major runway scenarios. The main output of the computer program is the estimation of the weighted average runway occupancy time for a user defined aircraft population. Also, the location and geometric characteristics of each turnoff are provided to the user.

  8. Method and device for landing aircraft dependent on runway occupancy time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghalebsaz Jeddi, Babak (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A technique for landing aircraft using an aircraft landing accident avoidance device is disclosed. The technique includes determining at least two probability distribution functions; determining a safe lower limit on a separation between a lead aircraft and a trail aircraft on a glide slope to the runway; determining a maximum sustainable safe attempt-to-land rate on the runway based on the safe lower limit and the probability distribution functions; directing the trail aircraft to enter the glide slope with a target separation from the lead aircraft corresponding to the maximum sustainable safe attempt-to-land rate; while the trail aircraft is in the glide slope, determining an actual separation between the lead aircraft and the trail aircraft; and directing the trail aircraft to execute a go-around maneuver if the actual separation approaches the safe lower limit. Probability distribution functions include runway occupancy time, and landing time interval and/or inter-arrival distance.

  9. Action-specific effects in aviation: what determines judged runway size?

    PubMed

    Gray, Rob; Navia, José Antonio; Allsop, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Several recent studies have shown that the performance of a skill that involves acting on a goal object can influence one's judgment of the size of that object. The present study investigated this effect in an aviation context. Novice pilots were asked to perform a series of visual approach and landing manoeuvres in a flight simulator. After each landing, participants next performed a task in which runway size was judged for different simulated altitudes. Gaze behaviour and control stick kinematics were also analyzed. There were significant relationships between judged runway size and multiple action-related variables including touchdown velocity, time fixating the runway, and the magnitude and frequency of control inputs. These findings suggest that relationship between the perception of a target object and action is not solely determined by performance success or failure but rather involves a relationship between multiple variables that reflect the actor's ability.

  10. STS-50 Columbia, OV-102, landing with drag chute deploy at KSC SLF runway 33

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-50 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, completes its landing sequence on runway 33 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF). At this point in OV-102's landing, the main landing gear (MLG) and nose landing gear (NLG) ride along the runway surface with the drag chute deployed and at full inflation behind the vehicle. This head-on view looks directly at the crew compartment, includes the full wing span, and shows the vertical tail with deployed rudder/speedbrake system and drag chute. Runway lights appear in the foreground and a flock of birds is barely visible in the distant background. This landing at 7:42 am (Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) included Development Test Objective (DTO) 521, Orbiter drag chute system. It marked the first time for the usage of the parachute system for a KSC landing and the second occurrence in the program.

  11. Interval Management with Spacing to Parallel Dependent Runways (IMSPIDR) Experiment and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Swieringa, Kurt A.; Capron, William R.

    2012-01-01

    An area in aviation operations that may offer an increase in efficiency is the use of continuous descent arrivals (CDA), especially during dependent parallel runway operations. However, variations in aircraft descent angle and speed can cause inaccuracies in estimated time of arrival calculations, requiring an increase in the size of the buffer between aircraft. This in turn reduces airport throughput and limits the use of CDAs during high-density operations, particularly to dependent parallel runways. The Interval Management with Spacing to Parallel Dependent Runways (IMSPiDR) concept uses a trajectory-based spacing tool onboard the aircraft to achieve by the runway an air traffic control assigned spacing interval behind the previous aircraft. This paper describes the first ever experiment and results of this concept at NASA Langley. Pilots flew CDAs to the Dallas Fort-Worth airport using airspeed calculations from the spacing tool to achieve either a Required Time of Arrival (RTA) or Interval Management (IM) spacing interval at the runway threshold. Results indicate flight crews were able to land aircraft on the runway with a mean of 2 seconds and less than 4 seconds standard deviation of the air traffic control assigned time, even in the presence of forecast wind error and large time delay. Statistically significant differences in delivery precision and number of speed changes as a function of stream position were observed, however, there was no trend to the difference and the error did not increase during the operation. Two areas the flight crew indicated as not acceptable included the additional number of speed changes required during the wind shear event, and issuing an IM clearance via data link while at low altitude. A number of refinements and future spacing algorithm capabilities were also identified.

  12. Texture Modification of the Shuttle Landing Facility Runway at the NASA Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Robert H.; Yager, Thomas J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the test procedures and the selection criteria used in selecting the best runway surface texture modification at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) to reduce Orbiter tire wear. The new runway surface may ultimately result in an increase of allowable crosswinds for launch and landing operations. The modification allows launch and landing operations in 20-kt crosswinds if desired. This 5-kt increase over the previous 15-kt limit drastically increases landing safety and the ability to make on-time launches to support missions where space station rendezvous is planned.

  13. Air Traffic and Operational Data on Selected US Airports with Parallel Runways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Thomas M.; McGee, Frank G.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents information on a number of airports in the country with parallel runways and focuses on those that have at least one pair of parallel runways closer than 4300 ft. Information contained in the report describes the airport's current operational activity as obtained through contact with the facility and from FAA air traffic tower activity data for FY 1997. The primary reason for this document is to provide a single source of information for research to determine airports where Airborne Information for Lateral Spacing (AILS) technology may be applicable.

  14. STS-29 Discovery, OV-103, lands on Edwards AFB concrete runway 22

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-29 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, main landing gear (MLG) touches down at a speed of approximately 205 knots (235 miles per hour) on concrete runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base (AFB), California. Nose landing gear (NLG) is deployed and rides above runway surface prior touchdown. Rear view captures OV-103 as it glides past photographer to wheel stop showing the tail section (speedbrake/rudder) and three space shuttle main engines (SSMEs). Mojave desert scrub brush appears in the foreground with aircraft hangar appearing in the background.

  15. Expansion of flight simulator capability for study and solution of aircraft directional control problems on runways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kibbee, G. W.

    1978-01-01

    The development, evaluation, and evaluation results of a DC-9-10 runway directional control simulator are described. An existing wide bodied flight simulator was modified to this aircraft configuration. The simulator was structured to use either two of antiskid simulations; (1) an analog mechanization that used aircraft hardware; or (2) a digital software simulation. After the simulation was developed it was evaluated by 14 pilots who made 818 simulated flights. These evaluations involved landings, rejected takeoffs, and various ground maneuvers. Qualitatively most pilots evaluated the simulator as realistic with good potential especially for pilot training for adverse runway conditions.

  16. STS-36 on Edwards Runway with Recovery Personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Personnel and equipment converge on the orbiter Atlantis to begin servicing the spacecraft following its landing 4 March 1990, at NASA's then Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California. Mission elapsed time for the Department of Defense mission was 4 days, 10 hours, 19 minutes and 15 seconds. Actual landing time was 10:08 a.m. Post-landing servicing by the recovery convoy is carried out after each Space Shuttle landing and includes safety checks for flammable and toxic gases escaping from systems aboard the orbiters, hooking up engine fuel purge and equipment coolant lines, and inspecting the brakes before the vehicle is towed from the runway to the shuttle facility at Dryden where it is prepared for the ferry flight back to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Up to 24 vehicles and scores of personnel make up the landing recovery convoys at Dryden. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed

  17. STS-31 on Runway 22 at Edwards with Recovery Personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Personnel and equipment converge on the orbiter Discovery to begin servicing the spacecraft following its landing April 29, 1990, at NASA's then Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California. Post-landing servicing by the recovery convoy is carried out after each Space Shuttle landing and includes safety checks for flammable and toxic gases escaping from systems aboard the orbiters, hooking up engine fuel purge and equipment coolant lines, and inspecting the brakes before the vehicle is towed from the runway to the shuttle facility at Dryden where it is prepared for the ferry flight back to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Up to 24 vehicles and scores of personnel make up the landing recovery convoys at Dryden. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain

  18. STS-36 on Edwards Runway with Recovery Personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Personnel and equipment converge on the orbiter Atlantis to begin servicing the spacecraft following its landing 4 March 1990, at NASA's then Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California. Mission elapsed time for the Department of Defense mission was 4 days, 10 hours, 19 minutes and 15 seconds. Actual landing time was 10:08 a.m. Post-landing servicing by the recovery convoy is carried out after each Space Shuttle landing and includes safety checks for flammable and toxic gases escaping from systems aboard the orbiters, hooking up engine fuel purge and equipment coolant lines, and inspecting the brakes before the vehicle is towed from the runway to the shuttle facility at Dryden where it is prepared for the ferry flight back to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Up to 24 vehicles and scores of personnel make up the landing recovery convoys at Dryden. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed

  19. Warm, salty surface water incursions and destabilization of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M.; Hendy, I. L.; Pak, D. K.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean temperature change has the potential to destabilize tide-water glaciers and ice shelves. Here we investigate the potential impact of changing North Pacific sea surface temperatures (SST) on the stability of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet during the last deglaciation. Stable isotope values and trace metal ratios were generated on the planktonic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina pachyderma and Globigerina bulloides from core MD02-2496, (1243 m water depth; 48°58N, 127°02W), British Columbia. The site is located where the North Pacific Current bifurcates in the modern climate system, transporting water northward into the Alaskan Gyre and southward to the California Current system. In addition as the site is ~35 km from the coast of Vancouver Island, it is ideally located to detect changes in Cordilleran Ice Sheet behavior. The region is also affected by plumes from the Columbia River deflected north by the Coriolis effect, making it possible to monitor Glacial Lake Missoula Outburst Flooding. The high-resolution (50-200cm kyr-1) reconstruction of SST and δ18Oseawater (salinity) reveals cool (4-7°C), relatively fresh and stratified surface waters occupied the region between 20 and 16.5 ka. Frequent incursions of warm (>10°C), relatively saline water on decadal to centennial timescales began ~18.8 kyr, persisting until ~14.7 kyr. Reconstructed warm and salty waters from 18.5-17.9 kyr are associated with cyclic (~80 year) sedimentation of terrigenous organic carbon-rich, >300 Ma shale-like sediments, which may be evidence of Lake Missoula outburst floodwaters. These sediments contrast with the typical ~100 Ma volcanic sediments typically deposited during deglaciation. A step-wise warming of ~2-4°C occurs at ~16.6 ka and both planktonic foraminiferal species record identical SSTs until ~14.7 ka. During this interval the Vancouver Margin surface waters were relatively more saline and very well mixed. The warmest (14.5-16°C) incursion of saline water occurs at ~16.5 ka

  20. Dryden B-52 Launch Aircraft on Edwards AFB Runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's venerable workhorse, the B-52 mothership, rolls out on the Edwards AFB runway after a test flight in 1996. Over the course of more than 40 years, the B-52 launched numerous experimental aircraft, ranging from the X-15 to the X-38, and was also used as a flying testbed for a variety of other research projects. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid rocket

  1. STS-68 on Runway with 747 SCA - Columbia Ferry Flyby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The space shuttle Endeavour receives a high-flying salute from its sister shuttle, Columbia, atop NASA's Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, shortly after Endeavor's landing 12 October 1994, at Edwards, California, to complete mission STS-68. Columbia was being ferried from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, to Air Force Plant 42, Palmdale, California, where it will undergo six months of inspections, modifications, and systems upgrades. The STS-68 11-day mission was devoted to radar imaging of Earth's geological features with the Space Radar Laboratory. The orbiter is surrounded by equipment and personnel that make up the ground support convoy that services the space vehicles as soon as they land. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the

  2. 14 CFR 151.15 - Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting runway or taxiway remarking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS General Requirements § 151.15 Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting runway or taxiway remarking. No project...

  3. Response of a WB-47E Airplane to Runway Roughness at Eielson AFB, Alaska, September 1964

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Garland J.; Hall, Albert W.

    1965-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted to measure the response of a WB-47E airplane to the roughness of the runway at Eielson AFB, Alaska. The acceleration level in the pilot's compartment and the pitching oscillation of the airplane were found to be sufficiently high to possibly cause pilot discomfort and have an adverse effect on the precision of take-off.

  4. STS-36 Commander Creighton and Pilot Casper on Ellington Field runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-36 Commander John O. Creighton (left) and Pilot John H. Casper, wearing parachute harnesses and holding travel gear, stand on Ellington Field runway prior to boarding their T-38A jet aircraft. A T-38A with canopies open appears in the background.

  5. STS-26 Discovery, OV-103, with landing gear deployed glides above EAFB runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, with nose landing gear (NLG) and main landing gear (MLG) deployed glides above dry lakebed runway 17 at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California. This profile view shows OV-103's port side just before MLG touchdown.

  6. STS-26 Discovery, OV-103, with landing gear deployed glides above EAFB runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, with nose landing gear (NLG) and main landing gear (MLG) deployed glides above dry lakebed runway 17 at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California. This profile view shows the OV-103's starboard side just before MLG touchdown.

  7. STS-26 Discovery, OV-103, with landing gear deployed glides above EAFB runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, with nose landing gear (NLG) and main landing gear (MLG) deployed glides above dry lakebed runway 17 at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California. This profile view shows the OV-103's port side just before MLG touchdown.

  8. Sensitivity of Runway Occupancy Time (ROT) to Various Rollout and Turnoff (ROTO) Factors. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldthorpe, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    The Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) research program was initiated by NASA to increase the airport capacity for transport aircraft operations. One element of the research program is called Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO). A goal of the LVLASO research is to develop transport aircraft technologies which reduce Runway Occupancy Time (ROT) so that it does not become the limiting factor in the terminal area operations that determine the capacity of a runway. Under LVLASO, the objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity of ROT to various factors associated with the Rollout and Turnoff (ROTO) operation for transport aircraft. The following operational factors were studied and are listed in the order of decreasing ROT sensitivity: ice/flood runway surface condition, exit entrance ground speed, number of exits, high-speed exit locations and spacing, aircraft type, touchdown ground speed standard deviation, reverse thrust and braking method, accurate exit prediction capability, maximum reverse thrust availability, spiral-arc vs. circle-arc exit geometry, dry/slush/wet/snow runway surface condition, maximum allowed deceleration, auto asymmetric braking on exit, do not stow reverse thrust before the exit, touchdown longitudinal location standard deviation, flap setting, anti-skid efficiency, crosswind conditions, stopping on the exit and touchdown lateral offset.

  9. Aircraft and avionic related research required to develop an effective high-speed runway exit system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoen, M. L.; Hosford, J. E.; Graham, J. M., Jr.; Preston, O. W.; Frankel, R. S.; Erickson, J. B.

    1979-01-01

    Research was conducted to increase airport capacity by studying the feasibility of the longitudinal separation between aircraft sequences on final approach. The multidisciplinary factors which include the utility of high speed exits for efficient runway operations were described along with recommendations and highlights of these studies.

  10. Down-to-the-runway enhanced flight vision system (EFVS) approach test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinley, John B.; Heidhausen, Eric; Cramer, James A.; Krone, Norris J., Jr.

    2008-04-01

    Flight tests where conducted at Cambridge-Dorchester Airport (KCGE) and Easton Municipal Airport / Newnam Field (KESN) in a Cessna 402B aircraft using a head-up display (HUD) and a Kollsman Enhanced Vision System (EVS-I) infrared camera. These tests were sponsored by the MITRE Corporation's Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (CAASD) and the Federal Aviation Administration. Imagery of the EVS-I infrared camera, HUD guidance cues, and out-the-window video were each separately recorded at an engineering workstation for each approach, roll-out, and taxi operation. The EVS-I imagery was displayed on the HUD with guidance cues generated by the mission computer. Also separately recorded was the inertial flight path data. Enhanced Flight Vision System (EFVS) approaches were conducted from the final approach fix to runway flare, touchdown, roll-out and taxi using the HUD and EVS-I sensor as the only visual reference. Flight conditions included two-pilot crew, day, night, non-precision course offset approaches, ILS approach, crosswind approaches, and missed approaches. Results confirmed the feasibility for safe conduct of down-to-the-runway precision approaches in low visibility to runways with and without precision approach systems, when consideration is given to proper aircraft instrumentation, pilot training, and acceptable procedures. Operational benefits include improved runway occupancy rates, and reduced delays and diversions.

  11. STS-49 Endeavour, OV-105, landing on concrete runway 22 at EAFB, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-49 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, glides above concrete runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California, just before main landing gear (MLG) touchdown. Nose landing gear (NLG) is also deployed during the landing sequence. Landing occurred at 1:36:38 pm (Pacific Daylight Time (PDT)).

  12. STS-33 Discovery, OV-103, approaches concrete runway 04 at EAFB, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-33 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, approaches runway 04 at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California. OV-103 with landing gear deployed is silhouetted against the orange sky of a sunset as it glides over the mountains. The landing occurred at 16:31:02 pm Pacific Standard Time (PST).

  13. Design and development of a modified runway model of mouse drug self-administration

    PubMed Central

    Pandy, Vijayapandi; Khan, Yasmin

    2016-01-01

    The present study established a novel mouse model of a runway drug self-administration in our laboratory. The operant runway apparatus consisted of three long runways arranged in a zig-zag manner. The methodology consisted of six distinct phases: habituation, preconditioning, conditioning, post-conditioning, extinction and reinstatement. The effects of saline were compared with escalating doses of either ethanol (0.5–4.0 g/kg, i.p), heroin (5–40 mg/kg, i.p), or nicotine (0.1–0.5mg/kg, i.p) administered in the goal box during the conditioning phase (day 1 to day 5). A significant decrease in the time of trained (conditioned) mice to reach the goal box confirmed the subjects’ motivation to seek those drugs on day 6 (expression). The mice were then subjected to non-rewarded extinction trials for 5 days over which run times were significantly increased. After 5 days of abstinence, a priming dose of ethanol or heroin (1/5th of maximum dose used in conditioning) significantly reinstated the drug-seeking behavior. These results suggest that the modified runway model can serve as a powerful behavioral tool for the study of the behavioral and neurobiological bases of drug self-administration and, as such, is appropriate simple but powerful tool for investigating the drug-seeking behavior of laboratory mice. PMID:26902717

  14. Functional Analysis for an Integrated Capability of Arrival/Departure/Surface Management with Tactical Runway Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Okuniek, Nikolai; Lohr, Gary W.; Schaper, Meilin; Christoffels, Lothar; Latorella, Kara A.

    2014-01-01

    The runway is a critical resource of any air transport system. It is used for arrivals, departures, and for taxiing aircraft and is universally acknowledged as a constraining factor to capacity for both surface and airspace operations. It follows that investigation of the effective use of runways, both in terms of selection and assignment as well as the timing and sequencing of the traffic is paramount to the efficient traffic flows. Both the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and NASA have developed concepts and tools to improve atomic aspects of coordinated arrival/departure/surface management operations and runway configuration management. In December 2012, NASA entered into a Collaborative Agreement with DLR. Four collaborative work areas were identified, one of which is called "Runway Management." As part of collaborative research in the "Runway Management" area, which is conducted with the DLR Institute of Flight Guidance, located in Braunschweig, the goal is to develop an integrated system comprised of the three DLR tools - arrival, departure, and surface management (collectively referred to as A/D/S-MAN) - and NASA's tactical runway configuration management (TRCM) tool. To achieve this goal, it is critical to prepare a concept of operations (ConOps) detailing how the NASA runway management and DLR arrival, departure, and surface management tools will function together to the benefit of each. To assist with the preparation of the ConOps, the integrated NASA and DLR tools are assessed through a functional analysis method described in this report. The report first provides the highlevel operational environments for air traffic management (ATM) in Germany and in the U.S., and the descriptions of the DLR's A/D/S-MAN and NASA's TRCM tools at the level of details necessary to compliment the purpose of the study. Functional analyses of each tool and a completed functional analysis of an integrated system design are presented next in the report. Future efforts to fully

  15. Pilot perception of light emitting diodes versus incandescent elevated runway guard lights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Hilary

    Pilots must understand and be aware of the purpose of each airport sign, light and marking, for there are numerous. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is planning on replacing the current incandescent lighting with far more economical LED airport lighting. In preparation for this change, two experiments were conducted for this thesis. Experiment 1 attempted to determine what pilots know about the meaning of the signs, markings and lights on the taxiways and runways through a questionnaire that was developed with the FAA. Experiment 2 evaluated pilot perception of LED lighting compared to current incandescent elevated runway guard lights. The meaning of airfield lights is not often stressed in pilot training and many pilots are unsure as to the intended purpose of specific lighting. Experiment 1 attempted to evaluate the uncertainty of these caution lights. In experiment 1, a knowledge survey about runway lighting and markings was created. The survey was developed by a flight instructor and approved by the Federal Aviation Administration. The surveys were given to about 150 pilots with varying flight ratings and experience levels. Experiment 1 results determined that there is a need for more intensive or remedial training on some airport signals. Results also showed that some runway signals need to have greater cue salience. Experiment 2 was designed to replace the existing elevated runway guard lights at a local airport from incandescent lights to light emitting diodes. Permission to cross onto the runways from a taxiway at airports must be given by the air traffic (ground) controller. The demarcation between taxiway and runway is indicated by the elevated runway guard light (ERGL), which signals to the taxiing pilot to hold short at the border of the runway until permission to cross the intersection is obtained. Incandescent lights are currently installed in the ERGLs. Experiment 2 of this thesis was designed to evaluate pilot's perceptions of the elevated

  16. Effects of forced-choice runway variations on rats' T-maze serial pattern learning.

    PubMed

    Szelest, Izabela; Cohen, Jerome

    2006-05-01

    Rats learned an ordered RNR/RNN serial pattern task in a T-maze where they were shifted to a different runway on Trial 3 only in the RNR series (shift-win/stay-lose group) or only in the RNN series (stay-win/shift-lose group). The shift-win/stay-lose group developed faster speeds on Trial 3 of the RNR than on Trial 3 of the RNN series more easily than the stay-win/shift-lose group. This difference occurred whether all rats were forced onto the same runway on the first two trials (Experiment 1) or onto a different runway on Trial 2 from that on Trial 1 in each series (Experiment 2). Posttraining probe tests revealed that the shift-win/stay-lose group in each experiment relied on the runway shift event in Trial 3 or on the series position to anticipate the second reward within a series. Such reward expectancies were greater when the runway shift occurred in the same series position as during training. These probe tests revealed that the stay-win/shift-lose group relied only on the series position in Experiment 2. Our findings do not support predictions based on an associative predictive validity model. Rather, they reflect rats' predisposition to spontaneously alternate choices in the T-maze, a tendency corresponding to their inherent win-shift foraging strategy. Rats in each group also reduced their speeds less on the nonrewarded Trial 2 when it preceded a rewarded rather than a nonrewarded Trial 3. This effect suggests that rats were able to determine which series contained a second rewarded trial. We discuss the theoretical implications of this Trial 2 speed effect in terms of rats' uncertainty about where this second rewarded trial might occur in the RNR series.

  17. Rollout and Turnoff (ROTO) Guidance and Information Displays: Effect on Runway Occupancy Time in Simulated Low-Visibility Landings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueschen, Richard M.; Hankins, Walter W., III; Barker, L. Keith

    2001-01-01

    This report examines a rollout and turnoff (ROTO) system for reducing the runway occupancy time for transport aircraft in low-visibility weather. Simulator runs were made to evaluate the system that includes a head-up display (HUD) to show the pilot a graphical overlay of the runway along with guidance and steering information to a chosen exit. Fourteen pilots (airline, corporate jet, and research pilots) collectively flew a total of 560 rollout and turnoff runs using all eight runways at Hartsfield Atlanta International Airport. The runs consisted of 280 runs for each of two runway visual ranges (RVRs) (300 and 1200 ft). For each visual range, half the runs were conducted with the HUD information and half without. For the runs conducted with the HUD information, the runway occupancy times were lower and more consistent. The effect was more pronounced as visibility decreased. For the 1200-ft visibility, the runway occupancy times were 13% lower with HUD information (46.1 versus 52.8 sec). Similarly, for the 300-ft visibility, the times were 28% lower (45.4 versus 63.0 sec). Also, for the runs with HUD information, 78% (RVR 1200) and 75% (RVR 300) had runway occupancy times less than 50 sec, versus 41 and 20%, respectively, without HUD information.

  18. Contrasting hydrological processes of meteoric water incursion during magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposition: An oxygen isotope study by ion microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekete, Szandra; Weis, Philipp; Driesner, Thomas; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie; Baumgartner, Lukas; Heinrich, Christoph A.

    2016-10-01

    Meteoric water convection has long been recognized as an efficient means to cool magmatic intrusions in the Earth's upper crust. This interplay between magmatic and hydrothermal activity thus exerts a primary control on the structure and evolution of volcanic, geothermal and ore-forming systems. Incursion of meteoric water into magmatic-hydrothermal systems has been linked to tin ore deposition in granitic plutons. In contrast, evidence from porphyry copper ore deposits suggests that crystallizing subvolcanic magma bodies are only affected by meteoric water incursion in peripheral zones and during late post-ore stages. We apply high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to analyze oxygen isotope ratios of individual growth zones in vein quartz crystals, imaged by cathodo-luminescence microscopy (SEM-CL). Existing microthermometric information from fluid inclusions enables calculation of the oxygen isotope composition of the fluid from which the quartz precipitated, constraining the relative timing of meteoric water input into these two different settings. Our results confirm that incursion of meteoric water directly contributes to cooling of shallow granitic plutons and plays a key role in concurrent tin mineralization. By contrast, data from two porphyry copper deposits suggest that downward circulating meteoric water is counteracted by up-flowing hot magmatic fluids. Our data show that porphyry copper ore deposition occurs close to a magmatic-meteoric water interface, rather than in a purely magmatic fluid plume, confirming recent hydrological modeling. On a larger scale, the expulsion of magmatic fluids against the meteoric water interface can shield plutons from rapid convective cooling, which may aid the build-up of large magma chambers required for porphyry copper ore formation.

  19. Mineralogical and sulfur isotopic evidence for the incursion of evaporites in the Jinshandian skarn Fe deposit, Edong district, Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qiaoqiao; Xie, Guiqing; Mao, Jingwen; Li, Wei; Li, Yanhe; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Ping

    2015-12-01

    Evaporites have played important role in the formation of diverse metallic ore deposits, especially in the case of magmatic-hydrothermal deposits. However, the relationship between evaporites and skarn Fe deposit remains poorly constrained. In this contribution, we present new sulfur isotope data of pyrite, as well as the composition of halogen-rich minerals (scapolite and amphibole) in the Jinshandian skarn Fe deposit. The data are used to evaluate the evidence for incursion of evaporites in the skarn Fe deposit. The δ34S values for pyrite from the early and late retrograde stage range from +17.4‰ to +18.7‰ (n = 4) and +16.4‰ to +19.4‰ (n = 13), respectively. Both these values are markedly heavier than the common δ34S values of sulfides from magmatic-hydrothermal fluid, indicating that sulfur in the Jinshandian ore-forming system was mostly derived from evaporites. Compared to the amphibole from endoskarn, the scapolite and amphibole from exoskarn show high Cl content up to 4.04% and 3.01%, respectively, suggesting that the hydrothermal fluid with high NaCl content was probably derived from evaporites. The amphiboles from endoskarn are more enriched in F which is probably of magmatic in origin. The data presented in our study suggest that the hydrothermal system of the Jinshandian skarn Fe deposit probably experienced significant incursion of evaporites before or during the late prograde stage.

  20. An overview of the joint FAA/NASA aircraft/ground runway friction program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    There is a need for information on runways which may become slippery due to various forms and types of contaminants. Experience has shown that since the beginning of all weather aircraft operations, there have been landing and aborted takeoff incidents and/or accidents each year where aircraft have either run off the end or veered off the shoulder of low friction runways. NASA Langley's Landing and Impact Dynamics Branch is involved in several research programs directed towards obtaining a better understanding of how different tire properties interact with varying pavement surface characteristics to produce acceptable performance for aircraft ground handling requirements. One such effort, which was jointly supported by not only NASA and the FAA but by several aviation industry groups including the Flight Safety Foundation, is described.

  1. Preliminary evaluation of the effect of a dynamic preferential runway system upon community noise disturbance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, H. P.; Edmiston, R. P.; Connor, W. K.

    1972-01-01

    A dynamic preferential runway system (DPRS) was developed for John F. Kennedy International Airport for the purpose of controlling short term noise exposure in the neighboring communities. The DPRS is a computer-aided procedure for optimum selection of runways from the standpoint of noise and is based upon a community disturbance model which takes into account flyover levels, size of exposed populations, time of day and week, and persistence of overflights. A preliminary evaluation of the DPRS is presented on the basis of social survey data and telephone complaint records, for the trial period of August and September, 1971. Comparative use is made of data taken in a previous survey of the same community areas in 1969.

  2. Automatic extraction of runway structures in infrared remote sensing image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Christian; Palubinskas, Gintautas; Müller, Rupert

    2005-10-01

    Today's flight safety, especially during aircraft landing approach to an airport, is often affected by adverse weather conditions. One of the promising technologies to increase the pilot's situation awareness is the Enhanced and Synthetic Vision System (ESVS): the combination of sensor vision and synthetic vision systems. In this paper we present one aspect of the sensor vision system, an algorithm that is using only a sequence of infrared images to detect possible runway structures and obstacles on it during the aircraft landing approach. No additional information from database, INS or GPS is used at this processing stage. The algorithm generates several runway and obstacle hypotheses and the final decision in ESVS is taken in the further processing stage: fusion of radar and IR data hypotheses and synthetic vision data. The functionality of the algorithm was tested extensively during several flight campaigns with landing approaches to different German and European airports in 2003 and 2004.

  3. Proceedings of the NASA Workshop on Flight Deck Centered Parallel Runway Approaches in Instrument Meteorological Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Marvin C. (Editor); Scanlon, Charles H. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    A Government and Industry workshop on Flight-Deck-Centered Parallel Runway Approaches in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) was conducted October 29, 1996 at the NASA Langley Research Center. This document contains the slides and records of the proceedings of the workshop. The purpose of the workshop was to disclose to the National airspace community the status of ongoing NASA R&D to address the closely spaced parallel runway problem in IMC and to seek advice and input on direction of future work to assure an optimized research approach. The workshop also included a description of a Paired Approach Concept which is being studied at United Airlines for application at the San Francisco International Airport.

  4. NASA Boeing 737 Aircraft Test Results from 1996 Joint Winter Runway Friction Measurement Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1996-01-01

    A description of the joint test program objectives and scope is given together with the performance capability of the NASA Langley B-737 instrumented aircraft. The B-737 test run matrix conducted during the first 8 months of this 5-year program is discussed with a description of the different runway conditions evaluated. Some preliminary test results are discussed concerning the Electronic Recording Decelerometer (ERD) readings and a comparison of B-737 aircraft braking performance for different winter runway conditions. Detailed aircraft parameter time history records, analysis of ground vehicle friction measurements and harmonization with aircraft braking performance, assessment of induced aircraft contaminant drag, and evaluation of the effects of other factors on aircraft/ground vehicle friction performance will be documented in a NASA Technical Report which is being prepared for publication next year.

  5. Texture Modification of the Shuttle Landing Facility Runway at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Robert H.; Yager, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the test procedures and the criteria used in selecting an effective runway-surface-texture modification at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) to reduce Orbiter tire wear. The new runway surface may ultimately result in an increase of allowable crosswinds for launch and landing operations. The modification allows launch and landing operations in 20-knot crosswinds, if desired. This 5-knot increase over the previous 15-knot limit drastically increases landing safety and the ability to make on-time launches to support missions in which Space Station rendezvous are planned. The paper presents the results of an initial (1988) texture modification to reduce tire spin-up wear and then describes a series of tests that use an instrumented ground-test vehicle to compare tire friction and wear characteristics, at small scale, of proposed texture modifications placed into the SLF runway surface itself. Based on these tests, three candidate surfaces were chosen to be tested at full-scale by using a highly modified and instrumented transport aircraft capable of duplicating full Orbiter landing profiles. The full-scale Orbiter tire testing revealed that tire wear could be reduced approximately by half with either of two candidates. The texture-modification technique using a Humble Equipment Company Skidabrader(trademark) shotpeening machine proved to be highly effective, and the entire SLF runway surface was modified in September 1994. The extensive testing and evaluation effort that preceded the selection of this particular surface-texture-modification technique is described herein.

  6. STS-54 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, lands on runway 33 at KSC's SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-54 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, lands on concrete runway 33 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF). The main landing gear touched down at 8:39 am (Eastern Standard Time (EST)). OV-105's port side profile is captured in this view. Also notable are the wisps of smoke trailing behind the vehicle. These are wing tip vortices. In the foreground is a water drainage ditch.

  7. Views of the Columbia sitting on Lakebed runway during crew egress of STS-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Greeted by their medical doctor, Astronauts Joe H. Engle and Richard H. Truly egress the capbin of the shuttle Columbia at Edwards Air Force Base at the end of the STS-2 mission. Dr. Charles LaPinta of JSC's Medical Sciences Division is at right (39578); Engle, left, and Truly, still wearing their ejection/escape suits step out on to the runway at Edwards AFB (39579).

  8. Cockpit Displays for Enhancing Terminal-Area Situational Awareness and Runway Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, Paul V.; Otero, Sharon; Jones, Denise R. (Technical Monitor)

    2007-01-01

    HUD and PFD displays have been developed to enhance situational awareness and improve runway safety. These displays were designed to seamlessly transition through all phases of flight providing guidance and information to the pilot. This report describes the background of the Langley Research Center (LaRC) HUD and PFD work, the steps required to integrate the displays with those of other LaRC programs, the display characteristics of the several operational modes and the transitional logic governing the transition between displays.

  9. STS-43 crewmembers egress Atlantis, OV-104, after landing at KSC runway 15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-43 crewmembers, wearing launch and entry suits (LESs), egress Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, via mobile stairway after landing on runway 15 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF). Leading the crew and the first to step onto the red carpet is Pilot Michael A. Baker. He is followed by Mission Specialist (MS) Shannon W. Lucid, MS James C. Adamson, MS G. David Low, and Commander John E. Blaha. OV-104's fuselage is visible in the background.

  10. STS-41 crew poses in front of OV-103 on concrete runway 22 at EAFB, Calif

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-41 crewmembers pose in front of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, parked on concrete runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California. Having just completed their mission, the crewmembers are still wearing their launch and entry suits (LESs). From left to right are Mission Specialist (MS) Thomas D. Akers, Pilot Robert D. Cabana, Commander Richard N. Richards, MS Bruce E. Melnick, and MS William M. Shepherd.

  11. Models for estimating runway landing capacity with Microwave Landing System (MLS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tosic, V.; Horonjeff, R.

    1975-01-01

    A model is developed which is capable of computing the ultimate landing runway capacity, under ILS and MLS conditions, when aircraft population characteristics and air traffic control separation rules are given. This model can be applied in situations when only a horizontal separation between aircraft approaching a runway is allowed, as well as when both vertical and horizontal separations are possible. It is assumed that the system is free of errors, that is that aircraft arrive at specified points along the prescribed flight path precisely when the controllers intend for them to arrive at these points. Although in the real world there is no such thing as an error-free system, the assumption is adequate for a qualitative comparison of MLS with ILS. Results suggest that an increase in runway landing capacity, caused by introducing the MLS multiple approach paths, is to be expected only when an aircraft population consists of aircraft with significantly differing approach speeds and particularly in situations when vertical separation can be applied. Vertical separation can only be applied if one of the types of aircraft in the mix has a very steep descent angle.

  12. Prevalence and airborne spore levels of Stachybotrys spp. in 200 houses with water incursions in Houston, Texas.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Ryan C; Trimble, Mingyi W; Hofer, Vasanthi; Lee, Michael; Nassof, Russell S

    2005-01-01

    Two hundred homes with a history of water incursion were sampled for fungi to determine the prevalence and airborne spore levels of Stachybotrys spp. Sampling methods included room air, surface, and wall cavity air sampling. Stachybotrys spp. were detected with at least one of the methods in 58.5% of the houses tested, but only 9.6% of the room air samples contained Stachybotrys spores. Aerosolization of Stachybotrys spores was correlated with both wall cavity and surface contamination. However, after adjustment for the surface effect, Stachybotrys spores detected in wall cavities were not a significant factor contributing to spores detected in room air samples. We conclude that Stachybotrys spp. are commonly found on water-damaged building materials. In addition, the observations made in this study suggest that the impact on the living space air is low if the fungal spores are contained within a wall cavity.

  13. Population Genetic Structure and Potential Incursion Pathways of the Bluetongue Virus Vector Culicoides brevitarsis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Tay, W T; Kerr, P J; Jermiin, L S

    2016-01-01

    Culicoides brevitarsis is a vector of the bluetongue virus (BTV), which infects sheep and cattle. It is an invasive species in Australia with an assumed Asian/South East Asian origin. Using one mitochondrial marker (i.e., part of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene) and six nuclear markers, we inferred population genetic structure and possible incursion pathways for Australian C. brevitarsis. Nine mitochondrial haplotypes, with low nucleotide sequence diversity (0.0-0.7%) among these, were identified in a sample of 70 individuals from seven sites. Both sets of markers revealed a homogeneous population structure, albeit with evidence of isolation by distance and two genetically distinct clusters distributed along a north-to-south cline. No evidence of a cryptic species complex was found. The geographical distribution of the mitochondrial haplotypes is consistent with at least two incursion pathways into Australia since the arrival of suitable livestock hosts. By contrast, 15 mitochondrial haplotypes, with up to four times greater nucleotide sequence diversity (0.0-2.9%) among these, were identified in a sample of 16 individuals of the endemic C. marksi (sampled from a site in South Australia and another in New South Wales). A phylogenetic tree inferred using the mitochondrial marker revealed that the Australian and Japanese samples of C. brevitarsis are as evolutionarily different from one another as some of the other Australian species (e.g., C. marksi, C. henryi, C. pallidothorax) are. The phylogenetic tree placed four of the species endemic to Australia (C. pallidothorax, C. bundyensis, C. marksi, C. henryi) in a clade, with a fifth such species (C. bunrooensis) sharing a common ancestor with that clade and a clade comprising two Japanese species (C. verbosus, C. kibunensis).

  14. Population Genetic Structure and Potential Incursion Pathways of the Bluetongue Virus Vector Culicoides brevitarsis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Tay, W. T.; Kerr, P. J.; Jermiin, L. S.

    2016-01-01

    Culicoides brevitarsis is a vector of the bluetongue virus (BTV), which infects sheep and cattle. It is an invasive species in Australia with an assumed Asian/South East Asian origin. Using one mitochondrial marker (i.e., part of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene) and six nuclear markers, we inferred population genetic structure and possible incursion pathways for Australian C. brevitarsis. Nine mitochondrial haplotypes, with low nucleotide sequence diversity (0.0–0.7%) among these, were identified in a sample of 70 individuals from seven sites. Both sets of markers revealed a homogeneous population structure, albeit with evidence of isolation by distance and two genetically distinct clusters distributed along a north-to-south cline. No evidence of a cryptic species complex was found. The geographical distribution of the mitochondrial haplotypes is consistent with at least two incursion pathways into Australia since the arrival of suitable livestock hosts. By contrast, 15 mitochondrial haplotypes, with up to four times greater nucleotide sequence diversity (0.0–2.9%) among these, were identified in a sample of 16 individuals of the endemic C. marksi (sampled from a site in South Australia and another in New South Wales). A phylogenetic tree inferred using the mitochondrial marker revealed that the Australian and Japanese samples of C. brevitarsis are as evolutionarily different from one another as some of the other Australian species (e.g., C. marksi, C. henryi, C. pallidothorax) are. The phylogenetic tree placed four of the species endemic to Australia (C. pallidothorax, C. bundyensis, C. marksi, C. henryi) in a clade, with a fifth such species (C. bunrooensis) sharing a common ancestor with that clade and a clade comprising two Japanese species (C. verbosus, C. kibunensis). PMID:26771743

  15. Population Genetic Structure and Potential Incursion Pathways of the Bluetongue Virus Vector Culicoides brevitarsis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Tay, W T; Kerr, P J; Jermiin, L S

    2016-01-01

    Culicoides brevitarsis is a vector of the bluetongue virus (BTV), which infects sheep and cattle. It is an invasive species in Australia with an assumed Asian/South East Asian origin. Using one mitochondrial marker (i.e., part of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene) and six nuclear markers, we inferred population genetic structure and possible incursion pathways for Australian C. brevitarsis. Nine mitochondrial haplotypes, with low nucleotide sequence diversity (0.0-0.7%) among these, were identified in a sample of 70 individuals from seven sites. Both sets of markers revealed a homogeneous population structure, albeit with evidence of isolation by distance and two genetically distinct clusters distributed along a north-to-south cline. No evidence of a cryptic species complex was found. The geographical distribution of the mitochondrial haplotypes is consistent with at least two incursion pathways into Australia since the arrival of suitable livestock hosts. By contrast, 15 mitochondrial haplotypes, with up to four times greater nucleotide sequence diversity (0.0-2.9%) among these, were identified in a sample of 16 individuals of the endemic C. marksi (sampled from a site in South Australia and another in New South Wales). A phylogenetic tree inferred using the mitochondrial marker revealed that the Australian and Japanese samples of C. brevitarsis are as evolutionarily different from one another as some of the other Australian species (e.g., C. marksi, C. henryi, C. pallidothorax) are. The phylogenetic tree placed four of the species endemic to Australia (C. pallidothorax, C. bundyensis, C. marksi, C. henryi) in a clade, with a fifth such species (C. bunrooensis) sharing a common ancestor with that clade and a clade comprising two Japanese species (C. verbosus, C. kibunensis). PMID:26771743

  16. NASA diagonal-braked test vehicle evaluation of traction characteristics of grooved and ungrooved runway surfaces at Miami International Airport, Miami, Florida, 8-9 May 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Two runways were evaluated under artificially wetted conditions with the NASA diagonal-braked vehicle (DBV). Results of the evaluation which included a pavement drainage analysis, a pavement skid resistance analysis, and a DBV wet/dry stopping distance ratio analysis indicated that the ungrooved runway surfaces had poor water drainage characteristics and poor skid resistance under wet conditions at high speeds especially in rubbercoated areas of the runways. Grooving runways to a transverse 1-1/4 x 1/4 x 1/4 inch pattern greatly improved both the water drainage and pavement skid resistance capability of these asphaltic concrete surfaces.

  17. Evaluation of two transport aircraft and several ground test vehicle friction measurements obtained for various runway surface types and conditions. A summary of test results from joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Vogler, William A.; Baldasare, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Tests with specially instrumented NASA Boeing 737 and 727 aircraft together with several different ground friction measuring devices were conducted for a variety of runway surface types and conditions. These tests are part of joint FAA/NASA Aircraft/Ground Vehicle Runway Friction Program aimed at obtaining a better understanding of aircraft ground handling performance under adverse weather conditions and defining relationships between aircraft and ground vehicle tire friction measurements. Aircraft braking performance on dry, wet, snow and ice-covered runway conditions is discussed as well as ground vehicle friction data obtained under similar runway conditions. For a given contaminated runway surface condition, the correlation between ground vehicles and aircraft friction data is identified. The influence of major test parameters on friction measurements such as speed, test tire characteristics, type and amount of surface contaminant, and ambient temperature are discussed. The effect of surface type on wet friction levels is also evaluated from comparative data collected on grooved and ungrooved concrete and asphalt surfaces.

  18. An Exploratory Study of Runway Arrival Procedures: Time Based Arrival and Self-Spacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, Vincent E.; Barmore, Bryan

    2009-01-01

    The ability of a flight crew to deliver their aircraft to its arrival runway on time is important to the overall efficiency of the National Airspace System (NAS). Over the past several years, the NAS has been stressed almost to its limits resulting in problems such as airport congestion, flight delay, and flight cancellation to reach levels that have never been seen before in the NAS. It is predicted that this situation will worsen by the year 2025, due to an anticipated increase in air traffic operations to one-and-a-half to three times its current level. Improved arrival efficiency, in terms of both capacity and environmental impact, is an important part of improving NAS operations. One way to improve the arrival performance of an aircraft is to enable the flight crew to precisely deliver their aircraft to a specified point at either a specified time or specified interval relative to another aircraft. This gives the flight crew more control to make the necessary adjustments to their aircraft s performance with less tactical control from the controller; it may also decrease the controller s workload. Two approaches to precise time navigation have been proposed: Time-Based Arrivals (e.g., required times of arrival) and Self-Spacing. Time-Based Arrivals make use of an aircraft s Flight Management System (FMS) to deliver the aircraft to the runway threshold at a given time. Self-Spacing enables the flight crew to achieve an ATC assigned spacing goals at the runway threshold relative to another aircraft. The Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO), a multi-agency initiative established to plan and coordinate the development of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), has asked for data for both of these concepts to facilitate future research and development. This paper provides a first look at the delivery performance of these two concepts under various initial and environmental conditions in an air traffic simulation environment.

  19. An Overview of the Annual NASA Tire/Runway Friction Workshop and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes the organization efforts, objectives, scope, agenda, test procedures and results from eleven years of conducting the NASA Tire/Runway Friction Workshop. The paper will also summarize the lessons learned between 1994 and 2004. A description of the various friction, texture and roughness equipment used during these workshops at NASA Wallops Flight Facility on the eastern shore of Virginia will be provided together with the range of test surfaces available for evaluation. The need for friction measuring equipment calibration centers is discussed and plans for future workshops are identified.

  20. STS-31 crew poses on EAFB concrete runway after egressing OV-103

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-31 crewmembers, wearing their launch and entry suits (LESs), pose for an informal portrait on Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB) concrete runway 22 after egressing Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Left to right are Mission Specialist (MS) Steven A. Hawley, Pilot Charles F. Bolden, MS Kathryn D. Sullivan, Commander Loren J. Shriver, and MS Bruce McCandless II. A service vehicle and OV-103's main landing gear (MLG) are visible in the background. The highly successful five-day mission concluded at EAFB with wheel stop at 6:51:00 am (Pacific Daylight Time (PDT)).

  1. STS-31 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, lands on EAFB concrete runway 22

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-31 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, rolls along concrete runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California, after nose landing gear (NLG) and main landing gear (MLG) touchdown. This view looks down OV-103's port side from the space shuttle main engines (SSMEs) to the nose section. The SSMEs are gimbaled to their descent position and the rudder/speedbrake is deployed on the vertical stabilizer. Wheel stop occurred at 6:51 am (Pacific Daylight Time (PDT)). In the distance EAFB facilities are visible.

  2. STS-41 crew poses in front of OV-103 on concrete runway 22 at EAFB, Calif

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-41 crewmembers give 'thumbs up' signal while standing in front of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, parked on concrete runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California. Having just completed their mission, the crewmembers are still wearing their launch and entry suits (LESs). From left to right are Mission Specialist (MS) Thomas D. Akers, Pilot Robert D. Cabana, Commander Richard N. Richards, MS Bruce E. Melnick, and MS William M. Shepherd. Set up at OV-103's side hatch is a mobile stairway which the crew uses to egress the vehicle and which technicians use when safing the vehicle during postflight operations.

  3. Issues in Airborne Systems for Closely-Spaced Parallel Runway Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, A.; Carpenter, B.; Asari, K.; Kuchar, J.; Hansman, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    Efforts to increase airport capacity include studies of aircraft systems that would enable simultaneous approaches to closely spaced parallel runways in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). The time-critical nature of a parallel approach results in key design issues for current and future collision avoidance systems. These issues are being studied in two ways. First, a part-task flight simulator study has examined the procedural and display issues inherent in such a time-critical task. Second, a prototype collision avoidance logic capable of generating this maneuver guidance has been designed using a recently developed methodology.

  4. Runways at small airports are deteriorating because of deferred maintenance: Action needed by FAA and the Congress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-09-01

    Runways at many small airports are deteriorating faster than necessary because airport owners--usually local governments--have deferred critical maintenance. The result is damage to the runways' basic structure and a shortened useful life if they are not repaired. Based on GAO's review of 46 airports, studies by others, and the views of FAA officials, deferred maintenance is apparently a longstanding nationwide problem. Lack of funds is cited by airport owners as the primary reason for not performing needed maintenance; however, the Federal Aviation Administration's apathy to bring about satisfactory maintenance is a contributing cause. GAO is recommending actions that FAA can take to help ensure that runways at small airports are properly maintained. The Congress should recognize the airport owners' lack of resources to properly maintain airports when considering future revisions to the Airport Improvement Program.

  5. Autonomous UV-enhanced-vision system for landing on CAT I runways during CAT IIIa weather conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Victor J., Jr.; Currie, Douglas G.

    2001-08-01

    Airport traffic delays continue to increase, without any relief in sight. A major contributing factor is the lack of low visibility capability for both aircraft landing and movement about an airport surface. Only 39 runways in the USA can operate under CAT III (700 ft. visibility to land) conditions, and just 19 additional runways are in the planning stage. Each will cost $DLR1 billion and take about ten years to place in operation. Ultraviolet (UV) technology may offer a solution. Runways that would normally decrease their traffic throughput, or close, as visibility degrades, can maintain their visual tempo and safety norms through the application of UV fog penetration techniques. These techniques can be applied on a selective and incremental basis such that some relief can be expected within two years and major decreases in delays can be realized a year thereafter. Three progressive steps are involved.

  6. A minute ostracod (Crustacea: Cytheromatidae) from the Miocene Solimões Formation (western Amazonia, Brazil): evidence for marine incursions?

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Martin; Ramos, Maria Ines F.; Piller, Werner E.

    2016-01-01

    A huge wetland (the ‘Pebas system’) covered western Amazonia during the Miocene, hosting a highly diverse and endemic aquatic fauna. One of the most contentious issues concerns the existence, potential pathways and effects of marine incursions on this ecosystem. Palaeontological evidences (body fossils) are rare. The finding of a new, presumably marine ostracod species (Pellucistoma curupira sp. nov.) in the upper middle Miocene Solimões Formation initiated a taxonomic, ecological and biogeographical review of the genus Pellucistoma. We demonstrate that this marine (sublittoral, euhaline), subtropical–tropical taxon is biogeographically confined to the Americas. The biogeographical distribution of Pellucistoma largely depends on geographical, thermal and osmotic barriers (e.g. land bridges, deep and/or cold waters, sea currents, salinity). We assume an Oligocene/early Miocene, Caribbean origin for Pellucistoma and outline the dispersal of hitherto known species up to the Holocene. Pellucistoma curupira sp. nov. is dwarfed in comparison to all other species of this genus and extremely thin-shelled. This is probably related to poorly oxygenated waters and, in particular, to strongly reduced salinity. The associated ostracod fauna (dominated by the eurypotent Cyprideis and a few, also stunted ostracods of possibly marine ancestry) supports this claim. Geochemical analyses (δ18O, δ13C) on co-occurring ostracod valves (Cyprideis spp.) yielded very light values, indicative of a freshwater setting. These observations point to a successful adaptation of P. curupira sp. nov. to freshwater conditions and therefore do not signify the presence of marine water. Pellucistoma curupira sp. nov. shows closest affinities to Caribbean species. We hypothesize that Pellucistoma reached northern South America (Llanos Basin) during marine incursions in the early Miocene. While larger animals of marine origin (e.g. fishes, dolphins, manatees) migrated actively into the Pebas

  7. Uncertainty Analysis for the Evaluation of a Passive Runway Arresting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, Richard; Marlowe, Jill M.; Yager, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the stopping distance of an aircraft involved in a runway overrun incident when the runway has been provided with an extension comprised of a material engineered to induce high levels of rolling friction and drag. A formula for stopping distance is derived that is shown to be the product of a known formula for the case of friction without drag, and a dimensionless constant between 0 and 1 that quantifies the further reduction in stopping distance when drag is introduced. This additional quantity, identified as the Drag Reduction Factor, D, is shown to depend on the ratio of drag force to friction force experienced by the aircraft as it enters the overrun area. The specific functional form of D is shown to depend on how drag varies with speed. A detailed uncertainty analysis is presented which reveals how the uncertainty in estimates of stopping distance are influenced by experimental error in the force measurements that are acquired in a typical evaluation experiment conducted to assess candidate overrun materials.

  8. The Dynamic Planner: The Sequencer, Scheduler, and Runway Allocator for Air Traffic Control Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Gregory L.; Denery, Dallas (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Dynamic Planner (DP) has been designed, implemented, and integrated into the Center-TRACON Automation System (CTAS) to assist Traffic Management Coordinators (TMCs), in real time, with the task of planning and scheduling arrival traffic approximately 35 to 200 nautical miles from the destination airport. The TMC may input to the DP a series of current and future scheduling constraints that reflect the operation and environmental conditions of the airspace. Under these constraints, the DP uses flight plans, track updates, and Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA) predictions to calculate optimal runway assignments and arrival schedules that help ensure an orderly, efficient, and conflict-free flow of traffic into the terminal area. These runway assignments and schedules can be shown directly to controllers or they can be used by other CTAS tools to generate advisories to the controllers. Additionally, the TMC and controllers may override the decisions made by the DP for tactical considerations. The DP will adapt to computations to accommodate these manual inputs.

  9. Enhancement of vision systems based on runway detection by image processing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulec, N.; Sen Koktas, N.

    2012-06-01

    An explicit way of facilitating approach and landing operations of fixed-wing aircraft in degraded visual environments is presenting a coherent image of the designated runway via vision systems and hence increasing the situational awareness of the flight crew. Combined vision systems, in general, aim to provide a clear view of the aircraft exterior to the pilots using information from databases and imaging sensors. This study presents a novel method that consists of image-processing and tracking algorithms, which utilize information from navigation systems and databases along with the images from daylight and infrared cameras, for the recognition and tracking of the designated runway through the approach and landing operation. Video data simulating the straight-in approach of an aircraft from an altitude of 5000 ft down to 100 ft is synthetically generated by a COTS tool. A diverse set of atmospheric conditions such as fog and low light levels are simulated in these videos. Detection and false alarm rates are used as the primary performance metrics. The results are presented in a format where the performance metrics are compared against the altitude of the aircraft. Depending on the visual environment and the source of the video, the performance metrics reach up to 98% for DR and down to 5% for FAR.

  10. Non-invasive diagnostic methods for investigating the quality of Žilina airport's runway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slabej, Martin; Grinč, Michal; Kováč, Matúš; Decký, Martin; Šedivý, Štefan

    2015-09-01

    The Žilina airport was after almost 50 years of use measured by non-invasive methods including GPR and Profilograph GE in order to investigate the quality of the runway pavement at the chosen spots. Since it was just a pilot action, a sample of survey was carried out. The testing spots were placed where the geologic drill core J02 have been drilled out. The measurements performed by Profilograph GE were used to verify the quality of the pavement surface in term longitudinal unevenness by means of index IRI and C. The GPR survey was performed in 3D geometry, hence in the x- and y-direction. A horn type antenna with central frequency of 2 GHz was used on the test field in order to verify the thicknesses of pavement construction layers. Here, the result of a 3D survey is presented. The investigation confirms two sub-horizontal construction layers of the runway pavement. In some areas the GPR interpretation was not possible due to the signal attenuation. This significant signal attenuation is found mainly in the areas where the linear cracks are situated.

  11. Recycle Runway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Pam

    2009-01-01

    Nancy Judd has been called a folk artist, an outsider artist, and a designer--all characterizations that she tends to shirk. Perhaps if labels are needed, environmental artist educator is more appropriate. Judd lives and works in Santa Fe, New Mexico. She dedicates much of her time to creating art that raises public awareness of environmental…

  12. Using national movement databases to help inform responses to swine disease outbreaks in Scotland: the impact of uncertainty around incursion time

    PubMed Central

    Porphyre, Thibaud; Boden, Lisa A.; Correia-Gomes, Carla; Auty, Harriet K.; Gunn, George J.; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Modelling is an important component of contingency planning and control of disease outbreaks. Dynamic network models are considered more useful than static models because they capture important dynamic patterns of farm behaviour as evidenced through animal movements. This study evaluates the usefulness of a dynamic network model of swine fever to predict pre-detection spread via movements of pigs, when there may be considerable uncertainty surrounding the time of incursion of infection. It explores the utility and limitations of animal movement data to inform such models and as such, provides some insight into the impact of improving traceability through real-time animal movement reporting and the use of electronic animal movement databases. The study concludes that the type of premises and uncertainty of the time of disease incursion will affect model accuracy and highlights the need for improvements in these areas. PMID:26833241

  13. Sapflow and water use of freshwater wetland trees exposed to saltwater incursion in a tidally influenced South Carolina watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krauss, K.W.; Duberstein, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Sea-level rise and anthropogenic activity promote salinity incursion into many tidal freshwater forested wetlands. Interestingly, individual trees can persist for decades after salt impact. To understand why, we documented sapflow (Js), reduction in Js with sapwood depth, and water use (F) of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.) trees undergoing exposure to salinity. The mean Js of individual trees was reduced by 2.8 g H2O??m-2??s-1 (or by 18%) in the outer sapwood on a saline site versus a freshwater site; however, the smallest trees, present only on the saline site, also registered the lowest Js. Hence, tree size significantly influenced the overall site effect on Js. Trees undergoing perennial exposure to salt used greater relative amounts of water in outer sapwood than in inner sapwood depths, which identifies a potentially different strategy for baldcypress trees coping with saline site conditions over decades. Overall, individual trees used 100 kg H2O??day-1 on a site that remained relatively fresh versus 23.9 kg H2O??day-1 on the saline site. We surmise that perennial salinization of coastal freshwater forests forces shifts in individual-tree osmotic balance and water-use strategy to extend survival time on suboptimal sites, which further influences growth and morphology.

  14. Predicting Incursion of Plant Invaders into Kruger National Park, South Africa: The Interplay of General Drivers and Species-Specific Factors

    PubMed Central

    Jarošík, Vojtěch; Pyšek, Petr; Foxcroft, Llewellyn C.; Richardson, David M.; Rouget, Mathieu; MacFadyen, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Background Overcoming boundaries is crucial for incursion of alien plant species and their successful naturalization and invasion within protected areas. Previous work showed that in Kruger National Park, South Africa, this process can be quantified and that factors determining the incursion of invasive species can be identified and predicted confidently. Here we explore the similarity between determinants of incursions identified by the general model based on a multispecies assemblage, and those identified by species-specific models. We analyzed the presence and absence of six invasive plant species in 1.0×1.5 km segments along the border of the park as a function of environmental characteristics from outside and inside the KNP boundary, using two data-mining techniques: classification trees and random forests. Principal Findings The occurrence of Ageratum houstonianum, Chromolaena odorata, Xanthium strumarium, Argemone ochroleuca, Opuntia stricta and Lantana camara can be reliably predicted based on landscape characteristics identified by the general multispecies model, namely water runoff from surrounding watersheds and road density in a 10 km radius. The presence of main rivers and species-specific combinations of vegetation types are reliable predictors from inside the park. Conclusions The predictors from the outside and inside of the park are complementary, and are approximately equally reliable for explaining the presence/absence of current invaders; those from the inside are, however, more reliable for predicting future invasions. Landscape characteristics determined as crucial predictors from outside the KNP serve as guidelines for management to enact proactive interventions to manipulate landscape features near the KNP to prevent further incursions. Predictors from the inside the KNP can be used reliably to identify high-risk areas to improve the cost-effectiveness of management, to locate invasive plants and target them for eradication. PMID:22194893

  15. Real-time terminal area trajectory planning for runway independent aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Min

    The increasing demand for commercial air transportation results in delays due to traffic queues that form bottlenecks along final approach and departure corridors. In urban areas, it is often infeasible to build new runways, and regardless of automation upgrades traffic must remain separated to avoid the wakes of previous aircraft. Vertical or short takeoff and landing aircraft as Runway Independent Aircraft (RIA) can increase passenger throughput at major urban airports via the use of vertiports or stub runways. The concept of simultaneous non-interfering (SNI) operations has been proposed to reduce traffic delays by creating approach and departure corridors that do not intersect existing fixed-wing routes. However, SNI trajectories open new routes that may overfly noise-sensitive areas, and RIA may generate more noise than traditional jet aircraft, particularly on approach. In this dissertation, we develop efficient SNI noise abatement procedures applicable to RIA. First, we introduce a methodology based on modified approximated cell-decomposition and Dijkstra's search algorithm to optimize longitudinal plane (2-D) RIA trajectories over a cost function that minimizes noise, time, and fuel use. Then, we extend the trajectory optimization model to 3-D with a k-ary tree as the discrete search space. We incorporate geography information system (GIS) data, specifically population, into our objective function, and focus on a practical case study: the design of SNI RIA approach procedures to Baltimore-Washington International airport. Because solutions were represented as trim state sequences, we incorporated smooth transition between segments to enable more realistic cost estimates. Due to the significant computational complexity, we investigated alternative more efficient optimization techniques applicable to our nonlinear, non-convex, heavily constrained, and discontinuous objective function. Comparing genetic algorithm (GA) and adaptive simulated annealing (ASA

  16. Decentralized aircraft landing scheduling at single runway non-controlled airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yuanyuan

    The existing air transportation system is approaching a bottleneck because its dominant hub-and-spoke model results in a concentration of a large percentage of the air traffic at a few hub airports. Advanced technologies are greatly needed to enhance the transportation capabilities of the small airports in the U.S.A., and distribute the high volume of air traffic at the hub airports to those small airports, which are mostly non-controlled airports. Currently, two major focus areas of research are being pursued to achieve this objective. One focus concentrates on the development of tools to improve operations in the current Air Traffic Management system. A more long-term research effort focuses on the development of decentralized Air Traffic Management techniques. This dissertation takes the latter approach and seeks to analyze the degree of decentralization for scheduling aircraft landings in the dynamic operational environment at single runway non-controlled airports. Moreover, it explores the feasibility and capability of scheduling aircraft landings within uninterrupted free-flight environment in which there is no existence of Air Traffic Control (ATC). First, it addresses the approach of developing static optimization algorithms for scheduling aircraft landings and, thus, analyzes the capability of automated aircraft landing scheduling at single runway non-controlled airports. Then, it provides detailed description of the implementation of a distributed Air Traffic Management (ATM) system that achieves decentralized aircraft landing scheduling with acceptable performance whereas a solution to the distributed coordination issues is presented. Finally real-time Monte Carlo flight simulations of multi-aircraft landing scenarios are conducted to evaluate the static and dynamic performance of the aircraft landing scheduling algorithms and operation concepts introduced. Results presented in the dissertation demonstrate that decentralized aircraft landing scheduling

  17. Plastic (wire-combed) grooving of a slip-formed concrete runway overlay at Patrick Henry Airport: An initial evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marlin, E. C.; Horne, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    A wire-comb technique is described for transversely grooving the surface of a freshly laid (plastic state) slip-formed concrete overlay installed at Patrick Henry Airport. This method of surface texturing yields better water drainage and pavement skid resistance than that obtained with an older conventional burlap drag concrete surface treatment installed on an adjacent portion of the runway.

  18. Experiment Description and Results for Arrival Operations Using Interval Management with Spacing to Parallel Dependent Runways (IMSPiDR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Swieringa, Kurt A.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Capron, William R.; Hubbs, Clay E.; Shay, Richard F.; Abbott, Terence S.

    2013-01-01

    The predicted increase in the number of commercial aircraft operations creates a need for improved operational efficiency. Two areas believed to offer increases in aircraft efficiency are optimized profile descents and dependent parallel runway operations. Using Flight deck Interval Management (FIM) software and procedures during these operations, flight crews can achieve by the runway threshold an interval assigned by air traffic control (ATC) behind the preceding aircraft that maximizes runway throughput while minimizing additional fuel consumption and pilot workload. This document describes an experiment where 24 pilots flew arrivals into the Dallas Fort-Worth terminal environment using one of three simulators at NASA?s Langley Research Center. Results indicate that pilots delivered their aircraft to the runway threshold within +/- 3.5 seconds of their assigned time interval, and reported low workload levels. In general, pilots found the FIM concept, procedures, speeds, and interface acceptable. Analysis of the time error and FIM speed changes as a function of arrival stream position suggest the spacing algorithm generates stable behavior while in the presence of continuous (wind) or impulse (offset) error. Concerns reported included multiple speed changes within a short time period, and an airspeed increase followed shortly by an airspeed decrease.

  19. Expansion of flight simulator capability for study and solution of aircraft directional control problems on runways, appendixes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgowan, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The models used to implement the DC-9-10 aircraft simulation for the Runway Direction Control study are presented. The study was done on the Douglas Aircraft six-degree-of-freedom motion simulator. Documentation of the models was in algebraic form, to the extent possible. Effort was directed toward presenting what was actually done rather than general forms.

  20. Detection of obstacles on runway using Ego-Motion compensation and tracking of significant features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasturi, Rangachar (Principal Investigator); Camps, Octavia (Principal Investigator); Gandhi, Tarak; Devadiga, Sadashiva

    1996-01-01

    This report describes a method for obstacle detection on a runway for autonomous navigation and landing of an aircraft. Detection is done in the presence of extraneous features such as tiremarks. Suitable features are extracted from the image and warping using approximately known camera and plane parameters is performed in order to compensate ego-motion as far as possible. Residual disparity after warping is estimated using an optical flow algorithm. Features are tracked from frame to frame so as to obtain more reliable estimates of their motion. Corrections are made to motion parameters with the residual disparities using a robust method, and features having large residual disparities are signaled as obstacles. Sensitivity analysis of the procedure is also studied. Nelson's optical flow constraint is proposed to separate moving obstacles from stationary ones. A Bayesian framework is used at every stage so that the confidence in the estimates can be determined.

  1. Air to air view of Endeavour, OV-105, atop SCA approaches Ellington runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Air to air view of Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, atop a Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) NASA 911, a modified Boeing 747, approaches touchdown for a brief stopover at Ellington Field, near JSC. Visible below the spacecraft/aircraft combination are the NASA T-38 flight line, NASA aircraft hangars and facilities, and a runway. OV-105 rolled out at Rockwell's Palmdale facility on 04-25-91 to once more bring to four the total of NASA Shuttles available for flight assignment. The spacecraft and aircraft-tandem left Houston later on this day headed for another stop in Mississippi before landing in Florida on 05-07-91. This photograph was taken from a T-38 aircraft by Sheri J. Dunnette of JSC's Image Science Division (ISD).

  2. Use of Data Comm by Flight Crew to Conduct Interval Management Operations to Parallel Dependent Runways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Hubbs, Clay; Shay, Rick; Karanian, James

    2011-01-01

    The Interval Management (IM) concept is being developed as a method to maintain or increase high traffic density airport arrival throughput while allowing aircraft to conduct near idle thrust descents. The Interval Management with Spacing to Parallel Dependent Runways (IMSPiDR1) experiment at NASA Langley Research Center used 24 commercial pilots to examine IM procedures to conduct parallel dependent runway arrival operations while maintaining safe but efficient intervals behind the preceding aircraft. The use of IM procedures during these operations requires a lengthy and complex clearance from Air Traffic Control (ATC) to the participating aircraft, thereby making the use of Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) highly desirable as the communication method. The use of CPDLC reduces the need for voice transmissions between controllers and flight crew, and enables automated transfer of IM clearance elements into flight management systems or other aircraft avionics. The result is reduced crew workload and an increase in the efficiency of crew procedures. This paper focuses on the subset of data collected related to the use of CPDLC for IM operations into a busy airport. Overall, the experiment and results were very successful, with the mean time under 43 seconds for the flight crew to load the clearance into the IM spacing tool, review the calculated speed, and respond to ATC. An overall mean rating of Moderately Agree was given when the crews were asked if the use of CPDLC was operationally acceptable as simulated in this experiment. Approximately half of the flight crew reported the use of CPDLC below 10,000 for IM operations was unacceptable, with 83% reporting below 5000 was unacceptable. Also described are proposed modifications to the IM operations that may reduce CPDLC Respond time to less than 30 seconds and should significantly reduce the complexity of crew procedures, as well as follow-on research issues for operational use of CPDLC during IM

  3. Controlling disease outbreaks in wildlife using limited culling: modelling classical swine fever incursions in wild pigs in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Disease modelling is one approach for providing new insights into wildlife disease epidemiology. This paper describes a spatio-temporal, stochastic, susceptible- exposed-infected-recovered process model that simulates the potential spread of classical swine fever through a documented, large and free living wild pig population following a simulated incursion. The study area (300 000 km2) was in northern Australia. Published data on wild pig ecology from Australia, and international Classical Swine Fever data was used to parameterise the model. Sensitivity analyses revealed that herd density (best estimate 1-3 pigs km-2), daily herd movement distances (best estimate approximately 1 km), probability of infection transmission between herds (best estimate 0.75) and disease related herd mortality (best estimate 42%) were highly influential on epidemic size but that extraordinary movements of pigs and the yearly home range size of a pig herd were not. CSF generally established (98% of simulations) following a single point introduction. CSF spread at approximately 9 km2 per day with low incidence rates (< 2 herds per day) in an epidemic wave along contiguous habitat for several years, before dying out (when the epidemic arrived at the end of a contiguous sub-population or at a low density wild pig area). The low incidence rate indicates that surveillance for wildlife disease epidemics caused by short lived infections will be most efficient when surveillance is based on detection and investigation of clinical events, although this may not always be practical. Epidemics could be contained and eradicated with culling (aerial shooting) or vaccination when these were adequately implemented. It was apparent that the spatial structure, ecology and behaviour of wild populations must be accounted for during disease management in wildlife. An important finding was that it may only be necessary to cull or vaccinate relatively small proportions of a population to successfully contain

  4. Runway Texture and Grid Pattern Effects on Rate-of-Descent Perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, J. A.; Dearing, M. G.; Sweet, B. T.; Kaiser, M. K.; Rutkowski, Mike (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To date, perceptual errors occur in determining descent rate from a computer-generated image in flight simulation. Pilots tend to touch down twice as hard in simulation than in flight, and more training time is needed in simulation before reaching steady-state performance. Barnes suggested that recognition of range may be the culprit, and he cited that problems such as collimated objects, binocular vision, and poor resolution lead to poor estimation of the velocity vector. Brown's study essentially ruled out that the lack of binocular vision is the problem. Dorfel added specificity to the problem by showing that pilots underestimated range in simulated scenes by 50% when 800 ft from the runway threshold. Palmer and Petitt showed that pilots are able to distinguish between a 1.7 ft/sec and 2.9 ft/sec sink rate when passively observing sink rates in a night scene. Platform motion also plays a role, as previous research has shown that the addition of substantial platform motion improves pilot estimates of vertical velocity and results in simulated touchdown rates more closely resembling flight. This experiment examined how some specific variations in the visual scene properties affect a pilot's perception of sink rate. It extended another experiment that focused on the visual and motion cues necessary for helicopter autorotations. In that experiment, pilots performed steep approaches to a runway. The visual content of the runway and its surroundings varied in two ways: texture and rectangular grid spacing. Four textures, included a no-texture case, were evaluated. Three grid spacings, including a no-grid case, were evaluated. The results showed that pilot better controlled their vertical descent rates when good texture cues were present. No significant differences were found for the grid manipulation. Using those visual scenes a simple psychophysics, experiment was performed. The purpose was to determine if the variations in the visual scenes allowed pilots to better

  5. Modeling of Instrument Landing System (ILS) localizer signal on runway 25L at Los Angeles International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueschen, Richard M.; Knox, Charles E.

    1994-01-01

    A joint NASA/FAA flight test has been made to record instrument landing system (ILS) localizer receiver signals for use in mathematically modeling the ILS localizer for future simulation studies and airplane flight tracking tasks. The flight test was conducted on a portion of the ILS localizer installed on runway 25L at the Los Angeles International Airport. The tests covered the range from 10 to 32 n.mi. from the localizer antenna. Precision radar tracking information was compared with the recorded localizer deviation data. Data analysis showed that the ILS signal centerline was offset to the left of runway centerline by 0.071 degrees and that no significant bends existed on the localizer beam. Suggested simulation models for the ILS localizer are formed from a statistical analysis.

  6. The three-panel runway maze adapted to Microcebus murinus reveals age-related differences in memory and perseverance performances.

    PubMed

    Trouche, Stéphanie G; Maurice, Tangui; Rouland, Sylvie; Verdier, Jean-Michel; Mestre-Francés, Nadine

    2010-07-01

    Microcebus murinus, a mouse lemur primate appears to be a valuable model for cerebral aging study and for Alzheimer's disease model since they can develop beta-amyloid plaques with age. Although the biological and biochemical analyses of cerebral aging are well documented, the cognitive abilities of this primate have not been thoroughly characterized. In this study, we adapted a spatial working memory procedure described in rodents, the sequential choice task in the three-panel runway, to mouse lemurs. We analyzed the age-related differences in a procedural memory task in the absence or presence of visual cues. Sixty percent of young adult and 48% of aged lemurs completed the exploratory, choice habituation and testing phases at the beginning of the procedure. Young adult lemurs showed a higher level of perseverative errors compared with aged animals, particularly in the presence of visual stimuli. Over trials, old animals made more reference errors compared to young ones that improved quickly their performances under random level. No significant improvement was observed in young adults and old ones over sessions. This study showed that behavioural performances of M. murinus assessed on the sequential choice task in the three-panel runway markedly differ from the previously reported abilities of rodents. The behavioural response of young adult lemurs was influenced by novelty-related anxiety that contributed to their performance in terms of perseverative errors. Conversely, aged lemurs showed less perseverative errors, a rapid habituation to the three-panel runway maze, but made more memory errors. Overall, these findings demonstrate the feasibility to use the three-panel runway task in assessing memory performance, particularly in aged mouse lemurs.

  7. Method and apparatus for cleaning rubber deposits from airport runways and roadways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbs, Sandy M. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for cleaning rubber deposits from surfaces such as airport runways and roadways is disclosed. The apparatus includes a large vehicle that has the capacity to be loaded so as to effectively add weight to the rubber cleaning tires of the vehicle. In addition, the vehicle has a water tank and sprinkler system so that the surface may be wetted down in front of the tires as the vehicle proceeds across the surface. The cleaning tires of the apparatus are aligned so that they are at a yaw angle to the direction of travel, and the cleaning tire assembly is attached to the underside of the trailer of the vehicle and positioned between a forward and rear water tank. In addition, this tire assembly is equipped with a means of loading the tires onto the contaminated surface. The method comprises driving such a vehicle at low speeds down the surface as the road is being wet in front of the cleaning tires. The effect of the angled tires is to create a scrubbing action that not only heats the rubber deposits by friction but also causes it to be removed from the surface. The rubber that does not stick to the cleaning tires is then removed from the surface by sweeping.

  8. Effect of dextromethorphan on reference memory assessed in rats by a three-panel runway task.

    PubMed

    Göçmez, Semil Selcen; Erden, Bekir Faruk; Ulak, Güner; Utkan, Tijen; Yildiz, Füruzan; Gacar, Nejat; Mutlu, Oguz

    2006-01-01

    The effects of dextromethorphan (DM, CAS 6700-34-1), a common over-the-counter cough suppressant, on the reference memory have been investigated by a three-panel runway setup in rats. This study was designed by using a repeated acquisition procedure such as a radialarm maze task or a water maze task. DM (20-40 mg/kg i.p.) produced a significant decrease in the number of errors (pushes made on the two incorrect panels of the three panel gates at four choice points) and latency. Systemically administered scopolamine (CAS 114-49-8) (1 mg/kg i.p.) impaired the performance on both parameters. DM (40 mg/kg i.p.) was effective in reversing the reference memory deficit induced by administration of scopolamine. DM acts as a noncompetitive antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Our results suggest that inhibition of NMDA receptors by DM supports its potential positive properties. This finding might present an oppurtunity for the evaluation of this old antitussive drug. PMID:16724513

  9. Smart tunable rf corner reflector for runway identification using millimetric radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Ian D.; Butler, Raymond J.; Turner, Steve

    1995-05-01

    Research has shown that at certain frequencies the returned signal from a corner reflector can be canceled by causing the orthogonal surfaces to diverge by 2 to 3 degrees. This paper reports on how this can be achieved using fiber reinforced composite materials and integrated piezoelectric actuators. A range of different bond configurations are examined for use with raw PZT actuators and resin encapsulated actuators. Based on the information gained from this first part of the investigation a 100x100-mm active plate was constructed using 16 actuator elements bonded to a GRP substrate. A total angle of deflection of 0.5 degrees was created through the application of 100 v DC. Extensive research is currently underway to develop and enhanced vision system (EVS) for use on civil airliners to assist the pilots when making landings in very poor visibility. This is likely to be based on either an active or passive millimetric radar system operating at 35 or 94 GHz. If an active EVS is developed, then corner reflectors such as those described here could be used to identify the operational runway and when not in use be switched off. The results presented in this report provide a basic insight into how this can be achieved; however, further work will be required before an operational system could be produced.

  10. The effect of runway surface and braking on Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire wear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Robert H.; Stubbs, Sandy M.

    1992-01-01

    In 1988, a 1067 m long touchdown zone on each end of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) was modified from its original heavy-broom finish with transverse grooves configuration to a longitudinal corduroy surface texture with no transverse grooves. The intent of this modification was to reduce the spin-up wear on the Orbiter main gear tires and provide for somewhat higher crosswind capabilities at that site. The modification worked well, so it was proposed that the remainder of the runway be modified as well to permit even higher crosswind landing capability. Tests were conducted at the NASA Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) to evaluate the merit of such a modification. This paper discusses the results of these tests, and explains why the proposed modification did not provide the expected improvement and thus was not implemented. Also, in an ongoing program to evaluate the origin of various tire wear phenomenon, a series of tests was conducted to evaluate the effect of braking on tire wear. Finally, a modified tire is discussed in terms of its wear performance under rollout and braking operations.

  11. The effect of runway surface and braking on Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugherty, Robert H.; Stubbs, Sandy M.

    1992-10-01

    In 1988, a 1067 m long touchdown zone on each end of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) was modified from its original heavy-broom finish with transverse grooves configuration to a longitudinal corduroy surface texture with no transverse grooves. The intent of this modification was to reduce the spin-up wear on the Orbiter main gear tires and provide for somewhat higher crosswind capabilities at that site. The modification worked well, so it was proposed that the remainder of the runway be modified as well to permit even higher crosswind landing capability. Tests were conducted at the NASA Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) to evaluate the merit of such a modification. This paper discusses the results of these tests, and explains why the proposed modification did not provide the expected improvement and thus was not implemented. Also, in an ongoing program to evaluate the origin of various tire wear phenomenon, a series of tests was conducted to evaluate the effect of braking on tire wear. Finally, a modified tire is discussed in terms of its wear performance under rollout and braking operations.

  12. Simulated Wake Characteristics Data for Closely Spaced Parallel Runway Operations Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Neitzke, Kurt W.

    2012-01-01

    A simulation experiment was performed to generate and compile wake characteristics data relevant to the evaluation and feasibility analysis of closely spaced parallel runway (CSPR) operational concepts. While the experiment in this work is not tailored to any particular operational concept, the generated data applies to the broader class of CSPR concepts, where a trailing aircraft on a CSPR approach is required to stay ahead of the wake vortices generated by a lead aircraft on an adjacent CSPR. Data for wake age, circulation strength, and wake altitude change, at various lateral offset distances from the wake-generating lead aircraft approach path were compiled for a set of nine aircraft spanning the full range of FAA and ICAO wake classifications. A total of 54 scenarios were simulated to generate data related to key parameters that determine wake behavior. Of particular interest are wake age characteristics that can be used to evaluate both time- and distance- based in-trail separation concepts for all aircraft wake-class combinations. A simple first-order difference model was developed to enable the computation of wake parameter estimates for aircraft models having weight, wingspan and speed characteristics similar to those of the nine aircraft modeled in this work.

  13. Re-Evaluating the Geological Evidence for Late Holocene Marine Incursion Events along the Guerrero Seismic Gap on the Pacific Coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bianchette, Thomas A; McCloskey, Terrence A; Liu, Kam-Biu

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large number of tsunamis that impact Mexico's Pacific coast, stratigraphic studies focusing on geological impacts are scanty, making it difficult to assess the long-term risks for this vulnerable region. Surface samples and six cores were taken from Laguna Mitla near Acapulco to examine sedimentological and geochemical evidence for marine incursion events. Sediment cores collected from behind the beach barrier are dominated by intercalated layers of peat and inorganic sediments, mostly silt and clay, with little or no sand. Sand- and shell-rich clastic layers with high levels of sulfur, calcium, and strontium only occur adjacent to the relict beach ridge remnants near the center of the lagoon. With the exception of one thin fine sand layer, the absence of sand in the near-shore cores and the predominance of the terrigenous element titanium in the inorganic layers, evidently eroded from the surrounding hillslopes, suggests that these large-grained intervals do not represent episodic marine incursions, but rather were likely formed by the erosion and redeposition of older marine deposits derived from the beach ridge remnants when water levels were high. These results do not support the occurrence of a large tsunami event at Laguna Mitla during the Late Holocene.

  14. Variable-number tandem repeats genotyping used to aid and inform management strategies for a bovine Johne's disease incursion in tropical and subtropical Australia.

    PubMed

    Oakey, Jane; Gavey, Lawrence; Singh, Shoor Vir; Platell, Joanne; Waltisbuhl, David

    2014-09-01

    The application of variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) genotyping of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates to assist in investigating incidents of bovine Johne's disease in a low-prevalence region of Australia is described in the current study. Isolates from a response to detection of bovine Johne's disease in Queensland were compared with strains from national and international sources. The tandem application of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit (MIRU) and multilocus short sequence repeats (MLSSR) genotyping identified 2 strains, 1 that infected cattle on multiple properties with trace-forward histories from a common infected property, and 1 genotypically different strain recovered from a single property. The former strain showed an identical genotype to an isolate from India. Neither strain showed a genotypic link to regions of Australia with a higher prevalence of the disease. Genotyping has indicated incursions from 2 independent sources. This intelligence has informed investigations into potential routes of entry and the soundness of ongoing control measures, and supported strategy and policy decisions regarding management of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis incursions for Queensland.

  15. Re-Evaluating the Geological Evidence for Late Holocene Marine Incursion Events along the Guerrero Seismic Gap on the Pacific Coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bianchette, Thomas A; McCloskey, Terrence A; Liu, Kam-Biu

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large number of tsunamis that impact Mexico's Pacific coast, stratigraphic studies focusing on geological impacts are scanty, making it difficult to assess the long-term risks for this vulnerable region. Surface samples and six cores were taken from Laguna Mitla near Acapulco to examine sedimentological and geochemical evidence for marine incursion events. Sediment cores collected from behind the beach barrier are dominated by intercalated layers of peat and inorganic sediments, mostly silt and clay, with little or no sand. Sand- and shell-rich clastic layers with high levels of sulfur, calcium, and strontium only occur adjacent to the relict beach ridge remnants near the center of the lagoon. With the exception of one thin fine sand layer, the absence of sand in the near-shore cores and the predominance of the terrigenous element titanium in the inorganic layers, evidently eroded from the surrounding hillslopes, suggests that these large-grained intervals do not represent episodic marine incursions, but rather were likely formed by the erosion and redeposition of older marine deposits derived from the beach ridge remnants when water levels were high. These results do not support the occurrence of a large tsunami event at Laguna Mitla during the Late Holocene. PMID:27571270

  16. Seasonal incursion of Indian Monsoon humidity and precipitation into the southeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau inferred from tree ring δ18O values with intra-seasonal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiaomin; Liu, Xiaohong; Evans, Michael N.; Wang, Wenzhi; An, Wenling; Xu, Guobao; Wu, Guoju

    2016-06-01

    Incursion of the Indian Monsoon flow onto the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is an important regional moisture-delivery mechanism, but the causes of intra-seasonal and longer-term variations are poorly understood. We observed a clear intra-seasonal cycle in the oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) of Smith fir (Abies forrestii var. georgei) growing at two different altitudes (high-elevation site: 29°39‧N, 94°42‧E, 4200 m a.s.l.; low-elevation site: 29°39‧N, 94°43‧E, 3800 m a.s.l.) on a SE-facing slope in the Sygera Mountains, southeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Mechanistic modeling suggests that δ18O of precipitation, which in turn depends on relative humidity and precipitation amount, is important in controlling the intra-seasonal tree-ring isotopic cycle, and we speculate that the same controls also operate on interannual and longer time scales. If so, multi-century δ18O records with intra-seasonal resolution may enable us to infer long-term variations in the incursion of the Indian Monsoon onto the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  17. Re-Evaluating the Geological Evidence for Late Holocene Marine Incursion Events along the Guerrero Seismic Gap on the Pacific Coast of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Bianchette, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large number of tsunamis that impact Mexico’s Pacific coast, stratigraphic studies focusing on geological impacts are scanty, making it difficult to assess the long-term risks for this vulnerable region. Surface samples and six cores were taken from Laguna Mitla near Acapulco to examine sedimentological and geochemical evidence for marine incursion events. Sediment cores collected from behind the beach barrier are dominated by intercalated layers of peat and inorganic sediments, mostly silt and clay, with little or no sand. Sand- and shell-rich clastic layers with high levels of sulfur, calcium, and strontium only occur adjacent to the relict beach ridge remnants near the center of the lagoon. With the exception of one thin fine sand layer, the absence of sand in the near-shore cores and the predominance of the terrigenous element titanium in the inorganic layers, evidently eroded from the surrounding hillslopes, suggests that these large-grained intervals do not represent episodic marine incursions, but rather were likely formed by the erosion and redeposition of older marine deposits derived from the beach ridge remnants when water levels were high. These results do not support the occurrence of a large tsunami event at Laguna Mitla during the Late Holocene. PMID:27571270

  18. Shuttle Endeavour Mated to 747 SCA Taxi to Runway for Delivery to Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    NASA's 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft No. 911, with the space shuttle orbiter Endeavour securely mounted atop its fuselage, taxies to the runway to begin the ferry flight from Rockwell's Plant 42 at Palmdale, California, where the orbiter was built, to the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. At Kennedy, the space vehicle was processed and launched on orbital mission STS-49, which landed at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later redesignated Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, 16 May 1992. NASA 911, the second modified 747 that went into service in November 1990, has special support struts atop the fuselage and internal strengthening to accommodate the added weight of the orbiters. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay

  19. Beacon system based on light-emitting diode sources for runways lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, Mario González; Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio A.; Bernabeu, Eusebio

    2014-06-01

    New aeronautical ground lighting techniques are becoming increasingly important to ensure the safety and reduce the maintenance costs of the plane's tracks. Until recently, tracks had embedded lighting systems whose sources were based on incandescent lamps. But incandescent lamps have several disadvantages: high energy consumption and frequent breakdowns that result in high maintenance costs (lamp average life-time is ˜1500 operating hours) and the lamp's technology has a lack of new lighting functions, such as signal handling and modification. To solve these problems, the industry has developed systems based on light-emitting diode (LED) technology with improved features: (1) LED lighting consumes one tenth the power, (2) it improves preventive maintenance (an LED's lifetime range is between 25,000 and 100,000 hours), and (3) LED lighting technology can be controlled remotely according to the needs of the track configuration. LEDs have been in use for more than three decades, but only recently, around 2002, have they begun to be used as visual aids, representing the greatest potential change for airport lighting since their inception in the 1920s. Currently, embedded LED systems are not being broadly used due to the specific constraints of the rules and regulations of airports (beacon dimensions, power system technology, etc.). The fundamental requirements applied to embedded lighting systems are to be hosted on a volume where the dimensions are usually critical and also to integrate all the essential components for operation. An embedded architecture that meets the lighting regulations for airport runways is presented. The present work is divided into three main tasks: development of an optical system to optimize lighting according to International Civil Aviation Organization, manufacturing prototype, and model validation.

  20. Kinematic Modeling of Separation Compression for Paired Approaches to Closely-Spaced Parallel Runways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    In a simultaneous paired approach to closely-spaced parallel runways, a pair of aircraft flies in close proximity on parallel approach paths. The longitudinal separation between the aircraft must be maintained within a range that avoids wake encounters and, if one of the aircraft blunders, avoids collision. To increase operational availability, the approach procedure must accommodate a mixture of aircraft sizes and, consequently, approach speeds. In these procedures, the slower aircraft is placed in the lead position. The faster aircraft maintains separation from the slow aircraft in a dependent operation until final approach and flies independently afterward. Due to the higher approach speed of the fast aircraft, longitudinal separation will decrease during final approach. Therefore, the fast aircraft must position itself before the final approach so that it will remain within the safe range of separation as separation decreases. Given the approach geometry and speed schedule for each aircraft, one can use kinematics to estimate the separation loss between a pair of aircraft. A kinematic model can complement fast-time Monte-Carlo simulations of the approach by enabling a tailored reduction in the variation of starting position for the fast aircraft. One could also implement the kinematic model in ground-based or on-board decision support tools to compute the optimal initial separation for a given pair of aircraft. To better match the auto-coupled flight of real aircraft, the paper derives a kinematic model where the speed schedule is flown using equivalent airspeed. The predicted time of flight using the equivalent airspeed kinematic model compares well against a high-fidelity aircraft simulation performing the same approach. This model also demonstrates a modest increase in the predicted loss of separation when contrasted against a kinematic model that assumes the scheduled speed is true airspeed.

  1. First steps toward development of a stable isotope forward model for tropical ice cores: cold air incursions and snow days at Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, J. V.; Vuille, M. F.; Hardy, D. R.; Burns, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    We are working towards a forward-model reconstruction of the South American Summer Monsoon (SASM) for the last millennium from the Quelccaya Ice Cap (QIC) d18O record. QIC receives precipitation almost exclusively during the SASM season. Initial efforts focus on dynamics that yield precipitation at this receding tropical ice cap, and how they relate to the hydrogen and oxygen stable isotopes. We present over a decade of daily snow-height change observations from the summit of QIC. Accumulation of snow (~2 m yr-1) at the summit occurs October through April, peaking in December. Net monthly snow-height change is negative May through September, though positive snow height change days do occur throughout the year. Snow height change time-series are used to develop d18O age-models for annual snow collected in vertical profiles near the summit of QIC since 2003. Snow d18O decreases during austral summer from about -17 to -24 per mil VSMOW. Post-depositional alteration of late summer snow during austral winter elevates d18O from about -24 to about -15 per mil VSMOW. Timing of 90thpercentile positive snow-height change events at QIC corresponds with regional precipitation and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) anomalies that are dynamically triggered by cold air incursions propagating from the midlatitudes east of the Andes into the Amazon Basin. Precipitation and OLR anomalies migrate northwest in about 2-3 days from near Rio de la Plata to central Peru. The convective anomalies are the result of southerly horizontal wind anomalies in the lower troposphere that advect cold extratropical air equatorward. Composite analysis of satellite measurements shows that cold air incursions are associated with negative water vapor dD (~ -40 per mil) anomalies at QIC. We expect that snow stable isotope values from QIC are thus not only records of the deep overturning component of the monsoon circulation but also of synoptic scale monsoon disturbances. Cold air incursions into the South

  2. Preliminary test results of the joint FAA-USAF-NASA runway research program. Part 1: Traction measurements of several runways under wet and dry conditions with a Boeing 727, a diagonal-braked vehicle, and a mu-meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. B.; Yager, T. J.; Sleeper, R. K.; Merritt, L. R.

    1977-01-01

    The stopping distance, brake application velocity, and time of brake application were measured for two modern jet transports, along with the NASA diagonal-braked vehicle and the British Mu-Meter on several runways, which when wetted, cover the range of slipperiness likely to be encountered in the United States. Tests were designed to determine if correlation between the aircraft and friction measuring vehicles exists. The test procedure, data reduction techniques, and preliminary test results obtained with the Boeing 727, the Douglas DC-9, and the ground vehicles are given. Time histories of the aircraft test run parameters are included.

  3. A Simulation Study of Instrument Meteorological Condition Approaches to Dual Parallel Runways Spaced 3400 and 2500 Feet Apart Using Flight-Deck-Centered Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Marvin C.; Scanlon, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    A number of our nations airports depend on closely spaced parallel runway operations to handle their normal traffic throughput when weather conditions are favorable. For safety these operations are curtailed in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) when the ceiling or visibility deteriorates and operations in many cases are limited to the equivalent of a single runway. Where parallel runway spacing is less than 2500 feet, capacity loss in IMC is on the order of 50 percent for these runways. Clearly, these capacity losses result in landing delays, inconveniences to the public, increased operational cost to the airlines, and general interruption of commerce. This document presents a description and the results of a fixed-base simulation study to evaluate an initial concept that includes a set of procedures for conducting safe flight in closely spaced parallel runway operations in IMC. Consideration of flight-deck information technology and displays to support the procedures is also included in the discussions. The procedures and supporting technology rely heavily on airborne capabilities operating in conjunction with the air traffic control system.

  4. Estimation of real-time runway surface contamination using flight data recorder parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Donovan

    Within this research effort, the development of an analytic process for friction coefficient estimation is presented. Under static equilibrium, the sum of forces and moments acting on the aircraft, in the aircraft body coordinate system, while on the ground at any instant is equal to zero. Under this premise the longitudinal, lateral and normal forces due to landing are calculated along with the individual deceleration components existent when an aircraft comes to a rest during ground roll. In order to validate this hypothesis a six degree of freedom aircraft model had to be created and landing tests had to be simulated on different surfaces. The simulated aircraft model includes a high fidelity aerodynamic model, thrust model, landing gear model, friction model and antiskid model. Three main surfaces were defined in the friction model; dry, wet and snow/ice. Only the parameters recorded by an FDR are used directly from the aircraft model all others are estimated or known a priori. The estimation of unknown parameters is also presented in the research effort. With all needed parameters a comparison and validation with simulated and estimated data, under different runway conditions, is performed. Finally, this report presents results of a sensitivity analysis in order to provide a measure of reliability of the analytic estimation process. Linear and non-linear sensitivity analysis has been performed in order to quantify the level of uncertainty implicit in modeling estimated parameters and how they can affect the calculation of the instantaneous coefficient of friction. Using the approach of force and moment equilibrium about the CG at landing to reconstruct the instantaneous coefficient of friction appears to be a reasonably accurate estimate when compared to the simulated friction coefficient. This is also true when the FDR and estimated parameters are introduced to white noise and when crosswind is introduced to the simulation. After the linear analysis the

  5. The effect of landing system coverage and path geometry on lateral position errors at the runway threshold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, D. D.

    1978-01-01

    The results of an analytical study performed to determine the effect of the azimuth coverage of a Microwave Landing System (MLS) on the ability of an airplane, with an initial navigation position estimate error, to navigate to the runway threshold are presented. The test path chosen for this study consists of an initial straight segment leading into a 130 deg turn with a 2286 m radius and ending in a straight-in final approach segment. The test path configuration was varied by changing the MLS azimuth coverage angle and the final approach length. The aircraft was positioned with an inital offset to the left or right of the desired path along the line of intersection with the MLS azimuth coverage. A fast time computer simulation program, using a simplistic point mass model of the airplane, was used for this study. The data from this study indicates that the lateral position errors at the runway are primarily a function of the final approach length. The effect of the azimuth coverage on the lateral position errors was restricted by the turn characteristics of the horizontal steering control laws.

  6. B-757: RIPS, LAHSO, EVS, and SVS projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    B-757 experimental equipment installed to support RIPS (Runway Incursion Prevention system), LAHSO (Land and Hold Short Operations), EVS (Enhanced Vision System), and SVS (Synthetic Vision System) projects.

  7. STS-68 on Runway with 747 SCA/Columbia Ferry Flyby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The space shuttle Endeavour receives a high-flying salute from its sister shuttle, Columbia, atop NASA's Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, shortly after Endeavor's landing 12 October 1994, at Edwards, California, to complete mission STS-68. Columbia was being ferried from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, to Air Force Plant 42, Palmdale, California, where it will undergo six months of inspections, modifications, and systems upgrades. The STS-68 11-day mission was devoted to radar imaging of Earth's geological features with the Space Radar Laboratory. The orbiter is surrounded by equipment and personnel that make up the ground support convoy that services the space vehicles as soon as they land. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the

  8. Behavior of aircraft antiskid braking systems on dry and wet runway surfaces - A velocity-rate-controlled, pressure-bias-modulated system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbs, S. M.; Tanner, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    During maximum braking the average ratio of drag-force friction coefficient developed by the antiskid system to maximum drag-force friction coefficient available at the tire/runway interface was higher on dry surfaces than on wet surfaces. The gross stopping power generated by the brake system on the dry surface was more than twice that obtained on the wet surfaces. With maximum braking applied, the average ratio of side-force friction coefficient developed by the tire under antiskid control to maximum side-force friction available at the tire/runway interface of a free-rolling yawed tire was shown to decrease with increasing yaw angle. Braking reduced the side-force friction coefficient on a dry surface by 75 percent as the wheel slip ratio was increased to 0.3; on a flooded surface the coefficient dropped to near zero for the same slip ratio. Locked wheel skids were observed when the tire encountered a runway surface transition from dry to flooded, due in part to the response time required for the system to sense abrupt changes in the runway friction; however, the antiskid system quickly responded by reducing brake pressure and cycling normally during the remainder of the run on the flooded surface.

  9. STS-68 on Runway with 747 SCA/Columbia Ferry Flyby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The space shuttle Endeavour receives a high-flying salute from its sister shuttle, Columbia, atop NASA's Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, shortly after Endeavor's landing 12 October 1994, at Edwards, California, to complete mission STS-68. Columbia was being ferried from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, to Air Force Plant 42, Palmdale, California, where it will undergo six months of inspections, modifications, and systems upgrades. The STS-68 11-day mission was devoted to radar imaging of Earth's geological features with the Space Radar Laboratory. The orbiter is surrounded by equipment and personnel that make up the ground support convoy that services the space vehicles as soon as they land. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the

  10. First reported incursion of highly pathogenic notifiable avian influenza A H5N1 viruses from clade 2.3.2 into European poultry.

    PubMed

    Reid, S M; Shell, W M; Barboi, G; Onita, I; Turcitu, M; Cioranu, R; Marinova-Petkova, A; Goujgoulova, G; Webby, R J; Webster, R G; Russell, C; Slomka, M J; Hanna, A; Banks, J; Alton, B; Barrass, L; Irvine, R M; Brown, I H

    2011-02-01

    This study reports the first incursion into European poultry of H5N1 highly pathogenic notifiable avian influenza A (HPNAI) viruses from clade 2.3.2 that affected domestic poultry and wild birds in Romania and Bulgaria, respectively. Previous occurrences in Europe of HPNAI H5N1 in these avian populations have involved exclusively viruses from clade 2.2. This represents the most westerly spread of clade 2.3.2 viruses, which have shown an apparently expanding range of geographical dispersal since mid-2009 following confirmation of infections in wild waterfowl species in Mongolia and Eastern Russia. During March 2010, AI infection was suspected at post-mortem examination of two hens from two backyard flocks in Tulcea Country, Romania. HPNAI of H5N1 subtype was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A second outbreak was confirmed 2 weeks later by RT-PCR, affecting all hens from another flock located 55 km east of the first cluster. On the same day, an H5N1 HPNAI virus was detected from a pooled tissue sample collected from a dead Common Buzzard found on the Black Sea coast in Bulgaria. Detailed genetic characterization of the haemagglutinin gene revealed the cleavage site of the isolates to be consistent with viruses of high pathogenicity belonging to clade 2.3.2 of the contemporary Eurasian H5N1 lineage. Viruses from a clade other than 2.2 have apparently spread to wild birds, with potential maintenance and spread through such populations. Whilst the scale of threat posed by the apparent westward spread of the clade 2.3.2 viruses remains uncertain, ongoing vigilance for clinical signs of disease as part of existing passive surveillance frameworks for AI, and the prompt reporting of suspect cases in poultry is advised.

  11. Flight simulation study to determine MLS lateral course width requirements on final approach for general aviation. [runway conditions affecting microwave landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumrine, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation of the effects of various lateral course widths and runway lengths for manual CAT I Microwave Landing System instrument approaches was carried out with instrument rated pilots in a General Aviation simulator. Data are presented on the lateral dispersion at the touchdown zone, and the middle and outer markers, for approaches to 3,000, 8,000 (and trial 12,000 foot) runway lengths with full scale angular lateral course widths of + or - 1.19 deg, + or - 2.35 deg, and + or - 3.63 deg. The distance from touchdown where the localizer deviation went to full scale was also recorded. Pilot acceptance was measured according to the Cooper-Harper rating system.

  12. The effect of measurement errors and computational approximations on a perspective ILM radar image. [airport runways and the microwave landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bundick, W. T.

    1975-01-01

    The effect was examined of aircraft position and attitude, of measurement errors, and of computational approximations on the size, shape, and position of a perspective radar image of an airport runway as might be displayed by an independent landing monitor in transport aircraft. The effect on runway image geometry was examined for different aircraft attitudes and different aircraft positions relative to a standard three degree glide slope. Measurement errors investigated were errors in radar azimuth angle and range, and errors in those aircraft parameters supplied to the radar for use in converting the radar image into a perspective format (namely pitch, roll, and altitude). Also investigated were the effects of using certain mathematical approximations, such as small angle, in the coordinate transformation which converts the image to a perspective format.

  13. Behavior of aircraft antiskid braking systems on dry and wet runway surfaces. A slip-velocity-controlled, pressure-bias-modulated system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbs, S. M.; Tanner, J. A.; Smith, E. G.

    1979-01-01

    The braking and cornering response of a slip velocity controlled, pressure bias modulated aircraft antiskid braking system is investigated. The investigation, conducted on dry and wet runway surfaces, utilized one main gear wheel, brake, and tire assembly of a McDonnell Douglas DC 9 series 10 airplane. The landing gear strut was replaced by a dynamometer. The parameters, which were varied, included the carriage speed, tire loading, yaw angle, tire tread condition, brake system operating pressure, and runway wetness conditions. The effects of each of these parameters on the behavior of the skid control system is presented. Comparisons between data obtained with the skid control system and data obtained from single cycle braking tests without antiskid protection are examined.

  14. The Effect of Lift-Drag Ratio and Speed on the Ability to Position a Gliding Aircraft for a Landing on a 5,000-Foot Runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeder, John P.

    1959-01-01

    Flight tests were made to determine the capability of positioning a gliding airplane for a landing on a 5,000-foot runway with special reference to the gliding flight of a satellite vehicle of fixed configuration upon reentry into the earth's atmosphere. The lift-drag ratio and speed of the airplane in the glides were varied through as large a range as possible. The results showed a marked tendency to undershoot the runway when the lift-drag ratios were below certain values, depending upon the speed in the glide. A straight line dividing the successful approaches from the undershoots could be drawn through a lift-drag ratio of about 3 at 100 knots and through a lift-drag ratio of about 7 at 185 knots. Provision of a drag device would be very beneficial, particularly in reducing the tendency toward undershooting at the higher speeds.

  15. Studies in short haul air transportation in the California corridor: Effects of design runway length; community acceptance; impact of return on investment and fuel cost increases, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shevell, R. S.; Jones, D. W., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The impact of design runway length on the economics and traffic demand of a 1985 short haul air transportation system in the California Corridor was investigated. The community acceptance of new commercial airports for short haul service was studied. The following subjects were analyzed: (1) travel demand, (2) vehicle technology, (3) infrastructure, (4) systems analysis, and (5) effects on the community. The operation of the short haul system is compared with conventional airline operations.

  16. A model-based approach for detection of runways and other objects in image sequences acquired using an on-board camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasturi, Rangachar; Devadiga, Sadashiva; Tang, Yuan-Liang

    1994-01-01

    This research was initiated as a part of the Advanced Sensor and Imaging System Technology (ASSIST) program at NASA Langley Research Center. The primary goal of this research is the development of image analysis algorithms for the detection of runways and other objects using an on-board camera. Initial effort was concentrated on images acquired using a passive millimeter wave (PMMW) sensor. The images obtained using PMMW sensors under poor visibility conditions due to atmospheric fog are characterized by very low spatial resolution but good image contrast compared to those images obtained using sensors operating in the visible spectrum. Algorithms developed for analyzing these images using a model of the runway and other objects are described in Part 1 of this report. Experimental verification of these algorithms was limited to a sequence of images simulated from a single frame of PMMW image. Subsequent development and evaluation of algorithms was done using video image sequences. These images have better spatial and temporal resolution compared to PMMW images. Algorithms for reliable recognition of runways and accurate estimation of spatial position of stationary objects on the ground have been developed and evaluated using several image sequences. These algorithms are described in Part 2 of this report. A list of all publications resulting from this work is also included.

  17. Usability Evaluation of Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) Concept in Dallas/Fort Worth Airport Tower Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashi, Miwa; Hoang, Ty; Jung, Yoon C.; Gupta, Gautam; Malik, Waqar; Dulchinos, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) is a proposed decision-support tool for air traffic control tower controllers for reducing taxi delay and optimizing the departure sequence. In the present study, the tool's usability was evaluated to ensure that its claimed performance benefits are not being realized at the cost of increasing the work burden on controllers. For the evaluation, workload ratings and questionnaire responses collected during a human-in-the-loop simulation experiment were analyzed to assess the SARDA advisories' effects on the controllers' ratings on cognitive resources (e.g., workload, spare attention) and satisfaction. The results showed that SARDA reduced the controllers' workload and increased their spare attention. It also made workload and attention levels less susceptible to the effects of increases in the traffic load. The questionnaire responses suggested that the controllers generally were satisfied with the ease of use of the tool and the objectives of the SARDA concept, but with some caution. To gain more trust from controllers, the the reasoning behind advisories may need to be made more transparent to them.

  18. A worker attaches covers for the nose pitot boom before removing the unpiloted X-40 from the runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    A worker attaches covers for the nose pitot boom before removing the unpiloted X-40 from the runway at Edwards Air Force Base, California, following its successful free-flight on March 14, 2001. The unpiloted X-40 is a risk-reduction vehicle for the X-37, which is intended to be a reusable space vehicle. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala, manages the X-37 project. At Dryden, the X-40A underwent a series of ground and air tests to reduce possible risks to the larger X-37, including drop tests from a helicopter to check guidance and navigation systems planned for use in the X-37. The X-37 is designed to demonstrate technologies in the orbital and reentry environments for next-generation reusable launch vehicles that will increase both safety and reliability, while reducing launch costs from $10,000 per pound to $1,000 per pound. The X-37, carried into orbit by the Space Shuttle, is planned to fly two orbital missions to test reusable launch vehicle technologies.

  19. Limited Production (LP) Precision Runway Monitor (PRM) Operational Test and Evaluation integration and OT and E Operational Test Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livings, Jeffrey

    1995-05-01

    This document defines the Test Plan and corresponding Test Verification Requirements Traceability Matrix (TVRTM) that will be used to conduct the Limited Production (LP) Precision Runway Monitor (PRM) Operational Test and Evaluation (OT and E) Integration and OT and E Operational tests. These tests will be conducted at the Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport following the Contractor Site Acceptance Test. The LP PRM OT and E test effort will concentrate on Operational Effectiveness and Suitability. The Operational Effectiveness Test consists of a review of the contractor performed Development Test and Evaluation (DT and E) and Site Acceptance Tests. This review will evaluate whether each of the Measures of Effectiveness had been satisfactorily tested and whether the results meet the Minimum Acceptable Operational REquirements MAORs). This review will be conducted solely by test engineers and does not require the PRM system. The Operational Suitability Tests will expose the test participants (Air Traffic (AT) Controllers and Airway Facilities (AF) Technicians) to the PRM system in an operational environment while they perform specified operational procedures. These tests will be conducted in two separate phases: AT Suitability and AF Suitability. Each of these phases is focused on the specific test participants.

  20. Incursion of water and Cu ions into porous low dielectric constant (LKD) thin films and interconnects resulting in damage, time dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) and decreased lifetime and reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laibowitz, Robert; Raja, Archana; Shaw, Thomas; Liniger, Eric; Cohen, Stephan; Columbia University Collaboration; IBM Research Division Collaboration

    Porous dielectrics, their interfaces and related processing details provide many opportunities for water and Cu incursion. The Cu typically starts as part of the electrode and needs a liner to keep it away from the dielectric. As scaling continues thinner liners and imperfections in the in the liner layer can expose the CU to the LKD. This will lead to TDDD with greatly reduced lifetimes. Water exposure can come from processing or through defects in the passivation layer. Most studies of these breakdown effects have been accomplished using accelerated DC measurements in which the sample is destroyed. Dielectric relaxation provides a new set of measurements at low fields, low temperatures and reusable samples. In this way we have observed the presence of both physisorbed and chemisorbed water, determined their activation energy of motion and removal of the water by various annealing protocols. Initial measurements of Cu incursion have also been made. Preliminary measurement of samples containing Cu and water and processing damage show reduced reliability. We also have begun studies to determine the minimum liner thickness. .

  1. An Overview of a Trajectory-Based Solution for En Route and Terminal Area Self-Spacing to Include Parallel Runway Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of an algorithm specifically designed to support NASA's Airborne Precision Spacing concept. This airborne self-spacing concept is trajectory-based, allowing for spacing operations prior to the aircraft being on a common path. This implementation provides the ability to manage spacing against two traffic aircraft, with one of these aircraft operating to a parallel dependent runway. Because this algorithm is trajectory-based, it also has the inherent ability to support required-time-of-arrival (RTA) operations

  2. Measurement and analysis of aircraft engine PM emissions downwind of an active runway at the Oakland International Airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Prem; Hagen, Donald E.; Whitefield, Philip D.

    2012-12-01

    The growth of commercial aviation has fueled concerns over air quality around airports and the surrounding communities. Airports must expand their operations to meet the increase in air traffic, but expansion plans have been delayed or canceled due to concerns over local air quality. This paper presents the methodology for real-time measurements of aircraft engine specific Particulate Matter (PM) emissions and analysis of the associated high resolution data acquired during normal Landing and Take-Off (LTO) operations 100-300 m downwind of an active taxi-/runway at the Oakland International Airport. The airframe-engine combinations studied included B737-300 with CFM56-3B engines, B737-700/800 with CFM56-7B engines, A320 with V2500-A5 engines, MD-80 with JT-8D engines, A300 with CF6-80 engines, DC-10 with CF6-50 engines, and CRJ-100/200 with CF34-3B engines. For all engine types studied, the size distributions were typically bimodal in nature with a nucleation mode comprised of freshly nucleated PM and an accumulation mode comprised mostly of PM soot with some condensed volatile material. The PM number-based emission index observed ranged between 7 × 1015-3 × 1017 particles kg-1 fuel burned at idle/taxi and between 4 × 1015-2 × 1017 particles kg-1 fuel burned at take-off, and the associated PM mass-based emission index (EIm) ranged between 0.1 and 0.7 g kg-1 fuel burned at both the idle/taxi and take-off conditions. Older technology engines such as the CFM56-3B and JT8D engines were observed to have as much as 3× higher PM EIm values at take-off compared to newer engine technology such as the CFM56-7B engine. The results from this study provide information for better characterizing evolving PM emissions from in-service commercial aircraft under normal LTO operations and assessing their impact on local and regional air quality and health related impacts.

  3. Altus aircraft on runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The remotely piloted Altus aircraft flew several developmental test flights from Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., in 1996. The Altus--the word is Latin for 'high'--is a variant of the Predator surveillance drone built by General Atomics/Aeronautical Systems, Inc. It is designed for high-altitude, long-duration scientific sampling missions, and is powered by a turbocharged four-cylinder piston engine. The first Altus was developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology program, while a second Altus was built for a Naval Postgraduate School/Department of Energy program. A pilot in a control station on the ground flew the craft by radio signals, using visual cues from a video camera in the nose of the Altus and information from the craft's air data system. Equipped with a single-stage turbocharger during the 1996 test flights, the first Altus reached altitudes in the 37,000-foot range, while the similarly-equipped second Altus reached 43,500 feet during developmental flights at Dryden in the summer of 1997. The NASA Altus also set an endurance record of more than 26 hours while flying a science mission in late 1996 and still had an estimated 10 hours of fuel remaining when it landed. Now equipped with a two-stage turbocharger, the NASA Altus maintained an altitude of 55,000 feet for four hours during flight tests in 1999.

  4. Coordinated Parallel Runway Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koczo, Steve

    1996-01-01

    The current air traffic environment in airport terminal areas experiences substantial delays when weather conditions deteriorate to Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). Expected future increases in air traffic will put additional pressures on the National Airspace System (NAS) and will further compound the high costs associated with airport delays. To address this problem, NASA has embarked on a program to address Terminal Area Productivity (TAP). The goals of the TAP program are to provide increased efficiencies in air traffic during the approach, landing, and surface operations in low-visibility conditions. The ultimate goal is to achieve efficiencies of terminal area flight operations commensurate with Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) at current or improved levels of safety.

  5. Tu-144LL SST Flying Laboratory Landing on Runway at Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow, Ru

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Tupolev Tu-144LL SST Flying Laboratory rolls down the runway at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow, Russia, after a 1998 test flight. NASA teamed with American and Russian aerospace industries for an extended period in a joint international research program featuring the Russian-built Tu-144LL supersonic aircraft. The object of the program was to develop technologies for a proposed future second-generation supersonic airliner to be developed in the 21st Century. The aircraft's initial flight phase began in June 1996 and concluded in February 1998 after 19 research flights. A shorter follow-on program involving seven flights began in September 1998 and concluded in April 1999. All flights were conducted in Russia from Tupolev's facility at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow. The centerpiece of the research program was the Tu 144LL, a first-generation Russian supersonic jetliner that was modified by its developer/builder, Tupolev ANTK (aviatsionnyy nauchno-tekhnicheskiy kompleks-roughly, aviation technical complex), into a flying laboratory for supersonic research. Using the Tu-144LL to conduct flight research experiments, researchers compared full-scale supersonic aircraft flight data with results from models in wind tunnels, computer-aided techniques, and other flight tests. The experiments provided unique aerodynamic, structures, acoustics, and operating environment data on supersonic passenger aircraft. Data collected from the research program was being used to develop the technology base for a proposed future American-built supersonic jetliner. Although actual development of such an advanced supersonic transport (SST) is currently on hold, commercial aviation experts estimate that a market for up to 500 such aircraft could develop by the third decade of the 21st Century. The Tu-144LL used in the NASA-sponsored research program was a 'D' model with different engines than were used in production-model aircraft. Fifty experiments

  6. Evaluation of the effects of one year's operation of the dynamic preferential runway system. [human reactions to overflight air traffic pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borsky, P. N.

    1974-01-01

    The FAA introduced an experimental aircraft operations program at JFK Airport called the Dynamic Preferential Runway System (DPRS) in the summer of 1971. The program is designed to distribute air traffic as equally as possible over the surrounding communities, to limit periods of continuous overflight and to vary the same hours of overflight from day to day. After a full year's operation, an evaluation was made of the system's effectiveness. All of the operation's goals were moderately achieved with the greatest relief in reduced overflight afforded the most heavily impacted areas. Few residents, however, were aware of DPRS or felt that it had greatly reduced annoyance or represented a major effort by the aircraft authorities. Statistical analyses of reported annoyance obtained from two independent surveys in 1969 and 1972 reveal limited reductions in annoyance in 1972, with shifts from reported high annoyance to moderate annoyance.

  7. B-757: RIPS, LAHSO, EVS-SVS projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Photograph of the B-757 experimental equipment installed to support RIPS (Runway Incursion Prevention system), LAHSO (Land and Hold Short Operations), EVS (Enhanced Vision System), and the SVS (Synthetic Vision System) projects.

  8. Aircraft and runway deicers at General Mitchell International Airport, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. 1. Biochemical oxygen demand and dissolved oxygen in receiving streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corsi, S.R.; Booth, N.L.; Hall, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Aircraft and runway deicers are used during cold weather at many of the world's airports to facilitate safe air travel. Propylene glycol-, ethylene glycol-, and urea-based deicers are known to have very high biochemical oxygen demand. At General Mitchell International Airport (GMIA) in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, deicer application, water chemistry, and dissolved oxygen (DO) data were collected for two deicing seasons in order to evaluate and define premanagement water quality parameters prior to the implementation of a glycol management program. Calculations using stream-monitoring data during a controlled release of deicer provided an estimate of 0.8/d for the first-order decay rate constant, substantially higher than published laboratory test results. For eight precipitation events with deicing activities, between 2.4 and 99% of propylene and ethylene glycol applied to aircraft was delivered directly to receiving streams. The percentage of glycol runoff during an event increased with increasing storm-flow volume. Elevated concentrations of glycol and biochemical oxygen demand were measured downstream from the airport. However, the frequency of low DO concentrations in the receiving streams is comparable with that at an upstream reference site. This is possibly due to slowed bacteria metabolism at low water temperatures, short travel times, and dilution from downstream tributaries.

  9. Behavior of aircraft antiskid breaking systems on dry and wet runway surfaces: A slip-ratio-controlled system with ground speed reference from unbraked nose wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, J. A.; Stubbs, S. M.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility to study the braking and cornering response of a slip ratio controlled aircraft antiskid braking system with ground speed reference derived from an unbraked nose wheel. The investigation, conducted on dry and wet runway surfaces, utilized one main gear wheel, brake, and tire assembly of a DC-9 series 10 airplane. During maximum braking, the average ratio of the drag force friction coefficient developed by the antiskid system to the maximum drag force friction coefficient available was higher on the dry surface than on damp and flooded surfaces, and was reduced with lighter vertical loads, higher yaw angles, and when new tire treads were replaced by worn treads. Similarly, the average ratio of side force friction coefficient developed by the tire under antiskid control to the maximum side force friction coefficient available to a freely rolling yawed tire decreased with increasing yaw angle, generally increased with ground speed, and decreased when tires with new treads were replaced by those with worn treads.

  10. Aircraft and runway deicers at General Mitchell International Airport, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. 1. Biochemical oxygen demand and dissolved oxygen in receiving streams.

    PubMed

    Corsi, S R; Booth, N L; Hall, D W

    2001-07-01

    Aircraft and runway deicers are used during cold weather at many of the world's airports to facilitate safe air travel. Propylene glycol-, ethylene glycol-, and urea-based deicers are known to have very high biochemical oxygen demand. At General Mitchell International Airport (GMIA) in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, deicer application, water chemistry, and dissolved oxygen (DO) data were collected for two deicing seasons in order to evaluate and define premanagement water quality parameters prior to the implementation of a glycol management program. Calculations using stream-monitoring data during a controlled release of deicer provided an estimate of 0.8/d for the first-order decay rate constant, substantially higher than published laboratory test results. For eight precipitation events with deicing activities, between 2.4 and 99% of propylene and ethylene glycol applied to aircraft was delivered directly to receiving streams. The percentage of glycol runoff during an event increased with increasing storm-flow volume. Elevated concentrations of glycol and biochemical oxygen demand were measured downstream from the airport. However, the frequency of low DO concentrations in the receiving streams is comparable with that at an upstream reference site. This is possibly due to slowed bacteria metabolism at low water temperatures, short travel times, and dilution from downstream tributaries.

  11. Environmental radiation levels in soil and sediment samples collected from floating water from a land runway resulting from heavy rains in the Jeddah region, KSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohery, M.; Baz, Shadiah; Kelany, Adel M.; Abdallah, A. M.

    2014-04-01

    The natural radiation levels in soil and sediment samples collected from floating water from a land runway resulting from heavy rains in the Jeddah region as well as the activity in the population of its surrounding environments were studied. In the regions surrounding Jeddah, the movements of floating water may increase the concentration of radioactivity due to the movement of soil due to heavy rains. In addition, the technological development of industry, agriculture and other sources around the Jeddah region has increased environmental pollution, resulting in noticeable concentrations of radioactivity. The measured activity concentrations of 214Pb, 214Bi, 228Ac, 208Tl, 40K, 226Ra and 228Ra in the studied area suggest that they are within the world average for soils and sediments, except those for water sample no. 4; the concentration in this sample was five times higher than the world average concentration (this water is not consumable). Herein, the radioactivity concentrations that were obtained from the analysis of soil and sediment samples that were collected from the investigated area are discussed. Additionally, the absorbed dose rate (D), radium equivalent activity (Raeq), external hazard index (Hex), annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) and annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) were evaluated. For the soil and sediment samples, the average radioactivity concentrations were determined for each site and are expressed in Becquerels per kilogram (Bq/kg) of dry weight, while for the measurement of both the 226Ra and 228Ra isotopes in the water samples, the activity concentration is expressed in picoCuries per liter (pCi/l). The obtained results were compared with other measurements from different countries. The movement of floating water around the Jeddah region increases the concentration of radioactivity due to the movement of soils with heavy rains.

  12. Pharmacological modulation of lateral habenular dopamine D2 receptors alters the anxiogenic response to cocaine in a runway model of drug self-administration.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Kerisa; Bogyo, Kelsie; Schick, Tinisha; Ettenberg, Aaron

    2016-09-01

    Cocaine has long been known to produce an initial "high" followed by an aversive/anxiogenic "crash". While much is known about the neurobiology of cocaine's positive/rewarding effects, the mechanisms that give rise to the drug's negative/anxiogenic actions remain unclear. Recent research has implicated the lateral habenula (LHb) in the encoding of aversive events including the anxiogenic response to cocaine. Of particular interest in this regard are the reciprocal connections between the LHb and the ventral tegmental area (VTA). VTA-DA neurons innervate different subsets of LHb cells that in turn feedback upon and modulate VTA neuronal activity. Here we examined the impact of D2 receptor activation and inhibition on the anxiogenic response to cocaine using a runway model of self-administration that is sensitive to the dual and opposing effects of the drug. Male rats ran a straight alley for IV cocaine (1.0mg/kg) following bilateral intra-LHb infusions of the D2 receptor antagonist, cis-flupenthixol (0, 7.5 or 15μg/side) or the D2 agonist, sumanirole (0, 5 or 10μg/side). Vehicle-pretreated controls developed approach-avoidance conflict behaviors about goal-box entry reflective of the dual positive and negative effects of cocaine. These behaviors were significantly diminished during LHb-D2 receptor antagonism and increased by the LHb D2 receptor agonist. These results demonstrate that activity at the D2 receptor in the lateral habenula serves to modulate the anxiogenic response to cocaine. PMID:27155504

  13. SURF IA Conflict Detection and Resolution Algorithm Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Chartrand, Ryan C.; Wilson, Sara R.; Commo, Sean A.; Barker, Glover D.

    2012-01-01

    The Enhanced Traffic Situational Awareness on the Airport Surface with Indications and Alerts (SURF IA) algorithm was evaluated in a fast-time batch simulation study at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. SURF IA is designed to increase flight crew situation awareness of the runway environment and facilitate an appropriate and timely response to potential conflict situations. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the performance of the SURF IA algorithm under various runway scenarios, multiple levels of conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) system equipage, and various levels of horizontal position accuracy. This paper gives an overview of the SURF IA concept, simulation study, and results. Runway incursions are a serious aviation safety hazard. As such, the FAA is committed to reducing the severity, number, and rate of runway incursions by implementing a combination of guidance, education, outreach, training, technology, infrastructure, and risk identification and mitigation initiatives [1]. Progress has been made in reducing the number of serious incursions - from a high of 67 in Fiscal Year (FY) 2000 to 6 in FY2010. However, the rate of all incursions has risen steadily over recent years - from a rate of 12.3 incursions per million operations in FY2005 to a rate of 18.9 incursions per million operations in FY2010 [1, 2]. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) also considers runway incursions to be a serious aviation safety hazard, listing runway incursion prevention as one of their most wanted transportation safety improvements [3]. The NTSB recommends that immediate warning of probable collisions/incursions be given directly to flight crews in the cockpit [4].

  14. STS-135 Landing: Runway Remarks

    NASA Video Gallery

    The STS-135 astronauts get a close-up look at space shuttle Atlantis, hear from NASA Administrator Charles Bolden and speak to assembled employees, guests and media after landing at Kennedy Space C...

  15. Pathfinder over runway in Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Pathfinder, NASA's solar-powered, remotely-piloted aircraft is shown while it was conducting a series of science flights to highlight the aircraft's science capabilities while collecting imagery of forest and coastal zone ecosystems on Kauai, Hawaii. The flights also tested two new scientific instruments, a high-spectral-resolution Digital Array Scanned Interferometer (DASI) and a high-spatial-resolution Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). The remote sensor payloads were designed by NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, to support NASA's Mission to Planet Earth science programs. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  16. Chevron cutting: Experiment with new runway mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyran, K. (Compiler)

    1978-01-01

    Chevron cutting is shown to occur in different forms depending on the type of tire and the rubber on the running surface. Hardest wear is shown by the main tires of the B-747. Four defects occurred, in the form of two rip separation and two breakouts of the running surface. Tires capped by Thompson are more affected than any of the other rubber-capping fabrics. For Thompson tires, Chevron Cutting is greatly reduced with a fiberglass-rubber mixture. For Goodyear tires, it is eliminated with spiral wrap rubbercapping; resistance to damages through cuts seems to be more positive for Goodyear tires. For Mader tires, the extent of Chevron Cutting is generally smaller than for Thompson cappings.

  17. Portable Runway Intersection Display and Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor); Elrod, Susan Vinz (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which an apparatus located on an airfield provides information to pilots in aircraft on the ground and simultaneously gathers information on the motion and position of the aircraft for controllers.

  18. Ecological recovery in an Arctic delta following widespread saline incursion.

    PubMed

    Lantz, Trevor C; Kokelj, Steve V; Fraser, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    Arctic ecosystems are vulnerable to the combined effects of climate change and a range of other anthropogenic perturbations. Predicting the cumulative impact of these stressors requires an improved understanding of the factors affecting ecological resilience. In September of 1999, a severe storm surge in the Mackenzie Delta flooded alluvial surfaces up to 30 km inland from the coast with saline waters, driving environmental impacts unprecedented in the last millennium. In this study we combined field monitoring of permanent sampling plots with an analysis of the Landsat archive (1986-2011) to explore the factors affecting the recovery of ecosystems to this disturbance. Soil salinization following the 1999 storm caused the abrupt dieback of more than 30,000 ha of tundra vegetation. Vegetation cover and soil chemistry show that recovery is occurring, but the rate and spatial extent are strongly dependent on vegetation type, with graminoid- and upright shrub-dominated areas showing recovery after a decade, but dwarf shrub tundra exhibiting little to no recovery over this period. Our analyses suggest that recovery from salinization has been strongly influenced by vegetation type and the frequency of freshwater flooding following the storm. With increased ocean storm activity, rising sea levels, and reduced sea ice cover, Arctic coastal ecosystems will be more likely to experience similar disturbances in the future, highlighting the importance of combining field sampling with regional-scale remote sensing in efforts to detect, understand, and anticipate environmental change.

  19. Ecological recovery in an Arctic delta following widespread saline incursion.

    PubMed

    Lantz, Trevor C; Kokelj, Steve V; Fraser, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    Arctic ecosystems are vulnerable to the combined effects of climate change and a range of other anthropogenic perturbations. Predicting the cumulative impact of these stressors requires an improved understanding of the factors affecting ecological resilience. In September of 1999, a severe storm surge in the Mackenzie Delta flooded alluvial surfaces up to 30 km inland from the coast with saline waters, driving environmental impacts unprecedented in the last millennium. In this study we combined field monitoring of permanent sampling plots with an analysis of the Landsat archive (1986-2011) to explore the factors affecting the recovery of ecosystems to this disturbance. Soil salinization following the 1999 storm caused the abrupt dieback of more than 30,000 ha of tundra vegetation. Vegetation cover and soil chemistry show that recovery is occurring, but the rate and spatial extent are strongly dependent on vegetation type, with graminoid- and upright shrub-dominated areas showing recovery after a decade, but dwarf shrub tundra exhibiting little to no recovery over this period. Our analyses suggest that recovery from salinization has been strongly influenced by vegetation type and the frequency of freshwater flooding following the storm. With increased ocean storm activity, rising sea levels, and reduced sea ice cover, Arctic coastal ecosystems will be more likely to experience similar disturbances in the future, highlighting the importance of combining field sampling with regional-scale remote sensing in efforts to detect, understand, and anticipate environmental change. PMID:26255366

  20. Initial Concept for Terminal Area Conflict Detection, Alerting, and Resolution Capability On or Near the Airport Surface, Version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otero, Sharon D.; Barker, Glover D.; Jones, Denise R.

    2013-01-01

    The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) concept for 2025 envisions the movement of large numbers of people and goods in a safe, efficient, and reliable manner. The NextGen will remove many of the constraints in the current air transportation system, support a wider range of operations, and deliver an overall system capacity up to 3 times that of current operating levels. In order to achieve the NextGen vision, research is necessary in the areas of surface traffic optimization, maximum runway capacity, reduced runway occupancy time, simultaneous single runway operations, and terminal area conflict prevention, among others. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is conducting Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic (CAAT) research to develop technologies, data, and guidelines to enable Conflict Detection and Resolution (CD&R) in the Airport Terminal Maneuvering Area (ATMA) under current and emerging NextGen operating concepts. The term ATMA was created to reflect the fact that the CD&R concept area of operation is focused near the airport within the terminal maneuvering area. In the following, an initial concept for an aircraft-based method for CD&R in the ATMA is presented. This method is based upon previous NASA work in CD&R for runway incursion prevention, the Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS).

  1. Initial Concept for Terminal Area Conflict Detection, Alerting, and Resolution Capability on or Near the Airport Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, David F.; Otero, Sharon D.; Barker, Glover D.; Jones, Denise R.

    2009-01-01

    The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) concept for 2025 envisions the movement of large numbers of people and goods in a safe, efficient, and reliable manner. The NextGen will remove many of the constraints in the current air transportation system, support a wider range of operations, and deliver an overall system capacity up to 3 times that of current operating levels. In order to achieve the NextGen vision, research is necessary in the areas of surface traffic optimization, maximum runway capacity, reduced runway occupancy time, simultaneous single runway operations, and terminal area conflict prevention, among others. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is conducting Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic (CAAT) research to develop technologies, data, and guidelines to enable Conflict Detection and Resolution (CD&R) in the Airport Terminal Maneuvering Area (ATMA) under current and emerging NextGen operating concepts. In this report, an initial concept for an aircraft-based method for CD&R in the ATMA is presented. This method is based upon previous NASA work in CD&R for runway incursion prevention, the Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS). CAAT research is conducted jointly under NASA's Airspace Systems Program, Airportal Project and the Aviation Safety Program, Integrated Intelligent Flight Deck Project.

  2. Development of a Laboratory for Improving Communication between Air Traffic Controllers and Pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brammer, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    Runway incursions and other surface incidents are known to be significant threats to aviation safety and efficiency. Though the number of near mid-air collisions in U.S. air space has remained unchanged during the last five years, the number of runway incursions has increased and they are almost all due to human error. The three most common factors contributing to air traffic controller and pilot error in airport operations include two that involve failed auditory communication. This project addressed the problems of auditory communication in air traffic control from an acoustical standpoint, by establishing an acoustics laboratory designed for this purpose and initiating research into selected topics that show promise for improving voice communications between air traffic controllers and pilots.

  3. Enhancing pilot situational awareness of the airport surface movement area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D. R.; Young, S. D.

    1994-01-01

    Two studies are being conducted to address airport surface movement area safety and capacity issues by providing enhanced situational awareness information to pilots. One study focuses on obtaining pilot opinion of the Runway Status Light System (RSLS). This system has been designed to reduce the likelihood of runway incursions by informing pilots when a runway is occupied. The second study is a flight demonstration of an rate integrated system consisting of an electronic moving map in the cockpit and display of the aircraft identification to the controller. Taxi route and hold warning information will be sent to the aircraft data link for display on the electronic moving map. This paper describes the plans for the two studies.

  4. Test of LOX compatibility for asphalt and concrete runway materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moyers, C. V.; Bryan, C. J.; Lockhart, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    A literature survey and a telephone canvass of producers and users of LOX is reported which yielded one report of an accident resulting from a LOX spill on asphalt, one discussion of hazardous conditions, and an unreferenced mention of an incident. Laboratory tests using standard LOX impact apparatus yielded reactions with both old and new alphalt, but none with concrete. In the final test, using a larger sample of asphalt, the reaction caused extensive damage to equipment. Initial field experiments using 2-meter square asphalt slabs covered with LOX, conducted during rainy weather, achieved no reaction with plummets, and limited reaction with a blasting cap as a reaction initiator. In a final plummet-initiated test on a dry slab, a violent reaction, which appeared to have propagated over the entire slab surface, destroyed the plummet fixture and threw fragments as far as 48 meters.

  5. Altus I aircraft taking off from lakebed runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The remotely-piloted Altus I aircraft takes off from Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. The short series of test flights sponsored by the Naval Postgraduate School in early August, 1997, were designed to demonstrate the ability of the experimental craft to cruise at altitudes above 40,000 feet for sustained durations. On its final flight Aug. 15, the Altus I reached an altitude of 43,500 feet. The Altus I and its sister ship, the Altus II, are variants of the Predator surveillance drone built by General Atomics/Aeronautical Systems, Inc. They are designed for high-altitude, long-duration scientific sampling missions, and are powered by turbocharged piston engines. The Altus I incorporates a single-stage turbocharger, while the Altus II, built for NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology program, sports a two-stage turbocharger to enable the craft to fly at altitudes above 55,000 feet.

  6. Altus I aircraft landing on Edwards lakebed runway 23

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The remotely-piloted Altus I aircraft lands on Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. The short series of test flights sponsored by the Naval Postgraduate School in early August, 1997, were designed to demonstrate the ability of the experimental craft to cruise at altitudes above 40,000 feet for sustained durations. On its final flight Aug. 15, the Altus I reached an altitude of 43,500 feet. The Altus I and its sister ship, the Altus II, are variants of the Predator surveillance drone built by General Atomics/Aeronautical Systems, Inc. They are designed for high-altitude, long-duration scientific sampling missions, and are powered by turbocharged piston engines. The Altus I incorporates a single-stage turbocharger, while the Altus II, built for NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology program, sports a two-stage turbocharger to enable the craft to fly at altitudes above 55,000 feet. The Altus II, the first of the two craft to be completed, made its first flight on May 1, 1996. With its engine augmented by a single-stage turbocharger, the Altus II reached an altitude of 37,000 ft during its first series of development flights at Dryden in Aug., 1996. In Oct. of that year, the Altus II was flown in an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement study for the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratory in Oklahoma. During the course of those flights, the Altus II set a single-flight endurance record for remotely-operated aircraft of more than 26 hours. The Altus I, completed in 1997, flew a series of development flights at Dryden that summer. Those test flights culminated with the craft reaching an altitude of 43,500 ft while carrying a simulated 300-lb payload, a record for an unmanned aircraft powered by a piston engine augmented with a single-stage turbocharger. The Altus II sustained an altitudeof 55,000 feet for four hours in 1999. A pilot in a control station on the ground flies the craft by radio signals, using visual cues from a video camera in the nose of the Altus and information from the craft's air data system.

  7. Real-Life Research: Project Runway Makeover Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Paige; Nesi, Olga M.

    2014-01-01

    Real-life research is incredibly varied. We research cars. We research lawn problems. We research child behavior problems, health issues, possible vacation destinations, and prices to stretch our budgets. No two scenarios are ever alike, and no two health issues should be assumed to be the same. That is reality, and that is a picture of what the…

  8. Aerodynamic study on wing and tail small UAV without runways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soetanto, Maria F.; R., Randy; Alfan M., R.; Dzaldi

    2016-06-01

    This paper consists of the design and analysis of the aerodynamics of the profiles of wing and tail of a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). UAV is a remote-controlled aircraft that can carry cameras, sensors and even weapons on an area that needed aerial photography or aerial video [1]. The aim of this small UAV is for used in situations where manned flight is considered too risky or difficult, such as fire fighting or surveillance, while the term 'small means the design of this UAV has to be relatively small and portable so that peoples are able to carry it during their operations [CASR Part 101.240: it is a UAV which is has a launch mass greater than 100 grams but less than 100 kilograms] [2]. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) method was used to analyze the fluid flow characteristics around the aerofoil's profiles, such as the lift generation for each angle of attack and longitudinal stability caused by vortex generation on trailing edge. Based on the analysis and calculation process, Clark-Y MOD with aspect ratio, AR = 4.28 and taper ratio, λ = 0.65 was chosen as the wing aerofoil and SD 8020 with AR = 4.8 and λ = 0.5 was chosen as the horizontal tail, while SD 8020 with AR = 1.58 and λ = 0.5 was chosen as the vertical tail. The lift and drag forces generated for wing and tail surfaces can be determined from the Fluent 6.3 simulation. Results showed that until angle of attack of 6 degrees, the formation of flow separation is still going on behind the trailing edge, and the stall condition occurs at 14 degrees angle of attack which is characterized by the occurrence of flow separation at leading edge, with a maximum lift coefficient (Cl) obtained = 1.56. The results of flight tests show that this small UAV has successfully maneuvered to fly, such as take off, some acrobatics when cruising and landing smoothly, which means that the calculation and analysis of aerodynamic aerofoil's profile used on the wing and tail of the Small UAV were able to be validated.

  9. Task specific adaptations in rat locomotion: runway versus horizontal ladder.

    PubMed

    Bolton, David A E; Tse, Arthur D Y; Ballermann, Mark; Misiaszek, John E; Fouad, Karim

    2006-04-01

    In walking quadrupeds the alternating activity pattern of antagonistic leg muscles and the coordination between legs is orchestrated by central pattern generating networks within the spinal cord. These networks are activated by tonic input from the reticular formation in the brainstem. Under more challenging conditions, such as walking on a horizontal ladder, successful locomotion relies upon additional context dependent input from pathways such as the cortico- and rubro-spinal tracts. In this study we used electromyographic and kinematic approaches to characterize the adaptations in the walking pattern in adult uninjured rats crossing a horizontal ladder. We found that the placement of a hind limb on a rung precisely followed the placement of the ipsilateral fore limb. This is different to normal walking where the hind limb is placed behind the position of the ipsilateral fore limb. The increased reach of the hind limbs is achieved by increased flexion of the hip and rotation of the pelvis during the swing phase. Electromyographic observations showed decreased burst duration in Tibialis anterior an ankle flexor muscle. Further changes in the muscle activity pattern were likely due to the reduced stepping frequency during ladder walking. Following a lesion of the dorsal column, containing major parts of the corticospinal tract, we found an increased number of stepping errors and changes in the stepping strategy. The step length of the fore limbs was reduced and the hind limbs were frequently positioned on rungs other than those occupied by the fore limb. PMID:16406145

  10. Directional molecular sliding at room temperature on a silicon runway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouju, Xavier; Chérioux, Frédéric; Coget, Sébastien; Rapenne, Gwénaël; Palmino, Frank

    2013-07-01

    The design of working nanovehicles is a key challenge for the development of new devices. In this context, 1D controlled sliding of molecules on a silicon-based surface is successfully achieved by using an optimized molecule-substrate pair. Even though the molecule and surface are compatible, the molecule-substrate interaction provides a 1D template effect to guide molecular sliding along a preferential surface orientation. Molecular motion is monitored by STM experiments under ultra-high vacuum at room temperature. Molecule-surface interactions are elucidated by semi-empirical calculations.The design of working nanovehicles is a key challenge for the development of new devices. In this context, 1D controlled sliding of molecules on a silicon-based surface is successfully achieved by using an optimized molecule-substrate pair. Even though the molecule and surface are compatible, the molecule-substrate interaction provides a 1D template effect to guide molecular sliding along a preferential surface orientation. Molecular motion is monitored by STM experiments under ultra-high vacuum at room temperature. Molecule-surface interactions are elucidated by semi-empirical calculations. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Computational details, additional STM images and movies showing DETB molecules sliding on the SmSi(111)-(7 × 1) reconstruction obtained from semi-empirical calculations. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01685d

  11. Ecology, Behaviour and Control of Apis cerana with a Focus on Relevance to the Australian Incursion

    PubMed Central

    Koetz, Anna H.

    2013-01-01

    Apis cerana Fabricius is endemic to most of Asia, where it has been used for honey production and pollination services for thousands of years. Since the 1980s, A. cerana has been introduced to areas outside its natural range (namely New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, and Australia), which sparked fears that it may become a pest species that could compete with, and negatively affect, native Australian fauna and flora, as well as commercially kept A. mellifera and commercial crops. This literature review is a response to these concerns and reviews what is known about the ecology and behaviour of A. cerana. Differences between temperate and tropical strains of A. cerana are reviewed, as are A. cerana pollination, competition between A. cerana and A. mellifera, and the impact and control strategies of introduced A. cerana, with a particular focus on gaps of current knowledge. PMID:26462524

  12. [The symbolic cartography of epidemiological risk: an incursion into the thinking of Boaventura de Sousa Santos].

    PubMed

    Sevalho, Gil; Stotz, Eduardo

    2012-09-01

    Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, the concept of epidemiological risk is critically discussed. The work of Elizabeth Teixeira, who uses the ideas of Boaventura de Sousa Santos, is presented. The proposal for symbolic cartography of epidemiological risk is sketched out, defining analytical scales ranging from exteriority and distancing from the field of science to the proximity of territory and place, conceptualized on the basis of the geography of Milton Santos, in which conceptions of risk are drawn up from the perspective of the everyday routine of social existence. Questions relating to space, territoriality, subjectivity and time give meaning to a cartography of risk which is proposed as a model for epidemiological investigations.

  13. [Risk assessment of bluetongue disease incursion into Germany using geographic information system (GIS)].

    PubMed

    Koslowsky, Sylvia; Staubach, Christoph; Kramer, Mathias; Wieler, Lothar H

    2004-01-01

    Using a geographic information system (GIS), by analysis of the relationship between the spatial distribution of cattle density and the risk factors temperature, altitude and rainfall, we defined geographical habitats enabling optimal development and competence of Culicoides spp. to transmit Bluetongue-Virus (BTV): Risk zones (low, high, highest risk) were identified mainly in Baden-Württemberg, Hessen and Rheinland-Pfalz if persistently infected ruminants are imported into these zones in summer (June to August mainly), based on the current climatic conditions, BTD outbreaks are considered a real possibility. Overwintering of the virus seems unlikely. However, global warming will lead to a steady increase of the size of the risk zones. In addition, the possibility of primary outbreaks increases. The reason for this is not only the expected northern shift of Culicoides imicola, but in addition an increasing vector competence of domestic Culicoides species. We therefore recommend the storage of vaccines as well as conducting ecological studies analysing the presence of Culicoides vectors. Using the data from these studies, it will be possible to produce updated quantitative risk assessment via GIS.

  14. Multiple origins and incursions of the Atlantic barnacle Chthamalus proteus in the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Zardus, John D; Hadfield, Michael G

    2005-10-01

    Chthamalus proteus, a barnacle native to the Caribbean and western Atlantic, was introduced to the Pacific within the last few decades. Using direct sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (COI), we characterized genetic variation in native and introduced populations and searched for genetic matches between regions to determine if there were multiple geographical sources and introduction points for this barnacle. In the native range, we found great genetic differences among populations (max. F(ST) = 0.613) encompassing four lineages: one endemic to Panama, one endemic to Brazil, and two occurring Caribbean-wide. All four lineages were represented in the Pacific, but not equally; the Brazilian lineage was most prevalent and the Panamanian least common. Twenty-one individuals spread among nearly every island from where the barnacle is known in the Pacific, exactly matched six haplotypes scattered among Curaçao, the Netherlands Antilles; St John, US Virgin Islands; Puerto Rico; and Brazil, confirming a multigeographical origin for the Pacific populations. Significant genetic differences were also found in introduced populations from the Hawaiian Islands (F(CT) = 0.043, P < 0.001), indicating introduction events have occurred at more than one locality. However, the sequence, timing and number of arrival events remains unknown. Possible reasons for limited transport of this barnacle through the Panama Canal are discussed. This and a preponderance of Brazilian-type individuals in the Pacific suggest an unexpected route of entry from around Cape Horn, South America. Unification in the Pacific of historically divergent lineages of this barnacle raises the possibility for selection of 'hybrids' with novel ecological adaptations in its new environment. PMID:16202091

  15. Solar-stimulated flaw and water incursion detection in fiberglass structures

    SciTech Connect

    Schivley, J.D.

    1994-12-31

    Fiberglass is a combination of glass fiber reinforcing material and plastic resin. The advantages far outweigh the disadvantages that are commonly found in commercial structures. Fiberglass does not suffer from dry rot or worms as found with wood; from rust, a common problem with steel; or from electrolysis, common problems with both steel and aluminum. However, compared to steel, fiberglass has low fatigue and buckling strengths. This can cause delaminations where stress concentrations are located. Many other factors contribute to delaminations which are ``invisible`` to the eye. For this reason an infrared thermographic procedure was developed to detect these delaminates and other flaws in fiberglass structures. Due to the confidentiality of this project, neither the name of client or the location of this fiberglass structure will be revealed in this paper. At the time of publication, authorization has not been obtained to release photographs or drawings.

  16. Evidence for a marine incursion along the lower Colorado River corridor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDougall, Kristin; Martínez, Adriana Yanet Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Foraminiferal assemblages in the stratigraphically lower part of the Bouse Formation in the Blythe Basin indicate marine conditions whereas assemblages in the upper part of the Bouse Formation indicate lacustrine conditions and suggest the presence of a saline lake. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages in the lower part of the Bouse Formation are similar to lagoonal and inner neritic biofacies of the modern Gulf of California. Evidence suggesting a change from marine to lacustrine conditions includes the highest occurrence of planktic foraminifers at an elevation of 123 m asl, the change from low diversity to monospecific foraminiferal assemblages composed only of Ammonia beccarii (between 110 to126 m asl), an increase in abundance of A. beccarii specimens (above ~110 m asl), increased number of deformed tests (above ~123 m asl), first appearance of Chara (at ~85 m asl), lowest occurrence of reworked Cretaceous coccoliths (at ~110 m), a decrease in strontium isotopic values (between 70-120 m), and δ18O and δ13C values similar to sea water (between 70-100 m asl). Planktic foraminifers indicate a late Miocene age between 8.10 and 5.3 Ma for the oldest part of the Bouse Formation in the southern part of the Blythe Basin. Benthic and planktic foraminifers correlate with other late Miocene sections and suggest that the basal Bouse Formation in the Blythe Basin was deposited at the northern end of the proto-Gulf of California. After the marine connection was restricted or eliminated, the Colorado River flowed into the Blythe Basin forming a saline lake. This lake supported a monospecific foraminiferal assemblage of A. beccarii until the lake spilled into the Salton Trough and the Colorado River became a through-flowing river.

  17. Modifying and Testing ATC Controller Interface (CI) for Data Link Clearances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Controller-Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) and Air Traffic Control workstation research was conducted as part of the 1997 NASA Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) demonstration program at Atlanta Hartsfield airport. Research activity under this grant increased the sophistication of the Controllers' Communication and Situational Awareness Terminal (C-CAST) and developed a VHF Data Link -Mode 2 communications platform. The research culminated with participation in the 2000 NASA Aviation Safety Program's Synthetic Vision System (SVS) / Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) flight demonstration at Dallas-Fort Worth Airport.

  18. Flight Test Evaluation of Situation Awareness Benefits of Integrated Synthetic Vision System Technology f or Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III

    2005-01-01

    Research was conducted onboard a Gulfstream G-V aircraft to evaluate integrated Synthetic Vision System concepts during flight tests over a 6-week period at the Wallops Flight Facility and Reno/Tahoe International Airport. The NASA Synthetic Vision System incorporates database integrity monitoring, runway incursion prevention alerting, surface maps, enhanced vision sensors, and advanced pathway guidance and synthetic terrain presentation. The paper details the goals and objectives of the flight test with a focus on the situation awareness benefits of integrating synthetic vision system enabling technologies for commercial aircraft.

  19. Evaluation of Fused Synthetic and Enhanced Vision Display Concepts for Low-Visibility Approach and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Wilz, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    NASA is developing revolutionary crew-vehicle interface technologies that strive to proactively overcome aircraft safety barriers that would otherwise constrain the full realization of the next generation air transportation system. A piloted simulation experiment was conducted to evaluate the complementary use of Synthetic and Enhanced Vision technologies. Specific focus was placed on new techniques for integration and/or fusion of Enhanced and Synthetic Vision and its impact within a two-crew flight deck during low-visibility approach and landing operations. Overall, the experimental data showed that significant improvements in situation awareness, without concomitant increases in workload and display clutter, could be provided by the integration and/or fusion of synthetic and enhanced vision technologies for the pilot-flying and the pilot-not-flying. Improvements in lateral path control performance were realized when the Head-Up Display concepts included a tunnel, independent of the imagery (enhanced vision or fusion of enhanced and synthetic vision) presented with it. During non-normal operations, the ability of the crew to handle substantial navigational errors and runway incursions were neither improved nor adversely impacted by the display concepts. The addition of Enhanced Vision may not, of itself, provide an improvement in runway incursion detection without being specifically tailored for this application.

  20. Commercial Flight Crew Decision-Making during Low-Visibility Approach Operations Using Fused Synthetic/Enhanced Vision Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III

    2007-01-01

    NASA is investigating revolutionary crew-vehicle interface technologies that strive to proactively overcome aircraft safety barriers that would otherwise constrain the full realization of the next-generation air transportation system. A fixed-based piloted simulation experiment was conducted to evaluate the complementary use of Synthetic and Enhanced Vision technologies. Specific focus was placed on new techniques for integration and/or fusion of Enhanced and Synthetic Vision and its impact within a two-crew flight deck on the crew's decision-making process during low-visibility approach and landing operations. Overall, the experimental data showed that significant improvements in situation awareness, without concomitant increases in workload and display clutter, could be provided by the integration and/or fusion of synthetic and enhanced vision technologies for the pilot-flying and the pilot-not-flying. During non-normal operations, the ability of the crew to handle substantial navigational errors and runway incursions were neither improved nor adversely impacted by the display concepts. The addition of Enhanced Vision may not, unto itself, provide an improvement in runway incursion detection without being specifically tailored for this application. Existing enhanced vision system procedures were effectively used in the crew decision-making process during approach and missed approach operations but having to forcibly transition from an excellent FLIR image to natural vision by 100 ft above field level was awkward for the pilot-flying.

  1. Flight Test Comparison Between Enhanced Vision (FLIR) and Synthetic Vision Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.

    2005-01-01

    Limited visibility and reduced situational awareness have been cited as predominant causal factors for both Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) and runway incursion accidents. NASA s Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing practical application technologies with the goal of eliminating low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. A major thrust of the SVS project involves the development/demonstration of affordable, certifiable display configurations that provide intuitive out-the-window terrain and obstacle information with advanced pathway guidance. A flight test evaluation was conducted in the summer of 2004 by NASA Langley Research Center under NASA s Aviation Safety and Security, Synthetic Vision System - Commercial and Business program. A Gulfstream G-V aircraft, modified and operated under NASA contract by the Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, was flown over a 3-week period at the Reno/Tahoe International Airport and an additional 3-week period at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility to evaluate integrated Synthetic Vision System concepts. Flight testing was conducted to evaluate the performance, usability, and acceptance of an integrated synthetic vision concept which included advanced Synthetic Vision display concepts for a transport aircraft flight deck, a Runway Incursion Prevention System, an Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS), and real-time Database Integrity Monitoring Equipment. This paper focuses on comparing qualitative and subjective results between EVS and SVS display concepts.

  2. Fusion of Synthetic and Enhanced Vision for All-Weather Commercial Aviation Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Prinzel, Lawrence, III

    2007-01-01

    NASA is developing revolutionary crew-vehicle interface technologies that strive to proactively overcome aircraft safety barriers that would otherwise constrain the full realization of the next-generation air transportation system. A piloted simulation experiment was conducted to evaluate the complementary use of Synthetic and Enhanced Vision technologies. Specific focus was placed on new techniques for integration and/or fusion of Enhanced and Synthetic Vision and its impact within a two-crew flight deck during low visibility approach and landing operations. Overall, the experimental data showed that significant improvements in situation awareness, without concomitant increases in workload and display clutter, could be provided by the integration and/or fusion of synthetic and enhanced vision technologies for the pilot-flying and the pilot-not-flying. During non-normal operations, the ability of the crew to handle substantial navigational errors and runway incursions were not adversely impacted by the display concepts although the addition of Enhanced Vision did not, unto itself, provide an improvement in runway incursion detection.

  3. Flight test comparison between enhanced vision (FLIR) and synthetic vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.

    2005-05-01

    Limited visibility and reduced situational awareness have been cited as predominant causal factors for both Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) and runway incursion accidents. NASA"s Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing practical application technologies with the goal of eliminating low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. A major thrust of the SVS project involves the development/demonstration of affordable, certifiable display configurations that provide intuitive out-the-window terrain and obstacle information with advanced pathway guidance. A flight test evaluation was conducted in the summer of 2004 by NASA Langley Research Center under NASA's Aviation Safety and Security, Synthetic Vision System - Commercial and Business program. A Gulfstream G-V aircraft, modified and operated under NASA contract by the Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, was flown over a 3-week period at the Reno/Tahoe International Airport and an additional 3-week period at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility to evaluate integrated Synthetic Vision System concepts. Flight testing was conducted to evaluate the performance, usability, and acceptance of an integrated synthetic vision concept which included advanced Synthetic Vision display concepts for a transport aircraft flight deck, a Runway Incursion Prevention System, an Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS), and real-time Database Integrity Monitoring Equipment. This paper focuses on comparing qualitative and subjective results between EVS and SVS display concepts.

  4. Predicting soybean rust incursions into the North American continental interior using crop monitoring, spore trapping, and aerobiological modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Between 2005 and 2009, millions of U.S. and Canadian soybean acres that would have received fungicide application remained untreated for soybean rust due to information disseminated through the Integrated Pest Management Pest Information Platform for Extension and Education (ipmPIPE), increasing Nor...

  5. Statistical Analysis of ITRAX XRF Data to Identify Marine Incursion, Sediment Source, and Saltwater Leaching in Tsunami Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kain, C. L.; Chague-Goff, C.; Goff, J. R.; Gadd, P.

    2015-12-01

    Geochemical investigation of fine-grained tsunami sediments has found that a characteristic salinity signature can be commonly found in tsunami deposits and underlying soils following an event. We extend this method to assess historic and paleotsunami deposits and investigate a wider range of particle sizes, with the aim of identifying whether salinity signatures are present and determining the source material of the deposits. Geochemical and mineralogical investigation of seven short cores was undertaken at four sites in New Zealand, where historic and/or palaeotsunami deposits were present as sand, silt or gravel layers intercalated between soils. Geochemical signatures were measured using a high-resolution ITRAX X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanner and results were analysed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA). We were able to explore the signatures of historical events, verify that prehistoric deposits were laid down by tsunamis, and compare these sediments with the background depositional environment. A t-test of means was applied for salinity marker elements (S, Cl, Br) in the soils immediately above and below tsunami sand layers, to test for evidence of saltwater leaching. The dominant mineralogy of the sediments was determined using portable X-ray diffraction and the data used to consider source material and interpret the corresponding XRF data. Geochemical signatures were found to be site specific, depending primarily on the composition of the material. PCA and HCA results clearly distinguished the signature of the tsunami deposits from the background material at each individual site and were able to confirm or deny palaeodeposits as tsunami-related, by comparison with the signatures of known events in the same core or nearby.

  6. Holocene Driftwood Incursion to Southwestern Victoria Island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago, and Its Significance to Paleoceanography and Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyke, Arthur S.; Savelle, James M.

    2000-07-01

    Holocene driftwood is found on postglacial raised beaches of Wollaston Peninsula, Victoria Island. The highest driftwood appears on the 12- to 13-m beach, which formed about 4000 yr B.P., and is common on beaches 12-6 m in elevation. The earliest Paleoeskimo dwelling features also occur on the 12- to 13-m beach. Wood increases on the 5- to 6-m beach, which formed about 2000 yr B.P., and is abundant below that level. Thus, zonation of wood suggests the following hypotheses: (1) that the coastal Mackenzie Current, the source of modern driftwood, did not operate before 4000 yr B.P. and lacked its present vigor or persistence until 2000 yr B.P.; and (2) that the apparent sudden influx of driftwood at 4000 yr B.P. may have provided a fuel resource and (or) may have been related to conditions that enabled first peopling. Radiocarbon ages indicate that (1) the first wood arrived about 4700 yr B.P.; (2) little wood arrived from 4700-2000 yr B.P.; and (3) influx of wood was episodic after 2000 yr B.P. Much of the wood that arrived after 1100 yr B.P. was redistributed by people and scattered on higher beaches. Explanation of the evident correlation between highest wood and highest dwelling features must await archaeological studies.

  7. Inferring the distribution and demography of an invasive species from sighting data: the red fox incursion into Tasmania.

    PubMed

    Caley, Peter; Ramsey, David S L; Barry, Simon C

    2015-01-01

    A recent study has inferred that the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is now widespread in Tasmania as of 2010, based on the extraction of fox DNA from predator scats. Heuristically, this inference appears at first glance to be at odds with the lack of recent confirmed discoveries of either road-killed foxes--the last of which occurred in 2006, or hunter killed foxes--the most recent in 2001. This paper demonstrates a method to codify this heuristic analysis and produce inferences consistent with assumptions and data. It does this by formalising the analysis in a transparent and repeatable manner to make inference on the past, present and future distribution of an invasive species. It utilizes Approximate Bayesian Computation to make inferences. Importantly, the method is able to inform management of invasive species within realistic time frames, and can be applied widely. We illustrate the technique using the Tasmanian fox data. Based on the pattern of carcass discoveries of foxes in Tasmania, we infer that the population of foxes in Tasmania is most likely extinct, or restricted in distribution and demographically weak as of 2013. It is possible, though unlikely, that that population is widespread and/or demographically robust. This inference is largely at odds with the inference from the predator scat survey data. Our results suggest the chances of successfully eradicating the introduced red fox population in Tasmania may be significantly higher than previously thought. PMID:25602618

  8. Beyond the Levant: first evidence of a pre-pottery Neolithic incursion into the Nefud Desert, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Crassard, Rémy; Petraglia, Michael D; Parker, Adrian G; Parton, Ash; Roberts, Richard G; Jacobs, Zenobia; Alsharekh, Abdullah; Al-Omari, Abdulaziz; Breeze, Paul; Drake, Nick A; Groucutt, Huw S; Jennings, Richard; Régagnon, Emmanuelle; Shipton, Ceri

    2013-01-01

    Pre-Pottery Neolithic assemblages are best known from the fertile areas of the Mediterranean Levant. The archaeological site of Jebel Qattar 101 (JQ-101), at Jubbah in the southern part of the Nefud Desert of northern Saudi Arabia, contains a large collection of stone tools, adjacent to an Early Holocene palaeolake. The stone tool assemblage contains lithic types, including El-Khiam and Helwan projectile points, which are similar to those recorded in Pre-Pottery Neolithic A and Pre-Pottery Neolithic B assemblages in the Fertile Crescent. Jebel Qattar lies ∼500 kilometres outside the previously identified geographic range of Pre-Pottery Neolithic cultures. Technological analysis of the typologically diagnostic Jebel Qattar 101 projectile points indicates a unique strategy to manufacture the final forms, thereby raising the possibility of either direct migration of Levantine groups or the acculturation of mobile communities in Arabia. The discovery of the Early Holocene site of Jebel Qattar suggests that our view of the geographic distribution and character of Pre-Pottery Neolithic cultures may be in need of revision.

  9. Epidemiological characteristics and clinicopathological features of bluetongue in sheep and cattle, during the 2014 BTV serotype 4 incursion in Greece.

    PubMed

    Katsoulos, Panagiotis-Dimitrios; Giadinis, Nektarios D; Chaintoutis, Serafeim C; Dovas, Chrysostomos I; Kiossis, Evangelos; Tsousis, Georgios; Psychas, Vassilios; Vlemmas, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Theologos; Papadopoulos, Orestis; Zientara, Stéphan; Karatzias, Harilaos; Boscos, Constantinos

    2016-03-01

    During 2014, an outbreak of Bluetongue virus (BTV) infections attributed to serotype 4 occurred in Greece and spread to south-eastern Europe. In the present article, the clinical and epidemiological data of 15 sheep flocks and 5 dairy cattle herds affected in Greece are described. In sheep, the most frequent clinical signs observed were fever, hyporexia, and edema of the face. A number of clinically affected sheep had chronic laminitis resulting in chronic lameness. Confirmation of suspect clinical cases was performed using BTV-specific real-time RT-PCR, and serotype 4-specific RT-PCR. The average morbidity of bluetongue in the sheep flocks was estimated to be 15.3 % (95 % C.I. 6.8-23.8 %) and the average mortality and case fatality were 4.5 % (95 % C.I. 1.5-7.6 %) and 32.0 % (95 % C.I. 18.1-42.9 %), respectively. The BTV seroprevalence and the ratio of clinical manifestations-to-infections determined in seven of these flocks, were on average 36.5 % (95 % C.I. 15.7-57.3 %) and 24.6 % (95 % C.I. 12.8-36.3 %). BTV ratio of clinical manifestations-to-infections was higher in the imported western European sheep breeds examined compared to the local ones. In dairy cattle, the average herd prevalence of viremia was 48.8 % (95 % C.I. 15.3-82.4 %) and none had signs associated with bluetongue. The results of this study indicate that the 2014 Greek BTV-4 has significant impact on the health status and the viability of sheep in affected flocks but does not cause clinical signs in cattle, despite the high prevalence of viremia.

  10. Evaluation of Alternate Concepts for Synthetic Vision Flight Displays With Weather-Penetrating Sensor Image Inserts During Simulated Landing Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Russell V.; Busquets, Anthony M.; Williams, Steven P.; Nold, Dean E.

    2003-01-01

    A simulation study was conducted in 1994 at Langley Research Center that used 12 commercial airline pilots repeatedly flying complex Microwave Landing System (MLS)-type approaches to parallel runways under Category IIIc weather conditions. Two sensor insert concepts of 'Synthetic Vision Systems' (SVS) were used in the simulated flights, with a more conventional electro-optical display (similar to a Head-Up Display with raster capability for sensor imagery), flown under less restrictive visibility conditions, used as a control condition. The SVS concepts combined the sensor imagery with a computer-generated image (CGI) of an out-the-window scene based on an onboard airport database. Various scenarios involving runway traffic incursions (taxiing aircraft and parked fuel trucks) and navigational system position errors (both static and dynamic) were used to assess the pilots' ability to manage the approach task with the display concepts. The two SVS sensor insert concepts contrasted the simple overlay of sensor imagery on the CGI scene without additional image processing (the SV display) to the complex integration (the AV display) of the CGI scene with pilot-decision aiding using both object and edge detection techniques for detection of obstacle conflicts and runway alignment errors.

  11. Transport and transformation of de-icing urea from airport runways in a constructed wetland system.

    PubMed

    Thorén, A K; Legrand, C; Herrmann, J

    2003-01-01

    Urea, NH2-CO-NH2, is used as a de-icing agent at Kalmar Airport, southeast Sweden. During 1998-2001, urea contributed on average 30% of the yearly nitrogen (N) transport of 41,000 kg via Törnebybäcken stream to the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea. In order to reduce stream transport of N from airport, agricultural and other diffuse sources, a wetland was constructed in 1996. Annual wetland retention of total-N varied in the range of 2,500-8,100 kg (6-36% of influent) during 1998-2001, according to mass balances calculated from monthly sampling. During airport de-icing, January-March 2001,660 kg urea-N out of 2,600 kg applied urea-N reached the wetland according to daily sampling. This indicated that 75% of the urea was transformed before entering the wetland. Urea was found to be only a minor part (8%) of total-N in the wetland influent. Calculations of cumulative urea-N loads at the wetland inlet and outlet respectively, showed a significant urea transformation during February 2001 with approximately 40% of the incoming urea-N being transformed in the wetland system. These results show that significant amounts of urea can be transformed in a wetland system at air temperatures around 0 degree C. PMID:14621175

  12. Runway Independent Aircraft Extremely Short Takeoff and Landing Regional Airliner: The Model 110

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, David W.

    2003-01-01

    Airports throughout the United States are plagued with growing congestion. With the increase in air traffic predicted in the next few years, congestion will worsen. The accepted solution of building larger airplanes to carry more travelers is no longer a viable option, as airports are unable to accommodate larger aircraft without expensive infrastructure changes. Past NASA research has pointed to the need for a new approach, which can economically and safely utilize smaller airports. To study this option further, NASA requested the California Polytechnic State University at San Luis Obispo (Cal Poly/SLO) to design a baseline aircraft to be used for system studies. The requirements put forth by NASA are summarized. The design team was requested to create a demonstrator vehicle, which could be built without requiring enabling technology development. To this end, NASA requested that the tested and proven high-lift system of the Boeing C-17 Globemaster III be combined with the fuselage of the BAe-146. NASA also requested that Cal Poly determine the availability and usability of underutilized airports starting with California, then expanding if time and funds permitted to the U.S.

  13. ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft on Runway at Mojave Airport in Mojave, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Proteus high-altitude aircraft on the ramp at the Mojave Airport in Mojave, California. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS camera. The aircraft is designed to cruise at altitudes from 59,000 to more than 65,000 feet for up to 18 hours. It was designed and built by Burt Rutan, president of Scaled Composites, Inc., to carry an 18-foot diameter telecommunications antenna system for relay of broadband data over major cities. The design allows for Proteus to be reconfigured at will for a variety of other missions such as atmospheric research, reconnaissance, commercial imaging, and launch of small space satellites. It is designed for extreme reliability and low operating costs, and to operate out of general aviation airports with minimal support. The aircraft consists of an all composite airframe with graphite-epoxy sandwich construction. It has a wingspan of 77 feet 7 inches, expandable to 92 feet with removable wingtips installed. It is 56.3 feet long and 17.6 feet high and weighs 5,900 pounds, empty. Proteus is powered by two Williams-Rolls FJ44-2 turbofan engines developing 2,300 pounds of thrust each.

  14. ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft Taxiing on Runway at Mojave Airport in Mojave, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A frontal view of the Proteus high-altitude aircraft on the ramp at the Mojave Airport in Mojave, California in July 1999. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS camera. The aircraft is designed to cruise at altitudes from 59,000 to more than 65,000 feet for up to 18 hours. It was designed and built by Burt Rutan, president of Scaled Composites, Inc., to carry an 18-foot diameter telecommunications antenna system for relay of broadband data over major cities. The design allows for Proteus to be reconfigured at will for a variety of other missions such as atmospheric research, reconnaissance, commercial imaging, and launch of small space satellites. It is designed for extreme reliability and low operating costs, and to operate out of general aviation airports with minimal support. The aircraft consists of an all composite airframe with graphite-epoxy sandwich construction. It has a wingspan of 77 feet 7 inches, expandable to 92 feet with removable wingtips installed. It is 56.3 feet long and 17.6 feet high and weighs 5,900 pounds, empty. Proteus is powered by two Williams-Rolls FJ44-2 turbofan engines developing 2,300 pounds of thrust each.

  15. Tu-144LL SST Flying Laboratory Lifts off Runway on a High-Speed Research Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Tupolev Tu-144LL lifts off from the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow, Russia, on a 1998 test flight. NASA teamed with American and Russian aerospace industries for an extended period in a joint international research program featuring the Russian-built Tu-144LL supersonic aircraft. The object of the program was to develop technologies for a proposed future second-generation supersonic airliner to be developed in the 21st Century. The aircraft's initial flight phase began in June 1996 and concluded in February 1998 after 19 research flights. A shorter follow-on program involving seven flights began in September 1998 and concluded in April 1999. All flights were conducted in Russia from Tupolev's facility at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow. The centerpiece of the research program was the Tu 144LL, a first-generation Russian supersonic jetliner that was modified by its developer/builder, Tupolev ANTK (aviatsionnyy nauchno-tekhnicheskiy kompleks-roughly, aviation technical complex), into a flying laboratory for supersonic research. Using the Tu-144LL to conduct flight research experiments, researchers compared full-scale supersonic aircraft flight data with results from models in wind tunnels, computer-aided techniques, and other flight tests. The experiments provided unique aerodynamic, structures, acoustics, and operating environment data on supersonic passenger aircraft. Data collected from the research program was being used to develop the technology base for a proposed future American-built supersonic jetliner. Although actual development of such an advanced supersonic transport (SST) is currently on hold, commercial aviation experts estimate that a market for up to 500 such aircraft could develop by the third decade of the 21st Century. The Tu-144LL used in the NASA-sponsored research program was a 'D' model with different engines than were used in production-model aircraft. Fifty experiments were proposed for the program and eight were selected, including six flight and two ground (engine) tests. The flight experiments included studies of the aircraft's exterior surface, internal structure, engine temperatures, boundary-layer airflow, the wing's ground-effect characteristics, interior and exterior noise, handling qualities in various flight profiles, and in-flight structural flexibility. The ground tests studied the effect of air inlet structures on airflow entering the engine and the effect on engine performance when supersonic shock waves rapidly change position in the engine air inlet. A second phase of testing further studied the original six in-flight experiments with additional instrumentation installed to assist in data acquisition and analysis. A new experiment aimed at measuring the in-flight deflections of the wing and fuselage was also conducted. American-supplied transducers and sensors were installed to measure nose boom pressures, angle of attack, and sideslip angles with increased accuracy. Two NASA pilots, Robert Rivers of Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, and Gordon Fullerton from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, assessed the aircraft's handling at subsonic and supersonic speeds during three flight tests in September 1998. The program concluded after four more data-collection flights in the spring of 1999. The Tu-144LL model had new Kuznetsov NK-321 turbofan engines rated at more than 55,000 pounds of thrust in full afterburner. The aircraft is 215 feet, 6 inches long and 42 feet, 2 inches high with a wingspan of 94 feet, 6 inches. The aircraft is constructed mostly of light aluminum alloy with titanium and stainless steel on the leading edges, elevons, rudder, and the under-surface of the rear fuselage.

  16. EXAMINATION OF THE FEASIBILITY FOR DEMONSTRATION AND USE OF RADIOLUMINESCENT LIGHTS FOR ALASKAN REMOTE RUNWAY LIGHTING

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, G.; Perrigo, L.; Leonard, L.; Hegdal, L

    1984-01-01

    This report examines the feasibility of radioluminescent light applications for rural Alaskan airports. The work presented in this report covers four tasks: State of the Art Evaluation of Radioluminescent Lights, Environmental, Radiological, and Regulatory Evaluations, Engineering Evaluations, and Demonstration Plan Development.

  17. Behavior of aircraft antiskid braking systems on dry and wet runway surfaces: Hydromechanically controlled system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, J. A.; Stubbs, S. M.; Smith, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    The investigation utilized one main gear wheel, brake, and tire assembly of a McDonnell Douglas DC-9 series 10 airplane. The landing-gear strut was replaced by a dynamometer. During maximum braking, average braking behavior indexes based upon brake pressure, brake torque, and drag-force friction coefficient developed by the antiskid system were generally higher on dry surfaces than on wet surfaces. The three braking behavior indexes gave similar results but should not be used interchangeably as a measure of the braking of this antiskid sytem. During the transition from a dry to a flooded surface under heavy braking, the wheel entered into a deep skid but the antiskid system reacted quickly by reducing brake pressure and performed normally during the remainder of the run on the flooded surface. The brake-pressure recovery following transition from a flooded to a dry surface was shown to be a function of the antiskid modulating orifice.

  18. IS THE MATRIX REALLY INHOSPITABLE? VOLE RUNWAY DISTRIBUTION IN AN EXPERIMENTALLY FRAGMENTED LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Habitat fragmentation is a common feature of modern landscapes, with significant impacts on the population densities of and space use by animals. A frequest model system for studying these effects is that of voles (Microtus spp.) and other rodents in experimentally fragmented gr...

  19. Considerations on symbology, data requirements, and operational concept for integral NOTAM visualization on airport moving map displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernaleken, Christoph; Urvoy, Carole; Klingauf, Uwe

    2008-04-01

    Surface Movement is one of the most challenging phases of flight. To support the flight crew in this critical flight phase and to prevent serious incidents and accidents, of which Runway Incursions are the by far most safety-critical, the electronic airport moving map display has evolved as the key technology to increase the flight crew's situational awareness on the airport surface over the past decade. However, the airport moving map is limited to quasi-static airport information due to the envisaged 28 day update cycle of the underlying Aerodrome Mapping Database (AMDB), and thus does not include information on safety-relevant short-term and temporary changes such as runway closures or restrictions. Currently, these are conveyed on paper through the Pre-Flight Information Bulletin (PIB), a plain-language compilation of current Notices to Airmen (NOTAM) and other information of urgent character. In this context, the advent of airport moving map technology leads to a disparity in the conspicuousness of information, resulting in the danger that e.g. a runway that is not displayed as closed on the airport moving map might be perceived as open even if contrary NOTAM information exists on paper elsewhere in the cockpit. This calls for an integrated representation of PIB/NOTAM and airport moving map information. Piloted evaluations conducted by the Institute of Flight Systems and Automatic Control have already confirmed the high operational relevance of presenting runway closures on an airport moving map. Based on the results of these trials, this paper expands our previous work by addressing the various pre-requisites of an integral NOTAM visualization, ranging from the development of appropriate symbology to an operational concept enabling the transition from conventional to electronic, machine-readable NOTAM information without shifting responsibility and workload from the dispatcher to the flight deck. Employing Synthetic Vision techniques, a complete symbology set

  20. Navigating the airport surface: Electronic vs. paper maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, Vernon M.; Harris, Randall L., Sr.; Hunt, Patricia J.

    1994-01-01

    Recent advances in the Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and ground/aircraft data-links provide a basis for the generation of an accurate cockpit navigational map display including data-linked ATC-cleared ground routes. Such an electronic map may have the potential to improve pilots' situation awareness and taxi performance and thereby lessen runway incursions. The objective of this simulator study was to assess the potential improvements in these areas when using an advanced electronic map (compared to using today's paper map) under two outside scene visibility levels. Results showed average taxi speed increased under both good and poor visibilities, by as much as 24 percent, due in part to eliminating the time used for orientation with the paper map. Pilots made only one-third as many errors as well and commented that they believed that the electronic map gave them better awareness.

  1. Analysis of Wallops Flight Test Data Through an Automated COTS System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackstock, Dexter Lee; Theobalds, Andre B.

    2005-01-01

    During the summer of 2004 NASA Langley Research Center flight tested a Synthetic Vision System (SVS) at the Reno/Tahoe International Airport (RNO) and the Wallops Flight Facility (WAL). The SVS included a Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) to improve pilot situational awareness while operating near and on the airport surface. The flight tests consisted of air and ground operations to evaluate and validate the performance of the system. This paper describes the flight test and emphasizes how positioning data was collected, post processed and analyzed through the use of a COTS-derived software system. The system that was developed to analyze the data was constructed within the MATLAB(TM) environment. The software was modified to read the data, perform several if-then scenarios and produce the relevant graphs, figures and tables.

  2. An object-oriented approach to risk and reliability analysis : methodology and aviation safety applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Dandini, Vincent John; Duran, Felicia Angelica; Wyss, Gregory Dane

    2003-09-01

    This article describes how features of event tree analysis and Monte Carlo-based discrete event simulation can be combined with concepts from object-oriented analysis to develop a new risk assessment methodology, with some of the best features of each. The resultant object-based event scenario tree (OBEST) methodology enables an analyst to rapidly construct realistic models for scenarios for which an a priori discovery of event ordering is either cumbersome or impossible. Each scenario produced by OBEST is automatically associated with a likelihood estimate because probabilistic branching is integral to the object model definition. The OBEST methodology is then applied to an aviation safety problem that considers mechanisms by which an aircraft might become involved in a runway incursion incident. The resulting OBEST model demonstrates how a close link between human reliability analysis and probabilistic risk assessment methods can provide important insights into aviation safety phenomenology.

  3. Addressee Errors in ATC Communications: The Call Sign Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monan, W. P.

    1983-01-01

    Communication errors involving aircraft call signs were portrayed in reports of 462 hazardous incidents voluntarily submitted to the ASRS during an approximate four-year period. These errors resulted in confusion, disorder, and uncoordinated traffic conditions and produced the following types of operational anomalies: altitude deviations, wrong-way headings, aborted takeoffs, go arounds, runway incursions, missed crossing altitude restrictions, descents toward high terrain, and traffic conflicts in flight and on the ground. Analysis of the report set resulted in identification of five categories of errors involving call signs: (1) faulty radio usage techniques, (2) call sign loss or smearing due to frequency congestion, (3) confusion resulting from similar sounding call signs, (4) airmen misses of call signs leading to failures to acknowledge or readback, and (5) controller failures regarding confirmation of acknowledgements or readbacks. These error categories are described in detail and several associated hazard mitigating measures that might be aken are considered.

  4. Vision assisted aircraft lateral navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohideen, Mohamed Ibrahim; Ramegowda, Dinesh; Seiler, Peter

    2013-05-01

    Surface operation is currently one of the least technologically equipped phases of aircraft operation. The increased air traffic congestion necessitates more aircraft operations in degraded weather and at night. The traditional surface procedures worked well in most cases as airport surfaces have not been congested and airport layouts were less complex. Despite the best efforts of FAA and other safety agencies, runway incursions continue to occur frequently due to incorrect surface operation. Several studies conducted by FAA suggest that pilot induced error contributes significantly to runway incursions. Further, the report attributes pilot's lack of situational awareness - local (e.g., minimizing lateral deviation), global (e.g., traffic in the vicinity) and route (e.g., distance to next turn) - to the problem. An Enhanced Vision System (EVS) is one concept that is being considered to resolve these issues. These systems use on-board sensors to provide situational awareness under poor visibility conditions. In this paper, we propose the use of an Image processing based system to estimate the aircraft position and orientation relative to taxiway markings to use as lateral guidance aid. We estimate aircraft yaw angle and lateral offset from slope of the taxiway centerline and horizontal position of vanishing line. Unlike automotive applications, several cues such as aircraft maneuvers along assigned route with minimal deviations, clear ground markings, even taxiway surface, limited aircraft speed are available and enable us to implement significant algorithm optimizations. We present experimental results to show high precision navigation accuracy with sensitivity analysis with respect to camera mount, optics, and image processing error.

  5. [sup 14]C and [sup 10]Be evidence for no incursion of the Lake Michigan lobe in northern Illinois from ca. 170 to 25 ka

    SciTech Connect

    Curry, B.B. ); Pavich, M.J. )

    1994-04-01

    Uncorrected [sup 10]Be inventories of a 2.7 m-long section of core indicate surface exposure lasting 115 ka during development of the Sangamon Geosol and 30 ka for a soil complex developed in overlying loessial sediment (Robein Silt). The latter estimate is in agreement with [sup 14]C assays in the region. Taking into account the age of overlying late Wisconsin drift, the new data indicate an age of about 170 ka for the onset of Sangamon pedogenesis in northern Illinois. Previous to this study, there have been no numerical-age determinations for the start of the last interglacial in northern IL. The data confirm a previous hypothesis that the Lake Michigan Lobe did not invade IL contemporaneous with deposition of Roxana Silt, or during the other period of midcontinental loess deposition suggest by TL ages of ca. 70 to 85 ka. The core was collected immediately south of the IL-WI border (42[degree] 30 minutes N, 88[degree] 30 minutes W) near Hebron, IL. Buried by 14 m of late Wisconsin drift, and the interval assayed for [sup 10]Be included 2.0 m of pedogenically-altered Illinoian sand and gravel, and 0.7 m of Wisconsin silt. One AMS [sup 14]C assay of carbonized fragments from the A-horizon of the Sangamon Geosol yielded an age of 38,500 [+-] 5,000 yr B.P.; conventional [sup 14]C ages for the overlying silt are from wood fragments (24,780 [times] 360 yr B.P.) and a bulk soil sample (26,030 [+-] 450 yr B.P.). The range of ages is typical for this stratigraphic sequence in IL. The [sup 10]Be concentration in the lowest part of the silt is 600 atoms/gm. This value is three times greater than the concentration typical of calcareous Mississippi River valley loess and of the C-horizon of the Sangamon Geosol in the core. High concentration of [sup 10]Be in the Robein Silt likely was caused by redeposition of [sup 10]Be-rich B-horizon material eroded from soil profiles elsewhere in the paleobasin.

  6. Impact and Epidemiological Investigations into the Incursion and Spread of Peste des Petits Ruminants in the Comoros Archipelago: An Increased Threat to Surrounding Islands.

    PubMed

    Cêtre-Sossah, C; Kwiatek, O; Faharoudine, A; Soulé, M; Moutroifi, Y O; Vrel, M A; Salami, H; Rassoul, S; Asnaoui, M; Moindjie, Y; Albina, E; Libeau, G; Cardinale, E

    2016-08-01

    Late October 2012, a great number of deaths of unknown origin occurred in goat herds in the suburbs of Ngazidja, located in the Comoros archipelago. Few weeks later, laboratory testing requested by the animal health authorities resulted in the identification of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) infection. Notably, the Index case could be attributed to a sick goat imported from Tanzania. Viral isolation was successful from the lungs leading to the whole N nucleoprotein gene sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the strain belongs to the lineage III which includes strains of eastern African origin. In addition, to evaluate the impact of PPR on the Comorian indigenous domesticated ruminant population, a cross-sectional PPR serological survey was conducted between April and July 2013. A low overall PPRV antibody prevalence 2.24% (95% CI [1.38; 3.08]) was detected with a Grande Comore prevalence of 3.34% (IC = [2.09; 4.63]) with a limited spread of the disease mainly due to farm practices such as limited contacts between farm animals and rapid slaughtering of sick animals. PMID:25430822

  7. Observations of storm-induced mixing and Gulf Stream Ring incursion over the southern flank of Georges Bank: Winter and summer 1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Craig M.; Brink, Kenneth H.

    2010-08-01

    High-resolution hydrographic measurements collected along the southern edge of Georges Bank during March and June-July 1997 focused on characterizing processes that drive fluxes of material between the slope and bank. Wintertime sampling characterized changes driven by a strong storm. A Scotian Shelf crossover event produced a ribbon of anomalously fresh water along the bank's southern flank that was diluted during the storm. Comparison of prestorm and poststorm sections shows that over the bank changes in heat and salt inventories are consistent with those expected solely from local surface fluxes. In deeper waters, advective effects, likely associated with frontal motion and eddies, are clearly important. Summertime surveys resolve the development of a massive intrusion of Gulf Stream-like waters onto the bank. East of the intrusion, a thin extrusion of bank water is drawn outward by the developing ring, exporting fresher water at a rate of about 7 × 104 m3/s. A large-amplitude Gulf Stream meander appears to initiate the extrusion, but it quickly evolves, near the bank edge, into a warm core ring. Ring water intrudes to approximately the 80 m isobath, 40 km inshore from the bank edge. The intrusion process seems analogous to the development of Gulf Stream shingles (a hydrodynamic instability) in the South Atlantic Bight. It appears that, once the intruded water is established on the bank, it remains there and dissipates in place. Although the intrusion is an extremely dramatic event, it is probably not actually a major contributor to shelf edge exchanges over a seasonal time scale.

  8. 77 FR 59703 - Environmental Impact Statement; Taos Regional Airport, Taos, NM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ..., a full length parallel taxiway, runway lighting, navigational aids, runway safety areas (RSA... shift of the RSA Runway Object Free Area (ROFA), and Runway Protection Zone (RPZ), establishment of...

  9. A Study into the Impact of Physical Structures on the Runway Velocity Field at the Atlantic City International Airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, David, Jr.; Manson, Russell; Trout, Joseph; Decicco, Nicholas; Rios, Manny

    2015-04-01

    Wake vortices are generated by airplanes in flight. These vortices decay slowly and may persist for several minutes after their creation. These vortices and associated smaller scale turbulent structures present a hazard to incoming flights. It is for this reason that incoming flights are timed to arrive after these vortices have dissipated. Local weather conditions, mainly prevailing winds, can affect the transport and evolution of these vortices; therefore, there is a need to fully understand localized wind patterns at the airport-sized mircoscale. Here we have undertaken a computational investigation into the impacts of localized wind flows and physical structures on the velocity field at Atlantic City International Airport. The simulations are undertaken in OpenFOAM, an open source computational fluid dynamics software package, using an optimized geometric mesh of the airport. Initial conditions for the simulations are based on historical data with the option to run simulations based on projected weather conditions imported from the Weather Research & Forcasting (WRF) Model. Sub-grid scale turbulence is modeled using a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach. The initial results gathered from the WRF Model simulations and historical weather data analysis are presented elsewhere.

  10. Tire-to-Surface Friction-Coefficient Measurements with a C-123B Airplane on Various Runway Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, Richard H.; Kolnick, Joseph J.

    1959-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to obtain information on the tire-to-surface friction coefficients available in aircraft braking during the landing run. The tests were made with a C-123B airplane on both wet and dry concrete and bituminous pavements and on snow-covered and ice surfaces at speeds from 12 to 115 knots. Measurements were made of the maximum (incipient skidding) friction coefficient, the full-skidding (locked wheel) friction coefficient, and the wheel slip ratio during braking.

  11. Spearhead echo and downburst near the approach end of a John F. Kennedy Airport runway, New York City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T. T.

    1976-01-01

    Radar echoes of a storm at John F. Kennedy International Airport are examined. Results regarding the phenomena presented suggest the existence of downburst cells. These cells are characterized by spearhead echoes. About 2% of the echoes in the New York area were spearhead echoes. The detection and identification of downburst cells, their potential hazard to approaching and landing aircraft, and communication of this information to the pilots of those aircraft are discussed.

  12. A new technology of CO2 supplementary for microalgae cultivation on large scale - A spraying absorption tower coupled with an outdoor open runway pond.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-Dan; Li, Wei; Shi, Yun-Hai; Li, Yuan-Guang; Huang, Jian-Ke; Li, Hong-Xia

    2016-06-01

    An effective CO2 supply system of a spraying absorption tower combined with an outdoor ORWP (open raceway pond) for microalgae photoautotrophic cultivation is developed in this paper. The microalgae yield, productivity and CO2 fixation efficiency were investigated, and compared with those of bubbling method. The maximum yield and productivity of biomass were achieved 0.927gL(-1) and 0.114gL(-1)day(-1), respectively. The fixation efficiency of CO2 by microalgae with the spraying tower reached 50%, whereas only 11.17% for bubbling method. Pure CO2 can be used in the spraying absorption tower, and the flow rate was only about one third of the bubbling cultivation. It shows that this new method of quantifiable control CO2 supply can meet the requirements of the growth of microalgae cultivation on large-scale.

  13. Predicting Pilot Performance in Off-Nominal Conditions: A Meta-Analysis and Model Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, C.D.; Hooey, B.L.; Gore, B.F.; Sebok, A.; Koenecke, C.; Salud, E.

    2009-01-01

    Pilot response to off-nominal (very rare) events represents a critical component to understanding the safety of next generation airspace technology and procedures. We describe a meta-analysis designed to integrate the existing data regarding pilot accuracy of detecting rare, unexpected events such as runway incursions in realistic flight simulations. Thirty-five studies were identified and pilot responses were categorized by expectancy, event location, and whether the pilot was flying with a highway-in-the-sky display. All three dichotomies produced large, significant effects on event miss rate. A model of human attention and noticing, N-SEEV, was then used to predict event noticing performance as a function of event salience and expectancy, and retinal eccentricity. Eccentricity is predicted from steady state scanning by the SEEV model of attention allocation. The model was used to predict miss rates for the expectancy, location and highway-in-the-sky (HITS) effects identified in the meta-analysis. The correlation between model-predicted results and data from the meta-analysis was 0.72.

  14. Synthetic Vision Enhanced Surface Operations and Flight Procedures Rehearsal Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Williams, Steven P.; Kramer, Lynda J.

    2006-01-01

    Limited visibility has been cited as predominant causal factor for both Controlled-Flight-Into-Terrain (CFIT) and runway incursion accidents. NASA is conducting research and development of Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) technologies which may potentially mitigate low visibility conditions as a causal factor to these accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. Two experimental evaluation studies were performed to determine the efficacy of two concepts: 1) head-worn display application of SVS technology to enhance transport aircraft surface operations, and 2) three-dimensional SVS electronic flight bag display concept for flight plan preview, mission rehearsal and controller-pilot data link communications interface of flight procedures. In the surface operation study, pilots evaluated two display devices and four display modes during taxi under unlimited and CAT II visibility conditions. In the mission rehearsal study, pilots flew approaches and departures in an operationally-challenged airport environment, including CFIT scenarios. Performance using the SVS concepts was compared to traditional baseline displays with paper charts only or EFB information. In general, the studies evince the significant situation awareness and enhanced operational capabilities afforded from these advanced SVS display concepts. The experimental results and conclusions from these studies are discussed along with future directions.

  15. Flight Testing an Integrated Synthetic Vision System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing technologies with practical applications to eliminate low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. A major thrust of the SVS project involves the development/demonstration of affordable, certifiable display configurations that provide intuitive out-the-window terrain and obstacle information with advanced pathway guidance for transport aircraft. The SVS concept being developed at NASA encompasses the integration of tactical and strategic Synthetic Vision Display Concepts (SVDC) with Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) alerting and display concepts, real-time terrain database integrity monitoring equipment (DIME), and Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS) and/or improved Weather Radar for real-time object detection and database integrity monitoring. A flight test evaluation was jointly conducted (in July and August 2004) by NASA Langley Research Center and an industry partner team under NASA's Aviation Safety and Security, Synthetic Vision System project. A Gulfstream GV aircraft was flown over a 3-week period in the Reno/Tahoe International Airport (NV) local area and an additional 3-week period in the Wallops Flight Facility (VA) local area to evaluate integrated Synthetic Vision System concepts. The enabling technologies (RIPS, EVS and DIME) were integrated into the larger SVS concept design. This paper presents experimental methods and the high level results of this flight test.

  16. Aviation Safety Risk Modeling: Lessons Learned From Multiple Knowledge Elicitation Sessions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luxhoj, J. T.; Ancel, E.; Green, L. L.; Shih, A. T.; Jones, S. M.; Reveley, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Aviation safety risk modeling has elements of both art and science. In a complex domain, such as the National Airspace System (NAS), it is essential that knowledge elicitation (KE) sessions with domain experts be performed to facilitate the making of plausible inferences about the possible impacts of future technologies and procedures. This study discusses lessons learned throughout the multiple KE sessions held with domain experts to construct probabilistic safety risk models for a Loss of Control Accident Framework (LOCAF), FLightdeck Automation Problems (FLAP), and Runway Incursion (RI) mishap scenarios. The intent of these safety risk models is to support a portfolio analysis of NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). These models use the flexible, probabilistic approach of Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) and influence diagrams to model the complex interactions of aviation system risk factors. Each KE session had a different set of experts with diverse expertise, such as pilot, air traffic controller, certification, and/or human factors knowledge that was elicited to construct a composite, systems-level risk model. There were numerous "lessons learned" from these KE sessions that deal with behavioral aggregation, conditional probability modeling, object-oriented construction, interpretation of the safety risk results, and model verification/validation that are presented in this paper.

  17. Synthetic vision enhanced surface operations and flight procedures rehearsal tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Williams, Steven P.; Kramer, Lynda J.

    2006-05-01

    Limited visibility has been cited as predominant causal factor for both Controlled-Flight-Into-Terrain (CFIT) and runway incursion accidents. NASA is conducting research and development of Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) technologies which may potentially mitigate low visibility conditions as a causal factor to these accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. Two experimental evaluation studies were performed to determine the efficacy of two concepts: 1) head-worn display application of SVS technology to enhance transport aircraft surface operations, and 2) three-dimensional SVS electronic flight bag display concept for flight plan preview, mission rehearsal and controller-pilot data link communications interface of flight procedures. In the surface operation study, pilots evaluated two display devices and four display modes during taxi under unlimited and CAT II visibility conditions. In the mission rehearsal study, pilots flew approaches and departures in an operationally-challenged airport environment, including CFIT scenarios. Performance using the SVS concepts was compared to traditional baseline displays with paper charts only or EFB information. In general, the studies evince the significant situation awareness and enhanced operational capabilities afforded from these advanced SVS display concepts. The experimental results and conclusions from these studies are discussed along with future directions.

  18. Flight testing an integrated synthetic vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III

    2005-05-01

    NASA's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing technologies with practical applications to eliminate low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. A major thrust of the SVS project involves the development/demonstration of affordable, certifiable display configurations that provide intuitive out-the-window terrain and obstacle information with advanced pathway guidance for transport aircraft. The SVS concept being developed at NASA encompasses the integration of tactical and strategic Synthetic Vision Display Concepts (SVDC) with Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) alerting and display concepts, real-time terrain database integrity monitoring equipment (DIME), and Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS) and/or improved Weather Radar for real-time object detection and database integrity monitoring. A flight test evaluation was jointly conducted (in July and August 2004) by NASA Langley Research Center and an industry partner team under NASA's Aviation Safety and Security, Synthetic Vision System project. A Gulfstream G-V aircraft was flown over a 3-week period in the Reno/Tahoe International Airport (NV) local area and an additional 3-week period in the Wallops Flight Facility (VA) local area to evaluate integrated Synthetic Vision System concepts. The enabling technologies (RIPS, EVS and DIME) were integrated into the larger SVS concept design. This paper presents experimental methods and the high level results of this flight test.

  19. Application and Evaluation of Control Modes for Risk-Based Engine Performance Enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yuan; Litt, Jonathan S.; Sowers, T. Shane; Owen, A. Karl; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The engine control system for civil transport aircraft imposes operational limits on the propulsion system to ensure compliance with safety standards. However, during certain emergency situations, aircraft survivability may benefit from engine performance beyond its normal limits despite the increased risk of failure. Accordingly, control modes were developed to improve the maximum thrust output and responsiveness of a generic high-bypass turbofan engine. The algorithms were designed such that the enhanced performance would always constitute an elevation in failure risk to a consistent predefined likelihood. This paper presents an application of these risk-based control modes to a combined engine/aircraft model. Through computer and piloted simulation tests, the aim is to present a notional implementation of these modes, evaluate their effects on a generic airframe, and demonstrate their usefulness during emergency flight situations. Results show that minimal control effort is required to compensate for the changes in flight dynamics due to control mode activation. The benefits gained from enhanced engine performance for various runway incursion scenarios are investigated. Finally, the control modes are shown to protect against potential instabilities during propulsion-only flight where all aircraft control surfaces are inoperable.

  20. Application and Evaluation of Control Modes for Risk-Based Engine Performance Enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yuan; Litt, Jonathan S.; Sowers, T. Shane; Owen, A. Karl (Compiler); Guo, Ten-Huei

    2014-01-01

    The engine control system for civil transport aircraft imposes operational limits on the propulsion system to ensure compliance with safety standards. However, during certain emergency situations, aircraft survivability may benefit from engine performance beyond its normal limits despite the increased risk of failure. Accordingly, control modes were developed to improve the maximum thrust output and responsiveness of a generic high-bypass turbofan engine. The algorithms were designed such that the enhanced performance would always constitute an elevation in failure risk to a consistent predefined likelihood. This paper presents an application of these risk-based control modes to a combined engine/aircraft model. Through computer and piloted simulation tests, the aim is to present a notional implementation of these modes, evaluate their effects on a generic airframe, and demonstrate their usefulness during emergency flight situations. Results show that minimal control effort is required to compensate for the changes in flight dynamics due to control mode activation. The benefits gained from enhanced engine performance for various runway incursion scenarios are investigated. Finally, the control modes are shown to protect against potential instabilities during propulsion-only flight where all aircraft control surfaces are inoperable.

  1. Effect of Traffic Position Accuracy for Conducting Safe Airport Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Barnes, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) concept proposes many revolutionary operational concepts and technologies, such as display of traffic information and movements, airport moving maps (AMM), and proactive alerts of runway incursions and surface traffic conflicts, to deliver an overall increase in system capacity and safety. A piloted simulation study was conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center to evaluate the ability to conduct safe and efficient airport surface operations while utilizing an AMM displaying traffic of various position accuracies as well as the effect of traffic position accuracy on airport conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) capability. Nominal scenarios and off-nominal conflict scenarios were conducted using 12 airline crews operating in a simulated Memphis International Airport terminal environment. The data suggest that all traffic should be shown on the airport moving map, whether qualified or unqualified, and conflict detection and resolution technologies provide significant safety benefits. Despite the presence of traffic information on the map, collisions or near collisions still occurred; when indications or alerts were generated in these same scenarios, the incidences were averted.

  2. NASA Tech Briefs, February 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Tech Briefs are short announcements of innovations originating from research and development activities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. They emphasize information considered likely to be transferable across industrial, regional, or disciplinary lines and are issued to encourage commercial application. Topics covered include: Measuring Low Concentrations of Liquid Water in Soil; The Mars Science Laboratory Touchdown Test Facility; Non-Contact Measurement of Density and Thickness Variation in Dielectric Materials; Compact Microwave Fourier Spectrum Analyzer; InP Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers to 255 GHz; Combinatorial Generation of Test Suites; In-Phase Power-Combined Frequency Tripler at 300 GHz; Electronic System for Preventing Airport Runway Incursions; Smaller but Fully Functional Backshell for Cable Connector; Glove-Box or Desktop Virtual-Reality System; Composite Layer Manufacturing with Fewer Interruptions; Improved Photoresist Coating for Making CNT Field Emitters; A Simplified Diagnostic Method for Elastomer Bond Durability; Complex Multifunctional Polymer/Carbon-Nanotube Composites; Very High Output Thermoelectric Devices Based on ITO Nanocomposites; Reducing Unsteady Loads on a Piggyback Miniature Submarine; Ultrasonic/Sonic Anchor; Grooved Fuel Rings for Nuclear Thermal Rocket Engines; Pulsed Operation of an Ion Accelerator; Autonomous Instrument Placement for Mars Exploration Rovers; Mission and Assets Database; TCP/IP Interface for the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP); Trajectory Calculator for Finite-Radius Cutter on a Lathe; Integrated System Health Management Development Toolkit.

  3. 14 CFR § 1204.1403 - Available airport facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... provided in accordance with 14 CFR part 139. (b) Wallops Airport—(1) Runways. There are three hard surfaced runways in satisfactory condition. The runways and taxiways are concrete and/or asphalt. Runway 10-28 is 8... available. Limited available concrete parking ramp space makes precoordination necessary. (3) Control...

  4. 14 CFR 1204.1403 - Available airport facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... provided in accordance with 14 CFR part 139. (b) Wallops Airport—(1) Runways. There are three hard surfaced runways in satisfactory condition. The runways and taxiways are concrete and/or asphalt. Runway 10-28 is 8... available. Limited available concrete parking ramp space makes precoordination necessary. (3) Control...

  5. 78 FR 57213 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... and equipment. Glenn Hearn Boulevard/James Record Road intersection improvement. Airport pavement... navigational aids. Runway 15R/33L lighting improvements. Runway 15R/33L pavement rehabilitation and standards. Taxiway P/runway 15R deicing pad pavement rehabilitation. Taxiway P/runway 15R deicing pad...

  6. Factors influencing aircraft ground handling performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft ground handling operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and aircraft wet runway accident investigation are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  7. 77 FR 44208 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... and the prevention of foreign animal disease incursions into the United States. The regulations under... of controlled materials and the prevention of foreign animal disease incursions into the United..., and the prevention of foreign animal disease incursions into the United States. The regulations...

  8. White Sands Space Harbor Area 1, Crash/Rescue Standby Support GPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    White Sands Space Harbor Area 1, Crash/Rescue Standby Support GPS Buildings, East side of Runway 17/35, approximately 2,650 feet north of intersection with Runway 23/05, White Sands, Dona Ana County, NM

  9. 14 CFR 91.1055 - Pilot operating limitations and pairing requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... visual range for the runway to be used is at or below 4,000 feet. (iii) The runway to be used has water, snow, slush, ice or similar contamination that may adversely affect aircraft performance. (iv)...

  10. 76 FR 50809 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Assessment for a Proposed Airport Traffic Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... characteristics include replacement of the current Runway 25 Localizer (LOC) antenna and shelter with a Mark 20 or Mark 20A LOC antenna and shelter, and relocation of the Runway 25 LOC antenna array to a location...

  11. View from water's edge across the ramp of the 1922 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from water's edge across the ramp of the 1922 Seaplane Runway, looking toward Hospital Point - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Seaplane Runway, Southern tip of Ford Island, near Lexington Boulevard, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. 14 CFR 91.605 - Transport category civil airplane weight limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... grooved or porous friction course runways, if provided in the Airplane Flight Manual, may be used only for runways that are grooved or treated with a porous friction course (PFC) overlay, and that the...

  13. 14 CFR 91.605 - Transport category civil airplane weight limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... grooved or porous friction course runways, if provided in the Airplane Flight Manual, may be used only for runways that are grooved or treated with a porous friction course (PFC) overlay, and that the...

  14. 78 FR 15112 - Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Transport Airplane Performance and Handling Characteristics-New Task

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... braking coefficient of friction in each case was significantly lower than expected for a wet runway (i.e... of landing performance on wet porous friction course and grooved runway surfaces. Recommendations...

  15. 14 CFR 91.605 - Transport category civil airplane weight limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... grooved or porous friction course runways, if provided in the Airplane Flight Manual, may be used only for runways that are grooved or treated with a porous friction course (PFC) overlay, and that the...

  16. 78 FR 59752 - Notice of a Record of Decision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... and installation of an EMAS bed on the newly constructed landmass. Runway 18/36 Alternative 7 which... placing an Engineered Material Arresting System (EMAS) bed to the north beyond Runway end 18....

  17. Studies in short haul air transportation in the California corridor: Effects of design runway length; community acceptance; impact of return on investment and fuel cost increases. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shevell, R. S.; Jones, D. W., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The development of a forecast model for short haul air transportation systems in the California Corridor is discussed. The factors which determine the level of air traffic demand are identified. A forecast equation for use in airport utilization analysis is developed. A mathematical model is submitted to show the relationship between population, employment, and income for indicating future air transportation utilization. Diagrams and tables of data are included to support the conclusions reached regarding air transportation economic factors.

  18. 14 CFR 121.171 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... point at which the obstruction clearance plane associated with the approach end of the runway intersects... clearance plane means a plane sloping upward from the runway at a slope of 1:20 to the horizontal, and... centerline of the runway, beginning at the point where the obstruction clearance plane intersects...

  19. White Sands Space Harbor Area 1, Microwave Scanning Beam Landing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    White Sands Space Harbor Area 1, Microwave Scanning Beam Landing Ground Stations, 1,500' to the south of the north end of Runway 17/35; 1,500' to the west of the east end of Runway 23/05; and 1,500' southwest of the northeast end of Runway 20/02., White Sands, Dona Ana County, NM

  20. 14 CFR 151.13 - Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and the type and volume of traffic using it: (1) Land needed for installing approach lighting systems (ALS). (2) In-runway lighting. (3) High intensity runway lighting. (4) Runway distance markers. For the purposes of this section “approach lighting system (ALS)” is a standard configuration of...

  1. 14 CFR 25.109 - Accelerate-stop distance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) of this section; and (ii) The force resulting from the wet runway braking coefficient of friction... position approved for takeoff. (c) The wet runway braking coefficient of friction for a smooth wet runway is defined as a curve of friction coefficient versus ground speed and must be computed as follows:...

  2. 14 CFR 25.109 - Accelerate-stop distance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) of this section; and (ii) The force resulting from the wet runway braking coefficient of friction... position approved for takeoff. (c) The wet runway braking coefficient of friction for a smooth wet runway is defined as a curve of friction coefficient versus ground speed and must be computed as follows:...

  3. 14 CFR 25.109 - Accelerate-stop distance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) of this section; and (ii) The force resulting from the wet runway braking coefficient of friction... position approved for takeoff. (c) The wet runway braking coefficient of friction for a smooth wet runway is defined as a curve of friction coefficient versus ground speed and must be computed as follows:...

  4. 14 CFR 25.109 - Accelerate-stop distance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) of this section; and (ii) The force resulting from the wet runway braking coefficient of friction... position approved for takeoff. (c) The wet runway braking coefficient of friction for a smooth wet runway is defined as a curve of friction coefficient versus ground speed and must be computed as follows:...

  5. 14 CFR 25.109 - Accelerate-stop distance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) of this section; and (ii) The force resulting from the wet runway braking coefficient of friction... position approved for takeoff. (c) The wet runway braking coefficient of friction for a smooth wet runway is defined as a curve of friction coefficient versus ground speed and must be computed as follows:...

  6. 77 FR 14584 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... hangar area. Construct apron to new hangar area. Procure snow removal equipment--runway sander and plow... cones. Runway 8/26 pavement rejuvenation. Purchase snow removal equipment--high-speed snow plow. Master... markings. Acquire snow removal equipment with attachments. Acquire security vehicle. Runway 8/26...

  7. 14 CFR 151.13 - Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (ALS). (2) In-runway lighting. (3) High intensity runway lighting. (4) Runway distance markers. For the purposes of this section “approach lighting system (ALS)” is a standard configuration of aeronautical... ALS and ILS, has been programmed by the FAA with funds then available therefor; (b) An extension of...

  8. 14 CFR 151.13 - Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (ALS). (2) In-runway lighting. (3) High intensity runway lighting. (4) Runway distance markers. For the purposes of this section “approach lighting system (ALS)” is a standard configuration of aeronautical... ALS and ILS, has been programmed by the FAA with funds then available therefor; (b) An extension of...

  9. 14 CFR 151.13 - Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (ALS). (2) In-runway lighting. (3) High intensity runway lighting. (4) Runway distance markers. For the purposes of this section “approach lighting system (ALS)” is a standard configuration of aeronautical... ALS and ILS, has been programmed by the FAA with funds then available therefor; (b) An extension of...

  10. Conducting Safe and Efficient Airport Surface Operations in a NextGen Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Barnes, James R.

    2016-01-01

    The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) vision proposes many revolutionary operational concepts, such as surface trajectory-based operations (STBO) and technologies, including display of traffic information and movements, airport moving maps (AMM), and proactive alerts of runway incursions and surface traffic conflicts, to deliver an overall increase in system capacity and safety. A piloted simulation study was conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center to evaluate the ability of a flight crew to conduct safe and efficient airport surface operations while utilizing an AMM. Position accuracy of traffic was varied, and the effect of traffic position accuracy on airport conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) capability was measured. Another goal was to evaluate the crew's ability to safely conduct STBO by assessing the impact of providing traffic intent information, CD&R system capability, and the display of STBO guidance to the flight crew on both head-down and head-up displays (HUD). Nominal scenarios and off-nominal conflict scenarios were conducted using 12 airline crews operating in a simulated Memphis International Airport terminal environment. The data suggest that all traffic should be shown on the airport moving map, whether qualified or unqualified, and conflict detection and resolution technologies provide significant safety benefits. Despite the presence of traffic information on the map, collisions or near-collisions still occurred; when indications or alerts were generated in these same scenarios, the incidents were averted. During the STBO testing, the flight crews met their required time-of-arrival at route end within 10 seconds on 98 percent of the trials, well within the acceptable performance bounds of 15 seconds. Traffic intent information was found to be useful in determining the intent of conflicting traffic, with graphical presentation preferred. The CD&R system was only

  11. Differential GPS and system integration of the Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, James M.

    1994-01-01

    The LVLASO Flight Demonstration of ASTA concepts (FDAC) integrates NASA-Langley's electronic moving map display and Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) (a modified Boeing 737 aircraft); ARINC's VHF data link, GPS ground station, and automated controller workstation; and Norden's surface radar/airport movement safety system. Aircraft location is shown on the electronic map display in the cockpit. An approved taxi route as well as other aircraft and surface traffic are also displayed. An Ashtech Z12 Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver on the TSRV estimates the aircraft's position. In Differential mode (DSPS), the Ashtech receiver accepts differential C/A code pseudorange corrections from a GPS ground station. The GPS ground station provides corrections up to ten satellites. The corrections are transmitted on a VHF data link at a 1 Hz. rate using the RTCM-104 format. DGPS position estimates will be within 5 meters of actual aircraft position. DGPS position estimates are blended with position, velocity, acceleration, and heading data from the TSRV Air Data/Inertial Reference System (ADIRS). The ADIRS data is accurate in the short-term, but drifts over time. The DGPS data is used to keep the ADIRS position accurate. Ownship position, velocity, heading, and turn rate are sent at a 20 Hz. rate to the electronic map display. Airport traffic is detected by the airport surface radar system. Aircraft and vehicles such as fuel trucks and baggage carts are detected. The traffic's location, velocity, and heading are sent to the TSRV. To prevent traffic symbology from jumping each second when a location update arrives, velocity and heading are used to predict a new traffic location for each display update. Possible runway incursions and collisions can be shown on the electronic map. Integrating the different systems used in the FDAC requires attention to the underlying coordinate systems. The airport diagram displayed on the electronic map is obtained from published

  12. KSC-04PD-0933

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. This aerial photo of the runway at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility looks north. Longer and wider than most commercial runways, it is 15,000 feet long, with 1,000-foot paved overruns on each end, and 300 feet wide, with 50-foot asphalt shoulders. The runway is used by military and civilian cargo carriers, astronauts T-38 trainers, Shuttle Training Aircraft and helicopters, as well as the Space Shuttle.

  13. Recent progress towards predicting aircraft ground handling performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, T. J.; White, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Capability implemented in simulating aircraft ground handling performance is reviewed and areas for further expansion and improvement are identified. Problems associated with providing necessary simulator input data for adequate modeling of aircraft tire/runway friction behavior are discussed and efforts to improve tire/runway friction definition, and simulator fidelity are described. Aircraft braking performance data obtained on several wet runway surfaces are compared to ground vehicle friction measurements. Research to improve methods of predicting tire friction performance are discussed.

  14. 14 CFR 121.419 - Pilots and flight engineers: Initial, transition, and upgrade ground training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and balance, and runway limitations for takeoff and landing; (iii) Enough meteorology to insure a... landing; (iii) Meteorology hazards applicable to the certificate holder's areas of operation;...

  15. 14 CFR 91.1025 - Program operating manual contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... notification requirements; (d) Procedures for ensuring that the pilot in command knows that required... topography; (4) Runway conditions (including contamination); (5) Airport or area weather reporting;...

  16. 14 CFR 135.398 - Commuter category airplanes performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... all commuter category airplanes notwithstanding their stated applicability to turbine-engine-powered... used, the elevation of the airport, the effective runway gradient, and ambient temperature, and...

  17. 14 CFR 135.398 - Commuter category airplanes performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... all commuter category airplanes notwithstanding their stated applicability to turbine-engine-powered... used, the elevation of the airport, the effective runway gradient, and ambient temperature, and...

  18. 78 FR 76383 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... building rehabilitation. Aircraft rescue and firefighting quick response vehicle. Replace airfield signage... (design). Rehabilitate 12-foot culvert under runway 14/32 (construction). Replace airfield...

  19. 14 CFR 135.361 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... distance from the point at which the obstruction clearance plane associated with the approach end of the... subpart, obstruction clearance plane means a plane sloping upward from the runway at a slope of 1:20 to... coincides with the centerline of the runway, beginning at the point where the obstruction clearance...

  20. 6. VIEW OF AIRFIELD LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM BUILDING 8200 (CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF AIRFIELD LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM BUILDING 8200 (CONTROL TOWER SHOWING ALPHA TAXIWAY AND ALTERNATE RUNWAY (TAXIWAY J) IN FOREGROUND, NORTH-SIDE RUNWAY IN MIDDLE GROUND, AND ALERT AREA WITH ITS TAXIWAY IN BACKGROUND. - Loring Air Force Base, Airfield, Central portion of base, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  1. 14 CFR Appendix I to Part 151 - Appendix I to Part 151

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Pt. 151, App. I Appendix I to Part 151 Number Subject AC 150/5300-3 Adaptation of TSO-N18 Criterion to Clearways and Stopways. AC 150/5325-2A Airport Surface Areas Gradient Standards. AC 150/5325-4 Runway Length Requirements for Airport Design. AC 150/5330-2 Runway/Taxiway...

  2. 5. VIEW OF AIRFIELD LOOKING EAST FROM BUILDING 8200 (CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF AIRFIELD LOOKING EAST FROM BUILDING 8200 (CONTROL TOWER) SHOWING TAXIWAY B CROSSING ALPHA TAXIWAY IN FOREGROUND, ALERNATE RUNWAY (TAXIWAY J) IN MIDDLE GROUND, AND NORTH-SOUTH RUNWAY IN BACKGROUND. - Loring Air Force Base, Airfield, Central portion of base, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  3. The Look-point Aircraft Coordinate Estimator (LACE) and potential applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. W.

    1979-01-01

    A look-point aircraft coordinate estimator (LACE) consisting of a windshield runway symbol projector, pilot input controls, microprocessor, and eye-alignment device is described. The estimator is used by a pilot to determine his aircraft's position relative to a runway or other visible terrain or target. The pilot initially superimposes and then corrects the superposition of the runway symbol over the runway during approach during periods when the runway is visible. Using the pilot's inputs the microprocessor calculates the position of the aircraft in terms of runway coordinates, then generates an approach trajectory and issues instructions to an autopilot. The microprocessor contains a model of the aircraft's dynamics and calculates a theoretical aircraft trajectory. The theoretical position of the aircraft is then used to drive the runway symbol, with the pilot's input being additive. The system thus acts as an aid in making low visibility approaches and landings when only an occasional glimpse of the runway is possible and no ground referenced landing systems are available. The system can also be used as an independent landing monitor for ground referenced landing systems.

  4. 77 FR 58323 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... prompted by a review that determined that the runway slope and anti-ice corrections to V 1 and take-off... advise the flightcrew of certain runway slope and anti-ice corrections and take- off distance values....

  5. 14 CFR 77.25 - Civil airport imaginary surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... runway according to the type of approach available or planned for that runway. The slope and dimensions... horizontal surface at a slope of 20 to 1 for a horizontal distance of 4,000 feet. (c) Primary surface. A...) The approach surface extends for a horizontal distance of: (i) 5,000 feet at a slope of 20 to 1...

  6. 76 FR 52222 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model CL-600-2C10 (Regional Jet Series 700, 701 & 702...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... impact debris on the runway and sustain damage. We are issuing this AD to require actions to correct the... supplemental NPRM was published in the Federal Register on April 6, 2011 (76 FR 18957). That supplemental NPRM... airplanes could impact debris on the runway and sustain damage. The inspection is a detailed...

  7. 14 CFR 1204.1403 - Available airport facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... available from Titusville. Runway approach lighting (similar to Category II ALSF-2) and edge lights are... provided in accordance with 14 CFR part 139. (b) Wallops Airport—(1) Runways. There are three hard surfaced.... Both active taxiways, parallels 04-22 and 10-28, are lighted. Airfield lighting is available...

  8. 14 CFR 91.605 - Transport category civil airplane weight limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... than a turbine-engine-powered airplane certificated after September 30, 1958) unless— (1) The takeoff.... (b) No person may operate a turbine-engine-powered transport category airplane certificated after... airport, the runway to be used, the effective runway gradient, the ambient temperature and wind...

  9. 14 CFR 91.605 - Transport category civil airplane weight limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... than a turbine-engine-powered airplane certificated after September 30, 1958) unless— (1) The takeoff.... (b) No person may operate a turbine-engine-powered transport category airplane certificated after... airport, the runway to be used, the effective runway gradient, the ambient temperature and wind...

  10. 32 CFR 256.3 - Criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... health, safety or welfare hazards of aircraft operations. (b) Height of obstructions. The land area and... than 10% of their operations involving Class B aircraft (§ 256.6) and are less than 8000 feet long. Class B runways are all other fixed wing runways. (iii) The following descriptions of Accident...

  11. 75 FR 13336 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... and extension. Mark runway pavement. ] Brief Description of Disapproved Project: Man-lift... Description of Projects Approved for Collection at PBI and USE at PBI at a $4.50 PFC Level: Runway pavement rehabilitation and repairs. Taxiway pavement rehabilitation and repairs. Apron pavement rehabilitation...

  12. 14 CFR 1.2 - Abbreviations and symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... means airplane flight manual. AGL means above ground level. ALS means approach light system. APU means... flight training device. GS means glide slope. HIRL means high-intensity runway light system. IAS means... approach light system. MALSR means medium intensity approach light system with runway alignment...

  13. 14 CFR 1.2 - Abbreviations and symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... means airplane flight manual. AGL means above ground level. ALS means approach light system. APU means... flight training device. GS means glide slope. HIRL means high-intensity runway light system. IAS means... approach light system. MALSR means medium intensity approach light system with runway alignment...

  14. Effects of Scenery, Lighting, Glideslope, and Experience on Timing the Landing Flare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmisano, Stephen; Favelle, Simone; Sachtler, W. L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined three visual strategies for timing the initiation of the landing flare based on perceptions of either: (a) a critical height above ground level; (b) a critical runway width angle ([psi]); or (c) a critical time-to-contact (TTC) with the runway. Visual displays simulated landing approaches with trial-to-trial variations in…

  15. 41 CFR 102-75.1185 - What are suitability criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...., where a special pass or security clearance is a condition of entry to the property) will be determined... provided in paragraph (a)(5) of this section. (3) Runway clear zone and military airfield clear zone. A property located within an airport runway clear zone or military airfield clear zone will be...

  16. 45 CFR 12a.6 - Suitability criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the interest of national security (e.g., where a special pass or security clearance is a condition of...) Runway clear zone and military airfield clear zone. A property located within an airport runway clear zone or military airfield clear zone will be determined unsuitable. (4) Floodway. A property located...

  17. 45 CFR 12a.6 - Suitability criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the interest of national security (e.g., where a special pass or security clearance is a condition of...) Runway clear zone and military airfield clear zone. A property located within an airport runway clear zone or military airfield clear zone will be determined unsuitable. (4) Floodway. A property located...

  18. 45 CFR 12a.6 - Suitability criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the interest of national security (e.g., where a special pass or security clearance is a condition of...) Runway clear zone and military airfield clear zone. A property located within an airport runway clear zone or military airfield clear zone will be determined unsuitable. (4) Floodway. A property located...

  19. 41 CFR 102-75.1185 - What are suitability criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...., where a special pass or security clearance is a condition of entry to the property) will be determined... provided in paragraph (a)(5) of this section. (3) Runway clear zone and military airfield clear zone. A property located within an airport runway clear zone or military airfield clear zone will be...

  20. 24 CFR 581.6 - Suitability criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...., where a special pass or security clearance is a condition of entry to the property) will be determined... provided in paragraph (a)(5) of this section. (3) Runway clear zone and military airfield clear zone. A property located within an airport runway clear zone or military airfield clear zone will be...

  1. 41 CFR 102-75.1185 - What are suitability criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...., where a special pass or security clearance is a condition of entry to the property) will be determined... provided in paragraph (a)(5) of this section. (3) Runway clear zone and military airfield clear zone. A property located within an airport runway clear zone or military airfield clear zone will be...

  2. 24 CFR 581.6 - Suitability criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...., where a special pass or security clearance is a condition of entry to the property) will be determined... provided in paragraph (a)(5) of this section. (3) Runway clear zone and military airfield clear zone. A property located within an airport runway clear zone or military airfield clear zone will be...

  3. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 151 - Appendix A to Part 151

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... zones at ends of eligible runways. (d) Approach lights (land for ALS eligible for 75 percent participation will be limited to an area 3200′ × 400′ for a Standard ALS and to an area 1700′ × 400′ for a short ALS located symmetrically about the runway centerline extended, beginning at the end of the...

  4. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 151 - Appendix A to Part 151

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... zones at ends of eligible runways. (d) Approach lights (land for ALS eligible for 75 percent participation will be limited to an area 3200′ × 400′ for a Standard ALS and to an area 1700′ × 400′ for a short ALS located symmetrically about the runway centerline extended, beginning at the end of the...

  5. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 151 - Appendix A to Part 151

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... zones at ends of eligible runways. (d) Approach lights (land for ALS eligible for 75 percent participation will be limited to an area 3200′ × 400′ for a Standard ALS and to an area 1700′ × 400′ for a short ALS located symmetrically about the runway centerline extended, beginning at the end of the...

  6. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 151 - Appendix A to Part 151

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... zones at ends of eligible runways. (d) Approach lights (land for ALS eligible for 75 percent participation will be limited to an area 3200′ × 400′ for a Standard ALS and to an area 1700′ × 400′ for a short ALS located symmetrically about the runway centerline extended, beginning at the end of the...

  7. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 151 - Appendix A to Part 151

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... zones at ends of eligible runways. (d) Approach lights (land for ALS eligible for 75 percent participation will be limited to an area 3200′ × 400′ for a Standard ALS and to an area 1700′ × 400′ for a short ALS located symmetrically about the runway centerline extended, beginning at the end of the...

  8. KSC-04PD-0937

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. This aerial photo of the runway at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility looks northeast. Longer and wider than most commercial runways, it is 15,000 feet long, with 1,000- foot paved overruns on each end, and 300 feet wide, with 50-foot asphalt shoulders. The runway is used by military and civilian cargo carriers, astronauts T-38 trainers, Shuttle Training Aircraft and helicopters, as well as the Space Shuttle. At center right is the parking apron with the orbiter mate/demate tower. The tow-way stretches from the runway to the right, passing the hangar and storage facilities. A grassy area next to the mid- point of the runway is where the new control tower is located.

  9. KSC-04PD-0938

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. This aerial photo of the runway at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility looks northeast. Longer and wider than most commercial runways, it is 15,000 feet long, with 1,000- foot paved overruns on each end, and 300 feet wide, with 50-foot asphalt shoulders. The runway is used by military and civilian cargo carriers, astronauts T-38 trainers, Shuttle Training Aircraft and helicopters, as well as the Space Shuttle. At center right is the parking apron with the orbiter mate/demate tower. The tow-way stretches from the runway to the right, passing the hangar and storage facilities. A grassy area next to the mid- point of the runway is where the new control tower is located.

  10. Speed Profiles for Deceleration Guidance During Rollout and Turnoff (ROTO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. Keith; Hankins, Walter W., III; Hueschen, Richard M.

    1999-01-01

    Two NASA goals are to enhance airport safety and to improve capacity in all weather conditions. This paper contributes to these goals by examining speed guidance profiles to aid a pilot in decelerating along the runway to an exit. A speed profile essentially tells the pilot what the airplane's speed should be as a function of where the airplane is on the runway. While it is important to get off the runway as soon as possible (when striving to minimize runway occupancy time), the deceleration along a speed profile should be constrained by passenger comfort. Several speed profiles are examined with respect to their maximum decelerations and times to reach exit speed. One profile varies speed linearly with distance; another has constant deceleration; and two related nonlinear profiles delay maximum deceleration (braking) to reduce time spent on the runway.

  11. Detection of Obstacles in Monocular Image Sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasturi, Rangachar; Camps, Octavia

    1997-01-01

    The ability to detect and locate runways/taxiways and obstacles in images captured using on-board sensors is an essential first step in the automation of low-altitude flight, landing, takeoff, and taxiing phase of aircraft navigation. Automation of these functions under different weather and lighting situations, can be facilitated by using sensors of different modalities. An aircraft-based Synthetic Vision System (SVS), with sensors of different modalities mounted on-board, complements the current ground-based systems in functions such as detection and prevention of potential runway collisions, airport surface navigation, and landing and takeoff in all weather conditions. In this report, we address the problem of detection of objects in monocular image sequences obtained from two types of sensors, a Passive Millimeter Wave (PMMW) sensor and a video camera mounted on-board a landing aircraft. Since the sensors differ in their spatial resolution, and the quality of the images obtained using these sensors is not the same, different approaches are used for detecting obstacles depending on the sensor type. These approaches are described separately in two parts of this report. The goal of the first part of the report is to develop a method for detecting runways/taxiways and objects on the runway in a sequence of images obtained from a moving PMMW sensor. Since the sensor resolution is low and the image quality is very poor, we propose a model-based approach for detecting runways/taxiways. We use the approximate runway model and the position information of the camera provided by the Global Positioning System (GPS) to define regions of interest in the image plane to search for the image features corresponding to the runway markers. Once the runway region is identified, we use histogram-based thresholding to detect obstacles on the runway and regions outside the runway. This algorithm is tested using image sequences simulated from a single real PMMW image.

  12. Autonomous infrared-based guidance system for approach and landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doehler, Hans-Ullrich; Korn, Bernd R.

    2004-08-01

    This contribution summarizes DLR's recent development of a considerable robust and reliable method to estimate the relative position of an aircraft with respect to a runway based on camera images only (TV, infrared or even PMMW radar). The special advantage of the proposed method is, that neither a calibrated camera (referring to focus length and mounting angles relative to the aircraft) is required, nor any knowledge of special points of the runway (3-D world coordinates and their 2-D identification within the image) is needed. The only reference to the 3-D world, which has to be known, is the width of the runway stripe. The proposed algorithm computes the relative height of the aircraft above the runway stripe and the lateral deviation from the centre line of the runway as well. Additionally, several image analysis procedures are presented which allow to detect the runway stripe by either grouping the asphalt/grass border lines, or by analyzing the alignment structure of runway lights. The proposed image analysis method fulfills real-time requirements and has been tested with several image sequences acquired with different types of IR-cameras.

  13. Estimating the Effects of the Terminal Area Productivity Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, David A.; Kostiuk, Peter F.; Hemm, Robert V., Jr.; Wingrove, Earl R., III; Shapiro, Gerald

    1997-01-01

    The report describes methods and results of an analysis of the technical and economic benefits of the systems to be developed in the NASA Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. A runway capacity model using parameters that reflect the potential impact of the TAP technologies is described. The runway capacity model feeds airport specific models which are also described. The capacity estimates are used with a queuing model to calculate aircraft delays, and TAP benefits are determined by calculating the savings due to reduced delays. The report includes benefit estimates for Boston Logan and Detroit Wayne County airports. An appendix includes a description and listing of the runway capacity model.

  14. 78 FR 77440 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Disposal and Reuse of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... incorporates smart-growth principles that include pedestrian-friendly transportation and compact development... units. Alternative 3 would maintain the existing runway and a portion of the taxiways, parking...

  15. Performance of an aircraft tire under cyclic braking and of a currently operational antiskid braking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the performance of an aircraft tire under cyclic braking conditions and to study the performance of a currently operational aircraft antiskid braking system. Dry, damp, and flooded runway surface conditions were used in the investigation. The results indicated that under cyclic braking conditions the braking and cornering-force friction coefficients may be influenced by fluctuations in the vertical load, flexibility in the wheel support, and the spring coupling between the wheel and the tire-pavement interface. The cornering capability was shown to be negligible at wheel slip ratios well below a locked-wheel skid under all test surface conditions. The maximum available brake-force friction coefficient was shown to be dependent upon the runway surface condition, upon velocity, and, for wet runways, upon tire differences. Moderate reductions in vertical load and brake system pressure did not significantly affect the overall wet-runway performance of the tire.

  16. KSC-04PD-0936

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. This aerial photo shows the runway at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility extending left to upper right. Longer and wider than most commercial runways, it is 15,000 feet long, with 1,000-foot paved overruns on each end, and 300 feet wide, with 50-foot asphalt shoulders. The runway is used by military and civilian cargo carriers, astronauts T-38 trainers, Shuttle Training Aircraft and helicopters, as well as the Space Shuttle. In the foreground is the parking apron with the orbiter mate/demate tower, the hangar and other storage facilities, and the tow-way stretching from the runway to the lower center. In the upper right is a grassy area where the new control tower is located.

  17. KSC-04PD-0934

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. This aerial photo of the runway at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility looks north. Longer and wider than most commercial runways, it is 15,000 feet long, with 1,000-foot paved overruns on each end, and 300 feet wide, with 50-foot asphalt shoulders. The runway is used by military and civilian cargo carriers, astronauts T-38 trainers, Shuttle Training Aircraft and helicopters, as well as the Space Shuttle. On the lower right is the parking apron with the orbiter mate/demate tower and the tow-way stretching from the runway to the lower right. Farther north is a grassy area where the new control tower is located.

  18. KSC-04PD-0935

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. This aerial photo shows the runway at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility at left. Longer and wider than most commercial runways, it is 15,000 feet long, with 1,000-foot paved overruns on each end, and 300 feet wide, with 50-foot asphalt shoulders. The runway is used by military and civilian cargo carriers, astronauts T-38 trainers, Shuttle Training Aircraft and helicopters, as well as the Space Shuttle. In the foreground is the parking apron with the orbiter mate/demate tower, the hangar and other storage facilities, and the tow-way stretching from the runway to the lower right. Farther north is a grassy area where the new control tower is located.

  19. 14 CFR 25.105 - Takeoff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... takeoff data must be based on— (1) In the case of land planes and amphibians: (i) Smooth, dry and wet..., hard-surfaced runways. (2) Smooth water, in the case of seaplanes and amphibians; and (3) Smooth,...

  20. 77 FR 44307 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... perimeter fence with security fence, design. Aircraft rescue and firefighting building. Extend runway... rescue and firefighting facility. New electrical vault. Baggage claim vehicle doors. Decision Date: June... upgrade. Aircraft rescue and firefighting equipment. Decision Date: June 20, 2012. For Further...

  1. Hangar no. 1 south and east side. Site view seen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hangar no. 1 south and east side. Site view seen from main runway. Note control tower building. Looking 340 NNW. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  2. Columbia returns to Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The touchdown. After a successful 54-1/2-hour mission in space, Columbia and her crew, astronauts John Young, commander, and Robert Crippen, pilot, gently touch the Earth on runway 23 at Edwards Air Force Base.

  3. Shuttle Atlantis: From the Inside

    NASA Video Gallery

    An unprecedented up close, inside look at space shuttle Atlantis as it was readied for "towback"" from Kennedy's Shuttle Landing Facility runway to Orbiter Processing Facility-1 following its May 2...

  4. 14 CFR 61.309 - What aeronautical knowledge must I have to apply for a sport pilot certificate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... turbulence. (g) Effects of density altitude on takeoff and climb performance. (h) Weight and balance... management. (l) Preflight actions that include— (1) How to get information on runway lengths at airports...

  5. NASA's Global Hawk 871 Takes Off

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Global Hawk 871 departed from a runway at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Va. on Sept. 25, 2013 at the close of the NASA HS3 Hurricane Mission. NASA 871 was returning to home...

  6. Sunrise Touchdown of NASA Global Hawk

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's HS3 Mission Global Hawk Makes a Sunrise Touchdown Sunrise Touchdown of NASA's Global Hawk No. 872 on Runway 04 at NASA Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Virginia on Sept 19, 2014 afte...

  7. 14 CFR 1204.1403 - Available airport facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... provided in accordance with 14 CFR part 139. (b) Wallops Airport—(1) Runways. There are three hard surfaced... two published TACAN approaches and an approved and published nondirectional beacon (NDB)...

  8. 5. SOUTHWEST CORNER, SHOWING WEST ELEVATION WITH BUILDING 8251 (AIRCRAFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SOUTHWEST CORNER, SHOWING WEST ELEVATION WITH BUILDING 8251 (AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR SHOPS BUILDING ADDITION) AT LEFT. - Loring Air Force Base, Arch Hangar, East of Arizona Road near southern end of runway, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  9. 2. CONTEXT SHOWING NORTHWEST CORNER, WITH BUILDING S251 (AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CONTEXT SHOWING NORTHWEST CORNER, WITH BUILDING S251 (AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR SHOPS BUILDING ADDITION) IN FOREGROUND. - Loring Air Force Base, Arch Hangar, East of Arizona Road near southern end of runway, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  10. 32 CFR 700.835 - Work, facilities, supplies, or services for other Government departments, State or local...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with private industry; and (3) In the case of foreign governments, a disqualification of a government...) Routine airport services (including air traffic control, parking, servicing and use of runways)....

  11. 32 CFR 700.835 - Work, facilities, supplies, or services for other Government departments, State or local...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with private industry; and (3) In the case of foreign governments, a disqualification of a government...) Routine airport services (including air traffic control, parking, servicing and use of runways)....

  12. 78 FR 57206 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... roads rehabilitation and improvements. New snow removal equipment. Brief Description of Project Approved.... Conduct environmental study (incompatible land in runway protection zone). Acquire snow removal equipment (front end loader with attachments). Construct snow removal equipment building. Rehabilitate...

  13. 14 CFR 141.38 - Airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the end of each runway at ground level; (d) Each airport must have a traffic direction indicator when... seaplanes is permitted to use adequate nonpermanent lighting or shoreline lighting, if approved by...

  14. 32 CFR 855.14 - Unauthorized landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Damage to runway, lighting, and navigation aids. (C) Rescue, crash, and fire control services. (D... arrival. (v) Did not obtain landing clearance from the air traffic control tower. (vi) Landed with...

  15. 14 CFR 141.38 - Airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the end of each runway at ground level; (d) Each airport must have a traffic direction indicator when... seaplanes is permitted to use adequate nonpermanent lighting or shoreline lighting, if approved by...

  16. 32 CFR 855.14 - Unauthorized landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Damage to runway, lighting, and navigation aids. (C) Rescue, crash, and fire control services. (D... arrival. (v) Did not obtain landing clearance from the air traffic control tower. (vi) Landed with...

  17. 7. Bank level: perspective of framing on east side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Bank level: perspective of framing on east side of runway and west side of outside stone wall on east side looking northeast - Dennison Bank Barn, Corner of Brackenville & Limestone Roads, Brackenville, New Castle County, DE

  18. 24 CFR 203.12 - Mortgage insurance on proposed or new construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Runway clear zones/clear zones; (v) Toxic waste hazards; (vi) Other foreseeable hazards or adverse... the requirements of 24 CFR part 200, subpart M must be submitted and approved by HUD no later than...

  19. 24 CFR 203.12 - Mortgage insurance on proposed or new construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Runway clear zones/clear zones; (v) Toxic waste hazards; (vi) Other foreseeable hazards or adverse... the requirements of 24 CFR part 200, subpart M must be submitted and approved by HUD no later than...

  20. CONTROL BUILDING, WEST FRONT SHOWING ENTRANCE Edwards Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTROL BUILDING, WEST FRONT SHOWING ENTRANCE - Edwards Air Force Base, X-15 Engine Test Complex, Firing Control Building, Rogers Dry Lake, east of runway between North Base & South Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. Development of a computer program data base of a navigation aid environment for simulated IFR flight and landing studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergeron, H. P.; Haynie, A. T.; Mcdede, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    A general aviation single pilot instrument flight rule simulation capability was developed. Problems experienced by single pilots flying in IFR conditions were investigated. The simulation required a three dimensional spatial navaid environment of a flight navigational area. A computer simulation of all the navigational aids plus 12 selected airports located in the Washington/Norfolk area was developed. All programmed locations in the list were referenced to a Cartesian coordinate system with the origin located at a specified airport's reference point. All navigational aids with their associated frequencies, call letters, locations, and orientations plus runways and true headings are included in the data base. The simulation included a TV displayed out-the-window visual scene of country and suburban terrain and a scaled model runway complex. Any of the programmed runways, with all its associated navaids, can be referenced to a runway on the airport in this visual scene. This allows a simulation of a full mission scenario including breakout and landing.

  2. 14 CFR 157.3 - Projects requiring notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (b) Construct, realign, alter, or activate any runway or other aircraft landing or takeoff area of an... traffic pattern or traffic pattern altitude or direction. (g) Change status from IFR to VFR or VFR to IFR....

  3. 14 CFR 157.3 - Projects requiring notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... (b) Construct, realign, alter, or activate any runway or other aircraft landing or takeoff area of an... traffic pattern or traffic pattern altitude or direction. (g) Change status from IFR to VFR or VFR to IFR....

  4. 14 CFR 157.3 - Projects requiring notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (b) Construct, realign, alter, or activate any runway or other aircraft landing or takeoff area of an... traffic pattern or traffic pattern altitude or direction. (g) Change status from IFR to VFR or VFR to IFR....

  5. 14 CFR 157.3 - Projects requiring notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... (b) Construct, realign, alter, or activate any runway or other aircraft landing or takeoff area of an... traffic pattern or traffic pattern altitude or direction. (g) Change status from IFR to VFR or VFR to IFR....

  6. 14 CFR 157.3 - Projects requiring notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... (b) Construct, realign, alter, or activate any runway or other aircraft landing or takeoff area of an... traffic pattern or traffic pattern altitude or direction. (g) Change status from IFR to VFR or VFR to IFR....

  7. 76 FR 56001 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... expansion of baggage delivery conveyor system. Replacement of terminal boiler heating system. Replacement of... lighted portable runway closure crosses. Infrastructure improvements to support security systems. Terminal... sewer system. Replacement of terminal water line system. Decision Date: July 18, 2011. FOR...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... position. (b) Each reciprocating engine must have an alternate air source that prevents the entry of rain...) The airplane must be designed to prevent water or slush on the runway, taxiway, or other...

  9. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 121 - Proficiency Check Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... prescribed procedure or recommended practice, and qualities of prudence and care in selecting a course of... characteristics, runway length, surface conditions, wind direction and velocity, brake heat energy, and any...

  10. A Concept for Airborne Precision Spacing for Dependent Parallel Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmore, Bryan E.; Baxley, Brian T.; Abbott, Terence S.; Capron, William R.; Smith, Colin L.; Shay, Richard F.; Hubbs, Clay

    2012-01-01

    The Airborne Precision Spacing concept of operations has been previously developed to support the precise delivery of aircraft landing successively on the same runway. The high-precision and consistent delivery of inter-aircraft spacing allows for increased runway throughput and the use of energy-efficient arrivals routes such as Continuous Descent Arrivals and Optimized Profile Descents. This paper describes an extension to the Airborne Precision Spacing concept to enable dependent parallel approach operations where the spacing aircraft must manage their in-trail spacing from a leading aircraft on approach to the same runway and spacing from an aircraft on approach to a parallel runway. Functionality for supporting automation is discussed as well as procedures for pilots and controllers. An analysis is performed to identify the required information and a new ADS-B report is proposed to support these information needs. Finally, several scenarios are described in detail.

  11. SOUTHWEST FACADE AS SEEN FROM FLIGHTLINE, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTHWEST FACADE AS SEEN FROM FLIGHTLINE, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Control Tower & Aviation Operations Building, Near intersection of runways between Hangar 110 & Building 115, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  12. NORTHEAST FACADE AND ONESTORY WING, VIEW FACING SOUTHSOUTHWEST (with scale ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHEAST FACADE AND ONE-STORY WING, VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST (with scale stick). - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Control Tower & Aviation Operations Building, Near intersection of runways between Hangar 110 & Building 115, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  13. NORTHEAST FACADE AND ONESTORY WING FROM ENTRY DRIVE, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHEAST FACADE AND ONE-STORY WING FROM ENTRY DRIVE, VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Control Tower & Aviation Operations Building, Near intersection of runways between Hangar 110 & Building 115, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  14. NORTHEAST FACADE AND ONESTORY WING, VIEW FACING SOUTHSOUTHWEST. Naval ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHEAST FACADE AND ONE-STORY WING, VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Control Tower & Aviation Operations Building, Near intersection of runways between Hangar 110 & Building 115, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  15. INTERIOR SHOWING STAIRCASE TO SECOND FLOOR FROM MAIN LOBBY/RECEPTION AREA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR SHOWING STAIRCASE TO SECOND FLOOR FROM MAIN LOBBY/RECEPTION AREA, VIEW FACING WEST-SOUTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Control Tower & Aviation Operations Building, Near intersection of runways between Hangar 110 & Building 115, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  16. INTERIOR VIEW OF HALLWAY LOOKING TOWARD LOBBY, SHOWING WINDOW DETAILS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF HALLWAY LOOKING TOWARD LOBBY, SHOWING WINDOW DETAILS, VIEW FACING WEST-SOUTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Control Tower & Aviation Operations Building, Near intersection of runways between Hangar 110 & Building 115, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  17. NORTHEAST FACADE AND ONESTORY WING FROM PARKING LOT SIDE, VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHEAST FACADE AND ONE-STORY WING FROM PARKING LOT SIDE, VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Control Tower & Aviation Operations Building, Near intersection of runways between Hangar 110 & Building 115, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  18. 77 FR 27537 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    .... Runway high speed snow removal broom. Taxiway R extension and road relocation--construction. PFC... rehabilitation, phase I. Purchase airport snow removal truck/plow. Design and construct noise mitigation...

  19. 14 CFR 25.105 - Takeoff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... takeoff data must be based on— (1) In the case of land planes and amphibians: (i) Smooth, dry and wet..., hard-surfaced runways. (2) Smooth water, in the case of seaplanes and amphibians; and (3) Smooth,...

  20. 21. VIEW OF TENNIS COURTS LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM ROOF OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW OF TENNIS COURTS LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM ROOF OF BUILDING 8970 (CREW READINESS BUILDING). - Loring Air Force Base, Alert Area, Southeastern portion of base, east of southern end of runway, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  1. 20. VIEW OF TENNIS COURTS LOOKING SOUTH, WITH CONVERTED BASKETBALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW OF TENNIS COURTS LOOKING SOUTH, WITH CONVERTED BASKETBALL COURT IN FOREGROUND. - Loring Air Force Base, Alert Area, Southeastern portion of base, east of southern end of runway, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  2. 29 CFR 1910.25 - Portable wood ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in position. Ladders shall not be used in a horizontal position as platforms, runways, or scaffolds... with ladder jacks and scaffold planks where use by more than one man is anticipated. In such...

  3. 29 CFR 1910.25 - Portable wood ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in position. Ladders shall not be used in a horizontal position as platforms, runways, or scaffolds... with ladder jacks and scaffold planks where use by more than one man is anticipated. In such...

  4. 29 CFR 1910.25 - Portable wood ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in position. Ladders shall not be used in a horizontal position as platforms, runways, or scaffolds... with ladder jacks and scaffold planks where use by more than one man is anticipated. In such...

  5. 29 CFR 1910.25 - Portable wood ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in position. Ladders shall not be used in a horizontal position as platforms, runways, or scaffolds... with ladder jacks and scaffold planks where use by more than one man is anticipated. In such...

  6. 29 CFR 1910.25 - Portable wood ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in position. Ladders shall not be used in a horizontal position as platforms, runways, or scaffolds... with ladder jacks and scaffold planks where use by more than one man is anticipated. In such...

  7. Surface Management System Departure Event Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, Gilena A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a data analysis of the Surface Management System (SMS) performance of departure events, including push-back and runway departure events.The paper focuses on the detection performance, or the ability to detect departure events, as well as the prediction performance of SMS. The results detail a modest overall detection performance of push-back events and a significantly high overall detection performance of runway departure events. The overall detection performance of SMS for push-back events is approximately 55%.The overall detection performance of SMS for runway departure events nears 100%. This paper also presents the overall SMS prediction performance for runway departure events as well as the timeliness of the Aircraft Situation Display for Industry data source for SMS predictions.

  8. Probabilistic Analysis of Impact of Wake Vortices on Closely-Spaced Parallel Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Gordon H.; Rossow, Vernon J.; Meyn, Larry A.

    2005-01-01

    One of the primary constraints on the capacity of the nation's air transportation system is the landing capacity of its largest airports. Many airports with closely spaced parallel runways suffer a severe runway acceptance rate when the weather conditions do not allow full utilization of these parallel runways. The present requirement for simultaneous independent landings in Instrument Meteorological Conditions, IMC, is at least 4300 feet of lateral runway spacing (as close as 3000 feet for runways with a Precision Runway Monitor). Operations in Visual Meteorological Conditions, VMC, to Closely Spaced Parallel Approaches only require a lateral runway spacing greater than 750 feet. A study by Hardy and Lewis integrated and extended earlier studies and concepts in lateral traffic separation, longitudinal station keeping, wake prediction, wake display, and the concepts of R N P into a preliminary system concept for Closely Spaced Parallel Approaches in IMC. This system allows IMC airport acceptance rates to approach those for VMC. The system concept that was developed, presented traffic and wake information on the NAVigation Display, NAV, and developed operational procedures for a mix of conventional and Runway Independent Aircraft with different approach speeds to Closely Spaced Parallel Runways. This paper first describes some improvements made on the technology needed to better predict and formulate a probabilistic representation for the time-dependent motion and spreading of the hazardous region associated with the lift-generated vortex wakes of preceding aircraft. In this way, the time at which the vortex wakes of leading aircraft intrude into the airspace of adjacent flight-corridor/runway combinations can be more reliably predicted. Such a prediction is needed because it determines restraints to be placed on in-trail separation distances; or, the allowable time intervals between aircraft executing nearly simultaneous landings or takeoffs on very closely

  9. Attentional limitations with Head-Up Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccann, Robert S.; Foyle, David C.; Johnston, James C.

    1993-01-01

    Recent models of visual information processing suggest that visual attention can be focussed on either Head-Up Displays (HUD) or on the world beyond them, but not on both simultaneously. This hypothesis was tested in a part-task simulation in which subjects viewed a simulated approach to a runway with a HUD superimposed. An alphanumeric cue ('IFR' or 'VFR') appeared on either the HUD or the runway and was followed by two sets of three geometric forms; one set on the HUD and one set on the runway. Each set contained one potential target, either a stop sign or a diamond. If the cue spelled 'IFR', subjects made a speeded response based on the identity of the HUD target; if the cue spelled 'VFR', subjects made a speeded response based on the identity of the runway target. Regardless of cue location (HUD or Runway), responses were faster when the cue and the relevant target were part of the same perceptual group (i.e., both on the HUD or both on the runway) than when they were part of different perceptual groups. These results, as well as others, suggest that attentional constraints place severe limits on the ability of pilots to process HUD-referenced information and world-referenced information simultaneously. In addition, they provide direct evidence that transitioning from processing HUD information to processing world information requires an attention shift. Implications for HUD design are considered.

  10. Rub energetics of compressor blade tip seals

    SciTech Connect

    Laverty, W.F.

    1981-03-30

    The rub mechanics of aircraft gas turbine engine compressor abradable blade tip seals was studied at simulated engine conditions. In 12 statistically planned, instrumented rub tests using single titanium blades and fiber-metal rubstrips, the rub velocity, incursion rate, incursion depth, blade thickness, and abradable strength were varied to determine the effects on rub energy, heat split between the blade, rubstrip surface and rub debris, and blade and seal wear. The rub energies were found to be most significantly affected by the incursion rate while rub velocity and blade thickness were of secondary importance. In five additional rub tests using single nickel alloy blades and multiple titanium alloy blades, rub energy and wear effects were found to be similar for titanium and nickel alloy blades while rub energies increased for multiple blades relative to single blade test results.

  11. Evidence of Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene marine environments in the deep subsurface of the Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izuka, S.K.; Resig, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Cuttings recovered from two deep exploratory wells in the Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii, include fossiliferous marine deposits that offer an uncommon opportunity to study paleoenvironments from the deep subsurface in Hawaii and interpret the paleogeography and geologic history of Kauai. These deposits indicate that two marine incursions gave rise to protected shallow-water, low-energy embayments in the southern part of the Lihue Basin in the late Pliocene-early Pleistocene. During the first marine incursion, the embayment was initially zoned, with a variable-salinity environment nearshore and a normal-marine reef environment offshore. The offshore reef environment eventually evolved to a nearshore, variable-salinity environment as the outer part of the embayment shallowed. During the second marine incursion, the embayment had normal-marine to hypersaline conditions, which constitute a significant departure from the variable-salinity environment present during the first marine incursion. Large streams draining the southern Lihue Basin are a likely source of the freshwater that caused the salinity fluctuations evident in the fossils from the first marine incursion. Subsequent volcanic eruptions produced lava flows that buried the embayment and probably diverted much of the stream flow in the southern Lihue Basin northward, to its present point of discharge north of Kalepa Ridge. As a result, the embayment that formed during the second marine incursion received less freshwater, and a normal-marine to hypersaline environment developed. The shallow-water marine deposits, currently buried between 86 m and 185 m below present sea level, have implications for regional tectonics and global eustasy. Copyright ?? 2008, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  12. Maintaining a vigilance for foreign animal diseases.

    PubMed

    Waldrup, Kenneth A; Conger, Terry H

    2002-11-01

    The incursion of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) into the United Kingdom in February 2001 served as a wakeup call for North American agriculture. As the livestock health crisis in the United Kingdom progressed, it became increasingly evident that the United States, Canada, and Mexico were also susceptible to an incursion of a foreign animal disease. The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent anthrax mailings reaffirmed the fact that the United States is vulnerable to an infectious assault, regardless of whether it is intentional or accidental.

  13. Snowy owl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.G.; Ellis, D.H.; Pendleton, Beth Giron; LeFranc, Maurice N.=; Moss, Mary Beth

    1989-01-01

    The snowy owl is a rare to uncommon, irregular winter visitor in the northeastern United States, decreasing southward in abundance except during incursion years, when it is more common and widely distributed. Although snowy owls are recorded in northern New England every winter, major incursions occur at approximately three to four year intervals. Limiting factors include food, habitat and human interference. Research is needed on the population ecology of this species and, perhaps more important, management goals must be directed towards public education emphasizing the value of snowy owls.

  14. A new FOD recognition algorithm based on multi-source information fusion and experiment analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu; Xiao, Gang

    2011-08-01

    Foreign Object Debris (FOD) is a kind of substance, debris or article alien to an aircraft or system, which would potentially cause huge damage when it appears on the airport runway. Due to the airport's complex circumstance, quick and precise detection of FOD target on the runway is one of the important protections for airplane's safety. A multi-sensor system including millimeter-wave radar and Infrared image sensors is introduced and a developed new FOD detection and recognition algorithm based on inherent feature of FOD is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the FOD's location and coordinate can be accurately obtained by millimeter-wave radar, and then according to the coordinate IR camera will take target images and background images. Secondly, in IR image the runway's edges which are straight lines can be extracted by using Hough transformation method. The potential target region, that is, runway region, can be segmented from the whole image. Thirdly, background subtraction is utilized to localize the FOD target in runway region. Finally, in the detailed small images of FOD target, a new characteristic is discussed and used in target classification. The experiment results show that this algorithm can effectively reduce the computational complexity, satisfy the real-time requirement and possess of high detection and recognition probability.

  15. A Concept and Implementation of Optimized Operations of Airport Surface Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Yoon C.; Hoang, Ty; Montoya, Justin; Gupta, Gautam; Malik, Waqar; Tobias, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new concept of optimized surface operations at busy airports to improve the efficiency of taxi operations, as well as reduce environmental impacts. The suggested system architecture consists of the integration of two decoupled optimization algorithms. The Spot Release Planner provides sequence and timing advisories to tower controllers for releasing departure aircraft into the movement area to reduce taxi delay while achieving maximum throughput. The Runway Scheduler provides take-off sequence and arrival runway crossing sequence to the controllers to maximize the runway usage. The description of a prototype implementation of this integrated decision support tool for the airport control tower controllers is also provided. The prototype decision support tool was evaluated through a human-in-the-loop experiment, where both the Spot Release Planner and Runway Scheduler provided advisories to the Ground and Local Controllers. Initial results indicate the average number of stops made by each departure aircraft in the departure runway queue was reduced by more than half when the controllers were using the advisories, which resulted in reduced taxi times in the departure queue.

  16. Performance Evaluation of the Approaches and Algorithms for Hamburg Airport Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Zhifan; Okuniek, Nikolai; Gerdes, Ingrid; Schier, Sebastian; Lee, Hanbong; Jung, Yoon

    2016-01-01

    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have been independently developing and testing their own concepts and tools for airport surface traffic management. Although these concepts and tools have been tested individually for European and US airports, they have never been compared or analyzed side-by-side. This paper presents the collaborative research devoted to the evaluation and analysis of two different surface management concepts. Hamburg Airport was used as a common test bed airport for the study. First, two independent simulations using the same traffic scenario were conducted: one by the DLR team using the Controller Assistance for Departure Optimization (CADEO) and the Taxi Routing for Aircraft: Creation and Controlling (TRACC) in a real-time simulation environment, and one by the NASA team based on the Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) in a fast-time simulation environment. A set of common performance metrics was defined. The simulation results showed that both approaches produced operational benefits in efficiency, such as reducing taxi times, while maintaining runway throughput. Both approaches generated the gate pushback schedule to meet the runway schedule, such that the runway utilization was maximized. The conflict-free taxi guidance by TRACC helped avoid taxi conflicts and reduced taxiing stops, but the taxi benefit needed be assessed together with runway throughput to analyze the overall performance objective.

  17. An intra-species demonstration of the independence of distance and time in turn alternation of the terrestrial isopod, Porcellio scaber.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Robert N

    2008-05-01

    In a study of turn alternation in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (woodlouse), smaller individuals (<11 mm long) took significantly longer to traverse a 60-mm open-ended post-forced-turn runway following a 90 degrees forced turn, than larger subjects (>11 mm long). However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in their probability of alternating, or in the magnitude of alternating turns as reflected in the size of the free-turn angles they turned on emerging from the runway. Nor was there a significant relationship for either group between the time taken to traverse the runway and either the probability of alternating or the size of a free-turn angle. In a second experiment, significant alternation occurred after woodlice emerged from runways that were 30 and 60 mm long, but not when they were 100 or 145 mm long. Their free-turn angles also became smaller as the runway length increased. Overall, the results of the three experiments supported the long-held view that, for reasons not yet understood, distance and time cannot necessarily be equated in the determination of invertebrate turn alternation.

  18. The Fight Deck Perspective of the NASA Langley AILS Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rine, Laura L.; Abbott, Terence S.; Lohr, Gary W.; Elliott, Dawn M.; Waller, Marvin C.; Perry, R. Brad

    2000-01-01

    Many US airports depend on parallel runway operations to meet the growing demand for day to day operations. In the current airspace system, Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) reduce the capacity of close parallel runway operations; that is, runways spaced closer than 4300 ft. These capacity losses can result in landing delays causing inconveniences to the traveling public, interruptions in commerce, and increased operating costs to the airlines. This document presents the flight deck perspective component of the Airborne Information for Lateral Spacing (AILS) approaches to close parallel runways in IMC. It represents the ideas the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) AILS Development Team envisions to integrate a number of components and procedures into a workable system for conducting close parallel runway approaches. An initial documentation of the aspects of this concept was sponsored by LaRC and completed in 1996. Since that time a number of the aspects have evolved to a more mature state. This paper is an update of the earlier documentation.

  19. Probabilistic model, analysis and computer code for take-off and landing related aircraft crashes into a structure

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, R.

    1996-02-06

    A methodology is presented that allows the calculation of the probability that any of a particular collection of structures will be hit by an aircraft in a take-off or landing related accident during a specified window of time with a velocity exceeding a given critical value. A probabilistic model is developed that incorporates the location of each structure relative to airport runways in the vicinity; the size of the structure; the sizes, types, and frequency of use of commercial, military, and general aviation aircraft which take-off and land at these runways; the relative frequency of take-off and landing related accidents by aircraft type; the stochastic properties of off-runway crashes, namely impact location, impact angle, impact velocity, and the heading, deceleration, and skid distance after impact; and the stochastic properties of runway overruns and runoffs, namely the position at which the aircraft exits the runway, its exit velocity, and the heading and deceleration after exiting. Relevant probability distributions are fitted from extensive commercial, military, and general aviation accident report data bases. The computer source code for implementation of the calculation is provided.

  20. Wind Advisory System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curto, Paul A. (Inventor); Brown, Gerald E. (Inventor); Zysko, Jan A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a two-part wind advisory system comprising a ground station at an airfield and an airborne unit placed inside an aircraft. The ground station monitors wind conditions (wind speed, wind direction, and wind gust) at the airfield and transmits the wind conditions and an airfield ID to the airborne unit. The airborne unit identifies the airfield by comparing the received airfield ID with airfield IDs stored in a database. The airborne unit also calculates the headwind and crosswind for each runway in both directions at the airfield using the received wind conditions and runway information stored in the database. The airborne unit then determines a recommended runway for takeoff and landing operations of the aircraft based on th runway having the greatest headwind value and displays the airfield ID, wind conditions, and recommended runway to the pilot. Another embodiment of the present invention includes a wireless internet based airborne unit in which the airborne unit can receive the wind conditions from the ground station over the internet.