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Sample records for rural biodigestors aimed

  1. Built environment interventions aimed at improving physical activity levels in rural Ontario health units: a descriptive qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Coghill, Cara-Lee; Valaitis, Ruta K; Eyles, John D

    2015-05-03

    Few studies to date have explored the relationship between the built environment and physical activity specifically in rural settings. The Ontario Public Health Standards policies mandate that health units in Ontario address the built environment; however, it is unclear how public health practitioners are integrating the built environment into public health interventions aimed at improving physical activity in chronic disease prevention programs. This descriptive qualitative study explored interventions that have or are being implemented which address the built environment specifically related to physical activity in rural Ontario health units, and the impact of these interventions. Data were collected through twelve in-depth semi-structured interviews with rural public health practitioners and managers representing 12 of 13 health units serving rural communities. Key themes were identified using qualitative content analysis. Themes that emerged regarding the types of interventions that health units are employing included: Engagement with policy work at a municipal level; building and working with community partners, committees and coalitions; gathering and providing evidence; developing and implementing programs; and social marketing and awareness raising. Evaluation of interventions to date has been limited. Public health interventions, and their evaluations, are complex. Health units who serve large rural populations in Ontario are engaging in numerous activities to address physical activity levels. There is a need to further evaluate the impact of these interventions on population health.

  2. Aiming at “De Feet” and Diabetes: A Rural Model to Increase Annual Foot Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Beem, Susie E.; Machala, Margaret; Holman, Craig; Wraalstad, Randal; Bybee, Ann

    2004-01-01

    Something is afoot in south central Idaho. After 2 years of work, the percentage of people with diabetes receiving recommended annual foot examinations has increased by 13.8%, exceeding the state average. This turnaround, from being the region with the lowest percentage of foot examinations in the state, was made possible when South Central District Health joined diabetes coalition members to develop a comprehensive program that maximizes limited resources in the rural, 8-county service area. Key program components include (1) development of a curriculum on CD-ROM called 2 Minute Diabetes Foot Examination, (2) training area physicians and nurses in the curriculum, (3) incorporating the curriculum into the nursing program at the local college, (4) offering free foot-screening clinics to targeted populations, and (5) conducting public education and outreach. PMID:15451726

  3. Coast to Country: An Initiative Aimed at Changing Pre-Service Teachers' Perceptions of Teaching in Rural and Remote Locations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Shirley

    2012-01-01

    For more than a decade, it has become more of a challenge to both attract and retain quality pre-service teachers to both rural and remote locations within Australia. Many pre-service teachers are reluctant to leave a preferred metropolitan location to undertake a rural or remote professional experience and often have negative views concerning…

  4. An assessment of the costs and benefits of interventions aimed at improving rural community water supplies in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Paul R; Pond, Kathy; Jagals, Paul; Cameron, John

    2009-06-01

    We report a cost benefit analyses (CBA) for water interventions in rural populations of developed country sub-regions. A Bayesian belief network was used to estimate the cost benefit ratio using Monte Carlo simulation. Where possible we used input data from recently published primary research or systematic reviews. Otherwise variables were derived from previous work in the peer-reviewed or grey literature. For these analyses we considered the situation of people with small and very small community supplies that may not be adequately managed. For the three developed country sub-regions Amr-A (America region A), Eur-A (European region A) and Wpr-A (Western Pacific region A), we estimate the costs of acute diarrhoeal illness associated with small community supplies to be U$4671 million (95% CI 1721-9592), the capital costs of intervention to be USD 13703 million (95% CI 6670-20735), additional annual maintenance to be USD 804 million (95%CI 359-1247) and the CB ratio to be 2.78 (95%CI 0.86-6.5). However, we also estimated the cost of post infectious irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) following drinking water-associated acute gastroenteritis to be USD 11896 million (95%CI 3118-22657). When the benefits of reduced IBS are added to the analysis the CB ratio increases to 9.87 (95%CI 3.34-20.49). The most important driver of uncertainty was the estimate of the cost of illness. However, there are very few good estimates of costs in improving management of small rural supplies in the literature. Investments in drinking-water provision in rural settings are highly cost beneficial in the developed world. In the developed world, the CB ratio is substantially positive especially once the impact of IBS is included.

  5. Determining the efficacy of national strategies aimed at addressing the challenges facing health personnel working in rural areas in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Shortages of Human Resources for Health (HRH) in rural areas are often driven by poor working and living conditions, inadequate salaries and benefits, lack of training and career development opportunities amongst others. The South African government has adopted a human resource strategy for the health sector in 2011 aimed at addressing these challenges. Aim This study reviews the challenges faced by health personnel against government strategies aimed at attracting and retaining health personnel in these underserved areas. Setting The study was conducted in six primary health care service sites in the Hlabisa sub-district of Umkhanyakude, located in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods The study population comprised 25 health workers including 11 professional nurses, 4 staff nurses and 10 doctors (4 medical doctors, 3 foreign medical doctors and 3 doctors undertaking community service). Qualitative data were collected from semi-structured interviews and analysed using thematic analysis. Results Government initiatives including the rural allowance, deployment of foreign medical doctors and the presence of health personnel undertaking their community service in rural areas are positively viewed by health personnel working in rural health facilities. However, poor living and working conditions, together with inadequate personal development opportunities, remain unresolved challenges. It is these challenges that will continue to dissuade experienced health personnel from remaining in these underserved areas. Conclusion South Africa’s HRH strategy for the Health Sector 2012/13–2015/16 had highlighted the key challenges raised by respondents and identified strategies aimed at addressing these challenges. Implementation of these strategies is key to improving both living and working conditions, and providing health personnel with opportunities for further development will require inter-ministerial collaboration if the HRH 2030 objectives are to be

  6. Reconsidering the Evidence Base, Considering the Rural: Aiming for a Better Understanding of the Education and Training Needs of Sub-Saharan African teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckler, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Providing basic education for all children by 2015 is one of the world's major educational objectives and teachers are crucial to achieving this. This article argues that not enough attention has been paid to the specific training needs of teachers in rural areas. Focusing on Sub-Saharan Africa it argues (i) that large-scale statistical data…

  7. Reconsidering the Evidence Base, Considering the Rural: Aiming for a Better Understanding of the Education and Training Needs of Sub-Saharan African teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckler, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Providing basic education for all children by 2015 is one of the world's major educational objectives and teachers are crucial to achieving this. This article argues that not enough attention has been paid to the specific training needs of teachers in rural areas. Focusing on Sub-Saharan Africa it argues (i) that large-scale statistical data…

  8. China's educational aim and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guang-Wei, Zou

    1985-12-01

    The aim and theory of Chinese socialist education is to provide scientific and technological knowledge so as to develop the productive forces and to meet the demands of the socialist cause. Since education is the main vehicle towards modernizing science and technology, any investment in education is viewed as being productive as it feeds directly into economics. Faced with the demands of industrial and agricultural production, training a technical as well as a labour force becomes crucial. This is made possible by the provision of two labour systems for workers both from rural as well as urban areas and by two kinds of educational systems for both urban and rural students. Chinese educational theory is seen as a fusion of principles from its own educational legacy with those of Marxist-Leninist principles.

  9. The FBI Takes Aim at AIM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanter, Elliot

    1977-01-01

    The events and revelations before and since the arrest of Paul Skyhorse and Richard Mohawk (two American Indian Movement organizers charged with the 1974 murder of a taxi driver at AIM Camp 13) lead to the inevitable conclusion that these men are victims of a frame-up. (Author/JC)

  10. Precision disablement aiming system

    SciTech Connect

    Monda, Mark J.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Gladwell, Thomas Scott

    2016-02-16

    A disrupter to a target may be precisely aimed by positioning a radiation source to direct radiation towards the target, and a detector is positioned to detect radiation that passes through the target. An aiming device is positioned between the radiation source and the target, wherein a mechanical feature of the aiming device is superimposed on the target in a captured radiographic image. The location of the aiming device in the radiographic image is used to aim a disrupter towards the target.

  11. Precision laser aiming system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Brandon R.; Todd, Steven N.

    2009-04-28

    A precision laser aiming system comprises a disrupter tool, a reflector, and a laser fixture. The disrupter tool, the reflector and the laser fixture are configurable for iterative alignment and aiming toward an explosive device threat. The invention enables a disrupter to be quickly and accurately set up, aligned, and aimed in order to render safe or to disrupt a target from a standoff position.

  12. AIM Spacecraft Instruments

    NASA Image and Video Library

    AIM will make simultaneous measurements of the main ingredients needed to form these clouds and will unravel the role of natural factors, such as the solar cycle and meteorology, from the possible ...

  13. Thinking Big, Aiming High

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, Viv

    2010-01-01

    What do teachers, providers and policymakers need to do in order to support disabled learners to "think big and aim high"? That was the question put to delegates at NIACE's annual disability conference. Some clear themes emerged, with delegates raising concerns about funding, teacher training, partnership-working and employment for disabled…

  14. AIM High Program Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX.

    The AIM High Program was developed for elementary school children in the Austin (Texas) Independent School District who demonstrate unusually high ability, interest, and motivation in language arts, mathematics, science, and art. Students are identified for the program through standardized test scores, teacher recommendation, student interest,…

  15. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    -independent factors, as well as our investigation of ways to improve the clinical evaluation of the disease. Our research was prompted by the multifactorial nature of glaucoma. There is a high degree of variability in the pattern and speed of the progression of visual field defects in individual patients, presenting a major obstacle for successful clinical trials. To overcome this, we classified the eyes of glaucoma patients into 4 types, corresponding to the 4 patterns of glaucomatous optic nerve head morphology described: by Nicolela et al. and then tested the validity of this method by assessing the uniformity of clinical features in each group. We found that in normal tension glaucoma (NTG) eyes, each disc morphology group had a characteristic location in which the loss of circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT; measured with optical coherence tomography: OCT) was most likely to occur. Furthermore, the incidence of reductions in visual acuity differed between the groups, as did the speed of visual field loss, the distribution of defective visual field test points, and the location of test points that were most susceptible to progressive damage, measured by Humphrey static perimetry. These results indicate that Nicolela's method of classifying eyes with glaucoma was able to overcome the difficulties caused by the diverse nature of the disease, at least to a certain extent. Building on these findings, we then set out to identify sectors of the visual field that correspond to the distribution of retinal nerve fibers, with the aim of detecting glaucoma progression with improved sensitivity. We first mapped the statistical correlation between visual field test points and cpRNFLT in each temporal clock-hour sector (from 6 to 12 o'clock), using OCT data from NTG patients. The resulting series of maps allowed us to identify areas containing visual field test points that were prone to be affected together as a group. We also used a similar method to identify visual

  16. Animation of the AIM Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    AIM will make simultaneous measurements of the main ingredients needed to form these clouds and will unravel the role of natural factors, such as the solar cycle and meteorology, from the possible ...

  17. National Rural Health Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Policy Responses Sequestration Impact Programs State Rural Health Associations Rural Medical Education Rural Health Fellows Rural Health ... Membership Categories Membership Application PROGRAMS State Rural Health Associations Rural Medical Education Rural Health Fellows Rural Health ...

  18. The diverse aims of science.

    PubMed

    Potochnik, Angela

    2015-10-01

    There is increasing attention to the centrality of idealization in science. One common view is that models and other idealized representations are important to science, but that they fall short in one or more ways. On this view, there must be an intermediary step between idealized representation and the traditional aims of science, including truth, explanation, and prediction. Here I develop an alternative interpretation of the relationship between idealized representation and the aims of science. I suggest that continuing, widespread idealization calls into question the idea that science aims for truth. If instead science aims to produce understanding, this would enable idealizations to directly contribute to science's epistemic success. I also use the fact of widespread idealization to motivate the idea that science's wide variety aims, epistemic and non-epistemic, are best served by different kinds of scientific products. Finally, I show how these diverse aims—most rather distant from truth—result in the expanded influence of social values on science.

  19. AIM: Attracting Women into Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Icial S.

    1995-01-01

    Addresses how to attract more college women into the sciences. Attracting Women into Sciences (AIM) is a comprehensive approach that begins with advising, advertising, and ambiguity. The advising process includes dispelling stereotypes and reviewing the options open to a female basic science major. Interaction, involvement and instruction, finding…

  20. Aims, assessments and workplace needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Paul

    1997-03-01

    This paper attempts to consider the aims that undergraduate physics degree courses actually reflect and serve in the light of the employment patterns of graduates and of the expressed needs of employers. Calling on evidence mainly from the UK, it reviews analyses of what degree examinations actually test, and goes on to quote criticisms of their courses and radical proposals to change them adopted by the senior physics professors in the UK. The discussion is then broadened by discussion of evidence, about the employment of graduates and about the priorities that some industrialists now give in the qualities that they look for when recruiting new graduates. The evidence leads to a view that radical changes are needed, both in courses and examinations, and that there is a need for university departments to work more closely with employers in re-formulating the aims and priorities in their teaching.

  1. Taking aim at infusion confusion.

    PubMed

    Burdeu, Gabrielle; Crawford, Ruth; van de Vreede, Melita; McCann, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive multidisciplinary approach was used to improve drug infusion safety in an acute care hospital in Melbourne, Australia. This project aimed to reduce the potential for drug infusion-related error, improve drug infusion safety for patients, and encourage incident reporting to inform and guide continuous quality improvement projects. The project applied a systems approach to medication safety, using redesign strategies such as continuous quality improvement (plan, do, study, and act) and re-engineering. Key safety design concepts such as standardization, simplification, and forcing functions were also used.

  2. Rural Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckley, Betty; Hitchings, Jim

    1971-01-01

    A course in rural studies, as part of the Home Economics curriculum at Worcester College of Education, provides students with the opportunity to grow their own vegetables and flowers, look after livestock, and experience a rural environment. (RY)

  3. Rural Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jess

    To be scientific, rural sociology must have a distinctive conceptual basis; therefore, defining "rural" has long been a major concern of rural sociologists. Recently faced with similar problems, political economists have revitalized the field of urban sociology by looking beyond the city to the social production of spatial forms under…

  4. Information Sources on Rural Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notess, Greg; Kuske, Jodee

    1992-01-01

    Provides resources for rural recycling operations with the principle aim of assisting rural government officials, planners, residents, and educators to encourage recycling as an integral part of an individual's or community's solid waste management plan. Sources range from bibliographies, directories, and government documents to case studies. (49…

  5. Information Sources on Rural Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notess, Greg; Kuske, Jodee

    1992-01-01

    Provides resources for rural recycling operations with the principle aim of assisting rural government officials, planners, residents, and educators to encourage recycling as an integral part of an individual's or community's solid waste management plan. Sources range from bibliographies, directories, and government documents to case studies. (49…

  6. School Closures in Rural Finnish Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Autti, Outi; Hyry-Beihammer, Eeva Kaisa

    2014-01-01

    The network of small rural schools in Finland has been radically weakened since the global recession of the 1990s. This article focuses on the social role of rural schools and the phenomenon of school closures. Our aim is to look at rural schools from the viewpoint of local residents and examine how they experience school closures. We seek to hear…

  7. Risk Factors for Rural Residential Fires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Yang, Jingzhen; Zwerling, Craig

    2007-01-01

    Context and Purpose: Rural households report high fire-related mortality and injury rates, but few studies have examined the risk factors for fires. This study aims to identify occupant and household characteristics that are associated with residential fires in a rural cohort. Methods: Of 1,005 households contacted in a single rural county, 691…

  8. Risk Factors for Rural Residential Fires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Yang, Jingzhen; Zwerling, Craig

    2007-01-01

    Context and Purpose: Rural households report high fire-related mortality and injury rates, but few studies have examined the risk factors for fires. This study aims to identify occupant and household characteristics that are associated with residential fires in a rural cohort. Methods: Of 1,005 households contacted in a single rural county, 691…

  9. Rural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouk, Ullik, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This journal issue is devoted to the theme topic "Rural Education." The first article, "Science is Everywhere," by Chris Taylor, presents a project which uses local experts as an integral part of the school's science curriculum. "Better Teachers, Better Readers" by Scott Steen describes a system of strategic reading used in rural Wisconsin school…

  10. Rural Agrobusiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treillon, Roland; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This publication describes the formation and evolution of rural agribusiness (RA) in the southern hemisphere as a precondition for improving the lives of families in rural communities, and focuses on RA endeavors created by development projects in Latin America, the Caribbean, and Africa. After a short introduction, the first section of this study…

  11. Rural definitions for health policy and research.

    PubMed

    Hart, L Gary; Larson, Eric H; Lishner, Denise M

    2005-07-01

    The term "rural" suggests many things to many people, such as agricultural landscapes, isolation, small towns, and low population density.However, defining "rural" for health policy and research purposes requires researchers and policy analysts to specify which aspects of rurality are most relevant to the topic at hand and then select an appropriate definition. Rural and urban taxonomies often do not discuss important demographic, cultural, and economic differences across rural places-differences that have major implications for policy and research. Factors such as geographic scale and region also must be considered. Several useful rural taxonomies are discussed and compared in this article. Careful attention to the definition of "rural" is required for effectively targeting policy and research aimed at improving the health of rural Americans.

  12. Pedagogy for rural health.

    PubMed

    Reid, Stephen J

    2011-04-01

    As the body of literature on rural health has grown, the need to develop a unifying theoretical framework has become more apparent. There are many different ways of seeing the same phenomenon, depending on the assumptions we make and the perspective we choose. A conceptual and theoretical basis for the education of health professionals in rural health has not yet been described. This paper examines a number of theoretical frameworks that have been used in the rural health discourse and aims to identify relevant theory that originates from an educational paradigm. The experience of students in rural health is described phenomenologically in terms of two complementary perspectives, using a geographic basis on the one hand, and a developmental viewpoint on the other. The educational features and implications of these perspectives are drawn out. The concept of a 'pedagogy of place' recognizes the importance of the context of learning and allows the uniqueness of a local community to integrate learning at all levels. The theory of critical pedagogy is also found relevant to education for rural health, which would ideally produce 'transformative' graduates who understand the privilege of their position, and who are capable of and committed to engaging in the struggles for equity and justice, both within their practices as well as in the wider society. It is proposed that a 'critical pedagogy of place,' which gives due acknowledgement to local peculiarities and strengths, while situating this within a wider framework of the political, social and economic disparities that impact on the health of rural people, is an appropriate theoretical basis for a distinct rural pedagogy in the health sciences.

  13. A comparison of mental health, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors between rural and non-rural transgender persons.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Keith J; Iantaffi, Alex; Swinburne-Romine, Rebecca; Bockting, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the mental health, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors of rural and non-rural transgender persons. Online banner advertisements were used to recruit 1,229 self-identified rural and non-rural transgender adults (18+ years) residing in the United States. Primary findings include significant differences in mental health between rural and non-rural transmen; relatively low levels of binge drinking across groups, although high levels of marijuana use; and high levels of unprotected sex among transwomen. The results confirm that mental and physical health services for transgender persons residing in rural areas are urgently needed.

  14. A Comparison of Mental Health, Substance Use, and Sexual Risk Behaviors Between Rural and Non-Rural Transgender Persons

    PubMed Central

    HORVATH, KEITH J.; IANTAFFI, ALEX; SWINBURNE-ROMINE, REBECCA; BOCKTING, WALTER

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the mental health, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors of rural and non-rural transgender persons. Online banner advertisements were used to recruit 1,229 self-identified rural and non-rural transgender adults (18+ years) residing in the United States. Primary findings include significant differences in mental health between rural and non-rural transmen; relatively low levels of binge drinking across groups, although high levels of marijuana use; and high levels of unprotected sex among transwomen. The results confirm that mental and physical health services for transgender persons residing in rural areas are urgently needed. PMID:24380580

  15. Predictive Algorithm For Aiming An Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gawronski, Wodek K.

    1993-01-01

    Method of computing control signals to aim antenna based on predictive control-and-estimation algorithm that takes advantage of control inputs. Conceived for controlling antenna in tracking spacecraft and celestial objects, near-future trajectories of which are known. Also useful in enhancing aiming performances of other antennas and instruments that track objects that move along fairly well known paths.

  16. Take AIM and Keep Your Students Engaged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines the benefits to distance education teachers of formatting a weekly online newsletter in accordance with motivational learning theory. It reflects on the delivery of weekly AIM newsletters to undergraduate economics students at the Open Polytechnic of New Zealand via Moodle. The acronym, AIM, stands for Academic content,…

  17. Aims in Music Education: A Conceptual Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koopman, Constantijn

    1997-01-01

    Explores the concept of aims in music education through investigating the ideas of four philosophers: Wolfgang Brezinka, Richard S. Peters, Bennett Reimer, and David Elliott. Inquires into the empirical and logical aspects of aims and clarifies the relationships between "musical behaviors." Concludes by discussing the relevance of conceptual…

  18. Is "Freedom" an Aim of Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abinum, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that "freedom" properly understood cannot be an aim or an ideal of education, and that when educators talk of "freedom" as an aim or ideal of education, they usually have in mind the development of autonomy. (Author)

  19. Aims of education in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, Walter Eugene

    1990-06-01

    The first part of this paper gives a historical account of the aims of education under Apartheid, and discusses the ideological success of Apartheid education. The second part argues that a significant discussion — that is one which could have some purchase on schooling policy and educational practice — of aims of education in South Africa is not possible at present because the historical preconditions for such a discussion are not satisfied. It is argued that Apartheid has generated a political perspective which is unsympathetic to a discussion of aims of education; that the dominance of a social engineering model of schooling distorts a discussion of aims of education; and that a shared moral discourse, which is a necessary condition for a significant discussion of aims of education, does not yet exist in South Africa.

  20. Orbital Sciences Pegasus XL AIM Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-16

    In Building 1555 at North Vandenberg Air Force Base, workers lower the AIM spacecraft onto a moveable base. AIM will be moved into an area where a partial deployment of the solar arrays on the spacecraft will take place.The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. AIM is scheduled to be mated to the Pegasus XL during the second week of April, after which final inspections will be conducted. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  1. Orbital Sciences Pegasus XL AIM Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-16

    In Building 1555 at North Vandenberg Air Force Base, workers get ready to attach the overhead crane to the AIM spacecraft. AIM will be moved into an area where a partial deployment of the solar arrays on the spacecraft will take place. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. AIM is scheduled to be mated to the Pegasus XL during the second week of April, after which final inspections will be conducted. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  2. Orbital Sciences Pegasus XL AIM Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-16

    Inside the clean-room "tent" of Building 1555 at North Vandenberg Air Force Base, two of the solar array panels on the AIM spacecraft are deployed for testing. Inside are the instruments that will study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study those clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. AIM is scheduled to be mated to the Pegasus XL during the second week of April, after which final inspections will be conducted. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  3. Orbital Sciences Pegasus XL AIM Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-16

    In a clean-room environment at North Vandenberg Air Force Base, a technician prepares the lights for illumination testing of the AIM spacecraft at left. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study those clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. AIM is scheduled to be mated to the Pegasus XL during the second week of April, after which final inspections will be conducted. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  4. Orbital Sciences Pegasus XL AIM Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-16

    Inside the clean-room "tent" of Building 1555 at North Vandenberg Air Force Base, technicians in bunny suits prepare for the solar array deployment on the AIM spacecraft. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. AIM is scheduled to be mated to the Pegasus XL during the second week of April, after which final inspections will be conducted. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  5. Orbital Sciences Pegasus XL AIM Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-16

    Inside the clean-room "tent" of Building 1555 at North Vandenberg Air Force Base, a technician places a star tracker cover on the AIM spacecraft during testing of the solar array panel deployment. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. AIM is scheduled to be mated to its launch vehicle, Orbital Sciences' Pegasus XL, during the second week of April, after which final inspections will be conducted. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  6. Orbital Sciences Pegasus XL AIM Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-17

    In a clean-room environment at North Vandenberg Air Force Base, technicians remove covers from instruments in the AIM spacecraft while solar panels are partially deployed. AIM will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. AIM is scheduled to be mated to the Pegasus XL during the second week of April, after which final inspections will be conducted. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  7. Orbital Sciences Pegasus XL AIM Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-16

    In a clean-room environment at North Vandenberg Air Force Base, a technician begins the illumination testing of the AIM spacecraft at left. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study those clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. AIM is scheduled to be mated to the Pegasus XL during the second week of April, after which final inspections will be conducted. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  8. Orbital Sciences Pegasus XL AIM Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-16

    Inside the clean-room "tent" of Building 1555 at North Vandenberg Air Force Base, technicians place a star tracker cover on the AIM spacecraft during testing of the solar array panel deployment. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. AIM is scheduled to be mated to its launch vehicle, Orbital Sciences' Pegasus XL, during the second week of April, after which final inspections will be conducted. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  9. Orbital Sciences Pegasus XL AIM Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-17

    In a clean-room environment at North Vandenberg Air Force Base, technicians look at an area of the AIM spacecraft. AIM will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. AIM is scheduled to be mated to the Pegasus XL during the second week of April, after which final inspections will be conducted. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  10. Orbital Sciences Pegasus XL AIM Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-16

    Inside the clean-room "tent" of Building 1555 at North Vandenberg Air Force Base, a star tracker cover is ready for placement on the AIM spacecraft during testing of the solar array panel deployment. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. AIM is scheduled to be mated to its launch vehicle, Orbital Sciences' Pegasus XL, during the second week of April, after which final inspections will be conducted. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  11. Orbital Sciences Pegasus XL AIM Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-16

    In Building 1555 at North Vandenberg Air Force Base, workers prepare the area where a partial deployment of the solar arrays on the AIM spacecraft will take place. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. AIM is scheduled to be mated to the Pegasus XL during the second week of April, after which final inspections will be conducted. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  12. Orbital Sciences Pegasus XL AIM Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-17

    In a clean-room environment at North Vandenberg Air Force Base, technicians remove covers from instruments in the AIM spacecraft while solar panels are partially deployed. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. AIM is scheduled to be mated to the Pegasus XL during the second week of April, after which final inspections will be conducted. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  13. Orbital Sciences Pegasus XL AIM Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-17

    In a clean-room environment at North Vandenberg Air Force Base, technicians work on the AIM spacecraft. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. AIM is scheduled to be mated to the Pegasus XL during the second week of April, after which final inspections will be conducted. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  14. Orbital Sciences Pegasus XL AIM Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-16

    In a clean-room environment at North Vandenberg Air Force Base, a technician monitors the AIM spacecraft after illumination testing on the spacecraft's solar array panels. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study those clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. AIM is scheduled to be mated to the Pegasus XL during the second week of April, after which final inspections will be conducted. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  15. Orbital Sciences Pegasus XL AIM Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-16

    In a clean-room environment at North Vandenberg Air Force Base, lights are reflected on the solar array panels of the AIM spacecraft during illumination testing. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study those clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. AIM is scheduled to be mated to the Pegasus XL during the second week of April, after which final inspections will be conducted. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  16. Orbital Sciences Pegasus XL AIM Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-16

    In Building 1555 at North Vandenberg Air Force Base, workers roll the AIM spacecraft into the "tent" where a partial deployment of the solar arrays on the spacecraft will take place. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. AIM is scheduled to be mated to the Pegasus XL during the second week of April, after which final inspections will be conducted. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  17. Orbital Sciences Pegasus XL AIM Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-17

    In a clean-room environment at North Vandenberg Air Force Base, technicians look at part of the AIM spacecraft. AIM will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. AIM is scheduled to be mated to the Pegasus XL during the second week of April, after which final inspections will be conducted. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  18. Orbital Sciences Pegasus XL AIM Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-16

    In Building 1555 at North Vandenberg Air Force Base, workers lift the AIM spacecraft from its stand in order to move it into an area where a partial deployment of the solar arrays on the spacecraft will take place. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. AIM is scheduled to be mated to the Pegasus XL during the second week of April, after which final inspections will be conducted. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  19. Orbital Sciences Pegasus XL AIM Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-16

    In a clean-room environment containing the AIM spacecraft (background) at North Vandenberg Air Force Base, a technician studies results of illumination testing on the spacecraft's solar array panels. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study those clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. AIM is scheduled to be mated to the Pegasus XL during the second week of April, after which final inspections will be conducted. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  20. Animated View of the AIM Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) mission will provide the first detailed exploration of Earth's unique and elusive noctilucent or night shining clouds that are found literally on the "ed...

  1. Rural Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... parts of the country. Populations of older adults increase by level of rurality: Source: Geographic Comparison Tables 0103 and 0104 , 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates This map, based on 2010 Census Data, shows the percent of the population over 65 ...

  2. Rural Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jon, Ed.; And Others

    Presented are 10 papers resulting from a workshop, involving representatives from 33 state developmental disabilities councils, designed to examine common problems and issues confronting developmentally disabled citizens in rural areas. Entries include the following titles and authors: "Who, What, and Where--Studying Prevalence of Developmental…

  3. Laser Transmitter Aims At Laser Beacon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Lesh, James R.

    1993-01-01

    Transmitter part of developmental optical communication system. Compact, lightweight, partially-self-aiming laser transmitter built to verify some capabilities of developmental free-space optical communication system. Design capable of providing 0.5 Mbps data return over range equal to Moon-Earth distance. Breadboard of transmitting terminal constructed and tested in laboratory. Prototype transmitter includes receiving circuitry that keeps it aimed at beacon, once brought into initial alignment within about 1.7 degrees of line of sight to beacon.

  4. Laser Transmitter Aims At Laser Beacon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Lesh, James R.

    1993-01-01

    Transmitter part of developmental optical communication system. Compact, lightweight, partially-self-aiming laser transmitter built to verify some capabilities of developmental free-space optical communication system. Design capable of providing 0.5 Mbps data return over range equal to Moon-Earth distance. Breadboard of transmitting terminal constructed and tested in laboratory. Prototype transmitter includes receiving circuitry that keeps it aimed at beacon, once brought into initial alignment within about 1.7 degrees of line of sight to beacon.

  5. Orbital Sciences Pegasus XL AIM Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-10

    NASA's Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere, or AIM, spacecraft arrives in a clean room at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. AIM is the seventh Small Explorers mission under NASA's Explorer Program. The program provides frequent flight opportunities for world-class scientific investigations from space within heliophysics and astrophysics. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. AIM is scheduled to be mated to the Pegasus XL during the second week of April, after which final inspections will be conducted. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  6. Orbital Sciences Pegasus XL AIM Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-10

    Inside a clean room at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, NASA's Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere, or AIM, spacecraft is weighed. AIM is the seventh Small Explorers mission under NASA's Explorer Program. The program provides frequent flight opportunities for world-class scientific investigations from space within heliophysics and astrophysics. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. AIM is scheduled to be mated to the Pegasus XL during the second week of April, after which final inspections will be conducted. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  7. Rural intentions

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Diane J.; Hakes, Jacquie; Bai, Meera; Tolhurst, Helen; Dickinson, James A.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the reasons for family medicine graduates’ career choices. DESIGN Qualitative study using focus groups and one-on-one interviews. SETTING University of Calgary in Alberta. PARTICIPANTS Seventeen male and female second-year family medicine residents, representing a range of ages and areas of origin, enrolled in the 2004 urban and rural south streams of the family medicine residency program at the University of Calgary. METHOD During the final month of training, 2 focus groups were conducted to determine graduating students’ career choices and the reasons for them. After focus-group data were analyzed, a questionnaire was constructed and subsequently administered to participants during face-to-face or telephone interviews. MAIN FINDINGS Most residents initially planned to do urban locums in order to gain experience. In the long term, they planned to open practices in urban areas for lifestyle and family reasons. Many residents from the rural stream had no long-term plans to establish rural practices. Most residents said they felt prepared for practice, but many indicated that an optional third year of paid training, with an emphasis on emergency medicine, obstetrics, and pediatrics, would be desirable. Reasons cited for not practising in rural areas were related to workload, lifestyle issues, family obligations, and perceived lack of medical support in the community. Only 4 female graduates and 1 male graduate intended to practise obstetrics. The main reason residents gave for this was inadequate training in obstetrics during residency. Finances were cited as a secondary reason for many choices, and might in fact be more important than at first apparent. CONCLUSION Despite its intention to recruit family medicine graduates to rural areas and to obstetrics, the University of Calgary residency training program was not successful in recruiting physicians to these areas. The program likely needs to re-examine the effectiveness of

  8. Interactive Instructional Television: Education for Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anagal, Judy; And Others

    The Rural Special Education Project is a federally funded partnership between Kayenta Unified School District and Northern Arizona University's (NAU) Center for Excellence in Education that aims to prepare well qualified special education teachers to work in rural and reservation schools. The participants are Native American residents working…

  9. Rurality Index for Small Areas in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocana-Riola, Ricardo; Sanchez-Cantalejo, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    An operational definition for "rural area" is pivotal if proposals, policies and decisions aimed at optimising the distribution of resources, closing the gap on inequity between areas and raising standards of living for the least advantaged populations are to be put in place. The concept of rurality, however, is often based on…

  10. Integrated rural energy planning

    SciTech Connect

    El Mahgary, Y.; Biswas, A.K.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on integrated community energy systems in developing countries. Topics considered include an integrated rural energy system in Sri Lanka, rural energy systems in Indonesia, integrated rural food-energy systems and technology diffusion in India, bringing energy to the rural sector in the Philippines, the development of a new energy village in China, the Niaga Wolof experimental rural energy center, designing a model rural energy system for Nigeria, the Basaisa village integrated field project, a rural energy project in Tanzania, rural energy development in Columbia, and guidelines for the planning, development and operation of integrated rural energy projects.

  11. School Community Renewal: A Cooperative Revitalization Strategy for Rural Schools, Students, and Communities. Full-Scale Version of Rural Renewal Strategies for Network Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ley, Joyce

    The work of the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (NWREL) in rural education focuses on the intersection between school renewal and rural community development. NWREL's Rural School-Community Renewal Research and Development project aims to develop the capacity of small rural schools enrolling many economically disadvantaged students to…

  12. Character as the Aim of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, David Light

    2011-01-01

    The aim of education should be developing intellectual character, moral character, civic character, and performance character. That does not mean that schools should ignore teaching content, but that the dispositions and habits of mind that come from developing these four forms of character will remain with students throughout their lives.…

  13. Character as the Aim of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, David Light

    2011-01-01

    The aim of education should be developing intellectual character, moral character, civic character, and performance character. That does not mean that schools should ignore teaching content, but that the dispositions and habits of mind that come from developing these four forms of character will remain with students throughout their lives.…

  14. Teacher Research and the Aims of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeman, Yvonne; Wardekker, Willem

    2014-01-01

    We report on the development of a course for experienced teachers in the Netherlands, intended to enhance their professionalism by engaging them in doing research based on reflection on the aims of their educational efforts. The course was accompanied by design-based research. The research question was whether and how the course stimulated…

  15. AIM: Adventures in Movement for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adventures In Movement for the Handicapped, Inc., Dayton, OH.

    The handbook on Adventures in Movement for the Handicapped (AIM) gives information about general organizational goals and suggests activities for use by volunteer teachers with blind, deaf, crippled, cerebral palsied, mentally retarded, and autistic children at five ability/age levels. General Information given about each handicap usually includes…

  16. AIM: Ames Imaging Module Spacecraft Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The AIM camera is a small, lightweight, low power, low cost imaging system developed at NASA Ames. Though it has imaging capabilities similar to those of $1M plus spacecraft cameras, it does so on a fraction of the mass, power and cost budget.

  17. Pragmatics and the aims of language evolution.

    PubMed

    Scott-Phillips, Thomas C

    2017-02-01

    Pragmatics has historically played a relatively peripheral role in language evolution research. This is a profound mistake. Here I describe how a pragmatic perspective can inform language evolution in the most fundamental way: by making clear what the natural objects of study are, and hence what the aims of the field should be.

  18. Cadres for Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iagofarova, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    Considers qualities required of rural teachers in the USSR and implications for teacher education. Reports survey results of 430 rural teachers in the Tatar region concerning what a rural teacher must know and problems specific to rural teaching. Concludes that rural teachers must coordinate teaching with social work and face housing and material…

  19. Rural Prairie Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Kari

    "Rural Prairie Women" contains the work of two task forces: the Rural Social Work Task Force which looked at the forces active in North Dakota rural areas and the Rural Women Task Force which examined the position of women within those same rural communities. The relationship between the land, small towns, and sparse population is…

  20. Rural as Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Craig B.; Howley, Aimee A.

    This essay explains two ways in which "the rural" serves as context. The common way interprets the rural lifeworld as an impediment to certain projects and goals, thus framing "the rural" as a subjugated and diminished reality. The other way is called "the rural circumstance" in order to situate the rural lifeworld as…

  1. Rural Prairie Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Kari

    "Rural Prairie Women" contains the work of two task forces: the Rural Social Work Task Force which looked at the forces active in North Dakota rural areas and the Rural Women Task Force which examined the position of women within those same rural communities. The relationship between the land, small towns, and sparse population is…

  2. Global rural electrification - A different race initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.S. )

    1991-10-01

    The paper considers global rural electrification based on electric power from power stations, built in geosynchronous orbit out of lunar materials. These materials are distributed to individual villages and rural electric cooperatives via microwaves for a cost of about 6-45 cents per kilowatt-hour. Power would be available in modular increments of 25-100 kilowatts with an average capital cost as low as $5000 per kilowatt. The global rural electrification program is aimed at providing electric power from space at competitive costs, relative to current costs, to rural and agricultural areas and diverting resources from weapons development to infrastructure development. 16 refs.

  3. Global rural electrification - A different race initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Raymond S.

    1991-10-01

    The paper considers global rural electrification based on electric power from power stations, built in geosynchronous orbit out of lunar materials. These materials are distributed to individual villages and rural electric cooperatives via microwaves for a cost of about 6-45 cents per kilowatt-hour. Power would be available in modular increments of 25-100 kilowatts with an average capital cost as low as $5000 per kilowatt. The global rural electrification program is aimed at providing electric power from space at competitive costs, relative to current costs, to rural and agricultural areas and diverting resources from weapons development to infrastructure development.

  4. Updating Rurality Index for Small Areas in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto-Lara, Elisa; Ocana-Riola, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, there is a wide debate about what rural means. An operational definition of rural concept is essential in order to measure health problems, optimize resource allocation and facilitate decision making aimed at closing the gap on inequity between areas. In 2005, the rurality index for Small Areas in Spain (IRAP) was developed using the…

  5. Leadership for Rural Schools: Lessons for All Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalker, Donald M., Ed.

    Rural schools present unique challenges for school administrators, challenges that require knowledge of various skills in a range of disciplines. This book touches nearly every aspect of rural school leadership. It aims to help educational leaders in small or rural schools better understand their role, and to help all educators learn elements of…

  6. Rural Improvement Project (RIP). [Summary and Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yvon, Bernard R., Comp.

    The aim of the Rural Improvement Project of Maine from Spring, 1969-Fall, 1970 was to improve the quality of rural education through an innovative attempt to utilize specialized, trained personnel (Cooperating Rural Resource Teachers; associate teachers; teacher aides; 3 undergraduate teachers; and an elementary guidance counselor) and to…

  7. Leadership for Rural Schools: Lessons for All Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalker, Donald M., Ed.

    Rural schools present unique challenges for school administrators, challenges that require knowledge of various skills in a range of disciplines. This book touches nearly every aspect of rural school leadership. It aims to help educational leaders in small or rural schools better understand their role, and to help all educators learn elements of…

  8. Updating Rurality Index for Small Areas in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto-Lara, Elisa; Ocana-Riola, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, there is a wide debate about what rural means. An operational definition of rural concept is essential in order to measure health problems, optimize resource allocation and facilitate decision making aimed at closing the gap on inequity between areas. In 2005, the rurality index for Small Areas in Spain (IRAP) was developed using the…

  9. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) fellowship program

    SciTech Connect

    McCleary, D.D.

    1997-04-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program administers a Graduate Fellowship Program focused toward helping students who are currently under represented in the nation`s pool of scientists and engineers, enter and complete advanced degree programs. The objectives of the program are to: (1) establish and maintain cooperative linkages between DOE and professors at universities with graduate programs leading toward degrees or with degree options in Materials Science, Materials Engineering, Metallurgical Engineering, and Ceramic Engineering, the disciplines most closely related to the AIM Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); (2) strengthen the capabilities and increase the level of participation of currently under represented groups in master`s degree programs, and (3) offer graduate students an opportunity for practical research experience related to their thesis topic through the three-month research assignment or practicum at ORNL. The program is administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE).

  10. CURRICULUM MATTERS: Aims assessments and workplace needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Paul

    1997-09-01

    This paper attempts to consider the aims that undergraduate physics degree courses actually reflect and serve in the light of the employment patterns of graduates and of the expressed needs of employers. It reviews the results of analyses of what degree examinations actually test, and goes on to quote criticisms of their courses and radical proposals to change them adopted by the UK conference of physics professors. The discussion is then broadened by discussion of evidence, about the employment of graduates and about the priorities that some industrialists now give in the qualities that they look for when recruiting new graduates. The evidence leads to a view that radical changes are needed, both in courses and examinations, and that there is a need for university departments to work more closely with employers in re-formulating the aims and priorities in their teaching.

  11. Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The overall goal of the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) experiment is to resolve why Polar Mesospheric Clouds form and why they vary. By measuring PMCs and the thermal, chemical and dynamical environment in which they form, we will quanti@ the connection between these clouds and the meteorology of the polar mesosphere. In the end, this will provide the basis for study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global change. The results of AIM will be a rigorous validation of predictive models that can reliably use past PMC changes and present trends as indicators of global change. The AIM goal will be achieved by measuring PMC extinction, brightness, spatial distribution, particle size distributions, gravity wave activity, dust influx to the atmosphere and precise, vertical profile measurements of temperature, H20, C&, 0 3 , C02, NO. and aerosols. These data can only be obtained by a complement of instruments on an orbiting spacecraft (S/C).

  12. Tapping, grasping and aiming in ideomotor apraxia.

    PubMed

    Ietswaart, Magdalena; Carey, David P; Della Sala, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    Very few studies have investigated sensorimotor control in apraxia using tasks that differ in movement complexity. Nevertheless, there is some evidence to suggest that spontaneous behaviour, although relatively preserved, can be rather clumsy or awkward, and that patients with ideomotor apraxia may have subtle kinematic abnormalities in movements made in the laboratory. It remains unclear whether patients with ideomotor apraxia perform normally on movements such as visually guided aiming, that may not depend on higher-order, more cognitive, processes and that are relatively unguided by overlearned contexts. In this study, three different sensorimotor tasks were given to the same sample of patients with quantified apraxic disturbance. Finger tapping, goal-directed grasping and aiming with and without visual feedback were examined in these patients. A clear dissociation was found between grossly impaired gesture imitation and intact motor programming of goal-directed movements with visual feedback. Apraxic patients were, however, impaired on aiming movements without visual feedback, suggesting that apraxia is associated with an increased reliance on integration of online visual information with feedforward/feedback somatosensory and motor signals. Furthermore, patients were impaired on single finger tapping which was a surprisingly good predictor of apraxia severity.

  13. Othering the Rural: About the Construction of Rural Masculinities and the Unspoken Urban Hegemonic Ideal in Swedish Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenbacka, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Studies within the field of rural geography have lately to a noticeable extent enriched the theme of the creation of masculinities and femininities focussing on social constructions of the rural, as well as social constructions of gender. In this study I aim to discuss some expressed discourses of the rural in order to illuminate the power…

  14. Othering the Rural: About the Construction of Rural Masculinities and the Unspoken Urban Hegemonic Ideal in Swedish Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenbacka, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Studies within the field of rural geography have lately to a noticeable extent enriched the theme of the creation of masculinities and femininities focussing on social constructions of the rural, as well as social constructions of gender. In this study I aim to discuss some expressed discourses of the rural in order to illuminate the power…

  15. Rural Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... higher in rural areas. These factors include: the geography of rural areas facilitates the kind of isolation ... differ for rural and urban women. Community-level barriers to enforce civil protective orders exist for women ...

  16. Rural Health Disparities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gateway Evidence-based Toolkits Rural Health Models & Innovations Supporting Rural Community Health Tools for Success Am ... Update of the Rural-Urban Chartbook Highlights current trends and disparities across different levels of metro- and ...

  17. National Rural Health Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Roster NRHA Past Presidents NRHA Leadership Constituency Groups History of Rural Health History of Rural Health Globalization Urban Bias Dependency Theory Political Economy History of Rural Health IV: '60s ...

  18. What do beginning students, in a rurally focused medical course, think about rural practice?

    PubMed

    Young, Louise; Lindsay, Daniel B; Ray, Robin A

    2016-12-07

    Medical schools may select students for their attitudes towards rural medical practice, yet the rural-urban disparity in availability of medical practitioners and services has not diminished in recent times despite government initiatives and increasing numbers being trained for a career in medicine. One medical school, with a focus on rural and remote medicine, aims to select students with positive perceptions for rural medical practice. A research project collected data on the perceptions of these medical students in the first week of their medical studies. Students completed a low stakes essay on the life and work of a rural doctor. Initially, this formed part of a literacy assessment to determine any students requiring remediation. All students were asked if they would consent to their essay being reviewed for a research project. Data was obtained from those students who consented and handed their essays in for review. The 103 student essays underwent thematic analysis and sentences were coded into three main themes of rural lifestyle, doctor role and rural practice. Second level themes were further elicited and results were quantified according to whether they were positive or negative. Positive themes included rural lifestyle, doctor role, views of doctor, impact on community, broader work and skills knowledge, and better relationships with community and patients. Negative themes included doctor's health, pressure on doctor, family problems, greater workload, privacy and confidentiality issues, cultural issues, isolation, limited resources and financial impacts. Quantitisation of this data was used to transform essay sentences into a numerical form which allowed statistical analysis and comparison of perceptions using Z tests. No significant differences on the number of positive and negative responses for rural lifestyle and rural practice were found. The rural doctor role had a significantly more positive than negative views. Significant differences were

  19. The aim and philosophy of patient monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, J. S. S.

    1970-01-01

    The history of monitoring is traced from ancient times until the invention of transducers and computers. The relevance of progress in resuscitation is emphasized. The more recent evolution of electromedical apparatus is considered from single signal detection, display and alarm to multiple signal processing, trend analysis and diagnosis. The aim of patient monitoring is to give warning of early or dangerous deterioration and to achieve this by obtaining an optimal compromise involving many design factors, clinical, engineering and economic. A new philosophy is illustrated by the specification and development of the Lifeline patient monitor. The translation of clinical diagnoses into electronic switching logic is of particular importance. PMID:4920275

  20. AIMS: Asteroseismic Inference on a Massive Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, Daniel R.

    2016-11-01

    AIMS (Asteroseismic Inference on a Massive Scale) estimates stellar parameters and credible intervals/error bars in a Bayesian manner from a set of seismic frequency data and so-called classic constraints. To achieve reliable parameter estimates and computational efficiency it searches through a grid of pre-computed models using an MCMC algorithm; interpolation within the grid of models is performed by first tessellating the grid using a Delaunay triangulation and then doing a linear barycentric interpolation on matching simplexes. Inputs for the modeling consists of individual frequencies from peak-bagging, which can be complemented with classic spectroscopic constraints.

  1. Ethics and the Proper Aims of School-To-Work for Rural Places: A Differing Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Craig B.

    This paper addresses philosophical and ethical issues regarding school-to-work issues in public education. The purpose of school-to-work programs is to help students obtain employment. This paper asserts that schools should prepare students for work, but the concept of "work" entails much more than just securing employment.…

  2. Rethinking registrar attributes for Australian rural general practice training.

    PubMed

    Eley, Diann S; Laurence, Caroline; David, Michael; Cloninger, C Robert; Walters, Lucie

    2017-08-01

    Despite increases in Commonwealth funded general practice (GP) Registrar training positions, workforce trends continue to show geographical maldistribution. This study aimed to identify Registrar attributes which describe a cohort choosing to work in rural practice. Cross-sectional self-report questionnaire for socio-demographics, prior training, current training pathway, measures of personality and resilience. GP Registrars (N = 452) training in either the general or rural pathways of three Registered Training Providers in three states, or training through the Australian College of Rural and Remote Medicine's independent pathway. Ordinal logistic regression tested the impact of key variables on the likelihood that Registrars would settle in rural practice. Univariate analysis explored differences between groups and effects of variables. A significantly increased interest in rural practice was to found to exist among registrars who were male, identified themselves as being rural, had a partner who identified as being rural, were enrolled in a rural training pathway and had high levels of Cooperativeness. We present a discriminating model combining socio-demographics, prior training and personality variables which challenges Australia to rethink Registrar attributes when training for rural general practice. With significant changes about to occur to GP training in Australia, this paper highlights the need for a more holistic approach which considers personal attributes such as Cooperativeness, rural identity and provision of geographically focused rural training pipelines to encourage Registrars to bond to individual rural communities and further develop their personal connectedness to country life and rural medical practice. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  3. Integrated rural development: commitment and policy-frame.

    PubMed

    Patel, A R

    1979-07-01

    India's 6th plan accords top priority to rural development with emphasis on development of agriculture and allied activities and rural industries. Rural growth has been slow and rural proverty has been increasing, because most of the low income groups in the rural areas depend heavily on agriculture for their livelihood. Primary constraints in the development of rural residents arise from their dependence on agriculture for livelihood, the importance of nonagricultural sources of income, and the compounding effects of natural calamities. Rural development is a strategy designed to improve the economic and social life of a specific group of people. It involves extending the benefits of development to the poorest residents of rural areas -- small farmers, tenants, landless, rural artisans, scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Rural development must be designed to increase production and raise productivity. India's 6th plan has recognized that the distribution of unemployment and poverty as well as the potential for development of agriculture and related activities varies both among and within regions. Efforts have now been made to make the programs area specific. The new approach aims at integrating field programs reflecting the economic activity of the rural family whose employment and development is the primary objective. Policy directed at ensuring a flow of new field-tested technical knowledge relevant to small holder production is essential for rural development success. A strong commitment to rural development policies at the national level is necessary if the impact on the problems of rural poverty is to be effective and broad-based.

  4. The Road to Rural Primary Care: A Narrative Review of Factors That Help Develop, Recruit, and Retain Rural Primary Care Physicians.

    PubMed

    Parlier, Anna Beth; Galvin, Shelley L; Thach, Sarah; Kruidenier, David; Fagan, Ernest Blake

    2017-08-01

    To examine the literature documenting successes in recruiting and retaining rural primary care physicians. The authors conducted a narrative review of literature on individual, educational, and professional characteristics and experiences that lead to recruitment and retention of rural primary care physicians. In May 2016, they searched MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, ERIC, Web of Science, Google Scholar, the Grey Literature Report, and reference lists of included studies for literature published in or after 1990 in the United States, Canada, or Australia. The authors identified 83 articles meeting inclusion criteria. They synthesized results and developed a theoretical model that proposes how the findings interact and influence rural recruitment and retention. The authors' proposed theoretical model suggests factors interact across multiple dimensions to facilitate the development of a rural physician identity. Rural upbringing, personal attributes, positive rural exposure, preparation for rural life and medicine, partner receptivity to rural living, financial incentives, integration into rural communities, and good work-life balance influence recruitment and retention. However, attending medical schools and/or residencies with a rural emphasis and participating in rural training may reflect, rather than produce, intention for rural practice. Many factors enhance rural physician identity development and influence whether physicians enter, remain in, and thrive in rural practice. To help trainees and young physicians develop the professional identity of a rural physician, multifactorial medical training approaches aimed at encouraging long-term rural practice should focus on rural-specific clinical and nonclinical competencies while providing trainees with positive rural experiences.

  5. AIM cryocooler developments for HOT detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rühlich, I.; Mai, M.; Withopf, A.; Rosenhagen, C.

    2014-06-01

    Significantly increased FPA temperatures for both Mid Wave and Long Wave IR detectors, i.e. HOT detectors, which have been developed in recent years are now leaving the development phase and are entering real application. HOT detectors allowing to push size weight and power (SWaP) of Integrated Detectors Cooler Assemblies (IDCA's) to a new level. Key component mainly driving achievable weight, volume and power consumption is the cryocooler. AIM cryocooler developments are focused on compact, lightweight linear cryocoolers driven by compact and high efficient digital cooler drive electronics (DCE) to also achieve highest MTTF targets. This technology is using moving magnet driving mechanisms and dual or single piston compressors. Whereas SX030 which was presented at SPIE in 2012 consuming less 3 WDC to operate a typical IDCA at 140K, next smaller cooler SX020 is designed to provide sufficient cooling power at detector temperature above 160K. The cooler weight of less than 200g and a total compressor length of 60mm makes it an ideal solution for all applications with limited weight and power budget, like in handheld applications. For operating a typical 640x512, 15μm MW IR detector the power consumption will be less than 1.5WDC. MTTF for the cooler will be in excess of 30,000h and thus achieving low maintenance cost also in 24/7 applications. The SX020 compressor is based on a single piston design with integrated passive balancer in a new design achieves very low exported vibration in the order of 100mN in the compressor axis. AIM is using a modular approach, allowing the chose between 5 different compressor types for one common Stirling expander. The 6mm expander with a total length of 74mm is now available in a new design that fits into standard dewar bores originally designed for rotary coolers. Also available is a 9mm coldfinger in both versions. In development is an ultra-short expander with around 35mm total length to achieve highest compactness. Technical

  6. Work, the Aims of Life and the Aims of Education: A Reply to Clarke and Mearman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winch, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    The main points made by Clarke and Mearman about Winch's article, 'The Economic Aims of Education,' are taken up and discussed. My argument is that work is not necessarily a disutility, although paid employment can be when it is undertaken in conditions that are not fulfilling. Life aims are not the same as educational aims, although educational…

  7. Work, the Aims of Life and the Aims of Education: A Reply to Clarke and Mearman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winch, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    The main points made by Clarke and Mearman about Winch's article, 'The Economic Aims of Education,' are taken up and discussed. My argument is that work is not necessarily a disutility, although paid employment can be when it is undertaken in conditions that are not fulfilling. Life aims are not the same as educational aims, although educational…

  8. Insect food aiming at Mars emigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Nagasaka, Sanako; Kuwayama, Akemi; Sofue, Megumi

    2012-07-01

    We study insect food aiming at Mars emigration.In space agriculture, insect is the important creature which we cannot miss.It is necessary for the pollination of the plant, and it is rich to protein and lipid as food.I reported that silkworm is an insect necessary for astroponics in particular last time.We make clothes using silk thread, and the pupa becomes the food.In addition, the clothes can make food as protein when we need not to use it. The bee is a very important insect in the space agriculture,too.We examined nutrition of silkworm, bee, grasshopper, snail and the white ant which are necessary for Mars emigration.We will introduce of good balance space foods.We will report many meal menu for Mars emigration.

  9. The aims and accomplishments of comparative psychology.

    PubMed

    Lickliter, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Greenberg, Partridge, Weiss, and Pisula propose a new perspective of comparative psychology, based in large part on an anagenetic and dynamic systems approach to the development and evolution of behavior. Their view appreciates the probabilistic nature of behavioral development and promotes the value of an integrative levels concept for generating testable hypothesis regarding the complex relationship between biology, context, and developmental history underlying behavioral and psychological functioning. However, the authors fail to represent the full scope of contemporary comparative psychology by overlooking several core aims of the field, including (a) the use of animal models to shed light on human behavior and development and (b) understanding the role of behavior as a leading edge in the evolutionary process.

  10. A Potpourri of Issues Relevant to Rural and Minority Women in the Southwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amodeo, Luiza B.; And Others

    Focusing on issues and concerns pertaining to teaching and counseling rural women and minority women living in rural environments, the four papers aim to promote a better understanding and more realistic picture of conditions affecting rural/minority women. "Factors Influencing Educational and Occupational Choices of Rural/Minority…

  11. Personal and Professional Adjustment of Social Workers to Rural and Remote Practice: Implications for Improved Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonne, Bob; Cheers, Brian

    High turnover of rural practitioners is common among a range of human service professions in Australia. A longitudinal study surveyed 123 newly appointed rural social workers who had relocated to their new rural positions, using the same questionnaire every 3 months during an 18-month period. The study aimed to investigate rural recruitment and…

  12. Taking aim at novel vaccines market.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Sita

    2009-10-01

    The World Vaccine Congress Washington 2009 was held in Chantilly, VA USA April 2O -23rd. The Vaccine congress attracted over 400 participants from across the world, including leading vaccine manufacturers, biotechs, governmental agencies, NGOs, research and academic institutes, venture capital and legal firms, contract service and equipment manufacturers. The speakers covered a wide range of topics, including the role of government and regulatory agencies, funding availability, research and development, manufacturing, packaging and post vaccine evaluations. Past vaccine development efforts have historically focused on infectious diseases. With advancements in the field of immunology, molecular biology and vaccinology, the vaccine field has begun moving in new directions. "Taking aim at novel vaccines market" session chaired by Dr. Una Ryan, Chief Executive Officer of Waltham Technologies, was focused on traditional approaches to novel targets (nosocomial infections), novel approaches to traditional targets (flu and rabies), novel approaches to novel targets (Type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis and smoking) and vaccines for developing markets (TB, malaria, rabies). The importance of collaborations among academic institutions, industries, and philanthropic foundations for developing markets was also emphasized.

  13. On correlations in IMRT planning aims.

    PubMed

    Roy, Arkajyoti; Das, Indra J; Nohadani, Omid

    2016-11-01

    The purpose was to study correlations amongst IMRT DVH evaluation points and how their relaxation impacts the overall plan. 100 head-and-neck cancer cases, using the Eclipse treatment planning system with the same protocol, are statistically analyzed for PTV, brainstem, and spinal cord. To measure variations amongst the plans, we use (i) interquartile range (IQR) of volume as a function of dose, (ii) interquartile range of dose as a function of volume, and (iii) dose falloff. To determine correlations for institutional and ICRU goals, conditional probabilities and medians are computed. We observe that most plans exceed the median PTV dose (average D50 = 104% prescribed dose). Furthermore, satisfying D50 reduced the probability of also satisfying D98, constituting a negative correlation of these goals. On the other hand, satisfying D50 increased the probability of satisfying D2, suggesting a positive correlation. A positive correlation is also observed between the PTV V105 and V110. Similarly, a positive correlation between the brainstem V45 and V50 is measured by an increase in the conditional median of V45, when V50 is violated. Despite the imposed institutional and international recommendations, significant variations amongst DVH points can occur. Even though DVH aims are evaluated independently, sizable correlations amongst them are possible, indicating that some goals cannot be satisfied concurrently, calling for unbiased plan criteria. PACS number(s): 87.55.dk, 87.53.Bn, 87.55.Qr, 87.55.de.

  14. On correlations in IMRT planning aims.

    PubMed

    Roy, Arkajyoti; Das, Indra J; Nohadani, Omid

    2016-11-08

    The purpose was to study correlations amongst IMRT DVH evaluation points and how their relaxation impacts the overall plan. 100 head-and-neck cancer cases, using the Eclipse treatment planning system with the same protocol, are statisti-cally analyzed for PTV, brainstem, and spinal cord. To measure variations amongst the plans, we use (i) interquartile range (IQR) of volume as a function of dose, (ii) interquartile range of dose as a function of volume, and (iii) dose falloff. To determine correlations for institutional and ICRU goals, conditional probabilities and medians are computed. We observe that most plans exceed the median PTV dose (average D50 = 104% prescribed dose). Furthermore, satisfying D50 reduced the probability of also satisfying D98, constituting a negative correlation of these goals. On the other hand, satisfying D50 increased the probability of satisfying D2, suggesting a positive correlation. A positive correlation is also observed between the PTV V105 and V110. Similarly, a positive correlation between the brainstem V45 and V50 is measured by an increase in the conditional median of V45, when V50 is violated. Despite the imposed institutional and international recommenda-tions, significant variations amongst DVH points can occur. Even though DVH aims are evaluated independently, sizable correlations amongst them are possible, indicating that some goals cannot be satisfied concurrently, calling for unbiased plan criteria.

  15. Supporting new graduate nurses making the transition to rural nursing practice: views from experienced rural nurses.

    PubMed

    Lea, Jackie; Cruickshank, Mary

    2015-10-01

    To present the findings from the experienced rural nurse participants of a larger study that explored the transitional experiences of newly graduated nurses making the role transition in rural health care facilities in Australia. There are specific and unique aspects of rural nursing practice that influence the nature and timing of support for new graduate nurses that have not been explored or acknowledged as influencing the new graduate nurses' experience of transition. Specifically, the difficulties and challenges that experienced rural nurses face in providing effective and timely support for new graduate nurses who are making the transition to rural nursing practice is yet to be explored. Using a qualitative case study framework, this study specifically aimed to investigate and describe the nature and timing of support required during the transition to nursing practice that is specific for the rural context and capacity. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 16 experienced rural nurses who, at the time of the study, worked with new graduate nurses in the rural practice environment. The findings from this study showed that the provision of timely on-ward support for new graduates making the transition to rural nursing practice is affected and influenced by the skill mix and staffing allocation within the rural environment. As well, there is a lack of awareness by rural nurses of how to meet the on-ward support needs of new graduate nurses. This study has identified the specific and unique aspects of the rural nurse's role and responsibilities for which the new graduate nurse requires incremental learning and intensive clinical support. The findings can be used by rural health services and experienced rural registered nurses to assist in implementing adequate and timely support for new graduate nurses. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The Changing American Countryside: Rural People and Places. Series: Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Emery N., Ed.

    This interdisciplinary collection of 26 readings in rural studies aims to address the paucity of information and absence of informed people to advise public debate about rural issues. Sections of the book examine the pastoral tradition in literature; the changing nature of the countryside; money, jobs, and space; distress and poverty; regional and…

  17. Is Isolation a Problem? Issues Faced by Rural Libraries and Rural Library Staff in South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Rebecca; Calvert, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate current issues faced by public library staff in rural South Australia and to examine some of the reasons why people choose to work in rural libraries. The study took a mixed methods approach, combining interviews and questionnaires to gain a fuller understanding of the issues and experiences of rural…

  18. The Changing American Countryside: Rural People and Places. Series: Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Emery N., Ed.

    This interdisciplinary collection of 26 readings in rural studies aims to address the paucity of information and absence of informed people to advise public debate about rural issues. Sections of the book examine the pastoral tradition in literature; the changing nature of the countryside; money, jobs, and space; distress and poverty; regional and…

  19. Predicting Rural Practice and Service to Indigent Patients: Survey of Dental Students Before and After Rural Community Rotations.

    PubMed

    Shannon, C Ken; Price, Shelia S; Jackson, Jodie

    2016-10-01

    Community-based clinical rotations in rural areas expose dental students to diverse patient populations, practice models, and career opportunities as well as rural culture. The aims of this study at West Virginia University were to determine the best predictors of rural practice, assess the predictive validity of students' intention to practice in a rural area before and after their rural rotations, and evaluate the relationship between students' intention to practice in a rural area and intention to provide care for indigent patients. Online survey data were submitted pre- and post-rural clinical rotation by 432 of 489 dental students over the study period 2001-12, yielding an 88% response rate. In 2013, practice addresses from the West Virginia Board of Dentistry were added to the student database. The results showed that significant predictors of rural practice site were intended rural practice choice, rural hometown, and projected greater practice accessibility for indigent patients. The likelihood of students' predicting they would choose a rural practice increased after completion of their rural rotations. After the rotations, students predicted providing greater accessibility to indigent patients; these changes occurred for those who changed their predictions to rural practice choice after the rotations and those who subsequently entered rural practice. The dental students with a rural background or a greater service orientation were also more likely to expect to enter a rural practice and actually to do so after graduation. These findings suggest that dental school curricula that include rural rotations may increase students' sensitivity to issues of indigent patients and increase students' likelihood of rural practice choice.

  20. What Is Rural? Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Many people have definitions for the term rural, but seldom are these rural definitions in agreement. For some, rural is a subjective state of mind. For others, rural is an objective quantitative measure. In this brief report the United States Department of Agriculture presents the following information along with helpful links for the reader: (1)…

  1. The Rural Bellwether.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sherry Freeland, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This theme issue of "State Education Leader" contains eight articles on rural education. "The Rural Bellwether" (Kathy Christie) discusses declining enrollment in rural schools, rural problems with teacher shortages and special education funding, issues related to school size and school district size, and distance learning…

  2. Rural Development Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC. Economic Development Div.

    Elements essential to an adequate framework for rural development in the U.S. are a national growth and development policy which includes a rural development strategy and definition of common problems and programmatic actions required to deal with them. Many past federal rural development programs (lacking a federal rural policy focus) have failed…

  3. Leadership for Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, E. Robert; Turner, Walter G.

    The rural school superintendency is, in many ways, as demanding and difficult as the urban superintendency. Chapter 1 of this book provides a working definition of a rural small school district, an estimation of the number of rural systems in the nation that fit the criteria, and a profile of rural small school superintendents. Chapter 2 discusses…

  4. The Rural Development Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Louis E.

    1991-01-01

    Progress toward rural development has been hampered by flawed views of rural America; serious limitations to existing social and economic data on sparsely populated areas; treatment of rural America as a geographical entity unconnected to the larger U.S. economy and society; perceived lack of feasible political solution to rural problems; and…

  5. Rural-Urban Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Daniel F.; LaGreca, Anthony J.; Mullis, Ronald L.

    This publication combines three papers on rural and urban youth issues. "Key Issues Facing Rural Youth" (Daniel F. Perkins) notes that rural adolescents share the same concerns and exhibit the same problem behaviors as their urban counterparts. But in addition, geographic isolation presents problems unique to rural areas. A framework is proposed…

  6. Sustainable mobility in rural China.

    PubMed

    Dalkmann, Holger; Hutfilter, Sabine; Vogelpohl, Karin; Schnabel, Peter

    2008-04-01

    Rural areas in China suffer from various problems. The stagnating economic development and a lack of (sufficient) job opportunities and basic services, etc., lead to disadvantages for great parts of China's population. In this context, the transport sector plays a crucial role for the development of rural settlements. Although the degree of undersupply varies between villages, the situation of Chinese villages is often worsened by an insufficient developed transport sector. Regarding mobility in rural China, major constraints and therefore challenges are the difficult access to the transport infrastructure, bad road conditions and the lack of public transport systems. Improvements within the transport sector can be regarded as crucial for the economic and social development of (rural) China and should be carried out in a sustainable and holistic manner using participatory approaches. The aim should be the development of mobility strategies considering the specific needs within the field of transport, which shall have a decisive and positive impact on related sectors. This paper is based on experiences made during the 3 years lasting Sino-European research project SUCCESS (Sustainable Users Concept for China Engaging Scientific Scenario) that analyses the present and the potential future role of transport systems in selected rural areas of China. Referring to the case studies of three villages in rural China, some mobility-related projects that present a favourable impact not only on the transport sector but also on the social system and the economy shall be highlighted. Finally, based on the analysis, instruments and measures for the development of a pathway to a sustainable mobility in rural China will be outlined.

  7. The lure of the bush: do rural placements influence student nurses to seek employment in rural settings?

    PubMed

    Lea, Jackie; Cruickshank, Mary; Paliadelis, Penny; Parmenter, Glenda; Sanderson, Helena; Thornberry, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether rural clinical placements for student nurses at a rural university in New South Wales influence their decision to join the rural and remote Registered Nurse workforce. The study utilised a convenience sample of final year Bachelor of Nursing students at a rural university campus, and consisted of two stages of data collection. Stage One employed a pre- and post-clinical placement survey design that elicited both demographic and qualitative data. Stage Two consisted of individual interviews with a sample of final year nursing students while they were on a rural clinical placement. The findings highlight the factors that influence final year students' decisions to seek employment in rural healthcare facilities. These findings will be of interest to nurse academics concerned with ensuring that undergraduate nursing curricula relate to rural nursing practice in Australia and to those involved in recruitment of new graduate RN's to rural nursing practice.

  8. From measuring the rural to the rural made to measure: social representations in perspective.

    PubMed

    dos Anjos, Flávio Sacco; Caldas, Nádia Velleda

    2014-01-01

    The founding myth of rural sociology established an opposition between countryside and cities, classifying these notions as separate spatial and social realities. In the last two decades, an idyllic and divinized image of the rural has been constructed, especially in countries from the European Union. What reasons have conspired to foster this new appreciation of the rural? Is there a mutually accepted, recurring meaning between the way this new discourse about the rural is created in Europe and in other countries? This study aims to explore some of the contradictions associated with what the authors call the emergence of a rural "made to measure" in a context marked by post-productivism and the increasing weight of post-materialist values, taking social representations of the rural as the focus of the analysis.

  9. Recruitment and retention of home support workers in rural communities.

    PubMed

    Sharman, Zena

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study examined recruitment and retention of home support workers (HSWs) providing home support in rural communities. Thirty-two participants were recruited across four island-based communities located in British Columbia, Canada. Thematic analysis of interview data revealed several key themes: (a) how the rural context shapes HSWs' employment decisions and opportunities; (b) why people become (and stay) HSWs in rural communities; and (c) how rurality influences the nature and scope of HSWs' work. These findings suggest that health human resource policies and programs aimed at HSW recruitment and retention should be tailored to characteristics, strengths, and challenges of rural communities.

  10. Resurrected Pigs, Dyed Foxes and Beloved Cows: Religious Diversity and Nostalgia for Socialism in Rural Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasieka, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of my paper is to discuss the phenomenon of nostalgia for socialism in rural Poland. More precisely, I discuss how experiences of rurality and diverse religious beliefs intertwine with nostalgia. Depicting the memories of socialism, shared with me by the inhabitants of a multi-religious rural commune in Southern Poland, I aim to…

  11. Resurrected Pigs, Dyed Foxes and Beloved Cows: Religious Diversity and Nostalgia for Socialism in Rural Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasieka, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of my paper is to discuss the phenomenon of nostalgia for socialism in rural Poland. More precisely, I discuss how experiences of rurality and diverse religious beliefs intertwine with nostalgia. Depicting the memories of socialism, shared with me by the inhabitants of a multi-religious rural commune in Southern Poland, I aim to…

  12. Starting rural, staying rural: how can we strengthen the pathway from rural upbringing to rural practice?

    PubMed

    Strasser, Roger; Hogenbirk, John C; Lewenberg, Michael; Story, Margot; Kevat, Ajay

    2010-12-01

      To determine if selecting rural background students into the Monash Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) program affects vocational training location and intended practice location after training.   Retrospective cohort mail survey.   Australia.   Rural-background students at Monash 1992-1994 (n=24/40) and 1995-1999 (n=59/120) and urban background students (n=36/93 and 104/300, respectively). Overall study population: 62% female, average age of 28 years; 79% Australian-born; and 60% married/partnered.   Rural or urban background, rural undergraduate exposure.   Intent towards rural medical practice, vocational training location and subsequent practice location.   There was a positive and significant (P ≤0.05) association between rural background and rural practice intent when respondents began (10-times higher than urban graduates) and completed (three times higher) their MBBS course. Rural practice intent increased fourfold in urban background graduates. There was a positive and significant association between rural background and preferred place of practice in 5-10 years in a Rural, Remote and Metropolitan Area (RRMA) 3-7 community (three times higher). There was a positive, but non-significant association between rural background and RRMA 3-7 community as their current location and first place of practice once vocationally qualified.   Interest in rural practice is not fully reflected in location during or after vocational training. The beneficial effects of rural undergraduate exposure might be lost if internship and vocational training programs provide insufficient rural clinical experiences and curriculum content. Continuation of the rural pathway might be needed to maintain rural practice intent. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  13. Office of Rural Health Policy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Hub Rural Health Research Gateway Rural Community Health Gateway White House Rural Council  Eligibility Analyzer Contact Us Subscribe to FORHP weekly announcement for rural health grantees and stakeholders by e-mail Subscribe to ...

  14. A Perspective on Rural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, W. Wade; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Includes "Perspective on Rural Education" (Miller); "You Want Them to Learn What?" (Jones); "Rural Education" (Baker, Burns); "Metnet" (Frick); "Rural Education and Training in Egypt" (Swan, Aly); "Mentors, Youth at Risk, and Rural Education Programs" (Wingenbach); "Designing…

  15. A Perspective on Rural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, W. Wade; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Includes "Perspective on Rural Education" (Miller); "You Want Them to Learn What?" (Jones); "Rural Education" (Baker, Burns); "Metnet" (Frick); "Rural Education and Training in Egypt" (Swan, Aly); "Mentors, Youth at Risk, and Rural Education Programs" (Wingenbach); "Designing…

  16. Rural Policies for the 1990s. Rural Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flora, Cornelia B., Ed.; Christenson, James A., Ed.

    Written by some of the foremost experts on rural America, this book focuses on policy-relevant research on the problems of rural areas. In each chapter, rural policy needs are identified by examining the flow of events and rural sociology of the 1980s. Chapters are: (1) "Critical Times for Rural America: The Challenge for Rural Policy in the…

  17. Rural Policies for the 1990s. Rural Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flora, Cornelia B., Ed.; Christenson, James A., Ed.

    Written by some of the foremost experts on rural America, this book focuses on policy-relevant research on the problems of rural areas. In each chapter, rural policy needs are identified by examining the flow of events and rural sociology of the 1980s. Chapters are: (1) "Critical Times for Rural America: The Challenge for Rural Policy in the…

  18. Regular and random components in aiming-point trajectory during rifle aiming and shooting.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Simon; Haufler, Amy; Shim, Jae Kun; Hatfieldd, Bradley

    2009-07-01

    The authors examined the kinematic qualities of the aiming trajectory as related to expertise. In all, 2 phases of the trajectory were discriminated. The first phase was regular approximation to the target accompanied by substantial fluctuations obeying the Weber-Fechner law. During the first phase, shooters did not initiate the triggering despite any random closeness of the aiming point (AP) to the target. In the second phase, beginning at 0.6-0.8 s before the trigger pull, shooters applied a different control strategy: They waited until the following random fluctuation brought the AP closer to the target and then initiated triggering. This strategy is tenable when sensitivity of perception is greater than precision of the motor action, and could be considered a case of stochastic resonance. The strategies that novices and experts used distinguished only in the values of parameters. The authors present an analytical model explaining the main properties of shooting.

  19. Regular and Random Components in Aiming-Point Trajectory During Rifle Aiming and Shooting

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Simon; Haufler, Amy; Shim, Jae Kun; Hatfield, Bradley

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the kinematic qualities of the aiming trajectory as related to expertise. In all, 2 phases of the trajectory were discriminated. The first phase was regular approximation to the target accompanied by substantial fluctuations obeying the Weber–Fechner law. During the first phase, shooters did not initiate the triggering despite any random closeness of the aiming point (AP) to the target. In the second phase, beginning at 0.6–0.8 s before the trigger pull, shooters applied a different control strategy: They waited until the following random fluctuation brought the AP closer to the target and then initiated triggering. This strategy is tenable when sensitivity of perception is greater than precision of the motor action, and could be considered a case of stochastic resonance. The strategies that novices and experts used distinguished only in the values of parameters. The authors present an analytical model explaining the main properties of shooting. PMID:19508963

  20. AIM-9X Block II Sidewinder (AIM-9X Blk II)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Applicable O&S - Operating and Support Oth - Other PAUC - Program Acquisition Unit Cost PB - President’s Budget PE - Program Element Proc - Procurement...IATO - Interim Authorization to Operate IEA - Information Enterprise Architecture in - Inches IP - Internet Protocol IT - Information Technology ...Block II SAR. RDT&E Appn BA PE Navy 1319 07 0207161N Project Name 0457 Tactical Aim Missile (Shared) Air Force 3600 07 0207161F

  1. Rural Wellness and Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Rural? Economic Impact Analysis Tool Planning for Sustainability Rural Health IT Curriculum Resources Testing New Approaches ... health of all groups Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all Promote quality ...

  2. Rural People with Disabilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics & States Topics View more Rural People with Disabilities People with disabilities, young and old, who live ... Act for local government? How many people with disabilities live in rural areas? According to the U.S. ...

  3. Medicaid and Rural Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... How does Medicaid impact rural healthcare and the economy? In many ways, Medicaid plays a larger role ... the report states that “Medicaid contributes to rural economic development in four important ways: providing opportunity for ...

  4. Rural ground water contamination

    SciTech Connect

    D'Itri, F.M.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Remedial Actions; Analysis and Control of Rural Ground Wate; Ground Water Contamination Sources; Research Theory, and Practice; and Regulations Pertaining to Rural Ground Water.

  5. Supporting Sustainable Rural Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Supporting Sustainable Rural Communities summarizes the findings of a work group of EPA, HUD, DOT, and USDA and creates a framework for the Partnership for Sustainable Communities’ future work with rural communities.

  6. Medicare and Rural Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... differences exist in rural and urban Medicare enrollee populations? According to MedPAC’s Report to the Congress (June ... rural people make up 19% of the U.S. population and you will see why the Medicare program ...

  7. Rural Youths' Images of the Rural

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, Johan Fredrik

    2006-01-01

    Following the cultural turn within the social sciences, recent debates on how to conceptualise "the rural" have focused on "rurality" as a phenomenon produced by processes of social construction. This paper presents an empirical account of the outcome of these social construction processes through an analysis of how teenagers…

  8. Rural Education and Rural Community Viability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Patricia Cahape

    This thesis examines the ways in which rural schools support or undermine rural community viability in the United States. Beginning in the late 19th century, the diverse people of the United States came under the power of a single ideology of modernization and the superiority of urban culture. This ideology has resulted in the American transition…

  9. Rural Education Issues: Rural Administrators Speak Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Julia; Nierengarten, Gerry

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the issues that most affect Minnesota's rural public school administrators as they attempt to fulfill the mandates required from state legislation and communities. A second purpose was to identify exemplary practices valued by individual Minnesota rural schools and districts. Electronic surveys were sent…

  10. Rural Education: Learning to Be Rural Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barter, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper draws on research which began in 2006 with students in a graduate course on rural education. Its purpose was to find out what graduate students saw as current issues of rural education, how that compared to the literature, and what they thought supporting agencies such as government and universities needed to be doing to…

  11. Rural Poverty and Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural Housing Alliance, Washington, DC.

    Today poverty in rural America remains pervasive and persistent. A decade ago, 14 million rural Americans were classified as "officially" poor. In 1973, nearly 9.2 million were classified poor. The decline in rural poverty over the years has been minimal. This paper briefly documents the poverty statistics according to the living standards used by…

  12. [Accessible Rural Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Nick, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue of the quarterly newsletter "Rural Exchange" provides information and resources on accessible rural housing for the disabled. "Accessible Manufactured Housing Could Increase Rural Home Supply" (Nick Baker) suggests that incorporation of access features such as lever door handles and no-step entries into manufactured housing could help…

  13. Rural Research Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lewis W.

    The following rural sociological research needs were identified: (1) acceptance of general sociological theory and methodology for use in "Rural" research; (2) recognition of bench marks and probable base lines in rural sociological research; (3) collection of widely scattered reports for examination and perhaps respecification; (4) establishment…

  14. Reaching Rural Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard van Leer Foundation Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter issue focuses on programming undertaken to address the health and educational needs of rural families in developing and developed nations. After examining the nature of rural families and rural poverty, the newsletter discusses: (1) the Mon Women's Organization in Thailand; (2) The "Contact With Kids" parent education…

  15. America's Rural Information Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Caille John, Patricia

    The Rural Information Center (RIC), a project of two agencies of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, has served rural information needs since 1988. The targeted audience for the RIC is local officials and citizens, rather than scientists and federal officials, and the thrust of its information is rural development rather than production…

  16. Rural Students at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Judi

    Identifying and describing students in rural schools who are at potential educational risk is the purpose of this study which involved extensive taped interviews with administrators, teachers and students in selected rural schools in Iowa. Various indicators of educational risk in selected rural environments suggest that students are decidedly…

  17. Rural Conditions and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazie, Sara Mills, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This U.S. Department of Agriculture periodical gives current statistical information on rural America. This issue contains articles about the impact on rural areas of economic trends, employment, and industry changes. A general overview indicates that moderate improvements in rural employment since 1986 have been tempered by slow income growth.…

  18. Think Rural Means Isolated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy

    1990-01-01

    The benefits of distance education have made converts out of many rural school administrators. Through communication satellites, schools can gain access to the most advanced courses for students and staff while maintaining their rural characteristics and personal touch. Sidebars present a glossary and one rural New York school's experience with…

  19. [Rural School Administrator's Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AEL, Inc., Charleston, WV.

    This packet contains resources on five topics relevant to rural school administrators. "Assessing Parent Involvement: A Checklist for Rural Schools": discusses educator beliefs that support successful parent engagement programs, challenges and advantages of rural schools attempting to involve parents and community, and aspects of…

  20. Supporting nurses' transition to rural healthcare environments through mentorship.

    PubMed

    Rohatinsky, Noelle K; Jahner, Sharleen

    2016-01-01

    The global shortage of rural healthcare professionals threatens the access these communities have to adequate healthcare resources. Barriers to recruitment and retention of nurses in rural facilities include limited resources, professional development opportunities, and interpersonal ties to the area. Mentorship programs have been used to successfully recruit and retain rural nurses. This study aimed to explore (i) employee perceptions of mentorship in rural healthcare organizations, (ii) the processes involved in creating mentoring relationships in rural healthcare organizations, and (iii) the organizational features supporting and inhibiting mentorship in rural healthcare organizations. This study was conducted in one rural health region in Saskatchewan, Canada. Volunteer participants who were employed at one rural healthcare facility were interviewed. A semi-structured interview guide that focused on exploring and gaining an understanding of participants' perceptions of mentorship in rural communities was employed. Data were analyzed using interpretive description methodology, which places high value on participants' subjective perspective and knowledge of their experience. All seven participants were female and employed as registered nurses or licensed practical nurses. Participants recognized that the rural environment offered unique challenges and opportunities for the transition of nurses new to rural healthcare. Participants believed mentorships facilitated this transition and were vital to the personal and professional success of new employees. Specifically, their insights indicated that this transition was influenced by three factors: rural community influences, organizational influences, and mentorship program influences. Facilitators for mentorships hinged on the close working relationships that facilitated the development of trust. Barriers to mentorship included low staff numbers, limited selection of volunteer mentors, and lack of mentorship

  1. Training generalist doctors for rural practice in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Garry; Blattner, Katharina; Williamson, Martyn; McHugh, Patrick; Reid, James

    2017-01-01

    Targeted postgraduate training increases the likelihood young doctors will take up careers in rural generalist medicine. This article describes the postgraduate pathways that have evolved for these doctors in New Zealand. The Cairns consensus statement 2014 defined rural medical generalism as a scope of practice that encompasses primary care, hospital or secondary care, emergency care, advanced skill sets and a population-based approach to the health needs of rural communities. Even as work goes on to define this role different jurisdictions have developed their own training pathways for these important members of the rural healthcare workforce. In 2002 the University of Otago developed a distance-taught postgraduate diploma aimed at the extended practice of rural general practitioners (GPs) and rural hospital medical officers. This qualification has evolved into a 4-year vocational training program in rural hospital medicine, with the university diploma retained as the academic component. The intentionally flexible and modular nature of the rural hospital training program and university diploma allow for a range of training options. The majority of trainees are taking advantage of this by combining general practice and rural hospital training. Although structured quite differently the components of this combined pathway looks similar to the Australian rural generalist pathways. There is evidence that the program has had a positive impact on the New Zealand rural hospital medical workforce.

  2. A comprehensive analysis of surgical procedures in rural surgery practices.

    PubMed

    Harris, Joel D; Hosford, Clint C; Sticca, Robert P

    2010-12-01

    Data regarding the practice patterns of surgeons are derived from indirect information and may not reflect practice patterns in rural surgery. The aim of this study was to analyze all procedures performed by rural surgeons in North Dakota and South Dakota in 2006. All surgeons in the Dakotas were identified by state American College of Surgeons databases. Rural urban commuting area codes were used to identify rural surgeons. Current Procedural Terminology codes from clinic, outpatient, and inpatient procedures performed during 2006 were obtained. Data were obtained from 81% of rural surgeons. A total of 46,052 Current Procedural Terminology procedure codes were analyzed. Rural surgeons averaged 1,071 procedures/year, composed of 25.6% general surgery, 39.8% endoscopy, 17.9% minor surgery, and 12.3% surgical specialty procedures. Surgeons in small and large rural communities differed in total procedures per year (1,346 vs 988). Significant differences existed in the types of procedures performed by surgeons in large and small rural communities (P < .001). Rural surgeons perform a high volume of procedures, with endoscopic and minor surgical procedures comprising over 55% of their practices. Understanding rural surgeons' caseload will help guide the training of rural surgeons. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. New light on rural electrification: the evidence from Bolivia

    SciTech Connect

    Tendler, J.

    1980-09-01

    In 1973-74, A.I.D. financed a project to expand existing municipal electrical systems in Bolivia to seven outlying rural areas with the aim of servicing an additional 81,000 rural customers within 10 years. This report evaluates the project's impact on the rural poor in terms of three project objectives: improving the quality of life; stimulating economic production; and creating viable electric utilities.

  4. The value of a rural medicine rotation on encouraging students toward a rural career: clear benefits from the RUSC program.

    PubMed

    Eley, Diann; Baker, Peter

    2009-07-01

    The Australian government has addressed rural medical workforce shortages through strategies such as the Rural Undergraduate Support and Co-ordination program, based on the premise that increased exposure to rural medicine within the curricula will contribute to more students adopting a rural career. This article reports on how an Australian Rural Clinical School is meeting the aims of this initiative. Year 3 students (n = 463) from 10 eight-week rural rotations in 2005-2006 evaluated the content and value of rural lectures/workshops and a 6-week rural clinical placement. The aggregate results suggest overall favourable evaluation of the various components of this rotation. A rural rotation can encourage students' interest in and understanding of rural medicine. The longitudinal nature and ongoing evaluation of this program may in time provide more conclusive evidence for this. Challenges such as increasing student numbers, decreasing clinical placements, and logistically complicated programs remain. Research toward alternatives to a "real-life" rural experience may be needed.

  5. Rural energy - ODA`s perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Woolnough, D.

    1997-12-01

    The Overseas Development Administration has as a goal `to improve the quality of life of people in poorer countries by contributing to sustainable development and reducing poverty and suffering.` Rural energy fits into this goal as a means to an end. The emphasis is firmly on the service provided, with the aim being provision of basic needs as a part of rural development. ODA plays a role in this task on a number of fronts: research and development; support for NGO`s; aid in a bilateral or multilateral form. The view of ODA is that even rural energy projects must emphasize the service provided and must be economically sustainable. Within its sphere of influence, there is a clearly growing position for the employment of rural energy programs.

  6. Joining Rural Development Theory and Rural Education Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Patricia Cahape

    Karl N. Stauber proposes three goals for rural development policy: helping the rural middle class survive, reducing concentrated rural poverty, and sustaining and improving the quality of the natural environment. In contrast to other visions, he advises policy that focuses on rural places rather than rural economic sectors such as agriculture,…

  7. Working in rural areas – the experiences of Umthombo Youth Development Foundation graduates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recruiting and retaining healthcare professionals (HCPs) for rural areas is challenging throughout the world. Although rural origin HCPs have been identified as being the most likely to work in rural areas, only a small number of rural-origin South African scholars are trained as HCPs each year and many do not return to work in rural areas. Aim The aim of this article was to present the experiences of rural-origin HCPs who returned to work in a rural area after graduation. Setting Umthombo Youth Development Foundation has been running an innovating rurally-based scholarship scheme since 1999. By December 2013, 184 students supported by the scheme had graduated and all had returned to work in a rural area for a period of time. Methods This was a qualitative study using a life history methodology to explore the educational experience of six rural-origin HCPs working in rural areas. Results The four themes that emerged from the data were: (1) contribution to service delivery; (2) professional development (3) the challenges and frustrations of working in rural hospitals; and (4) the impact of working as an HCP. Conclusion Rural-origin HCPs are willing to return and work in rural areas. However, context and content factors need to be addressed if a work-back scholarship scheme is to be a long-term strategy for the recruitment and retention of HCPs. PMID:26245423

  8. Recruitment and Retention Issues in Rural Labour Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Hoyos, Maria; Green, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to provide insights into the recruitment and retention issues faced by employers in rural areas. To this end, information gathered through interviews with employers and labour market intermediaries in the predominantly rural county of Lincolnshire, UK was used as a source of data and focal point to discuss the demand side of the…

  9. Ethnicizing Poverty through Social Security Provision in Rural Hungary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarcz, Gyongyi

    2012-01-01

    Rural poverty has become an increasingly ethnicised category for the majority society in contemporary Hungary. The article aims to explore the process and practice of social exclusion and ethnicisation in relation to mutual effects of post-socialist welfare restructuring and changing discourse on poverty in the post-socialist rural reality. The…

  10. Substance Use in Urban and Rural Texas School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Jane Carlisle; Tackett-Gibson, Melissa; Dyer, James

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare substance use between urban and rural secondary school districts in Texas between 1998 and 2003. The differences were analyzed using chi-square and analysis of variance. The analysis found that rural schools had students who reported higher rates of use of tobacco, frequent binge drinking, and driving while…

  11. Substance Use in Urban and Rural Texas School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Jane Carlisle; Tackett-Gibson, Melissa; Dyer, James

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare substance use between urban and rural secondary school districts in Texas between 1998 and 2003. The differences were analyzed using chi-square and analysis of variance. The analysis found that rural schools had students who reported higher rates of use of tobacco, frequent binge drinking, and driving while…

  12. Early Adolescent Substance Use/Abuse in Rural Northern Michigan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarvela, Paul D.; McClendon, E. J.

    Basic research and programs in substance abuse dealing directly with rural and small town populations lag far behind those aimed at urban groups, in both quality and quantity. A study was conducted to identify factors related to substance use by a preadolescent and early adolescent rural and small town population. Data were collected from 496…

  13. Needs for Rural Research in the Northern Finland Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muilu, Toivo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the needs and demands which rural research faces at the interface between research and development. The case study area is northern Finland, which constitutes the most remote and sparsely populated areas of the European Union. This paper is based on the tradition of rural research since the 1980s in connection…

  14. Building Rural Health Partnerships in the South. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State, MS.

    The Southern Rural Development Center (SRDC) at Mississippi State University aims to stimulate the creation of new partnerships to enhance rural communities' capacity to address key health issues. In 1997, SRDC hosted a conference to develop the following: partnerships among land-grant universities, the health sector, and local citizens and…

  15. Ethnicizing Poverty through Social Security Provision in Rural Hungary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarcz, Gyongyi

    2012-01-01

    Rural poverty has become an increasingly ethnicised category for the majority society in contemporary Hungary. The article aims to explore the process and practice of social exclusion and ethnicisation in relation to mutual effects of post-socialist welfare restructuring and changing discourse on poverty in the post-socialist rural reality. The…

  16. Teachers' Guide: Rural Crime Prevention Guide for Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurschmidt, Todd N.; Phillips, G. Howard

    Crimes against property (vandalism, theft, and burglary) committed by teenagers are increasing at an alarming rate in rural America. The content of this manual aims to reverse this pernicious trend by providing rural Ohio secondary students with preventative education which supplements existing civics and government courses. Hopefully, presenting…

  17. Experiencing and Writing Indigeneity, Rurality and Gender: Australian Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramzan, Bebe; Pini, Barbara; Bryant, Lia

    2009-01-01

    This paper has two interrelated aims. The first is to contribute to knowledge about rurality, gender and Indigeneity. This is undertaken by the first author, Bebe Ramzan, an Indigenous woman living in the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara (APY) Lands. Bebe shows similarities across rural and remote areas in Australia and details her knowledge…

  18. Evaluation of pharmacy students' rural placement program: preparation for interprofessional practice.

    PubMed

    Khalil, H; Leversha, A; Walker, J

    2015-02-01

    To date, there are few data on pharmacy-specific placement programs and their impact on students' work after graduation. The present study evaluated an innovative rural pharmacy placement program targeted at influencing students to work and live in rural areas after graduation. A secondary aim of the study was to explore the students' intentions to come back and practice in rural areas as a result of their involvement in the rural pharmacy program. A questionnaire was distributed, by hand, to a total of 58 third and fourth (final) year pharmacy students undertaking their rural placement in the Gippsland region, in rural Victoria in 2011 and 2012. Fifty-seven responses were returned (response rate = 98%). Students stated that understanding pharmacy practice from a rural perspective, visits to rural health professionals and sites and the attitude of their preceptors were essential to their satisfaction with their rural placements. A significant number of students (72%) intend to seek employment in rural areas if opportunities arise as a result of their increased rural awareness. The key components for a successful rural placement program were described by the surveyed students as social awareness, recognising job opportunities and interprofessional learning. The evaluation of the rural placement program revealed that students valued their visits to rural sites and their interaction with other rural health professionals the most.

  19. Rural placements in Tasmania: do experiential placements and background influence undergraduate health science student's attitudes toward rural practice?

    PubMed

    Dalton, Lisa M; Routley, Georgina K; Peek, Karla J

    2008-01-01

    Each year growing numbers of undergraduate health science students, from a variety of disciplines, participate in a University of Tasmania Department of Rural Health supported rural placement program in Tasmania. This study aimed to investigate the influence rural placement and rural background had on students' intentions to live and work in a rural or remote location after graduation. Between January 2005 and December 2006, 336 students participated in the placement program. Students were requested to complete a survey at the completion of their placement. A response rate of 239 was achieved (71%). The survey measured students' stated rural career intentions and rural background status according to location of primary and secondary school attendance. A demographic analysis of respondents was undertaken and results cross tabulated according to the rural, remote and metropolitan area (RRMA) classification system. Statistical analyses, including paired t-tests and a Wilcoxon signed rank test, were conducted to compare reported mean intention to practise rurally both prior to and after placement. The results from this survey show that rural placements in the undergraduate health science programs have a predominantly positive influence on students' intention to work in a rural community post-graduation. While these findings were significant for the disciplines of nursing, medicine and allied health, the results were not significant for pharmacy students. Students' average intention to practise rurally significantly increased after the placement for students from RRMA classifications 1 and 3-5. The value of rural placements as a method for increasing health science students' intentionality to take up rural practice as a positive and viable career option is considerable.

  20. Rural Stress: Myths and Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Thomas D.; McIntire, Walter G.

    A comparison between the common myths of "rural existence" and the documented realities of rural living explodes the myth that rural living is generally stress free, shows that life stress in rural settings can have deleterious effects on the function of individual and family, and provides a basis for exploring some implications of rural stress…

  1. Rural Stress: Myths and Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Thomas D.; McIntire, Walter G.

    A comparison between the common myths of "rural existence" and the documented realities of rural living explodes the myth that rural living is generally stress free, shows that life stress in rural settings can have deleterious effects on the function of individual and family, and provides a basis for exploring some implications of rural stress…

  2. Food Insecurity and Rural Adolescent Personal Health, Home, and Academic Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanafelt, Amy; Hearst, Mary O.; Wang, Qi; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food-insecure (FIS) adolescents struggle in school and with health and mental health more often than food-secure (FS) adolescents. Rural communities experience important disparities in health, but little is known about rural FIS adolescents. This study aims to describe select characteristics of rural adolescents by food-security…

  3. Food Insecurity and Rural Adolescent Personal Health, Home, and Academic Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanafelt, Amy; Hearst, Mary O.; Wang, Qi; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food-insecure (FIS) adolescents struggle in school and with health and mental health more often than food-secure (FS) adolescents. Rural communities experience important disparities in health, but little is known about rural FIS adolescents. This study aims to describe select characteristics of rural adolescents by food-security…

  4. Rural Development in the United States: Connecting Theory, Practice, and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galston, William A.; Baehler, Karen J.

    This book synthesizes and analyzes much of the theoretical and practical literature on rural economic development and related issues from the past two decades with the aim of initiating construction of a new model for U.S. rural development policy. Part I emphasizes the national and global context within which U.S. rural development must take…

  5. Perspectives on Designing Rural Schools As Community Learning and Service Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhaerman, Robert; And Others

    In 1994, a 2-day symposium was conducted on a broadened, more inclusive mission for rural schools--rural schools functioning as community learning and service centers. The symposium aimed to enhance the knowledge base related to five key dimensions that must be planned, implemented, and evaluated when designing rural schools in this fashion:…

  6. Rural Development in the United States: Connecting Theory, Practice, and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galston, William A.; Baehler, Karen J.

    This book synthesizes and analyzes much of the theoretical and practical literature on rural economic development and related issues from the past two decades with the aim of initiating construction of a new model for U.S. rural development policy. Part I emphasizes the national and global context within which U.S. rural development must take…

  7. Rural-urban migration in the USSR: problems and prospects.

    PubMed

    Zaslavskaya, T I; Korel, L V

    1984-01-01

    Rural-urban migration in the USSR is a cause of social and economic underdevelopment of rural areas, partially a result of the accelerated growth in industry during the 1930s and 1940s that created labor opportunities for the rural populations. From 1927 to 1979 almost 71% of the present population of the USSR moved from farms to cities. The 3 main time spans that characterize these population movements are: 1) the pre-war period, when national industrialization called for labor; 2) the post-war period, which experienced the highest rates of cityward movement due to the hard economic agricultural situation; and 3) the 1960s and 1970s, characterized by a steady, moderately average rate of rural population decline due to a 14% migration rate. Since the early 1970s, policies aimed at preventing this excessive rural exodus, by reducing rural-urban discrepancies and creating compatible rural living conditions with urban ones, have been initiated. To study the inadequacies of rural life that cause rural-urban migration, rural communities were surveyed to determine what types of services are considered disirable and lacking in rural areas. Rural advantages reported are: nearness to nature, peaceful life, opportunity to keep privately formed plots, and the love of farm work, in that descending order. Socioeconomic improvement is needed, and priorities for rural social development should be: 1) close the farm industrial gap in job interest and working conditions; 2) improve educational opportunities for rural youth; 3) provide assistance to private farming; and 4) give more attention to morale in productions teams. The impact of urbanization on rural-urban migration create anticipation of certain changes: 1) spatial mobility of rural populations will grow; 2) the rural-urban exchange will become more equivalent; and 3) social homogeneity of rural and urban societies will increase. however, in order to maintain these favourable shifts in migration trends, it is necessary to

  8. Rural older people had lower mortality after accidental falls than non-rural older people

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jen-Wu; Lin, Yi-Ying; Wu, Nai-Yuan; Chen, Yu-Chun

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the mortality rate after falls of rural and non-rural older people and to explore the risk factors of mortality after falls among older people. Patients and methods This population-based case–control study identified two groups from a nationwide claim database (National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan): a rural group and a non-rural group, which included 3,897 and 5,541 older people, respectively, who were hospitalized for accidental falls (The International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification: E880–E888) during 2006–2009. Both groups were followed up for 4 years after falls. Four-year cumulative all-cause mortality rate after falls was calculated, and the demographic factor, comorbidity, and medications were considered as the potential risk factors of mortality after falls. Results The rural group had a significantly higher frequency of fall-related hospitalizations (7.4% vs 4.3%, P<0.001), but a lower 4-year cumulative all-cause mortality rate after falls than the non-rural group (8.8% vs 23.4%, P<0.001). After adjusting for age, gender, comorbidity, and medication use, the rural group had a significantly lower risk of mortality after falls than the non-rural group (adjusted odds ratio =0.32, 95% confidence interval =0.28–0.37, P<0.001). Age, gender, place of residence, comorbidity, number of medications, and inappropriate medication use were independent risk factors of mortality after falls. Conclusion The rural older people had a higher frequency of fall-related hospitalizations but lower mortality after falls than the non-rural older people. Fall prevention programs should be adjusted for difference in place of residence. PMID:28123289

  9. The Rural Challenge: Rural Schools and Communities Working as Partners for the Future of Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annenberg Rural Challenge, Granby, CO.

    The Annenberg Rural Challenge locates and funds exemplary rural public school programs to serve as models for rural education reform. The guiding theory of the Rural Challenge is that when rural schools base their teaching on the economy, ecology, history, and culture of their communities while fully engaging the community in the school's work,…

  10. Supporting Sustainable Rural Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presentation about creating sustainable rural communities discussing principles, energy efficiency, water quality, waste, business, building improvements and restoration, transportation, and green building.transportation, and green building.

  11. Oral Health in Rural Communities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gateway Evidence-based Toolkits Rural Health Models & Innovations Supporting Rural Community Health Tools for Success Am ... FAQs Resources Organizations Funding & Opportunities News Models and Innovations About This Guide Rural Health Topics & States Topics ...

  12. Serving Inland Rural Communities through University Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Julaine; Pope, Rod; O'Meara, Peter; Higgs, Joy; Kent, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To effectively provide clinical placements for students and increase healthcare options for rural communities, an investigation of university clinics was conducted. Method: This project adopted a consultative inquiry strategy and involved two processes: (1) a review of literature; and (2) interviews with existing health sciences clinic staff.…

  13. Serving Inland Rural Communities through University Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Julaine; Pope, Rod; O'Meara, Peter; Higgs, Joy; Kent, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To effectively provide clinical placements for students and increase healthcare options for rural communities, an investigation of university clinics was conducted. Method: This project adopted a consultative inquiry strategy and involved two processes: (1) a review of literature; and (2) interviews with existing health sciences clinic staff.…

  14. Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…

  15. Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…

  16. Support for Parents of Rural Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFaul, Jack

    This booklet describes the Country Area Program (CAP), a commonwealth-funded program targeted at alleviating educational isolation among government and nongovernment rural schools in New South Wales, Australia. This booklet is intended to help parents better understand the setting in which the CAP operates. The aims of the program include…

  17. Autocheck: Addressing the Problem of Rural Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Guy A.

    This paper describes a project implemented by a social worker from the Glynn County School District in rural Georgia to address transportation problems experienced by students and their families. The project aims to assist families who are unable to keep appointments or attend other important events due to unreliable transportation. A county needs…

  18. The influence of rural clinical school experiences on medical students' levels of interest in rural careers.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Vivian; Watts, Lisa; Forster, Lesley; McLachlan, Craig S

    2014-08-28

    Australian Rural Clinical School (RCS) programmes have been designed to create experiences that positively influence graduates to choose rural medical careers. Rural career intent is a categorical evaluation measure and has been used to assess the Australian RCS model. Predictors for rural medical career intent have been associated with extrinsic values such as students with a rural background. Intrinsic values such as personal interest have not been assessed with respect to rural career intent. In psychology, a predictor of the motivation or emotion for a specific career or career location is the level of interest. Our primary aims are to model over one year of Australian RCS training, change in self-reported interest for future rural career intent. Secondary aims are to model student factors associated with rural career intent while attending an RCS. The study participants were medical students enrolled in a RCS in the year 2013 at the University of New South Wales (UNSW) and who completed the newly developed self-administered UNSW Undergraduate Destinations Study (UDS) questionnaire. Data were collected at baseline and after one year of RCS training on preferred location for internship, work and intended specialty. Interest for graduate practice location (career intent) was assessed on a five-variable Likert scale at both baseline and at follow-up. A total of 165 students completed the UDS at baseline and 150 students after 1 year of follow-up. Factors associated with intent to practise in a rural location were rural background (χ2 = 28.4, P < 0.001), two or more previous years at an RCS (χ2 = 9.0, P = 0.003), and preference for a rural internship (χ2 = 17.8, P < 0.001). At follow-up, 41% of participants who originally intended to work in a metropolitan location at baseline changed their preference and indicated a preference for a rural location. The level of interest in intended practice location was significantly higher for those

  19. Ultimate Educational Aims, Overridingness, and Personal Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haji, Ishtiyaque; Cuypers, Stefaan E.

    2011-01-01

    Discussion regarding education's aims, especially its ultimate aims, is a key topic in the philosophy of education. These aims or values play a pivotal role in regulating and structuring moral and other types of normative education. We outline two plausible strategies to identify and justify education's ultimate aims. The first associates these…

  20. Rural Revitalization through Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Charles

    In recent years, service programs targeted for Georgia's rural communities have decreased proportionately in relation to those intended for the state's rapidly expanding population centers. At the same time, erosion of traditional manufacturing industries and an adverse agricultural economy have decreased the ability of rural communities to…

  1. Developing Rural Business Incubators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Mark L.; Burnier, DeLysa

    1991-01-01

    Offers background on rural entrepreneurship and incubation in the United States, with particular focus on rural incubators at community colleges and regional incubation systems. Explains how incubators, which provide shared services and business/management assistance for tenant companies, differ from other entrepreneurial development strategies.…

  2. Rural Development Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, David W., Ed.; Reid, J. Norman, Ed.

    This book seeks to provide a basis for reexamining rural development policy by presenting comprehensive and current information on the effectiveness of various rural policy approaches. An introduction that defines development terminology and discusses changing policy needs is followed by 13 chapters that represent the best recent research…

  3. Ad Hoc Rural Regionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamin, Elisabeth M.; Marcucci, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    A new regionalism has been much documented and researched for metropolitan areas; this article documents that there is a new rural regionalism as well. In the United States, these groups appear most likely to emerge in areas that are challenged by outcomes characterizing globalization's effects on the rural condition: namely, exurban or…

  4. Rural Development Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, David W., Ed.; Reid, J. Norman, Ed.

    This book seeks to provide a basis for reexamining rural development policy by presenting comprehensive and current information on the effectiveness of various rural policy approaches. An introduction that defines development terminology and discusses changing policy needs is followed by 13 chapters that represent the best recent research…

  5. Ad Hoc Rural Regionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamin, Elisabeth M.; Marcucci, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    A new regionalism has been much documented and researched for metropolitan areas; this article documents that there is a new rural regionalism as well. In the United States, these groups appear most likely to emerge in areas that are challenged by outcomes characterizing globalization's effects on the rural condition: namely, exurban or…

  6. Pacereport: Rural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gores, Richard W., Ed.

    Seven Projects to Advance Creativity in Education (PACE) concerned with small schools and rural areas present reports of progress and plans in this July-August 1968 issue of PACEreport. The document also contains a listing of publications dealing with rural education and a listing of films, filmstrips, and publications, developed under Title III…

  7. Measuring Rural Hospital Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moscovice, Ira; Wholey, Douglas R.; Klingner, Jill; Knott, Astrid

    2004-01-01

    Increased interest in the measurement of hospital quality has been stimulated by accrediting bodies, purchaser coalitions, government agencies, and other entities. This paper examines quality measurement for hospitals in rural settings. We seek to identify rural hospital quality measures that reflect quality in all hospitals and that are sensitive…

  8. Measuring Rural Hospital Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moscovice, Ira; Wholey, Douglas R.; Klingner, Jill; Knott, Astrid

    2004-01-01

    Increased interest in the measurement of hospital quality has been stimulated by accrediting bodies, purchaser coalitions, government agencies, and other entities. This paper examines quality measurement for hospitals in rural settings. We seek to identify rural hospital quality measures that reflect quality in all hospitals and that are sensitive…

  9. Rural WIN-ings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loomis, Rosemary; Starry, Richard

    1974-01-01

    This article explores the experiences of two Work Incentive Program (WIN) Staff members in delivering employment-related services in a rural WIN program. It deals with three prevalent rural obstacles to employment: transportation, flexibility with individual cases, and sex barriers. (Author)

  10. Tourism in rural Alaska

    Treesearch

    Katrina Church-Chmielowski

    2007-01-01

    Tourism in rural Alaska is an education curriculum with worldwide relevance. Students have started small businesses, obtained employment in the tourism industry and gotten in touch with their people. The Developing Alaska Rural Tourism collaborative project has resulted in student scholarships, workshops on website development, marketing, small...

  11. AIDS in Rural California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooten, Donald B.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the increase in AIDS patients in rural California, which is greater than that in urban areas, including AIDS population projections through 1991. Describes differences between AIDS populations in rural and urban areas and relates these to state expenditure patterns and differential needs. (DHP)

  12. Developing Rural Business Incubators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Mark L.; Burnier, DeLysa

    1991-01-01

    Offers background on rural entrepreneurship and incubation in the United States, with particular focus on rural incubators at community colleges and regional incubation systems. Explains how incubators, which provide shared services and business/management assistance for tenant companies, differ from other entrepreneurial development strategies.…

  13. Unique Rural District Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Tod Allen

    2009-01-01

    The politics of rural educational leadership are both intense and concentrated. Rural educational leaders need to be savvy and politically skilled if they are to inspire educational stakeholders and accomplish organizational objectives. The local school system is an organization with a political culture that can be characterized as a competitive…

  14. Rural Administrative Leadership Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tift, Carolyn

    This resource book on rural administrative leadership is the result of 1988 interviews with school administrators involved in successful rural educational programs. The material is divided into eight chapters, each self-contained for separate use. Chapter 1, "Getting to Know the Community," addresses qualities of living and working in…

  15. The New Rural Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldmark, Peter C.

    The New Rural Society project concerns itself with the deterioration of America through urban overcrowding and rural depletion. Coupled with experimentation and pilot testing, the study is designed to demonstrate that imaginative application of telecommunication will enable business and government departments to function effectively though their…

  16. Perinatal mortality in rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    van Roosmalen, J

    1989-07-01

    Prolonged labour was the most frequent cause of perinatal death in a rural hospital in the south western highlands of Tanzania. After the introduction of an obstetric policy aiming to prevent prolonged labour by making use of the guidelines of the partogram, perinatal mortality was reduced from 71 to 39 per 1000 births. Baird's clinico-pathological classification is still considered a useful instrument for the discovery of avoidable factors in perinatal deaths. The concept of the partogram should be an integral part of the training of medical auxiliaries in the field of maternal and child health (MCH).

  17. Profamilia pursues rural program.

    PubMed

    Echeverry, G

    1973-08-01

    Throughout Latin America, there is a need for family planning progra ms in rural areas. Profamilia organized a rural family planning program in the Colombian state of Risaralda with the support of the departmental Coffee Growers Committee. Results have been satisfying. From a low of 49 new acceptors in April 1971, there has been an expansion of the program to handle 341 new acceptors in March 1972. These results were a chieved with a cost lower than that of any urban family planning program . This rural program makes use of local personnel and existing infrastructures. House visits are made and nonclinical contraceptives are used. The follow-up system is simple and effective so that it can be administered by rural volunteers. There are plans to extend this program to the other rural coffee-growing departments.

  18. Rural Studies: Modernism, Postmodernism and the Post-Rural.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdoch, Jonathan; Pratt, Andy C.

    1993-01-01

    Responds to Philo's article calling for rural studies to focus research on marginalized groups and communities within rural areas. Recommends a reconstructed sociology of postmodernism that would end the use of global concepts such as "rural" and focus on the ways in which power relations contribute to the construction of rurality (and…

  19. Rural America at a Glance. Rural Development Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This report highlights the most recent indicators of social and economic conditions in rural areas for use in developing rural policies and programs. The economic expansion of the 1990s greatly benefited rural economies. Rural areas attracted both urban residents and immigrants. Hispanics accounted for over 25 percent of nonmetropolitan population…

  20. Reconnecting Rural America. Report on Rural Intercity Passenger Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stommes, Eileen S.

    This report summarizes the results of three regional symposia held during 1987-88 to gather grassroots information about rural passenger transportation needs across the country. The first section describes the structural transformation of rural America in the 1980s: (1) the rural economy; (2) rural population trends; (3) impact of information…

  1. Urban Rural Differences in Breast Cancer in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Lawrenson, Ross; Lao, Chunhuan; Elwood, Mark; Brown, Charis; Sarfati, Diana; Campbell, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Many rural communities have poor access to health services due to a combination of distance from specialist services and a relative shortage of general practitioners. Our aims were to compare the characteristics of urban and rural women with breast cancer in New Zealand, to assess breast cancer-specific and all-cause survival using the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model, and to assess whether the impact of rurality is different for Māori and New Zealand (NZ) European women. We found that rural women tended to be older and were more likely to be Māori. Overall there were no differences between urban and rural women with regards their survival. Rural Māori tended to be older, more likely to be diagnosed with metastatic disease and less likely to be screen detected than urban Māori. Rural Māori women had inferior breast cancer-specific survival and all-cause survival at 10 years at 72.1% and 55.8% compared to 77.9% and 64.9% for urban Māori. The study shows that rather than being concerned that more needs to be done for rural women in general it is rural Māori women where we need to make extra efforts to ensure early stage at diagnosis and optimum treatment. PMID:27727190

  2. A proteolytic modification of AIM promotes its renal excretion

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Tomoko; Sugisawa, Ryoichi; Hiramoto, Emiri; Takai, Ryosuke; Matsumoto, Ayaka; Senda, Yoshie; Nakashima, Katsuhiko; Nelson, Peter S.; Lucas, Jared M.; Morgan, Andrew; Li, Zhenghua; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Arai, Satoko; Miyazaki, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM, encoded by cd5l) is a multi-functional circulating protein that has a beneficial role in the regulation of a broad range of diseases, some of which are ameliorated by AIM administration in mice. In blood, AIM is stabilized by association with IgM pentamers and maintains its high circulating levels. The mechanism regulating the excessive accumulation of blood AIM remains unknown, although it is important, since a constitutive increase in AIM levels promotes chronic inflammation. Here we found a physiological AIM-cleavage process that induces destabilization of AIM and its excretion in urine. In blood, IgM-free AIM appeared to be cleaved and reduced in size approximately 10 kDa. Cleaved AIM was unable to bind to IgM and was selectively filtered by the glomerulus, thereby excreted in urine. Amino acid substitution at the cleavage site resulted in no renal excretion of AIM. Interestingly, cleaved AIM retained a comparable potency with full-length AIM in facilitating the clearance of dead cell debris in injured kidney, which is a key response in the recovery of acute kidney injury. Identification of AIM-cleavage and resulting functional modification could be the basis for designing safe and efficient AIM therapy for various diseases. PMID:27929116

  3. Rural area in a European country from a health care point of view: an adaption of the Rural Ranking Scale

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In many countries, rural areas are facing a shortage of general practitioners (GPs). Appropriate strategies to address this challenge are needed. From a health care delivery point of view, the term rural area is often poorly defined. However rural areas have to be adequately defined to ensure specific strategies are tailored to these environments. The aims of this study were to translate the New Zealand 6-item Rural Ranking Scale (RRS), to culturally adapt it and to implement it to identify rural areas from a health care delivery perspective. Therefore we aimed to validate the RRS by defining cut-off scores for urban, semi-rural and rural areas in Germany. Methods After receiving permission, two researchers independently translated the RRS. In a consensus meeting, four items were identified that had to be culturally adapted. The modified RRS-Germany (mRRS-G) was sent to 724 GPs located in urban, semi-rural and rural areas to validate the “rurality” scoring system for conditions in Germany. Results Four items, “travelling time to next major hospital”, “on-call duty”, “regular peripheral clinic” and “on-call for major traumas” had to be adapted due to differences in the health care system. The survey had a response rate of 33.7%. A factor analysis showed a three dimensional structure of the mRRS-G scale with a poor internal consistency. Nevertheless, the three items regarding “on-call duty”, “next major hospital” and “most distant boundary covered by your practice” were identified as significant predictors for rurality. The adapted cut-off point for rurality in Germany was 16. From this study’s participants, 9 met the RRS cut-off point for rurality (a score of 35 or more). Conclusion Compared with New Zealand rurality scores based on this tool, German scores are far less rural from a health care delivery point of view. We consider that the construct of rurality has more aspects than those assessed by the m

  4. Examining Primary Healthcare Performance through a Triple Aim Lens

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Bridget L.; Brown, Judith Belle; Glazier, Richard H.; Hutchison, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to apply a Triple Aim framework to the measurement and evaluation of primary healthcare (PHC) team performance. Methods: Triple Aim components were populated with 10 dimensions derived from survey and health administrative data for 17 Family Health Teams (FHTs) in Ontario, Canada. Bivariate analyses and rankings of sites examined the relationships among dimensions and among Triple Aim components. Results: Readily available measures to fully populate the Triple Aim framework were lacking in FHTs. Within sites, there was little consistency in performance across the Triple Aim components (health, patient experience and cost). Conclusions: More and better measures are needed that can be readily used to examine the Triple Aim performance in PHC teams. FHTs, in this study, are partially achieving Triple Aim goals; however, there was a lack of consistency in performance. It is essential to collect appropriate measures and attend to performance across all components of the Triple Aim. PMID:27027790

  5. Stabilization precision control methods of photoelectric aim-stabilized system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiaoru; Chen, Hua; Xue, Yonggang

    2015-09-01

    To solve the question that photoelectric aim-stabilized system can be controlled with high precision and stability, this paper researches a new photoelectric aim-stabilized control algorithm, analyzes the photoelectric aim-stabilized system architecture, sets up stability control system mathematical model, designs the stability of the photoelectric aim-stabilized LSSVM identification and control system, discusses uncertain factors and calculates the LSSVM parameters by the Chaos theory, gives the predictive controller model by the LSSVM and designs new photoelectric aim-stabilized system. Through the simulation calculation and experimental analysis, new photoelectric aim-stabilized control algorithm was verified; the results show the new photoelectric aim-stabilized control method can meet the demand of high precision control in photoelectric aim-stabilized system.

  6. Prosocial Behavior in Advertising Aimed at Children: A Content Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Daniel A., Jr.; Mouritsen, Russell H.

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes network, independent, and cable television advertisements aimed at children in terms of their beneficial or "prosocial" examples. Reveals that several commercials aimed at children are rich in examples of sharing, courtesy, and physical affection. (MM)

  7. The Rural School Leadership Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surface, Jeanne L.; Theobald, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The idea that rural schools and communities, indeed, even rural people, are somehow substandard or second-class has deep historical roots. The goal of this essay is to reveal that history so as to render stereotypical conceptions all things rural less powerful and more easily dismissed by rural school professionals. Consequently the focus is on…

  8. Changes & Challenges for Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Leslie Asher, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This theme issue of the newsletter SEDLetter contains articles about the challenges facing rural youth, communities, and schools, and the ways that rural schools are meeting those challenges. "When Rural Traditions Really Count" (Ullik Rouk) outlines the rural situation with regard to adolescent substance abuse, youth gangs, teen pregnancy,…

  9. The Rural School Leadership Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surface, Jeanne L.; Theobald, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The idea that rural schools and communities, indeed, even rural people, are somehow substandard or second-class has deep historical roots. The goal of this essay is to reveal that history so as to render stereotypical conceptions all things rural less powerful and more easily dismissed by rural school professionals. Consequently the focus is on…

  10. International Perspectives in Rural Sociology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newby, Howard, Ed.

    Essays which focus on similarities between developed and underdeveloped nations, concentrating on the issues of power and rural social stratification, are contained in this textbook on rural sociology. It is intended for students of rural sociology, including teachers and researchers. In two main parts, the book first deals with rural social…

  11. Workplace Learning in Rural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Robert F.; Brooks, Ann K.

    2008-01-01

    Many people perceive rural America as being an almost completely agricultural, farming, or ranching economy. In fact, less than 7 percent of rural employment is in agriculture; service industries account for over half, and service and manufacturing together account for more than 66 percent of employment in rural areas. Rural regions take 50…

  12. Rural Libraries, Volume XIV, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Mary Lou, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    The 2 issues in this volume contain 10 articles on rural libraries and information access in rural America. Topics include telecommunications and distance education in Nebraska, the future of small rural public libraries, federal programs to improve rural access to information, outreach issues for public libraries, and the role of information in…

  13. Rural Development Research Under Scrutiny.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyner, Fred H.

    Evaluating current rural development research, the paper covers 6 major areas: (1) the nature and purpose of research; (2) circumstances related to rural development that require careful attention; (3) observations on rural development "disorganization" as an "outsider" might view the situation; (4) an opinion about the focus rural development…

  14. Rural Electric Youth Tour Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Washington, DC.

    This packet of materials provides information about tours for rural secondary students in Washington, D.C., sponsored jointly by the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA), state rural electric cooperatives, and statewide associations of rural electric systems. Since 1958 this program has selected high school students to visit…

  15. Workplace Learning in Rural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Robert F.; Brooks, Ann K.

    2008-01-01

    Many people perceive rural America as being an almost completely agricultural, farming, or ranching economy. In fact, less than 7 percent of rural employment is in agriculture; service industries account for over half, and service and manufacturing together account for more than 66 percent of employment in rural areas. Rural regions take 50…

  16. Social Studies in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, John E.; Garcia, Jesus

    1982-01-01

    Seventy six teachers and 737 social studies students from rural high schools in six states were surveyed to determine whether rural secondary social studies programs discuss topics and themes that provide an insight into rural America. Findings suggest that rural life-styles are inadequately portrayed in social studies curricula. (AM)

  17. Rural Health Issues. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Gary

    Medical students that come from rural areas are more likely to return to rural areas to practice, but rural students apply for medical school at half the rate of urban students. Factors that contribute to this problem are the lack of rural representation on medical school selection committees; centralization of medical education facilities in…

  18. OPPORTUNITIES FOR RURAL YOUTH IN RURAL AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOWLER, LLOYD

    AGRIBUSINESS IS DEFINED AS THE SUM TOTAL OF ALL OPERATIONS INVOLVED IN THE MANUFACTURE AND DISTRIBUTION OF FARM SUPPLIES, PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE ON THE FARM, AND THE STORAGE, PROCESSING, AND DISTRIBUTION OF FARM COMMODITIES AND ITEMS MADE FROM THEM. WITHIN THESE THREE AREAS ARE SEEN MANY JOB OPPORTUNITIES FOR RURAL AND URBAN YOUTH HAVING COLLEGE…

  19. The Rural Outreach Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Clarence D.

    2000-01-01

    The Rural Outreach Project was designed to increase the diversity of NASA's workforce by: 1) Conducting educational research designed to investigate the most effective strategies for expanding innovative, NASA-sponsored pre-college programs into rural areas; 2) Field-testing identified rural intervention strategies; 3) Implementing expanded NASA educational programs to include 300 rural students who are disabled, female and/or minority; and 4) Disseminating project strategies. The Project was a partnership that included NASA Langley Research Center's Office of Education, Norfolk State University, Cooperative Hampton Roads Organizations for Minorities in Engineering (CHROME) and Paul D. Camp Community College. There were four goals and activities identified for this project; 1) Ascertain effective strategies for expanding successful NASA-sponsored urban-based, pre-college programs into rural settings; 2) Field test identified rural intervention strategies; 3) Publish or disseminate two reports, concerning project research and activities at a national conference; 4) Provide educational outreach to 300, previously underserved, rural students who are disabled, female and /or minority.

  20. Scotland's GP Rural Fellowship: an initiative that has impacted on rural recruitment and retention.

    PubMed

    MacVicar, Ronald; Clarke, Gillian; Hogg, David R

    2016-01-01

    In Scotland 20% of the population live in a remote or rural area spread across 94% of the land mass that is defined as remote and rural. NHS Education for Scotland (NES), NHS Scotland's training and education body, works in partnership with territorial health boards and medical schools to address rural recruitment and retention through a variety of initiatives. The longest established of these is the GP Rural Fellowship, which has been in place since 2002. This article describes this program and reports on a survey of the output of the Fellowship from 2002 to 2013. The Fellowship is aimed at newly qualified GPs, who are offered a further year of training in and exposure to rural medicine. The Fellowship has grown and undergone several modifications since its inception. The current model involves co-funding arrangements between NES and participating boards, supporting a maximum of 12 fellows per year. The Health Boards' investment in the Fellowship is returned through the service commitment that the Fellows provide, and the funding share from NES allows Fellows to have protected educational time to meet their educational needs in relation to rural medicine. Given this level of funding support it is important that the outcome of the Fellowship experience is understood, in particular its influence on recruitment to and retention in general practice in rural Scotland. To address this need a survey of all previous rural Fellows was undertaken in the first quarter of 2014, including all Fellows that had undertaken the Fellowship between 2002-03 and 2012-13. A total of 69 GPs were recruited to the Fellowship in this period, of which 66 were able to be included in the survey. There was a response rate of 98% to the survey and 63 of those that responded (97%) were working currently in general practice, 53 of whom were doing so in Scotland. A total of 46 graduates of the Fellowship in the period surveyed (71%) were working in rural areas or accessible small towns in Scotland

  1. The medical auxiliary in rural Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chen, P C

    1973-05-05

    One of the steps taken by the government to break the cycle of poverty and ill-health in rural Malaysia is the establishment of a rural health service. Initially, the health unit served 50,000 people; it consisted of 1 main health center; 4 health subcenters, and 20 midwife stations. By the end of 1970, 44 main health centers, 180 health subcenters, and 943 midwife stations were in operation, creating a great demand for all types of health personnel: professional, paramedical, and auxiliary. Doctors are unevenly distributed in West Malaysia: in urban areas, the ratio of doctors to population is 1 to 1500; in rural areas, the ratio is 1 to 25,000. Paramedicals are unevenly distributed too. The scarcity of professionals in rural areas is attributed to professionals' demand for high salaries and the corresponding requirement of professional and social settings which rural areas cannot provide. The rural health unit utilized the tiered pyramidal system for staffing, with heavy reliance on auxiliary personnel. This system enabled the rapid expansion of rural health services, helping reach over a third of the population in just 15 years. As a consequence, infant, toddler and maternal mortality rates declined substantially. Traditional birth attendants, or kampong bidans, are currently being trained, on an experimental basis, simple principles of hygiene and family planning. With the enforcement of the Midwives Act in 1971, indigenous midwives have not been permitted to register as legitimate midwives and are now subject to supervision by health authorities. Future plans include retraining single-purpose midwives in child health and nursing, and giving all assistant nurses midwifery training. The aim is to make these 2 auxiliaries multipurpose community nurse-midwives. Experiences of developed countries show that demand for auxiliaries will continue to increase with the growth of professional personnel.

  2. Rural pharmacy closures: implications for rural communities.

    PubMed

    Todd, Kelli; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Retail pharmacies provide essential services to residents of rural areas and serve many communities as the sole provider of pharmacist services. Losing the only retail pharmacy within a rural community (census designated city), and within a 10 mile radius based on driving distance ("sole community pharmacy"), may affect access to prescription and over-the-counter drugs and, in some cases, leave the community without proximate access to any clinical provider. This policy brief documents the closure of local retail pharmacies in which the pharmacist was the only clinical provider available in the community at the time the pharmacy closed. Characteristics of the community and the retail pharmacy are described. The findings may suggest future policy actions to minimize the risk or mitigate the negative consequences of pharmacy closures. Key Findings. (1) Between May 1, 2006, and October 31, 2010, 119 sole community pharmacies closed. (2) Of those 119 pharmacies, 31 were located in rural communities with no other health professionals or clinical providers. (3) In 16 states, at least 1 community lost a sole community retail pharmacy, and there was no other pharmacy within 10 miles (actual driving distance). (4) Of the 31 pharmacy closures in communities with no other providers, 17% were located in remote rural areas designated with a Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) score of 10 or higher. Such a score means that, on average, 60 minutes of travel time is required to reach an urbanized area, and 40 minutes is required to reach a large urban cluster of 20,000 population or more.

  3. Rural intern training.

    PubMed

    Mugford, B V; Braund, W; Worley, P S; Martin, A

    2001-01-01

    In recent times, legislative initiatives in Australia have changed the method by which doctors enter general practice. One result of this tightening has been to restrict the access of junior doctors to medical experiences outside the hospital environment, and force a closer examination of the 'generalist training' provided to junior doctors. The Australian Medical Training Review Panel, created as part of these legislative changes, developed a series of recommendations about general training in 1996, one of which was to provide for rural and community experiences for junior doctors. This article describes the experience of a 'rural intern' rotation from Flinders Medical Centre to the rural community of Jamestown, in South Australia.

  4. Skin diseases in rural Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Paek, So Yeon; Koriakos, Angie; Saxton-Daniels, Stephanie; Pandya, Amit G

    2012-07-01

    There are no known reports of the frequency of skin diseases endemic to rural Yucatan, Mexico. The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of dermatologic conditions in rural villages in that region. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of all cases of skin disease diagnosed by a team of American board-certified dermatologists during consultations in January 2009, August 2009, and June 2010, in the state of Yucatan, Mexico. Traveling clinics were held in eight different rural locations. Age, sex, and diagnosis, according to history and physical examination, were recorded for each patient. A total of 1071 cases of skin disease were seen in 858 patients. The frequency of parasitic, viral, and fungal infections was 34.5%. Dermatitis and eczema (24.6%) were the next most prevalent conditions, followed by disorders of skin appendages (12.2%), photosensitivity disorders (5.4%), papulosquamous disorders (3.2%), urticaria and erythema (1.5%), bacterial infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue (1.2%), and neoplastic disorders (2.1%). The most frequently seen single diagnoses were viral warts (12.2%), scabies (8.7%), acne (7.4%), dermatophytosis (6.8%), contact dermatitis (3.5%), and nummular eczema (3.5%). Infectious diseases, acne, and eczemas are the most common skin disorders seen in dermatology clinics in rural Yucatan, Mexico. Our findings may be useful in the development of public health initiatives targeting rural communities in this region. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  5. Rural Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... mental health services in rural America. According to Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration 2015 data , 18.3% ... into primary care, and suicide prevention. Information regarding substance abuse is found in RHIhub's Substance Abuse Topic Guide . ...

  6. Rural Health Information Hub

    MedlinePlus

    ... more deliveries of needed supplies. Strategies for Superbugs: Antibiotic Stewardship for Rural Hospitals Resistant bacteria, or “superbugs,” ... as well as infectious disease experts, believe hospital antibiotic stewardship programs are the answer to blunting the ...

  7. "Ruralizing" Presidential Job Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leist, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Rural community college presidential job advertisements that focus on geography, politics, and culture can improve the likelihood of a good fit between the senior leader and the institution. (Contains 2 figures.)

  8. "Ruralizing" Presidential Job Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leist, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Rural community college presidential job advertisements that focus on geography, politics, and culture can improve the likelihood of a good fit between the senior leader and the institution. (Contains 2 figures.)

  9. Rural Oregon Community Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Young-Lorion, Julia; Davis, Melinda M.; Kirks, Nancy; Hsu, Anna; Slater, Jana Kay; Rollins, Nancy; Aromaa, Susan; McGinnis, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The Community Health Improvement Partnership (CHIP) model has supported community health development in more than 100 communities nationally. In 2011, four rural Oregon CHIPs collaborated with investigators from the Oregon Rural Practice-based Research Network (ORPRN), a component of the Oregon Clinical and Translational Research Institute (OCTRI), to obtain training on research methods, develop and implement pilot research studies on childhood obesity, and explore matches with academic partners. This article summarizes the experiences of the Lincoln County CHIP, established in 2003, as it transitioned from CHIP to Community Health Improvement and Research Partnership (CHIRP). Our story and lessons learned may inform rural community-based health coalitions and academicians who are engaged in or considering Community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnerships. Utilizing existing infrastructure and relationships in community and academic settings provides an ideal starting point for rural, bidirectional research partnerships. PMID:24056513

  10. Rural Broadband Initiative Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Owens, William L. [D-NY-23

    2011-03-15

    03/22/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Rural Development, Research, Biotechnology, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Rural Broadband Initiative Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Owens, William L. [D-NY-23

    2011-03-15

    03/22/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Rural Development, Research, Biotechnology, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Rural Health Clinics (RHCs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Medicaid? What are the Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement (QAPI) requirements for RHCs? Can Rural Health Clinics be certified as Patient Centered Medical Homes (PCMHs)? Can RHCs join Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs)? What is the difference between a Federally ...

  13. Rural Broadband Initiative Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Owens, William L. [D-NY-23

    2011-03-15

    House - 03/22/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Rural Development, Research, Biotechnology, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Automated Diagnosis Of Faults In Antenna-Aiming Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, Patrick J.; Mellstrom, Jeffrey A.

    1993-01-01

    Report discusses research directed toward automated diagnosis of faults in complicated electromechanical and hydraulic systems aiming 70-m and 34-m antennas of Deep Space Network communication system.

  15. Rural Education: Issues and Practice. Source Books on Education, Vol. 25. Garland Reference Library of Social Science, Vol. 473.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeYoung, Alan J., Ed.

    This collection of essays on rural education in the United States aims to fill a gap in the educational literature by highlighting the available research on rural schools and their contexts. The three sections of the book focus on the historical, social, political, and economic contexts of rural education; topics of practical interest for rural…

  16. Integrated Rural Education Centres (IRECs) as Basis of Vocationalization at Primary School Level: The Southern Sudanese Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngalamu, Jack

    In 1977, the government of the Sudan launched the Integrated Rural Development Project with the aim of ruralizing and vocationalizing primary school education. Integrated Rural Education Centres (IRECs) were the first attempt by the government to introduce vocational subjects as part of general education at the primary school level. Unfortunately,…

  17. Evaluation of Flexibility Under "No Child Left Behind": Volume III--The Rural Education Achievement Program (REAP Flex)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Gayle S.; Amerikaner, Ary; Klasik, Daniel; Cohodes, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    This study focuses on flexibility provisions in the Rural Education Achievement Program (REAP) provision of NCLB. Specifically, it addresses REAP Flex, a program that allows rural districts additional control over how to spend portions of their federal funding. REAP Flex is part of a series of NCLB flexibility initiatives aimed at rural schools.…

  18. Rural Education: Issues and Practice. Source Books on Education, Vol. 25. Garland Reference Library of Social Science, Vol. 473.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeYoung, Alan J., Ed.

    This collection of essays on rural education in the United States aims to fill a gap in the educational literature by highlighting the available research on rural schools and their contexts. The three sections of the book focus on the historical, social, political, and economic contexts of rural education; topics of practical interest for rural…

  19. Rural maternity care.

    PubMed

    Miller, Katherine J; Couchie, Carol; Ehman, William; Graves, Lisa; Grzybowski, Stefan; Medves, Jennifer

    2012-10-01

    To provide an overview of current information on issues in maternity care relevant to rural populations. Medline was searched for articles published in English from 1995 to 2012 about rural maternity care. Relevant publications and position papers from appropriate organizations were also reviewed. This information will help obstetrical care providers in rural areas to continue providing quality care for women in their communities. Recommendations 1. Women who reside in rural and remote communities in Canada should receive high-quality maternity care as close to home as possible. 2. The provision of rural maternity care must be collaborative, woman- and family-centred, culturally sensitive, and respectful. 3. Rural maternity care services should be supported through active policies aligned with these recommendations. 4. While local access to surgical and anaesthetic services is desirable, there is evidence that good outcomes can be sustained within an integrated perinatal care system without local access to operative delivery. There is evidence that the outcomes are better when women do not have to travel far from their communities. Access to an integrated perinatal care system should be provided for all women. 5. The social and emotional needs of rural women must be considered in service planning. Women who are required to leave their communities to give birth should be supported both financially and emotionally. 6. Innovative interprofessional models should be implemented as part of the solution for high-quality, collaborative, and integrated care for rural and remote women. 7. Registered nurses are essential to the provision of high-quality rural maternity care throughout pregnancy, birth, and the postpartum period. Maternity nursing skills should be recognized as a fundamental part of generalist rural nursing skills. 8. Remuneration for maternity care providers should reflect the unique challenges and increased professional responsibility faced by providers in

  20. Critters: K-6 Life Science Activities. Project AIMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Maureen Murphy; And Others

    Project AIMS (Activities to Integrate Mathematics and Science) has as its purpose the integration of subject matter in grades K-9. Field testing of the curriculum materials produced by AIMS indicates that this integration produces the following beneficial results: (1) mathematics becomes more meaningful, hence more useful; (2) science is…

  1. Student Teachers' Attitude towards Twitter for Educational Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marín, Victoria I.; Tur, Gemma

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an educational experience with 100 student teachers from different courses of the University of the Balearic Islands (Spain) in which Twitter is used for various different activities. The aim of this experiment was to explore student teachers' perceptions in order to value their attitude towards Twitter for educational aims.…

  2. The Aims of Education and the Leap of Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yun, SunInn

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the place of freedom in discussions of the aims of education. Bearing in mind remarks of R.S. Peters to the affect that the singling out of aims can "fall into the hands of rationalistically minded curriculum planners", it begins by considering the views of Roland Reichenbach regarding Bildung and his account of this…

  3. An Analysis of Aims and the Educational "Event"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Heyer, Kent

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author explores key distinctions relevant to aims talk in education. He argues that present formulations of aims fail to adequately capture or speak to several overlapping domains involved in schooling: qualification, socialization, and the educational in the form of subjectification (Biesta, 2010). Drawing off Egan and Biesta…

  4. Primarily Plants, A Plant Study for K-3. Project AIMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Evalyn; Mercier, Sheryl

    Project AIMS (Activities to Integrate Mathematics and Science) has as its purpose the integration of subject matter in grades K-9. Field testing of the curriculum materials produced by AIMS indicates that this interpretation produces the following beneficial results: (1) mathematics becomes more meaningful, hence more useful; (2) science is…

  5. An Analysis of Aims and the Educational "Event"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Heyer, Kent

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author explores key distinctions relevant to aims talk in education. He argues that present formulations of aims fail to adequately capture or speak to several overlapping domains involved in schooling: qualification, socialization, and the educational in the form of subjectification (Biesta, 2010). Drawing off Egan and Biesta…

  6. The Core of Religious Education: Finnish Student Teachers' Pedagogical Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    This article investigated the core of religious education (RE) by examining Finnish student teachers' pedagogical aims in the context of Lutheran RE. The data consisted of essays (N=82) analysed in a deductive manner using the main concepts of the didactic triangle together with the aims of the Finnish National Core Curriculum. The student…

  7. Teaching Design Education for Cultural, Pedagogical, and Economic Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vande Zande, Robin

    2010-01-01

    The aims of educating for economic, cultural, and pedagogical purposes have existed since the early inception of art education. Looking at how and why these aims evolved in the early era of art and design education has potential for better understanding how and why design should be incorporated into the art education curricula today. This article…

  8. Critters: K-6 Life Science Activities. Project AIMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Maureen Murphy; And Others

    Project AIMS (Activities to Integrate Mathematics and Science) has as its purpose the integration of subject matter in grades K-9. Field testing of the curriculum materials produced by AIMS indicates that this integration produces the following beneficial results: (1) mathematics becomes more meaningful, hence more useful; (2) science is…

  9. Soap Films and Bubbles, Grades 4-9. Project AIMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Ann

    Project AIMS (Activities to Integrate Mathematics and Science) has as its purpose the integration of subject matter in grades K-9 on the premise that such integration enriches and makes learning meaningful and holistic. In fact, extensive field testing of the curriculum materials produced by AIMS has confirmed that integration produces the…

  10. Patriotism, History and the Legitimate Aims of American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that while an attachment to one's country is both natural and even partially justifiable, cultivating loyal patriotism in schools is untenable insofar as it conflicts with the legitimate aims of education. These aims include the epistemological competence necessary for ascertaining important truths germane to the various…

  11. Soap Films and Bubbles, Grades 4-9. Project AIMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Ann

    Project AIMS (Activities to Integrate Mathematics and Science) has as its purpose the integration of subject matter in grades K-9 on the premise that such integration enriches and makes learning meaningful and holistic. In fact, extensive field testing of the curriculum materials produced by AIMS has confirmed that integration produces the…

  12. The Aims of Education and the Leap of Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yun, SunInn

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the place of freedom in discussions of the aims of education. Bearing in mind remarks of R.S. Peters to the affect that the singling out of aims can "fall into the hands of rationalistically minded curriculum planners", it begins by considering the views of Roland Reichenbach regarding Bildung and his account of this…

  13. Found in Translation: Interdisciplinary Arts Integration in Project AIM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Lara; Ingram, Debra; Weiss, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    This paper will share the arts-integration methodology used in Project AIM and address the question; "How is translation evident in interdisciplinary arts instruction, and how does it affect students?" Methods: The staff and researchers from Project AIM, (an arts-integration program of the Center for Community Arts Partnerships at…

  14. The Core of Religious Education: Finnish Student Teachers' Pedagogical Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    This article investigated the core of religious education (RE) by examining Finnish student teachers' pedagogical aims in the context of Lutheran RE. The data consisted of essays (N=82) analysed in a deductive manner using the main concepts of the didactic triangle together with the aims of the Finnish National Core Curriculum. The student…

  15. Teaching Design Education for Cultural, Pedagogical, and Economic Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vande Zande, Robin

    2010-01-01

    The aims of educating for economic, cultural, and pedagogical purposes have existed since the early inception of art education. Looking at how and why these aims evolved in the early era of art and design education has potential for better understanding how and why design should be incorporated into the art education curricula today. This article…

  16. Primarily Plants, A Plant Study for K-3. Project AIMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Evalyn; Mercier, Sheryl

    Project AIMS (Activities to Integrate Mathematics and Science) has as its purpose the integration of subject matter in grades K-9. Field testing of the curriculum materials produced by AIMS indicates that this interpretation produces the following beneficial results: (1) mathematics becomes more meaningful, hence more useful; (2) science is…

  17. Human Services in Rural Alaska: Highlights from the Evaluation of the Rural Areas Social Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Frances Lomas

    The Social and Rehabilitation Service granted the Alaska Division of Public Welfare funds to train and employ qualified Native village people as paraprofessionals who could provide the social services needed while living right in the village. The Rural Areas Social Services Project (RASS), a demonstration and training project aimed at bringing…

  18. AIM being prepared for integrated testing and flight simulation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-24

    In Building 1555 on North Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, technicians maneuver the spacecraft handling fixture toward the AIM spacecraft. AIM, which stands for Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere, is being prepared for integrated testing and a flight simulation. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. AIM is scheduled to be mated to its launch vehicle, Orbital Sciences' Pegasus XL, during the second week of April, after which final inspections will be conducted. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  19. AIM being prepared for integrated testing and flight simulation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-24

    At North Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, the AIM spacecraft is moved into a clean room for testing. AIM, which stands for Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere, is being prepared for integrated testing and a flight simulation. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. AIM is scheduled to be mated to its launch vehicle, Orbital Sciences' Pegasus XL, during the second week of April, after which final inspections will be conducted. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  20. AIM being prepared for integrated testing and flight simulation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-24

    In Building 1555 on North Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, technicians lower the spacecraft handling fixture around the AIM spacecraft. AIM, which stands for Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere, is being prepared for integrated testing and a flight simulation. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. AIM is scheduled to be mated to its launch vehicle, Orbital Sciences' Pegasus XL, during the second week of April, after which final inspections will be conducted. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  1. AIM being prepared for integrated testing and flight simulation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-24

    In Building 1555 on North Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, technicians roll the AIM spacecraft back under the protective clean tent. AIM, which stands for Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere, is being prepared for integrated testing and a flight simulation. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. AIM is scheduled to be mated to its launch vehicle, Orbital Sciences' Pegasus XL, during the second week of April, after which final inspections will be conducted. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  2. AIM being prepared for integrated testing and flight simulation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-24

    In Building 1555 on North Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, technicians lower the AIM spacecraft onto a moveable stand. AIM, which stands for Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere, is being prepared for integrated testing and a flight simulation. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. AIM is scheduled to be mated to its launch vehicle, Orbital Sciences' Pegasus XL, during the second week of April, after which final inspections will be conducted. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  3. AIM being prepared for integrated testing and flight simulation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-24

    At North Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, the AIM spacecraft is prepared for its move to the clean room for testing. AIM, which stands for Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere, is being prepared for integrated testing and a flight simulation. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. AIM is scheduled to be mated to its launch vehicle, Orbital Sciences' Pegasus XL, during the second week of April, after which final inspections will be conducted. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  4. Family Medicine in Rural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Hirsh, Michael; Wootton, J.S.C.

    1990-01-01

    Recruitment of physicians for rural communities is a continuing problem in Canada. Medical schools can be involved through preferential admission policies. Departments of family medicine across the country are including on-site training in rural communities and are seeking to improve their rural program curriculum. The McGill rural program is described from its origins to its present state. A rural coordinator oversees 12 sites at which both residents and students are trained. One site at Shawville, Que, is described from a rural physician's point of view. Imagesp2011-ap2012-ap2014-a PMID:21233945

  5. Revisiting the Genetic Ancestry of Brazilians Using Autosomal AIM-Indels

    PubMed Central

    Saloum de Neves Manta, Fernanda; Pereira, Rui; Vianna, Romulo; Rodolfo Beuttenmüller de Araújo, Alfredo; Leite Góes Gitaí, Daniel; Aparecida da Silva, Dayse; de Vargas Wolfgramm, Eldamária; da Mota Pontes, Isabel; Ivan Aguiar, José; Ozório Moraes, Milton; Fagundes de Carvalho, Elizeu; Gusmão, Leonor

    2013-01-01

    There are many different studies that contribute to the global picture of the ethnic heterogeneity in Brazilian populations. These studies use different types of genetic markers and are focused on the comparison of populations at different levels. In some of them, each geographical region is treated as a single homogeneous population, whereas other studies create different subdivisions: political (e.g., pooling populations by State), demographic (e.g., urban and rural), or ethnic (e.g., culture, self-declaration, or skin colour). In this study, we performed an enhanced reassessment of the genetic ancestry of ~ 1,300 Brazilians characterised for 46 autosomal Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs). In addition, 798 individuals from twelve Brazilian populations representing the five geographical macro-regions of Brazil were newly genotyped, including a Native American community and a rural Amazonian community. Following an increasing North to South gradient, European ancestry was the most prevalent in all urban populations (with values up to 74%). The populations in the North consisted of a significant proportion of Native American ancestry that was about two times higher than the African contribution. Conversely, in the Northeast, Center-West and Southeast, African ancestry was the second most prevalent. At an intrapopulation level, all urban populations were highly admixed, and most of the variation in ancestry proportions was observed between individuals within each population rather than among population. Nevertheless, individuals with a high proportion of Native American ancestry are only found in the samples from Terena and Santa Isabel. Our results allowed us to further refine the genetic landscape of Brazilians while establishing the basis for the effective application of an autosomal AIM panel in forensic casework and clinical association studies within the highly admixed Brazilian populations. PMID:24073242

  6. Simplifying trauma airway management in South African rural hospitals.

    PubMed

    Berry, Michael; Wood, Darryl

    2014-05-14

    South African emergency centres witness high levels of trauma. Successfully managing a compromised trauma airway requires considerable skill and expertise. In the rural healthcare setting, clinics and hospitals are often staffed by junior doctors without formal advanced airway training. Current airway management algorithms tend to ignore lack of resources and skill. We therefore propose a simplified guideline for the rural hospital practitioner. Our algorithm offers a step-by-step approach, with the aim of providing an easy sequence to follow that will ensure successful airway management and patient safety. The lack of advanced airway equipment in most rural hospitals is taken into consideration.

  7. Smoke Inhalation in a Rural Emergency Setting: A Simulation Session

    PubMed Central

    Jong, Robert; Krustev, Eugene; Heroux, Aron

    2016-01-01

    Smoke inhalation-associated lung injuries (SI-ALI) present multiple challenges to the rural emergency department, and they require timely and appropriate management to prevent significant mortality and morbidity. In this report, we outline an adaptable simulation of an SI-ALI patient that is designed for use in a rural emergency department. The aim of this simulation is to better equip clinicians and emergency department staff who may encounter SI-ALI in rural settings. The case is suitable for resident doctors and emergency department staff. PMID:27774354

  8. Implementation of an Anesthesia Information Management System (AIMS)

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, James R.; Ritter, Melody J.

    2011-01-01

    During the administration of anesthesia, the anesthesia provider has historically created a paper record, charted manually, that included extensive patient care–related data (vital signs, other parameters, etc) and commentaries. DocuSys, a proprietary anesthesia information management system (AIMS), creates an electronic version of the anesthesia record and provides additional information. It electronically captures data from clinical monitors and other sources, including scheduling applications and laboratory computers. The AIMS facilitates chart entries such as drug doses and case narratives. Benefits of an AIMS include improved legibility of the anesthesia record and greater efficiency in documentation efforts. Use of the AIMS assists the practitioner with decision support logic, such as the timing of antibiotic administration and the inclusion of legally required documentation. Upon case completion, the AIMS data are immediately available to other information systems, such as billing and medical records. Data can be made available from a single case or, more important, from thousands of cases to analyze variables such as efficiency of services, adherence to best practices, patient outcomes, and clinical research. The AIMS was deployed at the main campus of the Ochsner Health System on March 26, 2009. In this article, we discuss the issues involved in the AIMS implementation process: the successes, surprises, and continued challenges. PMID:21734847

  9. Implementation of an Anesthesia Information Management System (AIMS).

    PubMed

    Douglas, James R; Ritter, Melody J

    2011-01-01

    During the administration of anesthesia, the anesthesia provider has historically created a paper record, charted manually, that included extensive patient care-related data (vital signs, other parameters, etc) and commentaries. DocuSys, a proprietary anesthesia information management system (AIMS), creates an electronic version of the anesthesia record and provides additional information. It electronically captures data from clinical monitors and other sources, including scheduling applications and laboratory computers. The AIMS facilitates chart entries such as drug doses and case narratives. Benefits of an AIMS include improved legibility of the anesthesia record and greater efficiency in documentation efforts. Use of the AIMS assists the practitioner with decision support logic, such as the timing of antibiotic administration and the inclusion of legally required documentation. Upon case completion, the AIMS data are immediately available to other information systems, such as billing and medical records. Data can be made available from a single case or, more important, from thousands of cases to analyze variables such as efficiency of services, adherence to best practices, patient outcomes, and clinical research. The AIMS was deployed at the main campus of the Ochsner Health System on March 26, 2009. In this article, we discuss the issues involved in the AIMS implementation process: the successes, surprises, and continued challenges.

  10. IR modules and long-life Stirling cryocoolers at AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korf, Herbert; Cabanski, Wolfgang A.; Wendler, C. J.; Wild, U.; Ziegler, Johann

    1998-10-01

    The last 10 years of engineering and production at AEG INFRAROT-MODULE GmbH (AIM) resulted in continued improvements in performance, yield and reliability of IR modules and cryocoolers. For the optimizing of engineering, production and testing over the complete scope, from semiconductor material growth, FPA fabrication, cryo packaging data processing and software, cooling, etc. up to the camera level, AIM has all critical technologies under one roof. This paper demonstrates how such results were achieved, which criteria are to be met for performance, yield and cost improvements and how contemporary IR modules from AIM reflect these achievements.

  11. Association between self-efficacy, career interest and rural career intent in Australian medical students with rural clinical school experience.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Vivian; Walters, Lucie; McLachlan, Craig S

    2015-12-15

    To investigate medical student's self-efficacy at the time of finishing their rural clinical school (RCS) placement and factors associated with self-efficacy. Secondary aims are to explore whether interest levels or self-efficacy are associated with rural or remote career intentions. A cross-sectional study of medical students who had completed their RCS term in 17 Australian universities. Data were derived from the 2013 Federation of Rural Australian Medical Educators (FRAME) evaluation survey. Questionnaire responses were analysed from 653 medical students from regional Australia. All 732 students who completed their RCS term in 2013 were invited to participate. Rural self-efficacy: Six questions to measure self-efficacy beliefs in rural medical practice, based on the sources of self-efficacy described by Bandura. Rural career intention: Students were asked to identify their preferred location for future practice. The options were, Capital or Major City; Inner regional city or large town; Smaller town and very remote area. Questionnaire responses were analysed from 653 medical students from regional Australia (response rate 89.2%). 83.8% of all students recalled an increase in their interest levels for rural medicine as a result of their RCS experience. Actual career intention to work in a regional area or rural area was 60.2%. Bivariate analyses showed female gender (p=0.003), rural background (p<0.001), an RCS preference for clinical training (p<0.001) and general practice intentions (p=0.004) were factors associated with higher levels of self-efficacy. Logistic regression analyses showed that self-efficacy was independently associated with increased interest in rural medicine (OR 1.4 (95% CI 1.3 to 1.5)) and rural career intent (OR 1.2 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.3)). (Model included gender, rural background, preference for RCS, generalist intent, rural practice interest and self-efficacy). Self-efficacy is associated with increased interest levels for rural medicine and

  12. Association between self-efficacy, career interest and rural career intent in Australian medical students with rural clinical school experience

    PubMed Central

    Isaac, Vivian; Walters, Lucie; McLachlan, Craig S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate medical student's self-efficacy at the time of finishing their rural clinical school (RCS) placement and factors associated with self-efficacy. Secondary aims are to explore whether interest levels or self-efficacy are associated with rural or remote career intentions. Design, setting and participants A cross-sectional study of medical students who had completed their RCS term in 17 Australian universities. Data were derived from the 2013 Federation of Rural Australian Medical Educators (FRAME) evaluation survey. Questionnaire responses were analysed from 653 medical students from regional Australia. All 732 students who completed their RCS term in 2013 were invited to participate. Primary and secondary outcome measures Rural self-efficacy: Six questions to measure self-efficacy beliefs in rural medical practice, based on the sources of self-efficacy described by Bandura. Rural career intention: Students were asked to identify their preferred location for future practice. The options were, Capital or Major City; Inner regional city or large town; Smaller town and very remote area. Results Questionnaire responses were analysed from 653 medical students from regional Australia (response rate 89.2%). 83.8% of all students recalled an increase in their interest levels for rural medicine as a result of their RCS experience. Actual career intention to work in a regional area or rural area was 60.2%. Bivariate analyses showed female gender (p=0.003), rural background (p<0.001), an RCS preference for clinical training (p<0.001) and general practice intentions (p=0.004) were factors associated with higher levels of self-efficacy. Logistic regression analyses showed that self-efficacy was independently associated with increased interest in rural medicine (OR 1.4 (95% CI 1.3 to 1.5)) and rural career intent (OR 1.2 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.3)). (Model included gender, rural background, preference for RCS, generalist intent, rural practice interest and self

  13. Medical graduates becoming rural doctors: rural background versus extended rural placement.

    PubMed

    Clark, Tyler R; Freedman, Saul B; Croft, Amanda J; Dalton, Hazel E; Luscombe, Georgina M; Brown, Anthony M; Tiller, David J; Frommer, Michael S

    2013-12-16

    To determine whether recruitment of rural students and uptake of extended rural placements are associated with students' expressed intentions to undertake rural internships and students' acceptance of rural internships after finishing medical school, and to compare any associations. Longitudinal study of three successive cohorts (commencing 2005, 2006, 2007) of medical students in the Sydney Medical Program (SMP), University of Sydney, New South Wales, using responses to self-administered questionnaires upon entry to and exit from the Sydney Medical School and data recorded in rolls. Students' expressed intentions to undertake rural internships, and their acceptance of rural internships after finishing medical school. Data from 448 students were included. The proportion of students preferring a rural career dropped from 20.7% (79/382) to 12.5% (54/433) between entry into and exit from the SMP. A total of 98 students took extended rural placements. Ultimately, 8.1% (35/434) accepted a rural internship, although 14.5% (60/415) had indicated a first preference for a rural post. Students who had undertaken an extended rural placement were more than three times as likely as those with rural backgrounds to express a first preference for a rural internship (23.9% v 7.7%; χ(2) = 7.04; P = 0.008) and more than twice as likely to accept a rural internship (21.3% v 9.9%; χ(2) = 3.85; P = 0.05). For the three cohorts studied, rural clinical training through extended placements in rural clinical schools had a stronger association than rural background with a preference for, and acceptance of, rural internship.

  14. Rural energy survey and profiles: Senegal. Training manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Part one describes a survey undertaken as part of a renewable energy program by the Peace Corps. Aimed at assisting developing countries in identifying energy needs in rural areas and implementing alternative, renewable energy projects at the community level. Survey designed to obtain detailed information about energy resources in rural villages, combining social, cultural and economic issues. Part two provides detailed energy use information for several Senegalese villages included in the survey.

  15. Researchers Take Aim At Insecticide-Resistant Bedbugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aim at Insecticide-Resistant Bedbugs New fungal-based pesticide might knock out insects that survive current chemicals ... use in bedbug management," Jenkins said. The new pesticide worked on all four strains of bedbugs, the ...

  16. AIM being prepared for integrated testing and flight simulation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-24

    In Building 1555 on North Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, technicians prepare the AIM spacecraft for integrated testing and a flight simulation. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. AIM is scheduled to be mated to its launch vehicle, Orbital Sciences' Pegasus XL, during the second week of April, after which final inspections will be conducted. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  17. The mated Pegasus XL rocket - AIM spacecraft leaves Building 165

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-16

    The mated Pegasus XL rocket - AIM spacecraft leaves Building 1655 at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. The rocket will be transferred to a waiting Orbital Sciences Stargazer L-1011 aircraft for launch. AIM, which stands for Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere, is being prepared for integrated testing and a flight simulation. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  18. The mated Pegasus XL rocket - AIM spacecraft leaves Building 165

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-16

    The mated Pegasus XL rocket - AIM spacecraft is secured onto a transporter at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. The rocket will be transferred to a waiting Orbital Sciences Stargazer L-1011 aircraft for launch. AIM, which stands for Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere, is being prepared for integrated testing and a flight simulation. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  19. The mated Pegasus XL rocket - AIM spacecraft leaves Building 165

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-16

    The mated Pegasus XL rocket - AIM spacecraft is moved onto a transporter in Building 1655 at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. The launch vehicle will be transferred to a waiting Orbital Sciences Stargazer L-1011 aircraft for launch. AIM, which stands for Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere, is being prepared for integrated testing and a flight simulation. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  20. 121. Man with temperature probe aimed at armature measuring temperature ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. Man with temperature probe aimed at armature measuring temperature as armature heats up between the two electrodes. March 27, 1985 - Statue of Liberty, Liberty Island, Manhattan, New York County, NY

  1. Real-Time Estimation Of Aiming Error Of Spinning Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolinsky, Shlomo

    1992-01-01

    Spinning-spacecraft dynamics and amplitude variations in communications links studied from received-signal fluctuations. Mathematical model and associated analysis procedure provide real-time estimates of aiming error of remote rotating transmitting antenna radiating constant power in narrow, pencillike beam from spinning platform, and current amplitude of received signal. Estimates useful in analyzing and enhancing calibration of communication system, and in analyzing complicated dynamic effects in spinning platform and antenna-aiming mechanism.

  2. Ethics and aims in psychotherapy: a contribution from Kant.

    PubMed Central

    Callender, J S

    1998-01-01

    Psychotherapy is an activity which takes many forms and which has many aims. The present paper argues that it can be viewed as a form of moral suasion. Kant's concepts of free will and ethics are described and these are then applied to the processes and outcome of psychotherapy. It is argued that his ideas, by linking rationality, free will and ethics into a single philosophical system, offer a valuable theoretical framework for thinking about aims and ethical issues in psychotherapy. PMID:9752632

  3. Ethics and aims in psychotherapy: a contribution from Kant.

    PubMed

    Callender, J S

    1998-08-01

    Psychotherapy is an activity which takes many forms and which has many aims. The present paper argues that it can be viewed as a form of moral suasion. Kant's concepts of free will and ethics are described and these are then applied to the processes and outcome of psychotherapy. It is argued that his ideas, by linking rationality, free will and ethics into a single philosophical system, offer a valuable theoretical framework for thinking about aims and ethical issues in psychotherapy.

  4. Automated Iodine Monitoring System Development (AIMS). [shuttle prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The operating principle of the automated iodine monitoring/controller system (AIMS) is described along with several design modifications. The iodine addition system is also discussed along with test setups and calibration; a facsimile of the optical/mechanical portion of the iodine monitor was fabricated and tested. The appendices include information on shuttle prototype AIMS, preliminary prime item development specifications, preliminary failure modes and effects analysis, and preliminary operating and maintenance instructions.

  5. [Content analysis of food adverts aimed at children].

    PubMed

    Ponce-Blandón, José Antonio; Pabón-Carrasco, Manuel; Lomas-Campos, María de Las Mercedes

    To determine the contents and persuasive techniques used in processed food adverts aimed at children in Andalusia, comparing them with those aimed at adults. Study based on advert content analysis with two phases: a descriptive design phase and an analytical observational design phase. A sample of adverts from 60hours of broadcasting from the two most watched television channels in Andalusia. A total of 416 food and non-alcoholic beverage adverts were obtained, for 91 different products. Approximately 42.9% (n=39) was aimed at children and 53.8% (n=49) were products classified as "unhealthy". Unhealthy foods were more common in adverts for children (p <0.001). Significant differences were found between the ads aimed at adults and those aimed at children. Emotional and irrational persuasive resources such as fantasy (p <0.001), cartoons (p <0.001) or offering gifts with the purchase of the product (p=0.003) were observed more frequently in adverts for children. Food advertising aimed at children in Andalusia is mainly based on offering products with a low nutritional value and using persuasive resources based on fantasy or gifts. The message is focused on the incentive and not the food. More effective measures than the current self-regulatory systems must be put in place to counter these distorted adverts. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Rural Science Education Program

    SciTech Connect

    Intress, C.

    1994-12-31

    The Rural Science Education Project is an outreach program of the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science with the goal of helping rural elementary schools improve science teaching and learning by using local natural environmental resources. This program is based on the assumption that rural schools, so often described as disadvantaged in terms of curricular resources, actually provide a science teaching advantage because of their locale. The natural environment of mountains, forests, ponds, desert, or fields offers a context for the study of scientific concepts and skills that appeals to many youngsters. To tap these resources, teachers need access to knowledge about the rural school locality`s natural history. Through a process of active participation in school-based workshops and field site studies, teachers observe and learn about the native flora, fauna, geology, and paleontology of their community. In addition, they are exposed to instructional strategies, activities, and provided with materials which foster experimential learning. This school-museum partnership, now in its fifth year, has aided more than 800 rural teachers` on-going professional development. These educators have, in turn, enhanced science education throughout New Mexico for more than 25,000 students.

  7. Controversy over rural electrification

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, D.F.

    1982-10-01

    The disappointing rate of rural electrification in a number of developing countries has raised issues about the equity of utility investments and subsidies since limited connection to the central grid threatens to increase the gap between rich and poor. A review of the arguments for and against central-grid rural electrification cites the efficiency and low cost of electricity, improved productivity, and a way to balance urban and rural investments as the principal benefits. Critics challenge these points and argue that electrification is too costly, has uneven social benefits, and has no direct economic benefits. They feel that the US model of rural electrification may not be applicable to developing countries with a lower per-capita income and that central grid generation lacks the merits of development strategies based on renewable sources and alternative technologies. Studies show that the impact of rural electrification varies among countries, but that even the more successful will require subsidies to ensure that electrification projects are coordinated with social and economic programs. 11 references, 1 table. (DCK)

  8. Rural power quality

    SciTech Connect

    Koval, D.O. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Chang, J.C. ); Leonard, J. . Dept. of Agricultural Engineering)

    1992-07-01

    Very little published literature is available on the quality of power being delivered to rural industries. This paper will present the results of a detailed power quantity monitoring survey of 17 out of the 23 small rural industries surveyed (i.e., poultry broiler, poultry layer, beef feedlot, and pig (farrow to finish) rural industrial sites) and sponsored by the Canadian Electrical Association; the survey will provide a knowledge base on rural power quality and the possible origins of power supply anomalies. This paper will summarize the major power quality problems experienced at the various industrial sites and present some of the significant results of an across Canada questionnaire survey on On-farm Electrical Power Disturbances. The results of these surveys will provide a basis for mitigating actions by the utilities and their rural industrial customers by enhancing their ability to identify the possible origins of power supply disturbances affecting the performance of electronic and electrical equipment at the various farm industrial sites.

  9. High interpopulation homogeneity in Central Argentina as assessed by Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs).

    PubMed

    García, Angelina; Dermarchi, Darío A; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Pauro, Maia; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia M; Salzano, Francisco M; Hutz, Mara H

    2015-01-01

    The population of Argentina has already been studied with regard to several genetic markers, but much more data are needed for the appropriate definition of its genetic profile. This study aimed at investigating the admixture patterns and genetic structure in Central Argentina, using biparental markers and comparing the results with those previously obtained by us with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the same samples. A total of 521 healthy unrelated individuals living in 13 villages of the Córdoba and San Luis provinces were tested. The individuals were genotyped for ten autosomal ancestry informative markers (AIMs). Allele frequencies were compared with those of African, European and Native American populations, chosen to represent parental contributions. The AIM estimates indicated a greater influence of the Native American ancestry as compared to previous studies in the same or other Argentinean regions, but smaller than that observed with the mtDNA tests. These differences can be explained, respectively, by different genetic contributions between rural and urban areas, and asymmetric gene flow occurred in the past. But a most unexpected finding was the marked interpopulation genetic homogeneity found in villages located in diverse geographic environments across a wide territory, suggesting considerable gene flow.

  10. High interpopulation homogeneity in Central Argentina as assessed by Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs)

    PubMed Central

    García, Angelina; Dermarchi, Darío A.; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Pauro, Maia; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia M.; Salzano, Francisco M.; Hutz, Mara H.

    2015-01-01

    The population of Argentina has already been studied with regard to several genetic markers, but much more data are needed for the appropriate definition of its genetic profile. This study aimed at investigating the admixture patterns and genetic structure in Central Argentina, using biparental markers and comparing the results with those previously obtained by us with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the same samples. A total of 521 healthy unrelated individuals living in 13 villages of the Córdoba and San Luis provinces were tested. The individuals were genotyped for ten autosomal ancestry informative markers (AIMs). Allele frequencies were compared with those of African, European and Native American populations, chosen to represent parental contributions. The AIM estimates indicated a greater influence of the Native American ancestry as compared to previous studies in the same or other Argentinean regions, but smaller than that observed with the mtDNA tests. These differences can be explained, respectively, by different genetic contributions between rural and urban areas, and asymmetric gene flow occurred in the past. But a most unexpected finding was the marked interpopulation genetic homogeneity found in villages located in diverse geographic environments across a wide territory, suggesting considerable gene flow. PMID:26500436

  11. Agriculture and Rurality: Beginning the "Final Separation"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedland, William H.

    2002-01-01

    When is a farm a farm? When is rural rural? Has the issue of the rural-urban continuum returned? Decades ago rural sociology worked itself into two blind alleys: rural-urban differences and attempts to define the rural-urban fringe. Although these conceptual problems eventually were exhausted, recent developments in California raise the…

  12. Rurality: "From the Inside Looking Out."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redman, Karin

    1991-01-01

    Explores quantitative and qualitative dimensions of rurality in pursuit of a definition. Distinguishes between rural education and education in rural areas. Discusses rural-urban differences in values and lifestyle. Advocates defining rurality from the rural resident's perspective, emphasizing diversity of social, cultural, and occupational…

  13. Agriculture and Rurality: Beginning the "Final Separation"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedland, William H.

    2002-01-01

    When is a farm a farm? When is rural rural? Has the issue of the rural-urban continuum returned? Decades ago rural sociology worked itself into two blind alleys: rural-urban differences and attempts to define the rural-urban fringe. Although these conceptual problems eventually were exhausted, recent developments in California raise the…

  14. The Rural Arena: The Diversity of Protest in Rural England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Matt

    2008-01-01

    In the past 15-20 years, the rural areas of England have been used by a wide diversity of groups as the stage for their protest activities. Some have argued that this is due the rise of a rural social movement; this paper contends that rural areas have become both available and advantageous as the locale of protest through a range of interlocking…

  15. Education in a Rural Environment. Education and Rural Development -- 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). International Inst. for Educational Planning.

    Assuming that education and rural development must be correlated, this booklet defines the general thrust for rural education programs in developing countries. The 1st of 4 sections briefly describes the various aspects of rural development (emphasis on integration of agriculture, industry, transport, trade, credit, health, education, culture,…

  16. Persistent Poverty in Rural America. Rural Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural Sociological Society, Bozeman, MT.

    In this volume, the Rural Sociological Society Task Force on Persistent Rural Poverty analyzes the leading explanations of persistent rural poverty and points out new directions in theory that should provide a firmer foundation for antipoverty policies and programs. Written by over 50 leading social scientists, the Task Force report explains that…

  17. The Rural Arena: The Diversity of Protest in Rural England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Matt

    2008-01-01

    In the past 15-20 years, the rural areas of England have been used by a wide diversity of groups as the stage for their protest activities. Some have argued that this is due the rise of a rural social movement; this paper contends that rural areas have become both available and advantageous as the locale of protest through a range of interlocking…

  18. Rural Youth as a Factor of Rural Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planck, Ulrich

    In order to determine West German rural youths' involvement in and availability to the mechanism of social change, surveys of youth aged 17-28 in towns of less than 5,000 people were made in 1955, 1968, and 1980. Between 1955 and 1980 the social structure of rural youth changed dramatically, especially in employment. In 1955, 55% of rural youth…

  19. Rural Matters: The Rural Challenge News, 1997-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural Matters: The Rural Challenge News, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This document contains the 10 quarterly issues of "Rural Matters: The Rural Challenge News," published from Fall 1997 to Winter 2000 (the final issue). This newsletter focused on projects funded by the Annenberg Rural Challenge, as well as research summaries and opinion pieces on the benefits of small schools, place-based education, and…

  20. Researching Rural Places: On Social Justice and Rural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Philip; Green, Bill

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores some of the political and methodological challenges involved in researching rural education. It begins by outlining the situation in Australia regarding the relationship between social justice and rural education. It first describes the disadvantages experienced by many rural communities and presents an analysis of rural…

  1. Pursuing the Triple Aim: The First 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Whittington, John W; Nolan, Kevin; Lewis, Ninon; Torres, Trissa

    2015-01-01

    Context In 2008, researchers at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) described the Triple Aim as simultaneously “improving the individual experience of care; improving the health of populations; and reducing the per capita costs of care for populations.” IHI and its close colleagues had determined that both individual and societal changes were needed. Methods In 2007, IHI began recruiting organizations from around the world to participate in a collaborative to implement what became known as the Triple Aim. The 141 participating organizations included health care systems, hospitals, health care insurance companies, and others closely tied to health care. In addition, key groups outside the health care system were represented, such as public health agencies, social services groups, and community coalitions. This collaborative provided a structure for observational research. By noting the contrasts between the contexts and structures of those sites in the collaborative that progressed and those that did not, we were able to develop an ex post theory of what is needed for an organization or community to successfully pursue the Triple Aim. Findings Drawing on our 7 years of experience, we describe the 3 major principles that guided the organizations and communities working on the Triple Aim: creating the right foundation for population management, managing services at scale for the population, and establishing a learning system to drive and sustain the work over time. Conclusions The concept of the Triple Aim is now widely used, because of IHI's work with many organizations and also because of the adoption of the Triple Aim as part of the national strategy for US health care, developed during the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Even those organizations working on the Triple Aim before IHI coined the term found our concept to be useful because it helped them think about all 3 dimensions at once and organize their

  2. Substance Abuse in Rural Areas

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guide Rural Health Topics & States Topics View more Substance Abuse in Rural Areas Substance abuse has long been ... are some options to reduce it? What is substance abuse and what are the signs of substance abuse? ...

  3. Bringing Rural Sociology Back In.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, William W.; Gilbert, Jess

    1985-01-01

    Raises questions about current rural sociology from a critical theory perspective. Provides a brief historical analysis of its theoretical and applied roots. Suggests interweaving of research, practice, and advocacy as way to bring rural sociologists back into policy making. (LFL)

  4. Bringing Rural Sociology Back In.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, William W.; Gilbert, Jess

    1985-01-01

    Raises questions about current rural sociology from a critical theory perspective. Provides a brief historical analysis of its theoretical and applied roots. Suggests interweaving of research, practice, and advocacy as way to bring rural sociologists back into policy making. (LFL)

  5. Rural women in Africa and technological change: some issues.

    PubMed

    Date-bah, E; Stevens, Y

    1981-01-01

    The attempt is made in this discussion to highlight some of the important sociological and technical issues relating to rural women in Africa and technological change which appear to have been underplayed, misconceived or overlooked in the past. Attention is directed to the rural woman as a member of the family unit, the image of the rural man, rural women as a diversified group, community and national governmental commitment to rural technology innovations, the use of already existing traditional groups and institutions to effect rural technological change, and design specifications and shortcomings of equipment and tools (manufacturing costs, exploitation of locally available energy resources, the simplicity of the devices), and infrastructural and marketing problems. Numberous projects aimed at improving the lot of women in the rural areas have focused only on women, rather than the woman as a member of an extended as well as a nuclear family unit. Consequently, they have failed, for rural women do not exist or operate in isolation. It is difficult to believe the overall image in much of the literature that the husbands of rural women show no sympathy or regard for their wives. In the effort to attract investment to improve upon the position of rural women, reality should not be distorted with this one-sided view. Men should be involved in the technology planned for rural women, and the technological change should be planned and implemented in such a way that it results in an improvement in the relationship between the rural couple and generally between members of the rural family and between males and females in the village. Another problem is overgeneralization, and it must be recognized that considerable differentiation exists between rural women themselves. The importance of community, governmental and political commitment to rural technology innovations in order to ensure their success is neglected in the literature. The government and polictical leadership

  6. AIM being prepared for integrated testing and flight simulation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-24

    In Building 1555 on North Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, technicians look over the spacecraft handling fixture that will be used to lift the AIM spacecraft. AIM, which stands for Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere, is being prepared for integrated testing and a flight simulation. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. AIM is scheduled to be mated to its launch vehicle, Orbital Sciences' Pegasus XL, during the second week of April, after which final inspections will be conducted. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  7. AIM being prepared for integrated testing and flight simulation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-24

    In Building 1555 on North Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, technicians work on the separation system to be mated to the AIM spacecraft. AIM, which stands for Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere, is being prepared for integrated testing and a flight simulation. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. AIM is scheduled to be mated to its launch vehicle, Orbital Sciences' Pegasus XL, during the second week of April, after which final inspections will be conducted. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  8. AIM being prepared for integrated testing and flight simulation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-24

    In Building 1555 on North Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, technicians work on the separation system to be mated to the AIM spacecraft, hovering above it. AIM, which stands for Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere, is being prepared for integrated testing and a flight simulation. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. AIM is scheduled to be mated to its launch vehicle, Orbital Sciences' Pegasus XL, during the second week of April, after which final inspections will be conducted. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  9. AIM being prepared for integrated testing and flight simulation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-24

    In Building 1555 on North Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, technicians carry the separation system, at left, toward the AIM spacecraft hovering above the stand at right. AIM, which stands for Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere, is being prepared for integrated testing and a flight simulation. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. AIM is scheduled to be mated to its launch vehicle, Orbital Sciences' Pegasus XL, during the second week of April, after which final inspections will be conducted. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  10. AIM being prepared for integrated testing and flight simulation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-24

    In Building 1555 on North Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, technicians move a mobile stand toward the AIM spacecraft suspended via a crane at left. . AIM, which stands for Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere, is being prepared for integrated testing and a flight simulation. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. AIM is scheduled to be mated to its launch vehicle, Orbital Sciences' Pegasus XL, during the second week of April, after which final inspections will be conducted. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  11. AIM being prepared for integrated testing and flight simulation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-24

    At North Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, the AIM spacecraft has been rotated to horizontal prior to its move to the clean room for testing. AIM, which stands for Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere, is being prepared for integrated testing and a flight simulation. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. AIM is scheduled to be mated to its launch vehicle, Orbital Sciences' Pegasus XL, during the second week of April, after which final inspections will be conducted. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  12. AIM being prepared for integrated testing and flight simulation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-24

    In Building 1555 on North Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, technicians lift the AIM spacecraft via the spacecraft handling fixture attached to it. AIM, which stands for Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere, is being prepared for integrated testing and a flight simulation. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. AIM is scheduled to be mated to its launch vehicle, Orbital Sciences' Pegasus XL, during the second week of April, after which final inspections will be conducted. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  13. The Increasingly Long Road to School in Rural China: The Impacts of Education Network Consolidation on Broadly Defined Schooling Distance in Xinfeng County of Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Dan; Barakat, Bilal

    2015-01-01

    In the early 2000s, China's Ministry of Education embarked on a program of school mapping restructure (SMR) that involved closing small rural schools and opening up larger centralized schools in towns and county seats.The stated aim of the policy was to improve educational resources and raise the human capital of rural students. Any progress that…

  14. The Increasingly Long Road to School in Rural China: The Impacts of Education Network Consolidation on Broadly Defined Schooling Distance in Xinfeng County of Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Dan; Barakat, Bilal

    2015-01-01

    In the early 2000s, China's Ministry of Education embarked on a program of school mapping restructure (SMR) that involved closing small rural schools and opening up larger centralized schools in towns and county seats.The stated aim of the policy was to improve educational resources and raise the human capital of rural students. Any progress that…

  15. Experiencias Educativas en el Medio Rural Colombiano. Serie Divulgacion No. 2. [Educational Experiences in the Rural Colombian Milieu. Circulation Series No. 2].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion Nacional, Bogota (Colombia). Centro Nacional de Documentacion e Informacion Pedagogica.

    In fulfillment of the Colombian National Government's educational policy aimed toward improving the rural population's level of living, two fundamental projects have been implemented. These projects have led to the creation of schools, the continuous extension of grades, and the creation of "Concentraciones de Desarrollo Rural." They…

  16. Integration of alternating monocular samples during goal-directed aiming.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Steve; Hayes, Spencer J; Bennett, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the effect of interocular delay in a manual aiming task that required accurate end-point placement, but not precise control of a grip aperture. Participants aimed in binocular, monocular, or alternating monocular vision conditions. For the latter, 25ms monocular samples were provided to alternate eyes without delay (0ms), or a delay of 25 or 50ms. The interocular delay resulted in a longer movement time, caused by a longer time-to-peak and time-after-peak velocity, and a reduction in peak velocity. We suggest that the change in kinematics reflect a strategic response to preserve terminal aiming accuracy and variability when faced with an informational perturbation. These findings indicate that the response to the interocular delay between alternating monocular samples depends on the task-specific information used to control that behavior.

  17. The International Particle Physics Outreach Group (ippog):. Aims and Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barney, David

    2012-08-01

    The International Particle Physics Outreach Group, IPPOG, is a network of particle physics communication and education experts. IPPOG's principle aim is to maximize the impact of education and outreach efforts related to particle physics through information exchange and the sharing of expertise. IPPOG has initiated several major European and Worldwide activities, such as the "International Particle Physics Masterclasses" where each year thousands of high school students in more than 20 countries come to one of about 120 nearby universities or research centres for a day in order to unravel the mysteries of particle physics. IPPOG has also initiated a global database of education and outreach materials, aimed at supporting other particle physicists and education professionals. The aims and activities of IPPOG will be described, as well as plans to include more countries & laboratories in the network.

  18. 1997 Australian Rural Education Award.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Rural Australia, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Nominees for the 1997 Australia Rural Education Award included a program that allowed rural students to follow a young man sailing around the world; a music, dance, and drama competition for rural students; a music camp; a bandicoot conservation project; an agricultural education program; and student documentation of the history of a local rural…

  19. Recreation and the Rural Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitner, Michael J.; And Others

    This review of the literature on recreation for the rural elderly is organized into seven sections. The first section is a brief overview of the values and socio-economic characteristics of the rural elderly. In the next section, studies on the leisure interests and the recreation participation patterns of the rural elderly are presented. The…

  20. Political Action in Rural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskerville, Roger

    People United for Rural Education (PURE), organized in Iowa in 1977, now has about 3,000 members in 23 states and 3 foreign countries. PURE's purpose is to ensure the survival of rural schools and to promote rural life as a viable and credible way of life. One of the organization's most difficult tasks is to counteract urban attitudes towards…

  1. Rural Education: The Federal Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearn, Norman E.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews federal efforts to develop a rural education federal agenda, five basic problems of rural areas which lend themselves to federal solutions, Department of Education proposals for fiscal year 1982, significant federal responses/already in progress, and strengths and advantages of rural schools. (AN)

  2. Gifted Voices from Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colangelo, Nicholas; Assouline, Susan G.; New, Jennifer K.

    This report focuses on gifted and talented education in six rural schools. An introduction summarizes a 1999 national assessment of rural gifted education and points out that the standards movement may hinder development of both effective rural schools and gifted programming. Of the six schools profiled, two were founded especially for gifted and…

  3. Juvenile Justice in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jankovic, Joanne, Ed.; And Others

    Producing a much-needed organized body of literature about rural juvenile justice, 14 papers (largely from the 1979 National Symposium on Rural Justice) are organized to identify current issues, identify forces causing changes in current systems, review programs responding to rural juvenile justice problems, and provide planning models to aid…

  4. Rural Education: A Changing Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Carson, Ed.; Stern, Joyce D., Ed.

    This collection features 11 papers from a national symposium on rural education. The papers are consistent in noting that while there are common elements among all schools regardless of location, rural schools operate within a unique context. Several papers address the diversity of rural locales and the challenges educators face in such locales.…

  5. Rurality and Rural Education: Discourses Underpinning Rurality and Rural Education Research in South African Postgraduate Education Research 1994-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkambule, T.; Balfour, R. J.; Pillay, G.; Moletsane, R.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, rurality and rural education have been marginalised bodies of knowledge in South Africa. The post-1994 era has seen an emerging government concern to address the continuing interplay between poverty, HIV/AIDS, underdevelopment, and underachievement in schools categorised as rural. To address these concerns, scholars in South African…

  6. Improving Opportunities in Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Henry L.

    Problems in rural communities stem from the steady downtrend of employment in agriculture, forestry, and mining, while gains in non-farm industries have not been sufficient to offset this decline and provide jobs for a growing rural labor force. There is an increasing deficit of talent in rural areas due to urban migration. The overall strategy to…

  7. Teacher Preparation for Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Bruce A.

    Small, sometimes multi-cultural, rural schools need specialized preservice teacher education programs to prepare teachers. After outlining the classroom, school, and sociocultural characteristics affecting a teacher's success and survival in a rural community, this paper discusses the apparent lack of rural content in teacher preparation programs…

  8. Rural School Communities in Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, Jack

    Visits to nine of the smallest rural elementary schools in Colorado were conducted to gain insights into types of communities served by the schools. No one definition of "rural" covered all nine communities, so they were classified into six types: predominantly agricultural, rural industrial, stable recreational, ranching/railraod, rural…

  9. Social Welfare in Rural Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shucksmith, Mark; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Literature review on social exclusion and disadvantage in rural Europe suggests that rural poverty arises from unemployment, low wages, and, most significantly, inadequate income in old age. Discusses difficulties in identifying rural incidence of exclusion and disadvantage, as well as the need for such research in light of major ongoing social…

  10. Rural Familism: An Interregional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Peter L.; Quesada, Gustavo M.

    1977-01-01

    Testing the hypothesis that at least two types of rural familism exist within different geographic regions of the United States, this study indicates that extended kin-oriented familism predominates in the rural Southeast and primary kin-oriented familism predominates in the rural Far West. (JC)

  11. Planning Schools for Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Hobart; Howley, Craig; Smith, Charles; Dickens, Ben

    School improvement in rural places cannot succeed without attention to the rural context of learning. Most especially, smaller schools need to be preserved and sustained in rural areas, particularly impoverished communities, for the sake of student achievement and personal development. This school improvement tool suggests the character of a "good…

  12. Recruiting Teachers for Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Betty Jo

    2005-01-01

    Unquestionably, rural schools face many obstacles in their attempts to attract teachers. However, a survey of preservice teachers working in rural districts found that many of these obstacles stem from misconceptions or a lack of knowledge about what it means to live and work in a rural area. Perception, however, is reality and therefore deserves…

  13. Rural School Communities in Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, Jack

    Visits to nine of the smallest rural elementary schools in Colorado were conducted to gain insights into types of communities served by the schools. No one definition of "rural" covered all nine communities, so they were classified into six types: predominantly agricultural, rural industrial, stable recreational, ranching/railraod, rural…

  14. Rural energy and development

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, R.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses the worldwide problem and need for rural electrification to support development. He points out that rural areas will pay high rates to receive such services, but cannot afford the capital cost for conventional services. The author looks at this problem from the point of energy choices, subsides, initial costs, financing, investors, local involvement, and governmental actions. In particular he is concerned with ways to make better use of biofuels, to promote sustainable harvesting, and to encourage development of more modern fuels.

  15. [Rural workers' health in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Jessica Pronestino de Lima; Oliveira, Bruno Luciano Carneiro Alves de; Muzi, Camila Drumond; Cunha, Carlos Leonardo Figueiredo; Brito, Alexandre dos Santos; Luiz, Ronir Raggio

    2015-08-01

    Workers' health is a central theme in public health surveys, but the specificity of work activities should be considered. This study aimed to analyze the health of rural workers in Brazil that perform both agricultural and non-agricultural work, based on self-rated health and self-reported diseases. The Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (PNAD 2008) was used, incorporating information from the complex sampling plan. Agricultural workers 18 years or older were selected, stratified according to those with and without non-agricultural work. Logistic regression was performed for self-rated health, and odds ratios were calculated for self-reported diseases. Exclusive agricultural work decreased the odds of reporting good health and increased the odds of reporting back pain, high blood pressure, and arthritis/rheumatism. Exclusive agricultural workers reported more diseases and worse living conditions. Self-rated health was generally better in workers with non-agricultural occupations.

  16. The old age health security in rural China: where to go?

    PubMed

    Dai, Baozhen

    2015-11-04

    The huge number of rural elders and the deepening health problems (e.g. growing threats of infectious diseases and chronic diseases etc.) place enormous pressure on old age health security in rural China. This study aims to provide information for policy-makers to develop effective measures for promoting rural elders' health care service access by examining the current developments and challenges confronted by the old age health security in rural China. Search resources are electronic databases, web pages of the National Bureau of Statistics of China and the National Health and Family Planning Commission of China on the internet, China Population and Employment Statistics Yearbook, China Civil Affairs' Statistical Yearbook and China Health Statistics Yearbooks etc. Articles were identified from Elsevier, Wiley, EBSCO, EMBASE, PubMed, SCI Expanded, ProQuest, and National Knowledge Infrastructure of China (CNKI) which is the most informative database in Chinese. Search terms were "rural", "China", "health security", "cooperative medical scheme", "social medical assistance", "medical insurance" or "community based medical insurance", "old", or "elder", "elderly", or "aged", "aging". Google scholar was searched with the same combination of keywords. The results showed that old age health security in rural China had expanded to all rural elders and substantially improved health care service utilization among rural elders. Increasing chronic disease prevalence rates, pressing public health issues, inefficient rural health care service provision system and lack of sufficient financing challenged the old age health security in rural China. Increasing funds from the central and regional governments for old age health security in rural China will contribute to reducing urban-rural disparities in provision of old age health security and increasing health equity among rural elders between different regions. Meanwhile, initiating provider payment reform may contribute to

  17. Is personality the missing link in understanding recruitment and retention of rural general practitioners?

    PubMed

    Jones, Michael P; Humphreys, John S; Nicholson, Tahnee

    2012-04-01

    Little is known about the role of personality and related constructs in general practitioners' (GPs) choices of geographic location of medical practice. There is however some theory suggesting a role for personality in career decision making and some limited empirical evidence that this applies in medical career decisions. The aim of this study is to gain insight into whether personality plays a role in GPs' decisions to work in rural areas and the length of time that they intend to remain as a rural practitioner. Samples of rural (n=372) and urban (n=100) GPs from New South Wales (Australia) completed the Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness--Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) and Adjective Checklist personality instruments and answered questions about demographics and rural upbringing. Rural GPs scored, on average, more highly than urban GPs with respect to conscientiousness and agreeableness but lower on openness, which can also be taken to mean a more 'down-to-earth' personality. Personality together with age, gender, experience as a GP, time in current location and rural childhood yield an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.81 in discriminating rural from urban GPs. Among rural GPs openness (P=0.007) was positively correlated with intended longevity as a rural doctor as was nurturing (P=0.06). Personality appears to play some role both in discriminating rural from urban GPs and in how long existing rural GPs intend to remain as rural GPs. Consideration of personality might assist in selection of individuals who will better fit the professional and social environment of rural life. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  18. Exposing some important barriers to health care access in the rural USA.

    PubMed

    Douthit, N; Kiv, S; Dwolatzky, T; Biswas, S

    2015-06-01

    To review research published before and after the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (2010) examining barriers in seeking or accessing health care in rural populations in the USA. This literature review was based on a comprehensive search for all literature researching rural health care provision and access in the USA. Pubmed, Proquest Allied Nursing and Health Literature, National Rural Health Association (NRHA) Resource Center and Google Scholar databases were searched using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) 'Rural Health Services' and 'Rural Health.' MeSH subtitle headings used were 'USA,' 'utilization,' 'trends' and 'supply and distribution.' Keywords added to the search parameters were 'access,' 'rural' and 'health care.' Searches in Google Scholar employed the phrases 'health care disparities in the USA,' inequalities in 'health care in the USA,' 'health care in rural USA' and 'access to health care in rural USA.' After eliminating non-relevant articles, 34 articles were included. Significant differences in health care access between rural and urban areas exist. Reluctance to seek health care in rural areas was based on cultural and financial constraints, often compounded by a scarcity of services, a lack of trained physicians, insufficient public transport, and poor availability of broadband internet services. Rural residents were found to have poorer health, with rural areas having difficulty in attracting and retaining physicians, and maintaining health services on a par with their urban counterparts. Rural and urban health care disparities require an ongoing program of reform with the aim to improve the provision of services, promote recruitment, training and career development of rural health care professionals, increase comprehensive health insurance coverage and engage rural residents and healthcare providers in health promotion. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  19. Adolescent Experience of Menstruation in Rural Kenya.

    PubMed

    Secor-Turner, Molly; Schmitz, Kaitlin; Benson, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    Although menstruation is a universal experience, girls in resource-poor areas face unique challenges related to menstruation management. In Kenya, girls miss nearly 3.5 million learning days per month because of limited access to sanitary products and lack of adequate sanitation. Global priorities to address gender inequality-especially related to education-often do not consider the impact of poverty on gendered experiences, such as menstruation. The aim of the study was to describe the experiences of menstruation from the perspective of adolescent girls living in rural Kenya. Data for this qualitative study were collected through 29 individual interviews with adolescent girls and separate field observations. Descriptive content analysis was used to identify themes reflective of the data from the individual interviews and field notes. Four themes were developed to summarize the data: (a) receiving information about menstruation, (b) experiences of menstruation, (c) menstrual hygiene practices, and (d) social norms and the meaning of menstruation. Findings from this study describe the impact of menstruation on the lives of adolescent girls in rural Kenya. Menstrual hygiene management and its associated challenges may impact girls' academic continuity. Experiences of menstruation also reinforce gender inequality and further marginalize girls in low-income, rural areas of Kenya. Consideration of menstruation is critical to promote health and academic continuity for girls in rural Kenya.

  20. Comparison of kinetic and air temperatures in Budapest aiming applications in weather forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mika, Janos; Nemeth, Akos; Bela Olah, Andras; Dezso, Zsuzsanna

    2010-05-01

    Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) based kinetic temperature data are compared with the surface air temperature data at the four weather stations in Budapest, Hun-gary. Dependence of these temperature characteristics on weather conditions, characterised by macrosynoptic types and by objective weather types, is in the focus of the study. Day- and night-time kinetic temperature series are used from the period 2001-2008. Four automatic stations are also used as the surface-based control variables. The four MODIS-pixels, covering one station, each, are the sites of our comparison. One of the four stations has strictly urban situation at the roof level in a strongly built-in region of Budapest. Another one, used as background rural station is at the east-west edge of the town with gar-dened environment. Two other stations are positioned near the river Danube at the northern and southern edges of Budapest, still under mezo-scale effect of the city. The number of elaborated hourly values is 4300-4400 above each pixel, depending on the cloudiness. At the four station automatic observations on air temperature, cloudiness (=0), relative humidity and wind-speed are observed in the hours of the MODIS observations. From these elements air temperature is used for comparison with the satellite-based kinetic temperature, and also as the main components of the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET), de-rived to characterise usefulness of the kinetic temperature. Our first aim is to specify detailed relationship between the two temperatures consider-ing the seasonal and diurnal cycles and synoptic situation. This comparison is also performed by using the PET to establish which kind of temperature reminds this human bioclimatic in-dex better. If we could establish effective relationships with the synoptic situations (or weather types) we could use them in two further applications. The first one is the everyday forecasting of dangerous situations within the

  1. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program annual progress report, FY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is a part of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, US Department of Energy (DOE). The mission of AIM is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. OIT has embarked on a fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrating on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans, some of which have been completed. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support.

  2. Rockwell AIM 65 Interfacing: Physics Lab Applications, Air Track Kinematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vacha, T. H.

    The Rockwell AIM 65 is recommended for use in physics laboratories. Among advantages cited are that the basic board can be purchased customized; for example, it can be purchased with or without a printer, power supply, extra memory, and other items. In addition, the computer is basically designed to control equipment and take data from peripheral…

  3. R. S. Peters' Normative Conception of Education and Educational Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to highlight why R. S. Peters' conceptual analysis of "education" was such an important contribution to the normative field of philosophy of education. In the article, I do the following: 1) explicate Peters' conception of philosophy of education as a field of philosophy and explain his approach to the philosophical analysis of…

  4. Goal-directed aiming: two components but multiple processes.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Digby; Hansen, Steve; Grierson, Lawrence E M; Lyons, James; Bennett, Simon J; Hayes, Spencer J

    2010-11-01

    This article reviews the behavioral literature on the control of goal-directed aiming and presents a multiple-process model of limb control. The model builds on recent variants of Woodworth's (1899) two-component model of speed-accuracy relations in voluntary movement and incorporates ideas about dynamic online limb control based on prior expectations about the efferent and afferent consequences of a planned movement. The model considers the relationship between movement speed and accuracy, and how performers adjust their trial-to-trial aiming behavior to find a safe, but fast, zone for movement execution. The model also outlines how the energy and safety costs associated with different movement outcomes contribute to movement planning processes and the control of aiming trajectories. Our theoretical position highlights the importance of advance knowledge about the sensory information that will be available for online control and the need to develop a robust internal representation of expected sensory consequences. We outline how early practice contributes to optimizing strategic planning to avoid worst-case outcomes associated with inherent neural-motor variability. Our model considers the role of both motor development and motor learning in refining feed-forward and online control. The model reconciles procedural and representational accounts of the specificity-of-learning phenomenon. Finally, we examine the breakdown of perceptual-motor precision in several special populations (i.e., Down syndrome, Williams syndrome, autism spectrum disorder, normal aging) within the framework of a multiple-process approach to goal-directed aiming.

  5. The Aims of Sex Education: Demoting Autonomy and Promoting Mutuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAvoy, Paula

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, Paula McAvoy critiques a commonly held view that teaching young people to be good choice makers should be a central aim of sex education. Specifically, she argues against David Archard's recommendation that sex educators ought to focus on the development of autonomy and teaching young people that "choice should be accorded…

  6. The Aims of Sex Education: Demoting Autonomy and Promoting Mutuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAvoy, Paula

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, Paula McAvoy critiques a commonly held view that teaching young people to be good choice makers should be a central aim of sex education. Specifically, she argues against David Archard's recommendation that sex educators ought to focus on the development of autonomy and teaching young people that "choice should be accorded…

  7. Why the Aims of Education Cannot Be Settled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardarson, Atli

    2012-01-01

    The dominant model of curriculum design in the last century assumed that school education could be organized around aims, defined primarily in terms of students' behaviour. The credentials of this model were questioned by, among others, Lawrence Stenhouse, who pointed out that education serves purposes that cannot be stated in terms of behavioural…

  8. An Examination of OMB Forms Clearance Aims, Policies and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coan, Donald L.; Bertram, Charles L.

    The purposes of this paper are four-fold: (1) to delineate the principal aims and policy objectives of Office of Management and Budget Forms Clearance (OMB FC), as embodied in Federal legislation and executive directives since 1942; (2) to identify the major current thrusts of OMB FC; (3) to suggest possible future policy directions of OMB FC,…

  9. MayDay Colloquium 24: The Aims of Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, David J.

    2013-01-01

    On June 20, 2012, Professor John Kratus welcomed the MayDay Group to Michigan State University for "Colloquium 24: The Aims of Music Education". On behalf of all members of the Mayday Group, the author wishes to extend his deepest gratitude to Professor Kratus and his colleagues at Michigan State for their extremely gracious and…

  10. Why the Aims of Education Cannot Be Settled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardarson, Atli

    2012-01-01

    The dominant model of curriculum design in the last century assumed that school education could be organized around aims, defined primarily in terms of students' behaviour. The credentials of this model were questioned by, among others, Lawrence Stenhouse, who pointed out that education serves purposes that cannot be stated in terms of behavioural…

  11. Aiming for a College Education: A Strategy for Scotland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Andrew; And Others

    The report reviews British Petroleum's "Aiming for College Education" program in Scotland, a 5-year program to raise the aspirations of young people for post-compulsory education and for higher education in particular. The program invites local higher education institutions to consider initiatives in four areas (promotion and marketing,…

  12. Technicians prepare the AIM spacecraft for fairing installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-12

    At Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, technicians prepare the AIM spacecraft for fairing installation. The fairing is a molded structure that fits around the spacecraft and forms an aerodynamically smooth nose cone, protecting the spacecraft during launch. Launch will be from a Pegasus XL rocket, carried and released by Orbital Sciences L-1011 jet aircraft. AIM, which stands for Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere, is being prepared for integrated testing and a flight simulation. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  13. AIM being prepared for integrated testing and flight simulation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-24

    Flight simulation No. 3 is on the schedule for the Pegasus XL launch vehicle, seen here in Building 1555 on North Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. AIM, which stands for Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere, is being prepared for integrated testing and a flight simulation. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. AIM is scheduled to be mated to its launch vehicle, Orbital Sciences' Pegasus XL, during the second week of April, after which final inspections will be conducted. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  14. Autonomy as the Guiding Aim of Entrepreneurship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gelderen, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper has three purposes: first, to present a vision of entrepreneurship education that has the student's capacity for autonomous action as its ultimate aim; second, to convince the reader of the timeliness and relevance of such an approach; third, to outline how this can be implemented. Design/methodology/approach: The paper…

  15. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Annual progress report FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This Annual Report for FY 1995 contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Areas covered here are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

  16. Philosophical Analysis, Research on Teaching, and Aim-Oriented Empiricism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Jerome A.

    1980-01-01

    An attempt is made at providing cohesion and structure for a range of disparate activities and examining their interrelationships. Among concepts considered are: (1) the relationship of philosophic analysis in education; (2) the nature of pedagogical research; (3) the process-product paradigm; (4) aim-oriented empiricism; (5) the reduction thesis;…

  17. Autonomy as the Guiding Aim of Entrepreneurship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gelderen, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper has three purposes: first, to present a vision of entrepreneurship education that has the student's capacity for autonomous action as its ultimate aim; second, to convince the reader of the timeliness and relevance of such an approach; third, to outline how this can be implemented. Design/methodology/approach: The paper…

  18. MayDay Colloquium 24: The Aims of Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, David J.

    2013-01-01

    On June 20, 2012, Professor John Kratus welcomed the MayDay Group to Michigan State University for "Colloquium 24: The Aims of Music Education". On behalf of all members of the Mayday Group, the author wishes to extend his deepest gratitude to Professor Kratus and his colleagues at Michigan State for their extremely gracious and…

  19. Technicians prepare the AIM spacecraft for fairing installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-12

    At Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, under the protective clean tent, technicians work on the second half of the fairing to be installed around the AIM spacecraft. The fairing is a molded structure that fits around the spacecraft and forms an aerodynamically smooth nose cone, protecting the spacecraft during launch. Launch will be from a Pegasus XL rocket, carried and released by Orbital Sciences L-1011 jet aircraft. AIM, which stands for Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere, is being prepared for integrated testing and a flight simulation. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  20. Technicians prepare the AIM spacecraft for fairing installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-12

    At Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, under the protective clean tent, technicians begin installing the fairing around the AIM spacecraft. The fairing is a molded structure that fits around the spacecraft and forms an aerodynamically smooth nose cone, protecting the spacecraft during launch. Launch will be from a Pegasus XL rocket, carried and released by Orbital Sciences L-1011 jet aircraft. AIM, which stands for Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere, is being prepared for integrated testing and a flight simulation. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  1. Technicians prepare the AIM spacecraft for fairing installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-12

    At Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, under the protective clean tent, technicians maneuver the second half of the fairing into place around the AIM spacecraft. The fairing is a molded structure that fits around the spacecraft and forms an aerodynamically smooth nose cone, protecting the spacecraft during launch. Launch will be from a Pegasus XL rocket, carried and released by Orbital Sciences L-1011 jet aircraft. AIM, which stands for Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere, is being prepared for integrated testing and a flight simulation. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  2. Technicians prepare the AIM spacecraft for fairing installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-12

    At Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, under the protective clean tent, technicians examine the installation of the fairing around the AIM spacecraft. The fairing is a molded structure that fits around the spacecraft and forms an aerodynamically smooth nose cone, protecting the spacecraft during launch. Launch will be from a Pegasus XL rocket, carried and released by Orbital Sciences L-1011 jet aircraft. AIM, which stands for Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere, is being prepared for integrated testing and a flight simulation. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  3. Technicians prepare the AIM spacecraft for fairing installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-12

    At Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, under the protective clean tent, technicians move the second half of the fairing into place around the AIM spacecraft. The fairing is a molded structure that fits around the spacecraft and forms an aerodynamically smooth nose cone, protecting the spacecraft during launch. Launch will be from a Pegasus XL rocket, carried and released by Orbital Sciences L-1011 jet aircraft. AIM, which stands for Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere, is being prepared for integrated testing and a flight simulation. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. Launch is scheduled for April 25.

  4. [Patient's aggression aimed at physicians. Legal interpretation of defense possibilities].

    PubMed

    Patryn, Rafał

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the following study is to acquaint medical practitioners with legal possibilities of defense against patients'aggression. The occurrence of the described and discussed issue, namely the appearance of different forms of aggression aimed at physicians and other medical staff is a more and more frequently appearing phenomenon, which is very problematic, and difficult to interpret. The scope of the analysis has been limited to aggression of patients towards physicians only, as they are most often the aim of this aggression, and what should be emphasized, they lack practical and universal solutions and frequently also necessary knowledge to protect themselves against it. The idea behind this study is to present a rational solution to the afore mentioned situation, within legal limits. First, an outline of a conflict situation with a short specification of sources of aggression will be presented, than an appropriate legal taxonomy (including civil and criminal law) allowing for aid in such a situation will be offered and discussed.The authors will also present practical and legally permissible solutions aiming at defense, abandonment, and not allowing for the appearance of this reprehensible phenomenon.

  5. Student Aims Performance in a Predominately Hispanic District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chebultz, Lance

    2012-01-01

    School districts in the United States have undergone large changes over the last decade to accommodate No Child Left Behind (NCLB). Arizona accommodated NCLB through Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS). Expectations were established for all students, varying by group of students based on grade, special education status, free/reduced…

  6. The General Aims of Educational Development -- A Comparative Prospect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahawy, Bayoumi Mohamed

    The inconsistency between norms prescribed by international agencies and the educational strategies suggested to put these norms into practice has created problems as is evident in the case studies of India and Egypt and the general aims of educational development in these two countries. In Egypt a policy of basic education had the support of…

  7. Goal-Directed Aiming: Two Components but Multiple Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Digby; Hansen, Steve; Grierson, Lawrence E. M.; Lyons, James; Bennett, Simon J.; Hayes, Spencer J.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the behavioral literature on the control of goal-directed aiming and presents a multiple-process model of limb control. The model builds on recent variants of Woodworth's (1899) two-component model of speed-accuracy relations in voluntary movement and incorporates ideas about dynamic online limb control based on prior…

  8. Research Project on Educational Aims. Research Bulletin 60.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niskanen, Erkki A.; And Others

    Summaries of classroom research studies conducted in Finland on the development of educational aims are presented. Papers in this document deal with: (1) an overview of the purposes of the research project; (2) cognitive processes in classroom verbal interaction; (3) taxonomy of physical education; (4) objectives of religious education; (5)…

  9. Goal-Directed Aiming: Two Components but Multiple Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Digby; Hansen, Steve; Grierson, Lawrence E. M.; Lyons, James; Bennett, Simon J.; Hayes, Spencer J.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the behavioral literature on the control of goal-directed aiming and presents a multiple-process model of limb control. The model builds on recent variants of Woodworth's (1899) two-component model of speed-accuracy relations in voluntary movement and incorporates ideas about dynamic online limb control based on prior…

  10. Pursuing the Triple Aim: The First 7 Years.

    PubMed

    Whittington, John W; Nolan, Kevin; Lewis, Ninon; Torres, Trissa

    2015-06-01

    POLICY POINTS: In 2008, researchers at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) proposed the Triple Aim, strategic organizing principles for health care organizations and geographic communities that seek, simultaneously, to improve the individual experience of care and the health of populations and to reduce the per capita costs of care for populations. In 2010, the Triple Aim became part of the US national strategy for tackling health care issues, especially in the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010. Since that time, IHI and others have worked together to determine how the implementation of the Triple Aim has progressed. Drawing on our 7 years of experience, we describe 3 major principles that guided the organizations and communities working on this endeavor: creating the right foundation for population management, managing services at scale for the population, and establishing a learning system to drive and sustain the work over time. In 2008, researchers at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) described the Triple Aim as simultaneously "improving the individual experience of care; improving the health of populations; and reducing the per capita costs of care for populations." IHI and its close colleagues had determined that both individual and societal changes were needed. In 2007, IHI began recruiting organizations from around the world to participate in a collaborative to implement what became known as the Triple Aim. The 141 participating organizations included health care systems, hospitals, health care insurance companies, and others closely tied to health care. In addition, key groups outside the health care system were represented, such as public health agencies, social services groups, and community coalitions. This collaborative provided a structure for observational research. By noting the contrasts between the contexts and structures of those sites in the collaborative that progressed and

  11. Strategic Clinical Networks: Alberta's Response to Triple Aim.

    PubMed

    Noseworthy, Tom; Wasylak, Tracy; O'Neill, Blair J

    2016-01-01

    Verma and Bhatia make a compelling case for the Triple Aim to promote health system innovation and sustainability. We concur. Moreover, the authors offer a useful categorization of policies and actions to advance the Triple Aim under the "classic functions" of financing, stewardship and resource generation (Verma and Bhatia 2016). The argument is tendered that provincial governments should embrace the Triple Aim in the absence of federal government leadership, noting that, by international standards, we are at best mediocre and, more realistically, fighting for the bottom in comparative, annual cross-country surveys. Ignoring federal government participation in Medicare and resorting solely to provincial leadership seems to make sense for the purposes of this discourse; but, it makes no sense at all if we are attempting to achieve high performance in Canada's non-system (Canada Health Action: Building on the Legacy 1997; Commission on the Future of Health Care in Canada 2002; Lewis 2015). As for enlisting provincial governments, we heartily agree. A great deal can be accomplished by the Council of the Federation of Canadian Premiers. But, the entire basis for this philosophy and the reference paper itself assumes a top-down approach to policy and practice. That is what we are trying to change in Alberta and we next discuss. Bottom-up clinically led change, driven by measurement and evidence, has to meet with the top-down approach being presented and widely practiced. While true for each category of financing, stewardship and resource generation, in no place is this truer than what is described and included in "health system stewardship." This commentary draws from Verma and Bhatia (2016) and demonstrates how Alberta, through the use of Strategic Clinical Networks (SCNs), is responding to the Triple Aim. We offer three examples of provincially scaled innovations, each representing one or more arms of the Triple Aim.

  12. Development and testing of a community audit tool to assess rural built environments: Inventories for Community Health Assessment in Rural Towns.

    PubMed

    Seguin, Rebecca A; Lo, Brian K; Sriram, Urshila; Connor, Leah M; Totta, Alison

    2017-09-01

    Rural populations face unique challenges to physical activity that are largely driven by environmental conditions. However, research on rural built environments and physical activity is limited by a paucity of rural-specific environmental assessment tools. The aim of this paper is to describe the development and testing of a rural assessment tool: Inventories for Community Health Assessment in Rural Towns (iCHART). The iCHART tool was developed in 2013 through a multistep process consisting of an extensive literature search to identify existing tools, an expert panel review, and pilot testing in five rural US communities. Tool items represent rural built environment features that influence active living and physical activity: community design, transportation infrastructure, safety, aesthetics, and recreational facilities. To assess reliability, field testing was performed in 26 rural communities across five states between July and November of 2014. Reliability between the research team and community testers was high among all testing communities (average percent agreement = 77%). Agreement was also high for intra-rater reliability (average kappa = 0.72) and inter-rater reliability (average percent agreement = 84%) among community testers. Findings suggest that the iCHART tool provides a reliable assessment of rural built environment features and can be used to inform the development of contextually-appropriate physical activity opportunities in rural communities.

  13. College Bound American Indian Math and Science Enrichment Program (AIMS). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute (SIPI), was founded in 1971 and is located on 164 acres in northwest Albuquerque, New Mexico in the center of New Mexico`s agricultural and high-tech corridors. SIPI became accredited as a community college in 1993, serves Native Americans nationwide, and is governed by a nationally-tribally appointed Board of Regents (Jicarilla Apache, Joint Oklahoma Tribes, Mescalero Apache, Navajo Nation-Arizona, Navajo Nation-New Mexico, Ten Southern Pueblos, and Eight Northern Pueblos, Southern Ute, Inter-tribal Council of Arizona, and Oglala Sioux). In 1993, The US Department of Education, TRIO Programs no longer funded the Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute (SIPI) Summer Math and Science Enrichment Program. However, with US Department of Energy funding SIPI was able to continue service to the Native American community under the new title of College Bound American Indian Math and Science (AIMS) Enrichment Program. This new program continued the goals and objectives of the TRIO program with an expanded focus that included students from more Native American communities nationwide. The program also interfaced with a teacher enrichment program (Rural American Indian Science Education-RAISE) sponsored by the Bureau of Indian Affairs and Sandia National Labs (SNL). SIPI in collaboration with Sandia National Laboratories and Lawrence Livermore National (LLNL) Laboratory established a mathematics and science enrichment program at SIPI for students attending rural high schools serving predominantly Native American populations. The primary goal of the program was to provide 9th--12th grade students, mostly Native American, the skills and knowledge, interest and motivation, and strategies to remain in high school and pursue a college education in a math, science, or technology based field. Each year, the program included a six-week intensive residential summer program located at SIPI as well as academic year support activities at the

  14. The planning of rural health research: rurality and rural population issues.

    PubMed

    McGrail, M R; Jones, R; Robinson, A; Rickard, C M; Burley, M; Drysdale, M

    2005-01-01

    Rurality and rural population issues require special consideration when planning both qualitative and quantitative health research in rural areas. The objective of this article was to explore the issues that require attention when planning the research. This is the first of two articles and focus on issues that require consideration when undertaking rural health research. The diversity of study populations, the feasibility of a research topic, the selection of a research team, and the cultural traditions of Indigenous communities, are all aspects of rural health research planning that require attention. Procedures such as identifying the characteristics of the population, the selection of measures of rurality appropriate for the research topic, the use of local liaison persons, decisions on the use of 'insider' or 'outsider' researchers, and the identification of skills resources available, increase the quality of the research outcomes. These issues are relevant to both qualitative and quantitative research. Procedures are available to address issues of particular concern in developing appropriate methods for rural health research. While we have concentrated on Australian issues and solutions, rural localities in other countries may face similar issues. Attention to rurality and rural situations when planning rural health research, results in studies that support the continued improvement of health in rural communities.

  15. Automated Instrumentation, Monitoring and Visualization of PVM Programs Using AIMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehra, Pankaj; VanVoorst, Brian; Yan, Jerry; Tucker, Deanne (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We present views and analysis of the execution of several PVM codes for Computational Fluid Dynamics on a network of Sparcstations, including (a) NAS Parallel benchmarks CG and MG (White, Alund and Sunderam 1993); (b) a multi-partitioning algorithm for NAS Parallel Benchmark SP (Wijngaart 1993); and (c) an overset grid flowsolver (Smith 1993). These views and analysis were obtained using our Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS) version 3.0, a toolkit for debugging the performance of PVM programs. We will describe the architecture, operation and application of AIMS. The AIMS toolkit contains (a) Xinstrument, which can automatically instrument various computational and communication constructs in message-passing parallel programs; (b) Monitor, a library of run-time trace-collection routines; (c) VK (Visual Kernel), an execution-animation tool with source-code clickback; and (d) Tally, a tool for statistical analysis of execution profiles. Currently, Xinstrument can handle C and Fortran77 programs using PVM 3.2.x; Monitor has been implemented and tested on Sun 4 systems running SunOS 4.1.2; and VK uses X11R5 and Motif 1.2. Data and views obtained using AIMS clearly illustrate several characteristic features of executing parallel programs on networked workstations: (a) the impact of long message latencies; (b) the impact of multiprogramming overheads and associated load imbalance; (c) cache and virtual-memory effects; and (4significant skews between workstation clocks. Interestingly, AIMS can compensate for constant skew (zero drift) by calibrating the skew between a parent and its spawned children. In addition, AIMS' skew-compensation algorithm can adjust timestamps in a way that eliminates physically impossible communications (e.g., messages going backwards in time). Our current efforts are directed toward creating new views to explain the observed performance of PVM programs. Some of the features planned for the near future include: (a) Config

  16. Automated Instrumentation, Monitoring and Visualization of PVM Programs Using AIMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehra, Pankaj; VanVoorst, Brian; Yan, Jerry; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We present views and analysis of the execution of several PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) codes for Computational Fluid Dynamics on a networks of Sparcstations, including: (1) NAS Parallel Benchmarks CG and MG; (2) a multi-partitioning algorithm for NAS Parallel Benchmark SP; and (3) an overset grid flowsolver. These views and analysis were obtained using our Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS) version 3.0, a toolkit for debugging the performance of PVM programs. We will describe the architecture, operation and application of AIMS. The AIMS toolkit contains: (1) Xinstrument, which can automatically instrument various computational and communication constructs in message-passing parallel programs; (2) Monitor, a library of runtime trace-collection routines; (3) VK (Visual Kernel), an execution-animation tool with source-code clickback; and (4) Tally, a tool for statistical analysis of execution profiles. Currently, Xinstrument can handle C and Fortran 77 programs using PVM 3.2.x; Monitor has been implemented and tested on Sun 4 systems running SunOS 4.1.2; and VK uses XIIR5 and Motif 1.2. Data and views obtained using AIMS clearly illustrate several characteristic features of executing parallel programs on networked workstations: (1) the impact of long message latencies; (2) the impact of multiprogramming overheads and associated load imbalance; (3) cache and virtual-memory effects; and (4) significant skews between workstation clocks. Interestingly, AIMS can compensate for constant skew (zero drift) by calibrating the skew between a parent and its spawned children. In addition, AIMS' skew-compensation algorithm can adjust timestamps in a way that eliminates physically impossible communications (e.g., messages going backwards in time). Our current efforts are directed toward creating new views to explain the observed performance of PVM programs. Some of the features planned for the near future include: (1) ConfigView, showing the physical topology

  17. Special Issue: Rural Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodson, Elizabeth; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The issue discusses the role of the International Labour Office in the field of workers' education for rural workers and their organizations. Articles discuss labor conditions, child labor in agriculture, gender and equality training, trade unions, fair trade, and changing patterns of food production. Appendixes include information about…

  18. VET in Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Mike

    Despite the enduring problems of equity and access in the delivery of education in rural Australian schools, vocational education and training (VET) programs appear to have had a significant impact on many such schools and their communities. Vocational educational programs in Australia are based on structured workplace learning. There are three…

  19. Rural Services Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudder, Jean Anne W.; Lammonds-Harwood, Pamela

    The directory details formal and informal agencies and organizations and the programs and projects through which they provide services to rural populations in the United States and its territories. The book gives the level at which a program is offered, its primary focus, and its target population. The book's major divisions are based on program…

  20. Women in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural America, Inc., Washington, DC.

    In rural America 34 million culturally and economically diverse women share the common problem of unfair treatment based on sex. Although in recent years women have begun to question the social attitudes limiting their aspirations, a formidable gap exists between their expectations and the archaic legal, social, and economic policies that continue…

  1. RURAL TEACHER'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napa County Schools, CA.

    TEACHERS AND LOCAL BOARDS OF NAPA COUNTY'S RURAL SCHOOLS ARE PLACED IN THE POSITION OF PROVIDING EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP TO THE COMMUNITIES WHICH LACK GUIDANCE SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS. RESOURCES AVAILABLE FROM THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT AND MATERIALS AVAILABLE FROM LOCAL SCHOOLS ARE LISTED. THE SUPERINTENDENT PROVIDES A COUNTY CONSULTANT TO AID IN…

  2. Rural Internet Connectivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strover, Sharon

    A positive relationship has been found between access to telecommunications capabilities and improved economic development. However, the deployment of systems that deliver toll-free Internet access favors urban regions. This research examines Internet service providers' (ISP) operations in rural portions of Texas, Iowa, Louisiana, and West…

  3. Teachers as Rural Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristiansen, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In the article, education is seen as a hierarchical cultural encounter between urban and rural values and ways of life. Good teachers do not only deliver curriculum, they also consider the needs and values of their students, as well as those of the local community. The article discusses how teachers' competence, knowledge and attitudes can affect…

  4. Rural Incubator Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Mark L.

    This profile summarizes the responses of 20 managers of rural business incubators, reporting on their operations, entry and exit policies, facility promotion, service arrangements and economic development outcomes. Incubators assist small businesses in the early stages of growth by providing them with rental space, shared services, management and…

  5. Whither Rural Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willey, Darrell S.

    1981-01-01

    Rural education may be entering a renaissance after 60 years of neglect. Improvements include: multidistrict shared services with special attention given to exceptional persons; new delivery systems; more relevant training for school personnel; and effective dissemination of successfully established school practices. (CJ)

  6. Special Issue: Rural Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodson, Elizabeth; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The issue discusses the role of the International Labour Office in the field of workers' education for rural workers and their organizations. Articles discuss labor conditions, child labor in agriculture, gender and equality training, trade unions, fair trade, and changing patterns of food production. Appendixes include information about…

  7. Two Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreuth, Laura; Chatman, Angela; Mims-Dru, Juanita; Edmondson, Lynne

    2002-01-01

    Two rural elementary schools in southern Illinois were chosen from a larger study on the basis of low rates of student violence and bullying behaviors. Features of the schools' supportive and safe environments are compared to those described in theories of engaged pedagogy. A whole-school approach created an atmosphere of caring and shared…

  8. The Rural Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coble, Charles R.; Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Science teachers in rural areas have the opportunity to present their students with concrete examples of science concepts they're studying simply by going outdoors. Examples presented focus on earth science, food webs, succession, and comparative ecology. Tips for developing topics using outdoor experiences are included. (JM)

  9. Reluctant Rural Regionalists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Peter V.; Stern, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Recently, scholars have begun to explore questions of regionalism and regionalization in rural contexts. Regionalism is often understood and presented as a pragmatic solution to intractable problems of fragmentation, inefficiency, accountability, spillover and neglect in the face of economic restructuring and other external threats. These…

  10. Information and Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, Bonnie L.

    1982-01-01

    Outlines approaches taken to development in lesser developed countries in the past, discusses the importance of appropriate technology and human development, and summarizes the information needs of the rural poor in developing nations. Information dissemination programs using video- and audiotape technology in Bangladesh, Guatemala, and Peru are…

  11. Teachers as Rural Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristiansen, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In the article, education is seen as a hierarchical cultural encounter between urban and rural values and ways of life. Good teachers do not only deliver curriculum, they also consider the needs and values of their students, as well as those of the local community. The article discusses how teachers' competence, knowledge and attitudes can affect…

  12. Reluctant Rural Regionalists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Peter V.; Stern, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Recently, scholars have begun to explore questions of regionalism and regionalization in rural contexts. Regionalism is often understood and presented as a pragmatic solution to intractable problems of fragmentation, inefficiency, accountability, spillover and neglect in the face of economic restructuring and other external threats. These…

  13. RURAL TEACHER'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napa County Schools, CA.

    TEACHERS AND LOCAL BOARDS OF NAPA COUNTY'S RURAL SCHOOLS ARE PLACED IN THE POSITION OF PROVIDING EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP TO THE COMMUNITIES WHICH LACK GUIDANCE SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS. RESOURCES AVAILABLE FROM THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT AND MATERIALS AVAILABLE FROM LOCAL SCHOOLS ARE LISTED. THE SUPERINTENDENT PROVIDES A COUNTY CONSULTANT TO AID IN…

  14. Rural Information Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Public Telecomputing Network, Cleveland, OH.

    This report describes the National Public Telecomputing Network's (NPTN) development of free, public-access, community computer systems throughout the United States. It also provides information on how to initiate a "Free-Net" through the Rural Information Network. Free-Nets are multi-user systems with some of the power and…

  15. A Rural Community Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Rubye Wilkerson

    1991-01-01

    Describes one researcher's experiences as she interviewed rural families during a comprehensive survey of Johnson County, Tennessee. Discusses health care problems and needs, family support systems for the sick and elderly, fears about cancer risks, and the real picture of underemployment versus the official unemployment rate. (SV)

  16. Communication and Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordenave, Juan E. Diaz

    This volume posits the existence of a gap between theory and practice in rural-development efforts involving communication media and provides suggestions for integrating the efforts of theoreticians and practitioners. Chapter one briefly reviews the development of theoretical concepts about the nature of communication and the use of communication…

  17. The Rural Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coble, Charles R.; Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Science teachers in rural areas have the opportunity to present their students with concrete examples of science concepts they're studying simply by going outdoors. Examples presented focus on earth science, food webs, succession, and comparative ecology. Tips for developing topics using outdoor experiences are included. (JM)

  18. Rural Growth Slows Down.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Mark; And Others

    1987-01-01

    After decade of growth, rural income, population, and overall economic activity have stalled and again lag behind urban trends. Causes include banking and transportation deregulation, international competition, agricultural finance problems. Only nonmetropolitan counties dependent on retirement, government, and trade show continuing income growth…

  19. Education in Rural Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Nancy

    1992-01-01

    The third annual survey of the Illinois Rural Life Panel included questions on school taxes, improvements to strengthen local schools, satellite technology, extracurricular activities, and career opportunities after high school. Results from a sample of approximately 2,000 residents in the 76 Illinois nonmetropolitan counties included: (1) 54…

  20. CAUSES OF RURAL POVERTY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STOCKBURGER, CASSANDRA

    THERE IS ECONOMIC DISADVANTAGEMENT IN MANY SECTIONS OF OUR COUNTRY, BUT RURAL ECONOMIC DISADVANTAGEMENT IS CONCENTRATED LARGELY IN THE SOUTH AND SOUTHWEST. THE SOUTH HAS REMAINED IN ECONOMIC DISADVANTAGEMENT SINCE THE CIVIL WAR, DUE TO THE SHARECROPPER SYSTEM OF FARMING. IN APPALACHIA, OPPORTUNISTIC MINING AND FORESTRY OPERATIONS, COUPLED WITH THE…

  1. Whither Rural Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willey, Darrell S.

    1981-01-01

    Rural education may be entering a renaissance after 60 years of neglect. Improvements include: multidistrict shared services with special attention given to exceptional persons; new delivery systems; more relevant training for school personnel; and effective dissemination of successfully established school practices. (CJ)

  2. Manifesto on Rural Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Catholic Rural Life Conference, Des Moines, IA.

    Written in 1939, this book outlines fundamental Catholic principles and policies that address problems associated with the agricultural system and rural living during the early 20th century. The manifesto was derived from Catholic social philosophy and espouses the benefits of an occupation in agriculture, including the development of private…

  3. Problems Facing Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, C. E.; And Others

    Problems facing rural Scottish schools range from short term consideration of daily operation to long term consideration of organizational alternatives. Addressed specifically, such problems include consideration of: (1) liaison between a secondary school and its feeder primary schools; (2) preservice teacher training for work in small, isolated…

  4. A methodology aimed to guarantee technology continuity in health structures.

    PubMed

    Miniati, R; Dori, F; Iadanza, E; Scatizzi, L; Niccolini, F; Sarti, A

    2011-01-01

    In healthcare the importance of clinical continuity is essential for both patients life and health organization activity. Since technology continuity is having more and more importance for the service continuity, a correct management of medical devices must be guided by criteria that ensure its safe, appropriate and economical use through a well planned purchase, appropriate preventive and corrective maintenance Indeed, the aim of health technology managers is to optimize the integration of external interventions assistance and internal technical service to guarantee an efficient and cost-effective maintenance system. This paper proposes an innovative carefully thought methodology which is aimed to provide technological and procedural actions which offer support to decision makers in technology management regarding the implementation of continuity in medical services and response to technology failures and emergency events.

  5. [Mucosal healling: a realistic aim or marketing myth?].

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, Valle; Iglesias-Flores, Eva

    2011-12-01

    The classical aim of the treatment of ulcerative colitis is to induce and maintain remission. However, this aim has not been shown to prevent long-term complications. Current treatment goals attempt to prevent complications. In some studies, healing of the intestinal mucosa has been shown to improve long-term outcomes. In ulcerative colitis, mucosal healing reduces recurrence, the risk of colorectal cancer and the need for surgery, and improves patients' quality of life. The drugs for which there is greatest evidence of their efficacy in inducing and maintaining mucosal healing are salicylates and biological agents. In the near future, endoscopic monitoring may be required to evaluate response to the treatment and decisions may have to be taken according to the persistence or disappearance of these lesions.

  6. [Aiming at the chest, but hitting the back].

    PubMed

    Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Axmann, Stefan; Siegenthaler, Lea; Kneubühl, Beat; Thali, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Gunshot injuries in the back may suggest the unjustified use of firearms. A wound in the back inflicted by a firearm should not automatically imply that the shooter aimed at the back. A previous study demonstrated that it is possible for men to turn their trunk faster than it takes for a shooter to fire or throw a hand-operated weapon. With a high speed motion camera the authors were able to demonstrate that it is also possible for women to turn their trunk fast enough, so that a shot in the back could have been aimed at the front of the body. This conclusion is also likely to apply to hand-operated or thrown weapons, since the velocity of their projectiles is considerably lower than that of firearms.

  7. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) program. Annual progress report. FY 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven `Vision Industries` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. These are: aluminium; chemical; forest products; glass; metal casting; refineries; and steel. OIT is working with these industries, through appropriate organizations, to develop Visions of the desired condition of each industry some 20 or 25 years in the future and then to prepare Road Maps and Implementation Plans to enable them to reach their goals. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to `Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is necessary that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the energy database for articles from this report.

  8. Action Information Management System (AIMS): a User's View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiskerchen, M.

    1984-01-01

    The initial approach used in establishing a user-defined information system to fulfill the needs of users at NASA Headquarters was unsuccessful in bringing this pilot endeaveor to full project status. The persistence of several users and the full involvement of the Ames Research Center were the ingredients needed to make the AIMS project a success. The lesson learned from this effort is that NASA should always work from its organizational strengths as a Headquarters-Center partnership.

  9. Action Information Management System (AIMS): a User's View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiskerchen, M.

    1984-01-01

    The initial approach used in establishing a user-defined information system to fulfill the needs of users at NASA Headquarters was unsuccessful in bringing this pilot endeaveor to full project status. The persistence of several users and the full involvement of the Ames Research Center were the ingredients needed to make the AIMS project a success. The lesson learned from this effort is that NASA should always work from its organizational strengths as a Headquarters-Center partnership.

  10. Triple AIM evaluation and application in advanced node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gary C.; Lio, En Chuan; Hung, Yuting; Chen, Charlie; Wang, Sybil; Weng, Tang Chun; Lin, Bill; Yu, Chun Chi

    2016-03-01

    A novel method on advanced node for IBO (Image Based Overlay) data extraction accuracy is demonstrated in this work, and here some special design in triple-AIM (Advanced Imaging Metrology) is able to realize the approach. Since triple AIM design has 3 locations left for patterning layers insertion, a new design with 2 layers locations, location-A (inner) and location-B (middle), are generated by 1st pattering, i.e. once lithography exposure, and the 2 marks grouping are formed on dielectric through lithography and etching process with a predetermined overlay "zero offset" through original mask layout design, as illustrated in Fig. (1). And then, as following top photo resist layer, assumed location-C (outer), lithography patterning process, PR coating, exposure and development complete, full triple-AIM patterns is generated, and 3 sets of overlay data could be obtained, A to B, C to B, C to A. Through re-calculating the overlay raw data of current (2nd patterning layer) to previous (1st patterning layer) layer by averaging [C to B] and [C to A], then theoretically the data extraction of sites would be more accuracy, since the variation of local marks signal, induced by inline process instability, could be minimized through the raw data averaging procedure. Moreover, from raw data [A to B], an extra monitor function for detections of the inline process variation, marks selection and recipe setting optimization could be obtained, since marks in [A] and [BB] locations are both generated in 1st patterning, and with the target "zero". So if the raw data [A to BB] is bigger or smaller than "zero" in some degree, there should be some process issue or marks condition setting error in triple-AIM design.

  11. Explanation in Biology: Reduction, Pluralism, and Explanatory Aims

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigandt, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    This essay analyzes and develops recent views about explanation in biology. Philosophers of biology have parted with the received deductive-nomological model of scientific explanation primarily by attempting to capture actual biological theorizing and practice. This includes an endorsement of different kinds of explanation (e.g., mathematical and causal-mechanistic), a joint study of discovery and explanation, and an abandonment of models of theory reduction in favor of accounts of explanatory reduction. Of particular current interest are philosophical accounts of complex explanations that appeal to different levels of organismal organization and use contributions from different biological disciplines. The essay lays out one model that views explanatory integration across different disciplines as being structured by scientific problems. I emphasize the philosophical need to take the explanatory aims pursued by different groups of scientists into account, as explanatory aims determine whether different explanations are competing or complementary and govern the dynamics of scientific practice, including interdisciplinary research. I distinguish different kinds of pluralism that philosophers have endorsed in the context of explanation in biology, and draw several implications for science education, especially the need to teach science as an interdisciplinary and dynamic practice guided by scientific problems and explanatory aims.

  12. Electrostatic steering and beamlet aiming in large neutral beam injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Veltri, P. Chitarin, G.; Marcuzzi, D.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.; Cavenago, M.

    2015-04-08

    Neutral beam injection is the main method for plasma heating in magnetic confinement fusion devices. In high energy injector (E>100 keV/amu), neutrals are obtained with reasonable efficiency by conversion of negative ions (H- or D-) via electron detachment reactions. In the case of ITER injectors, which shall operate at 1 MeV, a total ion current of ∼ 40 A is required to satisfy the heating power demand. Gridded electrodes are therefore used in the accelerator, so that 1280 negative ion beamlets are accelerated together. A carefully designed aiming system is required to control the beamlet trajectories, and to deliver their power on a focal point located several meters away from the beam source. In nowadays injectors, the aiming is typically obtained by aperture offset technique or by grid shaping. This paper discuss an alternative concept of beamlets aiming, based on an electrostatic ”steerer” to be placed at the end of the accelerator. A feasibility study of this component is also presented, and its main advantages and drawbacks with respect to other methods are discussed.

  13. Electrostatic steering and beamlet aiming in large neutral beam injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veltri, P.; Cavenago, M.; Chitarin, G.; Marcuzzi, D.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.

    2015-04-01

    Neutral beam injection is the main method for plasma heating in magnetic confinement fusion devices. In high energy injector (E>100 keV/amu), neutrals are obtained with reasonable efficiency by conversion of negative ions (H- or D-) via electron detachment reactions. In the case of ITER injectors, which shall operate at 1 MeV, a total ion current of ˜ 40 A is required to satisfy the heating power demand. Gridded electrodes are therefore used in the accelerator, so that 1280 negative ion beamlets are accelerated together. A carefully designed aiming system is required to control the beamlet trajectories, and to deliver their power on a focal point located several meters away from the beam source. In nowadays injectors, the aiming is typically obtained by aperture offset technique or by grid shaping. This paper discuss an alternative concept of beamlets aiming, based on an electrostatic "steerer" to be placed at the end of the accelerator. A feasibility study of this component is also presented, and its main advantages and drawbacks with respect to other methods are discussed.

  14. Contributions of community psychology to rural advisory services: an analysis of Latin American rural extensionists' point of view.

    PubMed

    Landini, Fernando

    2015-06-01

    During the last decade, rural extension has received interest as being a key tool for rural development. Despite rural extension being affected by many psychosocial processes, psychology has made scarce contributions to it. An investigation was conducted with the aim of gaining knowledge of rural extensionists' expectations of psychology, as well as to contribute to shaping community psychologists' role in the context of rural extension . 652 extensionists from 12 Latin American countries were surveyed. The survey included closed socio-demographic questions as well as open ones addressing extension practice and psychologists' potential contributions. 90.6 % of surveyed extensionists considered psychology could help them improve their practice. Most mentioned areas of contribution go in line with community psychology, including managing farmers groups, facilitating participatory processes and training extensionists; while others, such as the expectation of changing farmers' mindset and increasing the adoption of external technologies, go against its principles. Thus, in some cases, extensionists' expectations could help generate an interesting interaction between community psychology and rural extension, while in others, they need to be put up for discussion. In brief, community psychology has the potential to contribute to rural extension, but it needs to acknowledge extension practice as an interesting area for intervention.

  15. Energy requirements for rural development

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W.

    1988-06-01

    This study on the role of energy in the development of rural areas was originally conducted in the spring and summer of 1985. It was intended to serve as a background paper for the preparation of a program plan for the Office of Energy of the United States Agency for International Development. As such it begins with a brief overview of how rural development fits into national development, then offers a comprehensive framework for thinking about rural development in particular and the energy implications of the various components of rural development. Agriculture naturally comes to mind when rural areas are mentioned, but industry is an important component of rural activity as well. Consequently, both agricultural and nonagricultural energy use is discussed. Modernization of rural areas will change household, as well as production, energy use. However, household energy use is a veritable subject in its own right, with a large literature. Consequently, that topic is discussed in less detail than the production energy topics.

  16. A comparison of future recruitment needs in urban and rural hospitals: the rural imperative.

    PubMed

    Williams, Thomas E; Satiani, Bhagwan; Ellison, E Christopher

    2011-10-01

    The potential impact of shortages of the surgical workforce on both urban and rural hospitals is undefined. There is a predicted shortage of 30,000 surgeons by 2030 and the need to train and hire more than 100,000 surgeons. The aim of this study is to estimate the average recruitment needs in our nation's hospitals for 7 surgical specialties to ensure adequate access to surgical care as the U.S. population grows to 364 million by 2030. We used the census figure of 309 million in 2010 for U.S. population. Currently there are estimated to be 3,012 urban hospitals and 1,998 rural hospitals in the U.S. (American Hospital Association's Trend Watch report, 2009). At 253 million people (82 % of the population of 309 million in 2010) receive healthcare in urban hospitals; 56 million people receive healthcare in rural hospitals (18%). We assumed a work force model based on our previous publications, equal population growth in all geographic areas, recruitment by rural hospitals limited to Ob-Gyn, General Surgery, and Orthopedics, and that the percentage of the population receiving care at urban and rural hospitals will stay constant. Rural hospitals will have to recruit an average of 3.4 OBGYN's, and an average of 1.6 Orthos, and 2.0 GS for a total of 7 full-time equivalents in the period from 2011 to 2030. Urban hospitals which have to recruit surgical specialists will have to recruit ten Ob-Gyns, about 5 Orthos, 6 GS's, 5 ear, nose, and throat surgeons (ENT's), an average of 2.5 urologists, a neurosurgeon, and a thoracic surgeon to meet the recruiting goals for the surgical services for their hospitals. Rural hospitals will be in competition with urban hospitals for hiring from a limited pool of surgeons. As urban hospitals have a socioeconomic advantage in hiring, surgical care in rural areas may be at risk. It is imperative that each rural hospital analyze local future healthcare needs and devise strategies that will enhance hiring and retention to optimize access to

  17. Problems of health education in rural areas in Poland.

    PubMed

    Charzyńska-Gula, Marianna; Sygit, Katarzyna; Sygit, Marian; Goździewska, Małgorzata; Dobrowolska, Beata; Gałęziowska, Edyta

    2013-01-01

    Health promotion is aimed at the reduction of the differences in society's access to factors determining the frequency of occurrence of pro-health behaviours. This means the construction of health resources and increase in the level of egalitarianism in access to these resources. Health education carried out on a high level in rural schools provides actual possibilities for gaining these resources. Many examples of educational practices confirm that the establishment of health conditioning and health behaviours of schoolchildren, and the diagnosis of rural school on the background of the specificity of the community in which it functions. These are a basis for the construction of effective educational programmes, and not analysis of the differences between urban and rural children and adolescents. In Poland, the performance of health education in rural schools encounters many problems associated both with the lack of infrastructure for health promotion, insufficient perception of the importance of health education at school by the educational authorities, underestimation of primary health care, low activity of the local governments, and lack of qualified rural health promoters. Current health education in Polish rural schools deepens inequalities in access to health, and postpones the moment of providing equal opportunities for rural and urban schoolchildren with access to the resources which condition the maintenance or even an enhancement of health. The objective of the study is to present selected problems in the performance of health education in a Polish rural school in the light of international trends, experiences and discussions related with an optimum form of health promotion in the environment of rural a school and the community.

  18. The Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS) reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Jerry; Hontalas, Philip; Listgarten, Sherry

    1993-01-01

    Whether a researcher is designing the 'next parallel programming paradigm,' another 'scalable multiprocessor' or investigating resource allocation algorithms for multiprocessors, a facility that enables parallel program execution to be captured and displayed is invaluable. Careful analysis of execution traces can help computer designers and software architects to uncover system behavior and to take advantage of specific application characteristics and hardware features. A software tool kit that facilitates performance evaluation of parallel applications on multiprocessors is described. The Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS) has four major software components: a source code instrumentor which automatically inserts active event recorders into the program's source code before compilation; a run time performance-monitoring library, which collects performance data; a trace file animation and analysis tool kit which reconstructs program execution from the trace file; and a trace post-processor which compensate for data collection overhead. Besides being used as prototype for developing new techniques for instrumenting, monitoring, and visualizing parallel program execution, AIMS is also being incorporated into the run-time environments of various hardware test beds to evaluate their impact on user productivity. Currently, AIMS instrumentors accept FORTRAN and C parallel programs written for Intel's NX operating system on the iPSC family of multi computers. A run-time performance-monitoring library for the iPSC/860 is included in this release. We plan to release monitors for other platforms (such as PVM and TMC's CM-5) in the near future. Performance data collected can be graphically displayed on workstations (e.g. Sun Sparc and SGI) supporting X-Windows (in particular, Xl IR5, Motif 1.1.3).

  19. [Quality documentation with an Anaesthesia Information Management System (AIMS)].

    PubMed

    Junger, A; Benson, M; Quinzio, L; Jost, A; Veit, C; Klöss, T; Hempelmann, G

    1999-08-01

    In 1994 the Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine of the Justus Liebig University of Giessen decided to implement an Anaesthesia Information Management System (AIMS) to replace the previous hand-written documentation on paper. From 1997 until the end of 1998 the data sets of 41,393 anaesthesia procedures were recorded with the help of computers and imported into a data bank. Individual aspects and results of this data pool are presented under the aspect of how the system in its present form is able to guarantee documentation of quality according to the requirements of the German Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (DGAI). Since 1997 information on all anaesthesia procedures has been documented "online" with the anaesthesia documentation software NarkoData 4 (ProLogic GmbH, Erkrath). The data sets have been stored in a relational data bank (Oracle Corporation) and statistically processed with the help of the SQL-based program Voyant (Brossco Systems, Espoo, Finland). As an example of two adverse perioperative events (AVB) we compared incidences of "hypotension" and "nausea/vomiting", recorded by staff members into the AIMS, with the incidence of comparable events that were recorded with the help of online data during anaesthesia procedures, such as blood pressure and drug application. Since 1998 data recording has been revised constantly in department meetings; advanced training has been given. The results have been analysed critically. In 1997 the incidence of adverse perioperative events entered manually into the system was 3.6% (grade III and higher 0.9%) and increased during 1998 to 22.2% (grade III and higher 1.9%). The frequency of anaesthesia procedures with manually documented AVBs was significantly below the incidence (determined with the help of online data) of comparable events: "hypotension" (1.8% vs. 8.5%) and "nausea/vomiting" (4.9% vs. 8.3%). The current documentation of AVBs in almost any hospital is incomplete

  20. Rural exposure during medical education and student preference for future practice location - a case of Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Kebaabetswe, Poloko; Tawana, Gothusang; Mbuka, Deogratias O.; Makgabana-Dintwa, Orabile; Sebina, Kagiso; Kebaeste, Masego; Mokgatlhe, Lucky; Nkomazana, Oathokwa

    2016-01-01

    Background Botswana’s medical school graduated its first class in 2014. Given the importance of attracting doctors to rural areas the school incorporated rural exposure throughout its curriculum. Aim This study explored the impact of rural training on students’ attitudes towards rural practice. Setting The University of Botswana family medicine rural training sites, Maun and Mahalapye. Methods The study used a mixed-methods design. After rural family medicine rotations, third- and fifth-year students were invited to complete a questionnaire and semi-structured interview. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Results The thirty-six participants’ age averaged 23 years and 48.6% were male. Thirty-three desired urban practice in a public institution or university. Rural training did not influence preferred future practice location. Most desired specialty training outside Botswana but planned to practice in Botswana. Professional stagnation, isolation, poorly functioning health facilities, dysfunctional referral systems, and perceived lack of learning opportunities were barriers to rural practice. Lack of recreation and poor infrastructure were personal barriers. Many appreciated the diversity of practice and supportive staff seen in rural practice. Several considered monetary compensation as an enticement for rural practice. Only those with a rural background perceived proximity to family as an incentive to rural practice. Conclusion The majority of those interviewed plan to practice in urban Botswana, however, they did identify factors that, if addressed, may increase rural practice in the future. Establishing systems to facilitate professional development, strengthening specialists support, and deploying doctors near their home towns are strategies that may improve retention of doctors in rural areas. PMID:27380783

  1. Clinical training in the rural setting: using photovoice to understand student experiences.

    PubMed

    Mader, Emily M; Roseamelia, Carrie A; Lewis, Sarah L; Arthur, Melissa E; Reed, Eric; Germain, Lauren J

    2016-01-01

    Attracting and retaining healthcare providers in rural locations in the USA has been an issue for more than two decades. In response to this need, many health sciences education institutions in the USA have developed special programs to encourage students to become healthcare providers in rural locations. One approach is the use of community-based education experiences through rural track programs. Rural track programs seek to address the shortage of healthcare providers working in rural areas by nurturing and educating students interested in rural practice and primary care. Such programs serve both medical students and students of other health professions. Yet, little is known about student experiences in rural track programs. As such, this study aimed to generate discourse on student experiences in the rural training environment and gain insight into the impact of rural environments on student learning. An exploratory qualitative analysis of medical and physician assistant student experiences in two rural medical education training programs was conducted using the photovoice methodology. Photovoice is a participatory research method combining photography with participant commentary and focus groups. Twenty-two third-year medical and six second-year physician assistant students participated in the study. Students noted that in their rural sites the learning environment extended beyond direct clinical teaching in four primary ways: (1) relationships with clinical faculty translated to a sense of meaningful participation in healthcare teams; (2) connections with community members outside of clinical settings led to increased awareness of healthcare concerns; (3) rural settings provided important space to reflect on their experiences; and (4) the importance of infrastructure was highlighted. Students also believed that diversity of occupation, education, attitude, and perception of medical care impact learning in rural environments. The photovoice participatory

  2. IR technology for enhanced force protection by AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, R.; Ihle, T.; Rode, W.; Wendler, J.; Rühlich, I.; Haiml, M.; Ziegler, J.

    2008-04-01

    In all recent missions our forces are faced with various types of asymmetric threads like snipers, IEDs, RPGs or MANPADS. 2 nd and 3 rd Gen IR technology is a backbone of modern force protection by providing situational awareness and accurate target engagement at day/night. 3 rd Gen sensors are developed for thread warning capabilities by use of spectral or spatial information. The progress on a dual-color IR module is discussed in a separate paper [1]. A 1024x256 SWIR array with flexure bearing compressor and pulse tube cold finger provides > 50,000h lifetime for space or airborne hyperspectral imaging in pushbroom geometry with 256 spectral channels for improved change detection and remote sensing of IEDs or chemical agents. Similar concepts are pursued in the LWIR with either spectroscopic imaging or a system of LWIR FPA combined with a cooled tunable Laser to do spectroscopy with stimulated absorption of specific wavelengths. AIM introduced the RangIR sight to match the requirements of sniper teams, AGLs and weapon stations, extending the outstanding optronic performance of the fielded HuntIR with position data of a target by a laser range finder (LRF), a 3 axis digital magnetic compass (DMC) and a ballistic computer for accurate engagement of remote targets. A version with flexure bearing cooler with >30,000h life time is being developed for continuous operation in e.g. gunfire detection systems. This paper gives an overview of AIM's technologies for enhanced force protection.

  3. Telescope Aiming Point Tracking Method for Bioptic Driving Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Fu, XianPing; Luo, Gang; Peli, Eli

    2010-01-01

    A bioptic telescope is a visual aid used by people with impaired vision when driving in many US states, though bioptic driving remains controversial. Objective data on how and when bioptic drivers use the telescope and what they look at with it are crucial to understanding the bioptic telescope's effect on driving. A video-based technique to track the telescope's aiming point is presented in this paper. With three infrared retro-reflective markers pasted on the bioptic spectacles' frame, its movement is recorded using an infrared camera unit with infrared LED illuminators. The angles formed by the three markers are used to calculate the telescope's aiming points, which are registered with road scene images recorded by another camera. The calculation is based on a novel one-time calibration method, in which the light spot from a head-mounted laser pointer projected on a wall while the head is scanning is recorded by the scene camera, in synchronization with the infrared camera. Interpolation is performed within small local regions where no samples were taken. Thus, non-linear interpolation error can be minimized, even for wide-range tracking. Experiments demonstrated that the average error over a 70°×48° field was only 0.86°, with lateral head movement allowed. PMID:20529756

  4. Telescope aiming point tracking method for bioptic driving surveillance.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xianping; Luo, Gang; Peli, Eli

    2010-12-01

    A bioptic telescope is a visual aid used by people with impaired vision when driving in many U.S. states, though bioptic driving remains controversial. Objective data on how and when bioptic drivers use the telescope and what they look at with it are crucial to understanding the bioptic telescope's effects on driving. A video-based technique to track the telescope's aiming point is presented in this paper. With three infrared retro-reflective markers pasted on the bioptic spectacles frame, its movement is recorded using an infrared camera unit with infrared LED illuminators. The angles formed by the three markers are used to calculate the telescope's aiming points, which are registered with road scene images recorded by another camera. The calculation is based on a novel one-time calibration method, in which the light spot from a head-mounted laser pointer projected on a wall while the scanning is recorded by the scene camera, in synchronization with the infrared camera. Interpolation is performed within small local regions where no samples were taken. Thus, nonlinear interpolation error can be minimized, even for wide-range tracking. Experiments demonstrated that the average error over a 70(°)×48(°) field was only 0.86 (°) , with lateral head movement allowed.

  5. Aiming routines and their electrocortical concomitants among competitive rifle shooters.

    PubMed

    Konttinen, N; Landers, D M; Lyytinen, H

    2000-06-01

    The present study focused on an examination of competitive shooters' aiming process during a rifle shooting task. The barrel movements of the rifle, as detected by a laser system during the last 1000-ms time period preceding the triggering, were recorded from six elite and six pre-elite shooters. Electrocortical slow potentials (SPs) from frontal (Fz), centro-lateral (C3, C4), and occipital (Oz) brain areas were recorded to get an additional insight into the underlying covert processing. The results suggested that the elite shooters did not pull the trigger until they reached a sustained rifle position. In the pre-elite shooters the rifle appeared to be in a less stable position, and their strategy was to take advantage of the first appropriate moment of steadiness without a sustained rifle position so they could pull the trigger. The observed pre-trigger readiness potential (RP) shifts at Fz and Oz were more positive among the elite shooters relative to the pre-elite shooters, reflecting their more pronounced covert effort, rather than increasing preparedness for the trigger pull. The present study lends support for the view that a successful aiming strategy is mainly based on sustained rifle balancing. With regards to the brain slow potentials, it can be concluded that the RP shift does not specifically reflect the preparation for the trigger pull.

  6. Linking aims, paradigm and method in nursing research.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Catherine; Hunter, Andrew; Meskell, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    To explore the use of paradigms as ontological and philosophical guides for conducting PhD research. A paradigm can help to bridge the aims of a study and the methods to achieve them. However, choosing a paradigm can be challenging for doctoral researchers: there can be ambiguity about which paradigm is suitable for a particular research question and there is a lack of guidance on how to shape the research process for a chosen paradigm. The authors discuss three paradigms used in PhD nursing research: post-positivism, interpretivism and pragmatism. They compare each paradigm in relation to its ontology, epistemology and methodology, and present three examples of PhD nursing research studies to illustrate how research can be conducted using these paradigms in the context of the research aims and methods. The commonalities and differences between the paradigms and their uses are highlighted. Creativity and flexibility are important when deciding on a paradigm. However, consistency and transparency are also needed to ensure the quality and rigour necessary for conducting nursing research. When choosing a suitable paradigm, the researcher should ensure that the ontology, epistemology and methodology of the paradigm are manifest in the methods and research strategies employed.

  7. Characterizing the imaging performance of flash memory masks using AIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Setten, Eelco; Wismans, Onno; Grim, Kees; Finders, Jo; Dusa, Mircea; Birkner, Robert; Richter, Rigo; Scherübl, Thomas

    2008-04-01

    Flash memory has become one of the most important segments of the semiconductor industry in recent years. Flash memory is also an important driver of the lithography roadmap, with its dramatic acceleration in dimensional shrink, pushing for ever smaller feature sizes. The introduction of the XT:1700Fi and XT:1900Gi have brought the 45nm node and below within reach for memory makers. At these feature sizes mask topology and the material properties of the film stack on the mask play an important role on imaging performance. Furthermore, the break up of the array pitch regularity in the NAND-type flash memory cell by two thick wordlines and a central space, leads to feature-center placement (overlay) errors, that are inherent to the design. An integral optimization approach is needed to mitigate these effects and to control both the CD and placement errors tightly. In this paper we will present the results of aerial image measurements on mask level of a NAND-Flash Memory Gate layer using AIMS TM 45-193i. Various imaging relevant parameters, such as MEEF, EL, DoF and placement errors are measured for different mask absorber materials for features sizes ranging from 39nm half pitch to 41nm half pitch design rule on wafer level. The AIMS TM measurements are compared to experimental results obtained with a XT:1900Gi hyper-NA immersion system. Mask optimization strategies are sought to increase Depth of Focus and minimize feature-center placement errors.

  8. Rural training and the state of rural health services: effect of rural background on the perception and attitude of first-year medical students at the university of melbourne.

    PubMed

    Azer, S A; Simmons, D; Elliott, S L

    2001-08-01

    The aim of this project is to investigate the relationship between medical students' background and their perception of the state of rural health services; willingness to undertake internship training or work as a doctor in a rural hospital; expected benefits and disadvantages of training or working as a doctor in a rural hospital; and factors interfering with acceptance of a job as a doctor in rural areas. A questionnaire-based survey was distributed to 100 first-year medical students attending the Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne at the end of semester 1. The response rate was 97%, including 44 males and 53 females. A strong relationship was found between rural background and an intention to undertake internship training in a rural hospital (86% of students from a rural background expressed this desire vs 30% of students from an urban background). Furthermore, all students from a rural background expressed a desire to work as a doctor in a rural hospital after completing postgraduate training. Compared to urban students, students from a rural background showed a more positive attitude towards health services in rural areas including public hospitals ( P = 0.02), private general practice ( P = 0.004), ambulance service ( P = 0.0002) and baby health centres ( P = 0.005). Citizenship or gender was not significantly related to the perception of any of these services. The ranking of factors interfering with acceptance of a job as a doctor in rural areas were different for rural and urban students. Students from rural backgrounds reported spouse/partner needs (76% vs 49%, P = 0.038) and school availability for children (59% vs 30%, P = 0.023) as barriers more frequently than urban students, respectively). On the other hand, urban students rated the following factors higher: personal factors (76% vs 53%, respectively), education opportunities (56% vs 24%), social/cultural facilities (50% vs 41%) and the need for frequent

  9. Rural self-reliance: the impact on health experiences of people living with type II diabetes in rural Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Page-Carruth, Althea; Windsor, Carol; Clark, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to explore whether and how rural culture influences type II diabetes management and to better understand the social processes that rural people construct in coping with diabetes and its complications. In particular, the study aimed to analyse the interface and interactions between rural people with type II diabetes and the Australian health care system, and to develop a theoretical understanding that reflects constructs that may be more broadly applicable. The study applied constructivist grounded theory methods within an interpretive interactionist framework. Data from 39 semi-structured interviews with rural and urban type II diabetes patients and a mix of rural health care providers were analysed to develop a theoretical understanding of the social processes that define diabetes management in that context. The analysis suggests that although type II diabetes imposes limitations that require adjustment and adaptation, these processes are actively negotiated by rural people within the environmental context to fit the salient social understandings of autonomy and self-reliance. Thus, people normalized self-reliant diabetes management behaviours because this was congruent with the rural culture. Factors that informed the actions of normalization were relationships between participants and health care professionals, support, and access to individual resources. The findings point to ways in which rural self-reliance is conceived as the primary strategy of diabetes management. People face the paradox of engaging with a health care system that at the same time maximizes individual responsibility for health and minimizes the social support by which individuals manage the condition. The emphasis on self-reliance gives some legitimacy to a lack of prevention and chronic care services. Success of diabetes management behaviours is, however, contingent on relative resources. Where there is good primary care, there develops a number of downstream

  10. Cyclone-Resistant Rural Primary School Construction - A Design Guide. Educational Building Report 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnamon, Ian T.; Loo, G. A. van't

    One of a series of documents on design of disaster-resistant buildings, this publication treats construction of rural primary schools to resist destruction by wind and water from cyclones. Also appropriate for other buildings, material is aimed at rural primary schools because they are less likely to be professionally designed or supervised; the…

  11. Child Labour and Schooling in the Context of a Subsistence Rural Economy: Can They Be Compatible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Admassie, A.

    2003-01-01

    Results of a household survey from rural Ethiopia indicate that rural children commonly participated in household and agricultural work from a very early age, and more than half of working children had never attended school. In the context of subsistence economies such as these, initial policy interventions should aim to make the combination of…

  12. Multidimensional Typology of Rural Communities as a Means of Studying Employment Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslavskaia, Tatiana Ivanovna; And Others

    The prediction, planning and management of the social development of a rural region presupposed typologization of its communities. This study aimed to: build an overall social typology of the rural communities in Siberia; elucidate the role of employment structure among other type-forming factors of social differentiation; build a special typology…

  13. Education of Indian and Alaska Native Children in Rural Areas: New Horizons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, David P.

    Recent organizational changes in the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) as well as the formation of Alaska's Rural Education Attendance Areas (REAAs) have important implications for the education of rural Native American children. The Title XI Education Amendments passed in November, 1978 (P.L. 95-561) aim at solving some of the administrative…

  14. Computer Access and Use: Understanding the Expectations of Indian Rural Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, B. T. Sampath; Basavaraja, M. T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to understand the expectations of rural students with respect to their computer access and use. It also made an attempt to learn the expectations of rural students from their schools and local government in providing the information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure. Design/methodology/approach: Interview…

  15. College Readiness for Rural Youth Initiative: Creating a Climate for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedrick, Jason; Light, Mark; Dick, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    College Readiness for Rural Youth is an innovative, postsecondary education bridge program that gives youth the opportunity to explore college attainability, admissions, financial aid, and application processes. The initiative aims to support academic success and transition to college for rural youth.

  16. Partnership Working in Small Rural Primary Schools: The Best of Both Worlds. Supporting Report and Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the research presented in this report was to investigate the most effective ways for small rural primary schools to work together in order to improve provision and raise standards. The project sought to examine the circumstances and context of small rural schools in Lincolnshire and evaluate their different leadership models (such as…

  17. Great 21st Century Debates about the Usefulness of Research: Can They Help Rural Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Erica

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to reflection on how rural research can better serve rural communities. Using the results of literature searches across the disciplines, it explores some major 21st Century debates about improving the usefulness of research for policy and practice. The paper begins with an examination of different debates in…

  18. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse: Prevalence and Correlates among Adolescents Living in Rural Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Mei-Sang; Yang, Ming-Jen; Su, Yi-Ching; Wang, Mei-Hua; Lan, Chu-Mei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this cross-sectional survey study were to examine the prevalence and correlates of childhood physical and sexual abuse in adolescents living in the rural areas of Taiwan. Method: A sample of indigenous (n = 756) and non-indigenous (n = 928) adolescents was randomly selected from junior high schools in the rural areas of…

  19. College Readiness for Rural Youth Initiative: Creating a Climate for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedrick, Jason; Light, Mark; Dick, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    College Readiness for Rural Youth is an innovative, postsecondary education bridge program that gives youth the opportunity to explore college attainability, admissions, financial aid, and application processes. The initiative aims to support academic success and transition to college for rural youth.

  20. Cyclone-Resistant Rural Primary School Construction - A Design Guide. Educational Building Report 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnamon, Ian T.; Loo, G. A. van't

    One of a series of documents on design of disaster-resistant buildings, this publication treats construction of rural primary schools to resist destruction by wind and water from cyclones. Also appropriate for other buildings, material is aimed at rural primary schools because they are less likely to be professionally designed or supervised; the…

  1. Research on Migration in Africa: Past, Present, and Future, African Rural Employment Paper No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byerlee, Derek

    African nations have been experiencing rapid rates of urbanization accompanied by serious problems of urban unemployment due to the rate of rural-urban migration and the lack of an adequate understanding of the migration process for economic policy formulation. The aim of this paper was to review the present knowledge of African rural-urban…

  2. Great 21st Century Debates about the Usefulness of Research: Can They Help Rural Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Erica

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to reflection on how rural research can better serve rural communities. Using the results of literature searches across the disciplines, it explores some major 21st Century debates about improving the usefulness of research for policy and practice. The paper begins with an examination of different debates in…

  3. Child Labour and Schooling in the Context of a Subsistence Rural Economy: Can They Be Compatible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Admassie, A.

    2003-01-01

    Results of a household survey from rural Ethiopia indicate that rural children commonly participated in household and agricultural work from a very early age, and more than half of working children had never attended school. In the context of subsistence economies such as these, initial policy interventions should aim to make the combination of…

  4. Sharing Our Pathways: A Newsletter of the Alaska Rural Systemic Initiative, 1996-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharing Our Pathways: A Newsletter of the Alaska Rural Systemic Initiative, 1999

    1999-01-01

    In 1995 the National Science Foundation funded the Alaska Rural System Initiative (RSI), a joint effort of the Alaska Federation of Natives and the University of Alaska Fairbanks. Among its goals, the RSI aims to increase the presence of Alaska Native knowledge and perspectives in all areas of science and education in rural Alaska, develop…

  5. Computer Access and Use: Understanding the Expectations of Indian Rural Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, B. T. Sampath; Basavaraja, M. T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to understand the expectations of rural students with respect to their computer access and use. It also made an attempt to learn the expectations of rural students from their schools and local government in providing the information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure. Design/methodology/approach: Interview…

  6. Exploring the Temperament and Character Traits of Rural and Urban Doctors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eley, Diann; Young, Louise; Przybeck, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Australia shares many dilemmas with North America regarding shortages of doctors in rural and remote locations. This preliminary study contributes to the establishment of a psychobiological profile for rural doctors by comparing temperament and character traits with an urban cohort. Purpose: The aim was to compare the individual levels…

  7. Partnership Working in Small Rural Primary Schools: The Best of Both Worlds. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the most effective ways for small rural primary schools to work together in order to improve provision and raise standards. The project sought to examine the circumstances and context of small rural schools in Lincolnshire and evaluate their different leadership models (such as collaborations,…

  8. Exploring the Temperament and Character Traits of Rural and Urban Doctors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eley, Diann; Young, Louise; Przybeck, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Australia shares many dilemmas with North America regarding shortages of doctors in rural and remote locations. This preliminary study contributes to the establishment of a psychobiological profile for rural doctors by comparing temperament and character traits with an urban cohort. Purpose: The aim was to compare the individual levels…

  9. Using Communication and Information Technologies To Empower Women in Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Margaret

    Research aimed to enhance rural women's access to communication and information technologies and to assess the impact of their technology use on their participation in small business development and community development. Over 200 women throughout Queensland (Australia) were involved. A trial electronic mailing list linking rural women to urban…

  10. Retaining rural doctors: doctors' preferences for rural medical workforce incentives.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhu; Scott, Anthony; McGrail, Matthew; Humphreys, John; Witt, Julia

    2014-11-01

    Many governments have implemented incentive programs to improve the retention of doctors in rural areas despite a lack of evidence of their effectiveness. This study examines rural general practitioners' (GPs') preferences for different types of retention incentive policies using a discrete choice experiment (DCE). In 2009, the DCE was administered to a group of 1720 rural GPs as part of the "Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL)" study. We estimate both a mixed logit model and a generalized multinomial logit model to account for different types of unobserved differences in GPs' preferences. Our results indicate that increased level of locum relief incentive, retention payments and rural skills loading leads to an increase in the probability of attracting GPs to stay in rural practice. The locum relief incentive is ranked as the most effective, followed by the retention payments and rural skills loading payments. These findings are important in helping to tailor retention policies to those that are most effective.

  11. Food allergies in rural areas

    PubMed Central

    Stoma, Monika; Ślaska-Grzywna, Beata; Kostecka, Małgorzata; Bojanowska, Monika; Dudziak, Agnieszka; Kuna-Broniowska, Agnieszka; Adamczuk, Piotr; Sobczak, Paweł; Andrejko, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A food allergy is a group of symptoms occurring in the organism and resulting from consuming some food, where the problems are conditioned by immunological mechanisms. The symptoms may become apparent first in adulthood and they may be an initial manifestation of a latent allergy. Typical symptoms of a food allergy occur in different organs, thus not only in the digestive system, but also in the skin, respiratory system and circulatory system. Aim To assess the frequency of food allergy onset in rural areas of the Lublin region as well as to determine which factors induce such allergies. Material and methods A survey was conducted, involving the participation of 340 inhabitants of rural areas. The study monitored the knowledge and situation of the disease, concerning allergens, allergy symptoms, methods of treatment and opinions regarding such treatment. Results The analysis focused on 124 people with diagnosed allergies. Conclusions Introducing a diet did not result in a statistically significant difference regarding elimination of the symptoms, as compared to the patients who did not follow any diet. On the other hand, pharmacological treatment causes statistically worse results than using other methods or not being treated at all. The patients in whom allergy symptoms disappeared were more convinced about the positive character of their diet than those in whom the symptoms were not eliminated. The age when the allergy becomes evident does not affect its duration, yet it matters as to the time of its later elimination. The more symptoms were experienced by a patient, the longer the duration of the allergy was. PMID:27605899

  12. Frailty among rural elderly adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and associated factors related to frailty, by Fried criteria, in the elderly population in a rural area in the Andes Mountains, and to analyze the relationship of these with comorbidity and disability. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken involving 1878 participants 60 years of age and older. The frailty syndrome was diagnosed based on the Fried criteria (weakness, low speed, low physical activity, exhaustion, and weight loss). Variables were grouped as theoretical domains and, along with other potential confounders, were placed into five categories: (a) demographic and socioeconomic status, (b) health status, (c) self-reported functional status, (d) physical performance-based measures, and (e) psychosocial factors. Chi-square, ANOVA, and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to test the prognostic value of frailty for the outcomes of interest. Results The prevalence of frailty was 12.2%. Factors associated with frailty were age, gender, health status variables that included self-perceived health and number of chronic conditions, functional covariate variables that included disability in activities in daily living (ADL), disabilities in instrumental ADL, chair stand time, and psychosocial variables that included depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment. Higher comorbidity and disability was found in frail elderly people. Only a subset of frail elderly people (10%) reported no disease or disability. Conclusions A relevant number of elderly persons living in rural areas in the Andes Mountains are frail. The prevalence of frailty is similar to that reported in other populations in the Latin American region. Our results support the use of modified Cardiovascular Health Study criteria to measure frailty in communities other than urban settings. Frailty in this study was strongly associated with comorbidities, and frailty and comorbidity predicted disability. PMID:24405584

  13. Enhancing Traditional and Innovative Rural Support Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agria, Mary A.

    Despite all the optimistic discussions of a rural renaissance and a significant population turnaround favoring growth in rural communities, rural areas are still experiencing a lack of essential services in virtually every area important to quality of life for rural residents. Included among the areas in which a need for improved rural support…

  14. Delinquent Behavior of Dutch Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weenink, Don

    2011-01-01

    This article compares Dutch rural and non-rural adolescents' delinquent behavior and examines two social correlates of rural delinquency: communal social control and traditional rural culture. The analyses are based on cross-sectional data, containing 3,797 participants aged 13-18 (48.7% females). The analyses show that rural adolescents are only…

  15. 77 FR 4885 - Rural Business Investment Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... / Wednesday, February 1, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Business-Cooperative Service Rural Utilities Service 7 CFR Part 4290 RIN 0570-AA80 Rural Business Investment Program AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service and Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION:...

  16. Prevention of Mental Retardation in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helge, Doris

    This paper describes causes of mental retardation in rural America, preventative methods, and factors impeding preventative approaches in rural settings and offers principles for tailoring traditional preventative methods for rural areas. Relevant findings of research conducted by the National Rural Project, American Council on Rural Special…

  17. Recognizing the Variety of Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenough, Richard; Nelson, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to help education practitioners and researchers understand that research about rural education is complicated not only by issues of defining "rural," but also by the often dramatic ways that rural schools differ from each other. We briefly address issues in defining rural and describe rural classification…

  18. The New Vocationalism in Rural Locales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Paul

    This paper critiques current "school-to-work" practices in rural schools. A look at the rural context reveals that rural workers are more likely to be unemployed and are paid less than workers elsewhere, resulting in high rural poverty. In addition, many kinds of rural decline (in services, transportation, job availability) are tied to…

  19. Recognizing the Variety of Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenough, Richard; Nelson, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to help education practitioners and researchers understand that research about rural education is complicated not only by issues of defining "rural," but also by the often dramatic ways that rural schools differ from each other. We briefly address issues in defining rural and describe rural classification…

  20. 78 FR 36520 - Rural Development Voucher Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... Rural Housing Service Rural Development Voucher Program AGENCY: Rural Housing Service, USDA. ACTION... demonstration Rural Development Voucher Program, as authorized under Section 542 of the Housing Act of 1949 as... the Rural Development Voucher Program and also sets forth the general policies and procedures for use...

  1. Therapies aimed at airway inflammation in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Konstan, M W

    1998-09-01

    Therapies aimed at decreasing the inflammatory response present a new strategy for treating cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. Alternate day prednisone may be beneficial, however, unacceptable adverse effects limit long-term use. Inhaled corticosteroids are under investigation as a safer alternative. High-dose ibuprofen twice daily has been shown to decrease the progression of CF lung disease and is without significant toxicity. Other NSAIDs and pentoxifylline and fish oil are under consideration. Antiproteases and antioxidants are also being studied. The rationale for all of these agents lies in their potential to decrease neutrophil influx into the lung, and counteract injurious products of neutrophils. Adding anti-inflammatory therapy to an already comprehensive treatment program will hopefully decrease morbidity and improve the quality of life for patients with CF.

  2. Visual regulation of manual aiming: a comparison of methods.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Digby; Hansen, Steve

    2010-11-01

    Visual regulation of upper limb movements occurs throughout the trajectory and is not confined to discrete control in the target area. Early control is based on the dynamic relationship between the limb, the target, and the environment. Despite robust outcome differences between protocols involving visual manipulations, it remains difficult to identify the kinematic events that characterize these differences. In this study, participants performed manual aiming movements with and without vision. We compared several traditional approaches to movement analysis with two new methods of quantifying online limb regulation. As expected, participants undershot the target and their movement endpoints were more variable when vision was not available. Although traditional measures such as reaction time, time after peak velocity, and the presence of discontinuities in acceleration were sensitive to the visual manipulation, measures quantifying the trial-to-trial spatial variability throughout the trajectory were the most effective in isolating the time course of online regulation.

  3. An intervention aimed at reducing plagiarism in undergraduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Smedley, Alison; Crawford, Tonia; Cloete, Linda

    2015-05-01

    Plagiarism is a current and developing problem in the tertiary education sector where students access information and reproduce it as their own. It is identified as occurring in many tertiary level degrees including nursing and allied health profession degrees. Nursing specifically, is a profession where standards and ethics are required and honesty is paramount. The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in nursing student's knowledge and understanding of plagiarism before and after an educational intervention in their first semester of the Bachelor of nursing degree at a private college of higher education in Sydney, Australia. This study concluded that an educational intervention can increase knowledge and awareness of plagiarism among nursing students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Infrared focal plane detector modules for space applications at AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, Dominique; Hanna, Stefan; Thöt, Richard; Gassmann, Kai-Uwe; Haiml, Markus; Weber, Andreas; Haas, Luis-Dieter; Ziegler, Johann; Nothaft, Hans-Peter; Fick, Wolfgang

    2012-09-01

    In the framework of this paper, AIM presents the actual status of some of its currently ongoing focal plane detector module developments for space applications covering the spectral range from the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) to the long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) and very-long-wavelength infrared (VLWIR), where both imaging and spectroscopy applications will be addressed. In particular, the integrated detector cooler assemblies for a mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) push-broom imaging satellite mission, for the German hyperspectral satellite mission EnMAP will be elaborated. Additionally dedicated detector modules for LWIR/VLWIR sounding, providing the possibility to have two different PVs driven by one ROIC will be addressed.

  5. Space Insect-Food Aiming at Mars Emigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Takase, Yoshimi; Kawai, Mika; Space Agriculture Task Force

    We study space insect-food during 10 years. We are aiming at Mars emigration. In space agriculture, insect is the important creature which we cannot miss. It is necessary for the pollination of the plant, and it is rich to protein and lipid as food. We reported that silkworm, bee, grasshopper, snail, fly and termite (white ant) are insects necessary for astroponics in particular last time. We make clothes using silk thread, and the pupa becomes the food. In addition, the clothes can make food as protein when we need not to use it. The bee is a very important insect in the space agriculture, too. We calculated the nourishment ingredient of those insects and thought about ideal space foods which ara necessary for Mars emigration. We will introduce good balance space foods.

  6. Computing for Aiming a Spaceborne Bistatic-Radar Transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rappaport, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    BISTAT is a computer program for use in aiming a spaceborne bistatic-radar transmitting antenna at a remote planet that has an atmosphere, such that after refraction by the atmosphere and reflection from the surface of the planet, the radar signal travels toward a receiver on Earth. BISTAT includes an algorithm that neglects atmospheric refraction and calculates a specular-reflection point for a spacecraft at a given location. The specular-reflection point is then used as an initial guess for a modified limb-track algorithm that takes atmospheric refraction into account. The output of BISTAT for all spacecraft positions of interest constitutes a pointing profile; the output data are in the form of an inertial-vector file and a Doppler-residual file. The inertial-vector file is used to command the attitude of the spacecraft; the Doppler-residual file is used to determine a downlink frequency file for the receiver.

  7. Working memory capacity, controlled attention and aiming performance under pressure.

    PubMed

    Wood, Greg; Vine, Samuel J; Wilson, Mark R

    2016-07-01

    This study explored the possibility that individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) could predict those individuals who would experience attentional disruptions and performance decrements under pressure. Two WMC groups performed a Stroop handgun task under counterbalanced conditions of threat whilst wearing eye-tracking equipment that measured visual search activity and quiet eye (QE) aiming duration. Performance was measured in terms of shooting accuracy. Low-WMC individuals experienced impaired visual search time to locate the target and reduced QE durations when shooting at incongruent target words. Furthermore, the low-WMC group experienced significant reductions in shooting accuracy when anxious. Conversely, high-WMC individuals experienced no significant differences in attentional control or performance across congruency or threat conditions. Results support the suggestion that WMC is not only a good predictor of an individual's ability to control their attention but can also predict those likely to fail under pressure.

  8. Selecting for a sustainable workforce to meet the future healthcare needs of rural communities in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hay, M; Mercer, A M; Lichtwark, I; Tran, S; Hodgson, W C; Aretz, H T; Armstrong, E G; Gorman, D

    2017-05-01

    An undersupply of generalists doctors in rural communities globally led to widening participation (WP) initiatives to increase the proportion of rural origin medical students. In 2002 the Australian Government mandated that 25% of commencing Australian medical students be of rural origin. Meeting this target has largely been achieved through reduced standards of entry for rural relative to urban applicants. This initiative is based on the assumption that rural origin students will succeed during training, and return to practice in rural locations. One aim of this study was to determine the relationships between student geographical origin (rural or urban), selection scores, and future practice intentions of medical students at course entry and course exit. Two multicentre databases containing selection and future practice preferences (location and specialisation) were combined (5862), representing 54% of undergraduate medical students commencing from 2006 to 2013 across nine Australian medical schools. A second aim was to determine course performance of rural origin students selected on lower scores than their urban peers. Selection and course performance data for rural (461) and urban (1431) origin students commencing 2006-2014 from one medical school was used. For Aim 1, a third (33.7%) of rural origin students indicated a preference for future rural practice at course exit, and even fewer (6.7%) urban origin students made this preference. Results from logistic regression analyses showed significant independent predictors were rural origin (OR 4.0), lower Australian Tertiary Admissions Rank (ATAR) (OR 2.1), or lower Undergraduate Medical and Health Sciences Admissions Test Section 3 (non-verbal reasoning) (OR 1.3). Less than a fifth (17.6%) of rural origin students indicated a preference for future generalist practice at course exit. Significant predictors were female gender (OR 1.7) or lower ATAR (OR 1.2), but not rural origin. Fewer (10.5%) urban origin

  9. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program. Annual progress report, FY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Sorrell, C.A.

    1995-05-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials Program is a part of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in the Department of Energy. The mission of the AIM Program is to conduct applied research, development, and applications engineering work, in partnership with industry, to commercialize new or improved materials and materials processing methods that will improve energy efficiency, productivity, and competitiveness. AIM is responsible for identifying, supporting, and coordinating multidisciplinary projects to solve identified industrial needs and transferring the technology to the industrial sector. Program investigators in the DOE National Laboratories are working closely with approximately 100 companies, including 15 partners in Cooperative Research and Development Agreements. Work is being done in a wide variety of materials technologies, including intermetallic alloys, ceramic composites, metal composites, polymers, engineered porous materials, and surface modification. The Program supports other efforts in the Office of Industrial Technologies to assist the energy consuming process industries, including forest products, glass, steel, aluminum, foundries, chemicals, and refineries. To support OITs {open_quotes}Industries of the Future{close_quotes} initiatives and to improve the relevance of materials research, assessments of materials needs and opportunities in the process industries are being made. These assessments are being used for program planning and priority setting; support of work to satisfy those needs is being provided. Many new materials that have come into the marketplace in recent years, or that will be available for commercial use within a few more years, offer substantial benefits to society. This document contains 28 reports on advanced materials research. Individual reports have been processed separately for entry onto the Department of Energy databases.

  10. Rural electric demand research

    SciTech Connect

    Stetson, L.E.; Stark, G.L.

    1985-09-01

    In cooperative research with rural power suppliers in Nebraska, 35 recording demand meters were installed. The demand study was started in December of 1980 and concluded in March of 1983. Data collection in Nebraska was concentrated in a five-county area in eastcentral Nebraska. Customers were sampled based on a stratified randomized design. Electrical demands were recorded for 5-min intervals. Coincidental peak demands for 60-min intervals were determined for selected peak power use days in 1981 and 1982. In addition, 15-min coincidental demands showing maximum average and minimum demands for each month for the two-year study are presented. Demands predicted by the Rural Electrification Administration demand tables were generally lower than the measured demands while demands predicted by linear regression analysis were higher than the measured demands. Measured coincidental peak demands per customer for the total of all stratified groups ranged from 5.7 to 8.6 kW.

  11. Rural women's time use.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, V H

    1979-01-01

    The time-budget method of collecting information on rural Nicaraguan women is felt to be an ideal method of data collection in this situation. This method details what a person does, when it is done, and how much time is required; information difficult to obtain solely through recall. 3 types of women were observed in the collection of data: 1) housewives who work at home without pay; 2) potters who make clay pots in their homes and sell them; and 3) women who work in factories for at least 8 hours daily. The time-budget results yielded information on child-care and food-preparation details of their lives. The observation method was useful in obtaining information on the actual sexual division of labor. It is felt that this sort of information will be useful to development planners in assessing needs and evaluating program results when formulating programs in these rural areas.

  12. "It's Good to Live in Jarva-Jaani but We Can't Stay Here": Youth and Belonging in Rural Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trell, Elen-Maarja; van Hoven, Bettina; Huigen, Paulus

    2012-01-01

    In the broader context of post-socialist transition and rural decline, we examine the everyday lives of young people in rural Estonia. We focus in particular on key places of belonging for youths and the practices and experiences through which rural young people develop a sense of belonging to their local places. Our aim is to identify links…

  13. Rural Energy Conference Project

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Witmer; Shannon Watson

    2008-12-31

    Alaska remains, even at the beginning of the 21st century, a place with many widely scattered, small, remote communities, well beyond the end of both the road system and the power grid. These communities have the highest energy costs of any place in the United States, despite the best efforts of the utilities that service them. This is due to the widespread dependence on diesel electric generators, which require small capital investments, but recent increases in crude oil prices have resulted in dramatic increases in the cost of power. In the enabling legislation for the Arctic Energy Office in 2001, specific inclusion was made for the study of ways of reducing the cost of electrical power in these remote communities. As part of this mandate, the University of Alaska has, in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, the Denali Commission and the Alaska Energy Authority, organized a series of rural energy conferences, held approximately every 18 months. The goal of these meeting was to bring together rural utility operators, rural community leaders, government agency representatives, equipment suppliers, and researchers from universities and national laboratories to discuss the current state of the art in rural power generation, to discuss current projects, including successes as well as near successes. Many of the conference presenters were from industry and not accustomed to writing technical papers, so the typical method of organizing a conference by requesting abstracts and publishing proceedings was not considered viable. Instead, the organizing committee solicited presentations from appropriate individuals, and requested that (if they were comfortable with computers) prepare Power point presentations that were collected and posted on the web. This has become a repository of many presentations, and may be the best single source of information about current projects in the state of Alaska.

  14. Rural health clinics infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, K.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses programs which were directed at the installation of photovoltaic power systems in rural health clinics. The objectives included: vaccine refrigeration; ice pack freezing; lighting; communications; medical appliances; sterilization; water purification; and income generation. The paper discusses two case histories, one in the Dominican Republic and one in Colombia. The author summarizes the results of the programs, both successes and failures, and offers an array of conclusions with regard to the implementation of future programs of this general nature.

  15. Living and learning in a rural environment: a nursing student perspective.

    PubMed

    Pront, Leeanne; Kelton, Moira; Munt, Rebecca; Hutton, Alison

    2013-03-01

    This study investigates the influences on nursing student learning who live and learn in the same rural environment. A declining health workforce has been identified both globally and in Australia, the effects of which have become significantly apparent in the rural nursing sector. In support of rural educational programs the literature portrays rural clinical practice experiences as significant to student learning. However, there is little available research on what influences learning for the nursing student who studies in their own rural community. The aim of this study was to understand what influences student learning in the rural clinical environment. Through a multiple case study design five nursing students and two clinical preceptors from a rural clinical venue were interviewed. The interviews were transcribed and thematically analysed to identify factors that influenced student learning outcomes. The most significant influence on nursing student learning in the rural clinical environment was found to include the environment itself, the complex relationships unique to living and studying in a rural community along with the capacity to link theory to practice. The rural environment influences those in it, the demands placed on them, the relationships they form, the ability to promote learning and the time to teach and learn. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Electrifying rural India

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.L.; Ullal, H.S.

    1999-12-01

    NREL personnel team with the Indian and US governments and an Indian NGO to bring photovoltaic electricity to rural residents of the Sundarbans in India. India is the world's second most populous country, quickly approaching one billion people. Although it has a well-developed electricity grid, many residents have little or no access to electricity and the benefits associated with it. Many rural areas, for example, are isolated from the grid and will not be connected for many years, if ever. One such area is the Sundarbans located in the delta region of the two great rivers, the Ganges and Brahmaputra. The region lies partially in India and partially in Bangladesh. It is estimated that 1.5 million people live in this area, crisscrossed by many islands and rivers, who have only marginal supplies of electricity generated primarily from diesel generators and batteries. Working with the regional non-governmental organization (NGO), the Ramakrishna Mission and the West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency, the governments of India and the US initiated a rural electrification initiative in Sundarbans. The initiative was designed to demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of photovoltaics (PV) to provide limited supplies of electricity for applications such as solar home lighting systems (SHS), water pumping, vaccine refrigeration, communications and economic development activities.

  17. Rural Health in Pharmacy Curricula

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, Kim; O’Connor, Shanna K.

    2012-01-01

    The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act proposes strategies to address the workforce shortages of primary care practitioners in rural America. This review addresses the question, “What specialized education and training are colleges and schools of pharmacy providing for graduates who wish to enter pharmacy practice in rural health?” All colleges and schools accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education or those in precandidate status as of December 2011 were included in an Internet-based review of Web sites. A wide scope of curricular offerings were found, ranging from no description of courses or experiences in a rural setting to formally developed programs in rural pharmacy. Although the number of pharmacy colleges and schools providing either elective or required courses in rural health is encouraging, more education and training with this focus are needed to help overcome the unmet need for quality pharmacy care for rural populations. PMID:23193344

  18. [Social marketing--seduction with the aim of healthy behavior?].

    PubMed

    Loss, J; Nagel, E

    2010-01-01

    SOCIAL MARKETING - SEDUCTION WITH THE AIM OF HEALTHY BEHAVIOR? Social marketing is the use of marketing principles to design and implement programs that promote socially beneficial behaviour change. Contrary to the marketing of consumption goods, social marketing does not deal with material products, but with behaviour, e. g. not smoking. This 'product' has a basic benefit (i. e. reduction of health risks in the long run), which is, however, difficult to convey. Therefore, the intended change in behaviour has to be related to a further reward which consists of symbolic goods, e. g. social appreciation or a better body feeling. The communication policy is essential for information on and motivation for the preventive issue. Social marketing campaigns whose development and management follow the principles of classical marketing can render preventive efforts more effective. In addition, social marketing can lead to a better quality management as compared to conventional preventive activities. These advantages can be explained by a) tailoring the campaign more specifically to the target group's needs and motives, b) presenting health risks more convincingly, and c) continuously analysing and evaluating the campaign and its effects. On the other hand, the marketing of preventive aims through mass media can bear several risks, as exemplified by different national and international public health campaigns. The necessity to communicate briefly and succinctly can lead to misleading simplifications and, in case of cancer screening, to the trivialization of a behaviour's consequences and adverse effects. Also, many campaigns do not intend to educate and inform, but try to persuade target persons of a certain behaviour, using emotions such as fear. This has led to social marketing being criticized as manipulation. Sometimes, social marketing campaigns cause stigma and discrimination of certain population subgroups, e. g. obese or HIV-positive people. Health promoters who plan

  19. Why scientists perform animal experiments, scientific or personal aim?

    PubMed Central

    Mayir, Burhan; Doğan, Uğur; Bilecik, Tuna; Yardımcı, Erdem Can; Çakır, Tuğrul; Aslaner, Arif; Mayir, Yeliz Akpınar; Oruç, Mehmet Tahir

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although all animal studies are conducted in line with a specific purpose, we think that not all animal studies are performed for a scientific purpose but for personal curiosity or to fulfill a requirement. The aim of the present study is to reveal the purposes of experimental studies conducted on animals. Matherial and Methods We searched for experimental studies performed on rats in general surgery clinics via PubMed, and obtained the e-mail addresses of the corresponding authors for each study. Afterwards, we sent a 7-item questionnaire to the authors and awaited their responses. Results Seventy-three (22.2%) of 329 authors responded to the questionnaire. Within these studies, 31 (42.5%) were conducted as part of a dissertation, while the remaining 19 (26.0%) were conducted to meet the academic promotion criteria. Only 23 (31.5%) were conducted for scientific purposes. The cost of 41% of those studies was higher than 2500 $. Conclusion As shown in this study, the main objective of carrying out animal studies in Turkey is usually to prepare a dissertation or to be entitled to academic promotion. Animal experiments must be planned and performed as scientific studies to support related clinical studies. Additionally, animal studies must have well-defined objectives and be carried out in line with scientific purposes that may lead to useful developments in medicine, rather than personal interests. PMID:28149122

  20. Paleographic Atlas of northern Eurasia: Aims and current progress

    SciTech Connect

    Kazmin, V.G. )

    1993-09-01

    A project aimed at paleographic reconstruction of northern Eurasia (the former USSR and adjacent territories) commenced in 1993 in Russia under the auspices of two nongovernmental scientific organizations: Scientific Council on Plate Tectonics and Institute of Tectonics of Lithospheric Plates. The project is sponsored by the State Committee on Geology and Exxon and Shell companies. Twenty-six data-base maps and corresponding paleogeographic maps on a set of new paleotectonic reconstructions are to be compiled within two years, covering a period from Devonian to present. The next two-year phase is expected to follow, with a compilation of similar maps for Early Paleozoic and late Riphean. the best experts on regional geology, paleoenvironment, paleomagnetics, and paleotectonic reconstructions participate in the program. A special group, Geocentre Company, is assigned to the computerization of maps. The 1993 compilation of 15 database maps is to be completed and the first reconstructions produced. The database maps (starting from Tithonian upward) contain information on lithology, facies and thickness of sedimentary formations, and magnetic and structural indicators of plate tectonic data; oil and gas deposits are indicated. Emphasis is placed on the paleogeographic evolution of sedimentary basins, potential reservoirs of hydrocarbons. Narrow time intervals between maps (about 10 m.y.) permit detailed reconstructions of the basins' evolution. Examples of database and paleogeographic maps are presented in the poster.