Science.gov

Sample records for rural chiapas mexico

  1. Risk factors and the prevalence of leptospirosis infection in a rural community of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Leal-Castellanos, C. B.; García-Suárez, R.; González-Figueroa, E.; Fuentes-Allen, J. L.; Escobedo-de la Peñal, J.

    2003-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mapastepec, a rural community of the southern state of Chiapas, Mexico. The overall prevalence of leptospirosis infection in 1169 subjects was 37.7% [95% confidence intervals (95% CI) 34.9-40.5]. The main risk factors related to leptospirosis infection were flooding, mainly if subjects had a skin cut or abrasion [odds ratio (OR) 4.2; 95% CI 3.1-5.7], having domestic animals, either dogs and/or cats (OR 1.3; 95% CI 0.96-1.8) or cattle and/or pigs (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.3-2.7), contact with animal excreta with no protection and with a skin cut or abrasion (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.1-4.6). Those subjects with a dengue infection in the previous year had also an excess risk (OR 1.4; 95% CI 0.9-2.0). Mapastepec is a previously unknown area with high endemicity. Specific preventive measures should be adopted to prevent any contact with infected animals, and animal immunization should also be implemented. There is need of an epidemiological surveillance system to allow proper diagnosis. PMID:14959783

  2. American Visceral Leishmaniasis in Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Pastor-Santiago, Jorge A.; Chávez-López, Susana; Guzmán-Bracho, Carmen; Flisser, Ana; Olivo-Díaz, Angélica

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of a study conducted during 1990–2006 with 89 cases of American visceral leishmaniasis in Chiapas State in southeastern Mexico and a seroprevalence study performed with 726 persons and 224 dogs that lived near cases of American visceral leishmaniasis. Clinical aspects, epidemiologic profiles, and risk factors are described. Most cases were in children ≤ 5 years of age, the prevalence of seropositive persons was 77%. The main risk factors associated with this disease were having 1–3 rooms in a house compared with ≥ 4 rooms, having a roof that was not made of cement, and having domestic animals. In contrast, only 19% of dogs were seropositive, suggesting that this species is not important in the transmission cycle of Leishmania. These data indicate that active transmission is taking place in the central valley of Chiapas State, Mexico, in communities located < 1,000 meters above sea level near the Grijalva River. PMID:22232459

  3. Chiapas Forest, Mexico and Guatemala border

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This color infrared view of the Chiapas Forest, Mexico and Guatemala border (17.0N, 92.0W) illustrates the usefulness of this type of film in determining vegetated vs non vegetated areas. As can be seen, most of this part of Guatemala remains in closed canopy woodland (dark red), while most of the Mexican land to the north has been cleared for pasture and farmland (pink). The pale green areas north of the river are bare soil or fallow fields.

  4. Social inequalities and health in rural Chiapas, Mexico: agricultural economy, nutrition, and child health in La Fraylesca region.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Díaz López, H; Sánchez-Pérez, H J; Ruíz-Flores, M; Fuller, M

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between farmers' socioeconomic conditions and their children's health in La Fraylesca, Chiapas. Data were collected using a cross-sectional survey of 1046 households (5546 individuals) sampled from locations in two counties situated in the study area. The survey included anthropometric measurements, a 24-hour dietary recall, stool tests, and childhood mortality data. Children of private farmers and "wealthy peasants" displayed better nutritional status, higher quality diet, lower prevalence of intestinal parasites, and a lower risk of dying than those whose parents were communal farmers, from ejidos, or "poor peasants". The results suggest that using volume of maize production as a classification method proved more valuable than land tenure to identify agricultural groups with different health status. It appears that the main determinants of health differentials are structural inequities in resource distribution. Thus, the impact of medical interventions on inequalities will be limited unless they are accompanied by redistribution of resources.

  5. Democratization "from Below" and Popular Culture: Teachers from Chiapas, Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Susan

    1996-01-01

    In the early 1980s, public school teachers in Chiapas, Mexico, organized themselves in a dissident mass movement aimed at democratizing their participation in union affairs and restructuring the relations of domination and subordination affecting their work lives. Macro-level analysis focuses on union corruption situated within an authoritarian…

  6. Miocene mollusks from the Simojovel area in Chiapas, southwestern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Carmen Perrilliat, María; Vega, Francisco J.; Coutiño, Marco A.

    2010-11-01

    The fauna of gastropods and bivalves from the amber-bearing lithostratigraphic units of the Simojovel area, Chiapas is reported, including the description of two new species and one subspecies: Turbinella maya new species, Melongena corona tzeltal new subspecies and Agladrillia ( Eumetadrillia) vermeiji new species. Stratigraphic affinities of the previously described species suggest an Early Miocene age for the Mazantic Shale, and a Middle Miocene age for the overlying Balumtum Sandstone. One specimen of gastropod, with a relatively large piece of amber attached to the adapertural part of the shell is representative for an Early Miocene age and estuarine paleoenvironmental interpretation for the Mazantic Shale. Mollusca, Miocene, Chiapas, Amber, Mexico.

  7. Geology of El Chichon volcano, Chiapas, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffield, W.A.; Tilling, R.I.; Canul, R.

    1984-01-01

    The (pre-1982) 850-m-high andesitic stratovolcano El Chicho??n, active during Pleistocene and Holocene time, is located in rugged, densely forested terrain in northcentral Chiapas, Me??xico. The nearest neighboring Holocene volcanoes are 275 km and 200 km to the southeast and northwest, respectively. El Chicho??n is built on Tertiary siltstone and sandstone, underlain by Cretaceous dolomitic limestone; a 4-km-deep bore hole near the east base of the volcano penetrated this limestone and continued 770 m into a sequence of Jurassic or Cretaceous evaporitic anhydrite and halite. The basement rocks are folded into generally northwest-trending anticlines and synclines. El Chicho??n is built over a small dome-like structure superposed on a syncline, and this structure may reflect cumulative deformation related to growth of a crustal magma reservoir beneath the volcano. The cone of El Chicho??n consists almost entirely of pyroclastic rocks. The pre-1982 cone is marked by a 1200-m-diameter (explosion?) crater on the southwest flank and a 1600-m-diameter crater apparently of similar origin at the summit, a lava dome partly fills each crater. The timing of cone and dome growth is poorly known. Field evidence indicates that the flank dome is older than the summit dome, and K-Ar ages from samples high on the cone suggest that the flank dome is older than about 276,000 years. At least three pyroclastic eruptions have occurred during the past 1250 radiocarbon years. Nearly all of the pyroclastic and dome rocks are moderately to highly porphyritic andesite, with plagioclase, hornblende and clinopyroxene the most common phenocrysts. Geologists who mapped El Chicho??n in 1980 and 1981 warned that the volcano posed a substantial hazard to the surrounding region. This warning was proven to be prophetic by violent eruptions that occurred in March and April of 1982. These eruptions blasted away nearly all of the summit dome, blanketed the surrounding region with tephra, and sent

  8. [Nutritional status of two generations of brothers and sisters <5 years of age beneficiaries from opportunities living in marginalized rural communities in Chiapas, Mexico].

    PubMed

    García-Parra, Esmeralda; Ochoa-Díaz-López, Héctor; García-Miranda, Rosario; Moreno-Altamirano, Laura; Morales, Helda; Estrada-Lugo, Erin Ingrid Jane; Solís-Hernández, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    En México, en las últimas décadas se han desarrollado varios programas para erradicar el problema de la desnutrición en infantes < de 5 años, principalmente de aquellos que viven en áreas indígenas y rurales. No obstante, no existe suficiente evidencia sobre su impacto en la salud y la nutrición infantil. Objetivo: describir los cambios nutricionales de dos generaciones de hermanos(as) que han sido beneficiados por el programa Oportunidades en comunidades rurales de Chiapas. Métodos: estudio transversal. Se determinó: bajo peso, baja talla, emaciación y SP + O (Sobrepeso más Obesidad). Los hermanos(as) mayores fueron evaluados en los años 2002-2003, para el 2010-2011 se evaluaron a los hermanos( as) menores, ambos grupos eran < de 5 años de edad en el momento de conseguir la información. Resultados: la desnutrición en sus tres formas es un problema, 43,4% de los hermanos(as) evaluados(as) en 2010-2011 presentaron baja talla, la prevalencia de bajo peso disminuyó de 18% a 13,2%, la emaciación (peso bajo para la talla) aumentó de 8,1% a 10.4%. El SP + O aumentó significativamente 12 puntos porcentuales entre los hermanos(as) de 24,8% en 2002-2003 a 36,8% en 2010-2011. La desnutrición en los niños (varones) es menor que la de sus hermanos de la generación de 2002- 2003 (baja talla p =.

  9. A role for community health promoters in tuberculosis control in the state of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Herce, Michael E; Chapman, Jacob A; Castro, Arachu; García-Salyano, Gabriel; Khoshnood, Kaveh

    2010-04-01

    We conducted a qualitative study employing structured interviews with 38 community health workers, known as health promoters, from twelve rural municipalities of Chiapas, Mexico in order to characterize their work and identify aspects of their services that would be applicable to community-based tuberculosis (TB) control programs. Health promoters self-identify as being of Mayan Indian ethnicity. Most are bilingual, speaking Spanish and one of four indigenous Mayan languages native to Chiapas. They volunteer 11 h each week to conduct clinical and public health work in their communities. Over half (53%) work with a botiquín, a medicine cabinet stocked with essential medicines. Fifty-three percent identify TB as a major problem affecting the health of their communities, with one-fifth (21%) of promoters reporting experience caring for patients with known or suspected TB and 29% having attended to patients with hemoptysis. One-third of health promoters have access to antibiotics (32%) and one-half have experience with their administration; 55% complement their biomedical treatments with traditional Mayan medicinal plant therapies in caring for their patients. We describe how health promoters employ both traditional and allopathic medicine to treat the symptoms and diseases they encounter most frequently which include fever, diarrhea, and parasitic infections. We contend that given the complex sociopolitical climate in Chiapas and the state's unwavering TB epidemic and paucity of health care infrastructure in rural areas, efforts to implement comprehensive, community-based TB control would benefit from employing the services of health promoters.

  10. Indoor volatiles of primary school classrooms in Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico, are attractants to Aedes aegypti females.

    PubMed

    Torres Estrada, José Luis; Ríos Delgado, Silvany Mayoly; Takken, Willem

    2013-09-01

    We determined the behavioral response of Aedes aegypti females to volatile compounds collected in indoor primary school classrooms. Volatiles were collected from classrooms from 0800 through 1030 h and 1130 through 1400 h in urban and rural schools in Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico. Female responses to volatiles were assessed in a Y-tube olfactometer. Chemical compounds were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis. Volatiles from both schools were attractive when compared against their control. When such volatiles were compared, those from the rural school were more attractive than the ones from the urban school. Chromatographic profiles were similar between schools; however, the rural school showed more compounds. Attraction of Ae. aegypti females toward volatiles of primary school classrooms might increase dengue transmission probabilities in those sites.

  11. Geology of El Chichon volcano, Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffield, Wendell A.; Tilling, Robert I.; Canul, Rene

    1984-03-01

    The (pre-1982) 850-m-high andesitic stratovolcano El Chichón, active during Pleistocene and Holocene time, is located in rugged, densely forested terrain in northcentral Chiapas, México. The nearest neighboring Holocene volcanoes are 275 km and 200 km to the southeast and northwest, respectively. El Chichón is built on Tertiary siltstone and sandstone, underlain by Cretaceous dolomitic limestone; a 4-km-deep bore hole near the east base of the volcano penetrated this limestone and continued 770 m into a sequence of Jurassic or Cretaceous evaporitic anhydrite and halite. The basement rocks are folded into generally northwest-trending anticlines and synclines. El Chichón is built over a small dome-like structure superposed on a syncline, and this structure may reflect cumulative deformation related to growth of a crustal magma reservoir beneath the volcano. The cone of El Chichón consists almost entirely of pyroclastic rocks. The pre-1982 cone is marked by a 1200-m-diameter (explosion?) crater on the southwest flank and a 1600-m-diameter crater apparently of similar origin at the summit, a lava dome partly fills each crater. The timing of cone and dome growth is poorly known. Field evidence indicates that the flank dome is older than the summit dome, and K-Ar ages from samples high on the cone suggest that the flank dome is older than about 276,000 years. At least three pyroclastic eruptions have occurred during the past 1250 radiocarbon years. Nearly all of the pyroclastic and dome rocks are moderately to highly porphyritic andesite, with plagioclase, hornblende and clinopyroxene the most common phenocrysts. Geologists who mapped El Chichón in 1980 and 1981 warned that the volcano posed a substantial hazard to the surrounding region. This warning was proven to be prophetic by violent eruptions that occurred in March and April of 1982. These eruptions blasted away nearly all of the summit dome, blanketed the surrounding region with tephra, and sent pyroclastic

  12. Prehispanic Use of Chili Peppers in Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Powis, Terry G.; Gallaga Murrieta, Emiliano; Lesure, Richard; Lopez Bravo, Roberto; Grivetti, Louis; Kucera, Heidi; Gaikwad, Nilesh W.

    2013-01-01

    The genus Capsicum is New World in origin and represents a complex of a wide variety of both wild and domesticated taxa. Peppers or fruits of Capsicum species rarely have been identified in the paleoethnobotanical record in either Meso- or South America. We report here confirmation of Capsicum sp. residues from pottery samples excavated at Chiapa de Corzo in southern Mexico dated from Middle to Late Preclassic periods (400 BCE to 300 CE). Residues from 13 different pottery types were collected and extracted using standard techniques. Presence of Capsicum was confirmed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)/MS-MS Analysis. Five pottery types exhibited chemical peaks for Capsicum when compared to the standard (dihydrocapsaicin). No peaks were observed in the remaining eight samples. Results of the chemical extractions provide conclusive evidence for Capsicum use at Chiapas de Corzo during a 700 year period (400 BCE–300 CE). Presence of Capsicum in different types of culinary-associated pottery raises questions how chili pepper could have been used during this early time period. As Pre-Columbian cacao products sometimes were flavored using Capsicum, the same pottery sample set was tested for evidence of cacao using a theobromine marker: these results were negative. As each vessel that tested positive for Capsicum had a culinary use we suggest here the possibility that chili residues from the Chiapas de Corzo pottery samples reflect either paste or beverage preparations for religious, festival, or every day culinary use. Alternatively, some vessels that tested positive merely could have been used to store peppers. Most interesting from an archaeological context was the presence of Capsicum residue obtained from a spouted jar, a pottery type previously thought only to be used for pouring liquids. PMID:24236083

  13. Prehispanic use of chili peppers in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Powis, Terry G; Gallaga Murrieta, Emiliano; Lesure, Richard; Lopez Bravo, Roberto; Grivetti, Louis; Kucera, Heidi; Gaikwad, Nilesh W

    2013-01-01

    The genus Capsicum is New World in origin and represents a complex of a wide variety of both wild and domesticated taxa. Peppers or fruits of Capsicum species rarely have been identified in the paleoethnobotanical record in either Meso- or South America. We report here confirmation of Capsicum sp. residues from pottery samples excavated at Chiapa de Corzo in southern Mexico dated from Middle to Late Preclassic periods (400 BCE to 300 CE). Residues from 13 different pottery types were collected and extracted using standard techniques. Presence of Capsicum was confirmed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)/MS-MS Analysis. Five pottery types exhibited chemical peaks for Capsicum when compared to the standard (dihydrocapsaicin). No peaks were observed in the remaining eight samples. Results of the chemical extractions provide conclusive evidence for Capsicum use at Chiapas de Corzo during a 700 year period (400 BCE-300 CE). Presence of Capsicum in different types of culinary-associated pottery raises questions how chili pepper could have been used during this early time period. As Pre-Columbian cacao products sometimes were flavored using Capsicum, the same pottery sample set was tested for evidence of cacao using a theobromine marker: these results were negative. As each vessel that tested positive for Capsicum had a culinary use we suggest here the possibility that chili residues from the Chiapas de Corzo pottery samples reflect either paste or beverage preparations for religious, festival, or every day culinary use. Alternatively, some vessels that tested positive merely could have been used to store peppers. Most interesting from an archaeological context was the presence of Capsicum residue obtained from a spouted jar, a pottery type previously thought only to be used for pouring liquids.

  14. A new species of Paraberismyia Woodley (Diptera, Stratiomyidae, Beridinae) from Chiapas, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of Paraberismyia Woodley, P. imitator, n. sp., is described from Chiapas, Mexico. The new species is compared to previously described species and diagnostic notes are presented regarding separation of Paraberismyia from Berismyia Giglio-Tos. ...

  15. Risk screening, emergency care, and lay concepts of complications during pregnancy in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Tinoco-Ojanguren, Rolando; Glantz, Namino M; Martinez-Hernandez, Imelda; Ovando-Meza, Ismael

    2008-03-01

    Maternal morbidity and mortality are widespread in Chiapas, Mexico's southernmost state, as in many developing regions. Globally, the utility of three approaches to addressing such problems has been debated: (a) obstetric risk screening (i.e. screening women for risk during pregnancy and channeling those at risk to preventive care); (b) emergency obstetric care (i.e. identifying complications during pregnancy or birth and providing prompt effective treatment); and (c) combined risk screening and emergency care. Unaddressed to date in peer-reviewed journals are the lay perceptions of complications and risk that precede and incite the quest for obstetric care in Mexico. High incidence of maternal mortality in Chiapas, exacerbated by the predominantly rural, highly indigenous, geographically dispersed, and economically marginalized nature of the state's southern Border Region, prompted us to conduct 45 open-ended interviews with a convenience sample of women and their close relative/s, including indigenous and non-indigenous informants in urban and rural areas of four municipalities in this region. Interviews suggest that none of the three approaches is effective in this context, and we detail reasons why each approach has fallen short. Specific obstacles identified include that (1) many women do not access adequate prenatal screening care on a regular basis; (2) emergency obstetric care in this region is severely circumscribed; and (3) lay notions of pregnancy-related risk and complications contrast with official clinical criteria, such that neither clinical nor extra-clinical prenatal monitoring encompasses the entire range of physical and social risk factors and danger signs. Findings reported here center on a rich description of the latter: lay versus clinical criteria for risk of antepartum complication.

  16. Checklist of the continental fishes of the state of Chiapas, Mexico, and their distribution

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez-Veláquez, Ernesto; López-Vila, Jesús Manuel; Gómez-González, Adán Enrique; Romero-Berny, Emilio Ismael; Lievano-Trujillo, Jorge Luis; Matamoros, Wilfredo A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract An updated checklist of the distribution of fishes that inhabit the continental waters of the Mexican state of Chiapas is presented. The state was compartmentalized into 12 hydrological regions for the purpose of understanding the distribution of fish fauna across a state with large physiographic variance. The ichthyofauna of Chiapas is represented by 311 species distributed in two classes, 26 orders, 73 families, and 182 genera, including 12 exotic species. The families with the highest number of species were Cichlidae, Poeciliidae, Sciaenidae, Carangidae, Ariidae, Gobiidae, and Haemulidae. This study attempts to close gaps in knowledge of the distribution of ichthyofauna in the diverse hydrological regions of Chiapas, Mexico. PMID:27920608

  17. Checklist of the continental fishes of the state of Chiapas, Mexico, and their distribution.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Veláquez, Ernesto; López-Vila, Jesús Manuel; Gómez-González, Adán Enrique; Romero-Berny, Emilio Ismael; Lievano-Trujillo, Jorge Luis; Matamoros, Wilfredo A

    2016-01-01

    An updated checklist of the distribution of fishes that inhabit the continental waters of the Mexican state of Chiapas is presented. The state was compartmentalized into 12 hydrological regions for the purpose of understanding the distribution of fish fauna across a state with large physiographic variance. The ichthyofauna of Chiapas is represented by 311 species distributed in two classes, 26 orders, 73 families, and 182 genera, including 12 exotic species. The families with the highest number of species were Cichlidae, Poeciliidae, Sciaenidae, Carangidae, Ariidae, Gobiidae, and Haemulidae. This study attempts to close gaps in knowledge of the distribution of ichthyofauna in the diverse hydrological regions of Chiapas, Mexico.

  18. Screening markers for chronic atrophic gastritis in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ley, C; Mohar, A; Guarner, J; Herrera-Goepfert, R; Figueroa, L S; Halperin, D; Parsonnet, J

    2001-02-01

    Intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinomas usually are preceded by chronic atrophic gastritis. Studies of gastric cancer prevention often rely on identification of this condition. In a clinical trial, we sought to determine the best serological screening method for chronic atrophic gastritis and compared our findings to the published literature. Test characteristics of potential screening tests (antibodies to Helicobacter pyloni or CagA, elevated gastrin, low pepsinogen, increased age) alone or in combination were examined among consecutive subjects enrolled in a study of H. pylori and preneoplastic gastric lesions in Chiapas, Mexico; 70% had chronic atrophic gastritis. English-language articles concerning screening for chronic atrophic gastritis were also reviewed. Sensitivity for chronic atrophic gastritis was highest for antibodies to H. pylori (92%) or CagA, or gastrin levels >25 ng/l (both 83%). Specificity, however, was low for these tests (18, 41, and 22%, respectively). Pepsinogen levels were highly specific but insensitive markers of chronic atrophic gastritis (for pepsinogen I <25 microg/l, sensitivity was 6% and specificity was 100%; for pepsinogen I:pepsinogen II ratio <2.5, sensitivity was 14% and specificity was 96%). Combinations of markers did not improve test characteristics. Screening test characteristics from the literature varied widely and did not consistently identify a good screening strategy. In this study, CagA antibodies alone had the best combination of test characteristics for chronic atrophic gastritis screening. However, no screening test was both highly sensitive and highly specific for chronic atrophic gastritis.

  19. Socioeconomic factors, attitudes and practices associated with malaria prevention in the coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mexico is in the malaria pre-elimination phase; therefore, continuous assessment and understanding of the social and behavioural risk factors related to exposure to malaria are necessary to achieve the overall goal. The aim of this research was to investigate socio-economic backgrounds, attitudes and practices related with malaria in rural locations from the coastal plain of Chiapas. Methods In January 2012, 542 interviews were conducted to householders from 20 villages across the coastal plain of Chiapas. Questions were about housing conditions, protection from mosquito bites and general information of householders. Chi2 analyses were performed to see whether there was a dependence of those reported having malaria with their house conditions and their malaria preventive practices. Results were discussed and also compared statistically against those obtained 17 years ago from the same area. Results Most households had 2–5 people (73.6%), 91.6% of houses had 1–3 bedrooms. The physical structure of the houses consisted of walls mainly made of block or brick 72.3%, the floor made of cement 90.0%, while the roof made of zinc sheet 43.9%, and straw or palm 42.2%. A 23.1% of the interviewed completed elementary school and 16.6% was illiterate. A 9.9% of the residents reported at least one family member having had malaria. A 98.1% of families used some method to prevent mosquito bites; those using bed nets were 94.3%. Almost 72% of families bought products for mosquito protection. A total of 537 out of 542 families agreed with the indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticide and a frequency of application as often as every two months was preferred. Conclusion Housing conditions and malaria preventive practices have improved in these rural areas in 17 years, which could be in favor of malaria elimination in this area. Information generated by this study could help in the decision making about whether to use insecticide as indoor residual spraying or to

  20. Integrated Risk Assessment to Natural Hazards in Motozintla, Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novelo-Casanova, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    An integrated risk assessment includes the analysis of all components of individual constituents of risk such as baseline study, hazard identification and categorization, hazard exposure, and vulnerability. Vulnerability refers to the inability of people, organizations, and societies to withstand adverse impacts from multiple stressors to which they are exposed. These impacts are due to characteristics inherent in social interactions, institutions, and systems of cultural values. Thus, social vulnerability is a pre-existing condition that affects a society's ability to prepare for and recover from a disruptive event. Risk is the probability of a loss, and this loss depends on three elements: hazard, exposure, and vulnerability. Thus, risk is the estimated impact that a hazard event would have on people, services, facilities, structures and assets in a community. In this work we assess the risk to natural hazards in the community of Motozintla located in southern Mexico in the state of Chiapas (15.37N, 92.25W) with a population of about 20 000 habitants. Due to its geographical and geological location, this community is continuously exposed to many different natural hazards (earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, and floods). To determine the level of exposure of the community to natural hazards, we developed integrated studies and analysis of seismic microzonation, landslide and flood susceptibility as well as volcanic impact using standard methodologies. Social vulnerability was quantified from data obtained from local families interviews. Five variables were considered: household structure quality and design, availability of basic public services, family economic conditions, existing family plans for disaster preparedness, and risk perception.The number of families surveyed was determined considering a sample statistically significant. The families that were interviewed were selected using the simple random sampling technique with replacement. With these

  1. Integrated Risk Research. Case of Study: Motozintla, Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Jaimes, M.

    2015-12-01

    This integrated risk research include the analysis of all components of individual constituents of risk such hazard identification, hazard exposure, and vulnerability. We determined risk to natural hazards in the community of Motozintla located in southern Mexico in the state of Chiapas (15.37ºN, 92.25ºW. Due to its geographical and geological location, this community is continuously exposed mainly to earthquakes, landslides and floods. We developed integrated studies and analysis of seismic zonation, landslides and flood susceptibility using standard methodologies. Vulnerability was quantified from data collected from local families interviews considering five social variables: characteristics of housing construction, availability of basic public services, family economic conditions, existing community plans for disaster preparedness, and risk perception. Local families surveyed were randomly selected considering a sample statistically significant. Our results were spatially represented using a Geographical Information System (GIS). Structural vulnerability curves were generated for typical housing constructions. Our integrated risk analysis demonstrates that the community of Motozintla has a high level of structural and socio-economical risk to floods and earthquakes. More than half of the population does not know any existing Civil Protection Plan and perceive that they are in high risk to landslides and floods. Although the community is located in a high seismic risk zone, most of the local people believe that cannot be impacted by a large earthquake. These natural and social conditions indicate that the community of Motozintla has a very high level of risk to natural hazards. This research will support local decision makers in developing an integrated comprehensive natural hazards mitigation and prevention program.

  2. Technology-Based Participatory Learning for Indigenous Children in Chiapas Schools, Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heredia, Yolanda; Icaza, Jose I.

    2012-01-01

    This research created a technology-based learning environment at two schools belonging to the National Council of Educational Development (CONAFE) for indigenous children in the state of Chiapas, Mexico. The purpose of the study was to describe the educational impact of using the Classmate PC netbooks and the Sugar Educational Platform in the…

  3. New species of rhynchobdellid leech (Hirudinea: Glossiphoniidae): a parasite of turtles from Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    López-Jiménez, Serapio; Oceguera-Figueroa, Alejandro

    2009-12-01

    A new species of rhynchobdellid leech, Placobdella ringueleti n. sp., is described based on the examination of 25 specimens. Leeches were collected from body appendages of freshwater turtles (Kinosternon leucostomum, Dermatemys mawii, and Staurotypus triporcatus ) from Chiapas, Mexico. The new species resembles other members of the genus in the ocular morphology, bilobated ovaries, and presence of 1 pair of elongated mycetomes, but it is distinguished from them by the dorsal papillar pattern, by having a continuous longitudinal mid-dorsal stripe along the dorsal surface and papillae on the dorsal surface of the posterior sucker. Placobdella ringueleti represents the third species of the genus in Mexico. The type locality of the new species is part of the “El Ocote” Biosphere Reserve, Chiapas, Mexico.

  4. Benzimidazole-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in indigenous Chiapas and Pelibuey sheep breeds from Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Liébano-Hernández, E; González-Olvera, M; Vázquez-Peláez, C; Mendoza-de-Gives, P; Ramírez-Vargas, G; Peralta-Lailson, M; Reyes-García, M E; Osorio, J; Sánchez-Pineda, H; López-Arellano, M E

    2015-01-01

    Because of the natural adaptation of Mexican sheep, the aim of the present study was to identify the presence or absence of gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes (GIN) resistant to benzimidazole (BZ) in both Chiapas and Pelibuey sheep breeds on local farms. Both male and female GIN-infected grazing sheep of the two breeds were selected. Sheep faecal samples were collected to obtain infective larvae (L3). This evolving stage of the parasite was used for taxonomic identification of the genus, based on its morphological characteristics. BZ anthelmintic resistance was evaluated using a nematode-compound in vitro interaction bioassay and the allele-specific polymerase chain reaction technique to detect mutations of residues 198 and 200 on isotype 1 of the β-tubulin gene. Three BZ-based compounds (febendazole (FBZ), tiabendazole (TBZ) and albendazole (ABZ)) at concentrations of 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.062 and 0.03 mg/ml were used to estimate the anthelmintic efficacy and lethal dose (LD50, LD90 and LD99) of the drugs. Two parasitic nematodes, Haemonchus and Teladorsagia, were identified in both isolates. Also, the proportions of anthelmintic resistance identified in GIN of the two sheep breeds were 68% in isolates from the Chiapas breed and 71.8% in the Pelibuey breed. The specific lethal activity obtained with FBZ was higher than 90%. However, TBZ and ABZ showed a lethal activity lower than 50%. High variability in the discriminating dose values was found among the BZ drugs. For example, FBZ LD ranged from 0.01 to 1.20 mg/ml; on the other hand, TBZ and ABZ required a dose ranging from 0.178 to 759 mg/ml. In addition, amino acid changes of Phe (TTC) to Tyr (TAC) at codon 200 of the β-tubulin gene, showing resistance to BZ, and no changes at codon 198 Glu (GAA) to Ala (GCA) were observed for both isolates. These results confirmed the presence of a genetic mutation associated with BZ in both Chiapas and Pelibuey nematode isolates.

  5. [Parasites of the Central American tapir Tapirus bairdii (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae) in Chiapas, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Cruz Aldán, Epigmenio; Lira Torres, Iván; Güiris Andrade, Dario Marcelino; Osorio Sarabia, David; Quintero M, Ma Teresa

    2006-06-01

    We analyzed 19 samples of Baird's tapir feces from La Sepultura Biosphere Reserve, collected between March and July 1999. We also took samples directly from a male tapir captured at the Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve. Both reserves are in Chiapas, Mexico. We used five techniques: flotation, MacMaster, micrometric, Ritchie's sedimentation and Ferreira's quantitative. In addition, we collected ectoparasites from animals captured in both reserves and from a captive couple from Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas. These nematodes and protozoans were found: Agriostomun sp., Lacandoria sp., Neomurshidia sp., Trichostrongylus sp., Strongylus sp., Brachylumus sp, and an unidentified species of ancilostomaide. We also found Eimeria sp. and Balantidium coli, as well as the mites Dermacentor halli, Dermacentor latus, Amblyomma cajannense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma ovale, Anocentor nitens and Ixodes bicornis.

  6. Penicillium brocae, a new species associated with the coffee berry borer in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Stephen W; Pérez, Jeanneth; Vega, Fernando E; Infante, Francisco

    2003-01-01

    Penicillium brocae is a new monoverticillate species isolated from coffee berry borers collected at coffee plantations in Mexico near Cacahoatán, Chiapas, and from borers reared on artificial diets at ECOSUR laboratory facilities in Tapachula, Chiapas. Phenotypically, it is in Penicillium series Implicatum, but because it does not conform to known species we have described it as new. ITS and large subunit rDNA were sequenced and compared to determine the phylogenetic position of this species. It is most closely related to Penicillium adametzii. Penicillium brocae has only been found in association with the coffee berry borer and is one of several fungi that grow in coffee berry borer galleries. Penicillium brocae may provide the exogenous sterols necessary for the coffee berry borer's development and thus be mutualistically associated with the insect.

  7. Organochlorine pesticide residues in bovine milk from organic farms in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Rey; Ruíz, Jorge Luis; Ortiz, Rutilio; Vega, Salvador; Schettino, Beatriz; Yamazaki, Alberto; de Lourdes Ramírez, María

    2012-10-01

    Thirty six samples of bovine milk were collected from Chiapas State, Mexico between January 2011 and December 2011 with the intention of identifying and quantifying organochlorine pesticide residues in organic farms. The analyses were done using gas chromatography with an electron capture detector (Ni(63)). In general the values found in raw milk were lower than the permissible limit proposed by FAO/WHO/Codex Alimentarius 2006. Average concentrations for alpha + beta HCH were 3.62 ng/g, gamma HCH 0.34 ng/g, heptachlor + epoxide 0.67 ng/g, DDT and isomers 1.53 ng/g, aldrin + dieldrin 0.77 ng/g, and endrin 0.66 ng/g (only present in samples from farm 2). The organic milk from Chiapas has shown low concentrations of pesticide residues in recent years and satisfies international and national regulations for commercialization.

  8. Two new genera and three new species of freshwater crabs (Crustacea: Pseudothelphusidae: Potamocarcinini) from Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, José Luis; Álvarez, Fernando

    2013-01-09

    Two new genera, Sylvathelphusa n. gen. and Tzotzilthelphusa n. gen., and three new species, Sylvathelphusa kalebi n. sp., S. cavernicola n. sp. and Tzotzilthelphusa villarosalensis n. sp., of the tribe Potamocarcinini, family Pseudothelphusidae, are described from Chiapas, Mexico. Sylvathelphusa n. gen. is characterized by a male gonopod with the marginal plate between the caudal and mesial surfaces abruptly widening distally and forming a triangular apical projection; and a mesial process as a strong, acute spine forming a 90º angle with respect to the principal axis of the gonopod. Tzotzilthelphusa n. gen. exhibits a male gonopod strongly bent laterally in the distal third, and a mesial surface rounded distally with acute spinules. Sylvathelphusa n. gen. is similar to Potamocarcinus in gonopod morphology, in both straight and with a mesial process developed as strong tooth in a similar shape and position. Tzotzilthelphusa n. gen. is similar to Phrygiopilus in that the gonopods of both genera develop a supra-apical process that is a continuation of the mesial surface. The new taxa come from the Los Altos de Chiapas region and bring the total number of pseudothelphusid genera in Chiapas to 11.

  9. Plasmodium vivax sporozoite rates from Anopheles albimanus in southern Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, J M; Salinas, E; Bown, D N; Rodriguez, M H

    1994-06-01

    Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes were collected from August 1984 to November 1987 on intra- and peridomicile human bait in Rancheria El Gancho, Chiapas, Mexico. The mosquitoes were desiccated and stored in silicon chambers from 3 mo to 3 yr post-collection prior to being assayed using a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect Plasmodium vivax predominant-type sporozoite protein. Peridomicile-collected mosquitoes had a 10-fold higher sporozoite rate than those collected indoors, but only the latter correlate significantly with the seasonal human parasite index. Mosquito sporozoite burden was also significantly higher in the peridomicile-collected population.

  10. Malnutrition among children younger than 5 years-old in conflict zones of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Hernán, Miguel A; Ríos-González, Adriana; Arana-Cedeño, Marcos; Navarro, Albert; Ford, Douglas; Micek, Mark A; Brentlinger, Paula

    2007-02-01

    We performed a cross-sectional, community-based survey, supplemented by interviews with community leaders in Chiapas, Mexico, to examine the prevalence and predictors of child malnutrition in regions affected by the Zapatista conflict. The prevalence rates of stunting, wasting, and underweight were 54.1%, 2.9%, and 20.3%, respectively, in 2666 children aged younger than 5 years. Stunting was associated with indigenous ethnicity, poverty, region of residence, and intracommunity division. The results indicate that malnutrition is a serious public health problem in the studied regions.

  11. Malnutrition Among Children Younger Than 5 Years-Old in Conflict Zones of Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Hernán, Miguel A.; Ríos-González, Adriana; Arana-Cedeño, Marcos; Navarro, Albert; Ford, Douglas; Micek, Mark A.; Brentlinger, Paula

    2007-01-01

    We performed a cross-sectional, community-based survey, supplemented by interviews with community leaders in Chiapas, Mexico, to examine the prevalence and predictors of child malnutrition in regions affected by the Zapatista conflict. The prevalence rates of stunting, wasting, and underweight were 54.1%, 2.9%, and 20.3%, respectively, in 2666 children aged younger than 5 years. Stunting was associated with indigenous ethnicity, poverty, region of residence, and intracommunity division. The results indicate that malnutrition is a serious public health problem in the studied regions. PMID:17194868

  12. A new species of Amphitecna (Bignoniaceae) endemic to Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Rodriguez, Andres Ernesto; Burelo Ramos, Carlos Manuel; Gomez-Dominguez, Héctor

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Amphitecna loreae Ortiz-Rodr. & Burelo, sp. nov. (Bignoniaceae), a new species endemic to the karst rainforest in southern Mexico, is described and illustrated. The new species differs from the other species of Amphitecna by the combination of cauliflorous inflorescences, larger flowers, buds rounded at apex, and globose-ellipsoid rather than acuminate fruits. A key to the Mexican species of Amphitecna is presented. PMID:27489485

  13. Natural parasitism of Metaparasitylenchus hypothenemi (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae) on the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, in Chiapas, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metaparasitylenchus hypothenemi is a relatively new nematode species found attacking the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, in Mexico. We assessed the natural parasitism and distribution of this nematode in 20 coffee plantations in the state of Chiapas, at elevations ranging from 223 to 1458 m...

  14. Resolving the conflict between ecosystem protection and land use in protected areas of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cortina-Villar, Sergio; Plascencia-Vargas, Héctor; Vaca, Raúl; Schroth, Götz; Zepeda, Yatziri; Soto-Pinto, Lorena; Nahed-Toral, José

    2012-03-01

    Livelihoods of people living in many protected areas (PAs) around the world are in conflict with biodiversity conservation. In Mexico, the decrees of creation of biosphere reserves state that rural communities with the right to use buffer zones must avoid deforestation and their land uses must become sustainable, a task which is not easily accomplished. The objectives of this paper are: (a) to analyze the conflict between people's livelihoods and ecosystem protection in the PAs of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas (SMC), paying special attention to the rates and causes of deforestation and (b) to review policy options to ensure forest and ecosystem conservation in these PAs, including the existing payments for environmental services system and improvements thereof as well as options for sustainable land management. We found that the three largest PAs in the SMC are still largely forested, and deforestation rates have decreased since 2000. Cases of forest conversion are located in specific zones and are related to agrarian and political conflicts as well as growing economic inequality and population numbers. These problems could cause an increase in forest loss in the near future. Payments for environmental services and access to carbon markets are identified as options to ensure forest permanence but still face problems. Challenges for the future are to integrate these incentive mechanisms with sustainable land management and a stronger involvement of land holders in conservation.

  15. Resolving the Conflict Between Ecosystem Protection and Land Use in Protected Areas of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortina-Villar, Sergio; Plascencia-Vargas, Héctor; Vaca, Raúl; Schroth, Götz; Zepeda, Yatziri; Soto-Pinto, Lorena; Nahed-Toral, José

    2012-03-01

    Livelihoods of people living in many protected areas (PAs) around the world are in conflict with biodiversity conservation. In Mexico, the decrees of creation of biosphere reserves state that rural communities with the right to use buffer zones must avoid deforestation and their land uses must become sustainable, a task which is not easily accomplished. The objectives of this paper are: (a) to analyze the conflict between people's livelihoods and ecosystem protection in the PAs of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas (SMC), paying special attention to the rates and causes of deforestation and (b) to review policy options to ensure forest and ecosystem conservation in these PAs, including the existing payments for environmental services system and improvements thereof as well as options for sustainable land management. We found that the three largest PAs in the SMC are still largely forested, and deforestation rates have decreased since 2000. Cases of forest conversion are located in specific zones and are related to agrarian and political conflicts as well as growing economic inequality and population numbers. These problems could cause an increase in forest loss in the near future. Payments for environmental services and access to carbon markets are identified as options to ensure forest permanence but still face problems. Challenges for the future are to integrate these incentive mechanisms with sustainable land management and a stronger involvement of land holders in conservation.

  16. The acceptability and feasibility of an intercultural birth center in the highlands of Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An intercultural birthing house was established in the Highlands of Chiapas, Mexico, as an intervention to reduce maternal mortality among indigenous women. This birth center, known locally as the Casa Materna, is a place where women can come to give birth with their traditional birth attendant. However, three months after opening, no woman had used the birthing house. Methods This study reports on the knowledge, attitudes and practices related to childbirth and use of the Casa Materna from the perspective of the health workers, traditional birth attendants and the program’s target population. Structured interviews, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with participants from each of these groups. Data was searched for emerging themes and coded. Results and conclusions Findings show that the potential success of this program is jeopardized by lack of transport and a strong cultural preference for home births. The paper highlights the importance of community participation in planning and implementing such an intervention and of establishing trust and mutual respect among key actors. Recommendations are provided for moving forward the maternal health agenda of indigenous women in Chiapas. PMID:23587122

  17. Field response of Dendroctonus frontalis (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) to synthetic semiochemicals in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Benjamín; Macías, Jorge; Sullivan, Brian T; Clarke, Stephen R

    2008-12-01

    Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) is the most serious pest of pines (Pinus spp.) in Mexico. Conspecifics are attracted to trees undergoing colonization by the aggregation pheromone frontalin, which is synergized by odors of pine oleoresin released from beetle-damaged host tissue. Synthetic racemic frontalin combined with turpentine has been the operational bait used in traps for monitoring populations of D. frontalis in Mexico as well as the United States. Recently, racemic endo-brevicomin has been reported to be a synergist of the frontalin/turpentine bait and as an important component of the aggregation pheromone for D. frontalis populations in the United States. To determine whether racemic endo-brevicomin also might function as an aggregation synergist for the geographically isolated D. frontalis populations of Central America and Mexico, we performed a field trapping trial in Lagunas de Montebello National Park, Chiapas, Mexico, during July and August 2007. The combination of endo-brevicomin (placed either directly on the trap or 4 m away) plus racemic frontalin and turpentine caught at least 5 times more D. frontalis of both sexes than did turpentine either alone or in combination with either frontalin or endo-brevicomin. The addition of endo-brevicomin to the frontalin/turpentine bait also increased the proportion of females trapped. We conclude that the addition of endo-brevicomin might substantially improve the efficiency of the frontalin/turpentine bait for monitoring of D. frontalis in Central America and Mexico. We discuss factors that reconcile our results with previous studies that reported endo-brevicomin to be an attractant antagonist for populations of D. frontalis in Mexico and Honduras.

  18. Swietenia (Meliaceae) flower in Late Oligocene Early Miocene amber from Simojovel de Allende, Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Posadas, Carlos; Cevallos-Ferriz, Sergio R S

    2007-11-01

    The amber of Simojovel de Allende, Chiapas, Mexico, of Late Oligocene-Early Miocene age, has yielded a new flower representing the Meliaceae. The flower of Swietenia miocenica Castañeda-Posadas & Cevallos-Ferriz sp. nov. is characterized by small size; free calyx composed of five glabrous lobes, ciliolated along the margin lobes; corolla composed of five free, contortedly inserted petals with ciliolated margins; cylindrical staminal tube ending in 10 acuminate or toothed accessories and 10 sessile anthers; and a discoid stigma divided in five lobular stigmatic glands. The morphology of S. miocenica is well represented among Meliaceae. Although the new species shares many characters with Swietenia microphylla, small differences in the length and width of petals and the length of staminal tube support its recognition as a new species. The presence of this genus demonstrates the establishment of tropical communities in southern Mexico by the early Miocene and highlights the influence of the northern hemisphere flora on the extant neotropical flora of the area.

  19. A taxonomic monograph of the genus Tylodinus Champion (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Cryptorhynchinae: Tylodina) of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Luna-Cozar, Jesús; Anderson, Robert S; Jones, Robert W; León-Corté, Jorge L

    2014-04-15

    The species of the genus Tylodinus from the Mexican state of Chiapas are revised. We examined 989 specimens representing 36 species; 23 species are grouped into eight species groups with 13 species considered as Incertae sedis. A total of 32 species are described as new and one species is a new record for México. Species groups  (numbers of species in parentheses) and species are: Tylodinus buchanani species group (6) T. buchanani new species (type locality: Chiapas, Unión Juárez, Volcán Tacan), T. exiguus new species (type locality: Chiapas, Motozintla, 7 km SSW Motozintla de Mendoza), T. ixchel new species (type locality: Chiapas, Unión Juarez, Volcán Tacan), T. jonesi new species (type locality: Chiapas, Angel Albino Corzo, Reserva de la Biosfera el Triunfo, Campamento el Quetzal), T. variabilis new species (type locality: Chiapas, San Cristóbal de las Casas, Cerro Huitepec), T. wibmeri new species (type locality: Chiapas, Motozintla, 7 km SSW Motozintla de Mendoza); Tylodinus canaliculatus species group (3) T. canaliculatus Champion (Chiapas, Unión Juárez, Volcán Tacan, new record for  México), T. sepulturaensis new species (Type locality: Chiapas, Villa Corzo, Ejido Sierra Morena), T. triumforium new species (Type locality: Chiapas, La Concordia, 4 km SE Custepec); Tylodinus cavicrus species group (3) T. cavicrus Champion, T. pseudocavicrus new species (type locality: Chiapas, San Cristóbal de las Casas, Cerro Huitepec), T. rugosus new species (type locality: Chiapas, Villa Flores, Sierra Morena); Tylodinus coapillensis species group (2) T. coapillensis new species (type locality: Chiapas, Coapilla, ca. 10.5 km NE Coapilla), T. leoncortesi new species (type locality: Chiapas, Pueblo Nuevo Solistahuacán, La Yerbabuena); Tylodinus mutabilis species group (2) Tylodinus mutabilis new species (type locality: Chiapas, Villa Corzo, Ejido Sierra Morena), T. parvus new species (type locality: Chiapas, Trinitaria, Lagunas de Montebello); Tylodinus

  20. The aquatic and semiaquatic biota in Miocene amber from the Campo LA Granja mine (Chiapas, Mexico): Paleoenvironmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano-Sánchez, María de Lourdes; Hegna, Thomas A.; Schaaf, Peter; Pérez, Liseth; Centeno-García, Elena; Vega, Francisco J.

    2015-10-01

    Amber from the Campo La Granja mine in Chiapas, Mexico, is distinct from other sources of amber in Chiapas. Campo La Granja amber has distinct layers created by successive flows of resin with thin layers of sand on most surfaces. Aquatic and semi-aquatic arthropods are commonly found. Together these pieces of evidence suggest an estuarine environment similar to modern mangrove communities. The aquatic crustaceans are the most intriguing aspect of the biota. A large number of ostracods have been found in the amber-many with their carapaces open, suggesting that they were alive and submerged in water at the time of entombment. The only known examples of brachyuran crabs preserved in amber are found in the Campo La Granja amber. Amphipods, copepods, isopods, and tanaids are also members of the crustacean fauna preserved in amber.

  1. Woody plant diversity and structure of shade-grown-coffee plantations in northern Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Soto-Pinto, L; Romero-Alvarado, Y; Caballero-Nieto, J; Segura Warnholtz, G

    2001-01-01

    Shade-grown coffee is an agricultural system that contains some forest-like characteristics. However, structure and diversity are poorly known in shade coffee systems. In 61 coffee-growers' plots of Chiapas, Mexico, structural variables of shade vegetation and coffee yields were measured, recording species and their use. Coffee stands had five vegetation strata. Seventy seven woody species mostly used as wood were found (mean density 371.4 trees per hectare). Ninety percent were native species (40% of the local flora), the remaining were introduced species, mainly fruit trees/shrubs. Diametric distribution resembles that of a secondary forest. Principal Coordinates Analysis grouped plots in four classes by the presence of Inga, however the majority of plots are diverse. There was no difference in equitability among groups or coffee yields. Coffee yield was 835 g clean coffee per shrub, or ca. 1,668 kg ha-1. There is a significant role of shade-grown coffee as diversity refuge for woody plants and presumably associated fauna as well as an opportunity for shade-coffee growers to participate in the new biodiversity-friendly-coffee market.

  2. Organochlorine Pesticides in the Ferruginous Pygmy Owl (Glaucidium brasilianum) in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Arrona-Rivera, Alicia E; Enríquez, Paula L; García-Feria, Luis M; Orellana, Sergio Alvarado; von Osten, Jaime Rendón

    2016-09-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides were quantified in samples of feathers (n = 17) and blood (n = 15) of the ferruginous pygmy owl (Glaucidium brasilianum). The individuals were captured near the Protected Natural Area Cerro Sonsonate, Chiapas, Mexico, between February and June 2014. In both tissues, pesticides belonging to seven organochlorine chemical families were detected. However, the organochlorine pesticide concentrations differed between feathers and blood. The highest concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes were found in feathers (0.63 ± 0.89 μg/g), whereas the highest concentrations of ΣDrines were found in blood (0.31 ± 0.47 μg/mL). By using the summed concentrations for each of the seven families of pesticides found in feathers, we did not find any significant correlation between the pesticides and pectoral muscle or body weight (p > 0.15). The ΣDDT group was the only pesticide family that showed a positive correlation with owl body weight (r = 0.60, p = 0.05); the concentrations of these pesticides were also high in feather and blood tissues (r = 0.87, p = 0.02). Our results confirm that ferruginous pygmy owls in the study area are exposed to these pesticides.

  3. Tropical Secondary Forest Management Influences Frugivorous Bat Composition, Abundance and Fruit Consumption in Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Vleut, Ivar; Levy-Tacher, Samuel Israel; de Boer, Willem Frederik; Galindo-González, Jorge; Vazquez, Luis-Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on frugivorous bat assemblages in secondary forests have concentrated on differences among successional stages, and have disregarded the effect of forest management. Secondary forest management practices alter the vegetation structure and fruit availability, important factors associated with differences in frugivorous bat assemblage structure, and fruit consumption and can therefore modify forest succession. Our objective was to elucidate factors (forest structural variables and fruit availability) determining bat diversity, abundance, composition and species-specific abundance of bats in (i) secondary forests managed by Lacandon farmers dominated by Ochroma pyramidale, in (ii) secondary forests without management, and in (iii) mature rain forests in Chiapas, Southern Mexico. Frugivorous bat species diversity (Shannon H’) was similar between forest types. However, bat abundance was highest in rain forest and O. pyramidale forests. Bat species composition was different among forest types with more Carollia sowelli and Sturnira lilium captures in O. pyramidale forests. Overall, bat fruit consumption was dominated by early-successional shrubs, highest late-successional fruit consumption was found in rain forests and more bats consumed early-successional shrub fruits in O. pyramidale forests. Ochroma pyramidale forests presented a higher canopy openness, tree height, lower tree density and diversity of fruit than secondary forests. Tree density and canopy openness were negatively correlated with bat species diversity and bat abundance, but bat abundance increased with fruit abundance and tree height. Hence, secondary forest management alters forests’ structural characteristics and resource availability, and shapes the frugivorous bat community structure, and thereby the fruit consumption by bats. PMID:24147029

  4. Organochlorine pesticide distribution in an organic production system for cow's milk in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Murga, María N; Gutiérrez, Rey; Vega, Salvador; Pérez, José J; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Yamasaki, Alberto; Ruíz, Jorge L

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of organochlorine pesticides in samples of forage, soil, water, and milk in four units of an organic production system for cow´s milk (samples of forage, milk, soil, and water) in Tecpatan, Chiapas, Mexico. The organochlorine pesticides were extracted from forage, soil and water based on the USEPA (2005) guideline and from milk based on the IDF 1991 guideline. The pesticides were identified and quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detector (CG-ECD). In general, the highest average concentration of total pesticides was found in the samples of milk and forage (311 ± 328 and 116.5 ±77 ng g(-1) respectively). Although, the production systems analyzed are organic, organochlorine pesticides were detected in all environmental samples (forage, soil, water, and organic milk). Although no values surpassed the defined limits of Mexican and International regulation it is advisable that a monitoring program of contaminants in these production systems is continued.

  5. Predictors of leafhopper abundance and richness in a coffee agroecosystem in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Burdine, Justin D; Domínguez Martínez, Gabriel H; Philpott, Stacy M

    2014-04-01

    Coffee agroecosystems with a vegetatively complex shade canopy contain high levels of biodiversity. However, as coffee management is intensified, diversity may be lost. Most biodiversity studies in coffee agroecosystems have examined predators and not herbivores, despite their importance as potential coffee pests and coffee disease vectors. We sampled one abundant herbivore group of leafhoppers on an organic coffee farm in Chiapas, Mexico. We sampled leafhoppers with elevated pan traps in high- and moderate-shade coffee during the dry and wet seasons of 2011. The two major objectives were to 1) compare leafhopper abundance and richness during the wet and dry seasons and 2) examine the correlations between habitat characteristics (e.g., vegetation, elevation, and presence of aggressive ants) and leafhopper richness and abundance. We collected 2,351 leafhoppers, representing eight tribes and 64 morphospecies. Leafhopper abundance was higher in the dry season than in the wet season. Likewise, leafhopper richness was higher in the dry season. Several vegetation and other habitat characteristics correlated with abundance and richness of leafhoppers. The number of Inga trees positively correlated with leafhopper abundance, and other significant correlates of abundance included vegetation complexity. Leafhopper richness was correlated with the number of Inga trees. As leafhoppers transmit important coffee diseases, understanding the specific habitat factors correlating with changes in abundance and richness may help predict future disease outbreaks.

  6. Tropical secondary forest management influences frugivorous bat composition, abundance and fruit consumption in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vleut, Ivar; Levy-Tacher, Samuel Israel; de Boer, Willem Frederik; Galindo-González, Jorge; Vazquez, Luis-Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on frugivorous bat assemblages in secondary forests have concentrated on differences among successional stages, and have disregarded the effect of forest management. Secondary forest management practices alter the vegetation structure and fruit availability, important factors associated with differences in frugivorous bat assemblage structure, and fruit consumption and can therefore modify forest succession. Our objective was to elucidate factors (forest structural variables and fruit availability) determining bat diversity, abundance, composition and species-specific abundance of bats in (i) secondary forests managed by Lacandon farmers dominated by Ochroma pyramidale, in (ii) secondary forests without management, and in (iii) mature rain forests in Chiapas, Southern Mexico. Frugivorous bat species diversity (Shannon H') was similar between forest types. However, bat abundance was highest in rain forest and O. pyramidale forests. Bat species composition was different among forest types with more Carollia sowelli and Sturnira lilium captures in O. pyramidale forests. Overall, bat fruit consumption was dominated by early-successional shrubs, highest late-successional fruit consumption was found in rain forests and more bats consumed early-successional shrub fruits in O. pyramidale forests. Ochroma pyramidale forests presented a higher canopy openness, tree height, lower tree density and diversity of fruit than secondary forests. Tree density and canopy openness were negatively correlated with bat species diversity and bat abundance, but bat abundance increased with fruit abundance and tree height. Hence, secondary forest management alters forests' structural characteristics and resource availability, and shapes the frugivorous bat community structure, and thereby the fruit consumption by bats.

  7. Ethnomedical syndromes and treatment-seeking behavior among Mayan refugees in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Smith, Bryce D; Sabin, Miriam; Berlin, Elois Ann; Nackerud, Larry

    2009-09-01

    This survey investigated the prevalence of ethnomedical syndromes and examined treatments and treatment-seeking in Mayan Guatemalans living in United Nations High Commissioner for Refugee (UNHCR) camps in Chiapas, Mexico. Methods included a rapid ethnographic assessment to refine survey methods and inform the cross-sectional survey, which also examined mental health outcomes; 183 households were approached for interview, representing an estimated 1,546 residents in five refugee camps and 93% of all households. One adult per household (N = 170) was interviewed regarding his or her health; an additional 9 adults in three surveyed households participated and were included in this analysis; of the 179 participants, 95 primary child-care providers also answered a children's health questionnaire for their children. Results indicated that ethnomedical syndromes were common in this sample, with 59% of adults and 48.4% of children having experienced susto (fright condition) and 34.1% of adults reporting ataques de nervios (nervous attacks); both conditions were significantly associated with symptoms consistent with posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression and are mental health conditions recognized by the American Psychiatric Association. Combining healthcare provider and indigenous treatments such as physician prescribed medication (65%), medicinal plants (65.7%), and limpias (spiritual cleansings) (40.6%) was reported. Most participants (86%) sought routine medical treatment from UNHCR trained health promoters in their camp. Assessing ethnomedical health is important for informing mental health programs among this population.

  8. Isolation and characterization of potentially toxic or harmful cyanobacteria from Oaxaca and Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Torres-Arino, Alejandra; Mora-Heredia, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    The toxic effects of 7 coastal cyanobacterial strains isolated from Oaxaca and Chiapas, Mexico were evaluated. Growth was determined by dry weight. Toxicity bioassays were done in Artemia sp., juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and mice Mus musculus (ICR strain). In shrimp, three feeding methods were implemented: cyanobacterial biomass plus commercial food, cyanobacteria only, and biomass at different concentrations (18, 9, 4.5 and 2.2% w/v). In Artemia sp., Limnothrix amphigranulata (LIMA-3 strain) caused 100% mortality, and in the other organisms mortality was less than 30%. In the treatment L. vannamei with the food mix, mortality was less than 40%, but there was weight gain (6.2% +/- 1.03). With the biomass concentration treatment, the highest and the least mortality were 66.7% with Limnothrix amphigranulata (LIMA-3) and 26.7% with L. majuscula-all groups lost weight (3-5%). The last experiment showed no mortality. Shrimps showed gill damage evidenced by color changes and filament accumulation. Mouse bioassays exhibited 100% mortality with LIMA-3 extracts at every concentration (LD(50) 150 mg kg(- 1), i.p. mouse). Necropsies showed hemorrhage and increases in liver weight, indicating hepatotoxin. LIMA-3 strain was considered a medium-toxicity cyanobacteria. Weight-loss in L. vannamei could indicate the presence of a toxin. Therefore, a critical examination of the toxicity role in overall cyanobacteria ecotoxicology is needed.

  9. Remote sensing of tropical wetlands for malaria control in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pope, K O; Rejmankova, E; Savage, H M; Arredondo-Jimenez, J I; Rodriguez, M H; Roberts, D R

    1994-02-01

    Malaria, transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes, remains a serious health problem in the tropics. Most malaria eradication efforts focus on control of anopheline vectors. These efforts include the NASA Di-Mod project, whose current goal is to integrate remote sensing, geographic information systems (GIS), and field research to predict anopheline mosquito population dynamics in the Pacific coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico. Field studies demonstrate that high larval production of Anopheles albimanus, the principal malaria vector in the plain, can be linked to a small number of larval habitat-types, determined by larval sampling and cluster analysis of wetlands in the coastal plain. Analysis of wet and dry season Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery identified 16 land cover units within an 185-km2 study area in the coastal zone. A hierarchical approach was used to link the larval habitat-types with the larger land cover units and make predictions of potential and actual low, medium, and high anopheline production. The TM-based map and GIS techniques were then used to predict differences in anopheline production at two villages, La Victoria and Efrain Gutierrez. La Victoria was predicted to have much higher Anopheles albimanus production, based upon a 2-10 times greater extent of medium- and high-producing land cover units in its vicinity. This difference between villages was independently supported by sampling (with light traps) of adults, which were 5-10 times more abundant in La Victoria.

  10. Studies in Neotropical paleobotany. XIII. An Oligo-Miocene palynoflora from Simojovel (Chiapas, Mexico).

    PubMed

    Graham, A

    1999-01-01

    A plant microfossil assemblage of 24 identified and five unknown pollen and spore types is reported from the early Miocene La Quinta Formation near Simojovel, Chiapas, Mexico. The taxa group into seven paleocommunities representing versions of the modern mangroves (Pelliciera, Rhizophora), swamp and lowland riparian forest (Ceratopteris, Crudia, Pachira), tropical rain forest (Selaginella, cf. Antrophyum, Pteris, Sphaeropteris/Trichipteris, cf. Aguiaria, Crudia, Guarea, Pachira), lower montane rain forest (Alfaroa/Oreomunnea, possibly Eugenia), evergreen cloud forest [Picea, Pinus, Podocarpus, Ericaceae (possibly Cavendishia/Vaccinium)], evergreen seasonal forest (Hymenaea, Ilex, possibly Eugenia), and tropical deciduous forest (Cedrela). Elements of arid and high-elevation habitats were absent or few, and northern temperate elements (Picea, Pinus?) were few or rare. Paleoelevations are estimated at 1000-1200 m (present average 2000 m, maximum 3004 m), MAT (mean annual temperature) at least as warm as the present 24°C, and annual rainfall near the present ∼2500 mm but more evenly distributed. The La Quinta (Simojovel) and other Tertiary floras from the region reflect a trend toward higher altitudes, more seasonal rainfall, cooling tempertures, increased introduction of cool-temperate elements from the north after ∼15 Ma (million years), and increased introduction of tropical elements from the south after completion of the isthmian land bridge ∼3.5 Ma ago.

  11. Evaluation of the degree of mycophilia-mycophobia among highland and lowland inhabitants from Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mushrooms generate strong and contrasting feelings ranging from extreme aversion to intense liking. To categorize these attitudes, Wasson and Wasson coined the dichotomic terms “mycophilia” and “mycophobia” in 1957. In Mesoamerica these categories have been associated to ecological regions. Highland peoples are viewed as mycophiles, whereas lowland inhabitants are considered mycophobes. However, this division is based on little empirical evidence and few indicators. This study questioned whether mycophilia and mycophobia are indeed related to ecological regions through the evaluation of 19 indicators tested in the highlands and lowlands of Chiapas, Mexico. Methods The heterogeneity of attitudes toward mushrooms was explored in terms of ecological region and sociocultural variables. Information was obtained through structured interviews in 10 communities in Los Altos de Chiapas (highlands) and the Selva Lacandona (lowlands). We analyzed indicators separately through χ2 tests and multivariate techniques. The Mycophilia-Mycophobia Index was also used in the analysis. To assess which factors better explain the distribution of attitudes, we built 11 models using the Beta probability-density function and compared them with the Akaike Information Criterion. Results Most people had positive attitudes in both ecological regions. The classification and ordination analyses found two large groups comprising both highland and lowland towns. Contrary to expectation if mycophilia and mycophobia were mutually exclusive, all the fitted probability distributions were bell-shaped; indicating these attitudes behave as a continuous variable. The model best supported by data included occupation and ethnicity. Indigenous peasants had the highest degree of mycophilia. Discussion Results suggest the studied populations tend to be mycophilic and that their attitudes are not dichotomic, but rather a gradient. Most people occupied intermediate degrees of mycophilia

  12. Land-Use Change and Carbon Flux Between 1970s and 1990s in Central Highlands of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    DE; CAIRNS; HAGGERTY; RAMÍREZ-MARCIAL; OCHOA-GAONA; MENDOZA-VEGA; GONZÁLEZ-ESPINOSA; MARCH-MIFSUT

    1999-04-01

    / We present results of a study in an intensively impacted and highly fragmented landscape in which we apply field-measured carbon (C) density values to land-use/land-cover (LU/LC) statistics to estimate the flux of C between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere from the 1970s and 1990s. Carbon densities were assigned to common LU/LC classes on vegetation maps produced by Mexican governmental organizations and, by differencing areas and C pools, net C flux was calculated from the central highlands of Chiapas, Mexico, during a 16-year period. The total area of closed forests was reduced by half while degraded and fragmented forests expanded 56% and cultivated land and pasture areas increased by 8% and 30%, respectively. Total mean C densities ranged from a high of 504 tons C/ha in the oak and evergreen cloud forests class to a low of 147 tons C/ha in the pasture class. The differences in total C densities among the various LU/LC classes were due to changes in biomass while soil organic matter C remained similar. We estimate that a total of 19.99 thick similar 10(6) tons C were released to the atmosphere during the period of time covered by our study, equal to approximately 34% of the 1975 vegetation C pool. The Chiapas highlands, while comprising just 0.3% of Mexico's surface area, contributed 3% of the net national C emissions. KEY WORDS: Land use; Land cover; Carbon flux; Forests; Chiapas highlands; Mexico

  13. Two flat-backed polydesmidan millipedes from the Miocene Chiapas-amber Lagerstätte, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Riquelme, Francisco; Hernández-Patricio, Miguel; Martínez-Dávalos, Arnulfo; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, Mercedes; Montejo-Cruz, Maira; Alvarado-Ortega, Jesús; Ruvalcaba-Sil, José L; Zúñiga-Mijangos, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Two species of fossil polydesmidan millipedes (Diplopoda: Polydesmida) embedded in amber are described from Miocene strata near Simojovel, in the Chiapas Highlands, Mexico. Maatidesmus paachtun gen. et sp. nov., placed into Chelodesmidae Cook, 1895, and Anbarrhacus adamantis gen. et sp. nov., assigned in the family Platyrhacidae Pocock, 1895. Morphological data from fossil specimens have been recovered using 3D X-ray micro-computed tomography and regular to infrared-reflected microscopy. Both fossil species are recognizable as new primarily but not exclusively, by collum margin modification and remarkable paranotal and metatergite dorsal sculpture.

  14. Two Flat-Backed Polydesmidan Millipedes from the Miocene Chiapas-Amber Lagerstätte, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, Francisco; Hernández-Patricio, Miguel; Martínez-Dávalos, Arnulfo; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, Mercedes; Montejo-Cruz, Maira; Alvarado-Ortega, Jesús; Ruvalcaba-Sil, José L.; Zúñiga-Mijangos, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Two species of fossil polydesmidan millipedes (Diplopoda: Polydesmida) embedded in amber are described from Miocene strata near Simojovel, in the Chiapas Highlands, Mexico. Maatidesmus paachtun gen. et sp. nov., placed into Chelodesmidae Cook, 1895, and Anbarrhacus adamantis gen. et sp. nov., assigned in the family Platyrhacidae Pocock, 1895. Morphological data from fossil specimens have been recovered using 3D X-ray micro-computed tomography and regular to infrared-reflected microscopy. Both fossil species are recognizable as new primarily but not exclusively, by collum margin modification and remarkable paranotal and metatergite dorsal sculpture. PMID:25162220

  15. Heavy metals in wet method coffee processing wastewater in Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Siu, Y; Mejia, G; Mejia-Saavedra, J; Pohlan, J; Sokolov, M

    2007-05-01

    One of the driving forces of the economy in southeast Mexico is agriculture. In Soconusco, Chiapas, coffee is one of the main agricultural products and is traded on the international market. Coffee grown in this region is processed using the wet method in order to be commercialized as green coffee. In the beneficio (coffee processing plant) water is an essential resource which is required in great quantities (Matuk et al., 1997; Sokolov, 2002) as it is used to separate good coffee berries from defective ones, as a method of transporting the coffee berries to the processing machinery, in the elimination of the berry husk from the coffee grains (pulping) and finally in the post-fermentation washing process. This process gives rise to one of the smoothest, high-quality coffees available (Zuluaga, 1989; Herrera, 2002). Currently, many producers in Soconusco are opting for ecological coffee production, which has, among its many criteria, human health and environmental protection (Pohlan, 2005). Furthermore, increasing concern during the past few years regarding the production of food that is free from contaminants such as heavy metals, and recent environmental policies in relation to aquatic ecosystem protection, have given rise to questions concerning the quality of water used in coffee processing, as well as pollutants produced by this agroindustry. Water used in the coffee processing plants originates from the main regional rivers whose hydrological basins stretch from the Sierra Madre mountain range down to the coastal plain. As well as providing water, these rivers also receive the wastewater produced during coffee processing (Sokolov, 2002).

  16. Effectiveness of protected areas in mitigating fire within their boundaries: case study of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Román-Cuesta, María Rosa; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi

    2006-08-01

    Since the severe 1982-1983 El Niño drought, recurrent burning has been reported inside tropical protected areas (TPAs). Despite the key role of fire in habitat degradation, little is known about the effectiveness of TPAs in mitigating fire incidence and burned areas. We used a GPS fire database (1995-2005) (n=3590 forest fires) obtained from the National Forest Commission to compare fire incidence (number of fires) and burned areas inside TPAs and their surrounding adjacent buffer areas in Southern Mexico (Chiapas). Burned areas inside parks ranged from 2% (Palenque) to 45% (Lagunas de Montebello) of a park's area, and the amount burned was influenced by two severe El Niño events (1998 and 2003). These two years together resulted in 67% and 46% of the total area burned in TPAs and buffers, respectively during the period under analysis. Larger burned areas in TPAs than in their buffers were exclusively related to the extent of natural habitats (flammable area excluding agrarian and pasture lands). Higher fuel loads together with access and extinction difficulties were likely behind this trend. A higher incidence of fire in TPAs than in their buffers was exclusively related to anthropogenic factors such as higher road densities and agrarian extensions. Our results suggest that TPAs are failing to mitigate fire impacts, with both fire incidence and total burned areas being significantly higher in the reserves than in adjacent buffer areas. Management plans should consider those factors that facilitate fires in TPAs: anthropogenic origin of fires, sensitivity of TPAs to El Niñio-droughts, large fuel loads and fuel continuity inside parks, and limited financial resources. Consideration of these factors favors lines of action such as alternatives to the use of fire (e.g., mucuna-maize system), climatic prediction to follow the evolution of El Niño, fuel management strategies that favor extinction practices, and the strengthening of local communities and ecotourism.

  17. The New Emerging Adult in Chiapas, Mexico: Perceptions of Traditional Values and Value Change among First-Generation Maya University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manago, Adriana M.

    2012-01-01

    Social changes in indigenous Maya communities in Chiapas, Mexico toward increasing levels of formal education, commercialization, and urbanization are transforming traditional Maya developmental pathways toward adulthood. This mixed-methods study is based on interviews with a sample of 14 first-generation Maya university students who have also…

  18. Epidemiological modeling and risk analysis of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis in the human population of Coastal Chiapas, Mexico in 2007-2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of 101 febrile illness patients sero positive for Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEEV) was carried out in a retrospective study along 18 municipalities and endemic VEEV pacific coastal regions of the State of Chiapas in southern Mexico. Geographic information systems (GIS), satellite imag...

  19. Navigating and circumventing a fragmented health system: the patient's pathway in the Sierra Madre Region of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Molina, Rose Leonard; Palazuelos, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Mexico has implemented several important reforms in how health care for its poorest is financed and delivered. Seguro Popular, in particular, a recently implemented social insurance program, aims to provide new funds for a previously underfunded state-based safety net system. Through in-depth ethnographic structured interviews with impoverished farmers in the state of Chiapas, this article presents an analysis of Seguro Popular from the perspective of a highly underserved beneficiary group. Specific points of tension among the various stakeholders--the government system (including public clinics, hospitals, and vertical programs), community members, private doctors, and pharmacies--are highlighted and discussed. Ethnographic data presented in this article expose distinct gaps between national health policy rhetoric and the reality of access to health services at the community level in a highly marginalized municipality in one of Mexico's poorest states. These insights have important implications for the structure and implementation of on-going reforms.

  20. Sedimentation in Rio La Venta Canyon in Netzahualcoyotl Reservoir, Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Fuente, J. A.; Lisle, T.; Velasquez, J.; Allison, B. L.; Miller, A.

    2002-12-01

    Sedimentation of Rio La Venta as it enters the Netzahualcoyotl Reservoir in Chiapas, Mexico, threatens a unique part of the aquatic ecosystem. Rio La Venta enters the reservoir via a narrow canyon about 16 km long with spectacular, near-vertical limestone bluffs up to 320 m high and inhabited by the flora and fauna of a pristine tropical forest. Karst terrain underlies most of the Rio La Venta basin in the vicinity of the reservoir, while deeply weathered granitic terrain underlies the Rio Negro basin, and the headwaters of the Rio La Venta to the south. The Rio Negro joins Rio La Venta 3 km downstream of the upper limit of the reservoir and delivers the bulk of the total clastic sediment (mostly sand and finer material). The canyon and much of the contributing basin lie within the Reserva de la Biosfera, Selva El Ocote, administered by the Comision Nacional de Areas Naturales Protegidas, part of the Secretaria de Medioambiente y Recursos Naturales. The Klamath National Forest Forest has cooperated with its Mexican counterparts since 1993 in natural resource management, neo-tropical bird inventories, wildfire management, and more recently in watershed analyses. Rates of sedimentation are estimated from bathymetric surveys conducted in March, 2002. A longitudinal profile down the inundated canyon during a high reservoir level shows an inflection from a slope of 0.0017 to one of 0.0075 at 7.2 km downstream of the mouth of Rio Negro. The bed elevation at this point corresponds to the lowest reservoir level, suggesting that the gentler sloping bed upstream is formed by fluvial processes during drawdown and that downstream by pluvial processes. Using accounts that boats could access Rio Negro during low water levels in 1984, we estimate an annual sedimentation rate of roughly 3 million cubic meters per year. This suggests that boats might no longer be able to access the most spectacular section of canyon upstream of Rio Negro within a decade, depending on how the

  1. Geomorphology, internal structure and evolution of alluvial fans at Motozintla, Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Núñez, J. M.; Macías, J. L.; Saucedo, Ricardo; Zamorano, J. J.; Novelo, David; Mendoza, M. E.; Torres-Hernández, J. R.

    2015-02-01

    Alluvial fans and terraces develop in diverse regions responding to different tectonic and climatic conditions. The Motozintla basin is located in the State of Chiapas, southern Mexico and has an E-W orientation following the trace of the left-lateral Polochic Fault. The evolution of the Motozintla basin and the alluvial plain is related to several factors, such as fault movement, intense erosion by hydrometeorological events, and anthropogenic activity. This study presents the geomorphology of the alluvial plain that between the villages of Motozintla and Mazapa de Juárez exposes 31 alluvial fans, 5 hanging terraces and 13 ramps. Fourteen of these alluvial fans have been truncated by the Polochic fault, exposing maximum uplifts of ~ 12 m. The internal structure of truncated fans consists of single massive beds (monolithologic fans) or stacked beds (polygenetic fans). The fans' stratigraphy is made of debris flow deposits separated by paleosols and minor hyperconcentrated flows, fluviatile beds, and pyroclastic fall deposits. The reconstruction of the stratigraphy assisted by radiocarbon geochronology suggests that these fans have been active since late Pleistocene (25 ka) to the present. This record suggests that at least 10 events have been recorded at the fan interior during the past ~ 1840 years. One of these events at 355 ± 65 14C yrs. BP (cal yrs. AD 1438 to 1652) can be correlated across the fans and is likely associated with an extreme hydrometeorologic event. The presence of a 165 ± 60 14C yrs. BP (cal yrs. AD 1652-1949) debris flow deposit within the fans suggests that movement along the Polochic fault formed the fans' scarp afterwards. In fact, a historic earthquake along the fault occurred east of Motozintla on July 22, 1816 with a Mw of 7.5-7.75. Recent catastrophic floods have affected Motozintla in 1998 and 2005 induced by extreme hydrometeorological events and anthropogenic factors. Therefore, scenarios for Motozintla involved several types of

  2. Assessment of a remote sensing-based model for predicting malaria transmission risk in villages of Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, L. R.; Rodriguez, M. H.; Dister, S. W.; Rodriguez, A. D.; Washino, R. K.; Roberts, D. R.; Spanner, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    A blind test of two remote sensing-based models for predicting adult populations of Anopheles albimanus in villages, an indicator of malaria transmission risk, was conducted in southern Chiapas, Mexico. One model was developed using a discriminant analysis approach, while the other was based on regression analysis. The models were developed in 1992 for an area around Tapachula, Chiapas, using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data and geographic information system functions. Using two remotely sensed landscape elements, the discriminant model was able to successfully distinguish between villages with high and low An. albimanus abundance with an overall accuracy of 90%. To test the predictive capability of the models, multitemporal TM data were used to generate a landscape map of the Huixtla area, northwest of Tapachula, where the models were used to predict risk for 40 villages. The resulting predictions were not disclosed until the end of the test. Independently, An. albimanus abundance data were collected in the 40 randomly selected villages for which the predictions had been made. These data were subsequently used to assess the models' accuracies. The discriminant model accurately predicted 79% of the high-abundance villages and 50% of the low-abundance villages, for an overall accuracy of 70%. The regression model correctly identified seven of the 10 villages with the highest mosquito abundance. This test demonstrated that remote sensing-based models generated for one area can be used successfully in another, comparable area.

  3. Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae) host selection patterns in three ecological areas of the coastal plains of Chiapas, southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Loyola, E G; González-Cerón, L; Rodríguez, M H; Arredondo-Jiménez, J I; Bennett, S; Bown, D N

    1993-05-01

    The host-feeding patterns of Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann were described and the effect of host availability on these patterns was assessed in three different ecological areas of coastal Chiapas, Mexico. Resting mosquitoes were collected indoors and outdoors during rainy seasons. A 20% sample of blood-fed mosquitoes was tested to determine the source of the blood meal using an ELISA. The unweighted human blood index (HBI) of An. albimanus in the three areas ranged from 0.11 to 0.21. This mosquito species fed more frequently on bovines than on any other host, but the forage ratio indicated that there was also a high preference for equines. Some females tended to rest or complete their gonotrophic cycle indoors after feeding on animals, but females also fed on man and rested outdoors. Host availability and ecological conditions appeared to be responsible for differences observed in the HBI among areas.

  4. Sandfly (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) species diversity in an urban area of the municipality of Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Oscar Fernando Mikery; León, Julio Cesar Rojas; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo Alfonso; Vera, Alfredo Castillo

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring phlebotomine sandflies in urban areas is key for epidemiological studies in susceptible populations. This paper describes sandfly fauna that were present in an urban area of the municipality of Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico, and were captured with Shannon and CDC light traps. During February and March of 2014, 1,442 sandflies were captured, specifically Lutzomyia cruciata (Coquillet) (98.8%), Lutzomyia cayennensis cayennensis (Floch and Abonnenc) (0.8%), Lutzomyia chiapanensis (Dampf) (0.3%) and Lutzomyia atulapai (De León) (0.1%). Lu. cruciata was the most abundant and the most frequently trapped species. This is the first record of its remarkable ability to adapt to urban green areas. The three other species trapped represent new records of geographic distribution for the study region. These results indicate the need to establish measures for reducing both human contact with this vector and the risk of possible sites of infection. PMID:25742275

  5. Sandfly (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) species diversity in an urban area of the municipality of Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Oscar Fernando Mikery; León, Julio Cesar Rojas; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo Alfonso; Vera, Alfredo Castillo

    2015-02-01

    Monitoring phlebotomine sandflies in urban areas is key for epidemiological studies in susceptible populations. This paper describes sandfly fauna that were present in an urban area of the municipality of Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico, and were captured with Shannon and CDC light traps. During February and March of 2014, 1,442 sandflies were captured, specifically Lutzomyia cruciata (Coquillet) (98.8%), Lutzomyia cayennensis cayennensis (Floch and Abonnenc) (0.8%), Lutzomyia chiapanensis (Dampf) (0.3%) and Lutzomyia atulapai (De León) (0.1%). Lu. cruciata was the most abundant and the most frequently trapped species. This is the first record of its remarkable ability to adapt to urban green areas. The three other species trapped represent new records of geographic distribution for the study region. These results indicate the need to establish measures for reducing both human contact with this vector and the risk of possible sites of infection.

  6. Sandfly (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) species diversity in an urban area of the municipality of Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Oscar Fernando Mikery; León, Julio Cesar Rojas; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo Alfonso; Vera, Alfredo Castillo

    2015-02-03

    Monitoring phlebotomine sandflies in urban areas is key for epidemiological studies in susceptible populations. This paper describes sandfly fauna that were present in an urban area of the municipality of Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico, and were captured with Shannon and CDC light traps. During February and March of 2014, 1,442 sandflies were captured, specifically Lutzomyia cruciata (Coquillet) (98.8%), Lutzomyia cayennensis cayennensis (Floch and Abonnenc) (0.8%), Lutzomyia chiapanensis (Dampf) (0.3%) and Lutzomyia atulapai (De León) (0.1%). Lu. cruciata was the most abundant and the most frequently trapped species. This is the first record of its remarkable ability to adapt to urban green areas. The three other species trapped represent new records of geographic distribution for the study region. These results indicate the need to establish measures for reducing both human contact with this vector and the risk of possible sites of infection.

  7. Inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, toxicological and chemical profile of Calophyllum brasiliense extracts from Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    César, García-Zebadúa Julio; Alfonso, Magos-Guerrero Gil; Marius, Mumbrú-Massip; Elizabeth, Estrada-Muñoz; Angel, Contreras-Barrios Miguel; Maira, Huerta-Reyes; Guadalupe, Campos-Lara María; Manuel, Jiménez-Estrada; Ricardo, Reyes-Chilpa

    2011-10-01

    Calophyllum species are sources of calanolides, which inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT). The hexane extract of the leaves from C. brasiliense collected in Soconusco, State of Chiapas, Mexico, analyzed by HPLC showed to contain apetalic acid, calanolides B, and C. It showed potent anti-HIV-1 RT inhibition (IC(50)=20.2 μg/ml), but was not toxic in mice (LD(50)=1.99 g/kg). The histological study of the mice treated at the highest dose revealed no alteration on hepatocytes, and an increase in the number of spleen megakaryocytes. These results suggest this extract is suitable to continue studies for developing a phytodrug against HIV-1.

  8. Ammonite age-calibration of the EL Chango Fossil-Lagerstätte, Chiapas state (SE Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Bedmar, J. A.; Latil, J.-L.; Villanueva-Amadoz, U.; Calvillo-Canadell, L.; Cevallos-Ferriz, S. R. S.

    2014-12-01

    This paper dates the El Chango Lagerstätte (Chiapas, SE Mexico), known for its exceptionally well-preserved marine fishes, plant remains, crustaceans, insects and mollusks, based on ammonite biostratigraphy. The age of the El Chango fauna is imprecisely assigned to either the late Albian or Cenomanian. We document here an ammonite assemblage comprising Graysonites and ?Metengonoceras. Graysonites, which gives a lowermost early Cenomanian age, Cintalapa Formation pro parte. We noticed that the terminology of lithostratigraphic units in the studied area is confusing and varies considerably depending on the author, therefore proposing the use of Cintalapa Formation for the El Chango section and the Sierra Madre as a group that includes it.

  9. Serologic survey of domestic animals for zoonotic arbovirus infections in the Lacandón Forest region of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Armando; Langevin, Stanley A; Mendez-Sanchez, J D; Arredondo-Jimenez, Juan I; Raetz, Janae L; Powers, Ann M; Villarreal-Treviño, C; Gubler, Duane J; Komar, Nicholas

    2003-01-01

    A serologic survey in domestic animals (birds and mammals) was conducted in four communities located in the Lacandón Forest region of northeastern Chiapas, Mexico, during June 29 to July 1, 2001, with the objective to identify zoonotic arboviruses circulating in this area. We collected 202 serum samples from healthy domestic chickens, geese, ducks, turkeys, horses and cattle. The samples were tested by plaque-reduction neutralization test for antibodies to selected mosquito-borne flaviviruses (family Flaviviridae), including St. Louis encephalitis (SLE), Rocio (ROC), Ilheus (ILH), Bussuquara (BSQ), and West Nile (WN) viruses, and selected alphaviruses (family Togaviridae), including Western equine encephalitis (WEE), Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE), and Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) viruses. Neutralizing antibodies to SLE virus were detected in two (8%) of 26 turkeys, 15 (23%) of 66 cattle, and three (60%) of five horses. Antibodies to VEE virus were detected in 29 (45%) of 65 cattle. Because some of these animals were as young as 2 months old, we demonstrated recent activity of these two viruses. Sub-typing of the VEE antibody responses indicated that the etiologic agents of these infections belonged to the IE variety of VEE, which has been reported from other regions of Chiapas. WN virus-neutralizing antibodies were detected in a single cattle specimen (PRNT(90) = 1:80) that also circulated SLE virus-neutralizing antibodies (PRNT(90) = 1:20), suggesting that WN virus may have been introduced into the region. We also detected weak neutralizing activity to BSQ virus in four cattle and a chicken specimen, suggesting the presence of this or a closely related virus in Mexico. There was no evidence for transmission of the other viruses (ROC, ILH, EEE, WEE) in the study area.

  10. Pregnancy outcomes, site of delivery, and community schisms in regions affected by the armed conflict in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Brentlinger, Paula E; Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Cedeño, Marcos Arana; Morales, Lic Guadalupe Vargas; Hernán, Miguel A; Micek, Mark A; Ford, Douglas

    2005-09-01

    The Zapatista armed conflict began in the state of Chiapas, Mexico, in 1994, and overlaps pre-existing local disputes about land, religion, and other issues. Related disruptions in access to and utilization of health services have been alleged to have compromised local health status, particularly in vulnerable subgroups such as indigenous women and infants. The study objective was to measure maternal and perinatal mortality ratios and utilization of pregnancy-related health services in the region affected by the Zapatista conflict, and to describe associations between these primary outcome measures, socioeconomic and demographic factors, and factors associated with inter-party and intra-community conflict. A cross-sectional, population-based survey was conducted in 46 communities in three regions. The study subjects were 1227 women, 13-49 years old, who had been pregnant during the preceding 2 years (1999-2001). Principal outcome measures were maternal and perinatal mortality, and site of delivery. Secondary analyses explored associations between primary outcomes and socioeconomic, demographic, and conflict-related factors. Most births (87.1%) occurred at home. The crude observed maternal and perinatal mortality ratios were 607/100,000 and 23.5/1000 live births, respectively. Those who died had difficulty accessing emergency obstetrical care. Both home birth and mortality were associated with descriptors of intra-community conflict. Observed maternal and perinatal mortality ratios were substantially higher than those officially reported for Mexico or Chiapas. Reduction of high reproductive mortality ratios will require attention to socioeconomic and conflict-related problems, in addition to improved access to emergency obstetrical services.

  11. Rural telemedicine project in northern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Zink, S.; Hahn, H.; Rudnick, J.; Snell, J.; Forslund, D.; Martinez, P.

    1998-12-31

    A virtual electronic medical record system is being deployed over the Internet with security in northern New Mexico using TeleMed, a multimedia medical records management system that uses CORBA-based client-server technology and distributed database architecture. The goal of the NNM Rural Telemedicine Project is to implement TeleMed into fifteen rural clinics and two hospitals within a 25,000 square mile area of northern New Mexico. Evaluation of the project consists of three components: job task analysis, audit of immunized children, and time motion studies. Preliminary results of the evaluation components are presented.

  12. Efficacy of social support on metabolic syndrome among low income rural women in Chiapas, México.

    PubMed

    Bezares-Sarmiento, Vidalma del Rosario; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Márquez-Rosa, Sara; Molinero-González, Olga; Estrada-Grimaldo, Martha; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El propósito de este estudio fue valorar una intervención de soporte social entre mujeres rurales de Chiapas, sobre los cambios en el estilo de vida, el autoconcepto, y el síndrome metabólico (MS). Métodos: Se realizó una muestra de conveniencia entre todas la mayores de 16 años de una población rural marginada del centro de Chiapas. Se utilizaron dos cuestionarios. Uno sobre el auto-concepto de salud y el otro sobre el perfil de estilos saludables. Los componentes del MS se valoraron de acuerdo a los criterios de la Federación Internacional de Diabetes. La intervención se realizó durante un período de tres meses y se dividió en 13 sesiones que incluían soporte social (SS) y educación nutricional (EN). Resultados: Cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión, 586 mujeres. Al inicio del estudio 47% tenían MS; obesidad abdominal, 69%; altos niveles de glucosa, 27%; de triglicéridos, 56%; de presión arterial sistólica, 17%; de presión arterial diastólica, 15%; y bajos niveles de colesterol- HDL, 55%. Después de la intervención 38% presentaron MS y se observó una reducción de todos los componentes del MS. Al final del estudio se observaron cambios significativos en AF5, PETS-1 y algunos componentes del SM. Conclusiones: Después de una intervención de SS y EN, se observaron cambios significativos en varias dimensiones del AF5 y del PETS-1, así como en SM y todos los componentes del SM.

  13. Natural Parasitism in Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Populations in Disturbed Areas Adjacent to Commercial Mango Orchards in Chiapas and Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Pablo; Ayala, Amanda; López, Patricia; Cancino, Jorge; Cabrera, Héctor; Cruz, Jassmin; Martinez, Ana Mabel; Figueroa, Isaac; Liedo, Pablo

    2016-04-01

    To determine the natural parasitism in fruit fly populations in disturbed areas adjacent to commercial mango orchards in the states of Chiapas and Veracruz, Mexico, we recorded over one year the fruit fly-host associations, fly infestation, and parasitism rates in backyard orchards and patches of native vegetation. We also investigated the relationship between fruit size, level of larval infestation, and percent of parasitism, and attempted to determine the presence of superparasitism. The most recurrent species in trap catches was Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), followed by Anastrepha ludens (Loew), in both study zones. The fruit infestation rates were higher in Chiapas than in Veracruz, with A. obliqua again being the most conspicuous species emerging from collected fruits. The diversity of parasitoids species attacking fruit fly larvae was greater in Chiapas, with a predominance of Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) in both sites, although the exotic Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) was well established in Chiapas. Fruit size was positively correlated with the number of larvae per fruit, but this relationship was not observed in the level of parasitism. The number of oviposition scars was not related to the number of immature parasitoids inside the pupa of D. areolatus emerging from plum fruits. Mass releases of Di. longicaudata seem not to affect the presence or prevalence of the native species. Our findings open new research scenarios on the role and impact of native parasitoid species attacking Anastrepha flies that can contribute to the development of sound strategies for using these species in projects for augmentative biological control.

  14. Lack of Active Onchocerca volvulus Transmission in the Northern Chiapas Focus of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A.; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Domínguez-Vázquez, Alfredo; Morales-Castro, Alba L.; Richards, Frank; Peña-Flores, Graciela P.; Orozco-Algarra, María Eugenia; Prado-Velasco, Gibert

    2010-01-01

    The northern Chiapas onchocerciasis focus has undergone 11 years of ivermectin mass treatment. No evidence of microfilariae in the cornea and/or anterior chamber of the eye or in skin snips was seen in residents examined in 2006 in two sentinel communities (upper limit of the 95% confidence interval [UL 95% CI] = 0.5% and 0.3%, respectively). In children 10 and under, 0 of 305 were found to harbor antibodies to Ov16, a marker of parasite exposure; 0 of 4,400 Simulium ochraceum s.l. collected in 2005 contained parasite DNA, giving an UL 95% CI for the infective rate of 0.9/2,000, and an UL 95% CI of the seasonal transmission potential of 1.2 L3/person. These data, assumed to be representative of the focus as a whole, suggest that there is no ongoing transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the northern Chiapas focus. Community-wide treatments with ivermectin were halted in 2008, and a post-treatment surveillance phase was initiated. PMID:20595471

  15. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) of Chiapas collected near the Guatemala border, with additions to the fauna of Mexico and a new subgenus name.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Muñoz, José; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A; Pech-May, Agelica; Marina, Carlos F

    2015-07-31

    Collections from four localities, two of the High Plateau and two of the Eastern Mountains Municipality of Chiapas, near the border with Guatemala, included 26 species with four new species records for Mexico: Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) hartmanni (Fairchild & Hertig, 1957), Dampfomyia (Coromyia) disneyi (Williams, 1987), Psychodopygus bispinosus (Fairchild & Hertig, 1951), and Psychodopygus corossoniensis (LePont & Pajot, 1978). These records represent an updated total of 50 species in Mexico, 48 of which are extant species and the remaining two fossils. The name Xiphopsathyromyia n. n. is proposed in substitution of Xiphomyia Artemiev, 1991, a homonym of Xiphomyia Townsend, 1917, a genus of Tachinidae (Diptera).

  16. Vital warmth and well-being: steambathing as household therapy among the Tzeltal and Tzotzil Maya of highland Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Groark, Kevin P

    2005-08-01

    Among the Maya, the cultural history of steambathing spans more than two millennia. Although it has largely disappeared from the lowlands, household-level steambathing persists in several highland Maya communities in Chiapas, Mexico. In this article, I present an overview of therapeutic steambathing among the Tzeltal and Tzotzil Maya. Through an extended discussion of the beliefs and practices surrounding steambathing, I develop several features of highland Maya thinking about physical health and "well-being". In particular, I examine a set of ethnophysiological representations relating to the "thermal" nature of functional bodies, and the relationship of these models to the maintenance and restoration of health. The highland Maya have articulated an elaborate understanding of physical health and well-being coded in an idiom of "vital warmth", and directed toward the preservation and augmentation of the endogenous heat necessary for vitality and vigor. These models simultaneously reflect empirical understandings of bodily states in health and illness, as well as metaphorical assumptions about the thermal nature of functional psychosocial identities. Steambathing draws on and reinforces these models, constituting a core cultural technology for radically altering the thermal state of the patient, an experience which the highland Maya regard as deeply beneficial. The paper closes with a discussion of recent biomedical research into the physiological effects of hyperthermal therapies.

  17. DDT, DDE, and 1-hydroxypyrene levels in children (in blood and urine samples) from Chiapas and Oaxaca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N; Trejo-Acevedo, Antonio; Pruneda-Alvarez, Lucia Guadalupe; Gaspar-Ramirez, Octavio; Ruvalcaba-Aranda, Selene; Perez-Vazquez, Francisco Javier

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the DDT, DDE, and 1-hydroxypyrene exposure levels of children living in communities located in southeastern Mexico. The study communities were Lacanja and Victoria in Chiapas state and Ventanilla in Oaxaca state. Children living in Lacanja had total blood DDT levels (mean ± SD, 29,039.6 ± 11,261.4 ng/g lipid) that were significantly higher than those of children in Victoria (10,220.5 ± 7,893.1 ng/g lipid) and Ventanilla (11,659.7 ± 6,683.7 ng/g lipid). With respect to the 1-hydroxypyrene levels in urine samples, the levels in Lacanja (4.8 ± 4.1 μg/L or 4.5 ± 3.9 μmol/mol creatinine) and Victoria (4.6 ± 3.8 μg/L or 3.9 ± 3.0 μmol/mol Cr) were significantly higher than levels found in Ventanilla (3.6 ± 1.4 μg/L or 2.5 ± 0.5 μmol/mol Cr). In conclusion, our data indicate high levels of exposure in children living in the communities studied in this work. The evidence found in this study could be further used as a trigger to revisit local policies on environmental exposures.

  18. [Peasant strategies for economic reproduction and malaria epidemiology in the ravines microregion of the Chiapas mountains, Mexico: a case study

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Ortega M

    1996-07-01

    The goal of this investigation was to establish an initial correlation between farming activities and malaria and to define risk factors and prevalence of the latter through an analysis of the integration of farm production strategies by members of an indigenous peasant community in the Chiapas mountains in Mexico. Information was obtained on places of work, land use, coffee, corn, and bean farming, and number of family members involved in farming activities, wage labor, and handicrafts production. Migration of farm workers to warmer climates was also analyzed. The study compared families with and without cases of malaria from 1987 to 1993 in the town of Yibeljoj, Chenalhó county. The most outstanding characteristics of this analysis were the following: strategies involving greater risk and prevalence of malaria were those which combined corn farming and wage labor; on the other hand, strategies in which handicraft production was the activity of primary or secundary importance were associated with few or no cases of the disease.

  19. Spatial and temporal variation of fish assemblages in a coastal lagoon of the Biosphere Reserve La Encrucijada, Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Velázquez, Ernesto; Vega-Cendejas, M Eugenia; Navarro-Alberto, Jorge

    2008-06-01

    Composition and abundance of the ichthyofauna in estuarine and coastal lagoon systems of the South Pacific in Mexico have been scarcely studied. In particular, there is a lack of information on how environmental variables determine the spatio-temporal structure of fish assemblages in those habitats. In this study, fishes were sampled by drop net during twelve months (May 2004 - April 2005) in 22 sites distributed along the Carretas-Pereyra lagoon, located in the Biosphere Reserve La Encrucijada, Chiapas, Mexico. We recorded 11,797 individuals (40 species, in 30 genera and 21 families). Dormitator latifrons was the most dominant species in terms of the Importance Value index, IV (23.05%), followed by Lile gracilis (10.31%), Poecilia sphenops (8.60%) and Poecilia butleri (7.30%). D. latifrons also accounted for more than one half of the total biomass (50.14%). Species richness and Shannon-Wiener's diversity indexes showed similar temporal fluctuations, reaching their highest values during the dry season. The system evidenced temporal variations in salinity, having observed four different regimes: freshwater, oligohaline, mesohaline and polyhaline. Mean richness and diversity indexes achieved their highest values during the mesohaline period. On the other hand, mean abundances (CPUE) were highest during the freshwater period. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that salinity and temperature were the most important environmental parameters affecting associations of fishes in terms of their abundances. Correlation analyses revealed that among the environmental variables measured in this study, transparency showed the most significant negative correlation with fish richness and Shannon-Wiener's diversity index. At a local scale, results suggest that spatial and temporal distribution of fish assemblages are determined by differences in the regimes of salinity and transparency, primarily driven by freshwater input from rivers.

  20. Geology and geochemistry characteristics of the Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc (Central Area), Chiapas Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, J. C.; Jaimes-Viera, M. C.; Garduño-Monroy, V. H.; Layer, P. W.; Pompa-Mera, V.; Godinez, M. L.

    2007-04-01

    The Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc (CVA), located in the central portion of the State of Chiapas, is a 150 km stretch of volcanoes irregularly aligned in the northwest direction between two great volcanic features: the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt to the northwest and the Central American Volcanic Arc to the southeast. The CVA is located in a complex zone marking the interaction of the North American, Caribbean and Cocos plates, near the Motagua-Polochic fault system, the boundary between North American and Caribbean plates. The central part of the CVA is composed of an irregular northwest alignment of at least 10 volcanic structures generally lying along NNW-SSE-trending faults splayed from the Motagua-Polochic system. Among the structures there are seven volcanic domes (Huitepec, Amahuitz, La Iglesia, Mispía, La Lanza, Venustiano Carranza and Santotón), one explosion crater (Navenchauc), one collapse structure (Apas), and one dome complex (Tzontehuitz). In the majority of the structures there is a clear resurgence with the formation of several domes in the same structure, with the destruction of previous domes (Navenchauc) or with the formation of new explosion craters or collapse structures (Apas). The volcanic activity in the CVA was mainly effusive accompanied by explosive and phreatomagmatic events and is characterized by volcanic domes accompanied by block-and-ash-flows, ash flows with accretionary lapilli, falls, and pumice flows. The volcanic structures and deposits are calcalkaline in composition with a medium to high content of potassium. CVA volcanic rocks vary from andesite to dacite with SiO 2 between 57 and 66 wt.%, show low concentrations of Ti, P, Nb and Ta, are enriched in Light Rare Earths, depleted in Heavy Rare Earths, and show a small Eu anomaly; all indicative of arc-related volcanism associated with subduction of the Cocos plate under the North American plate, but complicated by the geometry of the plate boundary fault system.

  1. Levels of Organochlorine Pesticides in Blood Plasma from Residents of Malaria-Endemic Communities in Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Suárez, Luz E.; Castro-Chan, Ricardo A.; Rivero-Pérez, Norma E.; Trejo-Acevedo, Antonio; Guillén-Navarro, Griselda K.; Geissen, Violette; Bello-Mendoza, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides have been extensively used for pest control in agriculture and against malaria vectors in the region of Soconusco, Chiapas, in southern Mexico. Our study aimed to identify whether the inhabitants of four Soconusco communities at different locations (i.e., altitudes) and with different history of use of OC pesticides, have been similarly exposed to residues of these pesticides. In particular, we analyzed the potential relationship between levels of OC pesticides in plasma and the age, gender, and residence of the study population (n = 60). We detected seven pesticides in total (γ-HCH, β-HCH, heptachlor, p,pʹ-DDE, p,p'-DDT, β-endosulfan, endrin aldehyde). Of these, p,pʹ-DDE and β-endosulfan were the most frequently found (in 98% and 38% of the samples, respectively). The low-altitude (<20 m above sea level; masl) and mid-altitude (520 masl) locations had the highest levels of p,pʹ-DDE, with geometric means of 50.6 µg/L and 44.46 µg/L, respectively. The oldest subjects (>60 years) had the highest p,pʹ-DDE level (56.94 ± 57.81 µg/L) of all age groups, while men had higher p,pʹ-DDE (34.00 ± 46.76 µg/L) than women. Our results demonstrate that residents of the Soconusco region are exposed to p,pʹ-DDE because of high exposure to DDT in the past and current environmental exposure to this DDT-breakdown product. PMID:25310541

  2. Levels of organochlorine pesticides in blood plasma from residents of malaria-endemic communities in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Suárez, Luz E; Castro-Chan, Ricardo A; Rivero-Pérez, Norma E; Trejo-Acevedo, Antonio; Guillén-Navarro, Griselda K; Geissen, Violette; Bello-Mendoza, Ricardo

    2014-10-10

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides have been extensively used for pest control in agriculture and against malaria vectors in the region of Soconusco, Chiapas, in southern Mexico. Our study aimed to identify whether the inhabitants of four Soconusco communities at different locations (i.e., altitudes) and with different history of use of OC pesticides, have been similarly exposed to residues of these pesticides. In particular, we analyzed the potential relationship between levels of OC pesticides in plasma and the age, gender, and residence of the study population (n = 60). We detected seven pesticides in total (γ-HCH, β-HCH, heptachlor, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, β-endosulfan, endrin aldehyde). Of these, p,p'-DDE and β-endosulfan were the most frequently found (in 98% and 38% of the samples, respectively). The low-altitude (<20 m above sea level; masl) and mid-altitude (520 masl) locations had the highest levels of p,p'-DDE, with geometric means of 50.6 µg/L and 44.46 µg/L, respectively. The oldest subjects (>60 years) had the highest p,p'-DDE level (56.94 ± 57.81 µg/L) of all age groups, while men had higher p,p'-DDE (34.00 ± 46.76 µg/L) than women. Our results demonstrate that residents of the Soconusco region are exposed to p,p'-DDE because of high exposure to DDT in the past and current environmental exposure to this DDT-breakdown product.

  3. Landscape surrounding human settlements and Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae) abundance in Southern Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, A D; Rodriguez, M H; Hernandez, J E; Dister, S W; Beck, L R; Rejmankova, E; Roberts, D R

    1996-01-01

    Landscape characteristics that may influence important components of the Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann life cycle, including potential breeding sites, suitable diurnal resting sites, and possible sources of blood meals, were analyzed at 14 villages in a malarious area of southern Mexico. An. albimanus adults were collected weekly in each village using UV-light traps between July 1991 and August 1992. Based on rainfall, the study was divided into 6 seasonal periods. Villages were considered to have high mosquito abundance when >5 mosquitoes per trap per night were collected during any 1 of the 6 seasonal periods. The extension and frequency of 11 land cover types surrounding villages were determined using aerial photographs and subsequently verified through field surveys. Elevation was the main landscape feature that separated villages with low and high mosquito abundance. All villages with high mosquito abundance were below 25 m. Transitional and mangrove land cover types were found only in the high mosquito abundance group. Flooded areas as potential breeding sites and potential adult resting sites in unmanaged pastures were significantly more frequent in areas surrounding villages with high mosquito abundance. No significant differences in density of cattle and horses were found among village groups. Overall, surrounding breeding sites located at low elevations in flooded unmanaged pastures seemed to be the most important determinants of An. albimanus adult abundance in the villages.

  4. Hydrogeochemical surveillance at El Chichón volcano crater lake, Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armienta, María Aurora; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Ramos, Silvia; Ceniceros, Nora; Cruz, Olivia; Aguayo, Alejandra; Arcega-Cabrera, Flor

    2014-09-01

    El Chichón volcano has an eruptive record of at least 12 major eruptions in the Holocene, the latest one in March-April 1982 causing the worst volcanic disaster in the history of Mexico. After about 6 centuries of quiescence, this eruption destroyed a large dome and opened a 1 km wide crater. A lake, formed within the crater shortly after the eruption, has been an important source of information about the evolution of the post-eruptive processes. The fluctuations of the crater lake water physicochemical parameters, observed since 1983, have allowed in identifying hydrothermal waters and H2S-rich gases, influenced by tectonic and meteorological effects, as the main contributors to its composition. Here we propose some methods to help in assessing the state of the volcano derived from the relative contribution of these factors as an easy to implement volcanic surveillance method in potentially active volcanoes with crater lakes, or other volcano-influenced water sources.

  5. Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi and parasitic nematodes on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae collected in Central Chiapas, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall armyworm larvae (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) were collected from whorl-stage cornfields, between the V2 and V4 stages, in 22 localities of Central, Chiapas, México, called "La Frailesca" during late June 2009 to determine the occurrence of native entomopathogens and parasitic nema...

  6. Genetic identification of Theobroma cacao L. trees with high Criollo ancestry in Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Ovando, J A; Molina-Freaner, F; Nuñez-Farfán, J; Ovando-Medina, I; Salvador-Figueroa, M

    2014-12-12

    Criollo-type cacao trees are an important pool of genes with potential to be used in cacao breeding and selection programs. For that reason, we assessed the diversity and population structure of Criollo-type trees (108 cultivars with Criollo phenotypic characteristics and 10 Criollo references) using 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Cultivars were selected from 7 demes in the Soconusco region of southern Mexico. SSRs amplified 74 alleles with an average of 3.6 alleles per population. The overall populations showed an average observed heterozygosity of 0.28, indicating heterozygote deficiency (average fixation index F = 0.50). However, moderate allelic diversity was found within populations (Shannon index for all populations I = 0.97). Bayesian method analysis determined 2 genetic clusters (K = 2) within individuals. In concordance, an assignment test grouped 37 multilocus genotypes (including 10 references) into a first cluster (Criollo), 54 into a second (presumably Amelonado), and 27 admixed individuals unassigned at the 90% threshold likely corresponding to the Trinitario genotype. This classification was supported by the principal coordinate analysis and analysis of molecular variance, which showed 12% of variation among populations (FST = 0.123, P < 0.0001). Sampled demes sites (1- 7) in the Soconusco region did not show any evidence of clustering by geographic location, and this was supported by the Mantel test (Rxy = 0.54, P = 0.120). Individuals with high Criollo lineage planted in Soconusco farms could be an important reservoir of genes for future breeding programs searching for fine, taste, flavor, and aroma cocoa.

  7. Zircon xenocryst resorption and magmatic regrowth at El Chichón Volcano, Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pack, Brenda; Schmitt, Axel K.; Roberge, Julie; Tenorio, Felipe Garcia; Damiata, Brian N.

    2016-02-01

    El Chichón volcano is the only active volcano located within the Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc in southern Mexico, which lies between the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and the Central American Volcanic Arc. Previous studies have shown that ~ 12 eruptions have occurred at El Chichón within the last 8000 years, forming a complex of lava domes with a central crater and surrounding pyroclastic deposits. Here, we report the discovery of zircon in Holocene El Chichón rocks, which were analyzed by high spatial resolution imaging (color cathodoluminescence CCL) and isotopic (secondary ionization mass spectrometry SIMS) methods to resolve core and rim crystallization ages. Pumice samples from five proximal pyroclastic flow and fall-out deposits were collected based on published stratigraphy. Two of the samples were further (re-)classified by new 14C dates. In addition, we sampled two lavas from the 1982 eruption and from remnants of the older Somma lava complex. Zircon crystals were dated using 230Th/238U disequilibrium (U-Th) and U-Pb geochronology. U-Th zircon ages fall between near eruption ages and ca. 84 ka, with overlapping ages in all samples. By contrast, zircon core U-Pb ages range between ca. 290 Ma and 1.9 Ga. These ages are consistent with xenocrystic origins and their heterogeneity indicates derivation from clastic country rocks. Strong age contrasts between inherited xenocrystic and young magmatic domains in individual zircon crystals are evidence for arrested assimilation of crustal rocks where initially zircon-undersaturated magmas cooled rapidly to form a crystal mush or subsolidus amalgamate as a crustally contaminated boundary layer. This layer contributed zircon crystals to eruptible magma during episodic recharge events followed by partial melt extraction, mixing and homogenization. Zircon overgrowths are significantly older than major minerals whose U-series ages and sharp zonation boundaries suggest crystallization only within a few ka before eruption

  8. A Paleozoic anorthosite massif related to rutile-bearing ilmenite ore deposits, south of the Polochic fault, Chiapas Massif Complex, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisneros, A.; Ortega-Gutiérrez, F.; Weber, B.; Solari, L.; Schaaf, P. E.; Maldonado, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Chiapas Massif Complex in the southern Maya terrane is mostly composed of late Permian igneous and meta-igneous rocks. Within this complex in southern Mexico and in the adjacent San Marcos Department of Guatemala, south of the Polochic fault, several small outcrops (~10 km2) of a Phanerozoic andesine anorthosite massif were found following an E-W trend similar to the Polochic-Motagua Fault System. Such anorthosites are related to rutile-bearing ilmenite ore deposits and hornblendite-amphibolite bands (0.1-3 meters thick). The anorthosites show recrystallization and metamorphic retrogression (rutile with titanite rims), but no relicts of high-grade metamorphic minerals such as pyroxene or garnet have been found. In Acacoyagua, Chiapas, anorthosites are spatially related to oxide-apatite rich mafic rocks; in contrast, further to the west in Motozintla, they are related to monzonites. Zircons from these monzonites yield a Permian U-Pb age (271.2×1.4 Ma) by LA-MC-ICPMS. Primary mineral assemblage of the anorthosites include mostly medium to fine-grained plagioclase (>90%) with rutile and apatite as accessory minerals, occasionally with very low amounts of quartz. Massive Fe-Ti oxide lenses up to tens of meters in length and few meters thick are an ubiquitous constituent of these anorthosites and their mineralogy include ilmenite (with exsolution lamellae of Ti-magnetite), rutile, magnetite, clinochlore, ×spinel, ×apatite, ×zircon and srilankite (Ti2ZrO6, first finding of this phase in Mexico). Rutile occurs within the massive ilmenite in two morphological types: (1) fine-grained (5-40 μm) rutile along ilmenite grain boundaries or fractures, and (2) coarse-grained rutile (<5 mm) as discrete grains, whereas magnetite and srilankite only appear as small grains along ilmenite boundaries. Zircon is present as discontinuously aligned small grains (10-40 μm) forming rims around many rutile and ilmenite grains. Attempts to date zircon rims by U-Pb using LA

  9. Movement of Sediment Associated With Lowered Reservoir Levels in the Rio La Venta Arm of the Presa Netzahualcoyotl, Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, S.; de La Fuente, J.; Lisle, T. E.; Velasquez, J.; Allison, B.; Olson, B.; Quinones, R.

    2003-12-01

    A joint sedimentation study is currently underway at the Netzahualcoyotl reservoir in Chiapas, Mexico, involving the Comision Nacional de Areas Naturales Protegidas (CONANP) of the Secretaria de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales and the USDA Forest Service. The reservoir is adjacent to the Reserva de la Biosfera, Selva El Ocote, administered by CONANP. Ongoing research is intended to provide watershed and reservoir managers with strategies to protect the resources of Rio La Venta canyon. The Rio La Venta arm of the reservoir is incised into karst terrain, with near-vertical limestone walls up to 300 meters high. The canyon is fed by two rivers, Rio La Selva and Rio Negro, and is surrounded by pristine tropical forest. The majority of the clastic sediment (predominantly sand and fine gravel) entering the reservoir originates in the headwaters of the two rivers which are underlain by weathered and dissected granitic terrain. Rapid sedimentation of the partially inundated canyon poses a threat to the aquatic ecosystem, as well as to recreational resources. Longitudinal and transverse profiles were surveyed in the inundated canyon in March of 2002 and repeated in April of 2003 when the reservoir level was 15 meters lower. The 2002 longitudinal profile shows an inflection from a slope of 0.0017 to one of 0.0075 at 7.2 km downstream of the mouth of Rio Negro. In 2003, the two slopes remained the same, but the bed lowered about 5 meters and the inflection point moved downstream about 2.3 km. We calculated that reservoir lowering in 2003 allowed the transport of 2.5 million cubic meters of sand further out into the reservoir. This volume is more than the average annual rate of filling up to the 2002 level since 1984 when sedimentation was not as advanced (De la Fuente et al., 2002), which was calculated disregarding loss of sediment to the main reservoir. Field observations at late dry season low flows in 2003 revealed active transport of sand and pebbles and formation

  10. Volcanic Risk Perception in Five Communities Located near the Chichón Volcano, Northern Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, F.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Chichón volcano (17° 19’ N and 93° 15’ W) is located in the state of Chiapas, Mexico. This volcano is classified by UNESCO as one of the ten most dangerous volcanos in the world. The eruptions of March and April in 1982 affected at least 51 communities located in the surroundings of the volcano and caused the death of about 2000 people. In this work we evaluate the risk perception in five communities highly populated: Juárez, Ostuacán, Pichucalco, Reforma and Sunuapa. We selected these communities because they have a high possibility to be affected by a volcanic eruption in the future. Our survey was carried out during February and March 2006. A total of 222 families were interviewed using a questionnaire to measure risk perception. These questionnaires retrieved general information as how long people had been living there and their reasons to do so; their experiences during the 1982 events, their opinion about the authorities participation and their perception of volcanic risk; the plans of the community for disaster prevention and mitigation. Some of the most important results are: (1). People perceive a very low volcanic risk and the 70% of interviewees believe that a new eruption in the future is almost improbable because it happened in 1982. This result is particularly interesting because, according to the state government, more than 100,000 inhabitants will be directly affected in case of a new similar eruption; (2). About 95% of the population do not know the current activity of the volcano and consider that the authorities do not inform properly to their communities; (3). The response of the authorities during the events of 1982 was ranked as deficient mainly because they were unable provide shelters, storage facilities, food as well as medicine and health care access; (4). Approximately 60% of the community will accept to be re-located again in case of a new eruption; (5). About 70% of the population will not accept to be re-located because

  11. Towards a National Hazard Map of Landslides: Juan de Grijalva, Chiapas, and Mitlatongo, Oaxaca, two catastrophic landslides on southeastern of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez-M, L.; Castañeda, A.; Ramirez, A.; González, A. E.

    2013-05-01

    One of the most catastrophic events, with economical losses and deaths, in Mexico and Latin America, is the landslide event. The Juan de Grijalva landslide, which blocked one of the largest rivers in the Chiapas state of Mexico, on November 4, 2007, is considered one of the greatest that have occurred in the world in the last 100 years (Dominguez, 2008) and it could be the one with the largest economic impact in the history of Mexico. This landslide occurred four days after a period of very heavy rains that caused, in the peak of the emergency, flooding in almost 62% of the area of the state of Tabasco (CENAPRED, 2009) and is also one of the most serious disasters that were faced by the Mexican government in the past 10 years. The Juan de Grijalva landslide mobilized the entire government apparatus and required an investment of just over 0.1 billions of US Dollars (CENAPRED, 2009) for the rehabilitation of the river runway and additional works in order to prevent further damages if another landslide occurs in the vicinity. A similar case of interest for Mexican researchers and specialists in earth sciences is the big landslide occurred in the communities of Santa Cruz Mitlatongo, municipality of Magdalena Jaltepec, and Santiago Mitlatongo, municipality of Nochixtlan, both in the state of Oaxaca (Dominguez, 2011). This landslide has dimensions of just over 2,500 m long and 900 m wide, and it remains active from September 2011. Since then, the landslide has moved just over 230 m in length and has destroyed about 850 houses. Given the geological and geotechnical characteristics of these landslides and the economic and social impact caused, the National Center for Disaster Prevention (CENAPRED) has initiated a research project in order to learn the main factors (constraints and triggers) that influenced both landslides. In relation with the National Hazard Landslide Map, developed by CENAPRED, these events are an important task of the National Inventory of Landslides

  12. Schooling and Identity: A Qualitative Analysis of Self-Portrait Drawings of Young Indigenous People from Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Esteban-Guitart, Moises; Monreal-Bosch, Pilar; Perera, Santiago; Bastiani, José

    2017-01-01

    One of the features associated with schooling and formal education is their decontextualized nature, a characteristic that has been related to the advancement of logical abstract thinking. The aim of this study was to compare and contrast self-portraits through the graphical representations and verbal explanations made by young indigenous people from the Altos de Chiapas with different educational levels ranging from primary school to university. Participants were of the same age. The results show the abstract nature (as opposed to the concrete character) of some of the self-portraits made by the group of university students and the prevalence of individual aspects (rather than social contextual factors) especially within this same group. PMID:28119664

  13. Schooling and Identity: A Qualitative Analysis of Self-Portrait Drawings of Young Indigenous People from Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Esteban-Guitart, Moises; Monreal-Bosch, Pilar; Perera, Santiago; Bastiani, José

    2016-01-01

    One of the features associated with schooling and formal education is their decontextualized nature, a characteristic that has been related to the advancement of logical abstract thinking. The aim of this study was to compare and contrast self-portraits through the graphical representations and verbal explanations made by young indigenous people from the Altos de Chiapas with different educational levels ranging from primary school to university. Participants were of the same age. The results show the abstract nature (as opposed to the concrete character) of some of the self-portraits made by the group of university students and the prevalence of individual aspects (rather than social contextual factors) especially within this same group.

  14. [Bird biodiversity in natural and modified habitats in a landscape of the Central Depression of Chiapas, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Albores, Jorge E

    2010-03-01

    In many parts of the neotropics, the original habitats are rapidly changing because of excessive logging, agriculture and livestock activity, with an often negative impact on bird communities. I present an analysis of the diversity and richness of birds in a fragmented landscape of the Central Chiapas Depression. Fieldwork was conducted from February 2003 to January 2004. Using point counts, a total of 35 families and 225 bird species were registered (164 residents and 61 migratory); 3% are abundant and 30% rare. Diversity, species richness and number of individuals were significantly higher in tropical deciduous forest (H'=3.41, 178 species ANOVA p<0.0001), which also had the greatest number of species restricted to a single vegetation type (39 species). The incorporation and maintenance of natural and modified habitats are necessary for the survival and reproduction of many birds species in the study area.

  15. The Yellow Pages for Rural Development in New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pino, Ricardo, Comp.

    Designed to inform the public of rural development programs and services in the State of New Mexico, this directory presents over 100 program summaries, providing mailing addresses and telephone numbers and naming the agency, the specific program thrust, the Officer in Charge, and other contacts. Both an alphabetical and functional index are…

  16. Medical influences on birth spacing in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mojarro, O; Nunez, L; Potter, J E

    1988-09-01

    In order to determine the impact of the available health services in rural areas on women's reproductive decisions, researchers documented fertility changes in rural Mexico from 1969-1981, determined rates of contraceptive use and breastfeeding, and examined medical personnel attitudes towards these 2 factors. Figures showed that the marital fertility rate of Mexico's rural population dropped from 10.6 children/per woman in 1969 to 8.1 in 1981; the same period saw a drop in the total fertility rate from 7.8 to 5.3. Researchers also noted a reduction in the mean length of breastfeeding, from 17.9 months to 15.1 months, and a rise in the use of contraception, from 1.9% to 33.8%. Knowledge about contraception increased significantly during the period, with doctors becoming an important vehicle for the its promulgation. Though doctors favored breastfeeding over bottlefeeding, they usually recommended shorter breastfeeding periods and early supplementation. Traditional midwives, however, recommended longer breastfeeding duration and later supplementation. This indicates the effects of health services in rural areas: where it is present, there is a significant positive impact on contraceptive use and some negative impact on breastfeeding. Overall, researchers conclude that Mexico's family planning program is working among its rural population, but point out some weaknesses, such as the lack of medical attention at delivery, medical personnel's ignorance over the possible adverse effects of early suspension of lactation and early supplementation. This suggests the need for some reeducation of the medical personnel.

  17. Seasonal variation of infestation by ectoparasitic chigger mite larvae (Acarina: Trombiculidae) on resident and migratory birds in coffee agroecosystems of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Dietsch, Thomas V

    2005-12-01

    Parasitism is not well documented for birds found in tropical habitats. Long-distance migratory birds may face additional risks to an already hazardous journey when infected. This study explores the ecology of an ectoparasite infestation in Chiapas, Mexico. During a mist-netting project in 2 different coffee management systems, chigger mites (Acarina: Trombiculidae), ectoparasitic during the larval stage, were found on both resident and migratory birds. Using a rapid assessment protocol, it was observed that 17 of 26 species of long-distance migrants and 33 of 71 resident species had at least 1 infested individual. Infestation prevalences were unexpectedly high on some long-distance migrants, as high as 0.73 for Swainson's thrush (Catharus ustulatus), a value on par with heavily infested resident species. Prevalence was highest during winter sampling: 0.18 overall, 0.16 of migrants, and 0.23 of residents. Prevalence was 0.14 for resident birds during the summer breeding season. Mean abundance and mean intensity of infestation are reported for 97 species captured and inspected during the course of this study. In this region, chigger mite larvae are relatively common on birds and their abundance varies seasonally. High prevalence for some migratory birds suggests that more research and monitoring of ectoparasites are needed, especially in light of emerging diseases.

  18. Ethnic Succession in a Highland Chiapas Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmeyer, Joseph M.

    1997-01-01

    Since the 1950s, ethnic relations in Tenejapa (Chiapas, Mexico) have shifted toward greater equality and less antagonism between formerly dominant mestizos and formerly dominated "indigenas" (Maya Indians). An important cause is the long-term promotion of indigenous education by a national agency, Instituto Nacional Indigenista,…

  19. Rural Revitalization in New Mexico: A Grass Roots Initiative Involving School and Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitzel, Gerald R.; Benavidez, Alicia C.; Bianchi, Barbara C.; Croom, Linda L.; de la Riva, Brandy R.; Grein, Donna L.; Holloway, James E.; Rendon, Andrew T.

    2007-01-01

    The Rural Education Bureau of the New Mexico Public Education Department has established a program to address the special needs of schools and communities in the extensive rural areas of the state. High poverty rates, depopulation and a general lack of viable economic opportunity have marked rural New Mexico for decades. The program underway aims…

  20. Climate Change as Migration Driver from Rural and Urban Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Lori M.; Runfola, Daniel M.; Riosmena, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating migration as a response to climate variability have largely focused on rural locations to the exclusion of urban areas. This lack of urban focus is unfortunate given the sheer numbers of urban residents and continuing high levels of urbanization. To begin filling this empirical gap, this study investigates climate change impacts on U.S.-bound migration from rural and urban Mexico, 1986–1999. We employ geostatistical interpolation methods to construct two climate change indices, capturing warm and wet spell duration, based on daily temperature and precipitation readings for 214 weather stations across Mexico. In combination with detailed migration histories obtained from the Mexican Migration Project, we model the influence of climate change on household-level migration from 68 rural and 49 urban municipalities. Results from multilevel event-history models reveal that a temperature warming and excessive precipitation significantly increased international migration during the study period. However, climate change impacts on international migration is only observed for rural areas. Interactions reveal a causal pathway in which temperature (but not precipitation) influences migration patterns through employment in the agricultural sector. As such, climate-related international migration may decline with continued urbanization and the resulting reductions in direct dependence of households on rural agriculture. PMID:26692890

  1. Climate Change as Migration Driver from Rural and Urban Mexico.

    PubMed

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J; Hunter, Lori M; Runfola, Daniel M; Riosmena, Fernando

    2015-11-01

    Studies investigating migration as a response to climate variability have largely focused on rural locations to the exclusion of urban areas. This lack of urban focus is unfortunate given the sheer numbers of urban residents and continuing high levels of urbanization. To begin filling this empirical gap, this study investigates climate change impacts on U.S.-bound migration from rural and urban Mexico, 1986-1999. We employ geostatistical interpolation methods to construct two climate change indices, capturing warm and wet spell duration, based on daily temperature and precipitation readings for 214 weather stations across Mexico. In combination with detailed migration histories obtained from the Mexican Migration Project, we model the influence of climate change on household-level migration from 68 rural and 49 urban municipalities. Results from multilevel event-history models reveal that a temperature warming and excessive precipitation significantly increased international migration during the study period. However, climate change impacts on international migration is only observed for rural areas. Interactions reveal a causal pathway in which temperature (but not precipitation) influences migration patterns through employment in the agricultural sector. As such, climate-related international migration may decline with continued urbanization and the resulting reductions in direct dependence of households on rural agriculture.

  2. Responses to prospective payment by rural New Mexico hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, H L; Piland, N F; Phillipp, A M

    1991-01-01

    A cross-sectional study is used to determine how rural New Mexico hospitals altered service diversification, inpatient service emphasis, and service promotion during Medicare's prospective payment system (PPS) transition and posttransition phases. Results suggest that the hospitals implemented distinct strategies in response to PPS. The posttransition strategies were examined for their association with improved revenue and utilization indicators. Few of the service diversification and promotional strategies were consistent predictors of performance. Emphasis on fine-tuning inpatient services was the most promising predictor of higher utilization and revenue measures. The implications for other rural hospitals are discussed. PMID:1743969

  3. Culture of a Contemporary Rural Community: El Cerrito, New Mexico. Rural Life Studies: 1, November 1941.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Olen; Loomis, C. P.

    Located on the Pecos River in San Miguel County, El Cerrito (New Mexico) was a culturally stable rural community. Almost a cultural island, its inhabitants were of native or Spanish American stock, descendants of conquistadores who mixed their blood with that of the indigenous population. Religion and the Catholic church had a profound influence…

  4. [AIDS cases in the rural area in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Magis-Rodríguez, C; del Río-Zolezzi, A; Valdespino-Gómez, J L; García-García, M de L

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the AIDS epidemic in rural areas of Mexico. Information from the National AIDS Registry and the 1990 XI National Census was used. Rural AIDS cases and urban cases were compared regarding notification time, sex, risk categories and migration information. Of the 19,090 AIDS cases reported to the first of July 1994, 699 (3.7%) were rural cases. The first five of these cases were reported in 1986, three years after the first cases had been reported in Mexico. The number of AIDS cases has been growing each year but in 1991. Cases have been reported by all Mexican states. The state with the highest prevalence was Nayarit with 102 cases per million inhabitants, followed by Morelos with 99, Jalisco with 90, and Colima and Tlaxcala with 84. A total of 25% of the rural cases are migrants who have been to the US, against 6.1% of cases from urban areas. The distribution by sex shows 21.3% of women affected against 14.4% of urban cases (p < 0.05). The rural female to male ratio is 1:4, while the urban ratio is 1:6. The prevalence rates are almost three times greater in men than in women. The rural AIDS pattern represents a problem not because of the number of people affected but because of the heterosexual way of transmission. We do not think that migration to the US is going to change. The rural AIDS epidemic is more recent and growing faster than that occurring in the urban setting.

  5. Rural development and urban-bound migration in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Silvers, A.; Crosson, P.

    1980-07-01

    This study addresses two questions: (1) can public policy as applied to rural regions be expected to affect the rural-to-urban migration flow in Mexico and, if so, what are the more effective instruments for implementing such a policy; (2) can such instruments be applied to alter the distribution of migrants as between Mexico City and other smaller cities. Programs to stimulate the modernization of agriculture can serve as instruments of urbanization policy in Mexico, but on any scale consistent with other development objectives their effect will be small in relation to total migration flows. Consequently, these migration effects are unlikely to weigh heavily in judging the desirability of programs for agricultural modernization. The primary criteria for such judgements likely will be the direct effects of the programs on such things as agricultural income and employment, food supply and prices, and balance of payments. The programs will be most effective in slowing the overall rate of rural-to-urban migration, their effect on the direction of flow being indirect and smaller. The direction of flow probably can be influenced more strongly by programs which directly change the relative rates of increase of job opportunities among cities.

  6. Hydrochemical dynamics of the “lake spring” system in the crater of El Chichón volcano (Chiapas, Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouwet, D.; Taran, Y.; Inguaggiato, S.; Varley, N.; Santiago Santiago, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    El Chichón volcano (Chiapas, Mexico) erupted violently in March-April 1982, breaching through the former volcano-hydrothermal system. Since then, the 1982 crater has hosted a shallow (1-3.3 m, acidic (pH ˜ 2.2) and warm (˜ 30 °C) crater lake with a strongly varying chemistry (Cl/SO 4 = 0-79 molar ratio). The changes in crater lake chemistry and volume are not systematically related to the seasonal variation of rainfall, but rather to the activity of near-neutral geyser-like springs in the crater (Soap Pool). These Soap Pool springs are the only sources of Cl for the lake. Their geyser-like behaviour with a long-term (months to years) periodicity is due to a specific geometry of the shallow boiling aquifer beneath the lake, which is the remnant of the 1983 Cl-rich (24,000 mg/l) crater lake water. The Soap Pool springs decreased in Cl content over time. The zero-time extrapolation (1982, year of the eruption) approaches the Cl content in the initial crater lake, meanwhile the extrapolation towards the future indicates a zero-Cl content by 2009 ± 1. This particular situation offers the opportunity to calculate mass balance and Cl budget to quantify the lake-spring system in the El Chichón crater. These calculations show that the water balance without the input of SP springs is negative, implying that the lake should disappear during the dry season. The isotopic composition of lake waters (δD and δ 18O) coincide with this crater lake-SP dynamics, reflecting evaporation processes and mixing with SP geyser and meteoric water. Future dome growth, not observed yet in the post-1982 El Chichón crater, may be anticipated by changes in lake chemistry and dynamics.

  7. Environmental alternatives for rural development: the case of Oaxaca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, R E

    2005-05-01

    This article examines various environmental alternatives within the context of forest resource-dependent communities of the State of Oaxaca, Mexico. Two main objectives were to describe particular rural development routes among different Mexican communities, and to explain why certain environmental options for rural development are selected over others. While many communities choose either sustainable or illegal logging options in Oaxaca, some may decide against logging of any kind. Four principal forest-based community categories, according to a government forest classification scheme, are discussed in the context of environmental alternatives for this article. Based on this typology, two "integrated forest management" communities in the Sierra Norte of Oaxaca are described and compared. One community's decision not to log within a shared land arrangement has caused significant tensions in the region. Key findings illustrate the extent to which rural communities can make appropriate environmental decisions and examines their effects on environmental and social sustainability. Increased rural involvement in environmental decision-making is called for, since rural residents are those most likely to appreciate nearby natural resources as a source of sustainable livelihoods. It is expected that this research may be applicable to rural areas of other countries.

  8. An integrated magnetic and geological study of cataclasite- dominated pseudotachylytes in the Chiapas Massif, Mexico: a snapshot of stress orientation following slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garza, Roberto S. Molina; Geissman, John; Wawrzyniec, Tim; Weber, Bodo; Martínez, Margarita López; Aranda-Gómez, Jorge

    2009-06-01

    The Permian age Chiapas Massif in southeast Mexico is locally host to well-exposed pseudotachylyte vein networks. The veins are black to dark grey and aphanitic in appearance, and consist mostly of microbreccia of angular fragments of plagioclase, K-feldspar, biotite and quartz, in a cryptocrystalline (microscopically irresolvable) matrix. Evidence of melting is present in the form of glass seams, dikelets, glass clasts included in cataclasite and a distinct chemistry in the pseudotachylite veins; pristine glass represents a relatively small volume of the pseudotachylite veins. At an exposure along the Tablón River valley, where the host rock is a medium to coarse-grained equigranular quartz diorite, individual veins are consistently oriented about 280°, are up to 16 mm wide, tens of cm apart, display a consistent left-lateral offset and can be traced for several metres. Individual pseudotachylyte veins rarely cross each other, and they cannot be directly linked to a regional-scale fault. Pseudotachylytes are apparently formed by a combination of crushing, comminution and frictional melting, but they are cataclasite dominated. Textures indicate that cataclasis continued after frictional melting had ceased. A 40Ar/39Ar age determination from whole rock chips of one vein shows a climbing Ar release spectrum with a date of ~114 Ma as the most reliable age estimate for Ar retention. This result is interpreted in the context of pseudotachylyte formation, recrystallization and resetting of K-bearing minerals for the K-Ar system in the late Early Cretaceous. Ten veins were sampled for palaeomagnetic and magnetic fabric studies, with samples collected from both the veins and their host rock. Remanence data give moderate natural remanent magnetization (NRM) intensities for both the veins (e.g. NRM mean 6.6 × 10-3 A m-1 σ = 5.5) and host rock (mean 7.7 × 10-3 A m-1 σ = 10.8). Many samples of host rock yield an ill-defined east-west directed and shallow magnetization

  9. New insights into the history and origin of the southern Maya block, SE Mexico: U-Pb-SHRIMP zircon geochronology from metamorphic rocks of the Chiapas massif

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weber, Bodo; Iriondo, Alexander; Premo, Wayne R.; Hecht, Lutz; Schaaf, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The histories of the pre-Mesozoic landmasses in southern México and their connections with Laurentia, Gondwana, and among themselves are crucial for the understanding of the Late Paleozoic assembly of Pangea. The Permian igneous and metamorphic rocks from the Chiapas massif as part of the southern Maya block, México, were dated by U–Pb zircon geochronology employing the SHRIMP (sensitive high resolution ion microprobe) facility at Stanford University. The Chiapas massif is composed of deformed granitoids and orthogneisses with inliers of metasedimentary rocks. SHRIMP data from an anatectic orthogneiss demonstrate that the Chiapas massif was part of a Permian (∼ 272 Ma) active continental margin established on the Pacific margin of Gondwana after the Ouachita orogeny. Latest Permian (252–254 Ma) medium- to high-grade metamorphism and deformation affected the entire Chiapas massif, resulting in anatexis and intrusion of syntectonic granitoids. This unique orogenic event is interpreted as the result of compression due to flat subduction and accretionary tectonics. SHRIMP data of zircon cores from a metapelite from the NE Chiapas massif yielded a single Grenvillian source for sediments. The majority of the zircon cores from a para-amphibolite from the SE part of the massif yielded either 1.0–1.2 or 1.4–1.5 Ga sources, indicating provenance from South American Sunsás and Rondonian-San Ignacio provinces.

  10. Gender Issues in Workforce Participation and Self-Employment in Rural Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagan, Jose A.; Sanchez, Susana M.

    The study presented in Chapter 6 of "The Economics of Gender in Mexico," examined male-female differences in employment and the incidence of self-employment in rural Mexico. Data were gathered from a survey of 5,189 working-age individuals in rural areas of Guanajuato, Puebla, and Veracruz. Findings indicate that education, age, and…

  11. Insufficient Language Education Policy: Intercultural Bilingual Education in Chiapas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Ofelia; Velasco, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Based on ethnographic fieldwork research of the authors in schools in Chiapas, Mexico, the article provides an overview of efforts being made to address the unique educational needs of Mexico's Indigenous populations through intercultural bilingual education programs. The article examines the Indigenous teachers' commitment to intercultural…

  12. Source Of Hydrogen Sulfide To Sulfidic Spring And Watershed Ecosystems In Northern Sierra De Chiapas, Mexico Based On Sulfur And Carbon Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales Lagarde, L.; Boston, P. J.; Campbell, A.

    2013-12-01

    At least four watersheds in northern Sierra de Chiapas, Mexico are fed by conspicuous karst sulfide-rich springs. The toxic hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in these springs nurtures rich ecosystems including especially adapted microorganisms, invertebrates and fish. Sulfur and carbon isotopic analysis of various chemical species in the spring water are integrated within their hydrogeologic context to evaluate the hydrogen sulfide source. Constraining the H2S origin can also increase the understanding of this compound effect in the quality of the nearby hydrocarbon reservoirs, and the extent to which its oxidation to sulfuric acid increases carbonate dissolution and steel corrosion in surface structures. The SO42-/H2S ratio in the spring water varies from 70,000 to 2 meq/L thus sulfate is the dominant species in the groundwater system. This sulfate is mainly produced from anhydrite dissolution based on its isotopic signature. The Δ SO42--H2S range of 16 spring water samples (30-50 ‰) is similar to the values determined by Goldhaber & Kaplan (1975) and Canfield (2001) for low rates of bacterial sulfate reduction suggesting that this is the most important mechanism producing H2S. Although the carbon isotopes do not constrain the nature of the organic matter participating in this reaction, this material likely comes from depth, perhaps as hydrocarbons, due to the apparent stability of the system. The organic matter availability and reactivity probably control the progress of sulfate reduction. The subsurface environments identified in the area also have different sulfur isotopic values. The heavier residual sulfate isotopic value in the Northern brackish springs (δ34S SO42- ≥ 18 ‰) compared to the Southern springs (δ34S SO42- ~18 ‰) suggests sulfate reduction is particularly enhanced in the former, probably by contribution of organic matter associated with oil produced water. In comparison, the composition of the Southern aquifer is mainly influenced by halite

  13. Dynamics of population densities and vegetation associations of Anopheles albimanus larvae in a coastal area of southern Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A D; Rodríguez, M H; Meza, R A; Hernández, J E; Rejmankova, E; Savage, H M; Roberts, D R; Pope, K O; Legters, L

    1993-03-01

    Spatial and seasonal variations on Anopheles albimanus larval densities and their plant associations were investigated in larval habitats in southern Mexico between April 1989 and May 1990. Thirty-four plant groups were dominant in larval habitats. Dense larval populations were associated with 3 genera of plants, Cynodon, Echinocloa and Fimbristylis and no larvae were found in habitats with Salvinia and Rhizophora. Low significant positive or negative associations were documented with the other 12 plant genera. Larval habitats were classified according to the morphology of their dominant plants. Higher larval densities were observed in the groups characterized by relatively short emergent vegetation. The distribution of habitat-types within 5 identified vegetation units showed a significantly dependent relationship. For the entire study period, highest larval densities were detected in flooded pasture/grassland vegetation units. For all vegetation units, higher larval densities were found when the dominant plant type covered between 25-50% of the breeding site. The integration of data from habitat-types into vegetation units did not result in loss of information.

  14. Survey of the black howler monkey, alouatta pigra, population at the Mayan site of Palenque, Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Alejandro; Castellanos, Lucia; Garcia, Yasminda; Franco, Berenice; Munoz, David; Ibarra, Ana; Rivera, Andromeda; Fuentes, Eugenio; Jimenez, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    A survey of the population of the black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) present at the Mayan site of Palenque was conducted during 2000. A total of 911 man/hours, spread over 112 days were spent surveying the 600 ha area of pristine forest at the site for howler troops. We detected the presence of 136 individuals of which 131 were members of 20 troops, the rest were 3 solitary adult males and 2 adult males travelling as a pair. Ecological density was estimated at 23 individuals/km(2). Mean troop size was 7.0 individuals and it ranged from 2 - 12 individuals; 60% of the troops were multimale. All sighting of howler monkeys were in evergreen rain forest and 75% were in trees > or = 20 m in height. The reported densities and mean troop size are higher than those reported for the species in Guatemala and in central Quintana Roo, Mexico. The vegetation of the forest contains tree species reported to be used by species of Alouatta in the Moraceae, Sapotaceae, Leguminosae, and Lauraceae plant families. Protection of a large perimeter area (ca 1700 ha) around the archeological site by the Mexican government ensures the conservation of the forest and of the black howler monkey population present at the site.

  15. Farmers' perceptions, knowledge, and management of coffee pests and diseases and their natural enemies in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Segura, H R; Barrera, J F; Morales, H; Nazar, A

    2004-10-01

    Small farmers' perceptions of coffee Coffea arabica L. herbivores and their natural enemies, how those perceptions relate to field infestation levels, and pest management practices being implemented by members from two organic and nonorganic coffee grower organizations in the Soconusco region, southeastern Mexico, were analyzed through an interview survey, diagnostic workshops, and field sampling. The terms pest, disease, and damage were commonly used as synonyms. The major phytophagous species, as perceived by the interviewees, were Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and to a lesser extent the fungi Corticium koleroga Cooke (Höhnel) and Hemileia vastatrix Berkeley & Broome. Among the nonorganic farmers, other nonpest-related constraints were regarded as more important. Awareness of the existence of natural enemies was low, despite more organic farmers have used the ectoparasitoid bethylid Cephalonomia stephanoderis Betrem against H. hampei. Labor supplied by household members was most frequent for pest control; only organic farmers exchanged labor for this purpose. The levels of infestation by H. hampei, Leucoptera coffeella Guérin-Méneville, and C. koleroga were lower within the organic coffee stands. However, a low effectiveness for pest control was commonly perceived, probably due to a feeling, among the organic farmers, of a low impact of their pest management extension service, whereas a lack of motivation was prevalent among the nonorganic farmers, shown by a concern with their low coffee yields and the emigration of youth. The importance of understanding farmers' perceptions and knowledge of pests and their natural enemies and the need for participatory pest management approaches, are discussed.

  16. Entrapment bias of arthropods in Miocene amber revealed by trapping experiments in a tropical forest in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Solórzano Kraemer, Mónica M; Kraemer, Mónica M Solórzano; Kraemer, Atahualpa S; Stebner, Frauke; Bickel, Daniel J; Rust, Jes

    2015-01-01

    All entomological traps have a capturing bias, and amber, viewed as a trap, is no exception. Thus the fauna trapped in amber does not represent the total existing fauna of the former amber forest, rather the fauna living in and around the resin producing tree. In this paper we compare arthropods from a forest very similar to the reconstruction of the Miocene Mexican amber forest, and determine the bias of different trapping methods, including amber. We also show, using cluster analyses, measurements of the trapped arthropods, and guild distribution, that the amber trap is a complex entomological trap not comparable with a single artificial trap. At the order level, the most similar trap to amber is the sticky trap. However, in the case of Diptera, at the family level, the Malaise trap is also very similar to amber. Amber captured a higher diversity of arthropods than each of the artificial traps, based on our study of Mexican amber from the Middle Miocene, a time of climate optimum, where temperature and humidity were probably higher than in modern Central America. We conclude that the size bias is qualitatively independent of the kind of trap for non-extreme values. We suggest that frequent specimens in amber were not necessarily the most frequent arthropods in the former amber forest. Selected taxa with higher numbers of specimens appear in amber because of their ecology and behavior, usually closely related with a tree-inhabiting life. Finally, changes of diversity from the Middle Miocene to Recent time in Central and South America can be analyzed by comparing the rich amber faunas from Mexico and the Dominican Republic with the fauna trapped using sticky and Malaise traps in Central America.

  17. Entrapment Bias of Arthropods in Miocene Amber Revealed by Trapping Experiments in a Tropical Forest in Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Solórzano Kraemer, Mónica M.; Kraemer, Atahualpa S.; Stebner, Frauke; Bickel, Daniel J.; Rust, Jes

    2015-01-01

    All entomological traps have a capturing bias, and amber, viewed as a trap, is no exception. Thus the fauna trapped in amber does not represent the total existing fauna of the former amber forest, rather the fauna living in and around the resin producing tree. In this paper we compare arthropods from a forest very similar to the reconstruction of the Miocene Mexican amber forest, and determine the bias of different trapping methods, including amber. We also show, using cluster analyses, measurements of the trapped arthropods, and guild distribution, that the amber trap is a complex entomological trap not comparable with a single artificial trap. At the order level, the most similar trap to amber is the sticky trap. However, in the case of Diptera, at the family level, the Malaise trap is also very similar to amber. Amber captured a higher diversity of arthropods than each of the artificial traps, based on our study of Mexican amber from the Middle Miocene, a time of climate optimum, where temperature and humidity were probably higher than in modern Central America. We conclude that the size bias is qualitatively independent of the kind of trap for non–extreme values. We suggest that frequent specimens in amber were not necessarily the most frequent arthropods in the former amber forest. Selected taxa with higher numbers of specimens appear in amber because of their ecology and behavior, usually closely related with a tree–inhabiting life. Finally, changes of diversity from the Middle Miocene to Recent time in Central and South America can be analyzed by comparing the rich amber faunas from Mexico and the Dominican Republic with the fauna trapped using sticky and Malaise traps in Central America. PMID:25785584

  18. Volcanic history of El Chichon Volcano (Chiapas, Mexico) during the Holocene, and its impact on human activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Espindola, J.M.; Macias, J.L.; Tilling, R.I.; Sheridan, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    Before its devastating eruption in 1982, El Chichon Volcano was little known and did not appear on any listings of hazardous volcanoes. Subsequent geologic studies, based on stratigraphic and radiocarbon investigations, showed that at least three explosive eruptions had occurred previously at this volcano. In this paper, we present the result of recent studies on the stratigraphy of the volcano and new radiocarbon ages which show that at least 11 eruptions have taken place at El Chichon in the past 8000 years. Explosive events, most of them producing block-and-ash flow and surge deposits, occurred around 550, 900, 1250, 1500, 1600, 1900, 2000, 2500, 3100, 3700 and 7700 years BP. The juvenile products of these eruptions have a trachyandesitic composition with similar degree of evolution, as evidenced from their SiO2 abundance and depletion in MgO, CaO, TiO2, as well as trace and rare earth elements. This suggests segregation of olivine and orthopyroxene from the melt. Since human settlements in southeast Mexico and Central America can be traced as far back as approximately 2500 years BP, most of these events probably affected human activity. In fact, there are reports of pottery shards and other artifacts in deposits from the eruption of 1250 BP. Pottery fragments in deposits of an eruption that took place 2500 BP are also reported in this paper. Thus, the impact of the volcano on human activities has been frequent, with most of the repose intervals lasting between 100 to 600 years. The impact of the eruptions was probably of greater than local extent, because airfall tephra could reach distant sites and possibly even affect weather. The eruptive history of El Chichon also offers clues in the investigation of the Maya civilization. Several researchers have considered the volcano as an important factor in the answer to some intriguing questions such as the extensive use of volcanic ash in Late Classic Maya ceramics or, of greater importance, the causes of the

  19. Characterization of Archaeological Sediments Using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Portable X-ray Fluorescence (pXRF): An Application to Formative Period Pyro-Industrial Sites in Pacific Coastal Southern Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Neff, Hector; Bigney, Scott J; Sakai, Sachiko; Burger, Paul R; Garfin, Timothy; George, Richard G; Culleton, Brendan J; Kennett, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    Archaeological sediments from mounds within the mangrove zone of far-southern Pacific coastal Chiapas, Mexico, are characterized in order to test the hypothesis that specialized pyro-technological activities of the region's prehistoric inhabitants (salt and ceramic production) created the accumulations visible today. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is used to characterize sediment mineralogy, while portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) is used to determine elemental concentrations. Elemental characterization of natural sediments by both instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and pXRF also contribute to understanding of processes that created the archaeological deposits. Radiocarbon dates combined with typological analysis of ceramics indicate that pyro-industrial activity in the mangrove zone peaked during the Late Formative and Terminal Formative periods, when population and monumental activity on the coastal plain and piedmont were also at their peaks.

  20. The study of the chatchment area and hydrodinamics of Árbol de Navidad (Chiapas, Mexico) to solve the problem of its feeding during the dry season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Matteo, Ada; Bernabei, Tullio; Davila Garcia, Luis I.; Del Vecchio, Umberto; Forti, Paolo; Zarate Galvez, Kaleb

    2016-04-01

    The Sumidero Canyon, and its surrounding National Park is one of the most remarkable natural sites in the State of Chiapas, Mexico. Its principal attraction is the 200 m waterfall called "Árbol de Navidad" (Christmas tree), situated about 175 m above the river, close to the Chicoasén dam. The Árbol de Navidad is characterized by its own particular ecosystem and by the presence of a travertine formation flowing out from a little cave, with a characteristic form from which derives its name. The cave from which the Árbol de Navidad takes origin is a karst spring fed by water infiltration from somewhere in the highland behind. In the last years the flow rate decreased drastically and disappeared completely during few months every years. Since the importance of this natural marvel, with high naturalistic, cultural, and touristic interests, local authorities asked La Venta Exploring Team and its Mexican branch CEKLAV (Centro de Estudios Kársticos La Venta) to lead a research aimed to understand the causes of this decreasing and to formulate suggestions to rescue and maintain the waterfall. The project, called "Guardianes del Árbol" (Tree Guardian) consists of several steps: 1- inspection of the spring cave to verify the presence of possible obstructions; 2- search for the principal karst sinkholes located on highland behind; geological and hydrogeological study of the highland; 3- hydrological tracing, to understand the hydrogeological system which fed the waterfall; 4- potential solutions for rescue and maintenance. At the moment the first step has been concluded and the second and third steps are on the way. The first results were the complete cleaning of the underground river which was rather completely filled by sand, mud and roots thus avoiding the water circulation during the dry season. During the beginning of the second and third steps a detailed structural analysis has been carried out in order to detect the possible recharge areas for the Árbol. Then two

  1. The Rural-Urban Divide: Health Services Utilization among Older Mexicans in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Jennifer J.; Al Snih, Soham; Markides, Kyriakos; Ray, Laura A.; Angel, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Mexico. Purpose: Using the health care service utilization model as a framework, this paper will analyze the differences in health care service use among older Mexicans living in urban and rural areas in Mexico. Methods: The Mexican Health and Aging Survey (MHAS) data were used to test the applicability of Andersen's "model of health…

  2. Becoming a Migrant: Aspirations of Youths during Their Transition to Adulthood in Rural Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azaola, Marta Cristina

    2012-01-01

    This article explores young people's transitions to adulthood in a rural community in Mexico. The focus is on participants' migration experiences and the premise is that migration can be understood as an alternative way of inclusion found by the rural youth which is strongly determined by individuals' agency. The article explores the role played…

  3. A Case Study of Two Rural Secondary Schools in New Mexico: Perspectives on Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iron Moccasin, Shawl D.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine factors that led to the academic success of two rural secondary schools in New Mexico. The primary focus was on the characteristics and behaviors of leaders in two high-achieving rural schools and how these factors might have contributed to achievement of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in school year…

  4. Sustainable fuelwood use in rural Mexico. Volume 1: Current patterns of resource use

    SciTech Connect

    Masera, O.

    1993-04-01

    The present report summarizes the results of the first phase of a project of cooperation between the Mexican National Commission for Energy Conservation (CONAE) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) on sustainable biofuel use in rural Mexico. This first phase has been devoted to (i) conducting an in-depth review of the status of fuelwood use in rural and peri-urban areas of Mexico, (ii) providing improved estimates of biomass energy use, (iii) assessing the socioeconomic and environmental impacts of fuelwood use, and (iv) identifying preliminary potential lines of action to improve the patterns of biomass energy use in Mexico; in particular, identifying those interventions that, by improving living conditions for rural inhabitants, can result in global benefits (such as the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions). A comprehensive review of the existing documentation of biofuel use in rural and peri-urban Mexico was conducted. Reports from official, academic, and non-governmental organizations were gathered and analyzed. A computerized rural energy database was created by re-processing a national rural energy survey. Because of the paucity of information about biofuel use in small rural industries, most of the analysis is devoted to the household sector.

  5. [Use of maternal health services in rural Mexico].

    PubMed

    Potter, J E

    1988-01-01

    availability of different types of health services in the community was not a significant predictor of utilization of prenatal services, but existence of a good road was associated with a 30% increase in probability of using medical services and presence in the community of persons speaking only an indigenous language was associated with a 57% decline in probability. Use of prenatal services and hospital delivery were also associated with maternal educational level and housing characteristics. The results appear to indicate the isolation, poverty, and lack of familiarity with western culture constitute important barriers to use of modern maternal health services. The analysis suggests that the policy of providing medical facilities at the community level has had little effect on the extremely disparate use of prenatal care and hospital delivery in rural Mexico.

  6. Inside the Hatch Valley: A Study of a Rural New Mexico Community. Resident Instruction Series No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McComas, J. D.; And Others

    Personnel enrolled in the course Rural Organization and Development at New Mexico State University made an active study of the rural community of Hatch, New Mexico. The results of the study were included in this report, along with some sociological concepts and considerations which may be of use to those in agricultural and extension education. A…

  7. Identity and sociocultural change: Comparing young indigenous people in Chiapas who have different sociodemographic trajectories.

    PubMed

    Esteban-Guitart, Moisès; Perera, Santi; Monreal-Bosch, Pilar; Bastiani, José

    2016-08-22

    One of the most commonly used distinctions in cross-cultural studies is the one between individualism and collectivism. One of the criticisms levelled at this distinction is that it fails to incorporate the differences that may exist when comparing people from a rural context with little formal education to people from the same group who live in an urban context where formal education is the norm. Bearing in mind these sociodemographic factors, we have compared the self-concepts among 104 young indigenous people in Chiapas (Mexico), having divided them into three groups: "rural-traditional," "rural-urban" and "urban." These people's self-concepts were analysed using a task that contrasts personal self-concept with social self-concept and a technique in which participants draw themselves along with the things and people they consider most important to them. The results reveal significant differences between the three groups. The personal categories are given a higher value in the "urban" group while the social categories score higher in the "rural-traditional" group. Regarding the results of the indigenous self-portraits, from the content analysis of the drawings, 16 categories emerged. These findings are discussed in the light of Greenfield's theory of social change and human development.

  8. Seroepidemiology of Leptospira Exposure in General Population in Rural Durango, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude of Leptospira exposure in rural Mexico is largely unknown. We sought to determine the seroprevalence of Leptospira IgG antibodies in adults in rural Durango, Mexico, and to determine the sociodemographic, behavioral, and housing characteristics of the subjects associated with Leptospira seropositivity. We performed a cross-sectional study in 282 adults living in rural Durango, Mexico. Sera from participants were analyzed for Leptospira IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. Seroprevalence association with the characteristics of the subjects was analyzed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Of the 282 rural subjects (42.91 ± 17.53 years old) studied, 44 (15.6%) had anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies. Seropositivity to Leptospira was not associated with gender, educational level, employment, socioeconomic status, contact with animals or soil, or type of floors at home. In contrast, multivariate analysis showed that Leptospira exposure was associated with national trips (OR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.05–4.16; P = 0.03) and poor education of the head of the family (OR = 2.96; 95% CI: 1.51–5.78; P = 0.001). We demonstrated serological evidence of Leptospira exposure in adults in rural northern Mexico. The contributing factors associated with Leptospira exposure found in the present study may be useful for optimal planning of preventive measures against Leptospira infection. PMID:26240822

  9. Seroepidemiology of Leptospira Exposure in General Population in Rural Durango, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude of Leptospira exposure in rural Mexico is largely unknown. We sought to determine the seroprevalence of Leptospira IgG antibodies in adults in rural Durango, Mexico, and to determine the sociodemographic, behavioral, and housing characteristics of the subjects associated with Leptospira seropositivity. We performed a cross-sectional study in 282 adults living in rural Durango, Mexico. Sera from participants were analyzed for Leptospira IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. Seroprevalence association with the characteristics of the subjects was analyzed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Of the 282 rural subjects (42.91 ± 17.53 years old) studied, 44 (15.6%) had anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies. Seropositivity to Leptospira was not associated with gender, educational level, employment, socioeconomic status, contact with animals or soil, or type of floors at home. In contrast, multivariate analysis showed that Leptospira exposure was associated with national trips (OR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.05-4.16; P = 0.03) and poor education of the head of the family (OR = 2.96; 95% CI: 1.51-5.78; P = 0.001). We demonstrated serological evidence of Leptospira exposure in adults in rural northern Mexico. The contributing factors associated with Leptospira exposure found in the present study may be useful for optimal planning of preventive measures against Leptospira infection.

  10. Agricultural Policy and Child Health in Rural Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Antoinette B.; Partridge, William L.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on the impact on malnutrition of Mexico's Sistema de Alementacion Mexicana (SAM) program, which tried to make the country self-sufficient in basic foods. Concludes that the food problem in Mexico is not so much one of production as it is a problem of distribution and consumption. (PS)

  11. [Consensual union and nuptiality in rural Tlaxcala and Mexico: an essay of cultural interpretation].

    PubMed

    Robichaux, D

    1997-01-01

    The author examines consensual unions and nuptiality in rural Tlaxcala and in Mexico as a whole, with a focus on interpreting data from a cultural perspective. Aspects considered include continuity and change in couple formation customs, and consensual unions as a consequence of secularization.

  12. Children's Worlds: An Exploration of Latino Students' Play in Rural New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulibarri, Reyna M.

    2016-01-01

    I present an ethnographic study of thirteen nine-year-old, U.S.-born Latino children in rural New Mexico. I employ in-depth individual and group interviews, participant observation, and sand play (a method borrowed from clinical psychology in which children "make a world" in a box of sand) to explore how play interactions represent,…

  13. Hitting the Wall: Youth Perspectives on Boredom, Trouble, and Drug Use Dynamics in Rural New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willging, Cathleen E.; Quintero, Gilbert A.; Lilliott, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the experience of boredom and its relationship to troublemaking and drug use among rural youth in southwestern New Mexico. We draw on qualitative research with area youth to describe "what" they think about drug use and "how" they situate it within their social circumstances. We then locate youth drug use within…

  14. An Ethnographic Study of Special Education Services in a Rural Area of Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argus-Calvo, Beverley; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Overviews the current status of special education programs in Mexico in general and in Ciudad Juarez (Chihuahua) and surrounding rural areas. Two special education administrators employed in the Ciudad Juarez school system discuss problems associated with teacher training and lack of administrative support, and the importance of parental and…

  15. Sociocultural Influences: Evaluations of Indigenous Children for Special Needs in Rural Central Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Jacqueline Zaleski

    2010-01-01

    This study examined indigenous infants, children, and youth in rural central Mexico for developmental delays by using a mixed methods approach. A two-person team consisting of a researcher and a translator completed this study. They conducted observations of 665 minors and interviews with their caregivers. A self-designed rubric was the guide to…

  16. Urban-rural contrasts in the physical fitness of school children in Oaxaca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Peña Reyes, Maria Eugenia; Tan, Swee Kheng; Malina, Robert M

    2003-01-01

    The physical fitness of school children resident in an urban colonia and in a rural indigenous community in Oaxaca, southern Mexico, was compared. Two measures of performance-related fitness (standing long jump, 35-yard dash [32 m]) and four measures of health-related fitness (grip strength, sit and reach, timed sit-ups, distance run) were taken on 355 rural (175 boys, 184 girls) and 324 urban (163 boys, 161 girls) school children, 6-13 years of age. Urban children were significantly taller and heavier than rural children. Absolute grip strength did not consistently differ between rural and urban children, but when adjusted for age and body size, strength was greater in rural children. Explosive power (standing long jump) and abdominal strength and endurance (timed sit-ups) were better in urban than in rural children without and with adjustment for age and body size. Urban-rural differences in running speed (dash) and flexibility (sit and reach) varied by age group and sex. Younger rural children and older urban girls performed better in the distance run, whereas older rural and urban boys did not differ in endurance. The size advantage of urban children does not necessarily translate into better levels of performance- and health-related physical fitness. The observed differences may be related to activity habits associated with school physical education and lifestyle in the respective communities.

  17. Paleomagnetism and magnetic fabric of Miocene plutons of the Tonalá shearz zone, Chiapas, Mexico: evidence of rotation of the remanence vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Garza, Roberto S.; Geissman, John W.

    2016-04-01

    The Late Miocene plutons of coastal Chiapas are elongated parallel to the Tonalá mylonite belt, and some plutons show asymmetric outcrop patterns with sheared tails that trail behind the intrusions. Plutons were emplaced within a transpressional sinistral shear zone. Magnetic fabrics in the plutons are well-developed, and are subparallel to the structural trend of the Tonalá mylonitic belt, but locally magmatic fabrics are preserved. Magnetic fabrics in undeformed granites with igneous textures are also subparallel to the shear zone axis. Strongly deformed plutons have Ṕvalues as high as 1.7. Fabric ellipsoids are predominantly oblate, but they are triaxial in sites with igneous textures. Characteristic magnetizations reside in a cubic phase, such as low-Ti magnetite, but abundant particles in the MD range prevent isolating a stable magnetization in many of the sites. Site means are NW to NE directed, and of moderate positive inclination (or its antipodal), but locally they are very discordant in declination. The overall mean, discarding highly discordant sites is of D= 359.5 and I=41.9 (k=14.2, alpha95=8.1), which is nearly concordant with the NA reference direction indicating gentle northward tilt of less than about 10°. We explain the highly discordant directions as caused by continuing, progressive, deformation in the transpressive shear zone of a thermochemical remanence acquired during deformation. Deformation resulted in rotations, both in a clockwise and an anticlockwise sense. These results are interpreted as paleomagnetic vectors affected by distortional strain, which based on AMS exceed 40% shortening and accommodate shape and volume change in the rock.

  18. The Rural – Urban Divide: Health Services Utilization Among Older Mexicans in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Jennifer J.; Al Snih, Soham; Markides, Kyriakos; Ray, Laura A.; Angel, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    Context Mexico Purpose Using the health care service utilization model as a framework, this paper will analyze the differences in health care service use among older Mexicans living in urban and rural areas in Mexico. Methods The Mexican Health and Aging Survey (MHAS) data were used to test the applicability of Andersen’s “model of health services” of predisposing (ie, age, sex, etc.), enabling (education, insurance coverage, etc.) and need factors (diabetes, hypertension, etc.) to predict ever being in the hospital and physician visits in the past year by place of residence (urban, rural, semi-rural). Findings Results showed that older Mexicans living in the most rural areas (populations of 2500 or fewer) were significantly less likely to have been hospitalized in the previous year and visited the physician less often (P < .0001) than their urban counterparts. The significant difference in hospitalization between rural and urban residing older Mexicans was largely accounted for by having health care coverage. Certain need factors such as diabetes, previous heart attack, hypertension, depression, and functional limitations predicted frequency of physician visits and hospitalization, but they did not explain variations between rural and urban older Mexicans. Conclusions Not having insurance coverage was associated with a lower likelihood of spending an overnight visit in the hospital and visiting a physician for older Mexicans. This lower utilization may be due to barriers to access rather than better health. PMID:21029168

  19. Understanding the gendered patterns of substance use initiation among adolescents living in rural, central Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, Stephanie; Marsiglia, Flavio; Hoffman, Steven; Urbaeva, Zhyldyz

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the age of initiation and gender differences in substance use among adolescents in rural, central Mexico. Methods The cross-sectional data were collected from students enrolled in the Videobachillerato (VIBA) (video high school) program in Guanajuato, Mexico. Questionnaires asked students about the age at which they had used alcohol, cigarettes, or marijuana for the first time. Kaplan-Meier Survival Functions were used to estimate if males and females were significantly different in their cumulative probabilities of initiating substances over time. Results On average, alcohol is initiated at 14.7 years of age, cigarettes at 15.1 years of age, and marijuana at 16.5 years of age. Over time, males had a significantly higher probability of initiating alcohol (Kaplan-Meier Failure Curve: Χ2=26.35, p<0.001), cigarettes (Kaplan-Meier Failure Curve: Χ2=41.90, p<0.001), and marijuana (Kaplan-Meier Failure Curve: Χ2=38.01, p<0.001) compared to females. Conclusions These results highlight the gendered patterns of substance use initiation among adolescents in rural, central Mexico and underscore the need for gendered substance use prevention interventions with these adolescents. By putting forth efforts to understand substance use initiation patterns of adolescents living in rural, central Mexico, culturally specific and efficacious prevention efforts can be tailor-made to create lasting differences. PMID:22421555

  20. Rainfall Patterns and U.S. Migration from Rural Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Lori M.; Murray, Sheena; Riosmena, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    In many rural regions of developing countries, natural resource dependency means changes in climate patterns hold tremendous potential to impact livelihoods. When environmentally-based livelihood options are constrained, migration can become an important adaptive strategy. Using data from the Mexican Migration Project, we model U.S. emigration from rural communities as related to community, household and climate factors. The results suggest that households subjected to recent drought conditions are far more likely to send a U.S. migrant, but only in communities with strong migration histories. In regions lacking such social networks, rainfall deficits actually reduce migration propensities, perhaps reflecting constraints in the ability to engage in migration as a coping strategy. Policy implications emphasize diversification of rural Mexican livelihoods in the face of contemporary climate change. PMID:25473143

  1. Climate change as a migration driver from rural and urban Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; Hunter, Lori M.; Runfola, Daniel M.; Riosmena, Fernando

    2015-11-01

    Studies investigating migration as a response to climate variability have largely focused on rural locations to the exclusion of urban areas. This lack of urban focus is unfortunate given the sheer numbers of urban residents and continuing high levels of urbanization. To begin filling this empirical gap, this study investigates climate change impacts on US-bound migration from rural and urban Mexico, 1986-1999. We employ geostatistical interpolation methods to construct two climate change indices, capturing warm and wet spell duration, based on daily temperature and precipitation readings for 214 weather stations across Mexico. In combination with detailed migration histories obtained from the Mexican Migration Project, we model the influence of climate change on household-level migration from 68 rural and 49 urban municipalities. Results from multilevel event-history models reveal that a temperature warming and excessive precipitation significantly increased international migration during the study period. However, climate change impacts on international migration is only observed for rural areas. Interactions reveal a causal pathway in which temperature (but not precipitation) influences migration patterns through employment in the agricultural sector. As such, climate-related international migration may decline with continued urbanization and the resulting reductions in direct dependence of households on rural agriculture.

  2. Tackling Poverty in Rural Mexico: A Case Study of Economic Development. Toward a Better World Series, Learning Kit No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Harriet; Ross-Larson, Bruce, Ed.

    This World Bank (Washington, D.C.) kit is a case study designed to teach secondary school social studies students about an integrated rural development project in Mexico, and how it is helping to raise the standard of living for six million Mexicans in 131 microregions throughout Mexico. The kit contains a pamphlet, a booklet, a sound filmstrip,…

  3. A Research Report of Small/Rural School Districts in New Mexico Compared to School Districts of Similiar Size Nationwide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bruce O.; Muse, Ivan D.

    A 1982-83 survey produced data used to compare 17 small/rural K-12 New Mexico school districts (900 students or fewer) with 642 similar districts nationwide. Of New Mexico's 88 school districts, 43 were identified as qualifying (48.9%, enrolling 16,648 students), for comparison to 4,125 similar districts nationwide. A questionnaire mailed to…

  4. Cultural Identity and Schooling in Rural New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrum, Arlie

    2009-01-01

    Summarizing the findings of his study in southwestern Nova Scotia coastal fishing villages, Mike Corbett (2009), in his article "Rural Schooling in Mobile Modernity: Returning to the Places I've Been" lays out several arguments, including the following: First, that formal education "has been and continues to be...a key institution…

  5. Desire Across Borders: markets, migration, and marital HIV risk in rural Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Jennifer S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents five concepts that articulate specific processes through which political and economic factors shape sexuality, drawing on ethnographic research on changing notions of marriage, love, and sexuality conducted in migrant-exporting rural Mexico and with Mexican migrants in Atlanta and New York. The first section describes how changing beliefs about love, marriage, sexual intimacy and fidelity constitute a cultural terrain which facilitates ‘vaginal marital bare backing’ in rural Mexico. The paper details sexual opportunity structures; sexual geographies; the multi-sectoral production of risk (including the ways in which housing, transportation, and other policy sectors together create the ‘recreation-deserts’ in which many migrants live); sexual projects, and externalities as conceptual tools that articulate how political and economic factors from the meso- to the macro-level shape sexuality. PMID:25343642

  6. Stray dogs as reservoirs of the zoonotic agents Leptospira interrogans, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Aspergillus spp. in an urban area of Chiapas in southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Coello, Matilde; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia; Guiris-Andrade, Dario M; Martinez-Figueroa, Laura; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y

    2010-03-01

    This investigation determined the presence and prevalence of the zoonotic agents Leptospira interrogans, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Aspergillus spp. in the stray dog population (a total of 224 stray dogs) in an urban area of Southern Mexico. Blood serum samples were taken from all dogs, and root hair samples were taken from dogs with skin lesions and partial alopecia. IgG antibodies for L. interrogans from 10 serovars were detected using the microscopic agglutination test. Immunofluorescence antibody test and Western blot assay were used for serologic diagnosis of T. cruzi. The Sabouraud medium was used to isolate Aspergillus spp. Prevalence of L. interrogans was 4.9%, which was determined by identifying only serovars Pyrogenes, which accounted for 3.6%, and Tarassovi, which constituted 1.3%, with titers from 1:100 to 1:800. Additionally, T. cruzi antibodies were detected in 4.5% of the dogs. Skin lesions were found in 43% of the dogs (98/224), and 35 cultures were positive for Aspergillus spp. (35.7%, p < 0.05, 95% confidence interval 2.45-3.67), identified as A. niger (82.8%), A. flavus (14.3%), and A. terreus (2.9%). This study demonstrates the presence of certain zoonotic agents (bacteria, protozoa, and fungi) in stray dogs living within the studied area. Dogs play an important role in the transmission of diseases that are potentially harmful to humans. Although the prevalence of canine leptospirosis and trypanosomiasis is not high in Southern Mexico compared with other tropical regions of Mexico, the presence of these zoonotic agents in the stray dog population demonstrates that the stray dog population in this region is a significant reservoir and potential source of infection in humans. Special care should be taken when handling stray dogs that exhibit skin lesions with partial alopecia, since a pathological Aspergillus sp. fungus may be present.

  7. Telesecundaria: Using TV To Bring Education to Rural Mexico. Education & Technology Technical Notes Series, Vol. 3, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderoni, Jose

    Mexico's television-based rural education program, Telesecundaria, has been in operation for over 30 years, and now serves almost 800,000 students in grades 7-9 in 12,700 rural communities. Communities can initiate a Telesecundaria program by providing at least 15 primary school completers with a place to study. The national and state education…

  8. Father absence due to migration and child illness in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Schmeer, Kammi

    2009-10-01

    Little research to date has assessed the importance of the presence of fathers in the household for protecting child health, particularly in developing country contexts. Although divorce and non-marital childbearing are low in many developing countries, migration is a potentially important source of father absence that has yet to be studied in relation to child health. This study utilizes prospective, longitudinal data from Mexico to assess whether father absence due to migration is associated with increased child illness in poor, rural communities. Rural Mexico provides a setting where child illness is related to more serious health problems, and where migration is an important source of father absence. Both state- and individual-level fixed effects regression analyses are used to estimate the relationship between father absence due to migration and child illness while controlling for unobserved contextual and individual characteristics. The state-level models illustrate that the odds of children being ill are 39% higher for any illness and 51% higher for diarrhea when fathers are absent compared with when fathers are present in the household. The individual-level fixed effects models support these findings, indicating that, in the context of rural Mexico, fathers may be important sources of support for ensuring the healthy development of young children.

  9. Father Absence due to Migration and Child Illness in Rural Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Schmeer, Kammi

    2014-01-01

    Little research to date has assessed the importance of the presence of fathers in the household for protecting child health, particularly in developing country contexts. Although divorce and nonmarital childbearing are low in many developing countries, migration is a potentially important source of father absence that has yet to be studied in relation to child health. This study utilizes prospective, longitudinal data from Mexico to assess whether father absence due to migration is associated with increased child illness in poor, rural communities. Rural Mexico provides a setting where child illness is related to more serious health problems, and where migration is an important source of father absence. Both state- and individual-level fixed effects regression analyses are used to estimate the relationship between father absence due to migration and child illness while controlling for unobserved contextual and individual characteristics. The state-level models illustrate that the odds of children being ill are 39% higher for any illness and 51% higher for diarrhea when fathers are absent compared with when fathers are present in the household. The individual-level fixed effects models support these findings, indicating that, in the context of rural Mexico, fathers may be important sources of support for ensuring the healthy development of young children. PMID:19699568

  10. A 550-year-old Plinian eruption at El Chichón Volcano, Chiapas, Mexico: Explosive volcanism linked to reheating of the magma reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacíAs, J. L.; Arce, J. L.; Mora, J. C.; EspíNdola, J. M.; Saucedo, R.; Manetti, P.

    2003-12-01

    Some 550 years ago (1320-1433 A.D.), a powerful Plinian eruption at El Chichón Volcano in southern Mexico produced a widespread pumice fall deposit. We subdivided the deposit into three parts on the basis of structural and textural characteristics, pumice lithology and density, granulometry, and petrologic-geochemical attributes. The deposit covers an area of 1500 km2 within the 1-cm isopach and has a minimum estimated bulk volume of 2.8 km3 (1.1 km3 dense rock equivalent (DRE)); its eruptive column reached an altitude of ˜31 km. Consideration of field evidence, the presence and nature of mafic enclaves, and chemical data strongly suggest that the 550 year B.P. eruption is linked with the intrusion of a high-temperature basaltic magma into preexisting but stagnated trachyandesitic magma beneath El Chichón. Thorough mixing of the two magmas produced a compositionally uniform hybrid trachyandesite magma (average SiO2 55.3 wt %), which subsequently underwent crystal growth and gas exsolution, ultimately overpressurizing the zoned magmatic system to erupt explosively. On the basis of El Chichón's known eruptive history, the intrusion-mixing event occurred sometime after the 900 year B.P. eruption. The hybrid magma had a preeruption temperature of 820-830°C and was water undersaturated (5-6 wt % H2O) at pressures of ˜2-2.5 kbar.

  11. Prediabetes in rural and urban children in 3 states in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Aradillas-García, Celia; Malacara, Juan M; Garay-Sevilla, Ma Eugenia; Guízar, Juan M; Camacho, Nicolás; De la Cruz-Mendoza, Esperanza; Quemada, Leticia; Sierra, Juan Francisco Hernández

    2007-01-01

    The authors studied the frequency, distribution, and factors associated with prediabetes (fasting glucose, 100-125 mg/dL) in rural and urban children from San Luis Potosí, León, and Querétaro in central Mexico. Family history, somatometry, and levels of fasting insulin, glucose, and lipids were collected in 1238 children 6 to 13 years of age. The authors found no cases of type 2 diabetes and a 5.7% frequency of prediabetes. The group with prediabetes had higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance scores and total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Prediabetes was more frequent in León, with similar distribution in rural and urban children. The frequency of insulin resistance was 24.1%, with higher figures in urban groups and in San Luis Potosí. In multivariate analysis, prediabetes was associated with insulin resistance and residence in León. The authors concluded that in central Mexico the frequency of prediabetes is significant, and it is associated with insulin resistance and a geographic location, but not with obesity or urban vs rural dwelling.

  12. Effect of Novaluron (Rimon 10 EC) on the mosquitoes Anopheles albimanus, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus from Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Arredondo-Jiménez, J I; Valdez-Delgado, K M

    2006-12-01

    Dengue fever is a serious problem in Mexico and vector control has not been effective enough at preventing outbreaks. Malaria is largely under control, but it is important that new control measures continue to be developed. Novaluron, a novel host-specific insect growth regulator and chitin synthesis inhibitor, has proved to be effective against agricultural pests, but its efficacy against larval mosquito vectors under field conditions remains unknown. In accordance with the World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme, phase I, II and III studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and residual effect of Novaluron (Rimon 10 EC, Makhteshim, Beer-Sheva, Israel) on the malaria vectors Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles pseudopunctipennis Theobald, the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti (L) and Aedes albopictus Skuse and the nuisance mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Laboratory susceptibility tests yielded diagnostic concentrations for all five target species. Field trials to identify the optimum field dosage of Novaluron against Anopheles mosquitoes were carried out under semi-natural conditions in artificial plots and in vessels with wild mosquitoes. Efficacy was measured by monitoring mortality of larvae and pupae and the percentage of inhibition of emergence from floating cages. Dosages of Novaluron for field tests were based on pupal LC(99) (lethal concentration 99%) of An. pseudopunctipennis (0.166 mg/L) in plots and average pupal LC(99) of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus (0.55 mg/L). At all dosages tested, Novaluron significantly reduced larval populations of An. albimanus, Culex coronator Dyar & Knab, Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus by approximately 90%, inhibited adult emergence of An. albimanus and An. pseudopunctipennis by approximately 97% for almost 4 months in experimental plots, and inhibited adult emergence of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus by approximately 97% for up to 14 weeks. Recommended dosages of

  13. Presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in apple in rural terrains from Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Rutilio Ortiz; González, Gilberto Díaz; Bermudez, Beatriz Schettino; Tolentino, Rey Gutiérrez; Vega Y León, Salvador

    2010-08-01

    This paper describes PAH concentrations in apple crops that are growing in rural terrains in Mexico City. The concentrations of individual PAHs showed great variability, there being low and high molecular weight compounds in dry (high molecular weight for Tlahuac 7.06 microg/g and Milpa Alta 3.96 microg/g) and wet months (high molecular weight for Tlahuac 11.25 microg/g and Milpa Alta 12.05 microg/g). Some PAHs indicators and cross plot ratios Ant/(Ant + Phe) and Flu/(Flu + Pyr) define fossil fuels and vegetation combustion as the source of contamination over the cuticle of the apples. It is likely that deposition (dry and wet) is the principal source o f contamination over the apple surface. This study reveals the presence of PAHs in apples due to the high air contamination of Mexico City.

  14. Parental Empowerment in Mexico: Randomized Experiment of the "Apoyos a La Gestion Escolar (Age)" Program in Rural Primary Schools in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gertler, Paul; Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Rodriguez-Oreggia, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Previous evaluations from Mexico are limited. The urban school-based management program, Programa Escuelas de Calidad (PEC), was analyzed using panel data regression analysis and propensity score matching. Participation in PEC is found to lead to decreases in dropout, failure and repetition rates. An evaluation of the rural parental empowerment…

  15. Mayan master speakers--the archive of the indigenous languages of Chiapas.

    PubMed

    Haviland, John B

    2004-01-01

    The Archive of the Indigenous Languages of Chiapas is an electronic database documenting the three principal Indian languages of Chiapas, Mexico. This report describes the design philosophy behind the archive, intended to distribute its results in digital form via the Internet. It illustrates some of the products of the Archive, ranging from standard linguistic description and lexicography, through semi-experimental elicitation, to ethnographically situated interaction characterized by different sorts of speech genre. It also discusses presentational and ethical issues derived from electronic distribution of digital media in linguistic documentation.

  16. "Como si nada": Enduring violence and diabetes among rural women in Southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Montesi, Laura

    2017-04-14

    Rural women in Southern Mexico link their diabetes to distressful life experiences rooted in ordinary violence. While much has been written on the use that diabetes sufferers make of their morbid condition as an idiom of distress, I investigate the personal and social effects that such an idiom has on women. As I illustrate, diabetes reflects an ambivalence that helps women to speak about the unspeakable and, at the same time, reinforces their ideas of culpability, namely that they are to blame for both the gendered violence that they endure and the diabetes from which they suffer.

  17. Sister-chromatid exchange analysis in a rural population of Mexico exposed to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Arroyo, S; Noriega-Aldana, N; Osorio, A; Galicia, F; Ling, S; Villalobos-Pietrini, R

    1992-03-01

    Cytogenetic damage was evaluated by means of the analysis of sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) in a rural population of Tlaxcala, Mexico, in occupational contact with pesticides. We studied 170 men, 94 exposed and 76 not exposed. It was shown that SCE followed a normal distribution and Student's t test did not present differences between the two groups (P = 0.4). The frequency of SCE was not correlated with the duration of exposure of the rural workers (r = -0.06), the multiple covariance analysis applied to the data of duration of exposure, tobacco intake and alcohol ingestion demonstrated a lack of statistical significance. In the exposed people we observed no symptoms provoked by these compounds.

  18. The influence of health care on contraceptive acceptance in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Potter, J E; Mojarro, O; Nuñez, L

    1987-01-01

    This paper offers two types of evidence in support of the idea that family planning services are most expediently provided as an integral part of the health and medical organization for maternity care. First, prenatal care and medical attention at delivery are found to be closely associated with postpartum contraceptive acceptance in a 1981 survey of family planning in rural Mexico. Second, interviews of a sample of doctors, nurses, and auxiliaries who provide maternal health services to the rural population reveal that these practitioners favor long birth intervals and small completed families, that they recommend the use of modern contraceptive methods including female sterilization, and that those in the employ of public institutions are motivated to recruit acceptors of these methods. The main impediment to contraceptive acceptance in this context is believed to be fear of side effects and permanent health consequences rather than the desire for additional children.

  19. Hitting the Wall: Youth Perspectives on Boredom, Trouble, and Drug Use Dynamics in Rural New Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Willging, Cathleen E.; Quintero, Gilbert A.; Lilliott, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the experience of boredom and its relationship to troublemaking and drug use among rural youth in southwestern New Mexico. We draw on qualitative research with area youth to describe what they think about drug use and how they situate it within their social circumstances. We then locate youth drug use within globalized processes affecting this setting, including a local economic environment with limited educational and employment opportunities for youth. Drug use emerges as a common social practice that enables youth to ameliorate boredom, yet only some youth become known as troublemakers. Study findings offer insight into how dominant social institutions—schools and juvenile justice authorities—shape the construction of trouble from the perspectives of youth. We contend that boredom and troublemaking among rural youth are not simply age-appropriate forms of self-expression but instead represent manifestations of social position, political economic realities, and assessments of possible futures. PMID:24532859

  20. Menstrual-related changes expected by premenarcheal girls living in rural and urban areas of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Marván, María Luisa; Vacio, Angeles; Espinosa-Hernández, Graciela

    2003-02-01

    Most women experience changes surrounding the start of menstruation. These changes are influenced by sociocultural context. Consequently, certain changes are more pronounced in some cultures than in others. Girls enter menarche with a clear set of paramenstrual expectations that may alter their menstrual cycle-related experiences when they become postmenarcheal. This study explored expectations concerning the paramenstrual changes of 1,173 premenarcheal girls living in rural and urban areas of Mexico. In accordance with the findings of studies conducted in other countries, Mexican premenarcheal girls associate menstruation with a set of mostly negative expectations. A comparison of the results from urban and rural girls revealed that urban girls expected negative paramenstrual changes more, while rural ones expected positive changes more. These differences suggest that the cultures in which girls are brought up have an impact on their expectations. Urban girls are more exposed to media which present a picture of menses as a debilitating event, while rural girls link menses with health because it is associated with the ability to have children.

  1. Individual, Household, and Community U.S. Migration Experience and Infant Mortality in Rural and Urban Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Erin R.; Villarreal, Andrés; Hummer, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores rural and urban differences in the relationship between U.S. migration experience measured at the individual, household, and community levels and individual-level infant mortality outcomes in a national sample of recent births in Mexico. Using 2000 Mexican Census data and multi-level regression models, we find that women’s own U.S. migration experience is associated with lower odds of infant mortality in both rural and urban Mexico, possibly reflecting a process of healthy migrant selectivity. Household migration has mixed blessings for infant health in rural places: remittances are beneficial for infant survival, but recent out-migration is disruptive. Recent community-level migration experience is not significantly associated with infant mortality overall, although in rural places, there is some evidence that higher levels of community migration are associated with lower infant mortality. Household- and community-level migration have no relationship with infant mortality in urban places. Thus, international migration is associated with infant outcomes in Mexico in fairly complex ways, and the relationships are expressed most profoundly in rural areas of Mexico. PMID:20047012

  2. Amplification or suppression: Social networks and the climate change-migration association in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J; Riosmena, Fernando; Hunter, Lori M; Runfola, Daniel M

    2015-11-01

    Increasing rates of climate migration may be of economic and national concern to sending and destination countries. It has been argued that social networks - the ties connecting an origin and destination - may operate as "migration corridors" with the potential to strongly facilitate climate change-related migration. This study investigates whether social networks at the household and community levels amplify or suppress the impact of climate change on international migration from rural Mexico. A novel set of 15 climate change indices was generated based on daily temperature and precipitation data for 214 weather stations across Mexico. Employing geostatistical interpolation techniques, the climate change values were linked to 68 rural municipalities for which sociodemographic data and detailed migration histories were available from the Mexican Migration Project. Multi-level discrete-time event-history models were used to investigate the effect of climate change on international migration between 1986 and 1999. At the household level, the effect of social networks was approximated by comparing the first to the last move, assuming that through the first move a household establishes internal social capital. At the community level, the impact of social capital was explored through interactions with a measure of the proportion of adults with migration experience. The results show that rather than amplifying, social capital may suppress the sensitivity of migration to climate triggers, suggesting that social networks could facilitate climate change adaptation in place.

  3. Amplification or suppression: Social networks and the climate change—migration association in rural Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Riosmena, Fernando; Hunter, Lori M.; Runfola, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing rates of climate migration may be of economic and national concern to sending and destination countries. It has been argued that social networks – the ties connecting an origin and destination – may operate as “migration corridors” with the potential to strongly facilitate climate change-related migration. This study investigates whether social networks at the household and community levels amplify or suppress the impact of climate change on international migration from rural Mexico. A novel set of 15 climate change indices was generated based on daily temperature and precipitation data for 214 weather stations across Mexico. Employing geostatistical interpolation techniques, the climate change values were linked to 68 rural municipalities for which sociodemographic data and detailed migration histories were available from the Mexican Migration Project. Multi-level discrete-time event-history models were used to investigate the effect of climate change on international migration between 1986 and 1999. At the household level, the effect of social networks was approximated by comparing the first to the last move, assuming that through the first move a household establishes internal social capital. At the community level, the impact of social capital was explored through interactions with a measure of the proportion of adults with migration experience. The results show that rather than amplifying, social capital may suppress the sensitivity of migration to climate triggers, suggesting that social networks could facilitate climate change adaptation in place. PMID:26692656

  4. La Exploracion Del Contexto Social y Sus Efectos en el Programa de Espanol en Mexico Rural. (Exploring the Social Context Affecting a Pre-School Spanish Program in Rural Mexico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finegold, Lynda

    A major stumbling block for the implementation of Mexico's Global Development Plan has been the country's large rural population of Indians. One government strategy to integrate this sector into the mainstream of society has been to teach Spanish, the official language, as a second language, while at the same time fostering ethnic pride. The…

  5. Chiapas' Delayed Entry into the International Labour Market: A Story of Peasant Isolation, Exploitation, and Coercion.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jason; Eakin, Hallie

    2013-06-01

    This manuscript presents a synthetic view of Chiapas' migration history over the last century through a thorough examination of relevant English and Spanish-language literature sources. Unlike most Mexican states, Chiapas did not heavily rely upon migration, especially international migration, as an economic strategy until very recently. The reasons that underlie Chiapas' late adoption of economic migration include socio-political and economic structural factors that shaped rural and agrarian policy and demographic trends. This paper evaluates these structural factors with regards to several migration theories to assist our understanding of how and why Chiapans were prevented or discouraged from leaving their native communities. The paper concludes by detailing the perfect cascade of climatic, demographic, economic and political factors that ultimately forced Chiapans to resort to international migration as a major economic diversification strategy.

  6. Mexico.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    The background notes on Mexico provide text and recent statistical information on the geography, population, government, economy, and foreign relations, specifically the North American Free Trade Agreement with US. The 1992 population is estimated at 89 million of which 60% are mestizo (Indian-Spanish), 30% are American Indian, 9% are Caucasian, and 1% are other. 90% are Roman Catholic. There are 8 years of compulsory education. Infant mortality is 30/1000 live births. Life expectancy for males is 68 years and 76 years for females. The labor force is comprised of 30% in services, 24% in agriculture and fishing, 19% in manufacturing, 13% in commerce, 7% in construction, 4% in transportation and communication, and .4% in mining. There are 31 states and a federal district. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was $3200 in 1991. Military expenditures were .5% of GDP in 1991. The average inflation rate is 19%. Mexico City with 20 million is the largest urban center in the world. In recent years, the economy has been restructured with market oriented reforms; the result has been a growth of GDP of 3.6% in 1991 from 2% in 1987. Dependence on oil exports has decreased. There has been privatization and deregulation of state-owned companies. Subsidies to inefficient companies have been stopped. Tariff rates were reduced. The financial debt has been reduced and turned into a surplus of .8% in 1992. Mexico's foreign debt has been reduced from its high in 1987 of $107 billion. Agricultural reforms have been ongoing for 50 years. Land was redistributed, but standards of living and productivity have improved only slightly. Rural land tenure regulations have been changed, and other economic reforms are expected. Mexico engages in ad hoc international groups and is selective about membership in international organizations.

  7. Infection levels of intestinal helminths in two commensal rodent species from rural households in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Panti-May, J A; Hernández-Betancourt, S F; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Robles, M R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to calculate the prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminths in the house mouse (Mus musculus) and the black rat (Rattus rattus) trapped in rural households of Yucatan, Mexico. Sampling was conducted during the rainy season from October to December 2011 and the dry season from January to March 2012. A total of 154 M. musculus and 46 R. rattus were examined, with 84.2% of M. musculus being infected with helminths compared with a significantly lower prevalence of 52.2% in R. rattus (P< 0.01). Adult M. musculus were more likely to be infected with helminths (89%) than subadults (63%) (P< 0.01). Four helminth species were identified: Taenia taeniaeformis larvae, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia muris and Trichuris muris. Nippostrongylus brasiliensis was present more frequently in M. musculus than in R. rattus (P< 0.01) and in adult mice compared to subadults (P< 0.01). Trichuris muris was present only in adult mice. This is the first report of N. brasiliensis, S. muris and T. muris in Yucatan, Mexico, as well as the first to report the presence of N. brasiliensis in M. musculus from Mexico. The helminth fauna of commensal rodents present in households appears to constitute a low potential health risk to local inhabitants; however, it would be advisable to conduct further studies to better understand the public health risk posed by these rodent intestinal helminths.

  8. MASE: a Great Opportunity for Outreach to the Rural Communities in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Campos, X.; Rodríguez, L. E.; Espejo, L.; Greene, F.; Reyes, T. A.; Solano, E. A.; Iglesias, A.; Clayton, R. W.

    2006-12-01

    The MesoAmerican Subduction Experiment (MASE) deployed 100 seismic stations across Mexico between Acapulco and Tampico, passing through Mexico City at the midpoint. Deploying the instruments at a secure site was an important issue, schools are nearly ideal in this respect. Consequently, 54 MASE stations are situated in schools that range from the K-12 through the University level. This presented a golden opportunity to outreach to rural communities, since the students come from small towns around the school and can spread the word to their home towns. Given the constant earthquake activity in Mexico and its history of destruction, the societal responsibility of UNAM, it is crucial to educate people in understanding a phenomenon that affects their daily lives and to prepare them to deal with it. One challenge in achieving this commitment is the diversity of level of knowledge of earthquakes. We address this by giving out different examples and utilizing didactic material adequate to the level, together with a series of talks, posters, handouts, etc., that cover topics from the Earth structure through the purpose of MASE. The program is being carried out by undergraduate students from the School of Engineering at UNAM, the program also provides an invaluable outreach experience to them. From this experience, we conclude that large-scale experiments like this should be accompanied by a committed outreach program given the large number of people that would be touched by it.

  9. Presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in top soils from rural terrains in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Rutilio; Vega, Salvador; Gutiérrez, Rey; Gibson, Richard; Schettino, Beatriz; Ramirez, María de Lourdes

    2012-03-01

    A soil survey was carried out to determine the levels and sources and concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in 2 semi-rural terrains in Mexico City (Tlahuac and Milpa Alta) during 2008-2009. PAH determination was made by Soxhlet extraction and chromatographic clean-up with final analysis by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. The concentrations in Tlahuac were 9.13 mg/kg (dry season) and 11.22 mg/kg (wet season) and in Milpa Alta were 11.43 mg/kg (dry season) and 35.77 mg/kg (wet season). The variation of total PAH concentrations are due to environmental and anthropogenic conditions within Mexico City and also the addition of compost to the soils. According to Mexican regulations BaP, DaA, BbF and Ind were within the permissible limit (2 mg/kg) for agricultural and residential soils and BkF was close to the limit (8 mg/kg). The total PAH concentrations do however surpass the permissible European limit of 1,000 μg/kg and there is probably some risk to human health, in spite of measures aimed at decreasing contamination in Mexico City. Long term monitoring of soils will be necessary.

  10. Poverty and Gender Perspective in Productive Projects for Rural Women in Mexico: Impact Evaluation of a Pilot Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urquieta-Salomon, Jose E.; Tepichin-Valle, Ana Maria; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of a pilot study that promoted productive and capacity-building activities among deprived rural women of Mexico. The evaluation design is observational; 1,278 women are interviewed, and the comparison group is estimated by propensity score matching. The results show a positive impact on the…

  11. The Impact of the Chile Intervention on the Food Served in Head Start Centers in Rural New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morshed, Alexandra B.; Davis, Sally M.; Keane, Patricia C.; Myers, Orrin B.; Mishra, Shiraz I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise is a multicomponent obesity-prevention intervention, which was evaluated among Head Start (HS) centers in American Indian and predominantly Hispanic communities in rural New Mexico. This study examines the intervention's foodservice outcomes: fruits, vegetables, whole grains,…

  12. Spatial distribution of Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis within a rural area of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Morales, Julio; Martínez, José Juan; Rosetti, Marcos; Fleury, Agnes; Maza, Victor; Hernandez, Marisela; Villalobos, Nelly; Fragoso, Gladis; de Aluja, Aline S; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2008-01-01

    Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium, a parasitic disease that affects humans and rurally bred pigs in developing countries. The cysticercus may localize in the central nervous system of the human, causing neurocysticercosis, the most severe and frequent form of the disease. There appears to be an association between the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and domestic pigs that wander freely and have access to human feces. In order to assess whether the risk of cysticercosis infection is clustered or widely dispersed in a limited rural area, a spatial analysis of rural porcine cysticercosis was applied to 13 villages of the Sierra de Huautla in Central Mexico. Clustering of cases in specific households would indicate tapeworm carriers in the vicinity, whereas their dispersal would suggest that the ambulatory habits of both humans and pigs contribute to the spread of cysticercosis. A total of 562 pigs were included in this study (August-December 2003). A global positioning system was employed in order to plot the geographic distribution of both cysticercotic pigs and risk factors for infection within the villages. Prevalence of pig tongue cysticercosis varied significantly in sampled villages (p = 0.003), ranging from 0% to 33.3% and averaging 13.3%. Pigs were clustered in households, but no differences in the clustering of cysticercotic and healthy pigs were found. In contrast, the presence of pigs roaming freely and drinking stagnant water correlated significantly with porcine cysticercosis (p = 0.07), as did the absence of latrines (p = 0.0008). High prevalence of porcine cysticercosis proves that transmission is still quite common in rural Mexico. The lack of significant differentiation in the geographical clustering of healthy and cysticercotic pigs weakens the argument that focal factors (e.g., household location of putative tapeworm carriers) play an important role in increasing the risk of cysticercosis transmission in pigs. Instead, it would appear

  13. Spatial Distribution of Taenia solium Porcine Cysticercosis within a Rural Area of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Julio; Martínez, José Juan; Rosetti, Marcos; Fleury, Agnes; Maza, Victor; Hernandez, Marisela; Villalobos, Nelly; Fragoso, Gladis; de Aluja, Aline S.; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2008-01-01

    Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium, a parasitic disease that affects humans and rurally bred pigs in developing countries. The cysticercus may localize in the central nervous system of the human, causing neurocysticercosis, the most severe and frequent form of the disease. There appears to be an association between the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and domestic pigs that wander freely and have access to human feces. In order to assess whether the risk of cysticercosis infection is clustered or widely dispersed in a limited rural area, a spatial analysis of rural porcine cysticercosis was applied to 13 villages of the Sierra de Huautla in Central Mexico. Clustering of cases in specific households would indicate tapeworm carriers in the vicinity, whereas their dispersal would suggest that the ambulatory habits of both humans and pigs contribute to the spread of cysticercosis. A total of 562 pigs were included in this study (August–December 2003). A global positioning system was employed in order to plot the geographic distribution of both cysticercotic pigs and risk factors for infection within the villages. Prevalence of pig tongue cysticercosis varied significantly in sampled villages (p = 0.003), ranging from 0% to 33.3% and averaging 13.3%. Pigs were clustered in households, but no differences in the clustering of cysticercotic and healthy pigs were found. In contrast, the presence of pigs roaming freely and drinking stagnant water correlated significantly with porcine cysticercosis (p = 0.07), as did the absence of latrines (p = 0.0008). High prevalence of porcine cysticercosis proves that transmission is still quite common in rural Mexico. The lack of significant differentiation in the geographical clustering of healthy and cysticercotic pigs weakens the argument that focal factors (e.g., household location of putative tapeworm carriers) play an important role in increasing the risk of cysticercosis transmission in pigs. Instead, it

  14. Medicinal plants used in some rural populations of Oaxaca, Puebla and Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Martínez, M C; de Pascual Pola, C N

    1992-01-01

    Within Mexico's floristic abundance, plants with curative properties are outstanding due to their popularity in handling several illnesses, a fact that becomes specially important for the social groups of the tropical regions. In this paper the results of an ethnobotanical study carried out in 57 rural populations from the Mexican states of Oaxaca, Veracruz and Puebla are presented; questionnaire and interview methods were applied, with special attention to the use of plants for medical purposes. The most relevant results were: the taxonomic determination of 237 vegetal species from which 399 curative products are obtained, in order to combat 57 illnesses, the most frequent of which are those related to the digestive system, the skin, the reproductive system and those of supernatural origin, which can only be treated by the use of plants in special ceremonies known as 'limpias', due to their peculiar condition.

  15. Social networks and the communication of norms about prenatal care in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Anderson, Jenn; Cruz, Shannon; Lapine, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Many normative beliefs are shared and learned through interpersonal communication, yet research on norms typically focuses on their effects rather than the communication that shapes them. This study focused on interpersonal communication during pregnancy to uncover (a) the nature of pregnancy-related communication and (b) normative information transmitted through such communication. Results from interviews with pregnant women living in rural Mexico revealed limited social networks; often, only a woman's mother or the baby's father were consulted about prenatal care decisions. However, women also indicated that communication with others during pregnancy provided important normative information regarding prenatal care. First, most referents believed that women should receive prenatal care (injunctive norm), which was conceptualized by participants as biomedical, nonmedical, or a blend of both. Second, family members often received prenatal care, whereas friends did not (descriptive norms). These findings highlight the key role of personal and social networks in shaping personal pregnancy-related beliefs and behaviors.

  16. Seroepidemiology of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Pregnant Women in Rural Durango, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme

    2013-01-01

    The seroepidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in pregnant women in Durango, Mexico is largely unknown. The prevalence of anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies was examined in 343 pregnant women living in rural areas in 7 municipalities in Durango State, Mexico, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). A correlation of H. pylori seropositivity with socio-demographic, obstetric and behavioral characteristics of pregnant women was also assessed. In total, 179 (52.2%) of the 343 pregnant women (mean age, 24.2 ± 5.9 years) had H. pylori IgG antibodies, 75 (41.9%) of whom had H. pylori IgG antibody levels higher than 100 U/mL. The seroprevalence of H. pylori infection varied from 33.3% to 65% among municipalities. In contrast, the seroprevalence was comparable among women regardless their age, educational level, occupation, socioeconomic status, animal contacts, foreign travel, eating habits, contact with soil, crowding, sanitary conditions at home and educational level of the head of their families. Multivariant analysis of socio-demographic and behavioral variables showed that H. pylori seropositivity was associated with municipality (OR=1.12; 95% CI: 1.01–1.24; P=0.02). Of the obstetric characteristics, the seroprevalence of H. pylori infection increased significantly with the number of pregnancies and deliveries but not with the number of cesarean sections or miscarriages. Rural pregnant women in Durango had a lower seroprevalence of H. pylori infection than those from populations in developing countries. Results support a variability of H. pylori seroprevalence within a region. Further research at a municipal level might help to understand the epidemiology of H. pylori infection. PMID:24711758

  17. Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    The text explores Mexico's history, geography, art, religion, and lifestyles in the context of its complex economy. The text focuses on Mexico's economy and reasons for its current situation. Part I of this teaching unit includes: Teacher Overview, Why Study Mexico, Mexico Fact Sheet, Map of Mexico, the Land and Climate, History, Government,…

  18. Seroepidemiology of toxocariasis in a rural Tepehuanos population from Durango, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C

    2014-06-01

    The epidemiology of toxocariasis in humans in Mexico has been poorly explored. There is a lack of information about toxocariasis in Tepehuanos, an indigenous ethnic group in Durango State in northern Mexico. Therefore, the presence of anti-Toxocara immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies was determined in 126 rural Tepehuanos using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural data of the participants were also obtained. Of the 126 Tepehuanos assessed (mean age 32.46 ± 17.36 years), 33 (26.2%) had anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that Toxocara seropositivity was associated with unemployment (students and housewives) (odds ratio (OR) = 3.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25-7.47). Other socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, including age, educational level, contact with animals or soil, consumption of unwashed raw fruits and vegetables or untreated water, were not associated with Toxocara seropositivity. Clinical data were similar in seropositive and seronegative Tepehuanos. These results indicate that Toxocara exposure is common among Tepehuanos but Toxocara does not appear to impact on the health of the population. This is the first report of toxocaral infection in Tepehuanos, and of an association of toxocariasis in adults with unemployment. Further research is needed to elucidate the routes of transmission of Toxocara in Tepehuanos, including the role of hygiene practices, canine and feline contacts, paratenic hosts and soil contamination with infective Toxocara eggs.

  19. Nitazoxanide in the treatment of Ascaris lumbricoides in a rural zone of Colima, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Galvan-Ramirez, M L; Rivera, N; Loeza, M E; Avila, X; Acero, J; Troyo, R; Bernal, R

    2007-09-01

    Intestinal parasites in Mexico are an endemic problem. A study was conducted in children, teenagers and adults in a rural community in Colima, Mexico to examine the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris lumbricoides infection and to evaluate the parasitological and clinical efficacy of nitazoxanide (NTZ). Two hundred and eighty children, teenagers and adults participated in this study. Parasitological diagnosis from faeces was confirmed by three consecutive stool samples using the floatation concentration Faust method. Egg counts were performed as described by the Kato-Katz technique before and after treatment. A questionnaire was systematically applied to obtain information about socio-economic status and hygienic habits. One hundred and six participants (38%) were diagnosed as harbouring intestinal parasites, and 86 of them (81%) were infected with A. lumbricoides. All patients with ascariasis infections underwent a complete physical examination before and after NTZ treatment. NTZ resolved 88% of the ascariasis cases, with a 89% clinical efficacy, and there was a 97.5% reduction in the levels of morbidity. The most intense infections for A. lumbricoides were found in housewives, and statistically significant associations were found between ascariasis and the absence of drainage and living in houses with dirt floors.

  20. The Inevitability of Infidelity: Sexual Reputation, Social Geographies, and Marital HIV Risk in Rural Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Jennifer S.; Meneses, Sergio; Thompson, Brenda; Negroni, Mirka; Pelcastre, Blanca; del Rio, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Marriage presents the single greatest risk for HIV infection among women in rural Mexico. We drew on 6 months of participant observation, 20 marital case studies, 37 key informant interviews, and archival research to explore the factors that shape HIV risk among married women in one of the country’s rural communities. We found that culturally constructed notions of reputation in this community lead to sexual behavior designed to minimize men’s social risk (threats to one’s social status or relationships), rather than viral risk and that men’s desire for companionate intimacy may actually increase women’s risk for HIV infection. We also describe the intertwining of reputation-based sexual identities with structurally patterned sexual geographies (i.e. the social spaces that shape sexual behavior). We propose that, because of the structural nature of men’s extramarital sexual behavior, intervention development should concentrate on sexual geographies and risky spaces rather than risky behaviors or identities. PMID:17463368

  1. Overweight and obesity in a rural Amerindian population in Oaxaca, Southern Mexico, 1968-2000.

    PubMed

    Malina, Robert M; Reyes, Maria Eugenia Peña; Tan, Swee Kheng; Buschang, Peter H; Little, Bertis B

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate secular change in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a rural Zapotec Indian community in southern Mexico between 1968 and 2000. Cross-sectional surveys of children 6-13 years, adolescents 13-17 years, and adults 19 years of age and older resident in a rural community in Oaxaca were conducted in 1968/1971, 1978, and 2000. Individuals present in the 1968, 1978, and 2000 surveys provided a small longitudinal component. Height and weight were measured; the BMI was calculated. International criteria for overweight and obesity were used. Overweight and obesity were virtually absent in school children 6-13 years in 1968 and 1978 and in adolescents in 1978. Small proportions of children (boys, 5%; girls, 8%) and adolescents (boys, 3%; girls, 15%) were overweight in 2000; two children (1%) and no adolescents were obese. Among adults, 7% of males and 19% of females were overweight and <1% of males and 4% of females were obese in 1971/1978, but 46% of males and 47% of females were overweight; and 5% of males and 14% of females were obese in 2000. The trends for children, adolescents, and adults were confirmed in the longitudinal subsamples. In conclusion, overweight and obesity are not presently a major problem in children and adolescents in this rural Zapotec community. Overweight, in particular, and to a lesser extent obesity have increased in prevalence among adults since the late 1970s. The results suggest adulthood as a critical period for onset of overweight and obesity in this sample.

  2. Failure to incriminate domestic flies (Diptera: Muscidae) as mechanical vectors of Taenia eggs (Cyclophyllidea: Taeniidae) in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Martinez, M J; de Aluja, A S; Gemmell, M

    2000-07-01

    Flies caught in homes in a rural village in Guerrero, Mexico, between November 1994 and August 1995 were assessed for their role in the transmission of Taenia solium L. Most (99%) of the trapped flies were Musca domestica L. None of the 1,187 guts or 1,080 legs of the flies contained T. solium eggs. Pigs roam freely in this village consuming human fecal material immediately after defecation, thereby limiting fly contact with T. solium eggs.

  3. Understanding and Working with Parents and Children from Rural Mexico: What Professionals Need To Know about Child-Rearing Practices, the School Experience, and Health Care Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenberg, B. Annye; And Others

    Mexicans are the largest group of immigrants to the United States, and approximately 60-70 percent of this group comes from rural areas. This book challenges Anglo professionals in health care, education, and child care to learn more about families from rural Mexico and to incorporate this knowledge into their work. The book's content is based…

  4. Rural aquaculture as a sustainable alternative for forest conservation in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, Mexico.

    PubMed

    López-García, José; Manzo-Delgado, Lilia L; Alcántara-Ayala, Irasema

    2014-06-01

    Forest conservation plays a significant role in environmental sustainability. In Mexico only 8.48 million ha of forest are used for conservation of biodiversity. Payment for Environmental Services in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, one of the most important national protected areas, contributes to the conservation of these forests. In the Reserve, production of rainbow trout has been important for the rural communities who need to conserve the forest cover in order to maintain the hibernation cycle of the butterfly. Aquaculture is a highly productive activity for these protected areas, since it harnesses the existing water resources. In this study, changes from 1999 to 2012 in vegetation and land-use cover in the El Lindero basin within the Reserve were evaluated in order to determine the conservation status and to consider the feasibility of aquaculture as a means of sustainable development at community level. Evaluation involved stereoscopic interpretation of digital aerial photographs from 1999 to 2012 at 1:10,000 scale, comparative analysis by orthocorrected mosaics and restitution on the mosaics. Between 1999 and 2012, forested land recovered by 28.57 ha (2.70%) at the expense of non-forested areas, although forest degradation was 3.59%. Forest density increased by 16.87%. In the 46 ha outside the Reserve, deforestation spread by 0.26%, and land use change was 0.11%. The trend towards change in forest cover is closely related to conservation programmes, particularly payment for not extracting timber, reforestation campaigns and surveillance, whose effects have been exploited for the development of rural aquaculture; this is a new way to improve the socio-economic status of the population, to avoid logging and to achieve environmental sustainability in the Reserve.

  5. Comparison of lead levels in human permanent teeth from Strasbourg, Mexico City, and rural zones of Alsace.

    PubMed

    Frank, R M; Sargentini-Maier, M L; Turlot, J C; Leroy, M J

    1990-01-01

    A comparative study of the mean lead concentrations in enamel and dentin of human premolars and permanent molars was conducted by means of a systematic sampling procedure with energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis. In a first series of analyses, no significant statistical differences in mean lead concentrations at various levels of enamel and dentin were noted between young patients of Strasbourg and those of small villages of Alsace, nor between elderly patients living in these two locations, despite the fact that motor traffic was significantly lower in the rural zones. However, in both locations, a significantly higher concentration of lead was observed in enamel and dentin in relation to age. In a second series of analyses, the mean lead concentrations of both dental hard tissues of premolars and permanent molars of young individuals from Strasbourg, rural Alsace, and Mexico City were compared. Significantly higher mean lead concentrations were found in enamel and dentin samples from Mexico City. This was most evident for inner coronal dentin (5.7 and 6.1 times greater than in teeth of Strasbourg and rural zones of Alsace, respectively) and for pulpal root dentin (6.9 and 8.9 times greater than in teeth of Strasbourg and rural zones of Alsace). It is proposed that the higher lead concentrations are related to the higher lead content of motor gasoline and to more intense traffic conditions. The dental hard tissues appear to be of value for the study of environmental lead pollution.

  6. Comparison of lead levels in human permanent teeth from Strasbourg, Mexico City, and rural zones of Alsace

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, R.M.; Sargentini-Maier, M.L.; Turlot, J.C.; Leroy, M.J. )

    1990-01-01

    A comparative study of the mean lead concentrations in enamel and dentin of human premolars and permanent molars was conducted by means of a systematic sampling procedure with energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis. In a first series of analyses, no significant statistical differences in mean lead concentrations at various levels of enamel and dentin were noted between young patients of Strasbourg and those of small villages of Alsace, nor between elderly patients living in these two locations, despite the fact that motor traffic was significantly lower in the rural zones. However, in both locations, a significantly higher concentration of lead was observed in enamel and dentin in relation to age. In a second series of analyses, the mean lead concentrations of both dental hard tissues of premolars and permanent molars of young individuals from Strasbourg, rural Alsace, and Mexico City were compared. Significantly higher mean lead concentrations were found in enamel and dentin samples from Mexico City. This was most evident for inner coronal dentin (5.7 and 6.1 times greater than in teeth of Strasbourg and rural zones of Alsace, respectively) and for pulpal root dentin (6.9 and 8.9 times greater than in teeth of Strasbourg and rural zones of Alsace). It is proposed that the higher lead concentrations are related to the higher lead content of motor gasoline and to more intense traffic conditions. The dental hard tissues appear to be of value for the study of environmental lead pollution.

  7. Do Rainfall Deficits Predict U.S.-bound Migration from Rural Mexico? Evidence from the Mexican Census.

    PubMed

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J; Riosmena, Fernando; Hunter, Lori M

    2013-02-01

    Environmental and climatic changes have shaped human mobility for thousands of years and research on the migration-environment connection has proliferated in the past several years. Even so, little work has focused on Latin America or on international movement. Given rural Mexico's dependency on primary sector activities involving various natural resources, and the existence of well-established transnational migrant networks, we investigate the association between rainfall patterns and U.S.-bound migration from rural locales, a topic of increasing policy relevance. The New Economics of Labor Migration (NELM) theory provides background, positing that migration represents a household-level risk management strategy. We use data from the year 2000 Mexican census for rural localities and socioeconomic and state-level precipitation data provided by the Mexican National Institute for Statistics and Geography. Multilevel models assess the impact of rainfall change on household-level international out-migration while controlling for relevant sociodemographic and economic factors. A decrease in precipitation is significantly associated with U.S.-bound migration, but only for dry Mexican states. This finding suggests that programs and policies aimed at reducing Mexico-U.S. migration should seek to diminish the climate/weather vulnerability of rural Mexican households, for example by supporting sustainable irrigation systems and subsidizing drought-resistant crops.

  8. Catholics using contraceptives: religion, family planning, and interpretive agency in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Jennifer S

    2008-06-01

    Research on how religion shapes contraceptive practices and fertility has paid insufficient attention to how people interpret religious teachings. This study draws on ethnographic fieldwork in Degollado, Mexico, to describe generational and social-contextual differences in how women interpret and use religious doctrine to achieve their fertility desires without jeopardizing their standing as devout Catholics. Contrasting the family planning beliefs and practices of young Mexican women with those of older women (many of whom are the younger women's parents and in-laws), in a rural town in which the religious regulation of everyday life is pervasive, reveals how a common set of religious teachings and principles can be used to guide two different generational strategies for fertility regulation. The ethnographic data presented here highlight the creativity with which people use religious frameworks to justify their behavior. Research exploring how religion--and culture more broadly--influences fertility and contraceptive use should give greater attention to the dynamic interplay between cultural beliefs and institutions, social context, and interpretive agency. (STUDIES

  9. Dying patients' thoughts of ending their lives: a pilot study of rural New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Birkholz, Gloria; Gibson, Joan McIver; Clements, Paul T

    2004-08-01

    Forty-nine hospice patients in rural New Mexico were directly interviewed concerning their thoughts about ending their lives. Thirty-one patients (63%) did not have thoughts of ending their lives, whereas 18 patients (37%) reported having suicidal thoughts. There were no differences between patients with and without thoughts of suicide related to gender; ethnicity; age; education; disease; religion; importance of religion; location of hospice agency; remaining financial, family, or spiritual issues; satisfaction with hospice care; sum of hospice personnel seen; or sum of medical equipment used. There were significant differences between patients with and without thoughts of suicide related to the number of household members (p = .02); the symptoms of trouble sleeping (p = .04) and nervousness (p =.03); and Medicare insurance coverage for hospice care (p =.01). No other symptom, including pain and hopelessness, was significant. Seven (39%) of the 18 patients who thought of ending their lives told someone about these thoughts. There were no variable differences between patients who did and did not tell someone about these thoughts.

  10. Parasitic Zoonoses in Humans and Their Dogs from a Rural Community of Tropical Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Torres-Acosta, Juan F J; Alzina-López, Alejandro; Gutiérrez-Blanco, Eduardo; Bolio-González, Manuel E; Aguilar-Caballero, Armando J; Rodríguez-Vivas, Roger I; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, Edwin; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y; Guzmán-Marín, Eugenia; Rosado-Aguilar, Alberto; Jiménez-Coello, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was made on 89 inhabitants and their dogs from a rural community of Yucatan, Mexico, to determine the serological prevalence of some zoonotic parasitic agents. Samples were taken to monitor the presence and intensity of infection with gastrointestinal parasites in dogs. In humans, the serological prevalence of T. canis, T. gondii, and T. spiralis was 29.2%, 91.0%, and 6.7%, respectively. No associations were found between positive cases and studied variables. From the total of blood samples taken from dogs, 87 (97.6%) were seropositive to T. gondii; only 52 viable fecal samples were collected from dogs of which 46.2% had the presence of gastrointestinal parasites with low to moderate intensity; from those, 12% had the presence of T. canis. This study demonstrates the presence of the studied zoonotic agents in the area particularly T. gondii which suggest a common source of infection in dogs and humans and a high number of oocyts present in the environment. Preventive measures must be designed towards good prophylactic practices in domestic and backyard animals (T. canis and T. spiralis). Contaminated sources with T. gondii (food and water) should be further investigated in order to design effective control measures.

  11. Parasitic Zoonoses in Humans and Their Dogs from a Rural Community of Tropical Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Torres-Acosta, Juan F. J.; Alzina-López, Alejandro; Gutiérrez-Blanco, Eduardo; Bolio-González, Manuel E.; Aguilar-Caballero, Armando J.; Rodríguez-Vivas, Roger I.; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, Edwin; Guzmán-Marín, Eugenia; Rosado-Aguilar, Alberto; Jiménez-Coello, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was made on 89 inhabitants and their dogs from a rural community of Yucatan, Mexico, to determine the serological prevalence of some zoonotic parasitic agents. Samples were taken to monitor the presence and intensity of infection with gastrointestinal parasites in dogs. In humans, the serological prevalence of T. canis, T. gondii, and T. spiralis was 29.2%, 91.0%, and 6.7%, respectively. No associations were found between positive cases and studied variables. From the total of blood samples taken from dogs, 87 (97.6%) were seropositive to T. gondii; only 52 viable fecal samples were collected from dogs of which 46.2% had the presence of gastrointestinal parasites with low to moderate intensity; from those, 12% had the presence of T. canis. This study demonstrates the presence of the studied zoonotic agents in the area particularly T. gondii which suggest a common source of infection in dogs and humans and a high number of oocyts present in the environment. Preventive measures must be designed towards good prophylactic practices in domestic and backyard animals (T. canis and T. spiralis). Contaminated sources with T. gondii (food and water) should be further investigated in order to design effective control measures. PMID:26770216

  12. Pulque, an alcoholic drink from rural Mexico, contains phytase. Its in vitro effects on corn tortilla.

    PubMed

    Tovar, Luis Raul; Olivos, Manuel; Gutierrez, Ma Eugenia

    2008-12-01

    Pulque is made by fermenting the agave sap or aguamiel of Agave atrovirens with a whole array of microorganisms present in the environment including several lactic acid bacteria and yeasts such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ascorbic acid was determined in pulque and aguamiel, respectively. Phytase activity in lees, liquid and freeze-dried pulque was assayed by measuring the appearance of phosphate from phytate by a colorimetric method likewise phosphate from phytate present in fresh corn tortilla was measured after in vitro incubation with pulque. Iron, zinc, calcium, magnesium and selenium contents were measured in pulque and corn tortilla as well as in nixtamalized corn flour (NCF), the latter is used to make instant tortilla, since corn provides most of the energy as well as most of the phytate in the Mexican rural diet. Pulque showed phytase activity but much less ascorbic acid and iron than previously reported; additionally, phytase in pulque hydrolyzed most of phytate's corn tortilla. Lees, which is mostly made of pulque's microbiota, significantly accumulated iron and zinc but no selenium. NCF was fortified with iron by the manufacturers but poorly blended. There were significant differences on selenium content between tortillas samples, apparently some soils in central Mexico are selenium deficient. Moderate pulque intake appears to increase the bioavailability of iron and zinc bound by phytate in corn.

  13. Balancing urban and peri-urban exchange: water geography of rural livelihoods in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Caravantes, Rolando E

    2012-01-01

    The peri-urban area is the region where there is a more dynamic interaction between the urban and rural. The peri-urban area supplies natural resources, such as land for urban expansion and agricultural products to feed the urban population. In arid and semi-arid lands, such as northern Mexico, these areas may also be the source of water for the city's domestic demand. In addition, scholars argue that peri-urban residents may have a more advantageous geographical position for selling their labour and agricultural products in cities and, by doing so, sustaining their livelihoods. A considerable number of studies have examined the peri-urban to urban natural resources transfer in terms of land annexation, housing construction, and infrastructure issues; however, the study of the effects of the reallocation of peri-urban water resources to serve urban needs is critical as well because the livelihoods of peri-urban residents, such as those based on agriculture and livestock, depend on water availability. In the case of Hermosillo there is a tremendous pressure on the water resources of peri-urban small farm communities or ejidos because of urban demand. Based on interviews and structured surveys with producers and water managers, this paper examines how peri-urban livelihoods have been reshaped by the reallocation of the city's natural resources in many cases caused some ejido members or ejidatarios to lose livelihoods.

  14. Epidemiological study of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in a rural village in Yucatan state, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Canul, R; Fraser, A; Allan, J C; Dominguez-Alpizar, J L; Argaez-Rodriguez, F; Craig, P S

    1999-01-01

    porcine cysticercosis was free-range husbandry, permitting access to human faeces. This is the first comprehensive report of taeniasis and cysticercosis in a rural population from the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico.

  15. Candidate Vectors and Rodent Hosts of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus, Chiapas, 2006–2007

    PubMed Central

    Deardorff, Eleanor R.; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.; Freier, Jerome E.; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Da Rosa, Amelia Travassos; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Enzootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) has been known to occur in Mexico since the 1960s. The first natural equine epizootic was recognized in Chiapas in 1993 and since then, numerous studies have characterized the etiologic strains, including reverse genetic studies that incriminated a specific mutation that enhanced infection of epizootic mosquito vectors. The aim of this study was to determine the mosquito and rodent species involved in enzootic maintenance of subtype IE VEEV in coastal Chiapas. A longitudinal study was conducted over a year to discern which species and habitats could be associated with VEEV circulation. Antibody was rarely detected in mammals and virus was not isolated from mosquitoes. Additionally, Culex (Melanoconion) taeniopus populations were found to be spatially related to high levels of human and bovine seroprevalence. These mosquito populations were concentrated in areas that appear to represent foci of stable, enzootic VEEV circulation. PMID:22144461

  16. Wildlife uses and hunting patterns in rural communities of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Subsistence hunting is a traditional practice providing food and many other goods for households in the Yucatan Peninsula, southeast Mexico. Economic, demographic, and cultural change in this region drive wildlife habitat loss and local extinctions. Improving our understanding about current practices of wildlife use may support better management strategies for conserving game species and their habitat. We aimed to evaluate if wildlife use remained relevant for the subsistence of rural residents of the Yucatan Peninsula, as well as if local hunting practices were related to environmental, geographical, and cultural factors. Methods Fieldwork was done between March 2010 and March 2011. Information was obtained through conversations, interviews, and participant observation. Record forms allowed recording animals hunted, biomass extracted, distance intervals to hunting sites, habitat types and seasonality of wildlife harvests. Data were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance, and Generalized Linear Models. Results Forty-six terrestrial vertebrate species were used for obtaining food, medicine, tools, adornments, pets, ritual objects, and for sale and mitigating damage. We recorded 968 animals taken in 664 successful hunting events. The Great Curassow, Ocellated Turkey, paca, white-tailed deer, and collared peccary were the top harvested species, providing 80.7% of biomass (10,190 kg). The numbers of animals hunted and biomass extracted declined as hunting distances increased from villages. Average per capita consumption was 4.65 ± 2.7 kg/person/year. Hunting frequencies were similar in forested and agricultural areas. Discussion Wildlife use, hunting patterns, and technologies observed in our study sites were similar to those recorded in previous studies for rural Mayan and mestizo communities in the Yucatan Peninsula and other Neotropical sites. The most heavily hunted species were those providing more products and by-products for residents. Large

  17. The Oportunidades Conditional Cash Transfer Program: Effects on Pregnancy and Contraceptive Use among Young Rural Women in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Darney, Blair G.; Weaver, Marcia R.; Sosa-Rubi, Sandra G.; Walker, Dilys; Servan-Mori, Edson; Prager, Sarah; Gakidou, Emmanuela

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT Oportunidades is a large conditional cash transfer program in Mexico. It is important to examine whether the program has any direct effect on pregnancy experience and contraceptive use among young rural women, apart from those through education. METHODS Data from the 1992, 2006 and 2009 waves of a nationally representative, population-based survey were used to describe trends in pregnancy experience, contraceptive use and education among rural adolescent (15–19) and young adult (20–24) women in Mexico. To examine differences in pregnancy experience and current modern contraceptive use among young women, multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted among matched 2006 samples of women with and without exposure to Oportunidades, predicted probabilities were calculated and indirect effects were estimated. RESULTS Over the three survey waves, the proportion of adolescent and young adult women reporting ever being pregnant stayed flat (33–36%) and contraceptive use increased steadily (from 13% in 1992 to 19% in 2009). Educational attainment rose dramatically: The proportion of women with a secondary education increased from 28% in 1992 to 46% in 2009. In multivariable analyses, exposure to Oportunidades was not associated with pregnancy experience among adolescents. Educational attainment, marital status, pregnancy experience and access to health insurance—but not exposure to Oportunidades—were positively associated with current modern contraceptive use among adolescent and young adult women. CONCLUSION Through its effect on education, Oportunidades indirectly influences fertility among adolescents. It is important for Mexico to focus on strategies to increase contraceptive use among young rural nulliparous women, regardless of whether they are enrolled in Oportunidades. PMID:24393726

  18. Prevalence, concordance and determinants of human papillomavirus infection among heterosexual partners in a rural region in central Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in heterosexual couples has been sparsely studied, it is relevant to understand disease burden and transmission mechanisms. The present study determined the prevalence and concordance of type-specific HPV infection as well as the determinants of infection in heterosexual couples in a rural area of Mexico. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 504 clinically healthy heterosexual couples from four municipalities in the State of Mexico, Mexico. HPV testing was performed using biotinylated L1 consensus primers and reverse line blot in cervical samples from women and in genital samples from men. Thirty-seven HPV types were detected, including high-risk oncogenic types and low-risk types. Multivariate logistic regression models were utilized to evaluate factors associated with HPV. Results The prevalence of HPV infection was 20.5% in external male genitals and 13.7% in cervical samples. In 504 sexual couples participating in the study, concordance of HPV status was 79%; 34 partners (6.7%) were concurrently infected, and 21 out of 34 partners where both were HPV positive (61.8%) showed concordance for one or more HPV types. The principal risk factor associated with HPV DNA detection in men as well as women was the presence of HPV DNA in the respective regular sexual partner (OR = 5.15, 95%CI 3.01-8.82). In men, having a history of 10 or more sexual partners over their lifetime (OR 2.5, 95%CI 1.3 - 4.8) and having had sexual relations with prostitutes (OR 1.7, 95%CI 1.01 - 2.8) increased the likelihood of detecting HPV DNA. Conclusions In heterosexual couples in rural regions in Mexico, the prevalence of HPV infection and type-specific concordance is high. High-risk sexual behaviors are strong determinants of HPV infection in men. PMID:20667085

  19. Poverty and gender perspective in productive projects for rural women in Mexico: impact evaluation of a pilot project.

    PubMed

    Urquieta-Salomón, José E; Tepichin-Valle, Ana María; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of a pilot study that promoted productive and capacity-building activities among deprived rural women of Mexico. The evaluation design is observational; 1,278 women are interviewed, and the comparison group is estimated by propensity score matching. The results show a positive impact on the carrying out of agricultural activities, in the autonomy of women in decision making, as does their perception of their role in the household. However, the project does not decrease the number of hours set aside for household chores or improve the women's technical and administrative skills.

  20. How effective are biodiversity conservation payments in Mexico?

    PubMed

    Costedoat, Sébastien; Corbera, Esteve; Ezzine-de-Blas, Driss; Honey-Rosés, Jordi; Baylis, Kathy; Castillo-Santiago, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    We assess the additional forest cover protected by 13 rural communities located in the southern state of Chiapas, Mexico, as a result of the economic incentives received through the country's national program of payments for biodiversity conservation. We use spatially explicit data at the intra-community level to define a credible counterfactual of conservation outcomes. We use covariate-matching specifications associated with spatially explicit variables and difference-in-difference estimators to determine the treatment effect. We estimate that the additional conservation represents between 12 and 14.7 percent of forest area enrolled in the program in comparison to control areas. Despite this high degree of additionality, we also observe lack of compliance in some plots participating in the PES program. This lack of compliance casts doubt on the ability of payments alone to guarantee long-term additionality in context of high deforestation rates, even with an augmented program budget or extension of participation to communities not yet enrolled.

  1. Food, eating and body image in the lives of low socioeconomic status rural Mexican women living in Queretaro State, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Kimoto, Riko; Ronquillo, Dolores; Caamaño, Maria C; Martinez, Guadalupe; Schubert, Lisa; Rosado, Jorge L; Garcia, Olga; Long, Kurt Z

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative research using semi-structured interviews and key informant interviews were used to explore how women from low socioeconomic rural households in Queretaro State, Mexico perceived and reacted to their obesogenic environment. Reduced availability of healthy food options and household financial constraints along with reduced agency of women in this setting were factors that limited women's ability to access and consume diets consistent with the promotion of good health. The cultural values that emphasised obesity as a desirable state for women and the women's social networks that promoted these values were also identified as playing a role in reinforcing certain behaviours. Public health advocates wanting to design interventions in such settings need to be sensitive to the cultural as well as the environmental context described for rural Mexican women.

  2. Do Rainfall Deficits Predict U.S.-bound Migration from Rural Mexico? Evidence from the Mexican Census

    PubMed Central

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; Riosmena, Fernando; Hunter, Lori M.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental and climatic changes have shaped human mobility for thousands of years and research on the migration-environment connection has proliferated in the past several years. Even so, little work has focused on Latin America or on international movement. Given rural Mexico’s dependency on primary sector activities involving various natural resources, and the existence of well-established transnational migrant networks, we investigate the association between rainfall patterns and U.S.-bound migration from rural locales, a topic of increasing policy relevance. The New Economics of Labor Migration (NELM) theory provides background, positing that migration represents a household-level risk management strategy. We use data from the year 2000 Mexican census for rural localities and socioeconomic and state-level precipitation data provided by the Mexican National Institute for Statistics and Geography. Multilevel models assess the impact of rainfall change on household-level international out-migration while controlling for relevant sociodemographic and economic factors. A decrease in precipitation is significantly associated with U.S.-bound migration, but only for dry Mexican states. This finding suggests that programs and policies aimed at reducing Mexico-U.S. migration should seek to diminish the climate/weather vulnerability of rural Mexican households, for example by supporting sustainable irrigation systems and subsidizing drought-resistant crops. PMID:23913999

  3. Two new mite species of the genus Zygoseius Berlese from Mexico (Acari, Mesostigmata)

    PubMed Central

    Ahadiyat, Ali; Beaulieu, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of mites of the genus Zygoseius Berlese, Zygoseius papaver sp. n. and Zygoseius lindquisti sp. n., collected from moss and flood debris, respectively, in a creek in Chiapas State, Mexico, are described herein. PMID:27920596

  4. Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of Mexico was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. In areal extent, Mexico is the third largest country on the continent of North America (not counting Greenland, which is a province of Denmark), comprised of almost 2 million square kilometers (756,000 square miles) of land. Home to roughly 100 million people, Mexico is second only to the United States in population, making it the world's largest Spanish-speaking nation. To the north, Mexico shares its border with the United States-a line that runs some 3,100 kilometers (1,900 miles) east to west. About half of this border is defined by the Rio Grande River, which runs southeast to the Gulf of Mexico (partially obscured by clouds in this image) and marks the dividing line between Texas and Mexico. Toward the upper left (northwest) corner of this image is the Baja California peninsula, which provides the western land boundary for the Gulf of California. Toward the northwestern side of the Mexican mainland, you can see the Sierra Madre Occidental Mountains (brownish pixels) running southeast toward Lake Chapala and the city of Guadalajara. About 400 km (250 miles) east and slightly south of Lake Chapala is the capital, Mexico City. Extending northward from Mexico City is the Sierra Madre Oriental Mountains, the irregular line of brownish pixels that seem to frame the western edges of the bright white cumulus clouds in this image. Between these two large mountain ranges is a large, relatively dry highland region. To the south, Mexico shares borders with Guatemala and Belize, both of which are located south of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula. Image courtesy Reto Stockli, Brian Montgomery, and Robert Simmon, based on data from the MODIS Science Team

  5. Drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents in a rural farming community in Baja California, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Volkmann, Tyson; Fraga, Miguel A.; Brodine, Stephanie K.; Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Cepeda, Alice; Elder, John P.; Garfein, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    We examined drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents of a migrant farming community in rural Baja California, Mexico. In October 2010, 164 members of a single colonia (community) underwent an interviewer-administered survey to assess ‘exposure to gang violence’ and ‘drug-scene familiarity’, as well as other health indicators. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of exposure to gang violence. Overall, 20% of participants were male, the median age was 27 years, 24% spoke an indigenous language, 42% reported exposure to gang violence, and 39% reported drug-scene familiarity. Factors independently associated with exposure to gang violence included being younger (AOR=0.80 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=0.67–0.96), living in the community longer (AOR=1.47 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.11–1.72), higher educational attainment (AOR=1.70 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.07–1.12), and drug-scene familiarity (AOR=5.10, 95%CI=2.39–10.89). Exposure to gang violence was very common in this community and was associated with drug-scene familiarity, suggesting a close relationship between drugs and gang violence in this rural community. In a region characterised by mass migration from poorer parts of Mexico, where drugs and gangs have not been previously reported, emerging social harms may affect these communities unless interventions are implemented. PMID:23072623

  6. Drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents in a rural farming community in Baja California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Volkmann, Tyson; Fraga, Miguel A; Brodine, Stephanie K; Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Cepeda, Alice; Elder, John P; Garfein, Richard S; Viidai Team

    2013-01-01

    We examined drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents of a migrant farming community in rural Baja California, Mexico. In October 2010, 164 members of a single colonia (community) underwent an interviewer-administered survey to assess 'exposure to gang violence' and 'drug-scene familiarity', as well as other health indicators. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of exposure to gang violence. Overall, 20% of participants were male, the median age was 27 years, 24% spoke an indigenous language, 42% reported exposure to gang violence and 39% reported drug-scene familiarity. Factors independently associated with exposure to gang violence included being younger (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.80 per 5-year increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.67-0.96), living in the community longer (AOR=1.47 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.11-1.72), higher educational attainment (AOR=1.70 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.07-1.12) and drug-scene familiarity (AOR=5.10, 95% CI=2.39-10.89). Exposure to gang violence was very common in this community and was associated with drug-scene familiarity, suggesting a close relationship between drugs and gang violence in this rural community. In a region characterised by mass migration from poorer parts of Mexico, where drugs and gangs have not been previously reported, emerging social harms may affect these communities unless interventions are implemented.

  7. PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF THE RURAL SPANISH AMERICAN VILLAGE OF NORTHERN NEW MEXICO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1963

    THIS SPEECH WAS DELIVERED TO THE NEW MEXICO CONFERENCE FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND WAS CONCERNED WITH THE PROBLEMS FACING SPANISH AMERICAN VILLAGE SETTLEMENTS IN NORTHERN NEW MEXICO. IT WAS STATED THAT THE FUNDAMENTAL REASONS FOR THE DECLINE OF THE SPANISH AMERICAN FARM VILLAGE INVOLVE THE PROCESS OF ACCULTURATION AND SOCIOECONOMIC ADJUSTMENT IN A…

  8. Assessment of water supply as an ecosystem service in a rural-urban watershed in southwestern Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Jujnovsky, Julieta; González-Martínez, Teresa Margarita; Cantoral-Uriza, Enrique Arturo; Almeida-Leñero, Lucia

    2012-03-01

    Studies from the ecosystem services perspective can provide a useful framework because they allow us to fully examine the benefits that humans obtain from socio-ecological systems. Mexico City, the second largest city in the world, has faced severe problems related to water shortages, which have worsened due to increasing population. Demand for space has forced changes in land cover, including covering areas that are essential for groundwater recharge. The city has 880 km(2) of forest areas that are crucial for the water supply. The Magdalena River Watershed was chosen as a model because it is a well-preserved zone within Mexico City and it provides water for the population. The general aim of this study was to assess the ecosystem service of the water supply in the Magdalena River Watershed by determining its water balance (SWAT model) and the number of beneficiaries of the ecosystem services. The results showed that the watershed provides 18.4 hm(3) of water per year. Baseflow was dominant, with a contribution of 85%, while surface runoff only accounted for 15%. The zone provides drinking water to 78,476 inhabitants and could supply 153,203 potential beneficiaries. This work provides an example for understanding how ecosystem processes determine the provision of ecosystem services and benefits to the population in a rural-urban watershed in Mexico City.

  9. Assessment of Water Supply as an Ecosystem Service in a Rural-Urban Watershed in Southwestern Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jujnovsky, Julieta; González-Martínez, Teresa Margarita; Cantoral-Uriza, Enrique Arturo; Almeida-Leñero, Lucia

    2012-03-01

    Studies from the ecosystem services perspective can provide a useful framework because they allow us to fully examine the benefits that humans obtain from socio-ecological systems. Mexico City, the second largest city in the world, has faced severe problems related to water shortages, which have worsened due to increasing population. Demand for space has forced changes in land cover, including covering areas that are essential for groundwater recharge. The city has 880 km2 of forest areas that are crucial for the water supply. The Magdalena River Watershed was chosen as a model because it is a well-preserved zone within Mexico City and it provides water for the population. The general aim of this study was to assess the ecosystem service of the water supply in the Magdalena River Watershed by determining its water balance (SWAT model) and the number of beneficiaries of the ecosystem services. The results showed that the watershed provides 18.4 hm3 of water per year. Baseflow was dominant, with a contribution of 85%, while surface runoff only accounted for 15%. The zone provides drinking water to 78,476 inhabitants and could supply 153,203 potential beneficiaries. This work provides an example for understanding how ecosystem processes determine the provision of ecosystem services and benefits to the population in a rural-urban watershed in Mexico City.

  10. Mexico.

    PubMed

    1988-02-01

    Focus in this discussion of Mexico is on the following: geography; the people; history; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Mexico. As of July 1987, the population of Mexico numbered 81.9 million with an estimated annual growth rate of 2.09%. 60% of the population is Indian-Spanish (mestizo), 30% American Indian, 9% white, and 1% other. Mexico is the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world and the 2nd most populous country in Latin America. Education is decentralized and expanded. Mexico's topography ranges from low desert plains and jungle-like coastal strips to high plateaus and rugged mountains. Hernan Cortes conquered Mexico in 1919-21 and founded a Spanish colony that lasted for almost 300 years. Independence from Spain was proclaimed by Father Miguel Hidalgo on September 16, 1810; the republic was established on December 6, 1822. Mexico's constitution of 1917 provides for a federal republic with a separation of powers into independent executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. Significant political themes of the administration of President Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado, who began his 6-year term in 1982, have been restructuring the economy, liberalizing trade practices, decentralizing government services, and eliminating corruption among public servants. In 1987, estimates put the real growth of the Mexican economy at 1.5%; the gross domestic product (GDP) had shrunk by 3.5% in 1986. Yet, on the positive side, Mexico's international reserves increased to record levels in 1987 (to about $15 billion), and its current account surplus reached more than $3 billion. Mexico has made considerable progress in moving to restructure its economy. It has substantially reduced impediments to international trade and has moved to reduce the number of parastatal firms. 1987 was the 2nd consecutive year in which Mexico recorded triple-digit inflation; inflation reached 158.8%. Other problems include

  11. Influence of Ethnicity on English Vocabulary Measurement: Using the Montgomery Assessment of Vocabulary Acquisition in One Rural Southeastern New Mexico School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatliffe, Eileen M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined vocabulary acquisition of elementary students in grades kindergarten through fifth in one rural New Mexico school. The school had 277 students. Hispanic students comprised nearly 80% of the student body. All students received free lunch and breakfast. The 65 students who participated in the study were assessed using the…

  12. A Comparative Analysis of Life Situations of Rural Youth from Two Different Cultural Settings: Northern Taos County, New Mexico, and Eastern Holmes County, Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuvlesky, William P.

    A comparative, interpretive analysis of the social organization of contrasting groups of rural youth from New Mexico ad Ohio was approached from an ethnomethodological perspective, relying on direct observation, intensive personal interviews, and key informants to produce a broader understanding of particular youth coping with their social…

  13. Empowering Parents to Improve Education: Evidence from Rural Mexico. Impact Evaluation Series Number 4. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3935

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gertler, Paul; Patrinos, Harry; Rubio-Codina, Marta

    2006-01-01

    Mexico's compensatory education program provides extra resources to primary schools that enroll disadvantaged students in highly disadvantaged rural communities. One of the most important components of the program is the school-based management intervention known as Apoyo a la Gestion Escolar, (AGEs). The impact of the AGEs is assessed on…

  14. Land-Use Symposium Proceedings: Privately Owned Rural Lands and Land-Use Planning (7th, Albuquerque, New Mexico, October 15-16, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Keith, Comp.; And Others

    This report includes 14 speeches by State and Local representatives relative to the control of land use and land use planning. The speeches are: (1) "The Status of Privately Owned Rural Land in New Mexico" (a statement regarding the confusing status of current statistics); (2) "Keynote Address" (emphasis on local control); (3)…

  15. Assessment of the Impact of an Animal Welfare Educational Course with First Grade Children in Rural Schools in the State of Morelos, Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguirre, Virginio; Orihuela, Agustin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if an educational package used for animal welfare teaching would have significant effects on the knowledge of first grade children in a rural area of Mexico. The research was conducted with 276 students in six public schools. In the experimental group, 177 children participated in a 10 week-long animal…

  16. [Food insecurity and social vulnerability in chiapas : the face of poverty].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Julio C; García-Chong, Néstor R; Trujillo-Olivera, Laura E; Noriero-Escalante, Lucio

    2014-12-01

    Objetivo: estimar la frecuencia y distribución de seguridad o inseguridad alimentaria entre las familias en Chiapas, relacionar con condiciones de bienestar (CB) y características sociodemográficas. Método: Estudio transversal retrospectivo, descriptivo; incluye información proveniente de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2012 (ENSANUT 2012) en total 1,430 viviendas de Chiapas. La Inseguridad Alimentaria se midió usando la versión armonizada para México de la Escala Latinoamericana y Caribeña de Seguridad Alimentaria (ELCSA). Resultados: El 83% de los hogares en Chiapas tiene algún tipo de inseguridad alimentaria; 86.5% se concentra en los niveles socioeconómicos más bajos; sólo 15 de cada 100 hogares en zonas rurales registran seguridad alimentaria; 87% de los hogares beneficiarios de Oportunidades mantiene inseguridad para alimentarse. Discusión: Más de cuatro de cada cinco familias reportan inseguridad alimentaria, queda claro que los programas sociales focalizados destinados a abatir este rezago no impactan los niveles de acceso a los alimentos, lo que repercute en el potencial desarrollo físico e intelectual de los chiapanecos, convirtiéndose en un obstáculo más para el desarrollo de la entidad. Se plantea analizar y reorientar las políticas sociales.

  17. Teaching and Learning in Rural Mexico: A Portrait of Student Responsibility in Everyday School Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, L.A.; McLaughlin, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we examined on the sociocultural environment and personal experiences of children from a rural Mexican escuela unitaria (one-room, one-teacher school), because many of our immigrant children come to the US from rural Mexican communities. We present a portrait of everyday school life in which students assume responsibility: (a) for…

  18. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Elorduy, Julieta; Moreno, José M P; Vázquez, Adolfo I; Landero, Ivonne; Oliva-Rivera, Héctor; Camacho, Víctor H M

    2011-01-06

    In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae.Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species.Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented.

  19. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae. Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species. Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented. PMID:21211040

  20. Managing the double burden: pregnancy and labor-intensive time use in rural China, Mexico, and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Peterman, Amber; Ng, Shu Wen; Palermo, Tia; Lee, I-Heng Emma

    2013-12-01

    Labor-intensive work is often a way of life for women living in rural areas of developing countries. The physical exertion involved in such work may result in poor health outcomes for mothers and infants when continued through pregnancy. Using longitudinal data from China, Mexico, and Tanzania, we examine the relationship between pregnancy and four time-use outcomes, measured as hours spent in the past week on: (1) housework, (2) caregiving, (3) agricultural work, and (4) self-employment or nonagricultural work outside the home. An individual fixed-effects approach is adopted to overcome the potential time-invariant woman-level endogeneity of pregnancy status. With few exceptions, we do not find significantly different time-use patterns between pregnant and nonpregnant women. The assumption that women decrease labor-intensive work in developing countries during pregnancy needs revisiting and may have implications for both women's livelihood programming and assistance during childbearing periods.

  1. Managing the double burden: Effects of pregnancy on labor-intensive time use in rural China, Mexico and Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Peterman, Amber; Ng, Shu Wen; Palermo, Tia; Lee, I-Heng Emma

    2014-01-01

    Labor-intensive work is often a way of life for women in rural areas of developing countries. However, physical exertion may result in poor health outcomes for mother and infant if continued through pregnancy. Using longitudinal data from China, Mexico and Tanzania, we examine the relationship between pregnancy and four time use outcomes, measured as hours spent in the last week on: 1) housework, 2) care giving, 3) agricultural work, and 4) self-employed or non-agricultural work outside the home. An individual fixed effects approach is adopted to overcome potential time invariant woman-level endogeneity of pregnancy status. With a few exceptions, we do not find significantly different time use patterns between pregnant and non-pregnant women. The assumption that women decrease labor intensive work in developing countries during pregnancy needs revisiting, and may have implications for both women’s livelihood programming and assistance during childbearing periods. PMID:24323660

  2. Risk Factors Associated with Triatomines and Its Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi in Rural Communities from the Southern Region of the State of Mexico, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Torres, Imelda; Vázquez-Chagoyán, Juan C.; Rodríguez-Vivas, Roger I.; de Oca-Jiménez, Roberto Montes

    2010-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi prevalence in triatomines and risk factors associated to the presence of the insect were studied in 990 rural houses in the southern region of the State of Mexico, Mexico. In each house, triatomines were collected, and information related to house construction material was obtained. T. cruzi infection was diagnosed in all triatomines. A primary screening was performed using 2 × 2 contingency tables of exposure variables. All variables with P ≤ 0.20 were analyzed by logistic regression. Triatomines (N = 125) were collected from 822 houses and analyzed for T. cruzi infection. Triatoma pallidipennis (97.4%) and Triatoma dimidiata (2.6%) were identified in 52.1% of the localities and in 6.1% of the houses. Infection was found in 28.0% of triatomines, from which 28.9% were nymphs. Factors associated with triatomine infestation were flooring construction material (dirt floor: odds ratio [OR], 10.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.31–18.04; P = 0.0001), house rooms (at least three rooms: OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.07–3.86; P = 0.028), and ceiling construction material (cardboard lamina tile: OR, 6.84; 95% CI, 1.49–31.31; P = 0.013). This study shows T. cruzi circulation in triatomines in the area of study, and because triatomines are adapted for living and reproducing in the domestic environment, there is a potential risk of Chagas disease transmission to humans. Also, we can conclude that the construction materials and house inhabitants are risk factors of triatomines infestation. PMID:20064995

  3. Synthetic peptide vaccine against Taenia solium pig cysticercosis: successful vaccination in a controlled field trial in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Huerta, M; de Aluja, A S; Fragoso, G; Toledo, A; Villalobos, N; Hernández, M; Gevorkian, G; Acero, G; Díaz, A; Alvarez, I; Avila, R; Beltrán, C; Garcia, G; Martinez, J J; Larralde, C; Sciutto, E

    2001-10-12

    Taenia solium cysticercosis seriously affects human health when localised in the central nervous system (CNS) and causes great economic loss in pig husbandry in rural areas of endemic countries. Increasing the resistance to the parasite in the obligatory host pig may help in curbing transmission. Three synthetic peptides based on protein sequences of the murine parasite Taenia crassiceps, which had previously been shown to induce protection in mice against homologous challenge, were tested as a vaccine against T. solium cysticercosis in pigs. Vaccinated and unvaccinated piglets (240 in all) were distributed in pairs among the peasants' households of two rural villages in Mexico in which 14% of the native pigs were cysticercotic. Ten to twelve months later, the effect of vaccination was evaluated at necropsy. Vaccination decreased the total number of T. solium cysticerci (98.7%) and reduced the prevalence (52.6%). The natural challenge conditions used in this field trial strengthen the likelihood of successful transmission control to both pig and human through a large-scale pig vaccination program. We believe this is a major contribution in anticysticercosis vaccine development as these rather simple yet protective peptides are potentially more cost-effective to produce and less variable in results than antigens that are more complex.

  4. Comparative Study of Lead Concentration in Feathers of Urban and Rural Passerines in Merida, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Nava-Diaz, Remedios; Hoogesteijn, Almira L; Erosa, Mercy Dzul; Febles, Jose L; Mendez-Gonzalez, Rosa M

    2015-10-01

    Lead is a commonly monitored heavy metal because of potential health effects on exposed organisms. We quantified lead in secondary feathers of two passerine bird species, clay-colored thrushes (Turdus grayi) and great-tailed grackles (Quiscalus mexicanus), from an urban and a rural site in the municipality of Merida, Yucatan. Urban lead concentration was significantly higher than its rural counterpart for both species (p < 0.05). In the urban site, lead concentration was similar in both species (p = 0.14). However, data from the rural site showed that lead concentration was significantly higher in thrush feathers (p < 0.05). Lead levels herein presented are among the lowest ever reported suggesting that either lead accumulation or absorption is limited. Finally, our data seem to support the hypothesis that species feeding ecology plays a major role in lead accumulation.

  5. Phylogenetic and morphologic evidence confirm the presence of a new montane cloud forest associated bird species in Mexico, the Mountain Elaenia (Elaenia frantzii; Aves: Passeriformes: Tyrannidae).

    PubMed

    Hanna, Zachary R; Ortiz-Ramírez, Marco F; Ríos-Muñoz, César A; Cayetano-Rosas, Héctor; Bowie, Rauri C K; Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G

    2016-01-01

    Here we provide evidence to support an extension of the recognized distributional range of the Mountain Elaenia (Elaenia frantzii) to include southern Mexico. We collected two specimens in breeding condition in northwestern Sierra Norte de Chiapas, Mexico. Morphologic and genetic evidence support their identity as Elaenia frantzii. We compared environmental parameters of records across the entire geographic range of the species to those at the northern Chiapas survey site and found no climatic differences among localities.

  6. Phylogenetic and morphologic evidence confirm the presence of a new montane cloud forest associated bird species in Mexico, the Mountain Elaenia (Elaenia frantzii; Aves: Passeriformes: Tyrannidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Ramírez, Marco F.; Ríos-Muñoz, César A.; Cayetano-Rosas, Héctor; Bowie, Rauri C. K.; Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G.

    2016-01-01

    Here we provide evidence to support an extension of the recognized distributional range of the Mountain Elaenia (Elaenia frantzii) to include southern Mexico. We collected two specimens in breeding condition in northwestern Sierra Norte de Chiapas, Mexico. Morphologic and genetic evidence support their identity as Elaenia frantzii. We compared environmental parameters of records across the entire geographic range of the species to those at the northern Chiapas survey site and found no climatic differences among localities. PMID:26855860

  7. Learning effect of a conditional cash transfer programme on poor rural women's selection of delivery care in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Walker, Dilys; Serván, Edson; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio

    2011-11-01

    BACKGROUND The Mexican programme Oportunidades/Progresa conditionally transfers money to beneficiary families. Over the past 10 years, poor rural women have been obliged to attend antenatal care (ANC) visits and reproductive health talks. We propose that the length of time in the programme influences women's preferences, thus increasing their use not only of services directly linked to the cash transfers, but also of other services, such as clinic-based delivery, whose utilization is not obligatory. OBJECTIVE To analyse the long-term effect of Oportunidades on women's use of antenatal and delivery care. METHODOLOGY 5051 women aged between 15 and 49 years old with at least one child aged less than 24 months living in rural localities were analysed. Multilevel probit and logit models were used to analyse ANC visits and physician/nurse attended delivery, respectively. Models were adjusted with individual and socio-economic variables and the locality's exposure time to Oportunidades. Findings On average women living in localities with longer exposure to Oportunidades report 2.1% more ANC visits than women living in localities with less exposure. Young women aged 15-19 and 20-24 years and living in localities with longer exposure to Oportunidades (since 1998) have 88% and 41% greater likelihood of choosing a physician/nurse vs. traditional midwife for childbirth, respectively. Women of indigenous origin are 68.9% less likely to choose a physician/nurse for delivery care than non-indigenous women. CONCLUSIONS An increase in the average number of ANC visits has been achieved among Oportunidades beneficiaries. An indirect effect is the increased selection of a physician/nurse for delivery care among young women living in localities with greater exposure time to Oportunidades. Disadvantaged women in Mexico (indigenous women) continue to have less access to skilled delivery care. Developing countries must develop strategies to increase access and use of skilled obstetric

  8. Our Own Back Yard: Mexico and U.S. National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Mexico into a civil war. Instead, he withdrew from the PRI to start a new political party, the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) , which...attacked and captured several towns in the 12 southern Mexican state of Chiapas22. Chiapas was mainly inhabited by Mayan Indians who have been the...Assuming that appropriate legislation were enacted which would allow the Army to lawfully engage in this essentially civil , domestic law enforcement

  9. Towards a typology of rural responses to healthcare in Mexico, 1920-1960.

    PubMed

    Smith, Benjamin T

    2013-03-01

    After the revolutionary conflicts of the 1910s, the Mexican state sought to bring peace to the country's obstreperous, rebellious and often downright unknown rural provinces through the establishment of a new social pact. Peasants were to embrace political loyalty, productivity, and secularization in return for land, education and healthcare. Success depended on multiple regional factors and even healthcare, often presented as a neutral, politically uncharged benefit, faced ample opposition. Using four examples, I seek to examine why certain regions embraced post-revolutionary healthcare, while others preferred to remain wedded to 'traditional' or Catholic medical institutions and practices.

  10. Development and evaluation of a health education intervention against Taenia solium in a rural community in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sarti, E; Flisser, A; Schantz, P M; Gleizer, M; Loya, M; Plancarte, A; Avila, G; Allan, J; Craig, P; Bronfman, M; Wijeyaratne, P

    1997-02-01

    A comprehensive study was undertaken in a rural community in the state of Morelos, Mexico to evaluate health education as an intervention measure against Taenia solium. An educational program was developed to promote recognition and knowledge of the transmission of the parasite and to improve hygienic behavior and sanitary conditions that foster transmission. The effects of educational intervention were evaluated by measuring changes in knowledge and practices and prevalence of human taeniasis and swine cysticercosis before and after the campaign. The health education strategy was implemented with the active participation of the population based on the information obtained from a sociologic study. A questionnaire was designed and used before, immediately after the intervention, and six months later. Statistically significant improvements occurred in knowledge of the parasite, its life cycle, and how it is acquired by humans; however, changes in behavior related to transmission were less dramatic and persistent. The prevalences of cysticercosis in pigs at the start of the education intervention were 2.6% and 5.2% by lingual examination and antibody detection (immunoblot assay), respectively, and approximately one year after the intervention they were 0% and 1.2% (P < 0.05). These changes were accompanied by significant reductions in the reported access of pigs to sources of infection and freedom to roam. We conclude that health education, developed along with community involvement, reduced opportunities for transmission of T. solium in the human-pig cycle.

  11. A systems approach to modeling Community-Based Environmental Monitoring: a case of participatory water quality monitoring in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Burgos, Ana; Páez, Rosaura; Carmona, Estela; Rivas, Hilda

    2013-12-01

    Community-Based Environmental Monitoring (CBM) is a social practice that makes a valuable contribution to environmental management and construction of active societies for sustainable future. However, its documentation and analysis show deficiencies that hinder contrast and comparison of processes and effects. Based on systems approach, this article presents a model of CBM to orient assessment of programs, with heuristic or practical goals. In a focal level, the model comprises three components, the social subject, the object of monitoring, and the means of action, and five processes, data management, social learning, assimilation/decision making, direct action, and linking. Emergent properties were also identified in the focal and suprafocal levels considering community self-organization, response capacity, and autonomy for environmental management. The model was applied to the assessment of a CBM program of water quality implemented in rural areas in Mexico. Attributes and variables (indicators) for components, processes, and emergent properties were selected to measure changes that emerged since the program implementation. The assessment of the first 3 years (2010-2012) detected changes that indicated movement towards the expected results, but it revealed also the need to adjust the intervention strategy and procedures. Components and processes of the model reflected relevant aspects of the CBM in real world. The component called means of action as a key element to transit "from the data to the action." The CBM model offered a conceptual framework with advantages to understand CBM as a socioecological event and to strengthen its implementation under different conditions and contexts.

  12. Maternal schooling and health-related language and literacy skills in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Dexter, E R; Levine, S E; Velasco, P M

    1998-05-01

    This article reports a study on the health-related language and literacy skills of mothers living in a rural Mexican town. Aiming to help fill the gap between research on maternal schooling and health and that on reading and literacy, the researchers apply a particular theory of literacy and schooling to understand the health-related language and literacy skills of mothers living in a rural Mexican town. Overall, the study showed that 1) there was wide variation in performance on all the skills measured; 2) there were significant correlations between oral language skills and reading skills; 3) scores on a decontextualized language task correlated with skills on the health-related listening, reading, and speaking tasks; 4) length of schooling was a significant predictor of the ability to provide decontextualized noun definitions, to understand spoken health messages, and to understand printed health messages, but at all levels of schooling there was wide variation in women's reading abilities; and 5) childhood schooling was not a significant predictor of women's health-interview speaking skills, although the control variable of adult socioeconomic status did not predict this ability. Research involving the relationship between decontextualized language and critical feminist consciousness is suggested.

  13. Modernization and rural health in Mexico: the case of the Tepalcatepec Commission.

    PubMed

    Opperman, Stephanie Baker

    2013-03-01

    Mexican policymakers instituted community-based health programs in the 1940s and 1950s to encourage rural participation in state-sponsored health and economic development initiatives. The Tepalcatepec Commission (1947-1961) united previously independent government programs into a multi-tiered collaboration that addressed regional development through national, state, and local networks. While national policymakers and state officials designed plans to improve agricultural production, promote industrialization, utilize the area's natural resources, and expand communication channels, health workers established unprecedented relationships with indigenous community members by introducing the Commission's projects in culturally relevant ways. They used their on-the-ground experiences to learn local languages, customs, and beliefs, and incorporated these factors into their health education and disease treatment campaigns. The result serves as an example of short-term cooperative relationships between healthcare workers and indigenous groups that not only reduced the major health risks in the area, but also paved the way for collective economic development.

  14. High prevalence of calcified silent neurocysticercosis in a rural village of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fleury, A; Gomez, T; Alvarez, I; Meza, D; Huerta, M; Chavarria, A; Carrillo Mezo, R A; Lloyd, C; Dessein, A; Preux, P M; Dumas, M; Larralde, C; Sciutto, E; Fragoso, G

    2003-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NC) is a parasitic disease caused by TAENIA SOLIUM when its larvae lodge in the central nervous system. NC prevalence estimates are obscured by the variable and often asymptomatic clinical picture. While infection depends on exposure, severity is possibly related with various host factors (immunity, genes and gender). This epidemiological study of cranial CT scans in an endemic rural community found that 9.1% of apparently healthy subjects had calcified lesions and were completely asymptomatic. Silent NC cases did not correlate with the exposure factors tested but showed family aggregation and higher rates of positive serology. Thus, NC prevalence may be higher than currently considered and host-related factors appear to be involved in infection and pathogenesis.

  15. New Fossil Scorpion from the Chiapas Amber Lagerstätte

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, Francisco; Villegas-Guzmán, Gabriel; González-Santillán, Edmundo; Córdova-Tabares, Víctor; Francke, Oscar F.; Piedra-Jiménez, Dulce; Estrada-Ruiz, Emilio; Luna-Castro, Bibiano

    2015-01-01

    A new species of scorpion is described based on a rare entire adult male preserved in a cloudy amber from Miocene rocks in the Chiapas Highlands, south of Mexico. The amber-bearing beds in Chiapas constitute a Conservation Lagerstätte with outstanding organic preservation inside plant resin. The new species is diagnosed as having putative characters that largely correspond with the genus Tityus Koch, 1836 (Scorpiones, Buthidae). Accordingly, it is now referred to as Tityus apozonalli sp. nov. Its previously unclear phylogenetic relationship among fossil taxa of the family Buthidae from both Dominican and Mexican amber is also examined herein. Preliminarily results indicate a basal condition of T. apozonalli regarding to Tityus geratus Santiago-Blay and Poinar, 1988, Tityus (Brazilotityus) hartkorni Lourenço, 2009, and Tityus azari Lourenço, 2013 from Dominican amber, as was Tityus (Brazilotityus) knodeli Lourenço, 2014 from Mexican amber. Its close relationships with extant Neotropic Tityus-like subclades such as ‘Tityus clathratus’ and the subgenus Tityus (Archaeotityus) are also discussed. This new taxon adds to the knowledge of New World scorpions from the Miocene that are rarely found trapped in amber. PMID:26244974

  16. New Fossil Scorpion from the Chiapas Amber Lagerstätte.

    PubMed

    Riquelme, Francisco; Villegas-Guzmán, Gabriel; González-Santillán, Edmundo; Córdova-Tabares, Víctor; Francke, Oscar F; Piedra-Jiménez, Dulce; Estrada-Ruiz, Emilio; Luna-Castro, Bibiano

    2015-01-01

    A new species of scorpion is described based on a rare entire adult male preserved in a cloudy amber from Miocene rocks in the Chiapas Highlands, south of Mexico. The amber-bearing beds in Chiapas constitute a Conservation Lagerstätte with outstanding organic preservation inside plant resin. The new species is diagnosed as having putative characters that largely correspond with the genus Tityus Koch, 1836 (Scorpiones, Buthidae). Accordingly, it is now referred to as Tityus apozonalli sp. nov. Its previously unclear phylogenetic relationship among fossil taxa of the family Buthidae from both Dominican and Mexican amber is also examined herein. Preliminarily results indicate a basal condition of T. apozonalli regarding to Tityus geratus Santiago-Blay and Poinar, 1988, Tityus (Brazilotityus) hartkorni Lourenço, 2009, and Tityus azari Lourenço, 2013 from Dominican amber, as was Tityus (Brazilotityus) knodeli Lourenço, 2014 from Mexican amber. Its close relationships with extant Neotropic Tityus-like subclades such as 'Tityus clathratus' and the subgenus Tityus (Archaeotityus) are also discussed. This new taxon adds to the knowledge of New World scorpions from the Miocene that are rarely found trapped in amber.

  17. Holocene eruptive activity of El Chichon volcano, Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilling, R. I.; Rubin, M.; Sigurdsson, H.; Carey, S.; Duffield, W. A.; Rose, W. I.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic and radiometric-age data indicate that El Chichon was frequently and violently active during the Holocene, including eruptive episodes about 600, 1250, and 1700 years ago and several undated, older eruptions. These episodes, involving explosive eruptions of sulfur-rich magma and associated domegrowth processes, were apparently separated by intervals of approximately 350 to 650 years. Some of El Chichon's eruptions may correlate with unusual atmospheric phenomena around A.D. 1300 and possibly A.D. 623.

  18. Holocene eruptive activity of El Chichon volcano, Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilling, R. I.; Rubin, M.; Sigurdsson, H.; Carey, S.; Duffield, W. A.; Rose, W. I.

    1984-05-01

    Geologic and radiometric-age data indicate that El Chichon was frequently and violently active during the Holocene, including eruptive episodes about 600, 1250, and 1700 years ago and several undated, older eruptions. These episodes, involving explosive eruptions of sulfur-rich magma and associated domegrowth processes, were apparently separated by intervals of approximately 350 to 650 years. Some of El Chichon's eruptions may correlate with unusual atmospheric phenomena around A.D. 1300 and possibly A.D. 623.

  19. Brucellosis outbreak in a rural endemic region of Mexico - a comprehensive investigation.

    PubMed

    Morales-Garcia, Maria Rosario Morales-Garcia; Lopez-Mendez, Jaime; Pless, Reynaldo; Garcia-Morales, Emilio; Kosanke, Hannah; Hernandez-Castro, Rigoberto; Bedi, Jasbir; Lopez-Merino, Ahide; Velazquez-Guadarram, Norma; Jimenez-Rojas, Leticia; Rontreras-Rodriguez, Araceli

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease. Generally, humans can be infected by either the consumption of raw milk and fresh cheeses made from unpasteurised milk or by contact with infected animals, mainly in endemic regions. In this study, we investigated a brucellosis outbreak in State of Guanajuato, an endemic region of Mexico. Microbiological culture of human blood, raw milk from cows and goats, and fresh cheeses was performed to isolate Brucella. Identification of the bacteria was done by bacteriological procedures and by multiplex Bruce-ladder polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Brucella melitensis was isolated from patients, infected goats, and fresh goat cheeses; while Brucella abortus was isolated from cows. All patients had eaten fresh cheese, but no occupational exposure to animals was reported. The results of molecular typing did not show any Brucella vaccine strains. The isolation, identification, and molecular characterisation of Brucella spp. in both human brucellosis cases and infected animals are very important to identify the source of infection and to take control measures in endemic regions.

  20. Aging in rural, indigenous communities: an intercultural and participatory healthcare approach in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela; Meneses-Navarro, Sergio; Ruelas-González, María Guadalupe; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; Amaya-Castellanos, Alejandra; Taboada, Arianna

    2016-10-28

    From an ethno-gerontological perspective, new models are needed to fulfill the health needs of the indigenous older adult population in Mexico. In this paper we developed a comprehensive healthcare model, interculturally appropriate, designed to meet the needs of Mexican indigenous older adults. The model was constructed using a qualitative design with semi-structured interviews of older adults, health providers, and available health resources in three Mexican indigenous regions. An ethnographical review was carried out to contextually characterize these communities. At the same time, a comprehensive bibliographic revision was made to identify socio-demographic markers. Results pointed out that Mexican indigenous older adults are not covered by any type of social health insurance program. Their health problems tend in large part to be chronic in nature due to the lack of early diagnosis and treatment. There is a need for trained human resources in the field of gerontology encompassing the sociocultural context of the indigenous groups. The geographical location of these communities limits the permanent presence of healthcare givers and thus limits access to continuous care. Traditional healthcare givers, able to speak the native language, are a great asset allowing the invaluable possibility of direct verbal communication. Based upon the data gathered from indigenous older adults and service providers, in tandem with evidence from the literature, we identified key elements for successful intervention and designed an intervention model. We concluded that indigenous older adults are a more vulnerable group, given that aside from being elderly in a country where the health needs of these populations exceed the capacity of existing healthcare services, their ethnicity serves as an added barrier preventing their access to the limited available healthcare resources. To achieve uniformity in providing health care, today's health systems need to address intercultural and

  1. [Breast feeding and child care: a case study of 2 rural areas of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gil-Romo, S E; Rueda-Arróniz, F; Díez-Urdanivia-Coria, S

    1993-01-01

    The present research is included in the fields of public health, social sciences and gender studies. Its objective is to provide insight into the nursing behaviour of two groups of mothers, their domestic and extra-domestic child care arrangements and their attitudes towards breast-feeding. Thirty-five mothers were selected in Malinalco, Mexico, and 35 in the Sierra de Juárez, Oaxaca. Each mother had at least two children and one of them under three years of age. The study was exploratory in its initial phase, subsequently cross-sectional, comparative and prospective. It constitutes a foundation for longitudinal case studies. A pre-coded questionnaire, including the following issues, was administered: family composition; maternal schooling; maternal employment; nursing behaviour with the last child; child care and attitudes towards breast-feeding. The main information regarding 33 mothers in Malinalco and 31 in Oaxaca revealed that in both areas mothers decided how to feed their children during the first days; during the first month, 55 per cent of mothers in Malinalco breast-fed their child, while approximately 90 per cent did so in Oaxaca. The majority of women worked outside home and resorted to extra-domestic arrangements for child care. No relation was found between the feeding method chosen with the last child and maternal employment. About 90 per cent of women in both areas were "happy" to have been born females and breast-feeding was considered a "must". Seventy five per cent of mothers would not allow other women to breast feed their child, even though they were aware that maternal milk is the best.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Dental fluorosis, fluoride in urine, and nutritional status in adolescent students living in the rural areas of Guanajuato, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    del Carmen, Aguilar-Díaz Fatima; Javier, de la Fuente-Hernández; Aline, Cintra-Viveiro Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess urine fluoride concentration, nutritional status, and dental fluorosis in adolescent students living in the rural areas of Guanajuato, Mexico. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted including participants aged 11–20 years. The presence and severity of dental fluorosis was registered according to the Thylstrup and Fejerskov index (TFI) criteria. Anthropometric measures were also recorded. Urine sample of the first morning spot was recollected to assess urine fluoride concentration by using the potentiometric method with an ion-selective electrode. Water samples were also recollected and analyzed. Bivariate tests were performed to compare urine fluoride concentration according to different variables such as sex, body mass index, and TFI. Nonparametric tests were used. A logistic regression model was performed (SPSS® 21.0). Results: This study included 307 participants with a mean age of 15.6 ± 1.6; 62.5% of the participants showed normal weight. A total of 91.9% of the participants had dental fluorosis, and 61.6% had TFI > 4. Mean fluoride content in urine ranged between 0.5 and 6.65 mg/L, with a mean of 1.27 ± 1.2 mg/L. Underweight children showed greater urine fluoride concentration. The increment of urine fluoride was a related (OR = 1.40) to having severe dental fluorosis. Conclusions: Most of the studied population had moderate or severe dental fluorosis. Urine fluoride concentration was related to fluorosis severity and nutritional status. Underweight children showed greater urine fluoride concentration as well as severe dental fluorosis. PMID:28032042

  3. U.S.-Mexico Economic Relations: Trends, Issues, and Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-31

    that the SPP and any subsequent trade- facilitating measures fell short of any grander vision of further economic integration.18 Critics of the SPP...cap of about $150. The majority of households receiving Oportunidades benefits are in Mexico’s six poorest states: Chiapas, Mexico State, Puebla

  4. U.S.-Mexico Economic Relations: Trends, Issues, and Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-03

    of any grander vision of further economic integration.23 Critics of the SPP contend that it may ultimately lead to a so-called “NAFTA Superhighway...The majority of households receiving Oportunidades benefits are in Mexico’s six poorest states: Chiapas, Mexico State, Puebla , Veracruz, Oaxaca, and

  5. Cash and in-kind transfers in poor rural communities in Mexico increase household fruit, vegetable, and micronutrient consumption but also lead to excess energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Jef L; Gadsden, Paola; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; de Cossío, Teresa González

    2010-03-01

    Conditional transfer programs are increasingly popular, but the impact on household nutrient consumption has not been studied. We evaluated the impact of the Programa de Apoyo Alimentario (PAL), a cash and in-kind transfer program, on the energy and nutrient consumption of poor rural households in Mexico. The program has been shown to reduce poverty. Beneficiary households received either a food basket (including micronutrient-fortified milk) or cash. A random sample of 206 rural communities in Southern Mexico was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: a monthly food basket with or without health and nutrition education, a cash transfer with a cost to the government equivalent to the food basket (14 USD/mo) with education, or control. The impact after 14 mo of exposure was estimated in a panel of 5823 households using a double difference regression model with household fixed effects. PAL was associated with increases (P < 0.01) in the consumption of total energy (5-9%), energy from fruits and vegetables (24-28%), and energy from animal source foods (24-39%). It also affected iron, zinc, and vitamin A and C consumption (P < 0.05). The consumption of energy and all nutrients was greater in the food basket group (P < 0.05). Cash and in-kind transfers in populations that are not energy-deficient should be carefully redesigned to ensure that pulling poor families out of poverty leads to improved micronutrient intake but not to increased energy consumption.

  6. Process evaluation of a promotora de salud intervention for improving hypertension outcomes for Latinos living in a rural U.S.-Mexico border region.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Victoria; Cacari Stone, Lisa; Moffett, Maurice L; Nguyen, PhoungGiang; Muhammad, Michael; Bruna-Lewis, Sean; Urias-Chauvin, Rita

    2014-05-01

    Hypertension is a growing public health problem for U.S.-Mexico border Latinos, who commonly experience low levels of awareness, treatment, and control. We report on a process evaluation that assessed the delivery of Corazón por la Vida, a 9-week promotora de salud-led curriculum to help Latinos manage and reduce hypertension risks in two rural/frontier counties in the New Mexico border region. Ninety-six adults participated in the program, delivered in three waves and in three communities. We assessed program delivery and quality, adherence, exposure, and participant responsiveness. Participant outcome measures included self-reported eating and physical activities and assessment of community resources. Findings suggest that the program was fully delivered (99%) and that most participants (81.7%) were very satisfied with the educational sessions. The average participant attendance for educational sessions was 77.47%. We found significant differences in self-reported behavioral changes depending on the number of sessions completed: The higher the dose of sessions, the better the self-reported outcomes. These findings suggest that a promotora-led curriculum may be useful for promoting self-management of chronic disease in rural/frontier border Latino populations. Future evaluation should focus on training and implementation adaptations within evidence-based chronic disease programs for diverse Latino communities.

  7. High Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Miners: A Case-Control Study in Rural Durango, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Pacheco-Vega, Sandy Janet; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Berumen-Segovia, Luis Omar; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Estrada-Martinez, Sergio; Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada Agustina; Salas-Pacheco, Jose Manuel; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Antuna-Salcido, Elizabeth Irasema

    2016-01-01

    Background Very little is known about the seroepidemiology of infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in miners. We determine the association of T. gondii infection and the occupation of miner, and the association of seropositivity for T. gondii with the socio-demographic, clinical, work and behavioral characteristics of the miners. Methods Through a case-control study, 125 miners working in Durango State, Mexico and 250 age- and gender-matched non-miner subjects were examined for the presence of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. In addition, the presence of T. gondii DNA in miners was determined using polymerase chain reaction. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine the association of socio-demographic, work, clinical and behavioral characteristics of miners with T. gondii infection. Results Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were detected in 75 (60.0%) of 125 miners and in 55 (22.0%) of 250 controls (odds ratio (OR) = 5.31; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.33 - 8.47; P < 0.001). Among IgG seropositive subjects, the frequency of anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies was significantly higher in miners (39/75, 52%) than in controls (8/55, 14.5%) (P < 0.001). All T. gondii seropositive miners referred themselves as healthy. Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, housing, and behavioral characteristics of miners showed that T. gondii seropositivity was positively associated with being born in Durango State (OR = 3.44; 95% CI: 1.09 - 10.7; P = 0.03), consumption of boar meat (OR = 5.53; 95% CI: 1.49 - 20.3; P = 0.01), living in an overcrowded home (OR = 5.83; 95% CI: 1.49 - 22.8; P = 0.01), and was negatively associated with cleaning cat excrement (OR = 0.33; 95% CI: 0.11 - 0.90; P = 0.03) and consuming goat meat (OR = 0.16; 95% CI: 0.03 - 0.76; P = 0.02). Conclusions Surprisingly, our results indicate that miners represent a risk group for T. gondii infection. This is the first age- and gender

  8. Psychometric Properties of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and Norms for Rural and Urban Adolescent Males and Females in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Penelo, Eva; Raich, Rosa M.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To contribute new evidence to the controversy about the factor structure of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and to provide, for the first time, norms based on a large adolescent Mexican community sample, regarding sex and area of residence (urban/rural). Methods A total of 2928 schoolchildren (1544 females and 1384 males) aged 11-18 were assessed with the EDE-Q and other disordered eating questionnaire measures. Results Confirmatory factor analysis of the attitudinal items of the EDE-Q did not support the four theorized subscales, and a two-factor solution, Restraint and Eating-Shape-Weight concern, showed better fit than the other models examined (RMSEA = .054); measurement invariance for this two-factor model across sex and area of residence was found. Satisfactory internal consistency (ω ≥ .80) and two-week test-retest reliability (ICCa ≥ .84; κ ≥ .56), and evidence for convergent validity with external measures was obtained. The highest attitudinal EDE-Q scores were found for urban females and the lowest scores were found for rural males, whereas the occurrence of key eating disorder behavioural features and compensatory behaviours was similar in both areas of residence. Conclusions This study reveals satisfactory psychometric properties and provides population norms of the EDE-Q, which may help clinicians and researchers to interpret the EDE-Q scores of adolescents from urban and rural areas in Mexico. PMID:24367587

  9. On the poorly known haplogynae spiders of the genus Ochyrocera Simon (Araneae, Ochyroceratidae) from Mexico: description of two new species with an updated identification key for Mexican species.

    PubMed

    Valdez-Mondragón, Alejandro

    2017-01-26

    Two new species of the spider genus Ochyrocera Simon 1891 are described from Mexico. Ochyrocera jarocha new species was collected under rotten trunks and hollow trunks in a tropical rainforest, in San Martin Volcano, Veracruz, Mexico. Ochyrocera pojoj new species was collected in a mixed forest, under rotten trunks, in La Trinitaria, Chiapas, Mexico, which represents the third species described from the state of Chiapas. With the description of the two new species herein, six species of Ochyrocera are recorded from Mexico. An updated taxonomic identification key and a distribution map to the Mexican species are provided.

  10. The Zapatista Social Netwar in Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    manifesto calling people to arms, "El Despertador Mexicano " (The Mexican Awakening), issued December 1, 1993, the EZLN describes itself as having a...troops, if engaged, may overstep, 15Quote from a statement by Roderic Camp, El Financiero , 25 September, 1997, as posted on the Internet. 16In many...March 1995 (as posted on the Internet, De- cember 20, 1995). Orozco Zuarth, Marco A., Sintesis de Chiapas, Mexico City: Ediciones y Sistemas

  11. Flood Risk in Motozintla de Mendoza, Chiapas: An Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, F.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    The town of Motozintla de Mendoza (15o 22' N and 92o 15' W) is located southern Chiapas, Mexico, and it is highly exposed to flood hazards. This community has suffered the impact of two disaster events due to this natural hazard in less than ten years, the first one in 1998 and the second one in 2005. The objective of this research is to assess the level of flood risk in the community of Motozintla. The methodology consisted of four steps: (1) Identification of the level of flood hazard; (2) Vulnerability assessment considering weighted variables according to their level of incidence on the local risk conditions; (3) Preparation of risk matrices for each area exposed to floods; and 4) Cartographic representation and spatial analysis of the results. We obtained a Geographical Information System (GIS) map for each group of analyzed vulnerabilities (structural, public services, socio-economic, existing plans in case of contingencies, and risk perception) and one map associated to global vulnerability (overposing of all estimated vulnerabilities). These maps demonstrates that the local conditions of structural vulnerability have a high incidence in the generation of risk, differing from the lack of public basic services, which although unfavorable for the population, it is not a deciding factor for preserving life or housing. Another interesting result is that the lack of preparation of the community to face a disaster generates a higher risk level than the other analyzed socioeconomic conditions. The global vulnerability allowed us to determine with greater detail the flood risk levels in the community. Our results indicate that the area in Motozintla with the highest level of flood risk is located in the margins of the Xelajú river, particularly the region that was flooded in 2005, which is precisely the area where the rivers Xelajú, Allende and La Mina meet and the river flow increases. Unfortunately, the northeasters part of this zone had been populated by people

  12. Impact of Mining Development on an Isolated Rural Community: The Case of Cuba, New Mexico. New Mexico Agricultural Experiment Station Research Report 301.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ives, Berry; Eastman, Clyde

    When it commenced operation in 1971, the Nacimiento Copper Mine provided 135 new jobs. This was about half of the 278 new permanent jobs created in Cuba, New Mexico, from 1970 to 1974. Concurrent and independent development of the Checkerboard Health Clinic and expansion of the school system accounted for most of the remaining new employment.…

  13. Interruption of Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the Southern Chiapas Focus, México

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A.; Domínguez-Vázquez, Alfredo; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Hassan, Hassan K.; Arredondo-Jiménez, Juan I.; Orozco-Algarra, María Eugenia; Rodríguez-Morales, Kristel B.; Rodríguez-Luna, Isabel C.; Prado-Velasco, Francisco Gibert

    2013-01-01

    Background The Southern Chiapas focus of onchocerciasis in Southern Mexico represents one of the major onchocerciasis foci in Latin America. All 559 endemic communities of this focus have undergone semi-annual mass treatment with ivermectin since 1998. In 50 communities of this focus, ivermectin frequency shifted from twice to four times a year in 2003; an additional 113 communities were added to the quarterly treatment regimen in 2009 to achieve a rapid suppression of transmission. Methodology/Principal findings In-depth epidemiologic and entomologic assessments were performed in six sentinel communities (which had undergone 2 rounds of ivermectin treatment per year) and three extra-sentinel communities (which had undergone 4 rounds of ivermectin treatment per year). None of the 67,924 Simulium ochraceum s.l. collected from this focus during the dry season of 2011 were found to contain parasite DNA when tested by polymerase chain reaction-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA), resulting in an upper bound of the 95% confidence interval (95%-ULCI) of the infective rate in the vectors of 0.06/2,000 flies examined. Serological assays testing for Onchocerca volvulus exposure conducted on 4,230 children 5 years of age and under (of a total population of 10,280 in this age group) revealed that 2/4,230 individuals were exposed to O. volvulus (0.05%; one sided 95% confidence interval = 0.08%). Conclusions/Significance The in-depth epidemiological and entomological findings from the Southern Chiapas focus meet the criteria for interruption of transmission developed by the international community. PMID:23556018

  14. How Effective Are Biodiversity Conservation Payments in Mexico?

    PubMed Central

    Costedoat, Sébastien; Corbera, Esteve; Ezzine-de-Blas, Driss; Honey-Rosés, Jordi; Baylis, Kathy; Castillo-Santiago, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    We assess the additional forest cover protected by 13 rural communities located in the southern state of Chiapas, Mexico, as a result of the economic incentives received through the country's national program of payments for biodiversity conservation. We use spatially explicit data at the intra-community level to define a credible counterfactual of conservation outcomes. We use covariate-matching specifications associated with spatially explicit variables and difference-in-difference estimators to determine the treatment effect. We estimate that the additional conservation represents between 12 and 14.7 percent of forest area enrolled in the program in comparison to control areas. Despite this high degree of additionality, we also observe lack of compliance in some plots participating in the PES program. This lack of compliance casts doubt on the ability of payments alone to guarantee long-term additionality in context of high deforestation rates, even with an augmented program budget or extension of participation to communities not yet enrolled. PMID:25807118

  15. Cash and in-kind transfers lead to excess weight gain in a population of women with a high prevalence of overweight in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Jef L; Gadsden, Paola; González de Cossío, Teresa; Gertler, Paul

    2013-03-01

    There is a growing concern that food or cash transfer programs may contribute to overweight and obesity in adults. We studied the impact of Mexico's Programa de Apoyo Alimentario (PAL), which provided very poor rural households with cash or in-kind transfers, on women's body weight. A random sample of 208 rural communities in southern Mexico was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: food basket with or without health and nutrition education, cash with education, or control. The impact on women's weight was estimated in a cohort of 3010 women using a difference-in-difference model. We compared the impact between the food basket and cash groups and evaluated whether the impact was modified by women's BMI status at baseline. With respect to the control group, the program increased women's weight in the food basket (550 ± 210 g; P = 0.004) and the cash group (420 ± 230 g; P = 0.032); this was equivalent to 70 and 53% increases in weight gain, respectively, over that observed in the control group in a 23-mo time period. The greatest impact was found in already obese women: 980 ± 290 g in the food basket group (P = 0.001) and 670 ± 320 g in the cash group (P = 0.019). Impact was marginally significant in women with a preprogram BMI between 25 and 30 kg/m2: 490 ± 310 g (P = 0.055) and 540 ± 360 g (P = 0.067), respectively. No program impact was found in women with a BMI <25 kg/m2. Providing households with a considerable amount of unrestricted resources led to excess weight gain in an already overweight population. Research is needed to develop cost-effective behavior change communication strategies to complement cash and in-kind transfer programs such as PAL and to help beneficiaries choose healthy diets that improve the nutritional status of all family members.

  16. IONS-06 Ozone Profiles in the Rural-Urban Transition at Mexico City in March 2006: Mixture of Pollution and UT/LS Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A. M.; Long, R. B.; Miller, S. K.; Yorks, J. E.; Madigan, M. J.; Witte, J. C.; Kucsera, T. L.; Lefer, B.; Morris, G. A.

    2006-12-01

    We have used ozone profile data from soundings for better interpretation of atmospheric chemistry and dynamics at the urban-non-urban interface. Notably soundings have been taken during regional field campaigns like INTEX-NA (Intercontinental Transport Experiment - North America, 2004) and the 2006 Milagro/MIRAGE-Mex (Megacity Impacts of Regional and Global Environments)/ INTEX-B. IONS (INTEX Ozonesonde Network Study) is a network for studying the vertical structure and long-range transport of ozone and tropospheric water vapor during the INTEX experiments. In IONS-04, the urban-non-urban transition, was targeted at Beltsville, Maryland, a wooded suburban Washington DC site, and Narragansett, a coastal region downwind of New York City. From 5 to 20 March 2006, during IONS-06, ozone soundings were made over the Milagro T1 site (Tecamac, 19N, 99W), at the urban-rural interface, about 80 km NE of Mexico City. Simultaneous soundings were made over Houston, TX, 30N, 95W, approximately 1000 km to the northeast. Day-to-day variations in tropospheric ozone at T1 are explained by regional meteorology and emissions. Pollution accumulation at T1 was most noticeable during a stagnation period early in March, with winds from Mexico City. Downwind of T1, Houston was affected on 10 March 2006. In addition to pollution impacts, ozone variations throughout the troposphere and lower stratosphere over T1 were associated with equatorial Gravity waves. IONS-06 images for Mexico City/Tecamac, Houston, and those for other March 2006 data are viewable at: http://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/intexb/ions06.

  17. "Landslide at sunuapa 401 (hydrocarbon exploration well). Risk reduction by mitigation measures: drainage, piles barrier and anchorages system, shotcrete and reforestation, Chiapas, México".

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuanalo, Oscar; Polanco, Gabriel; Rivera, Julio

    2013-04-01

    We report the case of a landslide of hydrocarbon exploration well "Sunuapa 401" located in Chiapas, Mexico. First were identified the determinants and triggers factors (morphology, geology, rain, seismic and volcanic activity, human activity, etc); second we assessed the threat, vulnerability and risk from geotechnical stability analysis (safety factor and critical failure surface); third, by using the methodology of valuation factors, stabilization processes were selected and designed, and finally they were built by Petróleos Mexicanos, in order to avoid a disaster (environmental, ecological and social). These construction processes included drainage elements, flattening and benching of slopes, piles barrier and anchors, shotcrete and reforestation.

  18. Implementing a Statewide Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) Service in Rural Health Settings: New Mexico SBIRT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Arturo; Westerberg, Verner S.; Peterson, Thomas R.; Moseley, Ana; Gryczynski, Jan; Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; Buff, Gary; Schwartz, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    This is a report on the New Mexico Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) project conducted over 5 years as part of a national initiative launched by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration with the aim of increasing integration of substance use services and medical care. Throughout the state, 53,238…

  19. Cultural Capital and Innovative Pedagogy: A Case Study among Indigenous Communities in Mexico and Honduras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregorcic, Marta

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces case studies of innovative approaches to pedagogy among indigenous Mayan communities in Chiapas (Mexico) and Lencan communities in Intibuca (Honduras). Innovative approaches to researching alternative theories and practices of pedagogy are used by the author to develop an epistemology of critical pedagogy and its potential…

  20. Four new species of Cymatodera Gray from central and southern Mexico (Coleoptera, Cleridae, Tillinae).

    PubMed

    Burke, Alan F; Rifkind, Jacques; Zolnerowich, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Four new species of Cymatodera are described from Mexico: Cymatoderatortuosa Burke & Rifkind, sp. n. from Hidalgo and Tamaulipas; Cymatoderaortegae Burke, sp. n. from Colima, Jalisco and Michoacan; Cymatoderagerstmeieri Burke & Rifkind, sp. n. from Chiapas; and Cymatoderamixteca Burke & Rifkind, sp. n. from Puebla and Guerrero. Male genitalia and other characters of taxonomic value are illustrated.

  1. Four new species of Cymatodera Gray from central and southern Mexico (Coleoptera, Cleridae, Tillinae)

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Alan F.; Rifkind, Jacques; Zolnerowich, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of Cymatodera are described from Mexico: Cymatodera tortuosa Burke & Rifkind, sp. n. from Hidalgo and Tamaulipas; Cymatodera ortegae Burke, sp. n. from Colima, Jalisco and Michoacan; Cymatodera gerstmeieri Burke & Rifkind, sp. n. from Chiapas; and Cymatodera mixteca Burke & Rifkind, sp. n. from Puebla and Guerrero. Male genitalia and other characters of taxonomic value are illustrated. PMID:26257571

  2. Streptococcus pneumoniae: low frequency of penicillin resistance and high resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in nasopharyngeal isolates from children in a rural area in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Miranda Novales, M G; Solorzano Santos, F; Guiscafre Gallardo, H; Leaños Miranda, B; Echaniz Aviles, G; Carnalla Barajas, M N; Palafox Torres, M; Muñoz Hernandez, O

    1997-01-01

    Due to the changes in the frequency of penicillin-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae, it is necessary to perform surveillance studies of bacterial resistance. Isolates from the upper respiratory tract of asymptomatic children have been useful. There is no information about the difference between isolates from children with and without upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). The objective of the authors in this paper is to establish the prevalence of carrier-state, serotype and antimicrobial resistance of S. pneumoniae isolates from children with and without acute upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in a rural area in Mexico. A cross-sectional comparative study was performed in Tlaxcala, Mexico. Children from one month 5 years of age were included. Nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained. Identification was done by international microbiology standards. Serotyping was done by the capsular Quellung test. The susceptibility testing was performed by the agar dilution method. Four-hundred and fifty patients were included. S. pneumoniae was isolated in 134 children (29.7%). Frequency of carriers was greater in patients with URTI (107/323) than without URTI (27/127) (33.1% vs. 21.1% p = 0.012, OR 1.84, IC 95% 1.1-3.08). The six most frequent serotypes were: 6B (16.4%); 19F (11.9%); 19A (6.7%); 14, 23F, and 35 (5.2% each), with no difference among the groups. Only 3% of the strains had high level resistance to penicillin, and 12.6% had intermediate resistance, and for ampicillin 4%, amoxicillin 4%, amoxicillin-clavulanate 4%, ceftriaxone 3%, cefotaxime 1.5%, erythromycin 6%, miocamycin 3%, chloramphenicol 4%, and vancomycin 0%. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance was very high (42%). In conclusion, colonization is higher in children with URTI. Five of the most frequent serotypes identified in this study were the same as those identified in patients with S. pneumoniae invasive diseases in Mexico City. In Tlaxcala, Mexico, beta-lactams could be the drug of choice for

  3. A new species of the spider genus Taczanowskia (Araneae, Araneidae) from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ibarra-Núñez, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    A new species of the spider genus Taczanowskia, T. gustavoi n. sp. is described from Chiapas, Mexico. This finding extends the distribution of Taczanowskia species, hitherto known only from South America to Southern Mexico. T. gustavoi n. sp. can be differentiated from all other species in this genus by having more than six tubercles in the dorsum of its opisthosoma. This species is included in an earlier determination key for all previously known Taczanowskia species.

  4. Maternal education mitigates the negative effects of higher income on the double burden of child stunting and maternal overweight in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Jef L; Habicht, Jean-Pierre; González de Cossío, Teresa; Ruel, Marie T

    2014-05-01

    Globally, the rate at which maternal overweight and obesity increase with rising wealth is higher than the accompanying decline in the prevalence of child stunting, resulting in the double burden of malnutrition. The positive association between household wealth and child linear growth is larger in households with a more educated mother. However, whether a similar positive and synergistic association between maternal education and household wealth is observed for maternal body weight is unknown. Our objective was to assess the potential protective role of maternal education in the etiology of the double burden of malnutrition (stunted child with an overweight mother). We used data on 1547 nonpregnant mothers (aged 18-49 y) and their children (aged 0-5 y) collected in a cross-sectional survey in 235 rural communities in southern Mexico. Child height-for-age Z-score and maternal body weight were regressed on household wealth, women's schooling, and the interaction between both, controlling for relevant covariates. A similar model was used for the prevalence of double-burden pairs (stunted child with an overweight mother). In mothers with less than primary school, a doubling in wealth was not associated with improved child's height but was associated with an increase in mother's weight (3.7%, P < 0.01). In mothers who had completed primary school, the reverse was found: a doubling in wealth score was associated with improved child height-for-age Z-score (0.32 SD, P < 0.01) but not with mother's weight. As a result, a 100% increase in wealth among households with less schooled mothers was associated with a 4.5 percentage point increase (P < 0.05) in double-burden pairs; in households with mothers with primary schooling or more, it was not associated with the occurrence of double-burden pairs. Maternal schooling effectively mitigated the negative effects of household wealth on the prevalence of double-burden households in rural Mexico. Where maternal schooling is low

  5. Healthy vinton: a health impact assessment focused on water and sanitation in a small rural town on the US-Mexico border.

    PubMed

    Hargrove, William L; Juárez-Carillo, Patricia M; Korc, Marcelo

    2015-04-07

    We conducted a Health Impact Assessment (HIA) focused on water and sanitation in Vinton, TX, a small rural town on the U.S./Mexico Border. We present the Vinton HIA as a case study to inform the practice of HIA in rural limited resource communities with higher than average levels of unemployment and poverty, and limited infrastructure. Household surveys, focus groups, and interviews provided quantitative and qualitative data on water sources and quality, sanitation practices, and community health. We found that some of the current water sources in Vinton did not meet drinking water standards for total dissolved solids and arsenic; the majority of septic tanks were not managed properly; and there was a short-term risk of water scarcity due to prolonged drought in the region. Prevalent ailments reported by participants included stomach problems, diarrhea, and skin problems. These ailments can be related to arsenic and/or biological organisms in water. The positive direct and indirect health impacts of improved water and sanitation in Vinton included: reduced gastrointestinal illnesses and skin disorders; improved water quality, quantity, and pressure; reduced risks from failing septic systems; increased property value; potential economic growth; and enhanced quality of life. The negative direct and indirect impacts included: residents' initial and monthly costs; increased property taxes; increased debt by local government; and the need for ongoing support from changing elected decision makers. The unique challenges in completing this HIA included: (a) limited available data; (b) a culture of fear and distrust among residents; (c) residents' lack of education, awareness, and civic discourse regarding water and sanitation issues and their impact on public health; and (d) lack of civic discourse and participation in the democratic process. An important outcome of the HIA was the characterization of local water supplies, which motivated and empowered the community

  6. Healthy Vinton: A Health Impact Assessment Focused on Water and Sanitation in a Small Rural Town on the U.S.-Mexico Border

    PubMed Central

    Hargrove, William L.; Juárez-Carillo, Patricia M.; Korc, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a Health Impact Assessment (HIA) focused on water and sanitation in Vinton, TX, a small rural town on the U.S./Mexico Border. We present the Vinton HIA as a case study to inform the practice of HIA in rural limited resource communities with higher than average levels of unemployment and poverty, and limited infrastructure. Household surveys, focus groups, and interviews provided quantitative and qualitative data on water sources and quality, sanitation practices, and community health. We found that some of the current water sources in Vinton did not meet drinking water standards for total dissolved solids and arsenic; the majority of septic tanks were not managed properly; and there was a short-term risk of water scarcity due to prolonged drought in the region. Prevalent ailments reported by participants included stomach problems, diarrhea, and skin problems. These ailments can be related to arsenic and/or biological organisms in water. The positive direct and indirect health impacts of improved water and sanitation in Vinton included: reduced gastrointestinal illnesses and skin disorders; improved water quality, quantity, and pressure; reduced risks from failing septic systems; increased property value; potential economic growth; and enhanced quality of life. The negative direct and indirect impacts included: residents’ initial and monthly costs; increased property taxes; increased debt by local government; and the need for ongoing support from changing elected decision makers. The unique challenges in completing this HIA included: (a) limited available data; (b) a culture of fear and distrust among residents; (c) residents’ lack of education, awareness, and civic discourse regarding water and sanitation issues and their impact on public health; and (d) lack of civic discourse and participation in the democratic process. An important outcome of the HIA was the characterization of local water supplies, which motivated and empowered the community

  7. The Disruption of Subsistence Agricultural Systems in Rural Yucatan, Mexico may have Contributed to the Coexistence of Stunting in Children with Adult Overweight and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Gurri, Francisco D

    2015-12-01

    This paper attempts to link last century's disruption of local agricultural systems to today's presence of childhood under nutrition and adult overweight and obesity in the Yucatan Peninsula. It first compares Height for Age (H/A), Weight for Age (W/A) and Body Mass Index (BMI) of children from three rural populations in Yucatan and Campeche, Mexico whose subsistence strategy had been altered to different degrees since 1970. It then compares BMI in adults, in the same regions, born before and after the alteration of their environment in the 1970's. Children in the least disrupted zone were taller and had lower BMI than children in the other two, but were not heavier than children from the richest disrupted zone. Children in the poorest disrupted zone were shorter and lighter than the rest. BMI in adult men was higher in the two most disrupted zones only in those cohorts that grew up after the traditional agricultural regime was altered. It is concluded that disruptions of staple-based subsistence agriculture promoted a stockier phenotype in children and a tendency to accumulate body fat. Persistence of these conditions in the twenty first century has favored the coexistence of stunting during childhood with adults who easily become overweight.

  8. Familial clustering of Taenia solium cysticercosis in the rural pigs of Mexico: hints of genetic determinants in innate and acquired resistance to infection.

    PubMed

    Sciutto, E; Martínez, J J; Huerta, M; Avila, R; Fragoso, G; Villalobos, N; de Aluja, A; Larralde, C

    2003-10-20

    In two rural villages of the state of Puebla, Mexico, where Taenia solium pig cysticercosis is highly endemic, 120 pairs of young out-bred piglets were used to assay what proved to be an effective synthetic peptide vaccine against naturally acquired cysticercosis. Because the piglets used were all sired by one of three distinct studs in many different out-bred sows, the prevalence and intensity of infection, as well as degree of protection conferred by the vaccine, could be related to each of the three stud families (A-C). The highest prevalence was found in the C family (25%), whilst the prevalence of B and A families were 21.6 and 4.4%, respectively. Familial clustering of cases was even more conspicuous in vaccinated pigs than in not-vaccinated ones: seven of the nine cysticercosis cases that occurred in the vaccinated group belonged to the C family (7/26) and two to the B family (2/23), whilst the vaccine rendered the A family totally resistant (0/71). Parasite numbers were also higher in the C family in both nai;ve and vaccinated pigs. Familial clustering of cases and of large parasite numbers in naive and vaccinated pigs hint to the relevance of their genetic background in their innate and acquired resistance to cysticercosis.

  9. Comparative serology techniques for the diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in a rural population from the state of Querétaro, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villagrán-Herrera, María Elena; Sánchez-Moreno, Manuel; Rodríguez-Méndez, Adriana Jheny; Hernández-Montiel, Hebert Luis; Dávila-Esquivel, Felipe de Jesús; González-Pérez, Germán; Martínez-Ibarra, José Alejandro; Diego-Cabrera, José Antonio de

    2014-10-21

    Immunological diagnostic methods for Trypanosoma cruzi depend specifically on the presence of antibodies and parasitological methods lack sensitivity during the chronic and "indeterminate" stages of the disease. This study performed a serological survey of 1,033 subjects from 52 rural communities in 12 of the 18 municipalities in the state of Querétaro, Mexico. We detected anti-T. cruzi antibodies using the following tests: indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA), indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), ELISA and recombinant ELISA (rELISA). We also performed Western blot (WB) analysis using iron superoxide dismutase (FeSOD), a detoxifying enzyme excreted by the parasite, as the antigen. Positive test results were distributed as follows: ELISA 8%, rELISA 6.2%, IFA and IHA 5.4% in both cases and FeSOD 8%. A comparative study of the five tests was undertaken. Sensitivity levels, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, concordance percentage and kappa index were considered. Living with animals, trips to other communities, gender, age, type of housing and symptomatology at the time of the survey were statistically analysed using SPSS software v.11.5. Detection of the FeSOD enzyme that was secreted by the parasite and used as an antigenic fraction in WBs showed a 100% correlation with traditional ELISA tests.

  10. Comparative serology techniques for the diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in a rural population from the state of Querétaro, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villagrán-Herrera, María Elena; Sánchez-Moreno, Manuel; Rodríguez-Méndez, Adriana Jheny; Hernández-Montiel, Hebert Luis; Dávila-Esquivel, Felipe de Jesús; González-Pérez, Germán; Martínez-Ibarra, José Alejandro; Diego-Cabrera, José Antonio de

    2014-11-01

    Immunological diagnostic methods for Trypanosoma cruzi depend specifically on the presence of antibodies and parasitological methods lack sensitivity during the chronic and "indeterminate" stages of the disease. This study performed a serological survey of 1,033 subjects from 52 rural communities in 12 of the 18 municipalities in the state of Querétaro, Mexico. We detected anti-T. cruzi antibodies using the following tests: indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA), indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), ELISA and recombinant ELISA (rELISA). We also performed Western blot (WB) analysis using iron superoxide dismutase (FeSOD), a detoxifying enzyme excreted by the parasite, as the antigen. Positive test results were distributed as follows: ELISA 8%, rELISA 6.2%, IFA and IHA 5.4% in both cases and FeSOD 8%. A comparative study of the five tests was undertaken. Sensitivity levels, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, concordance percentage and kappa index were considered. Living with animals, trips to other communities, gender, age, type of housing and symptomatology at the time of the survey were statistically analysed using SPSS software v.11.5. Detection of the FeSOD enzyme that was secreted by the parasite and used as an antigenic fraction in WBs showed a 100% correlation with traditional ELISA tests.

  11. A Stepped Wedge, Cluster-Randomized Trial of a Household UV-Disinfection and Safe Storage Drinking Water Intervention in Rural Baja California Sur, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Joshua S.; Reygadas, Fermin; Arnold, Benjamin F.; Ray, Isha; Nelson, Kara; Colford, John M.

    2013-01-01

    In collaboration with a local non-profit organization, this study evaluated the expansion of a program that promoted and installed Mesita Azul, an ultraviolet-disinfection system designed to treat household drinking water in rural Mexico. We conducted a 15-month, cluster-randomized stepped wedge trial by randomizing the order in which 24 communities (444 households) received the intervention. We measured primary outcomes (water contamination and diarrhea) during seven household visits. The intervention increased the percentage of households with access to treated and safely stored drinking water (23–62%), and reduced the percentage of households with Escherichia coli contaminated drinking water (risk difference (RD): −19% [95% CI: −27%, −14%]). No significant reduction in diarrhea was observed (RD: −0.1% [95% CI: −1.1%, 0.9%]). We conclude that household water quality improvements measured in this study justify future promotion of the Mesita Azul, and that future studies to measure its health impact would be valuable if conducted in populations with higher diarrhea prevalence. PMID:23732255

  12. Comparative serology techniques for the diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in a rural population from the state of Querétaro, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Villagrán-Herrera, María Elena; Sánchez-Moreno, Manuel; Rodríguez-Méndez, Adriana Jheny; Hernández-Montiel, Hebert Luis; Dávila-Esquivel, Felipe de Jesús; González-Pérez, Germán; Martínez-Ibarra, José Alejandro; de Diego-Cabrera, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Immunological diagnostic methods for Trypanosoma cruzi depend specifically on the presence of antibodies and parasitological methods lack sensitivity during the chronic and “indeterminate” stages of the disease. This study performed a serological survey of 1,033 subjects from 52 rural communities in 12 of the 18 municipalities in the state of Querétaro, Mexico. We detected anti-T. cruzi antibodies using the following tests: indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA), indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), ELISA and recombinant ELISA (rELISA). We also performed Western blot (WB) analysis using iron superoxide dismutase (FeSOD), a detoxifying enzyme excreted by the parasite, as the antigen. Positive test results were distributed as follows: ELISA 8%, rELISA 6.2%, IFA and IHA 5.4% in both cases and FeSOD 8%. A comparative study of the five tests was undertaken. Sensitivity levels, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, concordance percentage and kappa index were considered. Living with animals, trips to other communities, gender, age, type of housing and symptomatology at the time of the survey were statistically analysed using SPSS software v.11.5. Detection of the FeSOD enzyme that was secreted by the parasite and used as an antigenic fraction in WBs showed a 100% correlation with traditional ELISA tests. PMID:25411004

  13. Assessment of the potential enhancement of rural food security in Mexico using decision tree land use classification on medium resolution satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermeo, A.; Couturier, S.

    2017-01-01

    Because of its renewed importance in international agendas, food security in sub-tropical countries has been the object of studies at different scales, although the spatial components of food security are still largely undocumented. Among other aspects, food security can be assessed using a food selfsufficiency index. We propose a spatial representation of this assessment in the densely populated rural area of the Huasteca Poblana, Mexico, where there is a known tendency towards the loss of selfsufficiency of basic grains. The main agricultural systems in this area are the traditional milpa (a multicrop practice with maize as the main basic crop) system, coffee plantations and grazing land for bovine livestock. We estimate a potential additional milpa - based maize production by smallholders identifying the presence of extensive coffee and pasture systems in the production data of the agricultural census. The surface of extensive coffee plantations and pasture land were estimated using the detailed coffee agricultural census data, and a decision tree combining unsupervised and supervised spectral classification techniques of medium scale (Landsat) satellite imagery. We find that 30% of the territory would benefit more than 50% increment in food security and 13% could theoretically become maize self-sufficient from the conversion of extensive systems to the traditional multicrop milpa system.

  14. Do pharmaceuticals displace local knowledge and use of medicinal plants? Estimates from a cross-sectional study in a rural indigenous community, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Giovannini, Peter; Reyes-García, Victoria; Waldstein, Anna; Heinrich, Michael

    2011-03-01

    Researchers examining the relationships between traditional medicine and biomedicine have observed two conflicting tendencies. Some suggest that the use of biomedicine and biomedical concepts displaces the use of traditional medicine and medical beliefs. Other scholars have found that traditional medicine and biomedicine can co-exist, complement, and blend with each other. In this paper we use an econometric model and quantitative data to test the association between individual knowledge of pharmaceuticals and individual knowledge of medicinal plants. We use data from a survey among 136 household heads living in a rural indigenous community in Oaxaca, Mexico. Data were collected as a part of long term fieldwork conducted between April 2005 and August 2006 and between December 2006 and April 2007. We found a significant positive association between an individual's knowledge of medicinal plants and the same individual's knowledge of pharmaceuticals, as well as between her use of medicinal plants and her use of pharmaceuticals. We also found a negative association between the use of medicinal plants and schooling. Our results suggest that, in the study site, individual knowledge of medicinal plants and individual knowledge of pharmaceuticals co-exist in a way which might be interpreted as complementary. We conclude that social organization involved in the use of medicines from both traditional medicine and biomedicine is of particular significance, as our findings suggest that the use of pharmaceuticals alone is not associated with a decline in knowledge/use of medicinal plants.

  15. The economic status of older people's households in urban and rural settings in Peru, Mexico and China: a 10/66 INDEP study cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Prince, Martin J; Lloyd-Sherlock, Peter; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Uwakwe, Richard; Acosta, Isaac; Liu, Zhaorui; Gallardo, Sara; Guerchet, Maelenn; Mayston, Rosie; de Oca, Veronica Montes; Wang, Hong; Ezeah, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Few data are available from middle income countries regarding economic circumstances of households in which older people live. Many such settings have experienced rapid demographic, social and economic change, alongside increasing pension coverage. Population-based household surveys in rural and urban catchment areas in Peru, Mexico and China. Participating households were selected from all households with older residents. Descriptive analyses were weighted back for sampling fractions and non-response. Household income and consumption were estimated from a household key informant interview. 877 Household interviews (3177 residents). Response rate 68 %. Household income and consumption correlated plausibly with other economic wellbeing indicators. Household Incomes varied considerably within and between sites. While multigenerational households were the norm, older resident's incomes accounted for a high proportion of household income, and older people were particularly likely to pool income. Differences in the coverage and value of pensions were a major source of variation in household income among sites. There was a small, consistent inverse association between household pension income and labour force participation of younger adult co-residents. The effect of pension income on older adults' labour force participation was less clear-cut. Historical linkage of social protection to formal employment may have contributed to profound late-life socioeconomic inequalities. Strategies to formalise the informal economy, alongside increases in the coverage and value of non-contributory pensions and transfers would help to address this problem.

  16. A stepped wedge, cluster-randomized trial of a household UV-disinfection and safe storage drinking water intervention in rural Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Joshua S; Reygadas, Fermin; Arnold, Benjamin F; Ray, Isha; Nelson, Kara; Colford, John M

    2013-08-01

    In collaboration with a local non-profit organization, this study evaluated the expansion of a program that promoted and installed Mesita Azul, an ultraviolet-disinfection system designed to treat household drinking water in rural Mexico. We conducted a 15-month, cluster-randomized stepped wedge trial by randomizing the order in which 24 communities (444 households) received the intervention. We measured primary outcomes (water contamination and diarrhea) during seven household visits. The intervention increased the percentage of households with access to treated and safely stored drinking water (23-62%), and reduced the percentage of households with Escherichia coli contaminated drinking water (risk difference (RD): -19% [95% CI: -27%, -14%]). No significant reduction in diarrhea was observed (RD: -0.1% [95% CI: -1.1%, 0.9%]). We conclude that household water quality improvements measured in this study justify future promotion of the Mesita Azul, and that future studies to measure its health impact would be valuable if conducted in populations with higher diarrhea prevalence.

  17. CHICKEN COOPS, Triatoma dimidiata INFESTATION AND ITS INFECTION WITH Trypanosoma cruzi IN A RURAL VILLAGE OF YUCATAN, MEXICO

    PubMed Central

    KOYOC-CARDEÑA, Edgar; MEDINA-BARREIRO, Anuar; ESCOBEDO-ORTEGÓN, Francisco Javier; RODRÍGUEZ-BUENFIL, Jorge Carlos; BARRERA-PÉREZ, Mario; REYES-NOVELO, Enrique; CHABLÉ-SANTOS, Juan; SELEM-SALAS, Celia; VAZQUEZ-PROKOPEC, Gonzalo; MANRIQUE-SAIDE, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This study longitudinally investigated the association between Triatoma dimidiata infestation, triatomine infection with Trypanosoma cruzi and household/backyard environmental characteristics in 101 homesteads in Molas and Yucatan, Mexico, between November 2009 (rainy season) and May 2010 (dry season). Logistic regression models tested the associations between insect infestation/infection and potential household-level risk factors. A total of 200 T. dimidiata were collected from 35.6% of the homesteads, mostly (73%) from the peridomicile. Of all the insects collected, 48% were infected with T. cruzi. Infected insects were collected in 31.6% of the homesteads (54.1% and 45.9% intra- and peridomiciliary, respectively). Approximately 30% of all triatomines collected were found in chicken coops. The presence of a chicken coop in the backyard of a homestead was significantly associated with both the odds of finding T. dimidiata (OR = 4.10, CI 95% = 1.61-10.43, p = 0.003) and the presence of triatomines infected with T. cruzi (OR = 3.37, CI 95% = 1.36-8.33, p = 0.006). The results of this study emphasize the relevance of chicken coops as a putative source of T. dimidiata populations and a potential risk for T. cruzi transmission. PMID:26200970

  18. Genotypic Analyses of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O157 and Non-O157 Recovered from Feces of Domestic Animals on Rural Farms in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Amézquita-López, Bianca A.; Quiñones, Beatriz; Cooley, Michael B.; León-Félix, Josefina; Castro-del Campo, Nohelia; Mandrell, Robert E.; Jiménez, Maribel; Chaidez, Cristóbal

    2012-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are zoonotic enteric pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. Cattle and small ruminants are important animal reservoirs of STEC. The present study investigated animal reservoirs for STEC in small rural farms in the Culiacan Valley, an important agricultural region located in Northwest Mexico. A total of 240 fecal samples from domestic animals were collected from five sampling sites in the Culiacan Valley and were subjected to an enrichment protocol followed by either direct plating or immunomagnetic separation before plating on selective media. Serotype O157:H7 isolates with the virulence genes stx2, eae, and ehxA were identified in 40% (26/65) of the recovered isolates from cattle, sheep and chicken feces. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis grouped most O157:H7 isolates into two clusters with 98.6% homology. The use of multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) differentiated isolates that were indistinguishable by PFGE. Analysis of the allelic diversity of MLVA loci suggested that the O157:H7 isolates from this region were highly related. In contrast to O157:H7 isolates, a greater genotypic diversity was observed in the non-O157 isolates, resulting in 23 PFGE types and 14 MLVA types. The relevant non-O157 serotypes O8:H19, O75:H8, O111:H8 and O146:H21 represented 35.4% (23/65) of the recovered isolates. In particular, 18.5% (12/65) of all the isolates were serotype O75:H8, which was the most variable serotype by both PFGE and MLVA. The non-O157 isolates were predominantly recovered from sheep and were identified to harbor either one or two stx genes. Most non-O157 isolates were ehxA-positive (86.5%, 32/37) but only 10.8% (4/37) harbored eae. These findings indicate that zoonotic STEC with genotypes associated with human illness are present in animals on small farms within rural communities in the Culiacan Valley and emphasize the need for the development of control

  19. First Report of Orange Rust of Sugarcane Caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Mexico, El Salvador and Panama.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Symptoms of sugarcane orange rust were observed on July 17, 2008 in sugarcane varieties, Mex 57-1285, Mex 61-230 and Co 301 (a clone received in Mexico in 1953) at the Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo de la Caña de Azúcar en Tuxtla Chico, Chiapas, Mexico.In El Salvador, from August 2008 through ...

  20. Reflexive assessment of practical and holistic sanitation development tools using the rural and peri-urban case of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Tiberghien, J E; Robbins, P T; Tyrrel, S F

    2011-03-01

    Lack of sanitation affects the lives of billions of people worldwide. It is now generally agreed that sustainable solutions to this complex problem require social and cultural factors to be addressed in addition to the habitual economic and technical aspects. Increasingly, sector professionals view the fragmented approaches to sanitation as a limiting factor. This refers to the fragmentation of the knowledge on the subject among often hermetic disciplines and to the distribution of political mandates on sanitation across many institutions, which independently tackle specific aspects of the issue. Holistic approaches have often been suggested as a solution. This paper presents the development of such a holistic approach, designed to assess sanitation development in rural and peri-urban settings. Tested in three Mexican communities, it relies on qualitative research tools to identify critical influences to sanitation development. This article presents generic results about micro and macro-factors affecting sanitation development in Mexican villages, and reflexively examines the research process as well as the strengths and limitations of the approach. The conceptual map developed for each case study successfully highlights the interconnectedness of all factors affecting sanitation development. Despite some weaknesses, these maps constitute a practical assessment tool for interdisciplinary teams deployed in integrated water and sanitation development programs and a valuable didactic tool for training activities.

  1. Dietary fat and antioxidant vitamin intake in patients of neurodegenerative disease in a rural region of Jalisco, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Meza, Mónica; Gabriel-Ortiz, Genaro; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P.; Cruz-Ramos, José A.; López-Espinoza, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare the intake of lipids and (A, E, and C) vitamins in patients with and without possible neurodegenerative diseases. Methods Twenty adults with possible Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease and 41 control subjects (50–89 years old) from a rural region were studied. Dietary intake was evaluated with the analysis of macronutrients and micronutrients conducted by a food frequency questionnaire and 24 hours dietary record. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and energy intake. Through interrogation and use of medical record form of health secretary we obtained information about the sociodemographic characteristics. Multivariate analysis of variance to allow for covariated adjustment was used. Results Patients had a lower energy intake, vitamin C (P = 0.016), fruits (P < 0.001), vegetables (P = 0.037), and oils and fat (P = 0.002), than the controls. Interestingly, the C vitamin intake in patients was still higher than the recommended. Patients had a higher consumption of cereals (P = 0.017), high-animal fat diet (P = 0.024), and whole milk (P < 0.001); 2.4% of the controls smoke and 5% are alcohol consumers. Eighty-five percent of patients and 78% of the controls do not have physical activity. Family history of subjects in this study indicated chronic diseases. Conclusion The subjects included in this study had a high intake of C vitamin, this is due to the consumption of fruits and vegetables. However, patients with possible Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease had a lower intake of fruits and vegetables, which could be due to type of food to which they have access. PMID:24257159

  2. Small and Rural Wastewater Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many tools, training, technical assistance, and funding resources are available to develop and maintain reliable and affordable wastewater treatment systems in small and rural communities including in tribal and U.S.-Mexico Border area.

  3. [Nutrition intervention actions in relief situations: report on 4 experiences in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Madrigal-Fritsch, Herlinda; Ruíz Arregui, Liliana; Pérez Gil Romo, Sara Elena; Cervantes Turrubiates, Leticia; Torre Medina-Mora, Pilar; Ramírez García, Guadalupe; Escobar Pérez, Margarita

    2004-06-01

    In the last years Mexico faced several natural and human provoked disasters. We choose the Mexico City earthquake, the Chichonal volcano eruption, the Guatemala war and its refugees and the Chiapas armed movement. In all of them the INCMNSZ surveillance system proposal has been applied. To establish the intervention we classified the emergencies according to its magnitude and localization. The intervention consisted in: immediate attention of serious cases, immunizations, quimioprofilaxis, personal hygiene, environment control, nutritional assessment and diet definition. The affected population attended were: in the eruption 4.500, in the earthquake 1.000, in the Guatemala war 19.000 and in the Chiapas movement 6.940. Population damaged by the eruption and the war received mass feeding; complementary feeding (vulnerable groups) and therapeutic feeding (people with tuberculosis and serious undernutrition). In the earthquake people received first, prepared food and later they were organized to bring, plan, prepare and distribute their food. In the Chiapas armed movement people received only special baby food. In all cases, population also receive nutritional information and only with the refugees and the Chiapas damaged people the local food production was promoted. We suggest evaluating every emergency program and share experiences to afford this type of situations in a better way.

  4. [Entomology of onchocercosis in Soconusco, Chiapas. 6. Quantitative studies of the transmission of Onchocerca volvulus by 3 species of Simuliidae in a community with high endemicity].

    PubMed

    Ortega, M; Oliver, M; Ramírez, A

    1992-01-01

    In Guatemala, there is no doubt about the participation of Simulium ochraceum as vector of Onchocerciasis. However, in Mexico practically there are not studies focussed to determine the role of this species in the transmission. The objective of the present investigation was to determine which of the 3 species of Simulium founded in the Soconusco region of Chiapas, is the main, and which were secondary in the transmission of Onchocerciasis in that area. The locality of Morelos, in the Huixtla "municipio" of Chiapas, localized a 1200 meters over the sea level (mosl) were selected to carried out the present study. According to own parasitological studies, this locality is considered as highly endemic (more than 66% prevalence). From March 1979 to March, 1981, we performed captures of Simulium sp caught on human bait. Quantitative studies and of transmission potentials were also performed. The following results were obtained: a) Absolute black flies densities (nulliparous and pariparous) and infected black flies (with L1 and L2 larvae): S. ochraceum, S. metallicum and S. callidum, in that order was the distribution of densities. Infected black flies were obtained in the 3 species. However, in despite of an irregular distribution in all the year, it was possible to identify 2 peaks of maximum infection of S. ochraceum in March, 1979 and March 1981. b) Monthly bite densities and infective bites.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Qualitative analysis of human milk produced by women consuming a maize-predominant diet typical of rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villalpando, S; Butte, N F; Flores-Huerta, S; Thotathuchery, M

    1998-01-01

    The milk composition of women on a typical rural Mexican diet was compared with that secreted by American women, consuming a diet typical of affluent countries. Milk concentrations of free fatty acids, cholesterol, total amino acids, and selected key minerals were analyzed at 4 or 6 months postpartum. The total milk fat concentration was lower in the Otomi (22.7 +/- 6.7 mg/g milk) than in the American women (31.3 +/- 5.4 mg/g milk, p = 0.001). Although the absolute concentration did not differ, cholesterol, expressed in terms of total lipid, was higher in the Otomi milk (3.9 +/- 1.1 vs. 3.1 +/- 0.7 mg/g fat, p = 0.005). Saturated medium-chain (C10:0-C14:0) and unsaturated intermediate-chain fatty acids (C16:1 and C18:2) were higher in the Otomi than in the American milk (p < 0.03). The concentrations of C16:0, C18:0, and C18:1 were significantly lower in Otomi than in American milk. The milk concentrations of protein and nonprotein nitrogen were comparable between the two groups. The concentrations of serine, proline, cystine, methionine, and tryptophan were higher in the Otomi than in the American milk (p < 0.05-0.001). The concentrations of valine and isoleucine were significantly lower in the Otomi milk (p = 0.05). Expressed per gram of milk protein, the cystine, methionine, lysine, and tryptophan concentrations were higher, and the glutamine/glutamate, valine, isoleucine, and arginine levels were lower in the Otomi milk. The concentrations of phosphorus and copper were lower in the Otomi than in the American milk at 4 months postpartum (p = 0.05). These differences in milk fatty acid and amino acid patterns and mineral content are unlikely to affect infant growth, but may have other biological consequences yet to be ascertained.

  6. Wool traits of three sympatric sheep populations in Chiapas Region, México.

    PubMed

    Parés-Casanova, Pere M; Perezgrovas, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    A total of 344 pure animals, representing seven American and South European breeds (White Chiapas Blanca, Brown Chiapas Café, Black Chiapas Negra, Churra Badana, Churra da Terra Quente, Chilean Latxa, and Spanish Merino), were randomly sampled and wool evaluated for isoalcohol scouring yield, length, and proportion for each type of fiber (long-thick, short-thin, and kemp), average of fiber diameter, and F30 (percentage of fibers with a diameter of >30 μm). The objective of this study was to characterize these breeds according to their wool traits. A low percentage of the phenotypic variability in the analyzed animals was due to differences among breeds, and that the largest part of that variability is due to differences within breeds. The obtained topology in the principal coordinates analysis showed the grouping of the three Chiapas breeds clearly separated, but the similarity with their original breed was only evident for Brown Chiapas Café. The three Chiapas sheep breeds must be regarded as clearly sympatric populations.

  7. Afro-Asian cockroach from Chiapas amber and the lost Tertiary American entomofauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vršanský, Peter; Cifuentes-Ruiz, Paulina; Vidlička, Ľubomír; Čiampor, Fedor; Vega, Francisco J.

    2011-10-01

    Cockroach genera with synanthropic species (Blattella, Ectobius, Supella, Periplaneta, Diploptera and ?Blatta), as well as other insects such as honeybees, although natively limited to certain continents nowadays, had circumtropic distribution in the past. The ease of their reintroduction into their former range suggests a post-Early Miocene environmental stress which led to the extinction of cosmopolitan Tertiary entomofauna in the Americas, whilst in Eurasia, Africa and Australia this fauna survived. This phenomenon is demonstrated here on a low diversity (10 spp.) living cockroach genus Supella, which is peculiar for the circumtropical synanthropic brownbanded cockroach S. longipalpa and also for its exclusively free-living cavicolous species restricted to Africa. S. (Nemosupella) miocenica sp. nov. from the Miocene amber of Chiapas in Mexico is a sister species to the living S. mirabilis from the Lower Guinea forests and adjacent savannas. The difference is restricted to the shape of the central macula on the pronotum, and size, which may indicate the around-Miocene origin of the living, extremely polymorphic Supella species and possibly also the isochronic invasion into the Americas. The species also has a number of characteristics of the Asian (and possibly also Australian) uniform genus Allacta (falling within the generic variability of Supella) suggesting Supella is a direct ancestor of the former. The present species is the first significant evidence for incomplete hiati between well defined cockroach genera — a result of the extensive fossil record of the group. The reported specimen is covered by a mycelium of a parasitic fungus Cordyceps or Entomophthora.

  8. Revitalizing Communities in New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitzl, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    The New Mexico Rural Revitalization Initiative (NMRRI), an innovative program to enhance the growth and development of rural communities, involves schools and students as part of a holistic approach. The program requires community members to take responsibility for revitalizing their economy and fosters an entrepreneurial spirit among students.

  9. The first troglomorphic species of the genus Phrynus Lamarck, 1801 (Amblypygi: Phrynidae) from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Ali Abadallan; Joya, Daniel Chirivi; Francke, Oscar F

    2015-02-23

    A new troglomorphic species, Phrynus perrii sp. nov., is described from two adult females from Cueva del Naranjo, Municipio Cintalapa, Chiapas, Mexico. This is the first continental record of a troglomorphic Phrynus species, and the second troglomorphic species of the genus. With the description of this species, in Mexico there are ten extant species, plus one fossil of the genus Phrynus, and it is the seventh species of troglobitic whip spiders from Mexico, making it the country with the highest richness of amblypygids species worldwide.

  10. Time Series Analysis of Onchocerciasis Data from Mexico: A Trend towards Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Miguel A.; Adeleke, Monsuru A.; Orozco-Algarra, María E.; Arrendondo-Jiménez, Juan I.; Guo, Xianwu

    2013-01-01

    Background In Latin America, there are 13 geographically isolated endemic foci distributed among Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil and Ecuador. The communities of the three endemic foci found within Mexico have been receiving ivermectin treatment since 1989. In this study, we predicted the trend of occurrence of cases in Mexico by applying time series analysis to monthly onchocerciasis data reported by the Mexican Secretariat of Health between 1988 and 2011 using the software R. Results A total of 15,584 cases were reported in Mexico from 1988 to 2011. The data of onchocerciasis cases are mainly from the main endemic foci of Chiapas and Oaxaca. The last case in Oaxaca was reported in 1998, but new cases were reported in the Chiapas foci up to 2011. Time series analysis performed for the foci in Mexico showed a decreasing trend of the disease over time. The best-fitted models with the smallest Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) were Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models, which were used to predict the tendency of onchocerciasis cases for two years ahead. According to the ARIMA models predictions, the cases in very low number (below 1) are expected for the disease between 2012 and 2013 in Chiapas, the last endemic region in Mexico. Conclusion The endemic regions of Mexico evolved from high onchocerciasis-endemic states to the interruption of transmission due to the strategies followed by the MSH, based on treatment with ivermectin. The extremely low level of expected cases as predicted by ARIMA models for the next two years suggest that the onchocerciasis is being eliminated in Mexico. To our knowledge, it is the first study utilizing time series for predicting case dynamics of onchocerciasis, which could be used as a benchmark during monitoring and post-treatment surveillance. PMID:23459370

  11. Biodiversity and distribution of helminths and protozoa in naturally infected horses from the biosphere reserve La Sierra Madre de Chiapas", México.

    PubMed

    Güiris, A D M; Rojas, H N M; Berovides, A V; Sosa, P J; Pérez, E M E; Cruz, A E; Chávez, H C; Moguel, A J A; Jimenez-Coello, M; Ortega-Pacheco, A

    2010-06-24

    A cross sectional survey was performed to identify gastrointestinal helminths and protozoans in naturally infected horses from the biosphere reserve known as "La Sierra Madre de Chiapas", Mexico (El Triunfo and La Sepultura). During a three-year survey, fecal samples from 90 horses and parasites from 2 necropsied animals were collected. Five families from the Nematoda class: Ascaridae, Kathlanidae, Oxyuridae, Strongylidae and Trichostrongylidae were found, whereas, only one family from the class Cestoda, was observed: Anoplocephalidae. One family from the class Insecta, was observed: Gasterophiilidae. The number of species of parasites ranged from 13 to 18 with an average of 15 per animal. Adult parasites were recovered from the large intestine luminal contents at necropsy. Species recovered included: Strongylus vulgaris, S. equinus, S. edentatus, Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Coronocyclus coronatum, C. labiatus, C. labratus, Cyathostomum tetracanthum, Cylicocyclus insigne, C. leptostomus, Cylicodontophorus bicoronatus, Cylicostephanus asymetricus, C. bidentatus, C. minutus, C. longibursatus, Petrovinema poculatum, Poteriostomum imparidentatum, Cylicostephanus goldi, Tridentoinfundibulum gobi, Triodontophorus serratus and T. tenuicollis. One species of Diptera were recovered from stomach and identified: Gasterophilus intestinalis. Furthermore, different species of protozoa were recovered from fresh horse-dung and identified in four classes: Sporozoa, Litostomatea, Ciliasida and Suctoria. Nine families: Cryptosporidiidae, Eimeriidae, Balantidiidae, Buetschliidae, Blepharocorythidae, Cycloposthiidae, Spirodiniididae, Ditoxidae, Acinetidae; and 31 ciliates species were recorded: Allantosoma dicorniger, A. intestinalis, Alloiozona trizona, Blepharosphaera intestinalis, Blepharoprosthium pireum, Blepharoconus benbrooki, Bundleia postciliata, Didesmis ovalis, D. quadrata, Sulcoarcus pellucidulus, Blepharocorys angusta, B. cardionucleata, B. curvigula, B. juvata, B

  12. Concepts and a methodology for evaluating environmental services from trees of small farms in Chiapas, México.

    PubMed

    Marinidou, Eleni; Finegan, Bryan; Jiménez-Ferrer, Guillermo; Delgado, Diego; Casanoves, Fernando

    2013-01-15

    We propose a methodology to estimate the environmental service (ES) value of small farms in Chiapas, Mexico, involving trained farmers-promoters in field sampling. We considered the ways in which the landscape's principal organisms, the trees, contribute to ES. We proposed a species functional value (FV) index based on their functional traits and key ecological characteristics, and estimated each site's ES value using FV weighted by the dimensions and abundance of individuals in different land uses (LU). Tree contribution to carbon storage (C) was defined using species wood density and biodiversity conservation value (BD) using food and habitat provision for wildlife and species existence (non-use) value (EX). Many species and individuals had high C, as wind-dispersed species with dense wood were common, but low BD prevailed, with high BD species common only in riparian forests. Few species and fewer individuals had high EX conferred by dense wood, large size, harvesting pressure and animal dispersal, among others. High variance in value within LU types, suggested that LU is a poor estimator of ES value, and that the measurement of species FV and tree dimensions is essential. This tool accurately reflects the ecological values of farm tree cover, allowing negotiation of compensation for environmental services. This methodology could be implemented combining open-access regional traits databases and field sampling by local people, and can easily be adapted for the measurement of other ES, and to other ecological and cultural contexts.

  13. Hazard estimates for El Chichón volcano, Chiapas, México: a statistical approach for complex eruptive histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Rosas, A. T.; de La Cruz-Reyna, S.

    2010-06-01

    The El Chichón volcano (Chiapas, México) most recent eruption occurred in 1982 causing the worst volcanic disaster in the recorded history of Mexico. Prior to the eruption, El Chichón volcano was not considered a very hazardous volcano, a perception mostly caused by the low eruption rate of the past eruptions. The correct assessment of volcanic hazard is the first step to prevent a disaster. In this paper, we analyze two periods of the reported eruptive history of El Chichón volcano during the Holocene, searching for the eruption rates of different VEI magnitude categories and testing their time dependence. One period accounting the eruptions of the last 3707 years before the last eruption (BLE) is assumed to be complete, with no missing relevant events. More scarce information of a period extending to 7772 years BLE is then added. We then apply the Non-Homogeneous Generalized Pareto-Poisson Process (NHGPPP), and the Mixture of Exponentials Distribution (MOED) methods to estimate the volcanic hazard of El Chichón considering both periods. The results are compared with the probabilities obtained from the homogeneous Poisson and Weibull distributions. In this case the MOED and the Weibull distribution are rather insensitive to the inclusion of the extended period. In contrast, the NHGPPP is strongly influenced by the extended period.

  14. Differences in Family Size and Marriage Age Expectation and Aspirations of Anglo, Mexican American and Native American Rural Youth in New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edington, Everett; Hays, Leonard

    1978-01-01

    In 1975, questionnaires were given to 587 sophomores and seniors in 12 rural high schools. Findings included significant differences between ethnic groups on expected and desired family size and marriage age; but no differences between age groups. (Author/SJL)

  15. [Mexico. Federal agreement for voluntary motherhood].

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    In June 1991, the National Forum for Voluntary Motherhood and the Decriminalization of Abortion was convened in Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, Mexico. The forum culminated in the signing of a pact in which participants pledged to support the women of Chiapas in their efforts to win approval of legislation assuring the right to legal abortion. The action in Chiapas was viewed as the beginning of a national legislative process aimed at achieving juridical recognition of the sexual freedom of women. The participants planned to promote discussion in each community and state of existing abortion legislation and the proposed reforms to assure women the right to abortion. Space will be demanded in the mass media in order to inform the population. The movement will seek to develop a widespread local and national consensus on the right to voluntary maternity. Voluntary maternity implies recognition of the rights to women to make decisions regarding their own sexuality and fertility. It implies availability of sex education and contraception, as well as access to safe and legal abortions. Voluntary maternity implies elimination by society of morbidity and mortality due to causes associated with reproduction, and it implies generalized use of contraception and elimination of involuntary sterilization. Voluntary maternity requires that the state develop an ethic of protection of mothers and children, and that authoritarian demographic programs that do not recognize the humanity and autonomy of women be abandoned. Voluntary maternity requires protection by public institutions, and it requires that women and children have access to a decent standard of living. It requires as well that the daily care of children cease to be the exclusive responsibility of women and that it be shared by men. Women cannot be free as long as maternity is compulsory. It is proposed that the discussions and proposals made to local legislatures will eventually be brought before the national Congress in

  16. Carbon emissions from spring 1998 fires in tropical Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, M.A.; Hao, W.M.; Alvarado, E.; Haggerty, P.K.

    1999-04-01

    The authors used NOAA-AVHRR satellite imagery, biomass density maps, fuel consumption estimates, and a carbon emission factor to estimate the total carbon (C) emissions from the Spring 1998 fires in tropical Mexico. All eight states in southeast Mexico were affected by the wildfires, although the activity was concentrated near the common border of Oaxaca, Chiapas, and Veracruz. The fires burned approximately 482,000 ha and the land use/land cover classes most extensively impacted were the tall/medium selvas (tropical evergreen forests), open/fragmented forests, and perturbed areas. The total prompt emissions were 4.6 TgC during the two-month period of the authors` study, contributing an additional 24% to the region`s average annual net C emissions from forestry and land-use change. Mexico in 1998 experienced its driest Spring since 1941, setting the stage for the widespread burning.

  17. Provenance Ages of Protoliths From the Chiapas Massif Complex and Adjacent Strata of the Southern Maya Block - Implications on the Paleozoic Reconstruction of Middle America.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, B.; Schaaf, P.; Valencia, V. A.; Lopez-Martinez, M.; Ortega-Gutierrez, F.

    2007-05-01

    The basement of the Maya block is exposed in the Maya Mountains of Belize, the Chuacús Complex of Guatemala, and in the Chiapas Massif Complex (CMC) of SE Mexico. In the CMC medium- to high-grade metasedimentary rocks occur as isolated domains in mostly metaigneous crystalline rocks. The most important tectonothermal event in the entire CMC is of late Permian age, culminating in partial anatexis and the intrusion of the Chiapas batholith. In this work we present U-Pb data obtained by LA-MC-ICPMS from detrital zircon cores of metasediments from the CMC and from detrital zircons of Paleozoic strata exposed in SE Chiapas. The Pennsylvanian-Permian Santa Rosa Formation (SRF) contains mostly Pan-African (500-650 Ma) zircons, minor populations of Silurian-Early Devonian (400-420 Ma) and Grenville (1.0-1.25 Ga) zircons, and few Paleoproterozoic and Archean grains. The maximum sedimentation age is documented by ~320 Ma old zircons. Metagreywacke and metasandstones of the central CMC have inherited detrital zircon cores with age distributions indistinguishable from those of the SRF. High-grade metapelites and para-amphibolites from the CMC, instead, have inherited zircon cores with one single population of 1.0 Ga or with populations at 1.0, 1.2, and 1.5 Ga. In the southern part of the CMC leucocratic granites intrude sedimentary rocks whose detrital zircons yielded mostly 1.53 Ga ages with some grains in the range of 1.6-1.7 Ga, but no younger zircons. White mica grown in contact with the leucogranite has a 40Ar- 39Ar age of 406 ± 4 Ma, defining a minimum age for both deposition of the sediments and intrusion of the leucogranite. Our data indicate that the CMC has a composite pre-metamorphic basement, containing sedimentary protoliths from the Pennsylvanian-Permian SRF and from early Paleozoic strata intruded by Silurian-Early Devonian granites. This favors a similar pre-Permian geologic history for the CMC as for the Maya Mountains of Belize. The early Paleozoic

  18. [Social participation in health. An experience in Simojovel, Chiapas].

    PubMed

    Molina-Rodríguez, J F; Daquilema, M; Gómez-Bautista, C

    1992-01-01

    One of the basic foundations for the operation of health programs is the social participation of the population in actions going from planning to evaluation, promotion and control of actions related with their own health. In the work, we present the results of a preliminary and partial evaluation of an ongoing autopromoting health project in the communities of Lázaro Cárdenas and Las Limas, in the Municipality of Simojovel, Chiapas, México. The basic goal of this work is to identify factors derived from the relations of localities with the State and, on the other hand, from socioeconomic conditions of the populations, which favor or hinder the development of social participation in their own health projects. This is a comparative study, type before and after, within and between localities, intended to measure the effect of a health program with community participation in two communities having divergent relations with the State. For this, we carried out a socioeconomic and prevalent morbidity survey before and after the implementation of social participation in health actions. We also characterized social participation in health actions and identified the type of State intervention in the localities through governmental programs and institutions. The results convey the notion that the health program contributes to enhance hygienic sanitary conditions of the population and decrease the frequency of such ailments as diarrhea and parasitic diseases; social participation is more active in Lázaro Cárdenas than in Las Limas. State interventions in the communities are given through social programs and institutions in a mandatory way, with no opportunity for community participation in decision-making. The conclusion is that the demographic organization of the community and autopromotion favor the participation in health actions, while the presence of the State through political repression and actions delivered through social programs promote dependence and paternalism

  19. Susceptibility of three laboratory strains of Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae) to coindigenous Plasmodium vivax in southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Chan, A S; Rodríguez, M H; Torres, J A; Rodríguez, M del C; Villarreal, C

    1994-05-01

    Three morphologically different pupal phenotypes (green, striped, brown) were selected from a parent strain of Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann collected from the Suchiate region in the state of Chiapas, Mexico. Significant differences in susceptibility to coindigenous Plasmodium vivax Grassi & Feletti were observed when striped was compared with the parent colony as well as with brown and with green phenotypes. Differences in susceptibility were not significant between the other phenotypes and the parent colony.

  20. [The dimensions of the labor market, temporary migration, and domestic reproduction. A case study in the rural zone of the state of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Szasz, I

    1990-01-01

    The author analyzes the impact of temporary migration on the reproduction of households in agricultural communities in Malinalco, Mexico. The interrelationship between the demographic structure of households and trends in temporary migration is studied, and the role of different types of economic activity in households is considered.

  1. Cynthia J. Najdowski: Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award. The 2012 winner is Cynthia J. Najdowski for an outstanding research paper that examines how jurors' judgments are influenced by a juvenile defendant's confession and status as intellectually disabled. Through…

  2. 76 FR 55345 - Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... Forest Service Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (NNM RAC) will meet in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The committee is authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and Community...

  3. 75 FR 47259 - Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... Forest Service Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and...

  4. 75 FR 80788 - Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... Forest Service Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (NNMRAC) will meet in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural...

  5. 76 FR 16603 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet in Socorro, New Mexico. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and...

  6. 75 FR 30772 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Socorro, New Mexico. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and Community...

  7. 75 FR 69916 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet in Socorro, New Mexico. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and...

  8. 76 FR 46722 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Socorro, New Mexico. The committee is authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination...

  9. 75 FR 39655 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet in Socorro, New Mexico. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and...

  10. 76 FR 29722 - Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... Forest Service Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (NNMRAC) will meet in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The committee is authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and Community...

  11. Payments for Environmental Services in a Policymix: Spatial and Temporal Articulation in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ezzine-de-Blas, Driss; Dutilly, Céline; Lara-Pulido, José-Alberto; Le Velly, Gwenolé; Guevara-Sanginés, Alejando

    2016-01-01

    Government based Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) have been criticized for not maximizing environmental effectiveness through appropriate targeting, while instead prioritizing social side-objectives. In Mexico, existing literature on how the Payments for Ecosystem Services-Hydrological program (PSA-H) has targeted deforestation and forest degradation shows that both the process of identifying the eligible areas and the choice of the selection criteria for enrolling forest parcels have been under the influence of competing agendas. In the present paper we study the influence of the PSA-H multi-level governance on the environmental effectiveness of the program-the degree to which forest at high risk of deforestation is enrolled- building from a "policyscape" framework. In particular, we combine governance analysis with two distinct applications of the policyscape framework: First, at national level we assess the functional overlap between the PSA-H and other environmental and rural programs with regard to the risk of deforestation. Second, at regional level in the states of Chiapas and Yucatan, we describe the changing policy agenda and the role of technical intermediaries in defining the temporal spatialization of the PSA-H eligible and enrolled areas with regard to key socio-economic criteria. We find that, although at national level the PSA-H program has been described as coping with both social and environmental indicators thanks to successful adaptive management, our analysis show that PSA-H is mainly found in communities where deforestation risk is low and in combination with other environmental programs (protected areas and forest management programs). Such inertia is reinforced at regional level as a result of the eligible areas' characteristics and the behaviour of technical intermediaries, which seek to minimise transaction costs and sources of uncertainty. Our project-specific analysis shows the importance of integrating the governance of a program in

  12. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Wiman, W.D.

    1988-10-01

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987 showed significant increases in seismic acquisition in Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Paraguay, and Peru, and a decrease in Chile and Venezuela. Exploratory drilling increased in most major producing countries but was accompanied by a decline in development drilling. Most of the increase could be attributed to private companies fulfilling obligations under risk contracts; however, state oil companies in Bolivia, Chile, and Colombia showed significant increased activity, with only Mexico showing a decrease. Colombia again had a dramatic increase in production (29% from 1986). Noteworthy discoveries were made in Bolivia (Villamontes-1); Brazil, in the Solimoes basin (1-RUC-1-AM); Chile (Rio Honda-1); Colombia, in the Llanos basin (Austral-1, La Reforma-1, Libertad Norte-1, Cravo Este-1, and Cano Yarumal-1), in the Upper Magdalena basin (Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1); Ecuador (Frontera-1, a joint-exploration venture with Colombia); Mexico, in the Chiapas-Tabasco region (Guacho-1 and Iridi-1), in the Frontera Norte area (Huatempo-1); Peru, in the Madre de Dios basin (Armihuari-4X); Trinidad (West East Queen's Beach-1); and Venezuela (Musipan-1X). Brazil's upper Amazon (Solimoes basin) discovery, Colombia's Upper Magdalena basin discoveries Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1, Mexico's Chiapas-Tabasco discoveries, Peru's confirmation of the giant Cashiriari discovery of 1986, and Venezuela's success in Monagas state were the highlights of 1987. 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Rural Science Education Program

    SciTech Connect

    Intress, C.

    1994-12-31

    The Rural Science Education Project is an outreach program of the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science with the goal of helping rural elementary schools improve science teaching and learning by using local natural environmental resources. This program is based on the assumption that rural schools, so often described as disadvantaged in terms of curricular resources, actually provide a science teaching advantage because of their locale. The natural environment of mountains, forests, ponds, desert, or fields offers a context for the study of scientific concepts and skills that appeals to many youngsters. To tap these resources, teachers need access to knowledge about the rural school locality`s natural history. Through a process of active participation in school-based workshops and field site studies, teachers observe and learn about the native flora, fauna, geology, and paleontology of their community. In addition, they are exposed to instructional strategies, activities, and provided with materials which foster experimential learning. This school-museum partnership, now in its fifth year, has aided more than 800 rural teachers` on-going professional development. These educators have, in turn, enhanced science education throughout New Mexico for more than 25,000 students.

  14. Do Bird Friendly® Coffee Criteria Benefit Mammals? Assessment of Mammal Diversity in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Caudill, S Amanda; Rice, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity-friendly coffee certifications offer a viable way to protect wildlife habitat while providing a financial incentive to farmers. Most studies related to these certifications focus on avian habitat requirements and it is not known whether these standards also apply to other wildlife, such as mammals, that inhabit the coffee landscapes. We assessed the non-volant mammalian fauna and their associated habitat requirements in 23 sites representing forest, Bird Friendly® shade, conventional shade, and sun coffee habitats. We used Sherman trap-grids to measure small mammal abundance and richness, while camera traps were set for medium-sized and large mammals. We detected 17 species of mammals, representing 11 families. This preliminary study indicates that coffee farms in this region provide an important refuge for mammalian wildlife. Mammal species density ranked significantly higher in Bird Friendly® coffee sites than other coffee habitats, although there was no significant difference for species richness (using Chao2 estimator) among the habitat types. No significant difference was found in small mammal abundance among the habitat types. We found a higher species density of medium and large mammals in sites with larger, more mature shade trees associated with, but not required by Bird Friendly® certification standards. However, lower strata vegetation (5 cm to 1 m tall), the only vegetation parameter found to increase abundance and density for small mammals, is not specified in the Bird Friendly® standards. Our findings suggest that although the standards devised for avian habitat do benefit mammals, further study is needed on the requirements specific for mammals that could be included to enhance the coffee habitat for mammals that inhabit these coffee landscapes.

  15. Holocene eruptive activity of El Chichón Volcano, Chiapas, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tilling, Robert I.; Rubin, Meyer; Sigurdsson, Haraldur; Carey, Steven; Duffield, Wendell A.; Rose, William I.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic and radiometric-age data indicate that El Chichón was frequently and violently active during the Holocene, including eruptive episodes about 600, 1250, and 1700 years ago and several undated, older eruptions. These episodes, involving explosive eruptions of sulfur-rich magma and associated dome-growth processes, were apparently separated by intervals of approximately 350 to 650 years. Some of El Chichón's eruptions may correlate with unusual atmospheric phenomena around A.D. 1300 and possibly A.D. 623.

  16. [Vertical stratification and host preference by vascular epiphytes in a Chiapas, Mexico, cloud forest].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Meéndez, Nayely; Pérez-Farrera, Miguel A; Flores-Palacios, Alejandro

    2008-12-01

    The high diversity of vascular epiphytes in neotropical montane forest has been explained as the result of vertical stratification of the forest and specific relationships between epiphytes and their hosts trees at local scales. In a lower montane cloud forest, we studied the vertical stratification and host preferences of vascular epiphytes in a 0.0625 ha plot where 41 trees > or = of 10 cm DBH were sampled during 12 months in 2001 and 2002. We found 43 epiphyte species growing on 15 tree genera. We tested for vertical strata and host preferences using 19 epiphyte taxa. We found strong evidence that epiphytes divided the canopy, but those epiphyte species dispersed by animals were generalists with respect to hosts and vertical strata. Wind dispersed epiphytes were vertically stratified, with a higher richness in the lowest tree strata. On average the epiphytes preferred 3.5 host species, suggesting low host preference. Two host species, Ardisia and Quercus, were avoided by the majority of the epiphyte species. Our results show that epiphytes divided the canopy horizontally and were stratified vertically, suggesting that host identity could be important determining the abundance of colonizing sites for epiphytes.

  17. Petrologic characteristics of the 1982 and pre-1982 eruptive products of El Chichon volcano, Chiapas, Mexico.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, J.J.; Tilling, R.I.; Duffield, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    Studies on a suite of rocks from this volcano indicate that the juvenile materials of the 1982 and pre-1982 eruptions of the volcano have essentially the same mineralogy and chemistry. Data suggest that chemical composition changed little over the 0.3 m.y. sample period. Modally, plagioclase is the dominant phenocryst, followed by amphibole, clinopyroxene and minor phases including anhydrite. Plagioclase phenocrysts show complex zoning: the anorthite-rich zones are probably the result of changing volatile P on the magma and may reflect the changes in the volcano's magma reservoir in response to repetitive, explosive eruptive activity.-R.E.S.

  18. The Poor Survival among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Chiapas, Mexico: The Case of Los Altos Region.

    PubMed

    Nájera-Ortiz, J C; Sánchez-Pérez, H J; Ochoa-Díaz-López, H; Leal-Fernández, G; Navarro-Giné, A

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To analyse survival in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and factors associated with such survival. Design. Study of a cohort of patients aged over 14 years diagnosed with PTB from January 1, 1998 to July 31, 2005. During 2004-2006 a home visit was made to each patient and, during 2008-2009, they were visited again. During these visits a follow-up interview was administered; when the patient had died, a verbal autopsy was conducted with family members. Statistical analysis consisted of survival tests, Kaplan-Meier log-rank test and Cox regression. Results. Of 305 studied patients, 68 had died due to PTB by the time of the first evaluation, 237 were followed-up for a second evaluation, and 10 of them had died of PTB. According to the Cox regression, age (over 45 years) and treatment duration (under six months) were associated with a poorer survival. When treatment duration was excluded, the association between poorer survival with age persisted, whereas with having been treated via DOTS strategy, was barely significant. Conclusions. In the studied area it is necessary that patients receive a complete treatment scheme, and to give priority to patients aged over 45 years.

  19. The Poor Survival among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Chiapas, Mexico: The Case of Los Altos Region

    PubMed Central

    Nájera-Ortiz, J. C.; Sánchez-Pérez, H. J.; Ochoa-Díaz-López, H.; Leal-Fernández, G.; Navarro-Giné, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To analyse survival in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and factors associated with such survival. Design. Study of a cohort of patients aged over 14 years diagnosed with PTB from January 1, 1998 to July 31, 2005. During 2004–2006 a home visit was made to each patient and, during 2008-2009, they were visited again. During these visits a follow-up interview was administered; when the patient had died, a verbal autopsy was conducted with family members. Statistical analysis consisted of survival tests, Kaplan-Meier log-rank test and Cox regression. Results. Of 305 studied patients, 68 had died due to PTB by the time of the first evaluation, 237 were followed-up for a second evaluation, and 10 of them had died of PTB. According to the Cox regression, age (over 45 years) and treatment duration (under six months) were associated with a poorer survival. When treatment duration was excluded, the association between poorer survival with age persisted, whereas with having been treated via DOTS strategy, was barely significant. Conclusions. In the studied area it is necessary that patients receive a complete treatment scheme, and to give priority to patients aged over 45 years. PMID:22701170

  20. Do Bird Friendly® Coffee Criteria Benefit Mammals? Assessment of Mammal Diversity in Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Caudill, S. Amanda; Rice, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity-friendly coffee certifications offer a viable way to protect wildlife habitat while providing a financial incentive to farmers. Most studies related to these certifications focus on avian habitat requirements and it is not known whether these standards also apply to other wildlife, such as mammals, that inhabit the coffee landscapes. We assessed the non-volant mammalian fauna and their associated habitat requirements in 23 sites representing forest, Bird Friendly® shade, conventional shade, and sun coffee habitats. We used Sherman trap-grids to measure small mammal abundance and richness, while camera traps were set for medium-sized and large mammals. We detected 17 species of mammals, representing 11 families. This preliminary study indicates that coffee farms in this region provide an important refuge for mammalian wildlife. Mammal species density ranked significantly higher in Bird Friendly® coffee sites than other coffee habitats, although there was no significant difference for species richness (using Chao2 estimator) among the habitat types. No significant difference was found in small mammal abundance among the habitat types. We found a higher species density of medium and large mammals in sites with larger, more mature shade trees associated with, but not required by Bird Friendly® certification standards. However, lower strata vegetation (5 cm to 1 m tall), the only vegetation parameter found to increase abundance and density for small mammals, is not specified in the Bird Friendly® standards. Our findings suggest that although the standards devised for avian habitat do benefit mammals, further study is needed on the requirements specific for mammals that could be included to enhance the coffee habitat for mammals that inhabit these coffee landscapes. PMID:27880773

  1. Genotypic analyses of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 and non-O157 recovered from feces of domestic animals in rural farms in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a zoonotic enteric pathogen associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. Cattle and small ruminants are important animal reservoirs of STEC. The present study investigated animal reservoirs for STEC in small rural farms in the Culiacan Valley, an...

  2. Mexico City, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    In this rare clear view of Mexico City, Mexico (19.5N, 99.0W), the network of broad avenues and plazas of the capital city are very evident. The city, built on the remnants of a lake in the caldera of a tremendous extinct volcano, is home to over twenty million people and is slowly sinking as subsidence takes it's toll on the lakebed.

  3. Exploration of the Elements of Human Capital, Social Capital and Instructional Tools and Routines Used in a School That Served English Language Learners in Rural Southwest New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolar, Trinidad Uribe

    2011-01-01

    As a nation, we should be committed to providing quality education to all of our students. However, only five percent of over 450 schools in New Mexico with a large ELL population met the AMAOs during the 2007-2008, and 2008-2009 school years (Title III AMAO Results, 2007-2008, and 2008-2009). The AMAOs are: 1) Making Progress in English, 2)…

  4. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentration from Mexican children living in the southeastern region in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N; Martínez-Salinas, Rebeca I; Pruneda Alvarez, Lucia G; Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco J

    2014-04-01

    Biomass combustion indoors has been associated with generation of various pollutants, such as carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, respirable particles, toluene, benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), among others. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (as a biomarker exposure to PAHs) levels in children living in three states in Mexico. We evaluated children living in communities that use biomass fuels to cook and to heat homes in the next states: Chiapas, Oaxaca and Quintana Roo. We found similar levels of 1-OHP in urine of children living in the three studied states, with mean levels of 3.5 ± 1.0; 4.5 ± 2.8 and 4.4 ± 2.5 μg/L (geometric mean ± standard deviation), respectively for Chiapas, Oaxaca and Quintana Roo. In conclusion, our data indicate high exposure levels to PAHs in children living in the states studied in this work.

  5. Experimental Infection of Potential Reservoir Hosts with Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Deardorff, Eleanor R.; Forrester, Naomi L.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Tesh, Robert B.

    2009-01-01

    In 1993, an outbreak of encephalitis among 125 affected equids in coastal Chiapas, Mexico, resulted in a 50% case-fatality rate. The outbreak was attributed to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) subtype IE, not previously associated with equine disease and death. To better understand the ecology of this VEEV strain in Chiapas, we experimentally infected 5 species of wild rodents and evaluated their competence as reservoir and amplifying hosts. Rodents from 1 species (Baiomys musculus) showed signs of disease and died by day 8 postinoculation. Rodents from the 4 other species (Liomys salvini, Oligoryzomys fulvescens, Oryzomys couesi, and Sigmodon hispidus) became viremic but survived and developed neutralizing antibodies, indicating that multiple species may contribute to VEEV maintenance. By infecting numerous rodent species and producing adequate viremia, VEEV may increase its chances of long-term persistence in nature and could increase risk for establishment in disease-endemic areas and amplification outside the disease-endemic range. PMID:19331726

  6. [Working with Infants, Toddlers, and Families in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on providing services to infants with special needs in rural areas. In "Old Threads, New Patterns: Reaching Out to Rural Families," Deborah Harris-Usner discusses bringing infant mental health care and parent-infant psychotherapy to rural New Mexico. In "The People of Kids Place: Creating and Maintaining…

  7. Globalisation And Local Indigenous Education In Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinke, Leanne

    2004-11-01

    Globalisation is often viewed as a threat to cultural and linguistic diversity and therefore is a central concern of educational practices and policy. The present study challenges this common view by demonstrating that local communities can use global means to support and enhance their specific practices and policies. An historical exploration of education policy in Mexico reveals that there has been a continuing struggle by indigenous peoples to maintain locally relevant modes of teaching. Indigenous peoples have increasingly used technology to maintain their languages and local cultural practices. Such accentuation of the local in a global context is exemplified by the people of Chiapas: They live in subsistence-type communities, yet their recent education movements and appeals to international solidarity (such as in the Zapatista rebellion) have employed computer-aided technologies.

  8. Characterization of the NOx-Ox relationship in a mountain gap rural area of interchange of air masses southeast of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Suarez, L.; Garcia-Yee, J.; Torres-JArdon, R.; Barrera Huertas, H.; Torres-Jaramillo, A.; Ortinez, A.

    2013-05-01

    Varying levels of oxidants (Ox = O3 + NO2) with respect to NOx were registered at three sites in a mountain southeast of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) in February and March 2011. The Ox-NOx ratio was used to gain a better understanding of the photochemical and transport processes happening over this mountain pass. Relatively high concentrations of O3 (moving average concentrations of 8 hours) exceeded maximum levels of the World Health Organization, and the European Union. The cumulative exceedances above background level of O3 in the one month-long campaign also exceeded the three months accumulative UN-ECE AOT40 critical level for crop protection. It was observed that the level of Ox in the mountain gap sites consisted of two contributions: One, independent of NOx emissions, extremely dominant and considered equivalent to the regional background O3 concentration; the second and much smaller was dependent of NOx local concentrations. Evidence was found that the oxidation of NO provided the major contribution of NO2 to Ox, rather than direct NO2 emissions. The contribution of regional Ox dominated from midmorning to noon when the boundary layer height began to increase due to sunlight heating of the surface leading to the mixing of higher concentrations of O3 above the nighttime thermal inversion. After noon, when the ozone vertical distribution was uniform, the Ox and O3 concentrations reached their maximum; they were very similar with very low levels of NO2. The analysis of wind data collected at the monitoring sites showed that from mid-morning to early afternoon, a northerly weak flow was common. Afterwards stronger southerly winds became dominant bringing in O3 rich air parcels into the atmospheric basin where MCMA is located. The high regional ozone concentrations add evidence for the need of coordinated air quality management policies for the complete central part of Mexico. Keywords: mountain gap, oxidant, ground level ozone, Central Mexico

  9. Living Longer in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Emma; Diaz, Claudia; Fu, Mary Manqing; Kapteyn, Arie; Pierson, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This analysis of aging and income security in Mexico establishes that the older population in Mexico is increasing quickly and that this population is especially vulnerable to poverty. Mexican citizens are living longer and overall have experienced an improvement in the quality of life compared to that of prior generations. However, this study demonstrates that social improvements are not affecting the daily lives of all persons equally. The authors attempt to uncover and highlight those differences. One of the primary challenges facing Mexico is a growing older population. The demographic transition in Mexico combined with the lack of formal sources of income in retirement place many older persons in a state of financial insecurity. The information contained in this study and the proposed policy research areas are intended to enlarge the portfolio of options for older Mexicans. The authors analyze wealth and sources of income during retirement, the relationship between health and wealth, urban and rural disparities, and the impact of migration spells to the United States on wealth accumulation and health insurance in Mexico. PMID:28083208

  10. Selected health and management issues facing working donkeys presented for veterinary treatment in rural Mexico: some possible risk factors and potential intervention strategies.

    PubMed

    Burden, Faith A; Du Toit, Nicole; Hernandez-Gil, Mariano; Prado-Ortiz, Omar; Trawford, Andrew F

    2010-04-01

    The examination of 216 donkeys presented for treatment at the Donkey Sanctuary-World Horse Welfare-Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico mobile clinics revealed a number of health and welfare problems. A general overview of the donkeys' health was made and showed that the median body condition score (BCS) in this population was 2.5. Underweight animals only accounted for 26% of the population. Females, 0-5-year-olds and >21-year-olds, were more likely to be underweight. When analysed, there was no correlation between faecal worm egg count (FEC) and BCS. The prevalence of strongyle infection as assessed by FEC was shown to be 80% with a median FEC of 600 eggs per gramme. Donkeys were assessed for body lesions and showed a high prevalence (71%), particularly in the facial region (54%). Analysis showed that mature animals (6-15 years old) were at increased risk of body lesions compared to older animals (16+ years old) as were donkeys with dental disease and those in particular villages. Risk factor analysis for lesions of the face showed that stallions and geldings are at increased risk as were donkeys wearing halters made from nylon rope. This study has identified areas for further investigation and potential areas where targeted interventions may be made to improve the health and welfare of working donkeys in Mexico.

  11. Religious Affiliation, Ethnicity, and Child Mortality in Chiapas, México

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Eunice D. Vargas; Potter, Joseph E.; Fernández, Leticia

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether there is a relationship between religious affiliation and child mortality among indigenous and nonindigenous groups in Chiapas, México. Our analysis relies on Brass-type estimates of child mortality by ethnicity and religious affiliation and multivariate analyses that adjust for various socioeconomic and demographic factors. The data are from the 2000 Mexican Census 10 percent sample. Among indigenous people, Presbyterians have lower rates of child mortality than Catholics. However, no significant differentials are found in child mortality by religious affiliation among nonindigenous people. The indigenous health ministry of the Presbyterian Church and the social and cultural transformations that tend to accompany religious conversion may have an impact on child survival among disadvantaged populations such as the indigenous people in Chiapas. PMID:26146411

  12. Michael K. Scullin: Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award.

    PubMed

    2011-11-01

    Presents Michael K. Scullin as the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award. "For an outstanding research paper that examines the relationship between prospective memory in executing a goal and various lapses of time from 20 minutes up to a 12- hour wake delay and a 12-hour sleep delay. The results suggest that consolidation processes active during sleep increase the probability of goal execution. The paper, titled 'Remembering to Execute a Goal: Sleep On It!' was published in Psychological Science in 2010 and was the basis for Michael K. Scullin's selection as the recipient of the 2011 Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award. Mark A. McDaniel, PhD, served as faculty research advisor." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Cynthia J. Najdowski: Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award. The 2012 winner is Cynthia J. Najdowski for an outstanding research paper that examines how jurors' judgments are influenced by a juvenile defendant's confession and status as intellectually disabled. Through the use of a mock trial experiment, the research revealed that jurors discounted a juvenile's coerced confession and sometimes used intellectual disability as a mitigating factor. Attribution theory and the discounting principle were used to identify the psychological mechanisms underlying this effect. The paper, titled 'Understanding Jurors' Judgments in Cases Involving Juvenile Defendants,' was published in Psychology, Public Policy, and Law in October 2011 and was the basis for Najdowski's selection as the recipient of the 2012 Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award. Bette L. Bottoms, PhD, served as faculty supervisor. Najdowski's Award citation and a selected bibliography are also presented.

  14. Rural Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of food programs are available for rural seniors? Rural older adults may benefit from a range ... guide, What are some food assistance programs for seniors, such as home meal deliveries, in rural communities? ...

  15. High Frequency of Human Blood in Triatoma dimidiata Captured Inside Dwellings in a Rural Community in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, but Low Antibody Seroprevalence and Electrocardiographic Findings Compatible with Chagas Disease in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Monteon, Victor; Alducin, César; Hernández, Jorge; Ramos-Ligonio, Angel; Lopez, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    We studied a small rural community of 411 inhabitants localized in the state of Campeche in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. In 44 collected triatomines captured inside the houses, human feeding source was revealed in 23 of 44 (52%) samples, and chicken feeding source was revealed in 16 of 44 (36%) samples. In a set of 29 triatomines, mouse was the feeding source in 13 (44%) samples, and dog was the feeding source in 7 (24%) samples. Infection index with Trypanosoma cruzi in collected triatomines was 38%, and all parasites belonged to discrete type unit I. Inhabitants referred high contact with triatomine's bite in 60 of 128 (47%) samples, but seroprevalence was 2.3% (3/128). Evidence of electrocardiographic alteration compatible with Chagas disease was observed only in one asymptomatic seropositive subject. In conclusion, Triatoma dimidiata in this region are preferentially infected with T. cruzi I and feed on human beings with relative high frequency, but seroprevalence and Chagas disease in humans is relatively low. PMID:23296447

  16. The 'right hand of the hospital' in a tumultuous land': 'Auxiliary nurses' in Chiapas.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Diana

    2005-01-01

    For many, the road to a career in nursing is an unexpected one, with challenging twists and turns along the way. But rarely does it begin with escape down a rain-beaten jungle path, pursued by wined soldiers and tanks. Such is the saga of group of young Mayan auxiliary nurses, who have steadfastly served their commuitities in the troubled southeastern Mexican state of Chiapas, a place where most doctors had fled.

  17. Stelis zootrophionoides (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae), a New Species from Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Castro, Sergio E.; Castañeda-Zárate, Miguel; Solano-Gómez, Rodolfo; Salazar, Gerardo A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Stelis (Orchidaceae) encompasses approximately 1100 species of epiphytic orchids distributed throughout the Neotropics, with the highest diversity in Andean South America. Sixty-two species were recorded previously in Mexico. Methods We formally describe here Stelis zootrophionoides as a new species from Chiapas, Mexico. To determine its systematic position, we conducted a morphological comparison with other members of Pleurothallidinae and a phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences from the plastid matK/trnK and trnL/trnF regions, as well as the nuclear ribosomal ITS region for 52 species of Pleurothallidinae. Sequences of 49 species were downloaded from GenBank and those of three species, including the new taxon, were newly generated for this work. The new species is described and illustrated; notes on its ecological preferences and a comparison with closely related species are presented. Conclusions The new species, known only from one location and apparently restricted to the cloud forest in the central highlands of Chiapas, Mexico, is considered a rare species. This small epiphyte is unique among the Mexican species of Stelis by the combination of dark purple flowers with the distal third of the dorsal sepal adhered to the apices of the lateral sepals, which are partially united into a bifid synsepal, leaving two lateral window-like openings, and sagittate labellum. Stelis jalapensis, known from southern Mexico and Guatemala, also has the apices of the sepals adhered to each other, but it is distinguished by its larger flowers with lanceolate, acute dorsal sepal, completely fused lateral sepals (i.e. the synsepal is not bifid), and oblong-elliptic labellum. The phylogenetic analysis shows that S. zootrophionoides is closely related to other Mexican Stelis and corroborates previous suggestions that fused sepal apices have arisen independently in different lineages of Pleurothallidinae. PMID:23144987

  18. Use of an iron superoxide dismutase excreted by Trypanosoma cruzi in the diagnosis of Chagas disease: seroprevalence in rural zones of the state of Queretaro, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villagrán, María E; Marín, Clotilde; Rodríguez-Gonzalez, Isabel; De Diego, Jose A; Sánchez-Moreno, Manuel

    2005-09-01

    Four iron superoxide dismutase (SODI, SODII, SODIII, and SODIV) activities with pI values of 6.9, 6.8, 5.25, and 3.8, respectively, were isolated from epimastigote forms of the Maracay strain of Trypanosoma cruzi cultivated at 28 degrees C in Grace's medium supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum. The activity of SODe (pI 3.8), which coincides with that of SODIV, was detected in Grace's medium without serum in which T. cruzi epimastigotes were cultivated for 24 hours at 28 degrees C. SODe, which was excreted into the medium by the parasite, was immunogenic and antibodies to SODe were detected in serum to a dilution of 1:2,500 by Western blot. The role of SODe is related to the establishment of the parasite within the host, and its high immunogenicity and specificity make it a useful molecular marker in diagnosing infection with this parasite. To validate a Western blot result using SODe as a antigen fraction, 1,029 sera of individuals from 11 municipalities in the state of Queretaro, Mexico were analyzed. Sampling was done randomly and results were compared with those for the same sera with three conventional serologic methods: an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect hemagglutination (IHA), and an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) to detect antibodies to T. cruzi SODe. Samples that were positive by these three techniques were also positive by the Western blot method. The seroprevalence values for SODe (8.16% by ELISA and Western blot) in Queretaro were considerably higher than those reported in regions of Mexico considered to be endemic for Chagas disease. These results support the use of SODe in the serodiagnosis of Chagas disease.

  19. Applying the Fuzzy Delphi Method for determining socio-ecological factors that influence adherence to mammography screening in rural areas of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Lezama, Ana Paola; Cavazos-Arroyo, Judith; Albavera-Hernández, Cidronio

    2014-02-01

    In Mexico, regular participation in mammography screening is low, despite higher survival rates. The objective of our research is to highlight healthcare procedures to be optimized and target areas to encourage investment and to raise awareness about the benefits of early diagnosis. Those socio-ecological factors (community, interpersonal and individual) were collected through a review of literature and based on the spatial interaction model of mammography use developed by Mobley et al. The opinion of diverse groups of experts on the importance of those factors was collected by survey. The Fuzzy Delphi Method helped to solve the inherent uncertainty of the survey process. Our findings suggest that population health behaviors, proximity-density to facilities/ physicians and predisposing factors are needed to increase the screening rate. Variations in expert group size could affect the accuracy of the conclusions. However, the application of the enhanced aggregation method provided a group consensus that is less susceptible to misinterpretation and that weighs the opinion of each expert according to their clinical experience in mammography research.

  20. Mexico Wind Resource Assessment Project

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, M.N.; Elliott, D.L.

    1995-05-01

    A preliminary wind energy resource assessment of Mexico that produced wind resource maps for both utility-scale and rural applications was undertaken as part of the Mexico-U.S. Renewable Energy Cooperation Program. This activity has provided valuable information needed to facilitate the commercialization of small wind turbines and windfarms in Mexico and to lay the groundwork for subsequent wind resource activities. A surface meteorological data set of hourly data in digital form was utilized to prepare a more detailed and accurate wind resource assessment of Mexico than otherwise would have been possible. Software was developed to perform the first ever detailed analysis of the wind characteristics data for over 150 stations in Mexico. The hourly data set was augmented with information from weather balloons (upper-air data), ship wind data from coastal areas, and summarized wind data from sources in Mexico. The various data were carefully evaluated for their usefulness in preparing the wind resource assessment. The preliminary assessment has identified many areas of good-to-excellent wind resource potential and shows that the wind resource in Mexico is considerably greater than shown in previous surveys.

  1. Social Capital, Organic Agriculture, and Sustainable Livelihood Security: Rethinking Agrarian Change in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getz, Christy

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the relevance of extra local market linkages and local-level social capital to sustainable livelihood outcomes in two agrarian communities on Mexico's Baja Peninsula. Contextualized by the specificity of Mexico's transition from state-directed rural development to neoliberally-guided rural development in the 1990s, findings…

  2. Qualitative evidence on abortion stigma from Mexico City and five states in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sorhaindo, Annik M; Juárez-Ramírez, Clara; Díaz Olavarrieta, Claudia; Aldaz, Evelyn; Mejía Piñeros, María Consuelo; Garcia, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Social manifestations of abortion stigma depend upon cultural, legal, and religious context. Abortion stigma in Mexico is under-researched. This study explored the sources, experiences, and consequences of stigma from the perspectives of women who had had an abortion, male partners, and members of the general population in different regional and legal contexts. We explored abortion stigma in Mexico City where abortion is legal in the first trimester and five states-Chihuahua, Chiapas, Jalisco, Oaxaca, and Yucatán-where abortion remains restricted. In each state, we conducted three focus groups-men ages 24-40 years (n = 36), women 25-40 years (n = 37), and young women ages 18-24 years (n = 27)-and four in-depth face-to-face interviews in total; two with women (n = 12) and two with the male partners of women who had had an abortion (n = 12). For 4 of the 12 women, this was their second abortion. This exploratory study suggests that abortion stigma was influenced by norms that placed a high value on motherhood and a conservative Catholic discourse. Some participants in this study described abortion as an "indelible mark" on a woman's identity and "divine punishment" as a consequence. Perspectives encountered in Mexico City often differed from the conservative postures in the states.

  3. Susceptibility to aflatoxin contamination among maize landraces from Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize, the critical staple food for billions of people, was domesticated in Mexico about 9,000 YBP. Today, a great array of maize land races (MLRs) across rural Mexico is harbored in a living library that has been passed among generations since before establishment of the modern state. MLRs have bee...

  4. Dengue virus in bats from southeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sotomayor-Bonilla, Jesús; Chaves, Andrea; Rico-Chávez, Oscar; Rostal, Melinda K; Ojeda-Flores, Rafael; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; Aguilar-Setien, Álvaro; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Barbachano-Guerrero, Arturo; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo; Aguilar-Faisal, J Leopoldo; Aguirre, A Alonso; Daszak, Peter; Suzán, Gerardo

    2014-07-01

    To identify the relationship between landscape use and dengue virus (DENV) occurrence in bats, we investigated the presence of DENV from anthropogenically changed and unaltered landscapes in two Biosphere Reserves: Calakmul (Campeche) and Montes Azules (Chiapas) in southern Mexico. Spleen samples of 146 bats, belonging to 16 species, were tested for four DENV serotypes with standard reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocols. Six bats (4.1%) tested positive for DENV-2: four bats in Calakmul (two Glossophaga soricina, one Artibeus jamaicensis, and one A. lituratus) and two bats in Montes Azules (both A. lituratus). No effect of anthropogenic disturbance on the occurrence of DENV was detected; however, all three RT-PCR-positive bat species are considered abundant species in the Neotropics and well-adapted to disturbed habitats. To our knowledge, this study is the first study conducted in southeastern Mexico to identify DENV-2 in bats by a widely accepted RT-PCR protocol. The role that bats play on DENV's ecology remains undetermined.

  5. Dengue Virus in Bats from Southeastern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Sotomayor-Bonilla, Jesús; Chaves, Andrea; Rico-Chávez, Oscar; Rostal, Melinda K.; Ojeda-Flores, Rafael; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; Aguilar-Setien, Álvaro; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Barbachano-Guerrero, Arturo; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo; Aguilar-Faisal, J. Leopoldo; Aguirre, A. Alonso; Daszak, Peter; Suzán, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    To identify the relationship between landscape use and dengue virus (DENV) occurrence in bats, we investigated the presence of DENV from anthropogenically changed and unaltered landscapes in two Biosphere Reserves: Calakmul (Campeche) and Montes Azules (Chiapas) in southern Mexico. Spleen samples of 146 bats, belonging to 16 species, were tested for four DENV serotypes with standard reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocols. Six bats (4.1%) tested positive for DENV-2: four bats in Calakmul (two Glossophaga soricina, one Artibeus jamaicensis, and one A. lituratus) and two bats in Montes Azules (both A. lituratus). No effect of anthropogenic disturbance on the occurrence of DENV was detected; however, all three RT-PCR–positive bat species are considered abundant species in the Neotropics and well-adapted to disturbed habitats. To our knowledge, this study is the first study conducted in southeastern Mexico to identify DENV-2 in bats by a widely accepted RT-PCR protocol. The role that bats play on DENV's ecology remains undetermined. PMID:24752688

  6. Self-Concept Development in Rural and Urban Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velasco-Barraza, Carlos; Muller, Douglas

    1982-01-01

    Using the Self-Descriptive Inventory, compares development of self-concept, self-esteem, self-ideal in physical maturity, peer relations, academic success, school adaptiveness in 50 rural children (Hatch, New Mexico) and 50 urban children (Las Cruces New Mexico). Finds negative patterns in academic success and school adaptiveness more pronounced…

  7. The first educational interferometer in Mexico (FEYMANS): A novel project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villicana Pedraza, Ilhuiyolitzin; Guesten, Rolf; Saucedo Morales, Julio Cesar; Carreto, Francisco; Valdes Estrada, Erik; Wendolyn Blanco Cardenas, Monica; Rodríguez Garza, Carolina B.; Pech Castillo, Gerardo A.; Ángel Vaquerizo, Juan

    2016-07-01

    An interferometer is composed of several radio telescopes (dishes) separated by a defined distance and used in synchrony. This kind of array produces a superior angular resolution, better than the resolution achieved by a single dish of the same combined area. In this work we propose the First Educational Youth Mexican Array North South, FEYMANS. It consists of an educational interferometer with initially four dishes. This array harvests Mexico's geography by locating each dish at the periphery of the country; creating new scientific links of provincial populations with the capital. The FEYMANS project focus in high school students and their projects on physics, chemistry and astronomy as a final project. Also, it can be used for bachelor theses. The initial and central dish-node is planed to be in Mexico City. After its construction, the efforts will focus to build subsequent nodes, on the Northwest region, Northeast, or Southeast. Region Northwest will give service to Baja California, Sonora and Chihuahua states. Region Northeast will cover Coahuila, Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas. Finally, region Southeast will give access to Yucatan, Quintana Roo, Campeche, Tabasco and Chiapas. This project has been conceived by young professional astronomers and Mexican experts that will operate each node. Also, we have the technical support of the "Max Planck Institute fuer Radioastronomy in Bonn Germany" and the educational model of the "PARTNeR" project in Spain. This interferometer will be financed by Mexico's Federal Congress and by Mexico City's Legislative Assembly (ALDF).

  8. Compilation and Production of a Karst map of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, R.

    2008-12-01

    Twenty percent of Mexico's territory consists of karst terrain, which has been classified in two main provinces: one is the peninsula of Yucatan and the mountain systems of Chiapas and the other karst bodies are distributed in the Sierra Madre del Sur and Sierra Madre Oriental. These karst bodies developed in rocks of Triassic and Cretaceous age. Due to the importance of karst features in Mexico, the International Association of Hydrogeologists through the Karst Comition requested the collaboration of the Institute of Geology, UNAM, to compile a map of soluble surface rocks in Mexico. This work seeks to classify and georeference karst locations and generate a database to link these sites with karst geological formations and lithologies, as well as geomorphological processes that have contributed to the formation of the karst bodies. Also, we want to provide a basis for cave and karst research and for management of karst resources. In order to produce a national karst map in digital form, the tools being used are: the geographical information system Arc View and Google Earth, with the support of scientific journals, hiking and speleological documents, and 1:50000 scale geological maps of Mexico elaborated by the Institute of Geology, UNAM.

  9. Another Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Carlin

    2009-01-01

    A Mexican saying holds that "Como Mexico no hay dos"--There is only one Mexico. American media these days interpret that notion with a vengeance. Story after story depicts a country overrun by out-of-control drug wars and murder, where corrupt police officers trip over beheaded victims more often than they nab perpetrators. South of the…

  10. Firearms in New Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Wiktor, S Z; Gallaher, M M; Baron, R C; Watson, M E; Sewell, C M

    1994-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of firearm ownership and storage practices in New Mexico, we did a random-digit-dialing survey of New Mexico residents in October 1991. Of 200 households surveyed, 79 (40%) had 1 or more firearms in the home. Rural households were more likely than urban households to have firearms (44% versus 30%), and households with annual incomes of greater than $25,000 were more likely to have a firearm than households with incomes of $25,000 or less (41% versus 33%). Household firearm ownership did not vary with the presence of young (< 15 years old) children (38% with children versus 41% without). Handguns were generally owned for self-protection, and rifles were owned for hunting. Of households with firearms, 24% stored them unsafely (unlocked and loaded or unloaded but with ammunition nearby), including 21% of households with young children. Of the households with handguns only, 40% stored these firearms unsafely compared with 13% of those with rifles only. The prevalence of gun ownership in New Mexico is similar to that reported in national surveys; handguns are stored less safely than rifles; and the presence of young children in the home does not appear to improve firearm storage safety. Images PMID:7941530

  11. HIV in Predominantly Rural Areas of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, H. Irene; Li, Jianmin; McKenna, Matthew T.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The burden of HIV/AIDS has not been described for certain rural areas of the United States (Appalachia, the Southeast Region, the Mississippi Delta, and the US-Mexico Border), where barriers to receiving HIV services include rural residence, poverty, unemployment, and lack of education. Methods: We used data from Centers for Disease…

  12. Transboundary pollution: Persistent organochlorine pesticides in migrant birds of the Southwestern United States and Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mora, Miguel A.

    1997-01-01

    The hypothesis that migratory birds accumulate persistent organochlorine pesticides (POPs) during the winter in Latin America has been prevalent for many years, particularly since 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2–bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) was banned in the United States in 1972. It has been suggested that peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus), black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), white-faced ibises (Plegadis chihi), various migratory waterfowl and shorebirds, and other avian species accumulate higher concentrations of POPs while on migration or on their wintering grounds in Latin America. Nonetheless, the data obtained thus far are limited, and there is no clear pattern to suggest that such accumulation occurs on a widespread basis. In this review wildlife contaminant studies conducted along the U.S.-Mexico border and throughout Mexico are discussed. The results for the most part seem to indicate that no major accumulation of 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene) (DDE), the most persistent organochlorine compound, has occurred or been reported for most parts of Mexico. The majority of the DDE values in birds from Mexico were similar to those reported in birds from the southwestern United States during the same years. More work needs to be done, particularly in those cotton-producing areas of Mexico where DDT was applied heavily in the past (e.g., Chiapas and Michoacan). Because DDT is still used for malaria control and may still be used in agriculture in Chiapas, this state is probably the one where most migrant species would still be at a significant risk of increased accumulation of DDE and DDT.

  13. Fresno in Transition: Urban Impacts of Rural Migration. Working Paper No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Bert; Alvarado, Andrew; Palacio, Robert

    This paper examines the social and economic impacts of Mexican immigration on Fresno (California). Since the early 1980s, immigration to California has been dominated by illegal immigrants from rural Mexico seeking agricultural jobs in rural California. This rural migration impacts urban centers in agricultural regions; these impacts lag the…

  14. The Rural School Bus Ride in Five States: A Report to the Rural School and Community Trust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Craig

    This report provides the first detailed picture of the features of the rural school bus ride. Data were provided by principals in 696 rural elementary schools in Arkansas, Georgia, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, and Washington--states chosen to represent diversity in region, locale, and ethnic composition. The literature commonly cites 30 minutes as…

  15. La Communicacion en la educacion de Adultos y el Desarrollo Rural (Adult Literacy and Rural Development). Cuadernos del CREFAL 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vejarano, Gilberto M.; And Others

    This booklet presents the ideas that came out of the Regional Meeting for Adult Literacy and Rural Development. The meeting took place in September 1981 at the Regional Center for Adult Education and Functional Literacy for Latin America (CREFAL) in Mexico. Basically, a discussion of adult literacy in the rural areas of Latin America is presented.…

  16. Payments for Environmental Services in a Policymix: Spatial and Temporal Articulation in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ezzine-de-Blas, Driss; Dutilly, Céline; Lara-Pulido, José-Alberto; Le Velly, Gwenolé; Guevara-Sanginés, Alejando

    2016-01-01

    Government based Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) have been criticized for not maximizing environmental effectiveness through appropriate targeting, while instead prioritizing social side-objectives. In Mexico, existing literature on how the Payments for Ecosystem Services-Hydrological program (PSA-H) has targeted deforestation and forest degradation shows that both the process of identifying the eligible areas and the choice of the selection criteria for enrolling forest parcels have been under the influence of competing agendas. In the present paper we study the influence of the PSA-H multi-level governance on the environmental effectiveness of the program–the degree to which forest at high risk of deforestation is enrolled- building from a “policyscape” framework. In particular, we combine governance analysis with two distinct applications of the policyscape framework: First, at national level we assess the functional overlap between the PSA-H and other environmental and rural programs with regard to the risk of deforestation. Second, at regional level in the states of Chiapas and Yucatan, we describe the changing policy agenda and the role of technical intermediaries in defining the temporal spatialization of the PSA-H eligible and enrolled areas with regard to key socio-economic criteria. We find that, although at national level the PSA-H program has been described as coping with both social and environmental indicators thanks to successful adaptive management, our analysis show that PSA-H is mainly found in communities where deforestation risk is low and in combination with other environmental programs (protected areas and forest management programs). Such inertia is reinforced at regional level as a result of the eligible areas’ characteristics and the behaviour of technical intermediaries, which seek to minimise transaction costs and sources of uncertainty. Our project-specific analysis shows the importance of integrating the governance of a

  17. Coronaviruses in bats from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Anthony, S J; Ojeda-Flores, R; Rico-Chávez, O; Navarrete-Macias, I; Zambrana-Torrelio, C M; Rostal, M K; Epstein, J H; Tipps, T; Liang, E; Sanchez-Leon, M; Sotomayor-Bonilla, J; Aguirre, A A; Ávila-Flores, R; Medellín, R A; Goldstein, T; Suzán, G; Daszak, P; Lipkin, W I

    2013-05-01

    Bats are reservoirs for a wide range of human pathogens including Nipah, Hendra, rabies, Ebola, Marburg and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (CoV). The recent implication of a novel beta (β)-CoV as the cause of fatal respiratory disease in the Middle East emphasizes the importance of surveillance for CoVs that have potential to move from bats into the human population. In a screen of 606 bats from 42 different species in Campeche, Chiapas and Mexico City we identified 13 distinct CoVs. Nine were alpha (α)-CoVs; four were β-CoVs. Twelve were novel. Analyses of these viruses in the context of their hosts and ecological habitat indicated that host species is a strong selective driver in CoV evolution, even in allopatric populations separated by significant geographical distance; and that a single species/genus of bat can contain multiple CoVs. A β-CoV with 96.5 % amino acid identity to the β-CoV associated with human disease in the Middle East was found in a Nyctinomops laticaudatus bat, suggesting that efforts to identify the viral reservoir should include surveillance of the bat families Molossidae/Vespertilionidae, or the closely related Nycteridae/Emballonuridae. While it is important to investigate unknown viral diversity in bats, it is also important to remember that the majority of viruses they carry will not pose any clinical risk, and bats should not be stigmatized ubiquitously as significant threats to public health.

  18. Egade, Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubany, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Presents a business school design in Mexico, whose spiral building sits atop a parking structure creating a compact, symbolic form for an arid urban landscape. Includes seven photographs, a floor plan, and sectional drawing. (GR)

  19. Petroleum geology and resources of southeastern Mexico, northern Guatemala, and Belize

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    Petroleum deposits in southeastern Mexico and Guatemala occur in two main basinal provinces: the Gulf Coast Tertiary basin area, which includes the Reforma and offshore Campeche Mesozoic fields, and the Peten basin of eastern Chiapas State (Mexico) and Guatemala. Major oil production, in order of importance, is from Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Jurassic carbonate reservoirs in the reforma and offshore Campeche area. Several small oil fields have been discovered in Cretaceous carbonate reservoirs in west-central Guatemala. Almost all important production is in salt structure traps or on domes and anticlines that may be related to deep-seated salt movement. Some minor oil production has occurred in Cretaceous carbonate reservoirs in a buried overthrust belt along the west flank of the Veracruz basin. Gas production is mainly from Tertiary sandstone reservoirs.

  20. [Characteristics of Guatemalan migration of the Soconusco region in the State of Chiapas].

    PubMed

    Angel Castillo, M; Casillas, R

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the main characteristics identified in seasonal Guatemalan workers who migrate every year to coffee plantations in the Sosonusco region in the state of Chiapas. Stress is placed on the disadvantageous working and living conditions of said population in their original areas of residence, as a necessary referent for understanding the nature and function of seasonal migratory work as a part of a social sector whose living conditions are marked by poverty. The data utilized for the analysis were obtained through a survey carried out in the 1986-1987 harvest season, in which 591 migrants working in 13 ejido or privately-owned productive units in the municipalities of Tapachula and Union Juarez were interviewed.

  1. Teaching Science to Students from Rural Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruna, Katherine Richardson; Chamberlin, Dennis; Lewis, Hannah; Ceballos, Edna Monica Lopez

    2007-01-01

    George Roberts has been teaching ninth-grade Earth science in Gardston, Iowa, for 10 years. This year, as chair of the Gardston High School's science department, he agreed to have all the English Language Learner (ELL) students assigned to his classes. George's goal was to learn more about the needs of these students and arrive at a set of…

  2. Rural Agrobusiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treillon, Roland; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This publication describes the formation and evolution of rural agribusiness (RA) in the southern hemisphere as a precondition for improving the lives of families in rural communities, and focuses on RA endeavors created by development projects in Latin America, the Caribbean, and Africa. After a short introduction, the first section of this study…

  3. The Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX): Performance and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Aranda, J.

    2013-05-01

    Originally the Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX) was proposed to integrate the Seismic Alert System of Mexico City (SAS), operating since 1991, with the Seismic Alert System of Oaxaca City (SASO), in services since 2003. And today, after the intense big earthquake activity observed in our world during 2010 and 2011, local governments of Mexico City, Oaxaca Estate, and the Mexican Ministry of the Interior have been promoting the expansion of this technological EEW development. Until 2012 SASMEX better coverage includes 48 new field seismic sensors (FS) deployed over the seismic region of Jalisco, Colima, Michoacan and Puebla, with someone enhancements over Guerrero and Oaxaca, to reach 97 FS. During 2013, 35 new FS has been proposed to SASMEX enhancements covering the Chiapas and Veracruz seismic regions. The SASMEX, with the support of the Mexico Valley Broadcasters Association (ARVM) since 1993, automatically issue Public and Preventive earthquake early warning signals in the Cities of Mexico, Toluca, Acapulco, Chilpancingo, and Oaxaca. The seismic warning range in each case is seated in accordance with local Civil Protection Authorities: Public Alert, if they expect strong earthquake effects, and Preventive Alert one, the effect could be moderated. Now the SASMEX warning time opportunity could be different to the 60 sec. average typically generated when SAS warned earthquake effects coming from Guerrero to Mexico City valley. Mexican EEW issued today reach: 16 Public and 62 Preventive Alert in Mexico City; 25 Public and 19 Preventive Alerts in Oaxaca City; also 14 Public and 4 Preventive Alerts in Acapulco; 14 Public and 5 Preventive Alerts in Chilpancingo. The earthquakes events registered by SASMEX FS until now reach 3448. With the support of private and Federal telecommunications infrastructure like, TELMEX, Federal Electric Commission, and the Mexican Security Ministry, it was developed a redundant communication system with pads to link the different

  4. Surgical education in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    Surgical education in Mexico basically follows the same model as in the United States, with a selection process resembling the matching program. There is a 4-year training period during which residents in their third year spend 4 months as the sole surgeon in a rural community. During the senior year they are entitled to an elective period in a place of their choosing. After completion of the 4 years, residents have to present a thesis and undergo an oral examination before getting a university diploma. They are then encouraged to pass the written and oral examination of the Mexican Board of Surgery before they are fully certified to enter practice in a public or private hospital.

  5. Systematics and faunistics of Neotropical Eucosmini. 1. Chimoptesis Powell, 1964 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Razowski, Ózef; Becker, Vitor Osmar

    2015-03-31

    Twenty-one new species of Chimoptesis are described and illustrated: C. costaricae (TL: Costa Rica: San José), C. phanera (TL: Mexico: Chiapas), C. rubigo (TL: Mexico: Chiapas), C. rosariana (TL: Cuba: Pinar Rio), C. miniaula (TL: Mexico: Chiapas), C. kallion (TL: Mexico: Chiapas), C. potosiana (TL: Mexico: Nuevo Leon), C. obliquaria (TL: Mexico: Nuevo Leon), C. angulata (TL: Mexico: Chiapas), C. dentitia (TL: Mexico: Chiapas), C. faceta (TL: Mexico: Nuevo Leon), C. caera (TL: Mexico: Chiapas), C. castanescens (TL: Mexico: Chiapas), C. albomixta (TL: Mexico: Distrito Federal), C. cornigera (TL: Mexico: Nuevo Leon), C. mitrion (TL: Mexico: Nuevo Leon), C. setoses (TL: Cuba: Santiago), C. juniptesis (TL: Mexico: Chiapas), C. tamaulipasia (TL: Mexico: Tamaulipas), C. zoquiapana (Mexico: Distrito Federal), and C. rufobrunnea (TL: Costa Rica: San José). Formerly known only from the U.S., Chimoptesis is recorded south to Costa Rica in Central America and Cuba in the Caribbean.

  6. Environmental lead in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Albert, L A; Badillo, F

    1991-01-01

    From the data presented here, it can be concluded that environmental exposure to lead is a particularly severe problem in Mexico. As has been shown, there are very important sources of exposure to this metal: (a) for rural populations who manufacture and/or utilize lead-glazed pottery, (b) for urban populations who are exposed to high air lead concentrations due to the continued use of lead fuel additives, (c) for workers of several industries, mainly those of batteries and pigments, (d) for consumers who routinely eat canned foods such as hot peppers and fruit products, and (e) for the general population living in the vicinity of smelters, refineries and other industries that emit lead. Therefore, in Mexico only those native populations living in very primitive communities, far away from all civilized life, could be expected to be free from this exposure. At the same time, and despite the relatively few data available, it can be stated that the exposure to lead of populations in Mexico could be approaching levels that might be highly hazardous, in particular for the neuropsychological health of children. Regarding the presence of lead in the environment, despite the fact that the available studies are not enough, it is evident that pollution by this metal is widespread and that there is a serious lack of studies for most regions of the country, including several that might be expected to be highly polluted. At the same time, it is evident that the official attention paid to the problem, either in regulations, support of further studies, or implementation of effective control measures has been far from the level needed according to the available data. Lead in gasoline is still used at very high concentrations in all the country, with the exception of Mexico City and its surrounding area, while no studies have been carried out to determine the potential health and environmental impact of this practice in regions outside Mexico City. Despite the fact that the Torre

  7. Diversity of mosquitoes and the aquatic insects associated with their oviposition sites along the Pacific coast of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The abundance, richness and diversity of mosquitoes and aquatic insects associated with their oviposition sites were surveyed along eight states of the Pacific coast of Mexico. Diversity was estimated using the Shannon index (H’), similarity measures and cluster analysis. Methods Oviposition sites were sampled during 2–3 months per year, over a three year period. Field collected larvae and pupae were reared and identified to species following adult emergence. Aquatic insects present at oviposition sites were also collected, counted and identified to species or genus. Results In total, 15 genera and 74 species of mosquitoes were identified: Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, An. albimanus and Aedes aegypti were the most abundant and widely-distributed species, representing 47% of total mosquito individuals sampled. New species records for certain states are reported. Anopheline diversity was lowest in Sinaloa state (H’ = 0.54) and highest in Chiapas (H’ = 1.61) and Michoacán (H’ = 1.56), whereas culicid diversity was lowest in Michoacán (H’ = 1.93), Colima (H’ = 1.95), Sinaloa (H’ = 1.99) and Jalisco (H’ = 2.01) and highest in Chiapas (H’ = 2.66). In total, 10 orders, 57 families, 166 genera and 247 species of aquatic insects were identified in samples. Aquatic insect diversity was highest in Chiapas, Oaxaca and Michoacán (H’ = 3.60-3.75). Mosquito larval/pupal abundance was not correlated with that of predatory Coleoptera and Hemiptera. Conclusion This represents the first update on the diversity and geographic distribution of the mosquitoes and aquatic insects of Mexico in over five decades. This information has been cataloged in Mexico’s National Biodiversity Information System (SNIB-CONABIO) for public inspection. PMID:24450800

  8. Pheromone-Mediated Mate Location and Discrimination by Two Syntopic Sibling Species of Dendroctonus Bark Beetles in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Niño-Domínguez, Alicia; Sullivan, Brian T; López-Urbina, José H; Macías-Sámano, Jorge E

    2015-08-01

    Where their geographic and host ranges overlap, sibling species of tree-killing bark beetles may simultaneously attack and reproduce on the same hosts. However, sustainability of these potentially mutually beneficial associations demands effective prezygotic reproductive isolation mechanisms between the interacting species. The pine bark beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, is syntopic in the Central American region with a recently described sibling species, Dendroctonus mesoamericanus Armendáriz-Toledano and Sullivan, but mechanisms for their reproductive isolation are uncertain. We investigated whether semiochemicals mediate species discrimination by mate-seeking males of both species. In olfactometer bioassays, walking males of both species strongly preferred odors from gallery entrances of conspecific females. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry isolated 16 olfactory stimulants for males in these odors, but only two, ipsdienol and endo-brevicomin (both from D. mesoamericanus females), differed in quantity in female-associated odors between the species. In olfactometer bioassays, with 10, 1, or 0.1 female entrance equivalents of synthetic semiochemicals, the combination of ipsdienol and endo-brevicomin inhibited responses of male D. frontalis and enhanced responses of male D. mesoamericanus to two compounds associated with female entrances of both species (the pheromone component frontalin and host odor α-pinene). We conclude that ipsdienol and endo-brevicomin, pheromone components produced by females of just one of the two species (D. mesoamericanus), mediate interspecific mate discrimination by males of both species and provide an apparently symmetrical reproductive isolation mechanism.

  9. Sulfur and oxygen isotopic systematics of the 1982 eruptions of El Chichón Volcano, Chiapas, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rye, R.O.; Luhr, J.F.; Wasserman, M.D.

    1984-01-01

    Thermometers based on sulfur and oxygen isotopic compositions of anhydrite, pyrrhotite, titanomagnetite, and plagioclase crystals from fresh pumices of the 1982 eruptions of El Chichón Volcano indicate a pre-eruption temperature of 810 ± 40°C, confirming textural evidence that the anhydrite precipitated directly from the melt. The isotopic composition of sulfate leached from fresh ashfall samples shows it to be a mixture of anhydrite microphenocrysts and adsorbed sulfate derived from oxidized sulfur (SO2) in the eruption plume. The leachate data show no evidence for rapid oxidation of significant amounts of H2S in the eruption cloud even though the fugacity ratio of H2S/SO2 in the gas phase of the magma was >400. This may indicate kinetic inhibition of H2S to SO2 conversion in the eruption cloud. Prior to eruption, the magma contained an estimated 2.6 wt. % sulfur (as SO3). The estimated δ 34S of the bulk magma is 5.8‰. Such a high value may reflect assimilation of 34S-enriched evaporites or the prior loss of 34S-depleted H2S to a fluid or gas phase during formation of a small prophyry-type hydrothermal system or ore deposit. In either case, the original magma must have been very sulfur rich. It is likely that the initial high sulfur content of the magma and at least some of its 34S enrichment reflects involvement of subducted volcanogenic massive sulfides deposits during Benioff-zone partial melting. Isotopic data on mineralized, accidental lithic fragments support the possible development of a porphyry-type system at El Chichón.

  10. LAND-USE CHANGE AND CARBON FLUX BETWEEN 1970S AND 1990S IN CENTRAL HIGHLANDS OF CHIAPAS, MEXICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present results of a study in an intensively impacted and highly fragmented landscape in which we apply field-measured carbon (C) density values to land-use/land-cover (LU/LC) statistics to estimate the flux of C between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere from the 1970s...

  11. Archeointensity determinations on Pre-Columbian potteries from La Ceiba and Santa Marta shelter-caves (Chiapas, Mexico).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Ceja, Maria; Camps, Pierre; Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Poidras, Thierry; Nicol, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Quite surprisingly, the abundance of archaeological baked clays found in the tropical area of Mesoamerica contrast with the small amount of archeomagnetic data available today for this area [Fanjat et al, EPSL, 2013; Alva-Valdivia et al, PEPI, 2010, Morales et al., EPS, 2009]. It seems especially difficult to try to establish a regional trend in the intensity variations. While they are few, the data are moreover of uneven quality as attested by a large scatter in experimental values during the Mesoamerican classic and post-classic periods (250-1521 AD) that cannot be explained by real fluctuations in the Earth's magnetic field [Fanjat et al, EPSL, 2013]. The present study is part of a large effort to provide reliable and perfectly dated archeointensity data for the tropical area of Mesoamerica. It focuses on Thellier-Thellier archeointensity measurements obtained from 87 small fragments from potsherds of 12 different potteries. These potteries were excavated from sedimentary sequences within two shelter-caves, La Ceiba and Santa Marta, located on the banks of Grijalva and La Venta rivers, respectively. Both are shelter-caves without constructed structures that were inhabited by humans groups. Samples were located in different stratigraphic levels, culturally well identified and well preserved due to long time sedimentation. Only samples with a homogenous color were pre-selected for the rock magnetic study performed prior to any attempt to estimate the archeointensity. This was done in order to assure, as far as possible, a uniform baking during the manufacture, which is supposed to be made in open sky fire, since no kiln construction has been found. The ceramics ages were achieved in 2 ways: for samples with organic material associated, a 14C dating was done. The rest of the samples were dated according to their typological characteristics, comparing with regional ceramic chronological classification. This includes characteristics such as the finishing surface type, decoration, polished type, color, clay characteristics, composition, baking types, form, and function. The ages of the selected samples enclose the entire classical and post-classical periods. Most of our selected samples yielded good, from a technical point of view, archeointensity estimates. These new archeointensity determinations are compared and discussed with the previous values obtained for this area.

  12. Instructivo del Alfabetizador: Poblacion Rural (Reading and Writing Instruction: Rural Population).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    This Mexican series of instructional materials is designed for Spanish speaking adults who are in the process of becoming literate or have recently become literate in their native language. The reading/writing workbook is presented in two volumes along with a teacher's manual for an adult literacy program directed at rural inhabitants of Mexico.…

  13. Mexico City

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... Two small brighter patches within the hazy area indicate low fog. In the left-hand panel, the city basin appears significantly clearer, but ... very high altitudes, in contrast to the low-lying haze and fog near Mexico City. When the stereo retrieval determines that a location is ...

  14. 77 FR 4986 - Inviting Rural Business Enterprise Grant Program Applications for Grants To Provide Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ..., Mt. Laurel, NJ 08054, (856) 787-7700/TDD (856) 787-7784. New Mexico USDA Rural Development State... (English) or (800) 877-8339 (TTD) or (866) 377-8642 (English Federal-relay) or (800) 845-6136...

  15. Carbon and Aerosol Emissions from Biomass Fires in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, W. M.; Flores Garnica, G.; Baker, S. P.; Urbanski, S. P.

    2009-12-01

    Biomass burning is an important source of many atmospheric greenhouse gases and photochemically reactive trace gases. There are limited data available on the spatial and temporal extent of biomass fires and associated trace gas and aerosol emissions in Mexico. Biomass burning is a unique source of these gases and aerosols, in comparison to industrial and biogenic sources, because the locations of fires vary considerably both daily and seasonally and depend on human activities and meteorological conditions. In Mexico, the fire season starts in January and about two-thirds of the fires occur in April and May. The amount of trace gases and aerosols emitted by fires spatially and temporally is a major uncertainty in quantifying the impact of fire emissions on regional atmospheric chemical composition. To quantify emissions, it is necessary to know the type of vegetation, the burned area, the amount of biomass burned, and the emission factor of each compound for each ecosystem. In this study biomass burning experiments were conducted in Mexico to measure trace gas emissions from 24 experimental fires and wildfires in semiarid, temperate, and tropical ecosystems from 2005 to 2007. A range of representative vegetation types were selected for ground-based experimental burns to characterize fire emissions from representative Mexico fuels. A third of the country was surveyed each year, beginning in the north. The fire experiments in the first year were conducted in Chihuahua, Nuevo Leon, and Tamaulipas states in pine forest, oak forest, grass, and chaparral. The second-year fire experiments were conducted on pine forest, oak forest, shrub, agricultural, grass, and herbaceous fuels in Jalisco, Puebla, and Oaxaca states in central Mexico. The third-year experiments were conducted in pine-oak forests of Chiapas, coastal grass, and low subtropical forest on the Yucatan peninsula. FASS (Fire Atmosphere Sampling System) towers were deployed for the experimental fires. Each FASS

  16. The Cultural Missions Programme: An Early Attempt at Community Development in Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubio, Alfredo

    1978-01-01

    The author reviews the "Cultural Missions Programme" of Mexico's educational reform after 1920, in which groups of teachers using Catholic missionary methods fought poverty and ignorance in rural Mexico. These mission programs embody most of the community development principles and are still needed. (MF)

  17. The Cultural Values of Ten Hispanic Women in Eastern New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotsch, Constance M.; Herrera, Monica

    The Hispanic woman in New Mexico has lived in a changing rural environment that has urbanized only recently. This paper examines the comments of modern Hispanic women in eastern New Mexico to document their beliefs about change and stability in their lives. Ten women, ranging in age from 23 to 93 and spanning 4 generations, answered questions…

  18. Social networks among Indigenous peoples in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Skoufias, Emmanuel; Lunde, Trine; Patrinos, Harry Anthony

    2010-01-01

    We examine the extent to which social networks among indigenous peoples in Mexico have a significant effect on a variety of human capital investment and economic activities, such as school attendance and work among teenage boys and girls, and migration, welfare participation, employment status, occupation, and sector of employment among adult males and females. Using data from the 10 percent population sample of the 2000 Population and Housing Census of Mexico and the empirical strategy that Bertrand, Luttmer, and Mullainathan (2000) propose, which allows us to take into account the role of municipality and language group fixed effects, we confirm empirically that social network effects play an important role in the economic decisions of indigenous people, especially in rural areas. Our analysis also provides evidence that better access to basic services such as water and electricity increases the size and strength of network effects in rural areas.

  19. A Unique Delivery System to Rural Schools: The NMSU-Space Center Microcomputer Van Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amodeo, Luiza B.; And Others

    Collaboration between New Mexico State University's College of Education and three other entities has led to the computer experience microvan program, implemented in 1983, a unique system for bringing microcomputers into rural New Mexico K-12 classrooms. The International Space Hall of Fame Foundation provides the van, International Space Center…

  20. The Uncertain Connection: Free Trade and Rural Mexican Migration to the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, Wayne A.; Martin, Philip L.

    1993-01-01

    Argues that it is easy to overestimate the additional emigration from rural Mexico that could occur as a result of North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) related economic restructuring in Mexico. Four major reasons why Mexican emigration may not increase dramatically are suggested. Phase-in recommendations related to implementation are…

  1. Development and the Urban and Rural Geography of Mexican Emigration to the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Erin R.; Villarreal, Andres

    2011-01-01

    Past research on international migration from Mexico to the United States uses geographically-limited data and analyzes emigrant-sending communities in isolation. Theories supported by this research may not explain urban emigration, and this research does not consider connections between rural and urban Mexico. In this study we use national data…

  2. Preferences of Alaska and New Mexico Psychiatrists regarding Professionalism and Ethics Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Laura Weiss; Johnson, Mark E.; Brems, Christiane; Warner, Teddy D.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To identify the preferences of practicing licensed psychiatrists in two rural states regarding ethics training. Method: All licensed psychiatrists in Alaska and New Mexico were mailed a survey exploring differences in ethical and practice issues between rural and urban health care providers. Data were collected from 97 psychiatrists.…

  3. Rickettsia lusitaniae associated with Ornithodoros yumatensis (Acari: Argasidae) from two caves in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Montes, Sokani; Guzmán-Cornejo, Carmen; Martínez-Nájera, Yecenia; Becker, Ingeborg; Venzal, José M; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-10-01

    The genus Rickettsia includes obligate intracellular bacteria transmitted by several hematophagous arthropods such as ticks, fleas and sucking lice. In particular hard ticks (Ixodidae) have been cited as the main vectors of pathogenic rickettsiae in Mexico. However, there have been only two records of a single Rickettsia species associated with Mexican soft ticks (Argasidae). In this study, we searched for rickettsial DNA in argasid ticks (13 adults and eight nymphs of Ornithodoros yumatensis) from two bat caves in the state of Yucatan, Mexico. Additionally one larva collected in a cave from Chiapas, Mexico, and associated with Desmodus rotundus was used to corroborate the tick taxonomic determination. Of these, nine ticks (43%) yielded expected PCR products for the rickettsial gltA gene. These PCR-positive ticks were tested with additional PCR protocols targeting the rickettsial genes gltA, ompA and ompB. DNA partial sequences from these genes showed 99-100% identities with Rickettsia lusitaniae, an agent isolated from O. erraticus in Portugal, and closely related to R. felis and R. hoogstraalii. Based on the results from this study, the inventory of rickettsiae distributed in Mexico increases from six to seven species.

  4. Renewable energy for productive uses in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Hanley, C.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a USAID/USDOE sponsored program to implement renewable energy in Mexico for productive uses. The objectives are to expand markets for US and Mexican industries, and to combat global climate change - primarily greenhouse gas emissions. The focus is on off-grid applications, with an emphasis on developing the institution structure to support the development of these industries within the country. Agricultural development is an example of the type of industry approached, where photovoltaic and wind power can be used for water pumping. There are hundreds of projects under review, and this interest has put renewables as a line item in Mexico`s rural development budget. Village power projects are being considered in the form of utility partnerships.

  5. Rural Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jon, Ed.; And Others

    Presented are 10 papers resulting from a workshop, involving representatives from 33 state developmental disabilities councils, designed to examine common problems and issues confronting developmentally disabled citizens in rural areas. Entries include the following titles and authors: "Who, What, and Where--Studying Prevalence of Developmental…

  6. UCAN: A Four-State Rural Systemic Initiative. Year Three Performance Effectiveness Review (PER).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LLamas, Vicente J.

    The Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico-Rural Systemic Initiative (UCAN-RSI) supports systemic reform of mathematics, technology, and science education for rural students in its states, focusing on schools with high enrollments of American Indian and Hispanic students. This performance effectiveness review covers UCAN's progress during its third…

  7. UCAN: A Four-State Rural Systemic Initiative. Year Four Annual Report; Year Five Strategic Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LLamas, Vicente J.

    The Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico-Rural Systemic Initiative (UCAN-RSI) supports systemic improvement in science, technology, and mathematics education for all rural students in the four states, focusing on schools that enroll large numbers of American Indian and Hispanic students. This document contains a report on UCAN's 4th year (September…

  8. Alcohol and Drug Use in Rural Colonias and Adjacent Urban Areas of the Texas Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Richard T.; Wallisch, Lynn S.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Little is known about substance use and treatment utilization in rural communities of the United States/Mexico border. Purpose: To compare substance use and need and desire for treatment in rural colonias and urban areas of the border. Methods: Interviews were conducted in 2002-2003 with a random sample of adults living in the lower Rio…

  9. UCAN: A Four-State Rural Systemic Initiative. Year Two Performance Effectiveness Review (PER).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LLamas, Vicente J.

    The Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico-Rural Systemic Initiative (UCAN-RSI) supports systemic reform of mathematics, technology, and science education for rural students in its states, focusing on schools with high enrollments of American Indian and Hispanic students. This performance effectiveness review covers UCAN's progress during its second…

  10. HAWC @ Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carramiñana, Alberto; González, María Magdalena; Salazar, Humberto; Alfaro, Ruben; Medina Tanco, Gustavo; Valdés Galicia, José; Delepine, David; Zepeda, Arnulfo; Villaseñor, Luis; Mendoza, Eduardo; Nava, Janina; Vázquez, Lilí; Tenorio Tagle, Guillermo; Carrasco, Luis; Silich, Sergey; Rogríguez Liñán, Gustavo; de la Fuente, Eduardo; Page, Dany; Lee, William; Dultzin, Deborah; Benitez, Erika; Ávila Reese, Vladimir; Mendoza, Sergio; Martos, Marco; Hernández Toledo, Héctor; Valenzuela, Octavio; Martínez, Oscar; Fernández, Arturo; Álvarez Ochoa, Cesar; Díaz, Lorenzo; Rosado, Alfonso; Ramírez, Cupatitzio; Menchaca, Arturo; Belmont, Ernesto; Sandoval, Andrés; Martínez, Arnulfo; Grabski, Varlen; Nellen, Lukas; D'Olivo, Juan Carlos; Lara, Alejandro; Caballero, Rogelio; Moreno, Gerardo; Napsuciale, Mauro; Ureña, Luis; Reyes, Marco; Migénes, Victor; Herrera, Gerardo; Saavedra, Oscar; Carrillo, Alejandro; Carrasco Nuñez, Gerardo; Vargas, Carlos

    The High Altitude Water Cerenkov detector HAWC will be a powefull instrument to survey the TeV sky. Mexico has proposed to locate this experiment in the Parque Nacional Pico de Orizaba, between Citlaltepetl and Tliltepetl, host of the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT). The region has a sizeable technical infrastructure related to the LMT and we recently studied a 4100m location in terms of its feasibility to host HAWC. We present the proposed site location and extension, its water acquisition, experimental and complementary infrastructures.

  11. Emissions of PAHs derived from sugarcane burning and processing in Chiapas and Morelos México.

    PubMed

    Mugica-Alvarez, Violeta; Santiago-de la Rosa, Naxieli; Figueroa-Lara, Jesús; Flores-Rodríguez, Julio; Torres-Rodríguez, Miguel; Magaña-Reyes, Miguel

    2015-09-15

    Sugarcane burning is an agricultural practice implemented to ease farm worker duties; nevertheless, as a consequence, tons of particles are emitted to the atmosphere. Additionally, during harvesting the sugar-mills operate the whole day emitting hundreds of tons of pollutants. Therefore, health risks to neighboring population should be a major governmental concern, leading first to identification and quantification of toxic compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In order to establish the magnitude of the problem, four sampling campaigns of PM10 and PM2.5 were carried out in this study, during harvesting and no-harvesting seasons in two municipalities of México, with different climatic and social conditions. Concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, and organic compounds were determined daily, followed by extraction, identification and quantification of the 17 EPA-established PAHs from all samples. The results showed that during harvest, the PM10 mass increased lightly in Chiapas, but approximately twice in Morelos, whereas total PAH concentrations increased twice and six times, respectively. The most abundant PAHs, namely: indene [1,2,3cd] pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene and dibenzo [a,h] anthracene are composed of 5 or more aromatic rings. Of the total PAHs quantified, 44% to 52% corresponded to carcinogenic compounds, consequently, the overall carcinogenic potential increased twice or three times. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation was applied to source apportionment at each site, suggesting three different sources during harvesting: the combustion process in the sugar mill, sugarcane burning and vehicular emissions. The combustion markers for sugar mill are, BAA, BBF, BKF, BAP, IND and BGP, whereas for sugarcane burning were ANT, PHE, FLT and PYR. The results obtained indicate that processing and burning sugarcane are the main sources of the PAH levels measured, proving that the health risks are boosted during harvesting

  12. Rural intentions

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Diane J.; Hakes, Jacquie; Bai, Meera; Tolhurst, Helen; Dickinson, James A.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the reasons for family medicine graduates’ career choices. DESIGN Qualitative study using focus groups and one-on-one interviews. SETTING University of Calgary in Alberta. PARTICIPANTS Seventeen male and female second-year family medicine residents, representing a range of ages and areas of origin, enrolled in the 2004 urban and rural south streams of the family medicine residency program at the University of Calgary. METHOD During the final month of training, 2 focus groups were conducted to determine graduating students’ career choices and the reasons for them. After focus-group data were analyzed, a questionnaire was constructed and subsequently administered to participants during face-to-face or telephone interviews. MAIN FINDINGS Most residents initially planned to do urban locums in order to gain experience. In the long term, they planned to open practices in urban areas for lifestyle and family reasons. Many residents from the rural stream had no long-term plans to establish rural practices. Most residents said they felt prepared for practice, but many indicated that an optional third year of paid training, with an emphasis on emergency medicine, obstetrics, and pediatrics, would be desirable. Reasons cited for not practising in rural areas were related to workload, lifestyle issues, family obligations, and perceived lack of medical support in the community. Only 4 female graduates and 1 male graduate intended to practise obstetrics. The main reason residents gave for this was inadequate training in obstetrics during residency. Finances were cited as a secondary reason for many choices, and might in fact be more important than at first apparent. CONCLUSION Despite its intention to recruit family medicine graduates to rural areas and to obstetrics, the University of Calgary residency training program was not successful in recruiting physicians to these areas. The program likely needs to re-examine the effectiveness of

  13. Recover Project to support REDD- First Results on Forest Monitoring from Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hame, Tuomas; Sirro, Laura; Ahola, Heikki; Kilpi, Jorma; Paz, Fernando; de Jong, Bernardus; Hamalanen, Jarno

    2012-04-01

    In the ReCover project under the Framework Program 7 of the European Commission, beyond state-of-the-art service capabilities are generated to support fighting deforestation and forest degradation in the tropical region. One of the five study sites is State of Chiapas in southern Mexico. Fifteen products that characterize the state of the forest and changes were delivered during the first service stage. Wall-to-wall mapping was performed for 1992, 1994, and 2009 using Landsat and RapidEye imagery. The overall accuracy in forest and non-forest mapping was 88% in two independent data sets of field samples and visually interpreted plots from Kompsat-2 images.

  14. Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda) in the endangered fish Profundulus hildebrandi (Cyprinodontiformes), Mexico.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Velázquez, Ernesto; González-Solís, David; Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo

    2011-09-01

    The Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, has been considered one of the most dangerous parasites for cultured carp and a risk for native freshwater fish populations worldwide. This cestode is highly pathogenic for fishes especially fry. In this paper we record B. acheilognathi parasitizing the endangered and endemic freshwater fish Profundulus hildebrandi from the endorheic basin of San Crist6bal de las Casas, Chiapas, Mexico. B. acheilognathi was recorded from 10 of the 11 sampled localities, with high values of prevalence (> 60%) and mean abundance (> 4.50). The infection was persistent all through the year; gravid cestodes were recorded in all samples. It is assumed that B. acheilognathi entered to this area through the introduction of common carp Cyprinus carpio, for aquacultural purposes. The data presented in this paper document the successful introduction, colonization and establishment of this alien species into the endangered P. hildebrandi.

  15. Rural Prairie Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Kari

    "Rural Prairie Women" contains the work of two task forces: the Rural Social Work Task Force which looked at the forces active in North Dakota rural areas and the Rural Women Task Force which examined the position of women within those same rural communities. The relationship between the land, small towns, and sparse population is…

  16. Compensatory Programs in Mexico to Reduce the Educational Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canales Rodriguez, Emma Laticia; Moreno Olivos, Tiburcio

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we approach the issue of compensatory education programs to reduce the backlog in basic education. We address the population living in rural areas, because the Compensatory Programs (CPs) are aimed at them. The presentation is divided into three parts. The first section presents an approach to basic education in Mexico, the second…

  17. Migration and the Pursuit of Education in Southern Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Jessa Lewis; Barham, Brad; Gitter, Seth; Nobles, Jenna

    2017-01-01

    Educational attainment in rural Mexico is increasingly structured by migration opportunities. The rise in adult US migration increases potential funding for adolescents to stay in school but may also decrease incentives for them to do so. Domestic migration flows can fund schooling locally, and may also support students' own movement for education…

  18. ISOLATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM ANIMALS IN DURANGO, MEXICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known concerning the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in people and animals in rural Mexico. Serum samples and tissues from 150 dogs, 150 cats, 65 opossums (Didelphis virginianus), 249 rats (Rattus spp.), 127 mice (Mus musculus), and 69 squirrels (Spermophilus variegatus) from t...

  19. Youth in Northern Taos County, New Mexico: No One Cares.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuvlesky, William P.

    An impressionistic, interpretative analysis of information from direct observation, known informants, and interviews provides a picture of the life situation of Spanish American youth living in rural Taos County, New Mexico. Northern Taos County has experienced dramatic social change over the last several decades, altering the traditional,…

  20. Extending the School with Television: The Case of Mexico's Telesecundaria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, John K.; Klees, Steven J.

    Research compared Mexico's television-based Telesecundaria (TS) with its more traditional secondary school counterpart, the Ensenanza Directa (ED). The data collected indicated that the TS schools tended to be located in poorer rural communities and to have larger classes and less adequate facilities; its students were generally older and from…

  1. Geomorphic analysis of transient landscapes from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains (northern Central America): implications for the North American-Caribbean-Cocos plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreani, L.; Gloaguen, R.

    2015-09-01

    We use a geomorphic approach in order to unravel the recent evolution of the diffuse triple junction between the North American, Caribbean, and Cocos plates in northern Central America. The complex tectonic setting produced an intricate pattern of landscapes that we try to systemize using remote sensing tectonic geomorphology and available geological and geophysical data. We classify regions with specific relief characteristics and highlight uplifted relict landscapes in northern Central America. We also analyze the drainage network from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains in order to extract information about potential vertical displacements. Our results suggest that most of the landscapes of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains are in transient stage. Topographic profiles and morphometric maps highlight elevated relict surfaces that are characterized by a low amplitude relief. The river longitudinal profiles display upper reaches witnessing these relict landscapes while lower segments characterized by multiple knickpoints, that adjust to new base-level conditions. These results backed by published GPS and seismotectonic data allow us to refine and extend existing geodynamic models of the triple junction. Relict landscapes are delimited by faults and thus result from a tectonic control. The topography of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas evolved as the result of (1) the inland migration of deformation related to the coupling between the Chiapas Massif and the Cocos fore-arc sliver, and (2) the compression along the northern tip of the Central America Volcanic Arc. Although most of the shortening between the Cocos fore-arc sliver and the North American plate is accommodated within the Sierra de Chiapas and Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, a small part may be still transmitted to the Maya Mountains and the Belize margin through a "rigid" Petén basin.

  2. Geomorphic analysis of transient landscapes in the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains (northern Central America): implications for the North American-Caribbean-Cocos plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreani, L.; Gloaguen, R.

    2016-01-01

    We use a geomorphic approach in order to unravel the recent evolution of the diffuse triple junction between the North American, Caribbean, and Cocos plates in northern Central America. We intend to characterize and understand the complex tectonic setting that produced an intricate pattern of landscapes using tectonic geomorphology, as well as available geological and geophysical data. We classify regions with specific relief characteristics and highlight uplifted relict landscapes in northern Central America. We also analyze the drainage network from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains in order to extract information about potential vertical displacements. Our results suggest that most of the landscapes of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains are in a transient stage. Topographic profiles and morphometric maps highlight elevated relict surfaces that are characterized by a low-amplitude relief. The river longitudinal profiles display upper reaches witnessing these relict landscapes. Lower reaches adjust to new base-level conditions and are characterized by multiple knickpoints. These results backed by published GPS and seismotectonic data allow us to refine and extend existing geodynamic models of the triple junction. Relict landscapes are delimited by faults and thus result from a tectonic control. The topography of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas evolved as the result of (1) the inland migration of deformation related to the coupling between the Chiapas Massif and the Cocos forearc sliver and (2) the compression along the northern tip of the Central American volcanic arc. Although most of the shortening between the Cocos forearc sliver and the North American Plate is accommodated within the Sierra de Chiapas and Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, a small part may be still transmitted to the Maya Mountains and the Belize margin through a "rigid" Petén Basin.

  3. National Rural Health Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Roster NRHA Past Presidents NRHA Leadership Constituency Groups History of Rural Health History of Rural Health Globalization Urban Bias Dependency Theory Political Economy History of Rural Health IV: '60s ...

  4. Medicaid and Rural Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Rural? Economic Impact Analysis Tool Planning for Sustainability Rural Health IT Curriculum Resources Testing New Approaches ... and challenges with evaluating results in low-volume environments limit rural providers' ability to participate in pilot ...

  5. Mexico joins the venture: Joint Implementation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Imaz, M.; Gay, C.; Friedmann, R.; Goldberg, B.

    1998-11-01

    Joint Implementation (JI) and its pilot phase of Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) are envisioned as an economic way of reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper draws upon the Mexican experience with AIJ to identify Mexican concerns with AIJ/JI and proposed solutions to these. Three approved Mexican AIJ projects (Ilumex, Scolel Te, and Salicornia) are described in detail. The Ilurnex project promotes the use of compact fluorescent lamps in Mexican homes of the States of Jalisco and Nuevo Leon, to reduce electric demand. Scolel Te is a sustainable forest management project in Chiapas. Salicornia examines the potential for carbon sequestration with a Halophyte-based crop irrigated with saline waters in Sonora. These three projects are reviewed to clarify the issues and concerns that Mexico has with AIJ and JI and propose measures to deal with them. These initial Mexican AIJ projects show that there is a need for creation of standard project evaluation procedures, and criteria and institutions to oversee project design, selection, and implementation. Further JI development will be facilitated by national and international clarification of key issues such as additionality criteria, carbon-credit sharing, and valuation of non-GHG environmental and/or social benefits and impacts for AIJ projects. Mexico is concerned that JI funding could negatively impact official development assistance or that OECD countries will use JI to avoid taking significant GHG mitigation actions in their own countries. The lack of carbon credit trading in the AIJ stage must be removed to provide useful experience on how to share carbon credits. National or international guidelines are needed to ensure that a portion of the carbon credits is allocated to Mexico.

  6. The Four Corners Rural Systemic Initiative: Challenges and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llamas, Vincente

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico Rural Systemic Initiative (UCAN RSI), which aims to improve and integrate science, mathematics, and technology education for the primarily Native American and Hispanic students of the Four Corners region. Discusses UCAN RSI's focus on community engagement, cultural sensitivity and relevance, and…

  7. Santo Domingo School: A Rural Schoolwide Project Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    C de Baca, Mary Rose; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The schoolwide project option of the 1988 Hawkins Stafford Amendments to Chapter 1 allowed a rural school serving a disadvantaged Native American population to restructure its compensatory and regular education services. Santo Domingo school (New Mexico) illustrates the ways modifications of federal law and policy benefit children. (SLD)

  8. Modelo de Alfabetizacion: A Poblacion Urbana y Rural. Documento General (Literacy Model: Urban and Rural Populations. General Document).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    This document describes literacy models for urban and rural populations in Mexico. It contains four sections. The first two sections (generalizations about the population and considerations about the teaching of adults) discuss the environment that creates illiterate adults and also describe some of the conditions under which learning takes place…

  9. Space treatments of insecticide for control of dengue virus vector Aedes aegypti in southern Mexico. I. Baseline penetration trials in open field and houses.

    PubMed

    Arrendondo-Jimenez, Juan I; Rivero, Norma E

    2006-06-01

    We studied the efficacy of space ultra-low volume treatments of 3 insecticides for the control of the dengue virus vector Aedes aegypti in southern Mexico. Insecticides tested were permethrin (Aqua-Reslin Super), d-phenothrin (Anvil), and cyfluthrin (Solfac), applied at rates of 10.87, 7.68, and 2 g/ha, respectively, by using London Fog, HP910-PHXL, or Micro-Gen pumps mounted on vehicles. Studies included 1) open field penetration tests and 2) house penetration tests. Open field tests indicated that Anvil and Solfac were more effective than Aqua-Reslin Super. In house tests, Anvil yielded the highest mosquito mortalities (>/=88%) of the three insecticides in the front porch, living room, bedroom, and backyard. Therefore, Anvil proved to be better than other insecticides evaluated to control Ae. aegypti in Chiapas, Mexico.

  10. Paternal Absence and International Migration: Stressors and Compensators Associated with the Mental Health of Mexican Teenagers of Rural Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilera-Guzman, Rosa Maria; de Snyder, V. Nelly Salgado; Romero, Martha; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena

    2004-01-01

    Mexico-U.S. migration creates situations that may cause psychological distress. The purpose of this research project was to study the impact of father's physical absence due to international migration (FPAIM) on adolescent offspring of rural immigrants from Zacatecas, Mexico. Stressors and compensators were studied from the adolescent's…

  11. EPA Collaboration with Mexico

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA works with our Mexican neighbors on the U.S.-Mexico Environmental Program, a collaboration between the United States and Mexico to improve the environment and protect the health of the nearly 12 million people living along the border.

  12. A new species of small-eared shrew (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla, Cryptotis) from the Lacandona rain forest, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guevara, Lázaro; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; León-Paniagua, Livia; Woodman, Neal

    2014-01-01

    The diversity and distribution of mammals in the American tropics remain incompletely known. We describe a new species of small-eared shrew (Soricidae, Cryptotis) from the Lacandona rain forest, Chiapas, southern Mexico. The new species is distinguished from other species of Cryptotis on the basis of a unique combination of pelage coloration, size, dental, cranial, postcranial, and external characters, and genetic distances. It appears most closely related to species in the Cryptotis nigrescens species group, which occurs from southern Mexico to montane regions of Colombia. This discovery is particularly remarkable because the new species is from a low-elevation habitat (approximately 90 m), whereas most shrews in the region are restricted to higher elevations, typically > 1,000 m. The only known locality for the new shrew is in one of the last areas in southern Mexico where relatively undisturbed tropical vegetation is still found. The type locality is protected by the Mexican government as part of the Yaxchilán Archaeological Site on the border between Mexico and Guatemala.

  13. Leadership for Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, E. Robert; Turner, Walter G.

    The rural school superintendency is, in many ways, as demanding and difficult as the urban superintendency. Chapter 1 of this book provides a working definition of a rural small school district, an estimation of the number of rural systems in the nation that fit the criteria, and a profile of rural small school superintendents. Chapter 2 discusses…

  14. The Rural Development Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Louis E.

    1991-01-01

    Progress toward rural development has been hampered by flawed views of rural America; serious limitations to existing social and economic data on sparsely populated areas; treatment of rural America as a geographical entity unconnected to the larger U.S. economy and society; perceived lack of feasible political solution to rural problems; and…

  15. Rural Development Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC. Economic Development Div.

    Elements essential to an adequate framework for rural development in the U.S. are a national growth and development policy which includes a rural development strategy and definition of common problems and programmatic actions required to deal with them. Many past federal rural development programs (lacking a federal rural policy focus) have failed…

  16. What Is Rural? Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Many people have definitions for the term rural, but seldom are these rural definitions in agreement. For some, rural is a subjective state of mind. For others, rural is an objective quantitative measure. In this brief report the United States Department of Agriculture presents the following information along with helpful links for the reader: (1)…

  17. Rural-Urban Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Daniel F.; LaGreca, Anthony J.; Mullis, Ronald L.

    This publication combines three papers on rural and urban youth issues. "Key Issues Facing Rural Youth" (Daniel F. Perkins) notes that rural adolescents share the same concerns and exhibit the same problem behaviors as their urban counterparts. But in addition, geographic isolation presents problems unique to rural areas. A framework is proposed…

  18. The Rural Bellwether.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sherry Freeland, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This theme issue of "State Education Leader" contains eight articles on rural education. "The Rural Bellwether" (Kathy Christie) discusses declining enrollment in rural schools, rural problems with teacher shortages and special education funding, issues related to school size and school district size, and distance learning…

  19. English Teaching in Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Discusses teaching English in Mexico, a country with important social, cultural, and economic ties to the United States. Looks at the various English teaching situations as well as teacher education for teachers in Mexico. Concludes that the English teaching situation in Mexico reflects great diversity and growth, and that the knowledge of English…

  20. Psychology in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  1. Religious Syncretism in Mexico. Project Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhea, David

    This document is an outline for a three-week unit of study focusing on religious syncretism in Mexico as part of a community college course in comparative religions or philosophy of religion. While this outline is intended to give information and direction to the instructor wishing to use Mexico as an example of religious syncretism, unit goals…

  2. Air Pollution in the Mexico Megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Suarez, L. G.

    2007-05-01

    Mexico City is a megacity whose metropolitan area includes the country federal district, 18 municipalities of the State of Mexico. In year 1992, only 16 municipalities of the State of Mexico were part of MCMA. In year 1940 the Mexico City population was 1.78 millions in an area of 118 km2, in year 2000 the population was 17.9 millions in an area of 1,500 km2. Population has grown a ten fold whereas population density has dropped 20%. Total number of private cars has grown from 2,341,731 in year 1998 to 2,967,893 in year 2004. Nowadays, people and goods travel longer at lower speed to reach school, work and selling points. In addition highly efficient public transport lost a significant share of transport demand from 19.1 in 1986 to 14.3 in 1998. Air pollution is a public concern since early eighties last century; systematic public efforts have been carried out since late eighties. Energy consumption has steadily increased in the MCMA whereas emissions have also decreased. From year 2000 to 2004, the private cars fleet increased 17% whereas CO, NOx and COV emissions decreased between 20-30%. Average concentrations of criteria pollutants have decreased The number of days that the one-hour national standard for bad air quality was exceeded in year 1990 was 160. In year 2005 was 70. Research efforts and public policies on air pollution have been focused on public health. We are now better able to estimate the cost in human lives due to air pollution, or the cost in labor lost due to illness. Little if none at all work has been carried out to look at the effect of air pollution on private and public property or onto the cultural heritage. Few reports have can be found on the impact of air pollution in rural areas, including forest and crops, around the mega city. Mexico City is in the south end of a Valley with mountain ranges higher than 1000 m above the average city altitude. In spite the heavy loss of forested areas to the city, the mountains still retain large

  3. Early evidence of the ballgame in Oaxaca, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Blomster, Jeffrey P.

    2012-01-01

    As a defining characteristic of Mesoamerican civilization, the ballgame has a long and poorly understood history. Because the ballgame is associated with the rise of complex societies, understanding its origins also illuminates the evolution of socio-politically complex societies. Although initial evidence, in the form of ceramic figurines, dates to 1700 BCE, and the oldest known ballcourt dates to 1600 BCE, the ritual paraphernalia and ideology associated with the game appear around 1400 BCE, the start of the so-called Early Horizon, defined by the spread of Olmec-style symbols across Mesoamerica. Early Horizon evidence of ballgame paraphernalia both identical to and different from that of the Gulf Coast Olmec can be seen on figurines from coastal Chiapas and the central highlands of Mexico, respectively. The Mexican state of Oaxaca, however, has yielded little data on early involvement in the ballgame. The discovery of a ballplayer figurine in the Mixteca Alta region of Oaxaca demonstrates the early participation of this region in the iconography and ideology of the ballgame. In lieu of an actual ballcourt, the focus may have been on the symbolic component of ballplayers and their association with supernatural forces, as part of emerging leaders’ legitimization strategies. PMID:22566622

  4. [First case of chikungunya fever in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Medina, Miguel Ángel; Cañedo-Dorame, Ismael Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The Chikungunya is an arbovirus first described during a 1952 outbreak of febrile exantematic disease in southern Tanganyika (now Tanzania). It is a virus within the alphavirus genus of the Togaviridae family, it is usually transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes. Typically, the disease manifests as acute onset of fever and joint pains. This study describes the clinical characteristics the first imported case infected with chikungunya fever (CHIK) in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. We report the case of a 30 years old man seen in our emergency department due to fever, polyarthralgia, rash and headache. This patient has been in Tapachula, Chiapas, a jungle area in southern México, and he returned from a 45 days trip before the onset his symptoms. The chikungunya viral infection (CHIK) was diagnosed by RT-PCR procedure. Paracetamol therapy was administered and his clinical course was self-limited. We concluded that with the increase of mosquito´s habitat by global warming and frequent traveling, CHIK reemerged and showed global distribution recently. This disease must be suspected in patients with compatible clinical symptoms returning from epidemic/endemic areas. CHIK must be diagnosed on the basis of clinical, epidemiological and laboratory criteria.

  5. Early evidence of the ballgame in Oaxaca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Blomster, Jeffrey P

    2012-05-22

    As a defining characteristic of Mesoamerican civilization, the ballgame has a long and poorly understood history. Because the ballgame is associated with the rise of complex societies, understanding its origins also illuminates the evolution of socio-politically complex societies. Although initial evidence, in the form of ceramic figurines, dates to 1700 BCE, and the oldest known ballcourt dates to 1600 BCE, the ritual paraphernalia and ideology associated with the game appear around 1400 BCE, the start of the so-called Early Horizon, defined by the spread of Olmec-style symbols across Mesoamerica. Early Horizon evidence of ballgame paraphernalia both identical to and different from that of the Gulf Coast Olmec can be seen on figurines from coastal Chiapas and the central highlands of Mexico, respectively. The Mexican state of Oaxaca, however, has yielded little data on early involvement in the ballgame. The discovery of a ballplayer figurine in the Mixteca Alta region of Oaxaca demonstrates the early participation of this region in the iconography and ideology of the ballgame. In lieu of an actual ballcourt, the focus may have been on the symbolic component of ballplayers and their association with supernatural forces, as part of emerging leaders' legitimization strategies.

  6. Leishmania (L.) mexicana Infected Bats in Mexico: Novel Potential Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Rodríguez-Moreno, Ángel; Gutiérrez-Granados, Gabriel; González-Salazar, Constantino; Stephens, Christopher R.; Hidalgo-Mihart, Mircea; Marina, Carlos F.; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A.; Bailón-Martínez, Dulce; Balcells, Cristina Domingo; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N.; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Becker, Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana causes cutaneous leishmaniasis, an endemic zoonosis affecting a growing number of patients in the southeastern states of Mexico. Some foci are found in shade-grown cocoa and coffee plantations, or near perennial forests that provide rich breeding grounds for the sand fly vectors, but also harbor a variety of bat species that live off the abundant fruits provided by these shade-giving trees. The close proximity between sand flies and bats makes their interaction feasible, yet bats infected with Leishmania (L.) mexicana have not been reported. Here we analyzed 420 bats from six states of Mexico that had reported patients with leishmaniasis. Tissues of bats, including skin, heart, liver and/or spleen were screened by PCR for Leishmania (L.) mexicana DNA. We found that 41 bats (9.77%), belonging to 13 species, showed positive PCR results in various tissues. The infected tissues showed no evidence of macroscopic lesions. Of the infected bats, 12 species were frugivorous, insectivorous or nectarivorous, and only one species was sanguivorous (Desmodus rotundus), and most of them belonged to the family Phyllostomidae. The eco-region where most of the infected bats were caught is the Gulf Coastal Plain of Chiapas and Tabasco. Through experimental infections of two Tadarida brasiliensis bats in captivity, we show that this species can harbor viable, infective Leishmania (L.) mexicana parasites that are capable of infecting BALB/c mice. We conclude that various species of bats belonging to the family Phyllostomidae are possible reservoir hosts for Leishmania (L.) mexicana, if it can be shown that such bats are infective for the sand fly vector. Further studies are needed to determine how these bats become infected, how long the parasite remains viable inside these potential hosts and whether they are infective to sand flies to fully evaluate their impact on disease epidemiology. PMID:25629729

  7. Leishmania (L.) mexicana infected bats in Mexico: novel potential reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Rodríguez-Moreno, Ángel; Gutiérrez-Granados, Gabriel; González-Salazar, Constantino; Stephens, Christopher R; Hidalgo-Mihart, Mircea; Marina, Carlos F; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A; Bailón-Martínez, Dulce; Balcells, Cristina Domingo; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Becker, Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana causes cutaneous leishmaniasis, an endemic zoonosis affecting a growing number of patients in the southeastern states of Mexico. Some foci are found in shade-grown cocoa and coffee plantations, or near perennial forests that provide rich breeding grounds for the sand fly vectors, but also harbor a variety of bat species that live off the abundant fruits provided by these shade-giving trees. The close proximity between sand flies and bats makes their interaction feasible, yet bats infected with Leishmania (L.) mexicana have not been reported. Here we analyzed 420 bats from six states of Mexico that had reported patients with leishmaniasis. Tissues of bats, including skin, heart, liver and/or spleen were screened by PCR for Leishmania (L.) mexicana DNA. We found that 41 bats (9.77%), belonging to 13 species, showed positive PCR results in various tissues. The infected tissues showed no evidence of macroscopic lesions. Of the infected bats, 12 species were frugivorous, insectivorous or nectarivorous, and only one species was sanguivorous (Desmodus rotundus), and most of them belonged to the family Phyllostomidae. The eco-region where most of the infected bats were caught is the Gulf Coastal Plain of Chiapas and Tabasco. Through experimental infections of two Tadarida brasiliensis bats in captivity, we show that this species can harbor viable, infective Leishmania (L.) mexicana parasites that are capable of infecting BALB/c mice. We conclude that various species of bats belonging to the family Phyllostomidae are possible reservoir hosts for Leishmania (L.) mexicana, if it can be shown that such bats are infective for the sand fly vector. Further studies are needed to determine how these bats become infected, how long the parasite remains viable inside these potential hosts and whether they are infective to sand flies to fully evaluate their impact on disease epidemiology.

  8. A Perspective on Rural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, W. Wade; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Includes "Perspective on Rural Education" (Miller); "You Want Them to Learn What?" (Jones); "Rural Education" (Baker, Burns); "Metnet" (Frick); "Rural Education and Training in Egypt" (Swan, Aly); "Mentors, Youth at Risk, and Rural Education Programs" (Wingenbach); "Designing…

  9. Office of Rural Health Policy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Hub Rural Health Research Gateway Rural Community Health Gateway White House Rural Council  Eligibility Analyzer Contact Us Subscribe to FORHP weekly announcement for rural health grantees and stakeholders by e-mail Subscribe to ...

  10. Rural Policies for the 1990s. Rural Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flora, Cornelia B., Ed.; Christenson, James A., Ed.

    Written by some of the foremost experts on rural America, this book focuses on policy-relevant research on the problems of rural areas. In each chapter, rural policy needs are identified by examining the flow of events and rural sociology of the 1980s. Chapters are: (1) "Critical Times for Rural America: The Challenge for Rural Policy in the…

  11. Supporting Sustainable Rural Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Supporting Sustainable Rural Communities summarizes the findings of a work group of EPA, HUD, DOT, and USDA and creates a framework for the Partnership for Sustainable Communities’ future work with rural communities.

  12. Rural Wellness and Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Rural? Economic Impact Analysis Tool Planning for Sustainability Rural Health IT Curriculum Resources Testing New Approaches ... health of all groups Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all Promote quality ...

  13. Organochlorine pesticides in soils and air of southern Mexico: Chemical profiles and potential for soil emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Fiona; Alegria, Henry A.; Jantunen, Liisa M.; Bidleman, Terry F.; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel; Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo; Ceja-Moreno, Victor; Waliszewski, Stefan M.; Infanzon, Raul

    The extent of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) contamination in southern Mexico was investigated in this study. Biweekly air samplings were carried out in two sites in the state of Chiapas (during 2002-2003), and one in each state of Veracruz and Tabasco (during 2003-2004). Corresponding to the air sampling locations, soil samples were also collected to gauge the soil-air exchange of OCs in the region. ∑DDTs in soils ranged from 0.057 to 360 ng g -1 whereas those in air ranged from 240 to 2400 pg m -3. DDT and metabolite DDE were expressed as fractional values, FDDTe = p, p'-DDT/( p, p'-DDT + p, p'-DDE) and FDDTo = p,p'-DDT/( p,p'-DDT + o,p'-DDT). FDDTe in soils ranged from 0.30 to 0.69 while those in air ranged from 0.45 to 0.84. FDDTe in air at a farm in Chiapas (0.84) was closer to that of technical DDT (0.95) which is suggestive of fresh DDT input. Enantiomer fractions (EF) of o,p'-DDT in air were racemic at all locations (0.500-0.504). However, nonracemic o,p'-DDT was seen in the soils (EFs = 0.456-0.647). Fugacities of OCs in soil ( fs) and air ( fa) were calculated, and the fugacity fraction, ff = fs/( fs + fa) of DDTs ranged from 0.013 to 0.97 which indicated a mix of net deposition ( ff < 0.5) and volatilization ( ff > 0.5) from soil among the sites. It is suggested that DDTs in Mexico air are due to a combination of ongoing regional usage and re-emission of old DDT residues from soils. Total toxaphene in soils ranged from 0.066 to 69 ng g -1 while levels in air ranged from 6.2 to 230 pg m -3. Chromatographic profiles of toxaphenes in both air and soil showed depletion of Parlar congeners 39 and 42. Fugacity fractions of toxaphene were within the equilibrium range or above the upper equilibrium threshold boundary. These findings suggested that soil emission of old residues is the main source of toxaphenes to the atmosphere. Results from this study provide baseline data for establishing a long-term OC monitoring program in Mexico.

  14. Mexico: The Accidental Narco?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-30

    2011, Small Wars Foundation June 30, 2011 Mexico: The Accidental Narco ? by Paul Rexton Kan The Obama Administration’s National Security...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Mexico: The Accidental Narco ? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...Accidental Narco In the face of stalemate, there is the danger of an “accidental narco ” syndrome developing in Mexico. Unlike the balloon effect of

  15. Genetic structure and divergence in populations of Lutzomyia cruciata, a phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vector of Leishmania mexicana in southeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pech-May, Angélica; Marina, Carlos F; Vázquez-Domínguez, Ella; Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A; Narváez-Zapata, José A; Moo-Llanes, David; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Ramsey, Janine M; Becker, Ingeborg

    2013-06-01

    The low dispersal capacity of sand flies could lead to population isolation due to geographic barriers, climate variation, or to population fragmentation associated with specific local habitats due to landscape modification. The phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia cruciata has a wide distribution throughout Mexico and is a vector of Leishmania mexicana in the southeast. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity, structure, and divergence within and among populations of Lu. cruciata in the state of Chiapas, and to infer the intra-specific phylogeny using the 3' end of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. We analyzed 62 sequences from four Lu. cruciata populations and found 26 haplotypes, high genetic differentiation and restricted gene flow among populations (Fst=0.416, Nm=0.701, p<0.001). The highest diversity values were recorded in populations from Loma Bonita and Guadalupe Miramar. Three lineages (100% bootstrap and 7% overall divergence) were identified using a maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis which showed high genetic divergence (17.2-22.7%). A minimum spanning haplotype network also supported separation into three lineages. Genetic structure and divergence within and among Lu. cruciata populations are hence affected by geographic heterogeneity and evolutionary background. Data obtained in the present study suggest that Lu. cruciata in the state of Chiapas consists of at least three lineages. Such findings may have implications for vector capacity and hence for vector control strategies.

  16. Rural Youths' Images of the Rural

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, Johan Fredrik

    2006-01-01

    Following the cultural turn within the social sciences, recent debates on how to conceptualise "the rural" have focused on "rurality" as a phenomenon produced by processes of social construction. This paper presents an empirical account of the outcome of these social construction processes through an analysis of how teenagers…

  17. [Accessible Rural Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Nick, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue of the quarterly newsletter "Rural Exchange" provides information and resources on accessible rural housing for the disabled. "Accessible Manufactured Housing Could Increase Rural Home Supply" (Nick Baker) suggests that incorporation of access features such as lever door handles and no-step entries into manufactured housing could help…

  18. Rural Students at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Judi

    Identifying and describing students in rural schools who are at potential educational risk is the purpose of this study which involved extensive taped interviews with administrators, teachers and students in selected rural schools in Iowa. Various indicators of educational risk in selected rural environments suggest that students are decidedly…

  19. America's Rural Information Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Caille John, Patricia

    The Rural Information Center (RIC), a project of two agencies of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, has served rural information needs since 1988. The targeted audience for the RIC is local officials and citizens, rather than scientists and federal officials, and the thrust of its information is rural development rather than production…

  20. Think Rural Means Isolated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy

    1990-01-01

    The benefits of distance education have made converts out of many rural school administrators. Through communication satellites, schools can gain access to the most advanced courses for students and staff while maintaining their rural characteristics and personal touch. Sidebars present a glossary and one rural New York school's experience with…

  1. Rural Research Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lewis W.

    The following rural sociological research needs were identified: (1) acceptance of general sociological theory and methodology for use in "Rural" research; (2) recognition of bench marks and probable base lines in rural sociological research; (3) collection of widely scattered reports for examination and perhaps respecification; (4) establishment…

  2. Reaching Rural Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard van Leer Foundation Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter issue focuses on programming undertaken to address the health and educational needs of rural families in developing and developed nations. After examining the nature of rural families and rural poverty, the newsletter discusses: (1) the Mon Women's Organization in Thailand; (2) The "Contact With Kids" parent education…

  3. Rural Poverty and Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural Housing Alliance, Washington, DC.

    Today poverty in rural America remains pervasive and persistent. A decade ago, 14 million rural Americans were classified as "officially" poor. In 1973, nearly 9.2 million were classified poor. The decline in rural poverty over the years has been minimal. This paper briefly documents the poverty statistics according to the living standards used by…

  4. [Rural School Administrator's Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AEL, Inc., Charleston, WV.

    This packet contains resources on five topics relevant to rural school administrators. "Assessing Parent Involvement: A Checklist for Rural Schools": discusses educator beliefs that support successful parent engagement programs, challenges and advantages of rural schools attempting to involve parents and community, and aspects of…

  5. Alleghenian Reconstruction and Subsequent Evolution of the Gulf of Mexico, Bahamas, and Proto-Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pindell, James L.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed model for the evolution of the Gulf of Mexico, the Bahamas and the Proto-Caribbean is built within the framework provided by a detailed initial Alleghenian (western Pangean) reconstruction and an accurate subsequent relative-motion history between North America and Gondwana (northern Africa and South America). The Alleghenian reconstruction closes all pre-Jurassic oceans; accounts for Jurassic attenuation of continental crust by restoring that attenuation to original prerift continental thicknesses; incorporates an improved Equatorial Atlantic fit between northern Brazil and the Guinea margin of Africa; quantitatively removes changes in shape of northern South America due to Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic accretion and internal deformation; includes pre-Mesozoic continental crust presently underlying the western Bahamas and southern Florida; and correlates Late Paleozoic geology of Yucatan with its neighboring continental masses. Extension occurred within the Gulf of Mexico from Late Triassic to earliest Cretaceous time, but seafloor spreading was delayed until the Late Callovian. This divided a single Gulf-wide salt basin into the Louann and Campeche salt provinces. The Yucatan block progressively rotated about 43 degrees counterclockwise away from the Texas-Louisiana margin around a pole in northern Florida. The Tamaulipas-Golden Lane-Chiapas fault zone of eastern Mexico is interpreted as the remains of an initially intracontinental transform system along which Yucatan migrated. Attenuated continental crust beneath southern Florida and the western Bahamas, termed here the Florida Straits block, migrated approximately 300 km out of the eastern Gulf, approximately along Central Atlantic flow lines. These rotations are consistent with recently suggested magnetic anomaly trends in the Gulf of Mexico (Shepherd et al., 1982; S. Hall, personal communication, 1984). The Proto-Caribbean formed synchronously by a fan-like rotation of Yucatan away from Venezuela.

  6. Paleomagnetic evidence for Post-Jurassic stability of southeastern Mexico: Maya Terrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, Jose C.; Herrero-Bervera, Emilio; Helsley, Charles E.

    1990-05-01

    The tectonic evolution of southeastern Mexico has been a subject of major controversy, not only in regard to past geometry but also in the timing of proposed geological events as well. For the past 10 years, most, if not all, investigators agree that the Gulf of Mexico Basin was formed by Late Jurassic time and that the Maya Terrane was in its current location prior to the Cretaceous. In order to gain further insight into the drift history of the Maya Terrane we have undertaken a paleomagnetic study of the uppermost Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous (Tithonian-lower Neocomian?) San Ricardo Formation in southeastern Mexico, at 93.7°W, 16.8°N. The sampling site is located east of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, on the southwest side of the Maya block, at the base of the Yucatan Peninsula. A suite of 133 samples was collected in stratigraphic succession from a 114-m-thick sequence of red shales and sandstones near Cintalapa, Chiapas, Mexico. After progressive thermal demagnetization of all samples at six steps from 350°C to 630°C, 89 samples were selected for final paleopole analysis on the basis of their magnetic stability. Four different polarity intervals were observed, the sequence being from bottom to top: N, R, N, R which assists in the assessment of the reliability of the observations. The mean pole position obtained, 160.0°E, 69.8°N, agrees with the mean pole position of the upper part of the Morrison Formation of Colorado, a unit of virtually identical age. These results indicate that no discernible rotation or displacement of the Maya block has occurred since at least early Neocomian times.

  7. Potential Sympatric Vectors and Mammalian Hosts of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus in Southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sotomayor-Bonilla, Jesús; Abella-Medrano, Carlos Antonio; Chaves, Andrea; Álvarez-Mendizábal, Paulina; Rico-Chávez, Óscar; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Rostal, Melinda K; Ojeda-Flores, Rafael; Barbachano-Guerrero, Arturo; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo; Aguirre, A Alonso; Daszak, Peter; Suzán, Gerardo

    2017-04-06

    Arboviruses are important zoonotic agents with complex transmission cycles and are not well understood because they may involve many vectors and hosts. We studied sympatric wild mammals and hematophagous mosquitoes having the potential to act as hosts and vectors in two areas of southern Mexico. Mosquitoes, bats, and rodents were captured in Calakmul (Campeche) and Montes Azules (Chiapas), between November 2010 and August 2011. Spleen samples from 146 bats and 14 rodents were tested for molecular evidence of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), and West Nile virus (WNV) using PCR protocols. Bat ( Artibeus lituratus , Carollia sowelli , Glossophaga soricina , and Sturnira parvidens) and rodent ( Sigmodon hispidus and Oryzomys alfaroi ) species were positive for VEEV. No individuals were positive for WNV, EEEV, or WEEV. A total of 1,298 mosquitoes were collected at the same sites, and five of the mosquito species collected were known VEEV vectors (Aedes fulvus, Mansonia indubitans, Psorophora ferox, Psorophora cilipes, and Psorophora confinnis). This survey simultaneously presents the first molecular evidence, to our knowledge, of VEEV in bats and rodents from southern Mexico and the identification of potential sympatric vectors. Studies investigating sympatric nonhuman hosts, vectors, and arboviruses must be expanded to determine arboviral dynamics in complex systems in which outbreaks of emerging and reemerging zoonoses are continuously occurring.

  8. Paleocene decapod Crustacea from northeastern Mexico: Additions to biostratigraphy and diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Díaz, José Luis; Aguillón-Martínez, Martha Carolina; Luque, Javier; Vega, Francisco J.

    2017-03-01

    New decapod specimens from mid-Paleocene shallow marine deposits of NE Mexico represents an important addition to the diversity, paleobiogeography and evolution of the Crustacea record. In this work, we describe additions to the decapod assemblage from the Paleocene (Selandian) Rancho Nuevo Formation (Difunta Group, Parras Basin, Coahuila). Due to the evident size differences with other decapod assemblages, we compare the new assemblage with those from the Lower Paleocene (Danian) Mexia Clay Member of the Wills Point Formation, Texas, and the Lower Eocene (Ypresian) El Bosque Formation in Chiapas. Species reported from the mid-Paleocene (Selandian) assemblage of the Porters Creek Formation (Alabama), are correlatable to the decapod species from NE Mexico in age, size and systematic composition. The erymid lobster Enoploclytia gardnerae (Rathbun, 1935) is represented by several carapaces and chelae remains. One isolated palm of Callianassidae is included. Numerous carapaces of Linuparus wilcoxensis Rathbun, 1935 are described, representing the most abundant lobster. A new record for the raninid Notopoides sp., and presence of Quasilaeviranina sp. cf. arzignagnensis and Quasilaeviranina ovalis are here reported. New raninids, Claudioranina latacantha sp. nov. and Claudioranina sp. (Cyrtorhininae) are also part of this assemblage. Paraverrucoides alabamensis (Rathbun, 1935), and Tehuacana americana (Rathbun, 1935) are represented by several carapaces exhibiting intraspecific morphological variation. Different sizes among the Early and Middle Paleocene and Early Eocene decapod populations suggests a possible effect of variation in seawater temperatures and/or a Lilliput effect after the K/Pg event.

  9. Traditional medicine of Baja California Sur (Mexico). II.

    PubMed

    Encarnacion Dimayuga, R; Fort Murillo, R; Luis Pantoja, M

    1987-08-01

    Continuing our studies of traditional medicine, as used in rural areas of Baja California Sur, now we wish to report on the medicinal uses of 49 more plants. Some of the more complex recipes of these medicinal plants, are discussed in the present paper. The information presented here was collected in the Municipio of Los Cabos and part of the Municipio of La Paz, B.C.S., Mexico.

  10. Telehealth in the trenches: reporting back from the frontlines in rural America.

    PubMed

    Alverson, Dale C; Shannon, Suzanne; Sullivan, Eileen; Prill, Amanda; Effertz, Glen; Helitzer, Deborah; Beffort, Steven; Preston, Alistair

    2004-01-01

    Access to appropriate healthcare services continues to be a major challenge in rural America. Telehealth technologies offer an opportunity to bridge gaps in health services in rural and remote areas and possibly support rural economic development. Lack of access to healthcare services to a growing population may create barriers to recruitment of businesses and economic growth. Several rural-oriented programs have attempted to leverage these emerging distance technologies, but success has varied despite the application of considerable federal, state governmental, and private resources. Barriers to adoption and sustainability of rural telehealth embody several factors that must be considered when planning, developing, implementing, and evaluating a rural telehealth program. New Mexico, the fifth largest state in the United States, represents many of the issues related to the potential benefits and challenges in developing a telehealth system to serve its rural communities. The Center for Telehealth at the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center has been supported in large part by state and federal funding. Through our experiences, successes, failures, and lessons learned, we have developed approaches to overcoming barriers to adoption and sustainment of telehealth applications, including the establishment of partnerships with economic development projects in the state. This article describes these experiences and identifies and provides strategies for planning, development, implementation, and sustainment of telehealth in a rural program.

  11. INEGI's Network of GPS permanent stations in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Franco, G. A.

    2013-05-01

    The Active National Geodetic Network administered by INEGI (Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía) is a set of 24 GPS permanent stations in Mexico that was established in 1993 for a national rural cadastral project, its has been mainly used for geodetic surveys through Mexico including international borders, and has been progressing to contribute to national, regional and international reference frames through the delivering of GPS data or coordinate solutions from INEGI Processing Center to SIRGAS and NAREF. Recently GAMIT/GLOBK Processing of permanent stations in Mexico was realized from 2007-2011 to determine station's velocity. Related to natural hazards, a subset of INEGI network contributes to the project Real Time Integrated Atmosferic Water Wapor and TEC from GPS. The GPS network planned evolution consider changing to a GNSS network, adding stations to IGS, maintain the services of the present, and contribute to multidisciplinary geodetic studies through data publicly available.

  12. Programa de Fortalecimiento de Capacidades: Reflections on a Case Study of Community-Based Teacher Education Set in Rural Northern Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsop, Steve; Ames, Patricia; Arroyo, Graciela Cordero; Dippo, Don

    2010-01-01

    This article explores distinctive features of a 5-year international education development project set in rural northern Peru (PROMEB, the "Proyecto de Mejoramiento de la Educacion Basica"). Grounded within a partnership between teacher educators from Peru, Mexico and Canada, and rural Peruvian teachers, students and their communities,…

  13. UCAN: A Four-State Rural Systemic Initiative. UCAN Measures of Progress toward Full Implementation: A Guide for Schools/Communities Involved in Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LLamas, Vicente J.

    The Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico-Rural Systemic Initiative (UCAN-RSI) supports standards-based reform in mathematics, technology, and science education for rural students in its states. This guide provides UCAN schools and communities with a set of measures that describe the location of a school/community on the developmental continuum of…

  14. Drought Studies For Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magana, V.

    2007-05-01

    Drought constitutes one of the major threats for a number of socioeconomic sectors in Mexico. Meteorological drought occurs in various temporal and spatial scales that range from a few weeks in the tropical Mexico to decades in northern Mexico. Historically, these long term droughts have had a negative impact, not only in economic activities, but in the lives of Mexicans as well. In general, short term droughts over central southern Mexico are related to El Niño conditions. However, drought may also occur when an anomalously low number of easterly waves reach the Caribbean and Mexico. El Niño and easterly wave activity may be related by the intensification of the Caribbean Low Level Jet. However, the role of this form of transient activity as a drought trigger in Mexico has not been explored in depth. The present analysis explores the possibility of more than one form of forcing to explain drought in Mexico on various spatial and temporal scales, as well as in various regions. Such approach to the study of drought may prove useful to diagnose why certain general circulation models are unable of reproducing drought patterns over Mexico.

  15. English Teaching Profile: Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This profile of the English language teaching situation in Mexico examines the role of English in society and in the educational system. It is noted that the extent to which English is used in Mexico is affected by the country's proximity to the United States. The educational system is described, with emphasis on English instruction which begins…

  16. Graduate Education in Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Enrico N.; Gomez, Roman

    1982-01-01

    The needs, deficiencies, and possible solutions for undergraduate education of chemical engineers in Mexico were discussed in Volume XVI (Number 3) of this journal. In this paper, the authors extend their comments to the status of graduate education of chemical engineers in Mexico, focusing on the masters program. (Author/JN)

  17. The Tarahumara of Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paciotto, Carla

    This paper reviews factors contributing to the loss of language and culture of the Tarahumara people of Mexico and describes a program aimed at preserving Tarahumara language and culture. The Tarahumara people reside in the Sierra Tarahumara in the northern state of Chihuahua, Mexico. Although the Tarahumara people successfully avoided…

  18. Gulf of Mexico

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... article title:  Continued Spread of Gulf of Mexico Oil Slick       View Larger ... on NASA's Terra spacecraft passed over the Deepwater Horizon oil slick in the Gulf of Mexico on May 8, 2010, at approximately 16:50 UTC ...

  19. Sierra Madre Oriental, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This view of the Sierra Madre Oriental, Mexico (26.5N, 102.0W) west of Monclova, shows a mining region of northern Mexico. Mine tailings can be seen on the mountain slopes and in the valley floor. In addition to mining activity, several irrigated agricultural areas supporting the local communities can be seen in the area.

  20. Petroleum and Mexico's future

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    Addressing the effects of the 1982 crisis, through the late 1980s, on Mexico's economic and political systems and assessing the country's potential for entering a period of strong economic growth, contributors to this volume focus on oil, the primary source of Mexico's foreign exchange earnings, and on trade with the U.S., the primary means for earning foreign exchange. The authors argue that the problems Mexico faced during the crisis period are not over; indeed, the most difficult challenges lie ahead. For the remainder of the century Mexico must earn adequate revenue to service a substantial debt and to permit the economy to grow at a rate that provides opportunity for a labor force already enduring a high rate of unemployment and rising inflation. Contributors agree that the key to Mexico's economic and political stability will be control of inflation, unemployment, and large public sector deficits.

  1. UCAN: A Four-State Rural Systemic Initiative. First Year Report (August 31, 1996); First Year Analysis (August 31, 1996); Year Two Annual Report (September 1, 1997); Third Year Report (September 1, 1998); Year Three Annual Report Executive Summary (September 1, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LLamas, Vicente J.

    Since September 1995, the Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico-Rural Systemic Initiative (UCAN-RSI) has promoted systemic reform to improve science, technology, and mathematics education for all rural students in its states. Initially, UCAN targeted 159,000 students in over 430 rural, primarily American Indian or Hispanic, communities. These…

  2. Joining Rural Development Theory and Rural Education Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Patricia Cahape

    Karl N. Stauber proposes three goals for rural development policy: helping the rural middle class survive, reducing concentrated rural poverty, and sustaining and improving the quality of the natural environment. In contrast to other visions, he advises policy that focuses on rural places rather than rural economic sectors such as agriculture,…

  3. [Profile and establishment of the physician in the rural Mexican environment].

    PubMed

    Collado Ardón, R

    1983-01-01

    A survey made of a national sample of physicians revealed certain characteristics which contribute to an understanding of the rural physician's profile in Mexico. Some findings regarding the physician's settling in a rural location are discussed in this article. The most relevant finding is that the rural physician (much more than the urban physician) performs several productive activities unrelated to medicine. This is because in a rural location, the low demographic concentration and scarce social division of labor make it difficult for the individual who is devoted to a single activity to be fully occupied in it. Hence, the physician who settles in this sector has to break from his urban training and be, at first, a man who incorporates himself in the local society both in the economic and social aspects, in order to practice his profession in accordance with actual needs. Moreover, in the rural sector, general medicine predominates over specialized medicine, and the smaller the location, the more private medicine predominates over institutional medicine. This is a result of the rural economic structure which favors precapitalist or capitalist commercial (pre-industrial) relationships. Likewise, it is a product of the current tendency in institutional medicine which converts it into an inflexible costly apparatus, unable to cover the scattered rural population. The results suggest new alternatives for the educational field, especially in relation to the physician-man who seems to be required by the rural sector. With regard to its application, such research opens possibilities for private medicine and represents many institutional alternatives not based on rural sector urbanization but on the ruralization of thought, physician, and medical care. That means accepting the rural reality and knowing it before trying to change it. The author considers that these findings and the conclusions derived from them are applicable not only to Mexico, but to another countries

  4. Rural Stress: Myths and Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Thomas D.; McIntire, Walter G.

    A comparison between the common myths of "rural existence" and the documented realities of rural living explodes the myth that rural living is generally stress free, shows that life stress in rural settings can have deleterious effects on the function of individual and family, and provides a basis for exploring some implications of rural stress…

  5. [The focal control of malaria. Focal treatment using chemoprophylaxis and home insecticide spraying for the control of malaria in southern Mexico].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez López, M H; Loyola Elizondo, E G; Betanzos Reyes, A F; Villarreal Treviño, C; Bown, D N

    1994-01-01

    The efficacy of a focal control strategy for malaria was evaluated against a conventional scheme carried out in two groups of villages in the Soconusco, southern Chiapas, Mexico. Focal control consisted on the prophylactic administration of antimalarial drugs to people who had experienced malaria episodes two years previous to the study. Homes of these malaria patients were also sprayed indoors with DDT. The traditional strategy consisted on the treatment of all patients with antimalarial drugs as well as indoor spraying with DDT of all houses in the villages. Results from the focal control demonstrated similar efficacy as compared to conventional. However, in terms of cost, focal control was four fold more economical. Focal control had an additional advantage of incorporating community participation within the control operations.

  6. Evaluating the Impact of an Environmental Education Programme: An Empirical Study in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Mallen, Isabel; Barraza, Laura; Bodenhorn, Barbara; Reyes-Garcia, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    This study draws on information from 11 in-depth interviews, two focus groups and 72 written questionnaires to evaluate an extra-curricular environmental education programme on forestry designed for preparatory school students from a small rural community in Mexico. Specifically, the study assessed the impact of the programme on the ecological…

  7. Schooling in Mexico: A Brief Guide for U.S. Educators. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, H. James

    Teachers in U.S. schools affected by Mexican immigration need to understand immigrants' prior school experiences when planning lessons and delivering instruction. Mexico requires education through grade 9 and has nearly reached its goal of providing facilities for all school-age children. There are vast differences between rural and urban…

  8. Women's Literacy and Numeracy Practices Oriented toward Small-Scale Social Action in Northern Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mein, Erika

    2010-01-01

    This article looks at literacy from social and critical perspectives in order to understand the literacy and numeracy practices of women in small savings groups in northern Mexico. In this case, women's literacy and numeracy practices were not only situated in a rural desert context but also oriented toward concrete action to address their…

  9. Can Migration Reduce Educational Attainment? Evidence from Mexico. Policy Research Working Paper Series. WPS3952

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, David; Rapoport, Hillel

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of migration on educational attainment in rural Mexico. Using historical migration rates by state to instrument for current migration, we find evidence of a significant negative effect of migration on schooling attendance and attainment of 12 to 18 year-old boys and 16 to 18 year-old girls. IV-Censored Ordered Probit…

  10. The Economics of Gender in Mexico: Work, Family, State, and Market. Directions in Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Elizabeth G., Ed.; Correia, Maria C., Ed.

    The studies compiled in this book analyze the effects of gender on the well-being of individuals and households in Mexico. Analyses examine gender issues over the life cycle, including education and child labor, adult urban and rural labor participation, and the situation of elderly Mexican men and women. Following an introduction by Elizabeth…

  11. Health Care among the Kumiai Indians of Baja California, Mexico: Structural and Social Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleuriet, K. Jill

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author documents the illness and health care problems facing indigenous communities in Baja California, Mexico, by using ethnographic data from research she conducted from 1999 to 2001 with rural, indigenous Kumiai and with their primary health care providers in urban Ensenada. The author contends that barriers to care are…

  12. AN APPROACH TO THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS OF NORTHERN NEW MEXICO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KNOWLTON, CLARK S.

    NORTHERN NEW MEXICO IS DEFINED TO INCLUDE THOSE NORTHERN COUNTIES DOMINATED BY RURAL, SPANISH-AMERICAN CULTURE, GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES AND HISTORICAL ANTECEDENTS ARE DESCRIBED. THE STUDY PRESENTS DATA ON PRESENT ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CONDITIONS, OBSERVATIONS AS TO CAUSES OF THESE CONDITIONS, INCLUDING REASONS FOR UNSUCCESSFUL GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATE…

  13. Those Left Behind: Recent Social Changes in a Heavy Emigration Area of North Central New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Olen E.; Hannon, John H.

    1977-01-01

    Examining social and economic change associated with a recent mass exodus of Spanish surnamed populations from rural villages in north-central New Mexico, this article addresses attitudes of those left behind and postulates that while the impact of migration has been felt throughout the area, its intensity has fluctuated among villages. (Author/JC)

  14. Teachers' Incentives and Professional Development in Schools in Mexico. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Acevedo, Gladys

    Quality of education is a determining factor in a nation's competitiveness. Although Mexico has made tremendous progress toward achieving universal basic education, school quality has not kept pace with enrollment increases, especially in rural areas. Innovations at the federal and state levels to raise the quality of basic education in Mexico…

  15. Illuminated by the Shadow: U.S.-Mexico Schooling and Pedagogies of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruna, Katherine Richardson; Chamberlin, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Currently, 20% of Gardston High School's K-12 students are Latino, the overwhelming majority from small "ranchitos" in rural Mexico with populations of less than 4,000-5,000 residents. In this way, the presence of Mexicans in Gardston means that there is, numerically, the equivalent to a "ranchito" living right within this…

  16. A Report on the System of Radioprimaria in the State of San Luis Potosi, Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spain, Peter L.

    A project called "radioprimaria" is bringing classes by radio to fourth, fifth, and sixth grades in a rural area of Mexico to make up for the lack of teachers in these grades. Even though the project was largely unsupervised and plagued with disorganization and equipment problems, children taught with radio did as well as children in the…

  17. Quality Improvement Initiative in School-Based Health Centers across New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booker, John M.; Schluter, Janette A.; Carrillo, Kris; McGrath, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Background: Quality improvement principles have been applied extensively to health care organizations, but implementation of quality improvement methods in school-based health centers (SBHCs) remains in a developmental stage with demonstration projects under way in individual states and nationally. Rural areas, such as New Mexico, benefit from the…

  18. Mexico and Central America.

    PubMed

    Bronfman, M

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on migration and HIV/AIDS in Mexico and Central America, including Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama. Most migrants travel to the US through Mexico. US-Mexico trade agreements created opportunities for increased risk of HIV transmission. The research literature focuses on Mexico. Most countries, with the exception of Belize and Costa Rica, are sending countries. Human rights of migrants are violated in transit and at destination. Migration policies determine migration processes. The Mexican-born population in the US is about 3% of US population and 8% of Mexico's population. About 22% arrived during 1992-97, and about 500,000 are naturalized US citizens. An additional 11 million have a Mexican ethnic background. Mexican migrants are usually economically active men who had jobs before leaving and were urban people who settled in California, Texas, Illinois, and Arizona. Most Mexican migrants enter illegally. Many return to Mexico. The main paths of HIV transmission are homosexual, heterosexual, and IV-drug-injecting persons. Latino migrants frequently use prostitutes, adopt new sexual practices including anal penetration among men, greater diversity of sexual partners, and use of injectable drugs.

  19. The Rural Challenge: Rural Schools and Communities Working as Partners for the Future of Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annenberg Rural Challenge, Granby, CO.

    The Annenberg Rural Challenge locates and funds exemplary rural public school programs to serve as models for rural education reform. The guiding theory of the Rural Challenge is that when rural schools base their teaching on the economy, ecology, history, and culture of their communities while fully engaging the community in the school's work,…

  20. Supporting Sustainable Rural Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presentation about creating sustainable rural communities discussing principles, energy efficiency, water quality, waste, business, building improvements and restoration, transportation, and green building.transportation, and green building.

  1. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigelmann, W.; Asmon, I.

    1981-07-01

    The first year of cost-competitiveness, the market potential, and the environment in which PV systems would be marketed and employed were examined. Market elements specific to Mexico addressed include: (1) useful applications and estimates of the potential market for PV systems; (2) power requirements and load profiles for applications compatible with PV usage; (3) operating and cost characteristics of power systems that compete against PV; (4) national development goals in rural electrification and rural services, technology programs and government policies that influence the demand for PV in Mexico; (5) financing mechanisms and capital available for PV acquisition; (6) channels for distribution, installation and maintenance of PV systems; and (7) appropriate methods for conducting business in Mexico.

  2. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steigelmann, W.; Asmon, I.

    1981-01-01

    The first year of cost-competitiveness, the market potential, and the environment in which PV systems would be marketed and employed were examined. Market elements specific to Mexico addressed include: (1) useful applications and estimates of the potential market for PV systems; (2) power requirements and load profiles for applications compatible with PV usage; (3) operating and cost characteristics of power systems that compete against PV; (4) national development goals in rural electrification and rural services, technology programs and government policies that influence the demand for PV in Mexico; (5) financing mechanisms and capital available for PV acquisition; (6) channels for distribution, installation and maintenance of PV systems; and (7) appropriate methods for conducting business in Mexico.

  3. Sexual Behavior and Perceptions of Young Women in a Rural Southwest School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duryea, Elias J.; Mesrian, Parvin; Semark, Larry; West, Carolyn

    1997-01-01

    Risk factors associated with teenage pregnancy were studied among 95 Hispanic, Native American, and White ninth-grade females at a rural New Mexico high school. All respondents, regardless of ethnicity, reported moderate levels of health-compromising behaviors such as alcohol use, poor communication with parents regarding sex, and a false sense of…

  4. Television as a Means of Training Rural Young-Adult Apprentices in Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edington, Everett D.; Keaton, Laurie

    Using television as a means of delivery for an educational program in rural areas and looking at the media preferences of young adults, this study was conducted in a non-metropolitan area of northwestern New Mexico to examine the effectiveness of television and videotape to provide basic principles of solar energy to 15 young apprentices in a…

  5. "This Job Is Harder Than It Looks": Rural Oaxacan Women Explain Why They Became Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Jayne

    1997-01-01

    Explores the reasons rural women have become elementary school teachers in the state of Oaxaca (Mexico), and examines how recent economic changes may be changing the female population that wants to become teachers to an even poorer segment of society. Ethnographic research was conducted with 35 Oaxacan teachers or teacher candidates. (SLD)

  6. Language, Identity and Educational Success: An Ethnographic Study of Spanish-Speaking Children in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wortham, Stanton

    An ethnographic study examined the role of language, discrimination, and aspirations in the school success of Latino students in a small rural town. The town, located about 1,000 miles from Mexico and about 200 miles from any sizeable Latino community, contains about 200 Latinos. Almost all are Mexicans or Mexican Americans and have come to work…

  7. Values for gender roles and relations among high school and non-high school adolescents in a Maya community in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Manago, Adriana M

    2015-02-01

    In the current study, I describe values for gender roles and cross-sex relations among adolescents growing up in a southern Mexican Maya community in which high school was introduced in 1999. A total of 80 adolescent girls and boys, half of whom were attending the new high school, provided their opinions on two ethnographically derived vignettes that depicted changes in gender roles and relations occurring in their community. Systematic coding revealed that adolescents not enrolled in high school tended to prioritise ascribed and complementary gender roles and emphasise the importance of family mediation in cross-sex relations. Adolescents who were enrolled in high school tended to prioritise equivalent and chosen gender roles, and emphasised personal responsibility and personal fulfillment in cross-sex relations. Perceptions of risks and opportunities differed by gender: girls favourably evaluated the expansion of adult female role options, but saw risks in personal negotiations of cross-sex relations; boys emphasised the loss of the female homemaker role, but favourably evaluated new opportunities for intimacy in cross-sex relations.

  8. The 26 May 1982 breakout flows derived from failure of a volcanic dam at El Chichón, Chiapas, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macias, J.L.; Capra, L.; Scott, K.M.; Espindola, J.M.; Garcia-Palomo, A.; Costa, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The eruptions of El Chicho??n between 28 March and 4 April 1982 produced a variety of pyroclastic deposits. The climactic phase, on 3 April at 07:35 (4 April at 01:35 GMT), destroyed the central andesitic dome and fed pyroclastic surges and flows that dammed nearby drainages, including the Magdalena River. By late April, a lake had formed, 4 km long and 300-400 m wide, containing a volume of 26 ?? 106 m3 of hot water. At 01:30 on 26 May, the pyroclastic dam was breached and surges of sediment and hot water soon inundated the town of Ostuaca??n, 10 km downstream. This hot flood was finally contained at Pen??itas Hydroelectric Dam, 35 km downstream, where one fatality occurred and three workers were badly scalded. Stratigraphic and sedimentologic evidence indicates that the rapidly draining lake initially discharged two debris flows, followed by five smaller debris flows and water surges. The main debris flows became diluted with distance, and by the time they reached Ostuaca??n, they merged into a single hyperconcentrated flow with a sediment concentration of ???30 vol%. Deposits from this hyperconcentrated flow were emplaced for 15 km, as far as the confluence with another river, the Mas-Pac, below which the flow was diluted to sediment-laden streamflow. The minimum volume of the breakout-flow deposits is estimated at 17 ?? 106 m3. From high-water marks, flow profiles, and simulations utilizing the DAMBRK code from the National Weather Service, we calculated a maximum peak discharge of 11,000 m3/s at the breach; this maximum peak discharge occurred 1 h after initial breaching. The calculations indicated that ???2 h were required to drain the lake.

  9. Ash Aggregates Found in Pyroclastic Surge Deposits Produced during the 1982 Eruption of El Chichon Volcano, Chiapas, Mexico: considerations on their Origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scolamacchia, T.; Macias, J. L.

    2001-12-01

    During the most violent phase of the 1982 eruption of El Chichon volcano, at 0135 (GMT) April 4, pyroclastic surges, S1, S2 and S3 (1,2), were produced. With the exception of S2, associated to a pyroclastic flow, the origin of the deposits is controversial. Field studies up to 8 km from the source in different sectors of the volcano indicate that S1 exceeds the previously traced northern limit showing a distribution with a N-S largest axis. The depositional structures of S1 and S3 suggest emplacement from diluted pyroclastic density currents of hydromagmatic origin. Component analysis of samples from different horizons of S1and S3 showed the presence of ash aggregates of different types, most of which formed around cores of millimetric-sized vegetal fragments. The eruptive clouds were thus characterized by temperatures insufficient to burn wood. The granulometric distributions of different horizons of S1 and S3 layers have similarities suggesting that they derived from the same fragmentation mechanism. SEM observations indicate the presence of structures like hydration cracks and hydration skin on glass shards characterized by blocky forms or low degree of vesicularity, corroborating that fragmentation was generated by the interaction between magma and external water. 1 Macias J.L., Sheridan M.F., Espindola J.M. (1997). Bull. Volc. 59 (6): 459-471. 2 Sigurdsson H., Carey S.N., Fisher R.V. (1987). Bull. Volc. 49: 467-488

  10. Description of Eucyclops tziscao sp. n., E. angeli sp. n., and a new record of E. festivus Lindberg, 1955 (Cyclopoida, Cyclopidae, Eucyclopinae) in Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Martha Angélica; Mercado-Salas, Nancy Fabiola; Cervantes-Martínez, Adrián

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of the freshwater cyclopoid genera Eucyclops are described, Eucyclops tziscao sp. n. and E. angeli sp. n. Both species belong to the serrulatus-group defined by morphological features such as: the presence of distal spinules or hair-like setae (groups N1 and N2) on frontal surface of antennal basis; the fourth leg coxa with a strong inner spine that bears dense setules on inner side, yet proximally naked (large gap) on outer side; and a 12-segmented antennule with smooth hyaline membrane on the three distalmost segments. Eucyclops tziscao sp. n. is morphologically similar to E. bondi and E. conrowae but differs from these species in having a unique combination of characters, including a caudal ramus 4.05±0.25 times as long as wide, lateral seta of Enp3P4 modified as a strong, sclerotized blunt seta, coxal spine of fourth leg with inner spinule-like setules distally, and sixth leg of males bearing a strong and long inner spine 2.3 times longer than median seta. Eucyclops angeli sp. n. can be distinguished by an unique combination of morphological features: the short caudal ramus; the long spine on the sixth antennular segment of A1; the presence of one additional group of spinules (N12’) on the caudal surface of A2; the presence of long setae in females, or short spinules in males on the lateral margin of fourth prosomite; the strong ornamentation of the intercoxal sclerite of P4, specially group I modified as long denticles; the distal modified setae of Exp3P3 and Exp3P4 in females and males; and the short lateral seta of P5. Finally, we report on a new record of E. festivus in México, and add data on morphology of the species. PMID:24294085

  11. An emission processing system for air quality modelling in the Mexico City metropolitan area: Evaluation and comparison of the MOBILE6.2-Mexico and MOVES-Mexico traffic emissions.

    PubMed

    Guevara, M; Tena, C; Soret, A; Serradell, K; Guzmán, D; Retama, A; Camacho, P; Jaimes-Palomera, M; Mediavilla, A

    2017-04-15

    This article describes the High-Elective Resolution Modelling Emission System for Mexico (HERMES-Mex) model, an emission processing tool developed to transform the official Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) emission inventory into hourly, gridded (up to 1km(2)) and speciated emissions used to drive mesoscale air quality simulations with the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. The methods and ancillary information used for the spatial and temporal disaggregation and speciation of the emissions are presented and discussed. The resulting emission system is evaluated, and a case study on CO, NO2, O3, VOC and PM2.5 concentrations is conducted to demonstrate its applicability. Moreover, resulting traffic emissions from the Mobile Source Emission Factor Model for Mexico (MOBILE6.2-Mexico) and the MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator for Mexico (MOVES-Mexico) models are integrated in the tool to assess and compare their performance. NOx and VOC total emissions modelled are reduced by 37% and 26% in the MCMA when replacing MOBILE6.2-Mexico for MOVES-Mexico traffic emissions. In terms of air quality, the system composed by the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) coupled with the HERMES-Mex and CMAQ models properly reproduces the pollutant levels and patterns measured in the MCMA. The system's performance clearly improves in urban stations with a strong influence of traffic sources when applying MOVES-Mexico emissions. Despite reducing estimations of modelled precursor emissions, O3 peak averages are increased in the MCMA core urban area (up to 30ppb) when using MOVES-Mexico mobile emissions due to its VOC-limited regime, while concentrations in the surrounding suburban/rural areas decrease or increase depending on the meteorological conditions of the day. The results obtained suggest that the HERMES-Mex model can be used to provide model-ready emissions for air quality modelling in the MCMA.

  12. On legalizing abortion: an open letter from Mexico's Christian Women's Collective.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    In Mexico City the Christian Women's Collective's open letter to the Catholic Church is a response to the Catholic bishops' threats of excommunication of lawmakers in Chiapas State, Mexico, who may have approved a bill legalizing abortion. The bishops maintain that God is a just and merciful God who loves women and suffers with them. The Collective cannot ignore the 2 million women, 1.72 million of whom are Catholics, who undergo illegal abortions annually in Mexico. They tend to be poor and in a union and to have large families. The Collective does not advocate abortion, but recognized that almost all women who have had an abortion were not at all happy to do so. Instead they suffer depression, solitude, shame, and pain. In addition to the moral punishment, these women are at high risk of dying (150,000-200,000 women die annually from illegal abortions). Economic circumstances, health problems, rape, and abandonment threaten their lives, so abortion is a last resort. The Collective maintains that the Catholic Church must understand that God empathized with women's pain, and in sending Jesus, has become one with humanity. The Church must seriously consider this sorrowful and very complex situation and reflect on the circumstances leading to abortion rather than condemn it. It must realize that by choosing abortion women want to avoid harm in those cases where pregnancy could cause death, avoid injustice when rape caused the pregnancy, or avoid giving birth to an infant that society or family cannot sustain. The present adverse and unjust situation contributing to unwanted pregnancy and illegal abortion is a social sin. The Catholic Church needs to build a new pastoral program with women at its center emphasizing sexuality, maternity, and contraception. Indeed, confronting the true social, moral, and political causes of abortion, and avoiding punishment, incarceration, or excommunication will resolve the issue.

  13. Stratigraphy, geochronology, geochemistry and tectonic setting of the Mesozoic Nazas Formation, north-central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolini, Claudio

    Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic volcanic-sedimentary sequences that were part of the Mesozoic continental-margin of western North America are exposed in northern and central Mexico. These sequences have been grouped into the Nazas Formation and crop out in the states of Durango, Coahuila, Zacatecas, and San Luis Potosi. The Nazas Formation consists of 2,500 m or more of volcanic and pyroclastic rocks and interbedded clastic sedimentary rocks that were deposited in alluvial fan and fluvial depositional systems that developed in intra-arc basins, mainly fault-bound grabens and topographic depressions within an extending Mesozoic volcanic arc. Major and trace element geochemistry of volcanic rocks suggests that the volcanic suite is calc-alkaline and includes rhyolite, dacite, rhyodacite, andesite, trachyandesite and rare basalt. Pyroclastic rocks are basically air-fall tuffs and volcanic breccias. The sedimentary strata include conglomerate, sandstone, shale, and siltstone, locally red in color. Geochronology (Ar-Ar, K-Ar and Rb-Sr) and field evidence indicate that the age of the Nazas Formation ranges from Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic, but the peak of arc volcanism appears to be Early and Middle Jurassic. The Mesozoic magmatic arc in Mexico has a northwest trend and extends from Sonora to Chiapas. The arc structure is more than 2,000 km long, and possibly up to 150 km wide. The width of the arc is uncertain due to the limited number of surface outcrops, however, it did not extend east into the Gulf of Mexico. Arc-related magmatism began in latest Triassic time, but the peak of arc evolution occurred during the Early and Middle Jurassic. By Oxfordian time, the arc was deeply dissected and eroded, and magmatic activity had ceased. A marine transgression from the Gulf of Mexico covered most of the Nazas arc, depositing the initial sediments of the Oxfordian Zuloaga Limestone in the Mexican Geosyncline. Jurassic crustal extension in the Gulf of Mexico was

  14. Characterizing the Epidemiological Transition in Mexico: National and Subnational Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Gretchen; Dias, Rodrigo H; Thomas, Kevin J. A; Rivera, Juan A; Carvalho, Natalie; Barquera, Simón; Hill, Kenneth; Ezzati, Majid

    2008-01-01

    Background Rates of diseases and injuries and the effects of their risk factors can have substantial subnational heterogeneity, especially in middle-income countries like Mexico. Subnational analysis of the burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors can improve characterization of the epidemiological transition and identify policy priorities. Methods and Findings We estimated deaths and loss of healthy life years (measured in disability-adjusted life years [DALYs]) in 2004 from a comprehensive list of diseases and injuries, and 16 major risk factors, by sex and age for Mexico and its states. Data sources included the vital statistics, national censuses, health examination surveys, and published epidemiological studies. Mortality statistics were adjusted for underreporting, misreporting of age at death, and for misclassification and incomparability of cause-of-death assignment. Nationally, noncommunicable diseases caused 75% of total deaths and 68% of total DALYs, with another 14% of deaths and 18% of DALYs caused by undernutrition and communicable, maternal, and perinatal diseases. The leading causes of death were ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular disease, liver cirrhosis, and road traffic injuries. High body mass index, high blood glucose, and alcohol use were the leading risk factors for disease burden, causing 5.1%, 5.0%, and 7.3% of total burden of disease, respectively. Mexico City had the lowest mortality rates (4.2 per 1,000) and the Southern region the highest (5.0 per 1,000); under-five mortality in the Southern region was nearly twice that of Mexico City. In the Southern region undernutrition and communicable, maternal, and perinatal diseases caused 23% of DALYs; in Chiapas, they caused 29% of DALYs. At the same time, the absolute rates of noncommunicable disease and injury burdens were highest in the Southern region (105 DALYs per 1,000 population versus 97 nationally for noncommunicable diseases; 22 versus 19 for injuries

  15. A taxonomic monograph of the leaf-litter inhabiting weevil genus Plumolepilius new genus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Molytinae: Conotrachelini) from Mexico, Guatemala, and El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Barrios-Izás, Manuel A; Anderson, Robert S; Morrone, Juan J

    2016-09-14

    We describe the Mesoamerican leaf litter weevil genus Plumolepilius Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new genus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Molytinae: Conotrachelini) (type species P. trifiniensis Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species), species of which inhabit mountain ecosystems from the state of Chiapas in southeastern Mexico to northern Panama. In this paper we describe nine new species from Mexico, Guatemala, and El Salvador: P. trifiniensis Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (El Salvador and Guatemala); P. branstetteri Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala and Mexico); P. longinoi Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala and Mexico); P. cortezi Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala and Mexico); P. canoi Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala); P. schusteri Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala and Mexico); P. daryi Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala); P. yolnabajensis Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala); and P. macalajauensis Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala).        The genus and the species are named and described, information on their geographical distributions is given and images of the habitus of both sexes and the aedeagus are presented. A key to the species of Plumolepilius based on males is included.        The monophyly of Plumolepilius was confirmed by a parsimony analysis of external and male aedeagus morphology and the genus is best characterized by the presence of plumose scales lining the prosternal channel. Phylogenetic analysis supports that Lepilius Champion 1905 is the sister genus of Plumolepilius.

  16. Forests of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, M.A.; Dirzo, R.; Zadroga, F.

    1995-07-01

    Forest of Mexico as elsewhere provide essential goods and services for both local citizens and the international community. Benefits include climate regulation, biodiversity, and wood and nonwood products for local consumption and economic activity. Deforestation is a matter of great environmental and economic concern. This article assesses rates of deforestation, the present status of forest in Mexico, and the major factors responsible for deforestation in the tropical southeastern region.

  17. Mexico: Paving the way

    SciTech Connect

    Erckert, C.

    1993-02-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) signed last year by the presidents of Mexico and the United States and the Canadian prime minister will pave the way for increased outside participation in Mexico's growing energy sector. In its penultimate session of 1992, the Mexican Congress approved a bill which would enact the treaty provisions into domestic law and expand upon the details of previously enacted liberalization plans.

  18. Ad Hoc Rural Regionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamin, Elisabeth M.; Marcucci, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    A new regionalism has been much documented and researched for metropolitan areas; this article documents that there is a new rural regionalism as well. In the United States, these groups appear most likely to emerge in areas that are challenged by outcomes characterizing globalization's effects on the rural condition: namely, exurban or…

  19. AIDS in Rural California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooten, Donald B.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the increase in AIDS patients in rural California, which is greater than that in urban areas, including AIDS population projections through 1991. Describes differences between AIDS populations in rural and urban areas and relates these to state expenditure patterns and differential needs. (DHP)

  20. National Rural Health Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications Join Donate NRHA Connect Partners search-opener Search for: Experience the best health care climate Learn from rural health leaders by the beach in sunny San Diego NRHA's Annual Rural Health Conference is May 9-12 NRHA Partners Program Support ...