The per capita per year fuel consumption in Bangladesh is only 56 kg oil equivalent. The supply of electricity by Bangladesh power development board (BPDB) and Dhaka electricity supply authority (DESA) is mainly confined to cities and towns. Rural Electrification Board (REB) distributes electricity to the rural people through cooperatives. The rural cooperatives cover only 10% of the total population. Only about 15% of the total population is directly connected to the electricity. In order to meet the increasing energy demand for development of agriculture and industry and for the generation of better employment opportunities, it will be necessary to harness all the available alternative sources of energy immediately.
Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC. Economic Development Div.
Elements essential to an adequate framework for rural development in the U.S. are a national growth and development policy which includes a rural development strategy and definition of common problems and programmatic actions required to deal with them. Many past federal rural development programs (lacking a federal rural policy focus) have failed…
This study on the role of energy in the development of rural areas was originally conducted in the spring and summer of 1985. It was intended to serve as a background paper for the preparation of a program plan for the Office of Energy of the United States Agency for International Development. As such it begins with a brief overview of how rural development fits into national development, then offers a comprehensive framework for thinking about rural development in particular and the energy implications of the various components of rural development. Agriculture naturally comes to mind when rural areas are mentioned, but industry is an important component of rural activity as well. Consequently, both agricultural and nonagricultural energy use is discussed. Modernization of rural areas will change household, as well as production, energy use. However, household energy use is a veritable subject in its own right, with a large literature. Consequently, that topic is discussed in less detail than the production energy topics.
Swanson, Louis E.
Progress toward rural development has been hampered by flawed views of rural America; serious limitations to existing social and economic data on sparsely populated areas; treatment of rural America as a geographical entity unconnected to the larger U.S. economy and society; perceived lack of feasible political solution to rural problems; and…
Management of natural resources and preservation of ecological balance are perceived today as essential elements of rural development. The recently multiplying environmental ministries in developing countries are intended not only to correct the damages resulting from uncontrolled urbanization and industrialization, but to address ecosystemic degradation in the countryside. The aptitude demonstrated by numerous peasant societies for exploiting their environments over the long term while preserving their potential should be recognized and their specific, detailed knowledge incorporated into environmental protection projects. It is a mistake to conclude that peasants do not care about environmental problems; they often lack the resources to take needed action. Active participation of impoverished rural dwellers requires that measures taken do not reduce their incomes or resources in the short term. Rural development projects must assure protection of the environment while taking into account the interests of diverse categories of rural dwellers, such as farmers, herders, or wood cutters. There has been considerable progress in the past 2 decades in understanding the functioning of cultivated and pasture ecosystems and in developing techniques to limit damage to them. A vast effort is now needed to understand the economic, social, and cultural functions of customs and practices of different social groups involved in agricultural development and territorial management in order to prioritize problems and arrive at a consensus of all those affected concerning environmental protection. Social science research is needed into marketing of agricultural products, circulation of cooking fuels, village-town relations, and migration in order to determine the effects of these phenomena on management and conservation of natural resources in rural areas. Experimental research should be directed toward finding practical solutions to problems encountered by rural cultivators
Sears, David W., Ed.; Reid, J. Norman, Ed.
This book seeks to provide a basis for reexamining rural development policy by presenting comprehensive and current information on the effectiveness of various rural policy approaches. An introduction that defines development terminology and discusses changing policy needs is followed by 13 chapters that represent the best recent research…
Weinberg, Mark L.; Burnier, DeLysa
Offers background on rural entrepreneurship and incubation in the United States, with particular focus on rural incubators at community colleges and regional incubation systems. Explains how incubators, which provide shared services and business/management assistance for tenant companies, differ from other entrepreneurial development strategies.…
Umstattd Meyer, M Renée; Moore, Justin B; Abildso, Christiaan; Edwards, Michael B; Gamble, Abigail; Baskin, Monica L
Rural residents are less physically active than their urban counterparts and disproportionately affected by chronic diseases and conditions associated with insufficient activity. While the ecological model has been successful in promoting and translating active living research in urban settings, relatively little research has been conducted in rural settings. The resulting research gap prohibits a comprehensive understanding and application of solutions for active living in rural America. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to assess the evidence base for an ecological model of active living for rural populations and outline key scientific gaps that inhibit the development and application of solutions. Specifically, we reexamined the 4 domains conceptualized by the model and suggest that there is a dearth of research specific to rural communities across all areas of the framework. Considering the limited rural-specific efforts, we propose areas that need addressing to mobilize rural active living researchers and practitioners into action.
The author discusses the worldwide problem and need for rural electrification to support development. He points out that rural areas will pay high rates to receive such services, but cannot afford the capital cost for conventional services. The author looks at this problem from the point of energy choices, subsides, initial costs, financing, investors, local involvement, and governmental actions. In particular he is concerned with ways to make better use of biofuels, to promote sustainable harvesting, and to encourage development of more modern fuels.
Hamel, Christine; Allaire, Stephane; Turcotte, Sandrine
This article describes the just-in-time online professional development offered to teachers in the Remote Networked Schools (RNS), a systemic initiative funded by the Quebec Ministry of Education (Canada), which aims at enriching the learning environment of small rural schools with the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs). The…
Kocher, James E.; Fleisher, Beverly
Rural development is understood to mean both the increased productivity of agriculture and other rural economic activities and the enhancement of the material well-being of the rural people (who comprise about 90% of Tanzania's 16 million population) through education, improved health, and better nutrition. Seven hundred and sixty-one books,…
Hammer, Patricia Cahape
Karl N. Stauber proposes three goals for rural development policy: helping the rural middle class survive, reducing concentrated rural poverty, and sustaining and improving the quality of the natural environment. In contrast to other visions, he advises policy that focuses on rural places rather than rural economic sectors such as agriculture,…
Midthassel, Unni Vere; Manger, Terje; Torsheim, Torbjorn
Examined the effects of community type on teacher involvement in school development activity (SDA). Data on urban, small town, and rural teachers indicated that teachers in smaller towns were more involved in SDA than those in rural areas, while the differences between cities and smaller towns were not statistically significant. The impact of…
Rural youth have been active in the development of the German Democratic Republic's agricultural production program. Although those who reside in rural areas and commute to work in urban areas are also classified as "rural youth," the core of rural youth are those who work in agricultural primary production. Of the 778,639 permanent…
Brandt, Vincent S. R.
Reviews development in rural areas of South Korea since the late nineteenth century, with particular emphasis on rural to urban migration, governmental investment in agriculture, transportation and mass communications, development projects, social leveling processes, upgraded living standards, and cooperative village improvement projects. Journal…
The experience in most Third World countries is that communication technology is not being applied to rural development. Originally, communications programs were advanced to meet the need for better participation in development programs by rural people and to facilitate the transfer of technical know-how. However, there has been so systematic use of this approach. Rural broadcasting rarely receives more than a fraction of total air time, and programs that do exist are uninspiring and ineffective. There is a shortage of portable recording equipment and transport, meaning that very little field recording can be done. Totally unexplored has been the potential of portable closed-circuit video for use in rural areas. The mere availability of cheap and appropriate communication technology such as videotaping does not ensure its use for rural development. The real obstacles are linked to rural development policies and politics. Within most governments, rural and agricultural development are not priorities in terms of budgetary and staff allocations. Morever, within that sector, communication is viewed as a peripheral activity. Governments have found it easier in many cases to issue 1-way commands than to communicate and plan with the rural population. A final factor of great importance is training people to use the tools of communication.
Patel, A R
India's 6th plan accords top priority to rural development with emphasis on development of agriculture and allied activities and rural industries. Rural growth has been slow and rural proverty has been increasing, because most of the low income groups in the rural areas depend heavily on agriculture for their livelihood. Primary constraints in the development of rural residents arise from their dependence on agriculture for livelihood, the importance of nonagricultural sources of income, and the compounding effects of natural calamities. Rural development is a strategy designed to improve the economic and social life of a specific group of people. It involves extending the benefits of development to the poorest residents of rural areas -- small farmers, tenants, landless, rural artisans, scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Rural development must be designed to increase production and raise productivity. India's 6th plan has recognized that the distribution of unemployment and poverty as well as the potential for development of agriculture and related activities varies both among and within regions. Efforts have now been made to make the programs area specific. The new approach aims at integrating field programs reflecting the economic activity of the rural family whose employment and development is the primary objective. Policy directed at ensuring a flow of new field-tested technical knowledge relevant to small holder production is essential for rural development success. A strong commitment to rural development policies at the national level is necessary if the impact on the problems of rural poverty is to be effective and broad-based.
Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.
This report highlights the most recent indicators of social and economic conditions in rural areas for use in developing rural policies and programs. The economic expansion of the 1990s greatly benefited rural economies. Rural areas attracted both urban residents and immigrants. Hispanics accounted for over 25 percent of nonmetropolitan population…
Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.
Rural development progress relative to State-U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) committees is presented via exemplary citation in this 1970 report. Summaries are given for: (1) Status of State-USDA Organization for Rural Development, (2) Functional Relationships of USDA Committees on Rural Development, (3) Activities and Projects Underway, (4)…
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). International Inst. for Educational Planning.
Assuming that education and rural development must be correlated, this booklet defines the general thrust for rural education programs in developing countries. The 1st of 4 sections briefly describes the various aspects of rural development (emphasis on integration of agriculture, industry, transport, trade, credit, health, education, culture,…
Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.
MANY RURAL AREAS OF THE U.S. POSSESS ENOUGH SPACE AND NATURAL ATTRACTIONS TO SERVE AS A BASIS FOR ESTABLISHING EITHER PART OR FULL-TIME RECREATIONAL ENTERPRISES. MOST OUTDOOR LEISURE ACTIVITIES CENTER AROUND WATER, HUNTING AND FISHING, ADMIRING SCENERY, AND ENJOYING THE NATURAL RURAL LANDSCAPE. THUS THE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL RECREATION RESOURCES IS…
Thornburg, Kathy R.; Scott, Jacqueline L.
Three professional development approaches have shown promise in raising the competency level of early childhood professionals in rural areas. Provider registry systems gather information that provides a foundation for further professional development initiatives and systemic development. Statewide professional development systems designed to serve…
Malhotra, R C
Rural development should be viewed as the core of any viable strategy for national development in developing countries where an average 2/3 of the population live in rural areas. Rural development is multisectoral, including economic, sociopolitical, environmental, and cultural aspects of rural life. Initially, the focus is on the provision of basic minimum needs in food, shelter, clothing, health, and education, through optimum use and employment of all available resources, including human labor. The development goal is the total development of the human potential. The hierarchy of goals of development may be shown in the form of an inverted pyramid. At the base are basic minimum needs for subsistence whose fulfillment leads to a higher set of sociopolitical needs and ultimately to the goal of total developmentand the release of creative energies of every individual. If development, as outlined, were to benefit the majority of the people then they would have to participate in decision making which affects their lives. This would require that the people mobilize themselves in the people'ssector. The majority can equitably benefit from development only if they are mobilized effectively. Such mobilization requires raising the consciousness of the people concerning their rights and obligations. All development with the twin objectives of growth with equity could be reduced to restructuring the socioeconomic, and hence political relationships. Desinging and implementing an intergrated approach to rural development is the 1st and fundamental issue of rural development management. The commonly accepted goals and objectives of a target group oriented antipoverty development strategy include: higher productivity and growth in gross national product (GNP); equitable distribution of the benefits of development; provision of basic minimum needs for all; gainful employment; participation in development; self reliance or self sustaining growth and development; maintenance of
Information Center on Instructional Technology Report, 1976
In discussing communication planning and integrated rural development, Philip H. Coombs, Manzoor Ahmed, and Pratima Kale of the International Council for Educational Development stress that communication planning must deal with problems in behavioral and not just technical terms. Communication planners must be able to work with experts from other…
Deavers, Kenneth L.; Brown, David L.
Rural areas' population growth, location, level of economic activity and social well-being depend less on natural resource endowments than on such factors as transportation, communication, labor force characteristics, and urbanization. General causes of the 1970's urban-to-rural migration included fewer changes in the structure of agriculture,…
... Administrator of the EPA. This Working Group will coordinate with the National Science and Technology Council's... Rural Development Act of 1972 and the Rural Development Policy Act of 1980 direct the Secretary...
Under the Luz Para Todos ('Lights for All') Program, the Government of Brazil (GOB) seeks to provide basic electricity services to all its citizens by 2008. An estimated 2.5 million rural households (over 12 million Brazilians) currently lack electric service, with approximately 80% of them located in rural areas. Since many of these households are too geographically isolated to be connected to the national grid, they will receive distributed energy systems, and the government hopes to maximize the use of local renewable resources to service them. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with the GOB and a variety of local partners to identify and implement sustainable off-grid solutions to meet Brazil's rural energy needs. Focused in the Amazon region, these collaborative activities are, on one hand, using field-based activities to build local technical capacity and design replicable models for rural energy development, while on the other hand helping to develop the institutional structures that will be necessary to sustain distributed renewable energy development on a large-scale in Brazil.
This paper describes renewable energy programs implemented in South Africa as part of a collaborative program for rural development. Different facets of this program include: Renewable Energy for South Africa (REFSA); hybrid collaborative R&D; electricity sector restructuring; provincial level initiation of renewable energy applications; renewable energy for African development (REFAD); and Suncorp photovoltaic manufacturing company. Limited detailed information is provided on the activities of each of these different program facets over the past year in particular.
Findlay, E. Weldon
Selected concepts and theoretical orientations were identified and applied to the Guelph Rural Development Outreach Project, formed in 1976 to give leadership in the evolvement of a more comprehensive and integrated approach to rural development in Ontario. Huron County (a traditional rural agricultural area), Halton Region (an area characterized…
Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State, MS.
This annual report of the Southern Rural Development Center (SRDC) describes the agency's extension and research activities from October, 1996, to September 30, 1997. SRDC is one of four regional centers coordinating rural development research and extension education programs cooperatively with the land-grant institutions. SRDC cooperates with 29…
Yousefian, Anush; Ziller, Erika; Swartz, Jon; Hartley, David
Rural youth are at greater risk than urban youth for obesity and physical inactivity. Active living research incorporates an ecological approach to promoting physical activity (PA) by recognizing that individual behavior, social environments, physical environments, and policies contribute to behavior change. Active living research and interventions have been limited primarily to urban settings. Because rural communities have unique environmental features and sociocultural characteristics, this project combines insights from current active living models with more focused consideration of the physical and social realities of rural areas. In this study, we report on our efforts to develop, test, and refine a conceptual model describing the interaction between the individual and the environment as it enhances or thwarts active living in rural communities. Our findings revealed a host of relevant "predisposing" and "enabling" factors, including sociodemographic, environmental, policy, and programmatic elements, that extend across the four domains of active living--transportation, recreation, occupation, and household. A one-size approach to PA promotion will not fit the needs of rural youth. Given the unique challenges that rural communities face, efforts to combat childhood obesity must consider rural residents a priority population. More research, interventions, and evaluations on ways to promote rural PA are needed.
This study surveys rural Nigerian residents concerning local water resource uses and tourists' recreational activities with respect to scales of awareness, understanding, and incentive. Results indicate a public willingness to encourage and finance the rural development of water bodies for agricultural purposes exclusive of investment for tourism…
Zhang, Liwei; Zhang, Yanjun; Xu, Liying; Li, Daoliang
Based on full analysis of rural mobile communication market, in order to explore mobile operators in rural areas of information services for sustainable development model, this paper presents three different aspects, including rural mobile communications market demand, the rural market for mobile communications business model and development strategies for rural mobile communications market research business. It supplies some valuable references for operators to develop rural users rapidly, develop the rural market effectively and to get access to develop a broad space.
Harmon, Hobarat L.; Schafft, Kai
In this article we address the role of rural schools in community development. We first discuss the largely historical linkages between rural schools and the communities they serve, and what this means for both school and community well-being. We then consider the newly revised standards for preparing school administrators, developed by the…
Haque, Wahidul; And Others
Historical developments in rural India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and China are the empirical basis of this study which offers a theory of rural development for all Asia keyed to fundamental humanistic values rather than narrower techno-economic considerations. Previous efforts have often been "top-down" processes tending to serve…
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).
Eighteen papers about education, training, and extension in rural areas of the developing world are presented in this 1975 journal published jointly by three United Nations agencies closely concerned with education and rural development: Food and Agriculture Organization; Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization; International Labor…
Rasmussen, Wayne D.
Discusses history of United States government programs to ameliorate rural living and economic conditions. Contrasts early successful efforts to improve physical characteristics--road, electricity--with recent lack of success in dealing with intractable problems--unemployment, persistent poverty. Chart of rural development actions outlines rural…
New Jersey Office of Economic Opportunity, Trenton.
The Rural Manpower Development Program (RMDP) is an agency of the New Jersey Office of Economic Opportunity established for the purpose of demonstrating the feasibility of a comprehensive manpower service for unemployed or underemployed disadvantaged people from the rural areas of New Jersey. Included in this achievement report is historical and…
Reid, J. Norman; Rowley, Thomas D.
The National Commission on Agriculture and Rural Development Policy, established by Congress to provide broad, long-range policy perspectives, examined rural development policy issues and made many field visits to observe rural conditions and rural development projects. The Commission recognized the diversity of rural communities and identified…
Michalek, Jerzy; Zarnekow, Nana
The main purpose of this research was to construct a multi-dimensional (composite) index measuring the overall level of rural development and quality of life in individual rural regions of a given EU country. In the Rural Development Index (RDI) the rural development domains are represented by hundreds of partial socio-economic, environmental,…
Thomas, Margaret G.
This guidebook presents 64 profiles of successful economic development initiatives in the small towns and rural areas of 37 states. Intended for use by rural and small town leaders and rural economic development specialists, the guide provides ideas, encouragement, and an "insider perspective" on alternative rural development strategies.…
Rep. Pomeroy, Earl [D-ND-At Large
11/16/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Rural Development, Biotechnology, Specialty Crops, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:
Marsden, Terry; Sonnino, Roberta
Under the emerging rural development paradigm, we argue that to be multifunctional an activity must add income to agriculture, it must contribute to the construction of a new agricultural sector that corresponds to the needs of the wider society and it must reconfigure rural resources in ways that lead to wider rural development benefits. By…
The Population and Community Development Association (PDA) promotes family planning (FP) throughout Thailand through a community-based approach. The Thai government actively supports rural development. In 1986, 80% of Thailand's people who lived below the poverty line were in rural areas. The poverty line in rural areas is an annual per capita income of 3823 baht, or US $153; in urban areas, it is more. Since 1984, Thailand's gross domestic product (GDP) has increased by more than 50%. Per capita GDP has risen dramatically, also, with the success of FP efforts. This economic achievement, however, has not been shared by most of the Thai population. Incomes in the agriculture sector are far below those in the nonagricultural sector. The government and the nonprofit organizations, however, do not have skills. The corporate sector does have these skills. The Thailand Business Initiative in Rural Development (TBIRD) helps companies sponsor villages and aids them in developing business skills, whereupon income levels and local living standards are improved. Companies thus help in the employment transfer from agriculture to nonagriculture. There is a "one-company-one- village" formula. Company employees have the skills needed in the villages. They are directly involved. Since 1988, PDA has been working with companies in Thailand to help villages develop business skills. In Saraburi province, PDA and Volvo Swedish Motors have been aiding villagers to grow saplings and sell them to golf course and housing developers. In Ayutthaya Province, PDA and the same company are helping the residents with needlepoint and embroidery to supply a wedding dress manufacturing operation. These programs have succeeded. PDA wants to expand the program by September 1990, to include 50 companies. It is hoped that once the companies are comfortable with their relationship to the village, they will start associations with additional villages. PDA has established the "Ten Steps to Adopt a Village."
Masinire, Alfred; Maringe, Felix; Nkambule, Thabisile
In South Africa, rural education and development are issues of social justice, especially in places that were previously established as homelands. This article presents some of the tensions that are inherent in the conceptions of rurality, rural education and the possibility of sustainable rural education and development. We propose the notion of…
Hamilton, Vance E., Comp.
A State Task Force on Rural Health was formed (January 1973) by the State Rural Development Committee to identify and analyze major rural health problems in North Carolina and to recommend alleviation strategies. The Task Force submitted open-ended questionnaires to members of the County Rural Development Panels to secure their perceptions of…
Sher, Jonathan; Sher, Katrina Rowe
This paper proposes a framework for developing a national rural development policy in Australia. Some common relevant misconceptions are that rural Australia and rural Australians are peripheral to the national economy and the nation's future, that farmers and farming communities are the alpha and omega of rural Australia, and that whatever is…
... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Rural Health Information Technology Network... award under the Rural Health Information Technology Network Development Grant (RHITND) to Grace... relinquishing its fiduciary responsibilities for the Rural Health Information Technology Network...
Mitchem, Katherine; Wells, Deborah; Wells, John
Professional development practices implemented in rural school systems have often led nowhere. These practices seem to produce adult learning activities with few results other than participants' mounting frustration and another innovation left by the wayside. To encourage the development of productive professional development, many studies are…
... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rural development committees. 22.204 Section 22.204 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and Responsibilities of Federal Government § 22.204 Rural development committees. State rural development...
Varshney, Kush R; Chen, George H; Abelson, Brian; Nowocin, Kendall; Sakhrani, Vivek; Xu, Ling; Spatocco, Brian L
Satellite imagery is a form of big data that can be harnessed for many social good applications, especially those focusing on rural areas. In this article, we describe the common problem of selecting sites for and planning rural development activities as informed by remote sensing and satellite image analysis. Effective planning in poor rural areas benefits from information that is not available and is difficult to obtain at any appreciable scale by any means other than algorithms for estimation and inference from remotely sensed images. We discuss two cases in depth: the targeting of unconditional cash transfers to extremely poor villages in sub-Saharan Africa and the siting and planning of solar-powered microgrids in remote villages in India. From these cases, we draw out some common lessons broadly applicable to informed rural development.
Glover, Todd A.; Nugent, Gwen C.; Chumney, Frances L.; Ihlo, Tanya; Shapiro, Edward S.; Guard, Kirra; Koziol, Natalie; Bovaird, Jim
Teachers Speak was a national survey study designed to investigate the characteristics of rural elementary school teachers' existing professional development; differences in professional development practices between rural and non-rural settings; and the potential influence of professional development characteristics on rural teachers' knowledge,…
Jehlik, Paul J.
The continuing transition of rural development from its old to present day form is discussed, treating varied perceptions of its goals and the continuing resolution of approaches through legislation and appropriations. Some of the goals are community development, human resources development, natural resources preservation, and a more equitable…
Spiegel, Lisa A.
Learning activities that promote student pride in rural living include examining the misconceptions and prejudices associated with rural living, exploring the variables of a rural lifestyle, student research of their town's history, and reading books that positively portray rural living. Includes a bibliography of 69 adolescent books with rural…
One viable economic development option for rural areas is the creation of business incubators--facilities that aid in the early stages of growth of an enterprise by providing rental space, services, and business assistance. Business incubators promote community development by diversifying the economic base, enhancing the community's image as a…
The Carter Administration is adopting a Small Community and Rural Development Policy because: (1) rural America's human and natural resources are a mainstay of the nation's economy and way of life; (2) many rural areas are in the midst of significant economic and demographic change; (3) rural people and communities have greater unmet basic human…
Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development.
This report describes the activities of the Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD), Iowa State University, for the year ending June 30, 1987. During this fiscal year, CARD conducted numerous projects including the following: (1) a policy evaluation on agricultural applications of pesticides and ground water quality for the…
North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, Ames, IA.
A combined report of the four Regional Rural Development Centers (RRDCs) and their partners focuses on selected outreach and research activities, projects, and accomplishments in fiscal year 1997. The report is organized around five topics identified as key issues for the mid 1990s: (1) improving economic competitiveness, diversity, and…
Goedeken, Jill A.; Xia, Yan; Durden, Tonia; de Guzman, Maria Rosario T.
An exploratory study examined rural Latino youths' perceptions regarding positive youth development (PYD), particularly related to aspects such as the definition of PYD, potential benefits of PYD, and motivations for participating in PYD activities. A total of 28 self-identified Hispanic youths participated in focus groups. Findings suggest that…
Beal, George M.
A "communication system" paradigm for dissemination of appropriate knowledge, information, and technology needed for effective rural development is briefly described. The paradigm describes six categories of interrelated functions, activities, and processes: (1) scientific knowledge production by carrying out basic and applied research; (2)…
Onugu, C U
This paper examined the development role of community banks in rural Nigeria by using the deposit mobilization capability and funding capacity in key sectors of the rural economy as yardsticks. By using a cluster sampling technique, it looks at the achievements of the community banking scheme initiative in terms of economic development. The scheme, established in 1991, has sustained itself and promoted rural development in the country. It is noted that communities have, for the first time, realized that they can advance their own economic fortunes. However, the scheme's performance as supporter of the agricultural sector has not been as well as expected, despite the fact that agriculture dominates Nigeria's rural economy. In view of this, non-banking activities are a welcome development since some of their approaches are proven to be knowledge enhancing and empowering for the rural population. Overall, community banks should attempt to strengthen non-banking approaches by collaborating more with self-help groups or nongovernmental organizations to be more empowering, results-oriented, and sustainable. Moreover, regulatory authorities should ensure that guidelines relate to credit application in terms of volume and sector allocation.
Warren, Claudia; Hamlin, Kay
In an attempt to meet the growing professional development needs of early childhood practitioners in North Carolina, Winston-Salem State University (WSSU) is reaching out to the rural areas of North Carolina by offering programs that will certify North Carolina teachers in birth through kindergarten education (BKE). In this article, the author…
Southern Rural Development Center, State College, MS.
References with annotations in seven key rural development areas and suggestions on sources of information are contained in this selective bibliography on rural development. Community leaders, rural development committees, researchers, and community resource development personnel should find the publication useful for identifying and obtaining…
The ongoing activities of Rural Enterprises, Inc. are presented. The function of Rural Enterprises is to bring innovation from its rudimentary conceptual stages to useful and productive ends by means of cooperation with government, business, and educational institutions.
A new system of education designed to solve problems facing rural areas in developing countries is needed. Guidelines for the rural development functional literacy systems for Upper Volta, Tanzania, China, Cuba, and Thailand are described. (BP)
Examines land tenure alteration in relation to rural development programs in Botswana. Development efforts have had a class differentiated effect, aiding the relatively well-off cattle owners, but ignoring the small crop producers. A rural development strategy that benefits all rural groups must contain measures specifically tailored to each. (DHP)
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Asian Centre for Educational Innovation for Development.
The five studies on education for rural development are directed to teachers, administrators, and others concerned with education in rural areas in their efforts to raise the social and economic status of the rural poor. The Indian study discusses the problem of wastage at the primary school level (with specific reference to Tamil Nadu), and…
Deavers, Kenneth L.; Brown, David L.
Emphasizing developmental problems caused by the rapid population and employment growth in rural America during the 1970's, this document describes social, economic, and governmental trends in rural America and suggests some federal policy choices that might be made in support of rural development. Problem areas and policy suggestions are…
This article highlights the economic role of women in the brewing industry in rural and periurban areas of sub-Saharan African countries. Local beer drinking is a form of social exchange and a reward for time-intensive work. Modern beer brewing in rural areas is a family operation. Beer is produced for subsistence and for sale. Locally brewed beer has a lower alcohol content than commercial brews. The author refers to Pradervand's (1990) study of local brewing in five east and west African countries. Pradervand found that men spent an estimated CFAF 18 billion per year on local brews compared to the value of total national exports of CFAF 21 billion per year in 1996. The male Kitui in rural Kenya were found to spend 60% of their weekly income on beer. Women dominate brewing in eastern and southern Africa. Rural beers are grain based (maize, millet, or sorghum), but may also be made from bananas, bamboo, sugar cane, or coconut. An estimated 25% of women in a village survey in Tanzania reported that beer was brewed one to four times a month. Another survey in the 1980s found that 73% of women brewed beer at some time. Beer brewing is a very significant economic activity for rural women. It provides higher levels of income and employment. Urban brewing by women has a negative image that rural women's beer brewing does not have. Grain for brewing comes from family farms or markets. Women's clubs are used as income generation groups for loans and as support groups. Women's beer brewing is not supported by development interventions or recognized by UN agencies. There are resource implications due to an estimated 5%-30% of annual wood consumption used for beer brewing. If women's role in beer brewing is ignored, male-dominated commercial interests will further marginalize rural women.
The U.S. Departments of Energy and Agriculture work together to advance the development of electricity generation systems that use biomass instead of fossil fuels. The national benefits include lower sulfur emissions (which contribute to acid rain), reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and less dependence on fossil fuels.
Pennington, Kevin; Williams, Mitchell R.
Rural communities often lag behind urban and suburban areas in economic development. Community colleges often contribute to economic development projects in rural areas, but they often seek collaboration with other community partners. This research study was conducted to better understand rural community college presidents' perceptions of the…
Rural poverty in West Malaysia during the 1957-1970 period is examined. The period covered was 1 of a high rate of growth combined with an increasing inequality of income and worsening poverty. During the 1955-1970 period, a large amount of development funds, manpower, and expertise was directed towards a reduction of West Malaysia's rural poverty. Despite these efforts, rural poverty increased. Over the period under review, the share of income going to the richest 20% of the population increased from 50% to 56%; the share going to the middle 20% of the population remained constant at 20%; the poorest 60% of the population saw their share of income decline from 30% to 24%. The poorest 40% of the population received only 11.6% of income in 1970. They were predominantly rural, with this sector accounting for 87% of all poverty. The 3 development plans of this period set high aggregate growth rates as the primary targets and emphasized productivity and income in the rural sector. Rural development has not been sold short; the total funding figure of $2,209.46 million represents 40% of all development spending between 1956 and 1970. The money funded 3 broad areas of rural development: replanting of smallholder rubber with high-yielding clones; increasing rice production; and opening new land. The strategy has been to concentrate upon raising the yields from existing farmland and expanding into new areas of settlement. The problem of dealing with poverty in West Malaysia was made worse by the rapid rate of population increase. The population increase of 1,657,000 was absorbed into the traditional smallholder sector, very largely in exisitng areas of settlement. Over the same period, the modern sector of agriculture, the rubber estates, reduced their labor force by 30,000 as they moved into the cultivation of oil palm, a crop requiring less labor. Some of the additional agricultural workers were placed on new land under government land-development and resettlement
Gaarder, Lorin R.; Cohen, Saul
This guide is an outline for developing and presenting programs in self health care for senior citizens. The guide is presented in two sections. The first section provides background information about elderly self-care and tips on teaching it and developing a program. Sample letters to prospective enrollees and sample news releases are included.…
Southern Rural Development Center, State College, MS.
Covering the 1976 activities of the Southern Rural Development Center (SRDC), this third annual report describes SRDC's: history; organization; regional workshops; functional networks; network bibliographies and other publications; Title V reports; grant received for training in rural development; orientation visits; consultants; information…
Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State, MS.
In fiscal year 1987, the Southern Rural Development Center was involved with 40 projects, task forces, symposia, conferences, workshops and other activities, focusing specifically on the rural problems of the region and supporting the community development efforts of 29 land-grant institutions in 13 southern states, Puerto Rico and the Virgin…
Southern Rural Development Center, State College, MS.
Summarizing Southern Rural Development Center (SRDC) activities during the October 1977-September 1978 fiscal year, this fifth annual report indicates that with Title V funding SRDC has continued its efforts to bring research and extension personnel together to work on problems in rural development. Support for programs and research at land grant…
Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State, MS.
In fiscal year (FY) 1985 the Southern Rural Development Center (SRDC) was engaged in 24 major activities that responded to the rural problems of the region and supported the community development efforts of 29 land-grant universities in 13 southern states, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. The work of the SRDC Business Management Network…
Ploch, Louis A.
The reversal in migration patterns in the 1970's resulting in a net population flow from metropolitan (urban) to nonmetropolitan (rural) areas may have a variety of rural development consequences. Sizeable population increase in rural communities which traditionally have experienced net out-migration or very slow increases is evident in Maine…
Pusateri, Cassandra Gail
Rurality is a term that can be used to describe rural residency and the cultural characteristics of rural individuals and areas. The counseling profession has increased its attention to culture with the development of the multicultural counseling competencies (Sue, Arredondo, & McDavis, 1992) and assessments designed to measure competency…
Malecki, Edward J.
Data on rural-urban differences in access to telecommunications technology suggest that the U.S. "digital divide" is diminishing. However, major shortcomings in telecommunications infrastructure persist in rural America, and more serious barriers to rural development are related to human capital shortages. These may be resolved in some…
... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rural Development State Offices. 2003.10 Section 2003.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL..., LA Maine Bangor, ME Massachusetts Amherst, MA Michigan East Lansing, MI Minnesota St. Paul,...
... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rural Development State Offices. 2003.10 Section 2003.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL..., LA Maine Bangor, ME Massachusetts Amherst, MA Michigan East Lansing, MI Minnesota St. Paul,...
Hyder, Asma; Behrman, Jere R.
This study investigates economic activities and their determinants for women in households of rural Malawi, one of the poorest countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Three waves of household panel data for years 2006, 2008 and 2010 from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH) are used to examine female labor market participation. This study includes certain important characteristics of Malawian households i.e., polygamy, ethnicity, religion and self reported health status. The study reports five different labor market outcomes for women's participation i.e., agriculture related work, market & sales activities, cottage industry, other economic activities and out of the labor market. The study finds significant relationships between these five different labor market outcomes and age cohorts, ethnicity and marriage (monogamous or polygamous). PMID:26120564
Lyson, Thomas A., Ed.; Falk, William W., Ed.
This book examines predominantly rural regions of the United States that lag behind the rest of the country in income, employment, access to services, and measures of education and health. Case studies of nine regions examine historical background; current economic and social conditions (including demography, educational attainment, and…
Sher, Jonathan P.
This paper discusses the question of standardization and educational equity among rural school systems and offers three "fundamental challenges" for educators. The first challenge is to take seriously the power of education and to resist the temptation to reduce expectations placed on education and educators. The power of education is illustrated…
Lassey, Marie; And Others
During a 3-month period ending in January 1977, questionnaires were given to 889 eighth and twelfth grade students to determine the extent of drinking among rural teenagers in Idaho, and the sociological and psychological factors affecting their drinking habits. At least 16% of 8th graders and 34% of 12th graders drink frequently. A much higher…
Joens-Matre, Roxane R.; Welk, Gregory J.; Calabro, Miguel A.; Russell, Daniel W.; Nicklay, Elizabeth; Hensley, Larry D.
Context: The increasing prevalence of overweight in youth has been well chronicled, but less is known about the unique patterns and risks that may exist in rural and urban environments. A better understanding of possible rural-urban differences in physical activity profiles may facilitate the development of more targeted physical activity…
Casey, M M; Wellever, A; Moscovice, I
Rural health networks are a potential way for rural health care systems to improve access to care, reduce costs, and enhance quality of care. Networks provide a means for rural providers to contract with managed care organizations, develop their own managed care entities, share resources, and structure practice opportunities to support recruitment and retention of rural physicians and other health care professionals. The results of early network development initiatives indicate a need for state officials and others interested in encouraging network development to agree on common rural health network definitions, to identify clearly the goals of network development programs, and to document and analyze program outcomes. Future network development efforts need to be much more comprehensive if they are to have a significant impact on rural health care. This article analyzes public policy issues related to integrated rural health network development, discusses current efforts to encourage network development in rural areas, and suggests actions that states may take if they desire to support rural health network development. These actions include adopting a formal rural health network definition, providing networks with alternatives to certain regulatory requirements, and providing incentives such as matching grants, loans, or technical assistance. Without public sector support for networks, managed care options may continue to be unavailable in many less densely populated rural areas of the country, and locally controlled rural health networks are unlikely to develop as an alternative to the dominant pattern of managed care expansion by large urban entities. Implementation of Medicare reform legislation could provide significant incentives for the development of rural health networks, depending on the reimbursement provisions, financial solvency standards, and antitrust exemptions for provider-sponsored networks in the final legislation and federal regulations.
North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, Ames, IA.
The four Regional Rural Development Centers are linked to the land-grant institutions and engage in activities and projects that seek to improve the social and economic well-being of rural people. This combined report of the four Centers begins with a highlighted project from each Center. The projects are presented in some detail to provide…
Lassey, William R.; And Others
Offering a contribution to additional clarity in the debate about the viability of "rural development" as an explanatory concept and program of action, the paper presents details of a causal model which underlies the approach to rural development taken by a W. K. Kellogg Foundation supported program in eastern Washington called "The…
Whittaker, Julie; Warren, Martyn; Turner, Martin; Hutchcroft, Ian
Funding for Rural Development Partnerships has signalled a shift in rural policy, towards actively involving the rural population in determining the direction and implementation of change. However, early experience with partnerships has indicated that the funding bodies have retained significant control. One reason for this is that they are…
Ayres, W S; Mccalla, A F
Within 30 years the world will be supplying food for an additional 2.5 billion people, most of whom will live in developing countries. Developing countries in meeting future challenges will need to implement sound and stable macroeconomic and sector policies. The World Bank is providing analysis, policy dialogue, and financial support in specific countries for opening up agricultural markets globally. Developing countries need to enhance food supplies by encouraging rapid technological change, increasing the efficiency of irrigation, and improving natural resource management. Agricultural and income growth in developing countries is dependent upon transfer of the breakthroughs in agricultural technology to the millions of small farms in the developing world. People currently use about 70% of available fresh water for irrigation, and competition for water resources with urban and industrial users has increased. Agriculture and other sectors must increase the efficiency of water use. Natural resource planning and comprehensive water and natural resource management that rely on a community-based approach have proven successful. Developing countries need to improve access to food by strengthening markets and agribusinesses, providing education and health services to both boys and girls, investing in infrastructure, and fostering broad participation. The major challenge ahead is to ensure food security for the hundreds of millions of families living in poverty. This large and complex task involves increasing agricultural output worldwide, reducing poverty, and improving health and nutrition. Progress has been made in the past 25 years in improving living conditions, but not everyone has benefitted. Almost 75% of the poor live in rural areas without access to land, and 25% are urban poor without jobs. Most of the poor live in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The World Bank mandate is to reduce poverty and hunger through revitalized rural development.
Less physical activity among rural residents may contribute to rural–urban health disparities. This study compared park visitation and activity intensity at 15 urban and 15 rural parks matched for acreage and amenities. Each park was observed (System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities...
Sardenberg, C; Costa, A A; Passos, E
Drawing on the experience of a state-sponsored rural development project, referred to as the Eagle River project, this article considers feminism and gender issues in rural Brazil, where agriculture is one of the livelihood strategies of poor men and women. Section 1 offers an overview of the project and the project area. Section 2 describes the lives of women in the Eagle River region where traditional values on division of labor, domestic roles of women, and gender hierarchies are still predominant. Section 3 highlights the objective of the project and activities designed to achieve its aim. Three main areas of work are being focused: community development, production development, and provision of rural credit. The project structure and decision-making powers are discussed in section 4. Sections 5 and 6 describe experiences in the project during its first 18 months and the challenges of incorporating gender into the project. Section 7 focuses on the development of the gender program. Section 8 outlines lessons learned out of the project outcome and the final section contains concluding messages.
Couper, Ian; Strasser, Roger; Rourke, James; Wynn-Jones, John
The Wonca Working Party on Rural Practice (WWPRP) was formed in 1992 in response to the realization that rural healthcare faced many serious and similar challenges around the world. Over the years the members of the committee have come from many different countries but found inspiration and strength in developing and sharing educational and health system innovations that could be modified and applied to different rural settings. The 11 world rural health conferences organized by the WWPRP over the first two decades since it was founded brought together a range of people, from rural doctors and other front-line healthcare workers to administrators and educational leaders, who connected with and learned from each other to advance rural health care around the world. The WWPRP policy documents and conference consensus statements have been important in shaping rural health care in a number of different contexts, and have led to issues of rural health care rising to prominence on the world stage. The WWPRP has throughout been an activist lobby group with a focus on the rural communities it serves rather than its members, and enters its third decade with much left to be done.
... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financing rural development planning. 22.306 Section 22.306 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and... Department of Housing and Urban Development planning and management assistance program or other...
... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Financing rural development planning. 22.306 Section 22.306 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and... Department of Housing and Urban Development planning and management assistance program or other...
... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Financing rural development planning. 22.306 Section 22.306 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and... Department of Housing and Urban Development planning and management assistance program or other...
... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Financing rural development planning. 22.306 Section 22.306 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and... Department of Housing and Urban Development planning and management assistance program or other...
... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Financing rural development planning. 22.306 Section 22.306 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and... Department of Housing and Urban Development planning and management assistance program or other...
Duggleby, Wendy; Robinson, Carole A; Kaasalainen, Sharon; Pesut, Barbara; Nekolaichuk, Cheryl; MacLeod, Roderick; Keating, Norah C; Santos Salas, Anna; Hallstrom, Lars K; Fraser, Kimberly D; Williams, Allison; Struthers-Montford, Kelly; Swindle, Jennifer
Navigators help rural older adults with advanced illness and their families connect to needed resources, information, and people to improve their quality of life. This article describes the process used to engage experts - in rural aging, rural palliative care, and navigation - as well as rural community stakeholders to develop a conceptual definition of navigation and delineate navigation competencies for the care of this population. A discussion paper on the important considerations for navigation in this population was developed followed by a four-phased Delphi process with 30 expert panel members. Study results culminated in five general navigation competencies for health care providers caring for older rural persons and their families at end of life: provide patient/family screening; advocate for the patient/family; facilitate community connections; coordinate access to services and resources; and promote active engagement. Specific competencies were also developed. These competencies provide the foundation for research and curriculum development in navigation.
The basic objective of the studies is to create a geographic information system that would assure integration of activities aimed at protecting biological diversity with sustainable development of marginal rural areas through defining the conditions for development of tourism and recreation in the identified areas. The choice of that solution is a consequence of the fact that numerous phenomena and processes presented in maps are linked to functional relations or they can be viewed as functions of space, time and attributes. The paper presents the system development stage aimed at elaborating the template for the system serving solution of the above-presented problem. In case of this issue the geographic information system will be developed to support development of marginal rural areas through selection of appropriate forms of tourism for the endangered areas including indication of locations for development of appropriate tourist infrastructure. Selection of the appropriate form of tourism will depend on natural, tourist and infrastructure values present in a given area and conditioned by the need to present the biodiversity component present in those areas together with elements of traditional agricultural landscape. The most important problem is to reconcile two seemingly contradictory aims: 1. Preventing social and economic marginalization of the restructured rural areas. 2. Preserving biological diversity in the restructured areas.Agriculture influences many aspects of the natural environment such as water resources, biodiversity and status of natural habitats, status of soils, landscape and, in a wider context, the climate. Project implementation will involve application of technologies allowing analysis of the systems for managing marginal rural areas as spatial models based on geographic information systems. Modelling of marginal rural areas management using the GIS technologies will involve creating spatial models of actual objects. On the basis of data
Khalid, H N
The Malaysian government has employed 3 kinds of resettlement schemes: 1) resettlement of farmers under modern agricultural and land development programs to grow cash crops; 2) resettlement of rural population in well-guarded locations to isolate them from communist insurgents; and 3) resettlement and compensation of population displaced thorough resource exploitation such as construction of dams and mining. The Kinta Valley resettlement is examined in the example of 3 villages where tin mining encroached on their agricultural land. 98 households were included in the sample from Batu Bertudung, Tekka, and Jelutung that had been settled in the 1940s. The villagers were eventually evacuated and sustained technological, pecuniary, and psychological losses. The economic loses involved property, land, and crops, and social losses comprised social networks, neighborhood, and stability. 81.7% of the villagers who were left landless successfully insisted on complete relocation of their villagers in new villages in claims to the respective tin mining companies through their newly formed village action committees in the mid-1960s. The compensation consisted of 1) group compensation by planned resettlement, 2) cash payment, and 3) replacement of the former plot with another piece of land. Social needs were not included in the calculation and the compensation received reflected roughly their economic worth at the time. The villagers of Tekka and Jelutung had their houses rebuilt which were comparable to their old homes using new materials and stronger foundations. Those from Batu Bertudung were resettled in another village, and were compensated in cash to rebuild their homes themselves. Basic amenities were insufficient: new wells had to be dug, the public standpipe was overused, and only dirt roads were constructed. The government provided most basic amenities 5-6 years later under the rural development program.
Lodwick, Dora G.; McIntosh, William A., Ed.
Reviews a book assessing the effects of central grid rural electrification on the social and economic development of 192 communities in India and Colombia. The study examines the impact on agricultural productivity (through increased irrigation), the quality of life of women and children, business activities, and regional inequities. (SV)
Harmon, Hobart L.
This paper describes four considerations for policymakers who wish to have public schools serve as viable partners in the rural development efforts of their communities. First, schools are a community resource. When rural students are given opportunities to engage in community-based learning, they develop responsible citizenship and leadership…
Esbeck, Tim, Comp.; Falcone, Lisa, Ed.
In developing this compendium of exemplary economic development practices among small and/or rural two-year colleges, the American Association of Community Colleges Commission on Small/Rural Community Colleges (CSMCC) sent out a call for program descriptions to all community colleges with less than 3,000 full-time employees or that were…
Bertram, Kathryn Berry
The Arctic Climate Modeling Program (ACMP) offered yearlong science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) professional development to teachers in rural Alaska. Teacher training focused on introducing youth to workforce technologies used in Arctic research. Due to challenges in making professional development accessible to rural teachers, ACMP…
Farstad, Maja; Rye, Johan Fredrik
Dominating strands within the research literature on second homes explain social conflicts between rural hosting and visiting second home populations by describing their differing perspectives on rural development. Such presentations suggest that locals are likely to welcome new developments in order to enhance the economic viability of their…
Newcomb, C.; Walters, T.
To foster rural economic development and growth, Congress passed the Renewable Energy Systems and Energy Efficiency Improvements Program as Section 9006 of the 2002 Farm Bill. This program provides financial assistance to farmers, ranchers, and rural small businesses to purchase renewable energy systems or make energy efficiency improvements. The Rural Business and Cooperative Services of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) administers this program. This conference poster provides an overview of Section 9006.
Kilpatrick, Sue; Stirling, Christine; Orpin, Peter
This paper examines the skills required of volunteers in the voluntary sector organisations that operate in three rural Tasmanian communities. It reports how volunteers acquire those skills and reveals the challenges faced by voluntary sector organisations in rural communities whose industries and, following from this, community members have a…
Carey, Lindsay B; Hennequin, Christine; Krikheli, Lillian; O'Brien, Annette; Sanchez, Erin; Marsden, Candace R
Given declining populations in rural areas and diminishing traditional religious support, this research explores whether spiritual care education programs would be beneficial for and appreciated by those working in rural health and/or community organizations. An overview of literature identified three dominant rural health issues affecting the provision of spiritual care in rural areas, namely the disparity between rural and urban areas in terms of resources, the lack of access to services, plus the need for education and training within rural areas. Spiritual Health Victoria Incorporated (Victoria, Australia) sought to address these issues with the implementation of a variety of spiritual education programs within rural areas. Results of an evaluation of these programs are presented specifying participant demographics, reasons why participants attended, their evaluation of the program and any recommendations for future programs. In overall terms, the results indicated that at least 90% of participants favorably rated their attended program as either 'very good' or 'good' and indicated that the main reason for their attendance was to develop their own education and/or practice of spiritual care within their rural context for the benefit of local constituents. Several recommendations are made for future programs.
Fujimoto, Isao; Zone, Martin
As part of a series prepared to acquaint small community officials with information on the latest community related research findings at the University of California at Davis, this monograph explicates the way in which tax structure, rural development assumptions, and even rural development policies and subsidies contribute to the inequities found…
This report reviews the legislative progress through December 31, 1971 of the rural development bills introduced in the U.S. Senate and House during the first session of the 92d Congress. For purposes of organization, this report presents 15 major rural development categories and limits this review to those bills and bill categories directed at…
Findlay, E. Weldon; And Others
The University of Guelph Rural Development Outreach Project (RDOP) as it was conceived, organized and utilized in rural communities in Ontario is the major focus of this document; the concluding sections describe some of the problems of Outreach implementation and suggest some possible courses for continuing and expanding the project. There is…
... administrative officer on all matters pertaining to the authorized programs. (b) The Chairman of the State Rural... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State Rural Development Advisory Council. 23.4 Section 23.4 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture STATE AND REGIONAL ANNUAL PLANS OF WORK...
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) offer opportunities for renewed development for many rural and remote areas that have long experienced economic decline and outmigration. But there is a risk of a territorial digital divide between urban and rural areas. Investments in telecommunications infrastructure and services tend to be…
Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development.
A seminar was conducted which provides a foundation upon which research, education, and action programs might be based as a state university brings its programs to focus more fully on the economic and social problems of rural areas. Papers presented covered the following subjects: objectives of community development, trends related to rural areas,…
Hartman, Cathy L.; Stafford, Edwin R.
When Renewable Energy for Rural Economic Development (RERED) began in 2005, Utah had no commercial wind power projects in operation. Today, the state hosts two commercial wind power plants, the Spanish Fork Wind Project and the Milford Wind Corridor Project, totaling 324 megawatts (MW) of wind capacity. Another project in San Juan County is expected to break ground very soon, and two others, also in San Juan County, are in the approval process. RERED has played a direct role in advancing wind power (and other renewable energy and clean technology innovations) in Utah through its education outreach and research/publication initiatives. RERED has also witnessed and studied some of the persistent barriers facing wind power development in communities across Utah and the West, and its research expanded to examine the diffusion of other energy efficiency and clean technology innovations. RERED leaves a legacy of publications, government reports, and documentary films and educational videos (archived at www.cleantech.usu.edu) to provide important insights for entrepreneurs, policymakers, students, and citizens about the road ahead for transitioning society onto a cleaner, more sustainable future.
Strasser, Roger; Kam, Sophia M; Regalado, Sophie M
Compared to their urban counterparts, rural and remote inhabitants experience lower life expectancy and poorer health status. Nowhere is the worldwide shortage of health professionals more pronounced than in rural areas of developing countries. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) includes a disproportionately large number of developing countries; therefore, this article explores SSA in depth as an example. Using the conceptual framework of access to primary health care, sustainable rural health service models, rural health workforce supply, and policy implications, this article presents a review of the academic and gray literature as the basis for recommendations designed to achieve greater health equity. An alternative international standard for health professional education is recommended. Decision makers should draw upon the expertise of communities to identify community-specific health priorities and should build capacity to enable the recruitment and training of local students from underserviced areas to deliver quality health care in rural community settings.
Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.
As the first part of a four part report to the U.S. Congress pursuant to Title IX, Section 901 of the Agricultural Act of 1970, this second annual report is limited to rural development activities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) delivery system (the USDA National Rural Development Committee, State Rural Development Committee, and…
Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.
As part 1 of a four part report to the U.S. Congress pursuant to Title IX, Section 901 of the Agricultural Act of 1970, this fourth annual report is limited to rural development activities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) delivery system (the USDA National Rural Development Committee, State Rural Development Committee, and county…
Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.
As the first part of a four part report to the U.S. Congress pursuant to Title IX, Section 901 of the Agricultural Act of 1970, this third annual report is limited to rural development activities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) delivery system (the USDA National Rural Development Committee, State Rural Development Committee, and…
Wilker, H I; Lowell, B
Functioning as a hospital-based hospice program of a large medical center, bereavement services are not limited to hospice families in one location. Bereavement services are offered to those who died within the medical center and to the residents of the three county area the hospice serves. This paper identifies ways to offer bereavement follow-up to hospice and non-hospice families. This will include discussion of mixing together survivors of different types of death in a support group atmosphere. Due to the smaller population of a rural setting, the need to be creative to offer bereavement services to the community is imperative. This paper will discuss how our Bereavement Services have expanded in response to the needs of the communities in the three county area we serve. We will discuss survey results, meeting and support group data used to generate supporting information to allow our services to grow. Learning objectives for this article consist of readers being able to identify ways to develop and expand bereavement services; incorporating various types of death in a support group setting; and ways to better serve non-hospice families in need of bereavement follow-up. Topics include a description of Bereavement Services; Pre-Death Bereavement Intervention; Open and Closed Support groups; Routine Bereavement Follow-up of Hospice families; Quarterly Nursing Home Staff Support groups; Widow/Widower Brunch Social; opportunities to educate the community about Death/Dying; and data collection for Bereavement Needs.
Villareal, F L
This article describes the Women's Population and Development (WPD) program among rural women in 35 poor counties in 10 provinces in China in 1988. The provinces included Xinjiang, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Guizhou, Hubei, and Anhui, which are mostly located in the arid northwest or pastoral northeast China. The study area is inclined to have harsh agro-ecological conditions and environmental degradation. Women's income ranges from RMB 350 to 650 Yuan. About 35% were literate. 40-50% of the rural agricultural labor force and about 60% of all farm labor were women. Out migration of men was increasing. This WPD program was supported by the Ministry of Foreign Technical and Economic Cooperation, the UNFPA, and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization. The program aim is to use alternative family planning strategies, alleviate poverty, and improve rural women's status. Initial discussions revealed different goals among rural women and county leaders. Women wanted direct access and control over resources. County leaders desired increased productivity among a selected number of small scale enterprises. The project stipulated that 80% of funding was to be allocated as credit for rural women, that a revolving fund would give women direct access and control of resources, and that women would be recognized for their dual roles. Partnerships were formed between women's voluntary groups and project management. Prospective members of women's self-help groups received a 60-70 hour workshop. This workshop helped to identity the root causes of low status and feasible approaches to improving the status and to developed program activities. Counties were gradually included during 1990-93. This program evaluation pertains to analysis of 1994-95 data among 1300 respondents at four points in time. Impact indicators include 18 measures. The most important measure is that women gained control over their own lives and a partnership with husbands. The program
Chrisman, Matthew; Nothwehr, Faryle; Yang, Ginger; Oleson, Jacob
Qualitative research can be used to examine multiple factors associated with physical activity and help practitioners identify language used by the rural adult population when discussing this behavior. Three focus groups were conducted among 19 residents of multiple towns in a rural Midwestern county to examine the language and influences on rural physical activity. Focus group members were asked to define physical activity, exercise, community, and neighborhood. They were asked about the activities they engaged in and facilitators and barriers to those activities. A guidebook was developed to capture major themes and common patterns that emerged in the responses to the topics discussed. The data were reviewed for repeated statements and points that were agreed on by multiple participants. Important factors associated with physical activity include the importance of social support and modeling physical activity behavior. Also, the influence of pets and children was important for engaging these adults in physical activity. The focus group members engaged in walking and bicycling in their neighborhood streets and community trails, and desired to see community buildings be open to the public for exercise. This study revealed contextual issues and culturally relevant language for practitioners to use in tailoring physical activity measurement tools or designing interventions for a rural adult population. Social support (specifically, seeing others being active and using pets as motivators for being active) and policy attitudes may be targeted for interventions to increase physical activity in rural adults.
Dunford, C.; Mouat, D. A.; Norton-Griffiths, M.; Slaymaker, D. M.
Multilevel remote-sensing techniques were combined to provide land resource and land-use information for rural development planning in Arusha Region, Tanzania. Enhanced Landsat imagery, supplemented by low-level aerial survey data, slope angle data from topographic sheets, and existing reports on vegetation and soil conditions, was used jointly by image analysts and district-level land-management officials to divide the region's six districts into land-planning units. District-planning officials selected a number of these land-planning units for priority planning and development activities. For the priority areas, natural color aerial photographs provided detailed information for land-use planning discussions between district officials and villagers. Consideration of the efficiency of this remote sensing approach leads to general recommendations for similar applications. The technology and timing of data collection and interpretation activities should allow maximum participation by intended users of the information.
Finsterbusch, Kurt; And Others
Examines the job-generating activities in 15 rural counties in Maryland through 175 interviews and field work. Those ranking high included industrial park development, economic development activities, and tourism. Special financial arrangements for relocating and new businesses also received high marks. Includes 48 references. (JOW)
Ever since the collapse of the once successful Rural Cooperative Medical System (RCMS) in the early 1980s, when China transformed its system of collective agricultural production to private production, many rural communities, especially the poorer residents, have faced several major problems. In 1993, insurance coverage for rural residents was already low, at 12.8%. By 1998, only 9.5% of the rural population was insured. User charges have effectively blocked access for many rural residents who lack adequate income to purchase basic health care when needed. Impoverishment due to medical expenses is also a serious problem, which begs the question: why has there been no vigorous development of the rural health insurance system in China despite the country's rapid economic growth? This paper analyzes the major underlying reasons for the lack of rural health insurance in China. We found that lack of demand for the voluntary community financing schemes and inadequate government policies are the two major hindrances. Recently, the Chinese government announced a new rural health financing policy that relies on 'matching-funds' by the central and local governments as well as household contributions. The potential for success of this new model might be inferred from China's past experiences, as well as from the pilot projects that are underway.
Recent studies on obesity rates show alarming increases across the entire population. Some of these studies indicate higher rates of obesity in rural populations than urban and suburban populations. Obesity in children in rural places also outpaces their suburban and urban counterparts. Although a number of factors account for these differences, public health professionals and researchers have begun to recognize that conventional development patterns and land use policies in rural areas are playing an important role in the trend. Smart growth alternatives to current rural development patterns also support broad public health goals. Rural communities across America face a number of challenges, yet many are using smart growth development strategies to turn the challenges into opportunities. These strategies are structured in a way that builds on broadly held values in rural communities, ones that build upon the traditional development pattern and support multiple community goals. Public health professionals, managers, and academics will benefit from this discussion because it will explain the strategies that rural decision makers, planners, and citizens are adopting to create places that support multiple community goals including a built environment that sustains and promotes active living.
"Regional disequilibria in the distribution of population lead in many developing countries to migration flows which cannot always be equated with flight from the land or drift to the cities. In diverse countries rural-rural migration is even supported by the state. This rural migration leaves a decisive mark not only on the regional development of the areas from which emigration takes place but also on the absorbing areas. The following article examines the costs and benefits for both [using the example of Indonesia]."
Borden-Ballard, Elaine M.; Sinclair, Glenn Wm.
Drawing on the experience of a 21-year mentoring relationship between two rural school administrators, this paper describes 11 components of an effective working mentorship. These elements are: establishing the relationship, the communications process, setting goals, determining skills, time commitment, broadening the protege's horizons,…
D'Alonzo, Bruno J.; Giordano, Gerard
Discusses principles of rural transitional programs for disabled students and strategies for prevocational training such as career visitors, career field trips, career day fair, career bulletin boards, career learning centers, and career aptitude inventories. Discusses strategies for supplementing school programs with community and home-based…
Williams, Lee L.; Lindsey, Maria Julietta
Throughout Pennsylvania, rural residents have taken on leadership roles to support and promote their communities and their residents. The challenges these leaders face continue to become more complex, as economic, political, social, cultural and even global forces influence local events. This research was conducted to understand how a sample of…
Olson, Erin A.; Mullen, Sean P.; Rogers, Laura Q.; Courneya, Kerry S.; Verhulst, Steven; McAuley, Edward
Objectives To examine contribution of social cognitive constructs to meeting physical activity (PA) recommendations in rural breast cancer survivors (BCS). Methods Rural BCS (N = 483) completed a mail-based survey. PA, fatigue, barriers and exercise self-efficacy, environment, social support, and perceived barriers to PA were assessed. PA was dichotomized into either meeting guidelines (150+minutes/week) or not. Results Our model fit the data well with less fatigue, greater efficacy, and lower barriers being associated with PA (χ²=804.532(418), p < .001, CFI=.948, RMSEA=.044, SRMR=.046). Conclusions Fatigue, self-efficacy, and perceived barriers are key targets for future interventions designed to increase PA in rural BCS. Enhancing self-efficacy and overcoming barriers will require strategies unique and relevant to BCS living in rural settings. PMID:25341266
The Community Development Employment Projects (CDEP) scheme provides funds to help Indigenous communities in rural and remote Australia provide employment, skills development, and various essential and desirable municipal services. However, there is room to improve the range and quality of employment and community development activities available.…
... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel... of Certain Rural Development Programs § 1940.968 Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel... associated with a State rural economic development review panel. (b) Objective. The objective of the...
Manner, Jane Carol; Rodriguez, Diane
This study reports the progress of a project in a teacher education program designed to deliver professional development to rural teachers through an online format addressing ESOL (English for speakers of other languages). Funded by a Professional Development Grant from the OELA (Office of English Language Acquisition) of the United States…
Moore, Justin B.; Davis, Catherine L.; Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Lewis, Richard D.; Yin, Zenong
Background: Research suggests significant health differences between rural dwelling youth and their urban counterparts with relation to cardiovascular risk factors. This study was conducted to (1) determine relationships between physical activity and markers of metabolic syndrome, and (2) to explore factors relating to physical activity in a…
... the Under Secretary for Rural Development § 2.45 Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Economic and... Under Secretary for Rural Economic and Community Development, to be exercised only during the absence or... may hereafter be delegated to the Under Secretary for Rural Economic and Community Development....
Mitchell, R E
This article examines various environmental alternatives within the context of forest resource-dependent communities of the State of Oaxaca, Mexico. Two main objectives were to describe particular rural development routes among different Mexican communities, and to explain why certain environmental options for rural development are selected over others. While many communities choose either sustainable or illegal logging options in Oaxaca, some may decide against logging of any kind. Four principal forest-based community categories, according to a government forest classification scheme, are discussed in the context of environmental alternatives for this article. Based on this typology, two "integrated forest management" communities in the Sierra Norte of Oaxaca are described and compared. One community's decision not to log within a shared land arrangement has caused significant tensions in the region. Key findings illustrate the extent to which rural communities can make appropriate environmental decisions and examines their effects on environmental and social sustainability. Increased rural involvement in environmental decision-making is called for, since rural residents are those most likely to appreciate nearby natural resources as a source of sustainable livelihoods. It is expected that this research may be applicable to rural areas of other countries.
Pant, Laxmi Prasad
Purpose: The fields of competence development and capacity development remain isolated in the scholarship of learning and innovation despite the contemporary focus on innovation systems thinking in agricultural and rural development. This article aims to address whether and how crossing the conventional boundaries of these two fields provide new…
Crawford, Robert H.
There is a wide range of communication needs in rural development programs, including the need to develop comprehensive communication strategies for program fulfillment. Such strategies call for communication specialists whose expertise transcends the "information" role and includes the whole process of development. This process must not neglect…
Bruno, A. Lee; Wright, L. M., Jr.
This study examines how jobs are created in rural areas by or with the help of Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) programs involved with local economic development activities. It consists of five chapters. Chapter 1 reviews literature pertinent to the historical perspective and key elements of economic development, economic…
Navaratnam, Kathiravelu K.
Relevent, locally-controlled educational programs play key roles in rural development in developing nations. Education has a desirable controlling influence over development of the rural individual, family, community, and society, leading to reduced poverty, income equity, and controlled unemployment. The failure of trickle-down development and…
Holub, Jonathan D.
Rural community colleges have an important role to play in the economic development of their communities and in preparing community members for technological, economic, and societal changes. Community-based programming (CBP) is one tool utilized by colleges to become aware of local problems by collaborating with citizens, leaders, and…
Ku, J.; Baring-Gould, E. I.; Stroup, K.
This paper provides a description of current work to promote and support the developing market for renewable (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) technologies in China. Since the signing of the US/China Protocol for Cooperation in the Fields of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Technology Development and Utilization in 1995, NREL has helped to promote RE and EE technologies, specifically rural energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, and renewable energy business development, in addition to more general policy and planning support. This paper focuses on NREL's work in support of the $240 million Township Electrification Program, which is providing power to over 1000 rural communities using renewable based energy sources.
PURPOSE Epidemic levels of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease are rampant in the largely rural Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region of Mississippi. We assessed the effectiveness of a six-month, church-based, diet and physical activity (PA) intervention for improving diet quality (as ...
Matsuda, Sandra; Donaldson, Joe F.
The information-seeking activity (ISA) of 16 rural health practitioners (occupational, physical, and respiratory therapists; radiological technologists; speech/language pathologists; and nurses) was explored using qualitative methods of participant observation, document collection, and in-depth interviews. Field notes and documents were collected…
Reed, Debra B.; Patterson, Patti J.; Wasserman, Nicole
Contributors to excessive obesity in rural youth include well-documented nutrition and physical activity behaviors. However, emerging research suggests that preventing excessive weight gain and smoking during pregnancy, teen pregnancy, and child abuse also could reduce obesity in this vulnerable population. These traditional and emerging,…
Reed, Debra B; Patterson, Patti J; Wasserman, Nicole
Contributors to excessive obesity in rural youth include well-documented nutrition and physical activity behaviors. However, emerging research suggests that preventing excessive weight gain and smoking during pregnancy, teen pregnancy, and child abuse also could reduce obesity in this vulnerable population. These traditional and emerging, nontraditional factors need to be addressed within the confines of current challenges faced by rural communities. An enhanced ecological model provides a framework for combining traditional and nontraditional factors into a more comprehensive approach that addresses the complexity of the issues contributing to youth obesity.
Madden, J. Patrick
The land grant universities have, for the most part, performed the organizational and procedural processes stipulated by Title V of the Rural Development Act of 1972 and have succeeded in helping rural people satisfy high priority needs, thereby demonstrating that Title V is a valid approach to rural development. The three-year pilot period,…
Willis, Evan; Burns, Edgar
An informal research project with high local relevance was developed for a first-year sociology course at an Australian rural university campus. The project developed students' sociological insight by challenging them to investigate "truths" about their own region, rather than immediately pushing them to comprehend new and different…
McLean, Edward L.; Colclough, Glenna
To determine degree of local support for industrialization as a means of rural economic development, leaders and influentials in three South Carolina counties were interviewed in 1977. Each was asked to define "development" and to list and rank three aspects of his county he especially liked and its most important needs or problems.…
Axinn, George H.; Axinn, Nancy W.
This book aims to provide practical information and insights to practitioners involved in collaborative international development programs. It draws on literature and the authors' many years of field experience to combine theory and practical tools as a guide to action in the field. The introduction defines concepts in rural development, outlines…
Black, Maureen M.; Baqui, Abdullah H.; Zaman, K.; McNary, Scot W.; Le, Katherine; El Arifeen, Shams; Hamadani, Jena D.; Parveen, Monowara; Yunus, Md.; Black, Robert E.
Objective: To examine how maternal depressive symptoms are related to infant development among low-income infants in rural Bangladesh and to examine how the relationship is affected by maternal perceptions of infant irritability and observations of caregiving practices. Methods: Development was measured among 221 infants at 6 and 12 months with…
Boggia, Antonio; Rocchi, Lucia; Paolotti, Luisa; Musotti, Francesco; Greco, Salvatore
Rural Development is a priority in Europe and it is supported by specific, financial programmes. At the same time, sustainability is the key word for the European Union to construct programmes and policies for all human activities. However, measuring sustainability of rural areas is not easy, due to their particular features. The improvement of knowledge on sustainability in rural areas is important to build long term policies and strategies for those territories. The objective of this study is the development of a decision support system based on the Dominance-based Rough Set Approach (DRSA), to assess the level of Rural Sustainable Development in specific areas. We used DRSA to analyze the level of sustainability of the 92 municipalities of the Region of Umbria, Italy. The results were synthesized in a final ranking, taking into account the equilibrium and the integration between development and sustainability of each municipality. DRSA showed a high potential in the context of management or planning, and for supporting Decision Makers. DRSA is able to give a ranking as well as an explanation of the main factors driving sustainable development in rural areas.
National Area Development Inst., Rockport, TX.
One of a series, this handbook is designed to assist individuals involved in area development to gain knowledge and understanding of the public and private sources of funds for support of various area development activities. National, regional, and local private sector sources of development capital are examined to give an overview of business…
Bender, Lloyd D.; And Others
Effective rural development planning depends on facts and analysis based, not on rural averages, but on the diverse social and economic structure of rural America. Programs tailored to particular types of rural economies may be more effective than generalized programs. Because of their unique characteristics, government policies and economic…
Deavers, Kenneth L.; And Others
A paper examining recent changes in the social and economic development of rural America--with comments by a different author--and a paper discussing rural policy comprise this workshop collection. Placing the changes of the 1970s in a broader historical perspective and developing a general framework within which to consider the influence of…
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).
Focus of this 1976 journal on agricultural and rural development education is how to deal with the shortage of trained manpower which is an obstacle to large-scale rural development efforts. The journal's theme is that a broader approach must be made to generate adequate numbers of trained manpower--all types of nonformal education (agricultural…
Aghajanian, A; Mehryar, A H; Ahmadnia, S; Kazemipour, S
By 1979 50 years of uneven development and modernization by governments prior to the Islamic Revolution had left rural parts of the Islamic Republic of Iran with extremely low economic and health status. This paper reports on the impact of the rural health development programme implemented as an effective and inexpensive way to improve the heath of the rural population, especially mothers and children. It describes the system of rural health centres, health houses and community health workers (behvarz) and demonstrates the effectiveness of the programme through declining measures of rural-urban disparities in health indicators. The implications of inexpensive rural health policies for other countries in the region such as Afghanistan and Central Asian countries with a similar sociocultural structure are discussed.
There is a paucity of research into the development of intersectoral collaborations designed to support early childhood development in rural communities. Drawing on findings from a qualitative study conducted in three small rural communities in Tasmania, this paper will examine community-based intersectoral collaborations involving government and non-government organisations from the health and allied health, education and community service sectors. The paper analyses the process of developing intersectoral collaborations from the perspective of early childhood health and wellbeing. The specific focus is on collaborations that build family and community capacity. Findings indicate that three groups of factors operate interdependently to influence collaborations: social capital, leadership and environmental factors. Each community has different leadership sources, structures and processes, shaped by levels of community social capital, and by environmental factors such as policy and resources. Effective models of early childhood development require strong local and external leadership. Rural communities that are able to identify and harness the skills, knowledge and resources of internal and external leaders are well positioned to take greater ownership of their own health and wellbeing. The paper provides guidelines for developing and enhancing the capacity of rural communities at different stages of collaborative readiness.
Cordes, S M
Author summarizes today's changing rural America and the challenges that health services researchers and policymakers face in relating the rural environment to the problems and possibilities of rural health services delivery. PMID:2917874
Morris, C. S.
Gives advice on starting up a small printing unit in rural areas for use with adult education activities. Among the items discussed are: (1) resources needed, (2) staffing requirements, (3) equipment, (4) materials production, (5) financing, and (6) future development. (LLS)
Gurwitt, Rob; Kimel, Kris
A 1996 workshop held in Harrodsburg, Kentucky, explored the challenge of creating an entrepreneurial economy in predominantly rural states such as Kentucky with little or no history of widespread entrepreneurial activity. Traditional approaches to economic development in such states, such as spending on relocation incentives for out-of-state…
Dunne, Faith; And Others
The field-tested packet has been designed to adapt the rural high school career development and life planning curriculum to the Northeast region of the United States. Selected pages and simulation activities from Units I-IV of the curriculum have been rewritten to reflect the area; the majority of the examples are from Vermont and New Hampshire.…
Byerlee, Derek; Eicher, Carl K.
Employment problems in Africa were examined with special emphasis on rural employment and migration within the context of overall economic development. A framework was provided for analyzing rural employment in development; that framework was used to analyze empirical information from Africa; and theoretical issues were raised in analyzing rural…
Xiao, Rui; Jiang, Diwei; Christakos, George; Fei, Xufeng; Wu, Jiaping
Soil sealing (loss of soil resources due to extensive land covering for the purpose of house building, road construction etc.) and subsequent soil landscape pattern changes constitute typical environmental problems in many places worldwide. Previous studies concentrated on soil sealing in urbanized regions, whereas rural areas have not been given sufficient attention. Accordingly, this paper studies soil landscape pattern dynamics (i.e., landscape pattern changes in response to rural anthropogenic activities) in the Tiaoxi watershed (Zhejiang province, eastern China), in which surface sealing is by far the predominant component of human forcing with respect to environmental change. A novel approach of quantifying the impacts of rural anthropogenic activities on soil resources is presented. Specifically, quantitative relationships were derived between five soil landscape pattern metrics (patch density, edge density, shape index, Shannon’s diversity index and aggregation index) and three rural anthropogenic activity indicators (anthropogenic activity intensity, distance to towns, and distance to roads) at two landscape block scales (3 and 5 km) between 1985 and 2010. The results showed that the Tiaoxi watershed experienced extensive rural settlement expansion and high rates of soil sealing. Soil landscapes became more fragmented, more irregular, more isolated, and less diverse. Relationships between soil landscape pattern changes and rural anthropogenic activities differed with the scale (spatial and temporal) and variable considered. In particular, the anthropogenic activity intensity was found to be the most important indicator explaining social development intensity, whereas the other two proximity indicators had a significant impact at certain temporal interval. In combination with scale effects, spatial dependency (correlation) was shown to play a key role that should be carefully taken into consideration in any relevant environmental study. Overall, the
Using the Biomedical Sciences Preparatory Program (BioPrep) for illustration, this paper discusses an approach to educational improvement through the development of curriculum that emphasizes experiential learning and the involvement of students in real-life problems. Opening sections describe BioPrep, a program designed to prepare rural high…
Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State, MS.
Designed to help researchers pinpoint other professionals whose work might relate to their own, this publication includes the names, addresses, and areas of research of nearly 200 persons involved with research related to the needs of rural development in the Southern region. The researchers listed are from the following states: Alabama, Arkansas,…
Youmans, Russell C.
Rural development is a democratic process involving local people in the analysis of their problems. It requires involvement from public and private organizations to deliver technical information, education, resources, organization, and other forms of tangible support. Diversity of lifestyles, changing energy costs, small inexpensive computers, and…
Malawi is one of the poorest countries in the world (World Bank, 2014). Yet, our experiences working with rural schools suggest that the Malawi education system may be far ahead of many developed nations, including the United States, in terms of their practical and philosophical commitment to inclusive education for all children, including…
Pehrsson, Robert S.; Mook, John E.
Because of fewer human resources, teachers in rural schools have to assume a larger responsibility for their own curriculum development than do teachers in city schools. There is a need for a curriculum specialist to get into a situation quickly, to assess the problem, and to solve the problem quickly in order to move to another problem. In rural…
This article establishes the benefits of applying renewable energy and analyzes the main difficulties that have stood in the way of more widely successful renewable energy for rural areas in the developing world and discusses why outcomes from these technologies fall short. Although there is substantial recognition of technological, economic,…
Tregear, Angela; Arfini, Filippo; Belletti, Giovanni; Marescotti, Andrea
Qualification schemes have become popular tools for supporting regional foods, yet little is understood about the impacts they have on the rural development contribution of such foods. Qualification processes may stimulate new networks and community actions, but they may also be incompatible with strategies of extended territorial development…
Goos, Merrilyn; Dole, Shelley; Geiger, Vince
In Australia, concerns about the quality of mathematics education that students experience are particularly salient in rural schools. These schools typically report great difficulty in attracting and retaining qualified teachers of mathematics. Teachers in non-metropolitan locations may also experience professional isolation if they have limited access to professional development opportunities. This article reports on a year-long research and development project that provided such opportunities to teachers in ten rural and metropolitan schools in South Australia. Its purpose was to help the teachers plan and implement numeracy strategies across the school curriculum. The project was informed by a new model of numeracy whose elements comprise mathematical knowledge, dispositions, tools, contexts, and a critical orientation to the use of mathematics. To investigate the effectiveness of the numeracy model and the professional development approach, data were collected via lesson observations, teacher and student interviews, and written tasks that tracked changes over time in teachers' understanding of numeracy. Most teachers began the project with a concern for improving students' mathematical knowledge or dispositions, but then gradually incorporated other elements of the model into their planning and practice. A case study of an early career teacher in a rural school illustrates one developmental trajectory through the elements of the model. Teachers identified time, openness, collegiality, and accountability as features of the professional development approach that contributed to its effectiveness. Implications for sustainability and scaling up are discussed, especially with reference to supporting teachers in rural schools.
This case study examines the interaction between basic education (primary education, adult literacy, and nonformal adult education) and economic development needs in rural Zhuji County, Zhejiang Province, located in southeast China. In Zhuji, parents traditionally have endured hardships to send their children to school and otherwise encouraged…
McEwan, Patrick J.
Monetary and nonmonetary incentives for rural teacher recruitment are common in developing-country education systems. This paper interprets incentive policies within the framework of the economic theory of compensating differentials, clarifying implicit assumptions of incentive policies and aids in organizing further empirical work on their…
Dreher, Melanie; Hudgins, Rebekah
Using field-based observations and standardized measures of the home environment and child development, the authors followed 59 rural Jamaican women and their offspring from birth to age 5. The findings suggest that conjugal multiplicity, a female reproductive pattern characterized by multiple unions, maternal unmarried status, and absent father,…
Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State, MS.
Since 1974 the Southern Rural Development Center (SRDC) has provided support staff for capacity building and innovative programming for the experiment stations and extension services of 28 land-grant universities in 13 southern states and Puerto Rico. The Center exists to provide the best possible information and assistance to extension and…
Culpepper, Maribeth; And Others
Respite care provides relief or backup emergency care for families of individuals who are developmentally disabled. In sparsely populated rural areas, center-based urban models for service delivery and provider recruitment and training may be inappropriate. Las Cumbres Learning Services has developed a model for provision of respite care services…
Pino, Ricardo, Comp.
Designed to inform the public of rural development programs and services in the State of New Mexico, this directory presents over 100 program summaries, providing mailing addresses and telephone numbers and naming the agency, the specific program thrust, the Officer in Charge, and other contacts. Both an alphabetical and functional index are…
Belyaeva, Galina I.; Ermoshkina, Ekaterina N.; Sukhinina, Veronika V.; Starikova, Lyudmila D.; Pecherskaya, Evelina P.
On the one hand, the relevance of the studied issue is determined by growing lag of rural territorial units in socioeconomic development, and one the other by their significance in such important aspects of the country, as ensuring food supply security, preservation of the available land, production, ecological, demographic and human potential.…
Atchoarena, David, Ed.; Gasperini, Lavinia, Ed.
An international joint study by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and UNESCO's International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP) was conducted on education and rural development to review the status of the topic from the standpoint of public policies and the conceptual frameworks on which they are based and…
...] [FR Doc No: 2012-25195] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Rural Health Network Development Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Non-competitive Replacement Award to Siloam Springs Regional...
Velasco-Barraza, Carlos; Muller, Douglas
Using the Self-Descriptive Inventory, compares development of self-concept, self-esteem, self-ideal in physical maturity, peer relations, academic success, school adaptiveness in 50 rural children (Hatch, New Mexico) and 50 urban children (Las Cruces New Mexico). Finds negative patterns in academic success and school adaptiveness more pronounced…
Meeting the Millennium Development Goals will necessarily require a heavy focus on rural areas, where most of the world's poor are to be found. More specifically, policy will need to raise the productivity of this group, which includes farmers, wage labourers and those suffering from disease and malnutrition. Yet, at present, no index exists which…
Reeder, William J.; And Others
This report traces the historical development of federal housing policy that has promoted a 40% decline in substandard housing and a 20% increase in homeownership over the past 50 years. It presents emerging national and rural housing policy concerns: the proper role of federal, state, and local governments in the mortgage credit and insurance…
McIntyre, Marilyn N.; Madden, J. Patrick
Work plans and questionnaires completed by program leaders supplied information for this directory, which describes 900 projects initiated by the 50 states and Puerto Rico under Title V of the 1972 Rural Development Act; it includes a personnel index and a detailed subject index. The entries, arranged alphabetically by state, include a map of…
Eddy, Pamela L.
Pending retirements underscore the need to develop community college campus leaders. Rural community colleges will be particularly hard-hit by changes in leadership as they represent the majority of 2-year colleges and face unique challenges given their location. To help address the anticipated leadership transition, the American Association of…
Department of Agriculture Graduate School, Washington, DC.
This report addresses current economic conditions in rural America and offers recommendations about the role the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) can play in providing rural development. The Task Force identifies issues for rural policy in the 1990's focusing on economic development. Current rural programs are described and…
... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true State rural economic development review panel. 1940... Rural Development Programs § 1940.956 State rural economic development review panel. (a) General. In... responsible for economic and community development or the person designated by the director to serve on...
... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards for the Rural Capacity Building for Community... Community Planning and Development, HUD. ACTION: Announcement of funding awards. SUMMARY: In accordance with... the 2012 Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for the Rural Capacity Building for...
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).
Fifteen papers on aspects of education and training for agriculture and rural development are contained in this journal for 1977. Several deal with the rising need for more direct participation by the farmers, landless workers, foresters, and fishermen for whom rural education and training systems are designed to supplement traditional types of…
Culp, Elzie Lynn
Surprise Valley Electric, a small rural electric cooperative serving northeast California and southern Oregon, developed a 3mw binary geothermal electric generating plant on a cooperative member's ranch. The geothermal resource had been discovered in 1980 when the ranch was developing supplemental irrigation water wells. The 240°F resource was used for irrigation until developed through this project for generation of electricity. A portion of the spent geothermal fluid is now used for irrigation in season and is available for other purposes, such as greenhouse agriculture, aquaculture and direct heating of community buildings. Surprise Valley Electric describes many of the challenges a small rural electric cooperative encountered and managed to develop a geothermal generating plant.
van Crowder, L.; Lindley, W. I.; Bruening, T. H.; Doron, N.
Agricultural education institutions in developing countries must address immediate production needs as well as food security, sustainable agricultural, and rural development needs. This will mean moving to an interdisciplinary, systems approach that incorporates new topics. (Author/JOW)
North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2011
The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development (NCRCRD) is one of four regional centers in the United States that have worked to improve the quality of life in rural communities for nearly 40 years. With funding from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the land-grant universities in our 12-state region, the NCRCRD…
Vejarano, Gilberto M.; And Others
This booklet presents the ideas that came out of the Regional Meeting for Adult Literacy and Rural Development. The meeting took place in September 1981 at the Regional Center for Adult Education and Functional Literacy for Latin America (CREFAL) in Mexico. Basically, a discussion of adult literacy in the rural areas of Latin America is presented.…
Rowley, Thomas D., Ed.; And Others
This book addresses the need for research information that can be used as a foundation for rural development policy. Part I deals with the four components of rural development: education (human capital), entrepreneurship, physical infrastructure, and social infrastructure. Part II examines analytic methods of measuring rural development efforts,…
...: (1) A description of the rural development project and the type of investment to be made, such as a... borrower is committed to provide to the rural development project including investments that may be... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rural development investments that do not meet...
... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false The Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-419). 22... General § 22.101 The Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-419). The Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-419), herein called the Act consists of six titles designed to facilitate the...
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.
The report of a regional seminar on rural development planning specifies as its objectives: to study the problems of rural development planning, and to elucidate training requirements for managers of rural development projects, with particular reference to the links between education and productive work and employment. The first chapter gives…
Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State.
The Southern Rural Development Center (SRDC) seeks to strengthen the capacity of the region's 29 land-grant institutions to address critical, contemporary rural development issues impacting the well-being of people and communities in the rural South. Work force development, education, leadership training, food security, civic engagement, urban…
Hyatt, George, Jr.; And Others
Serving primarily as a policy group for local Rural Development Panels, the North Carolina Rural Development Committee's major objective for 1976 is to work with local leaders, private businesses and governmental agencies at all levels in planning and implementing comprehensive rural development programs. Specifically, the Committee's objectives…
Galston, William A.; Baehler, Karen J.
This book synthesizes and analyzes much of the theoretical and practical literature on rural economic development and related issues from the past two decades with the aim of initiating construction of a new model for U.S. rural development policy. Part I emphasizes the national and global context within which U.S. rural development must take…
Rampp, Lary; Johnson, Deke
This paper offers definitions and descriptions, and explores the dynamics, of "strategic grantseeking" as a means of supporting economic development programs. Strategic grantseeking is a natural and dynamic tool usable with any economic development program. It consists of a set of concepts, procedures, and tools which are integrated into…
Background Nonrandom sampling of populations in developing nations has limitations and can inaccurately estimate health phenomena, especially among hard-to-reach populations such as rural residents. However, random sampling of rural populations in developing nations can be challenged by incomplete enumeration of the base population. Methods We describe a stratified random sampling method using geographical information system (GIS) software and global positioning system (GPS) technology for application in a health survey in a rural region of Guatemala, as well as a qualitative study of the enumeration process. Results This method offers an alternative sampling technique that could reduce opportunities for bias in household selection compared to cluster methods. However, its use is subject to issues surrounding survey preparation, technological limitations and in-the-field household selection. Application of this method in remote areas will raise challenges surrounding the boundary delineation process, use and translation of satellite imagery between GIS and GPS, and household selection at each survey point in varying field conditions. This method favors household selection in denser urban areas and in new residential developments. Conclusions Random spatial sampling methodology can be used to survey a random sample of population in a remote region of a developing nation. Although this method should be further validated and compared with more established methods to determine its utility in social survey applications, it shows promise for use in developing nations with resource-challenged environments where detailed geographic and human census data are less available. PMID:24716473
Purpose: To describe the development and application of an evidence-based Rural Health Framework to guide rural health program, policy and service planning. Methods: A literature review of rural health programs, focusing on health promotion, chronic disease prevention and population health, was conducted using several bibliographic databases. Findings: Thirty papers met the criteria for review, describing chronic disease interventions and public health policies in rural settings. Twenty-one papers demonstrated effective intervention programs and highlighted potential good practices for rural health programs, which were used to define key elements of a Rural Health Framework. Conclusions: The Rural Health Framework was applied to an influenza immunization program to demonstrate its utility in assisting public health providers to increase uptake of the vaccine. This Rural Health Framework provides an opportunity for program planners to reflect on the key issues facing rural communities to ensure the development of policies and strategies that will prudently and effectively meet population health needs. PMID:23968625
Boumaza, S.; Gara, A.
Better organization of the agricultural sector, expansion of production capabilities, increased employment, satisfaction of the country's needs, and improved productivity are the guidelines considered in the planning and development of the agricultural vocational training system in Algeria. Charts illustrate and clarify the organization of this…
This study tests the hypothesis that rural development projects and programs reduce rural-urban migration. The author presents various factors in the social theories of migration, including those relating to origin and destination, intervening obstacles such as distance, and personal factors. 3 economic models of migration are the human capital or cost-benefit approach, the expected income model, and the intersectoral linkage model. Empirical studies of migration indicate that: 1) rural areas with high rates of out-migration tend to have high population densities or high ratios of labor to arable land, 2) distance inhibits migration, 3) rural-urban migration is positively correlated with family income level, and 4) selectivity differences in socioeconomic status between migrants and nonmigrants often are grouped into development packages which might include irrigation, new varieties of seed, subsidized credit, increased extension, and improved marketing arrangements. The migration impacts of some of these efforts are described: 1) land reform usually is expected to slow rural out-migration because it normally increases labor utilization in rural areas, but this is a limited effect, 2) migration effects of the Green Revolution technology are mainly in rural-rural migration, and 3) agricultural mechanization may stimulate rural-urban migration in the long run. Development of rural social services migh have various effects on rural-urban migration. Better rural education, which improves the chances of urban employment, will stimulate rural-urban migration, while successful rural family planning programs will have a negative effect in the long run as there will be reduced population pressure on arable land. Better rural health services might reduce the incentive for rural-urban migration as well. It is suggested that governments reconsider policies which rely on rural development to curb rural-urban migration and alleviate problems of urban poverty and underemployment.
Webster, J. Matthew; Dickson, Megan F.; Saman, Daniel M.; Mateyoke-Scrivner, Allison; Oser, Carrie B.; Leukefeld, Carl
Differences between violent and nonviolent probationers were examined in the growing, yet understudied, rural probation population. Violent rural probationers had higher rates of substance use, criminal activity, and mental health symptoms than did nonviolent rural probationers. Implications for practitioners are discussed. (Contains 3 tables.)
... Bureau of Reclamation Draft Report Assessing Rural Water Activities and Related Programs AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The draft Rural Water Assessment Report reviews the status of the Bureau of Reclamation's rural potable water projects and its plan...
... investment shall be the total amount of funds committed to the rural development project as of the date of... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishing amount of rural development investment... INSURED TELEPHONE LOANS Borrower Investments § 1744.203 Establishing amount of rural...
Miller, Michael T.; Deggs, David
Rural community colleges have an often understated impact on the communities they serve, especially in regard to their role in developing the identity of individuals. The ability of the rural community college to influence individual identity development is often exasperated due to the challenges associated with rural American life. The role of…
New York State Legislative Commission on Rural Resources, Albany.
Participants in a symposium on economic development in rural New York State analyzed existing strengths and weaknesses of the state's rural areas and made policy suggestions relating to three broad goals: (1) ease government constraints on rural businesses in order to encourage growth and development; (2) build on and strengthen the positive…
Background Recruiting and retaining healthcare professionals (HCPs) for rural areas is challenging throughout the world. Although rural origin HCPs have been identified as being the most likely to work in rural areas, only a small number of rural-origin South African scholars are trained as HCPs each year and many do not return to work in rural areas. Aim The aim of this article was to present the experiences of rural-origin HCPs who returned to work in a rural area after graduation. Setting Umthombo Youth Development Foundation has been running an innovating rurally-based scholarship scheme since 1999. By December 2013, 184 students supported by the scheme had graduated and all had returned to work in a rural area for a period of time. Methods This was a qualitative study using a life history methodology to explore the educational experience of six rural-origin HCPs working in rural areas. Results The four themes that emerged from the data were: (1) contribution to service delivery; (2) professional development (3) the challenges and frustrations of working in rural hospitals; and (4) the impact of working as an HCP. Conclusion Rural-origin HCPs are willing to return and work in rural areas. However, context and content factors need to be addressed if a work-back scholarship scheme is to be a long-term strategy for the recruitment and retention of HCPs. PMID:26245423
Bishop, C. E.; And Others
The problems and advantages of locating industry in a rural setting were discussed in this conference report. The 10 individual speeches covered: changes in employment and the labor force; problems and advantages of rural locations, rural labor, and site selection; the importance of involving the Black community; the nature of the food processing…
Miller, Michael T.; Tuttle, Courtney C.
Rural America, in direct competition with growing suburban and urban America, has struggled to maintain a high quality of life. Rural out-migration levels are high, as are poverty and illiteracy rates. Rural community colleges have worked to defend and expand opportunities in rural settings, yet face their own challenges tied to resources,…
Craig, L.; Stillings, L. L.; Decker, D.; Thomas, J.
In northern Ghana, groundwater is the main source of household water and is generally considered a safe and economical source of drinking water. However in some areas it contains fluoride (F-) concentrations above the 1.5 ppm limit recommended by the World Health Organization, putting the users at risk of fluorosis. The study area in the Upper East Region of northern Ghana has pockets of groundwater F- up to 4.6 ppm and, as a result, also has a high percentage of residents with dental fluorosis. They have no alternative water source and, because of the poverty and limited access to technology, the affected community lacks the capacity to set up advanced treatment systems. One proposed solution is to attach F- adsorption filters to the wells, since adsorption is considered a simple and cost effective approach for treating high F- drinking water. This study evaluates activated alumina as a sorbent for use in de-fluoridation filters in the study area. We evaluated the long-term adsorption capacity of activated alumina, as well as potential changes in F- adsorption rate and capacity with grain size. We measured differences in positive surface charge (as C m-2) via slow acid titration, as well as F- loading with varied prior hydration time. Experimental results from this research show no notable change in F- adsorption or positive surface charge when the activated alumina surface was pre-equilibrated in distilled water from 24 hours up to 30 weeks before the experiment. The results of F- loading show a maximum of ~3.4 mg F- sorbed per gm activated alumina (at initial pH ~6.9, initial F- 1 to 60 ppm, and 20 hr reaction time). The pH dependent surface charge shows a maximum of ~0.14 C m-2 at pH of ~4.4 and zero surface charge at pH ~8.5. F- loading experiments were conducted with grain size ranges 0.125 to 0.250 mm and 0.5 to 1.0 mm to evaluate changes in F- adsorption rate (initial pH ~6.9, initial F- 10 ppm) and F- loading (initial pH ~6.9, initial F- 1 to 60 ppm, 20 hr
Harrington, Clifford R., Comp.; Glock, Sandra, Comp.
Prepared by the Task Force on Rural Development Research (appointed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture), this analytical directory gives primary emphasis to 133 Rural Development 1 (RD1) research projects which were "active" projects between January 1 and June 30, 1973 in 13 Northeastern state agricultural experiment stations and the…
Craig, L.; Stillings, L. L.
In northern Ghana, groundwater is the main source of household water and is generally considered safe to drink. However in some areas it contains fluoride (F-) concentrations above the 1.5 ppm limit recommended by the World Health Organization, putting the users at risk of fluorosis. The study area in the Upper East Region of Ghana has pockets of groundwater F- up to 4.6 ppm and, as a result, also has a high percentage of residents with dental fluorosis. They have no alternative water source and, because of poverty and limited access to technology, lack the capacity to set up advanced treatment systems. One proposed solution is to attach F- adsorption filters to the wells, since adsorption is considered a simple and cost effective approach for treating high F-drinking water. This study evaluates activated alumina as a sorbent for use in de-fluoridation filters in the study area. We evaluated the long-term adsorption capacity of activated alumina, and changes in F- adsorption rate and capacity with grain size. We measured differences in positive surface charge (C m-2) via slow acid titration, as well as F- loading with varied prior hydration time. Results from this research show no notable change in F- adsorption or positive surface charge when the activated alumina surface was pre-equilibrated in distilled water from 24 hours to 30 weeks. The results of F- loading show a maximum of ~3.4 mg F- sorbed per gm activated alumina (initial pH ~6.9, initial F- 1 to 60 ppm, 20 hr reaction time). The pH dependent surface charge is ~0.14 C m-2 at pH of ~4.4 and is zero at pH ~8.6. F- loading experiments were conducted with grain size 0.125 to 0.250 mm and 0.5 to 1.0 mm to evaluate changes in F- adsorption rate (initial pH ~6.9, initial F- 10 ppm) and F- loading (initial pH ~6.9, initial F- 1 to 60 ppm, 20 hr reaction time). The F- loading did not change with grain size. However time to equilibrium increased dramatically with a decrease in grain size - after one hour of
Rural Development. Federal Programs that Focus on Rural America and Its Economic Development. Briefing Report to the Ranking Minority Member, Subcommittee on Conservation, Credit, and Rural Development, Committee on Agriculture, House of Representatives.
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Resources, Community, and Economic Development Div.
This report identifies those federal programs that are essentially rural and pursue economic development purposes. Using the 10 Beale population codes, 2,097 of the 3,096 U.S. counties, containing 16% of the U.S. population, were defined as rural (had urban populations of less than 20,000). The approximately 800 federal domestic assistance…
Silvers, A.; Crosson, P.
This study addresses two questions: (1) can public policy as applied to rural regions be expected to affect the rural-to-urban migration flow in Mexico and, if so, what are the more effective instruments for implementing such a policy; (2) can such instruments be applied to alter the distribution of migrants as between Mexico City and other smaller cities. Programs to stimulate the modernization of agriculture can serve as instruments of urbanization policy in Mexico, but on any scale consistent with other development objectives their effect will be small in relation to total migration flows. Consequently, these migration effects are unlikely to weigh heavily in judging the desirability of programs for agricultural modernization. The primary criteria for such judgements likely will be the direct effects of the programs on such things as agricultural income and employment, food supply and prices, and balance of payments. The programs will be most effective in slowing the overall rate of rural-to-urban migration, their effect on the direction of flow being indirect and smaller. The direction of flow probably can be influenced more strongly by programs which directly change the relative rates of increase of job opportunities among cities.
Brinkman, Dine; Westendorp, Annemarie M. B.; Wals, Arjen E. J.; Mulder, Martin
The impact of HIV/AIDS on food security and rural livelihoods is still insufficiently understood. It is evident, however, that rural development professionals need to respond to the changes that have taken place in rural areas due to the pandemic. This article explores competencies that they need in order to deal with the complex HIV/AIDS issues…
Goetz, Stephan J.
This paper examines social and economic forces affecting rural areas at the beginning of the 21st century and lists potential strategies to cope with those concerns. Rural development is necessary to place rural and urban areas on a more equal footing, compensate for the youth "brain drain," preserve the retirement-option value, relieve…
Halabi, Abdel K.
The Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA) recognises education as a lifelong process, and there is a need for continuing education and training to be available to rural communities. This paper examines the satisfaction levels of accounting continual professional development (CPD) when provided by a rural accounting…
Goals for the biomass power for rural development include: expanded feedstock research and demonstration activities to provide soil-specific production costs and yield data, as well as better methods for harvest and transport; four thousand acres of feedstock available for fueling a commercial venture; comparison of the feasibility of gasification and cocombustion; designs for on-site switchgrass handling and feeding system; a detailed assessment of utilizing switchgrass for gasification and cocombustion to generate electricity using turbines and fuel cells.
de la Luz Martínez-Maldonado, María; Correa-Muñoz, Elsa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel
Background Education is one of the key elements in the promotion of a thorough paradigm for active aging. The aim of this study is to analyze factors that contribute the empowerment of older adults in a rural Mexican community and, thus, promote active aging. Methods The study was conducted in a rural Mexican community (Valle del Mezquital), based on an action-research paradigm. One hundred and fifty-five elderly subjects with elementary school education participated in a formal training program promoting gerontological development and health education. Participants in turn became coordinators of mutual-help groups (gerontological nucleus) in Mexico. In-depth interviews were carried out to assess the empowerment after training for active aging. Results It was found that there was an increasing feeling of empowerment, creativity and self-fulfillment among participants. Among the main factors that positively influenced training of the elderly toward active aging were the teaching of gerontology topics themselves; besides, their motivation, the self-esteem, the increased undertaking of responsibility, the feeling of belonging to the group, and the sharing of information based on personal experience and on gerontological knowledge. Conclusion The main factors that contribute to empowerment of older adults in a rural Mexican community for participate in active aging programs are the training and teaching of gerontology topics themselves; besides, their interest, experience and involvement. PMID:17910775
Shores, Kindal A.; West, Stephanie T.; Theriault, Daniel S.; Davison, Elizabeth A.
Context: Challenged with a higher incidence of disease, reduced social support, and less access to physical activity facilities and services, rural older adults may find healthy active living a challenge. Despite these challenges, some rural older adults manage to achieve active lifestyles. Purpose: This study investigates the relative importance…
Mwendera, E. J.
An assessment of rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland was conducted in 2004/2005 as part of the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Initiative (RWSSI). The initiative was developed by the African Development Bank with the aim of implementing it in the Regional Member Countries (RMCs), including Swaziland. Information on the RWSS sector programmes, costs, financial requirements and other related activities was obtained from a wide range of national documents, including sector papers and project files and progress reports. Interviews were held with staff from the central offices and field stations of Government of Swaziland (GOS) ministries and departments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), bilateral and multilateral external support agencies, and private sector individuals and firms with some connection to the sector and/or its programmes. The assessment also involved field visits to various regions in order to obtain first hand information about the various technologies and institutional structures used in the provision of water supplies and sanitation services in the rural areas of the country. The results showed that the RWSS sector has made significant progress towards meeting the national targets of providing water and sanitation to the entire rural population by the year 2022. The assessment indicated that rural water supply coverage was 56% in 2004 while sanitation coverage was 63% in the same year. The results showed that there is some decline in the incidence of water-related diseases, such as diarrhoeal diseases, probably due to improved water supply and sanitation coverage. The study also showed that, with adequate financial resources, Swaziland is likely to achieve 100% coverage of both water supply and sanitation by the year 2022. It was concluded that in achieving its own national goals Swaziland will exceed the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, such achievement is subject to adequate financial resources being
This paper describes a project whose goals include the establishment of a pilot renewable energy-based rural energy services enterprise to serve communities in the Mamprusi East District, focused on: economically productive activities; community services; household non-thermal energy. The program also seeks to establish the technical, economic, financial, institutional, and socio-cultural requirements for sustainability, to demonstrate bankability and financial sustainability, as a pre-investment prelude to commercial growth of such projects, and to establish technical, financial, and service performance standards for private sector rural energy service companies. This project is being implemented now because the government is undergoing structural reform, including privatization of the power sector, there is active foreign capital available for international development, and the government and people are committed to and able to pay for renewable energy services.
The publication energy for rural development: renewable resources and alternative technologies for developing countries, which presented information on a variety of subjects, including direct uses of solar energy (heating, cooling, distillation, crop drying, photovoltaics), indirect uses of solar energy (wind power, hydropower, photosynthesis, biomass), geothermal energy, and energy storage is reviewed. New technologies developed and advances made in technologies are discussed.
Koo, Charles, M.
Rural mainland China has undergone dramatic changes since the establishment of the People's Republic in 1949. The collectivization of agriculture basically altered the rural arrangement of conventional China. Using a series of mass media campaigns, Mao Tse-Tung to some extent transformed the traditional rural social system to what he envisioned as…
Willits, Fern K.
Telephone surveys of 1,881 of 2,729 Pennsylvania households and follow-up with 1,241 showed that rural residents, older adults, and those with less income and education were more likely to accept the image of rurality as wholesome and desirable. Acceptance of the rural mystique was also related to lifestyle and consumer choices, suggesting…
Donoso Yáñez, G; Ortega Espinosa, R; Hevia Rivas, P; García Romero, H
The Instituto de Ensenanza e Investigaciones Rurales (Institute for Rural Training and Research) has been established in Solís, Municipality of Temascalcingo, State of Mexico. The institute is part of the Institucion Mexicana de Asistencia a la Ninez, IMAN (Mexican Institution for the Assistance of Childhood). The institute will study a system of healthy delivery in its (rural) zone of activity, based principally in programes with a strong content in the preventive and promotional aspects. For this purpose it will use in a preferential way, auxiliary and technical personnel which is being trained by the institute and that is original from the community where it will serve. At the professional level, the institute will mainly employ pediatricians, nurses and social workers that are completing their residency at the Hospital del Nino IMAN in Mexico City. These professional will obtain important supplementary training through their participation in the rural community health programes that the institute will develop.
... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards for the Rural Housing and Economic Development Program... Housing and Urban Development Reform Act of 1989, this announcement notifies the public of funding...) for the Rural Housing and Economic Development Program. This announcement contains the names of...
Karim, Gordon P., Ed.; Weate, Nathan James, Ed.
This anthology focuses on rural education improvement that will prepare students for the 21st century. Articles address issues related to school funding, educational technology, curriculum offerings, state and federal policies, the role of rural teachers and administrators in school reform, cultural diversity, and changing socioeconomic factors in…
Miller, Bruce A.
Rural schools traditionally have played a central role in their communities. Now, as rural communities face declining quality of life and threats to their viability, collaborative partnerships between communities and schools offer a promising approach to community revitalization and survival. Researchers have identified three distinct, yet related…
Oliveira, Victor J.
Whites benefit more than blacks from rural economic growth according to the findings of a 1982 survey of over 75,000 households in 10 rural counties in southern Georgia, selected to represent fast growing nonmetro areas with mixed manufacturing and commercial agriculture-based economies with substantial minority populations. From 1976 to 1981, a…
Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Chedzoy, Sue M.; Bennett, Neville
This study attempted to examine differences in physical activity levels between urban and rural primary school children. The sample consisted of 256 Greek-Cypriot children and their parents from two schools representing urban areas and three schools representing rural areas. Children's activity levels were assessed for 4 weekdays in the winter and…
Ferris, Kaitlyn A.; Oosterhoff, Benjamin; Metzger, Aaron
The current study examined associations between organized activity involvement, academic achievement, and problem behavior in a sample of youth from a non-agricultural based rural community (M[subscript age] = 15.26, Age range = 11-19 years, N = 456). Analyses examined whether associations varied as a function of adolescent gender and age.…
Booker T. Washington Foundation, Washington, DC. Communications Resource Center.
Assessing the potential impact of telecommunications technology upon rural economic development, this study for the Economic Development Administration (EDA) employs data assembled and analyzed from the following: "informed experts;" research information and demonstration projects; and federal legislation, research, and agency interests.…
Shehata, S M; El Shimi, S A; Elkattan, M H; Ali, B E; El-Housseini, M; El Sayad, S A; Mahmoud, M S; Zaki, A M; Hamdi, Y A; El-Nawawy, A S
Rural areas generate a large amount of plant and animal residues that can be recycled and utilized instead of relocation and/or burning. This will lead to increasing the benefits from agricultural sector in rural communities and ensuring a better environment. To increase the economic output and environmental benefits of recycling agricultural residues, integrated system should be considered, e.g., energy--compost-recycled water system; composting--co-composting system; food-feed compost system, ensilage of crop residues. The present work was a pilot study for optimizing integrated systems for bioconversion agricultural residues completed by establishing a Training Center for Recycling Agricultural Residues (TCRAR) thereby ensuring the dissemination of the technical, environmental, and socioeconomic aspects to farmers, live stock producers, extensions service staff, and private sector. Three integrated subsystems for bioconversion of agricultural residues were developed. They were based on (i) energy--manure-recycled water system, (ii) composting and co-composting system, and (iii) food-feed/compost system.
The Consortium for Evidence Based Research in Rural Educational Settings (CEBRRES): Applying Collaborative Action Research as a Means of Enhancing the Development of Rural Middle School Science Teachers
Wulff, A. H.
Kentucky ranks third in the U.S. in need of rural education attention. Rural schools in Kentucky serve nearly 40% of the total student population, and graduation rates and NAEP scores are low. A two-year pilot study is being completed addressing psychological, social, and content knowledge based constructs, as they apply to science and mathematics achievement in rural environments. The goals are to identify the key aspects of rural teachers knowledge and skills, use a framework to describe how knowledge and skills develop in the rural classroom, apply a useful model of intervention to promote teacher development and increased student learning. If proven successful the knowledge can be incorporated into the practice of current teaching and preservice pedagogical methods. The problem that was identified and addressed by CEBRRES is the high level of student disengagement and the shortage of rigorous stimulating curriculum models. The action taken was the development and implementation of model eliciting activities. Teachers at the target school were expected to utilize action research methodology to execute model-eliciting activities in the classroom, and then communicate results in forms that are useful for other teachers. Benefits to teachers included stipends, increased science content depth and breadth, support to achieve "highly qualified teacher status", extensive professional development, and technology, equipment, and supplies for their school. Survey instruments were devised to address school perceptions (61% worry that they are not doing well enough in school), future plans (80% expect to attend college vs. the current 47.5%), various self concepts, academic self concepts (23% feel that learning is difficult for them), and family self concepts. Science was identified by the students as the subject that interests them the most, followed by math, yet Kentucky ranks near the bottom of the U.S. in math and science training in the workplace. Geology
Ajayi, A. O.; Jibowo, A. A.
This study aimed at investigating the relationship between the participation of rural children in farming activities and selected social, school, and physical environment related variables. Data were collected from four hundred and fifty eight children selected through stage-wise random sampling procedure from the four agricultural zones in Oyo…
... Economic Development Loan funding. 4280.15 Section 4280.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Programs § 4280.15 Ultimate Recipient Projects eligible for Rural Economic Development Loan funding. An Intermediary may receive REDL funds...
During recent months, another sign of the global fragility to sustain the increasing human demand for resources has appeared with merciless cruelty. Increasing food prices, paradoxically driven to a large extent by the rapid economic growth of vast regions of the emerging world, are affecting hundreds of millions of the poorest people in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. As described in Science for Agriculture and Rural Development in Low-Income Countries, most of the poorest people in these low-income countries live in rural areas and are engaged in agriculture or related activities. Because many people in these areas are engaged in subsistence agriculture, they do not share in the added income derived from higher market prices for food.
Xiao, Jing; Shen, Chong; Chu, Min J.; Gao, Yue X.; Xu, Guang F.; Huang, Jian P.; Xu, Qiong Q.; Cai, Hui
Background Metabolic syndrome is prevalent worldwide and its prevalence is related to physical activity, race, and lifestyle. Little data is available for people living in rural areas of China. In this study we examined associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components among people in rural China. Methods The Nantong Metabolic Syndrome Study recruited 13,505 female and 6,997 male participants between 2007 and 2008. Data of socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle were collected. The associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components were analyzed. Results Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 21.6%. It was significantly lower in men than in women. Low risks of metabolic syndrome were observed in those who did less sitting and engaged in more vigorous physical activity. The highest tertile of vigorous physical activity was associated with 15–40% decreased odds of metabolic syndrome and all of its components, except for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in men. Women with the highest tertile of moderate physical activity had 15–30% lower odds of central obesity, high glucose, and high triglycerides compared with those in the lowest tertile. Sitting time >42 hours per week had a 4%-12% attributable risk of metabolic syndrome, central obesity, and high triglycerides in both genders, and abnormal glucose and diastolic blood pressure in women. Sleeping for more than 8 hours per day was associated with risk of high serum glucose and lipids. Conclusions Our data suggested that physical activity has a preventive effect against metabolic syndrome and all its abnormal components, and that longer sitting time and sleep duration are associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome components, including central obesity and high triglycerides, glucose, and diastolic blood pressure. This study could provide information for future investigation into these associations. Also
Muluneh, Essey Kebede; Zewotir, Temesgen; Bekele, Zerihun
Introduction Trachoma is a serious public health problem in rural Ethiopia. The aim of this investigation was to provide in-depth statistical analysis of the risk factors associated with active trachoma among children of age 1-9 years of Kedida Gamela district, in Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional survey of trachoma was conducted in six selected rural kebeles of Kedida Gamela district, in Ethiopia from June 10-25, 2014. A total of 377 children (ages 1-9 years) were included in the study using two stage cluster sampling. All children were examined for trachoma by nurse data collectors supervised by ophthalmic supervisors using the WHO simplified clinical grading system. Ordinal survey logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors. Data analysis was done using SAS version 9.3. Results The best fit proportional odds model was identified to be the main effects and two-way and three-way interactios. Keeping cattle in the house was found to have a protective effect (OR=0.138, p-value=0.0003). The household wealth will have a more protective effect if the child attends school. Washing face with soap and water once a day has equivalent protective effect as washing face three-or-more times a day with water only. Conclusion The 2-way and 3-way significant interactions effects unfolded some of the controversies derived from similar studies on trachoma risk factors. The findings would suggest integrated effort to address two or three factors simultaneously is more fruitful than any novel intervention targeted to address a single risk factor. PMID:27642466
Rural Area Revitalization Act of 1987; and the Rural Development Reorganization Act of 1987. Hearing on H.R. 1800 and H.R. 2026 before the Subcommittee on Conservation, Credit, and Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.
Testimony of H.R. 1800, the Rural Area Revitalization Act, and H.R. 2026, the Rural Development Reorganization Act focuses on the need for federal attention to rural problems other than agriculture. The Rural Area Revitalization Act authorizes expansion of capital available for lending in rural areas, a grant program of $25 million per year for…
Rao, Shobha; Kanade, Asawari; Margetts, Barrie M; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Lubree, Himangi; Rege, Sonali; Desai, Bhavana; Jackson, Alan; Fall, Caroline HD
Objective To describe the relationship of the mother's physical activity to the birth size of her baby in a rural Indian population. Design Prospective observational study. Setting Six villages near Pune, Maharashtra, India. Subjects 797 women were studied after excluding abortions and termination of pregnancies (112), fetal anomalies (8), multiple pregnancies (3), incomplete pre-pregnancy anthropometry (14) and pregnancies detected later than 21 weeks of gestation (168). Method An activity questionnaire was developed after focus group discussions and incorporated community-specific activities. It was validated against an observer-maintained diary. Activity scores were derived using published data on energy costs to weight the contributions of various activities. It was then administered to assess physical activity at 18 (± 2) and 28 (±2) weeks of gestation. Outcome measures Birth outcome, maternal weight gain and neonatal anthropometry. Results The activity questionnaire was used to classify women into light, moderate and heavy activity categories. Maternal activity did not influence the incidence of prematurity or stillbirth, or the duration of gestation. It was inversely related to maternal weight gain up to 28 weeks of gestation (p=0.002). Higher maternal activity in early, as well as mid gestation, was associated with lower mean birth weight (p=0.05 and 0.02 respectively), and smaller neonatal head circumference (p=0.005 and 0.009) and mid-arm circumference (p=0.03 and 0.01) after adjusting for the effect of major confounding factors. Conclusions The findings suggest that excessive maternal activity during pregnancy is associated with smaller fetal size in rural India. The approach described for developing an activity questionnaire has potential for adoption in other settings. Sponsorship Wellcome Trust, London, UK, and the Medical Research Council, UK. PMID:12700614
Morris, S S; Medina Banegas, J M
The authors studied the impact of a rural development project on household food security and nutrition. A quasi-experimental study design was used to compare the experience of members of thirteen Honduran small-holder farmers groups which had already received a year of credit and technical assistance, with another thirteen groups which had just joined the project, and thirteen control communities. All these communities were followed-up for one year (March/April 1997-March/April 1998). Farmers participating in the project showed a greater increase in maize stores than farmers in the control communities (p = 0.01), but did not increase their dietary energy consumption. There was, however, a small improvement in their dietary diversity (p = 0.01). The impact of the project on the nutritional status of under 5's was complex. The study underlined the importance of monitoring the impact of programs which may affect food and nutrition.
Adams, Marsha Howell; Crow, Carolyn S
The nurse case management service (NCMS) for rural hospitals is an entrepreneurial endeavor designed to provide rural patients with quality, cost-effective healthcare. This article describes the development of an NCMS. A detailed marketing and financial plan, a review of industry trends, and the legal structure and risks associated with the development of the venture are presented. The financial plan projects a minimum savings of 223,200 dollars for rural institutions annually. To improve quality and reduce cost for rural hospitals, the authors recommend implementation of an NCMS.
Thirumurthy, N.; Harrington, L.; Martin, D.; Thomas, L.; Takpa, J.; Gergan, R.
The goal of this report is to inform investors about the potential of solar minigrid technologies to serve India's rural market. Under the US-India Energy Dialogue, the US Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is supporting the Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)'s Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) in performing a business-case and policy-oriented analysis on the deployment of solar minigrids in India. The JNNSM scheme targets the development of 2GW of off-grid solar power by 2022 and provides large subsidies to meet this target. NREL worked with electricity capacity and demand data supplied by the Ladakh Renewable Energy Development Agency (LREDA) from Leh District, to develop a technical approach for solar minigrid development. Based on the NREL-developed, simulated solar insolation data for the city of Leh, a 250-kW solar photovoltaic (PV) system can produce 427,737 kWh over a 12-month period. The business case analysis, based on several different scenarios and JNNSM incentives shows the cost of power ranges from Rs. 6.3/kWh (US$0.126) to Rs. 9/kWh (US$0.18). At these rates, solar power is a cheaper alternative to diesel. An assessment of the macro-environment elements--including political, economic, environmental, social, and technological--was also performed to identify factors that may impact India?s energy development initiatives.
Xu, Zhe; Tang, Beibei
At present, the booming rural tourism, as a new tourism developing approach of the formation of the penetration and integration of the primary and tertiary industry, the agriculture and tourism, has played an increasingly important role in solving the "three rural" issue, speeding up the development of the new rural socialist, therefore the rural tourism products have got more concerning, gradually move closer from the sub-products of the tourism to the main product of the domestic tourism market. So the rural tourism innovating management and service model, upgrading the industry, meeting the fashion, feature, personalization and information needs of current people's rural leisure tourism, have very great theoretical significance and application values.
Linder, William W.
The fourth in a series of summaries based on quarterly reports submitted by the Southern Rural Development Center's (SRDC) Functional Networks, these reports constitute a compilation of the Networks' activities from January 1976 to April 1977. The 10 Networks currently in operation are described as involving 93 professionals and representation…
This study endeavored to investigate the impact of education on rural women's participation in political and economic activities. Six hundred rural women and 12 gender Activists were selected for this study from three Zones of Amhara Region, Ethiopia using multi-stage random sampling technique and purposeful sampling techniques respectively.…
Shriver, Lenka H.; Harrist, Amanda W.; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Topham, Glade; Page, Melanie; Barrett, Aimee
Background: Rural children are at a particular high risk for obesity. Given the importance of exercise in obesity and chronic disease prevention, this study evaluated the level and relationship between physical activity and fitness in a sample of rural third graders. The second purpose of the study was to determine potential differences in…
Moore, Justin B.; Jilcott, Stephanie B.; Shores, Kindal A.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Brownson, Ross C.; Novick, Lloyd F.
Many adolescents, both rural and urban, are not meeting the recommended levels for physical activity (PA). This investigation was designed to elicit socioecologic barriers and facilitators for PA in rural and urban middle school youth and their parents. Thirteen focus groups were conducted with 41 youth and 50 parents from eastern North Carolina.…
Matsepe, Mokone W.
The study explores and unfolds the purpose of education in general, its value and the role it plays in helping development of the people in rural areas especially at Thabaneng Village in Lesotho. It reveals that education is the key to development and functions to equip the rural population in Lesotho with knowledge, training and worthwhile skills…
Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Odeneye, Ebun; Banks, Bahby; Shandor Miles, Margaret; Roman Isler, Malika
Minorities are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS in the rural Southeast; therefore, it is important to develop targeted, culturally appropriate interventions to support rural minority participation in HIV/AIDS research. Using intervention mapping, we developed a comprehensive multilevel intervention for service providers (SPs) and people…
Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State, MS.
The directory of rural development researchers in the South first lists researchers by state for the 13 southern states and Puerto Rico, then by subject area. Research projects (25) of the Southern Rural Development Center since 1975 are also listed. The listing by state covers Alabama (31 researchers), Arkansas (12), Florida (10), Georgia (15),…
Controversy between two opposing factions have confused rural development policy formulation. Infrastructure advocates believe that the improvement of highways and sewer systems, as well as the provision of industrial park sites and industrial recruitment, are the keys to successful rural economic growth. Human resource development advocates…
Thomas, Reine M.
The purpose of this qualitative research study was to examine the role a rural community college plays in the development of its community, using a holistic, community-based lens that considered college and community context, interactions and results to answer the question: "How does the rural community college impact the development of the…
Swanson, Louis E.; Deo, Shripad D.
For decades, colleges of agriculture (CAs) and their larger land-grant universities have neglected their mission to promote nonfarm rural development. Cultural, institutional, and financial barriers have impeded this mission. Pursuing a rural development mission would provide a new constituency for CAs and increase their legitimacy in the face of…
Flora, Cornelia Butler; Flora, Jan L.
The article presents (1) a theoretical perspective describing rural development in the People's Republic of China which allows for generalization and comparison to the other developing rural settings, and (2) four conceptual systematic variables, a concrete policy variable, and a series of illustrative propositions linking them. (NQ)
Francis, J.; Dube, B.; Mokganyetji, T.; Chitapa, T.
Children, youth, women, the elderly, men and their leaders are integral components of rural communities. It is important to ensure that their unique needs and perceptions shape development programming. However, despite having various policies and legal frameworks introduced to deepen democracy in South Africa, current rural development programming…
... contact information. Correction In the Federal Register of August 14, 2013, in FR Doc. 2013-19773, on page... listing for the Rural Development Maine State Office, address to contact should read: Maine State Office..., the listing for the Rural Development Oklahoma State Office, address to contact should read:...
Nkomo, Mokubung; Sehoole, Chika
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to focus on how two rural-based universities in South Africa can contribute towards sustainable development especially in their immediate rural communities. It addresses the following questions what conditions or policy frameworks exist that can engender a sustainable development trajectory? How can…
Rural Development: Part 4, S. 2223--The Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act and Amendment No. 153 (To S. 1483), to Establish the Rural Community Development Bank. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, United States Senate, 92d Congress, 1st Session, July 23; September 21-24, 1971.
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.
Transcripts of Senate hearings on S. 2223 (the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act) and on Amendment No. 153 (to S. 1483) to establish the rural community development bank are presented in this document. In addition to some 25 miscellaneous documents, statements of representatives from municipal, state, and national organizations are…
Creber, Ruth M. Masterson; Smeeth, Liam; Gilman, Robert H.; Miranda, J. Jaime
Objectives To compare physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns of rural-to-urban migrants in Peru versus lifetime rural and urban residents and to determine any associations between low physical activity and four cardiovascular risk factors: obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. Methods The PERU MIGRANT (PEru’s Rural to Urban MIGRANTs) cross-sectional study was designed to measure physical activity among rural, urban, and rural-to-urban migrants with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Results The World Health Organization (WHO) age-standardized prevalence of low physical activity was 2.2% in lifetime rural residents, 32.2% in rural-to-urban migrants, and 39.2% in lifetime urban residents. The adjusted odds ratios for low physical activity were 21.43 and 32.98 for migrant and urban groups respectively compared to the rural group. The adjusted odds ratio for being obese was 1.94 for those with low physical activity. There was no evidence of an association between low physical activity and blood pressure levels, hypertension, or metabolic syndrome. Conclusions People living in a rural area had much higher levels of physical activity and lower risk of being overweight and obese compared to those living in an urban area of Lima. Study participants from the same rural area who had migrated to Lima had levels of physical inactivity and obesity similar to those who had always lived in Lima. Interventions aimed at maintaining higher levels of physical activity among rural-to-urban migrants may help reduce the epidemic of obesity in urban areas. PMID:20857014
Doeden, Carol Lee
In September 2000, grantmakers from around the country traveled to three Nebraska communities--Albion, Crete, and Henderson--to see how community-based education can positively affect the economic, environmental, and cultural development of a rural community. In Albion, the school is an open laboratory in which students, teachers, and parents work…
Smith, Eldon D.; And Others
In assessing impacts of rural industrial development, it is important to include not only economic impacts but the interface between organizational, political, and behavioral aspects with economic aspects. Though effects depend on a variety of economic and institutional circumstances, several observations can be made about how new manufacturing…
Schmidt, Laurie; Rempel, Gwen; Murray, Terra C.; McHugh, Tara-Leigh; Vallance, Jeff K.
Objective As physical activity can improve health and reduce the risk of chronic disease, it is important to understand the contributing factors to physical activity engagement among older adults, particularly those living in rural communities to assist in remaining active and healthy as long as possible. The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the socio-ecological factors that influence or contribute to physical activity among rural-dwelling older adults in rural Saskatchewan, Canada. Methods This qualitative description explored the perceptions of physical activity among older adults living in two rural communities in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 adults aged 69–94. Using content analysis techniques, transcribed interview data were coded and categorized. Results Participants identified socio-ecological elements facilitating physical activity such as improved health, independence, and mobility as well as social cohesion and having opportunities for physical activity. The most common perceived environmental barrier to engaging in physical activity was the fear of falling, particularly on the ice during the winter months. Participants also cited adverse weather conditions, aging (e.g., arthritis), and family members (e.g., encouraged to “take it easy”) as barriers to physical activity. Conclusion Hearing directly from older adults who reside in rural Saskatchewan was determined to have the potential to improve awareness of physical activity in rural communities to support the implementation of programs and practices that will facilitate active lifestyles for older adults. PMID:27834180
Kuhlman, Judy; And Others
This issue paper, meant to stimulate discussion within the employment and training community, offers three different perspectives on improving conditions in rural areas. However, all of these perspectives share common themes: a belief in the ability of rural areas to recover economically, a commitment to ensuring that this occurs, and the use of…
Bright, Larry K.; Evans, Wayne H.; Marmet, Kathy
Outmigration in the rural Upper Midwest prompted a group of citizens and University of South Dakota faculty to form the Center for the Advancement of Rural Communities (ARC). ARC considers how to stimulate traditionally competitive and isolated South Dakota peoples to collaborate for economic, social, educational, political, and cultural gains. As…
Bosworth, Gary; Atterton, Jane
The social, cultural, and economic transitions in rural areas across the globe lead us to critique the traditional "top-down" or "bottom-up" distinction as being outdated for contemporary rural policy. In Europe and the United States in particular, high rates of counterurbanization heighten the need for new ways of thinking…
Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC. Agriculture and Rural Economy Div.
The 1980s found the U.S. economy vulnerable in the global marketplace. Many observers have argued that workforce education and skill levels are too low, particularly in rural areas. In this book, four studies examine the education crisis, the relationship between the education shortfall and rural economic stagnation, the importance of local…
McConaghy, Cathryn; Lloyd, Linley; Hardy, Joy; Jenkins, Kathy
The academic and social achievements of students in rural schools are very uneven and often absenteeism and suspension rates are high. Factors such as globalisation, economic restructuring, unemployment, youth suicide and family trauma, drought and environmental change (see Bourke & Lockie 2001) also impact on rural schooling and add further…
Since this is an age of international interdependence and even those growing up in small rural communities are not insulated against spill-over effects of global events, rural students should be exposed to world affairs and prepared for citizenship in the global community. Resources for organizing instructional activities to affect the global…
Melvin, Cathy L; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Pratt, Charlotte A; Nelson, Cheryl; Walker, Evelyn R; Ammerman, Alice; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Best, Lyle G; Cherrington, Andrea L; Economos, Christina D; Green, Lawrence W; Harman, Jane; Hooker, Steven P; Murray, David M; Perri, Michael G; Ricketts, Thomas C
The National Institutes of Health convened a workshop to engage researchers and practitioners in dialogue on research issues viewed as either unique or of particular relevance to rural areas, key content areas needed to inform policy and practice in rural settings, and ways rural contexts may influence study design, implementation, assessment of outcomes, and dissemination. Our purpose was to develop a research agenda to address the disproportionate burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and related risk factors among populations living in rural areas. Complementary presentations used theoretical and methodological principles to describe research and practice examples from rural settings. Participants created a comprehensive CVD research agenda that identified themes and challenges, and provided 21 recommendations to guide research, practice, and programs in rural areas.
Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Kumanyika, Shiriki K.; Pratt, Charlotte A.; Nelson, Cheryl; Walker, Evelyn R.; Ammerman, Alice; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Best, Lyle G.; Cherrington, Andrea L.; Economos, Christina D.; Green, Lawrence W.; Harman, Jane; Hooker, Steven P.; Murray, David M.; Perri, Michael G.; Ricketts, Thomas C.
The National Institutes of Health convened a workshop to engage researchers and practitioners in dialogue on research issues viewed as either unique or of particular relevance to rural areas, key content areas needed to inform policy and practice in rural settings, and ways rural contexts may influence study design, implementation, assessment of outcomes, and dissemination. Our purpose was to develop a research agenda to address the disproportionate burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and related risk factors among populations living in rural areas. Complementary presentations used theoretical and methodological principles to describe research and practice examples from rural settings. Participants created a comprehensive CVD research agenda that identified themes and challenges, and provided 21 recommendations to guide research, practice, and programs in rural areas. PMID:23597371
Ledesma, Antonio L., Ed.; Ledesma, Angelita Y., Ed.
A collection of papers, from the Centre for the Development of Human Resources in Rural Asia (CENDHRRA) Evaluation Seminar (1980) in Bandungan, Central Java, provides guidelines for evaluation of rural development projects of non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The first part of the report contains a summary of group discussions on different…
Cleland, Verity; Hughes, Clarissa; Thornton, Lukar; Venn, Alison; Squibb, Kathryn; Ball, Kylie
Purpose Despite increasing evidence that the physical environment impacts on physical activity among urban-dwellers, little attention has been devoted to understanding this relationship in rural populations. Work in this area is further hindered by a lack of environmental measures specifically designed for rural settings. This qualitative study aimed to explore the salience of urban physical activity environment constructs among rural adults. Methods In 2011, 49 rural men and women from three distinct areas (coastal, animal-based farming, forestry/plant-based farming) of rural Tasmania, Australia, were purposively recruited to participate in semi-structured interviews. Interviews explored features of the built and social environment commonly examined in studies of urban adults, including functional characteristics (eg, lighting, footpaths, roads/verges), road and personal safety, availability and accessibility of places to be active, destinations, and aesthetics. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a content-thematic approach using QSR NVivo software. Findings While some urban environmental constructs were salient to these rural adults, such as availability of and accessibility to places to be active, some constructs were operationalised differently, such as road safety (where large trucks and winding roads rather than traffic density was of concern), or were not considered relevant (eg, personal safety related to crime, availability of walkable destinations, aesthetics). Conclusions The measurement of the physical environment in rural populations may require reconsideration and/or modification to ensure salience and appropriate quantification of associations with physical activity in future studies. PMID:26554376
Lowe, Cynthia Louise Altman
This dissertation study was a descriptive case study of a minority community service organization whose members were actively involved in local school decision-making and activities in a rural Northeast Georgia community. Rural schools face unique challenges in light of current educational trends. To address the challenges, rural schools must…
Taking care of thousands of village water supply systems requires a large organization and large financial inputs which most developing countries cannot afford. The author, after having briefly outlined the main points to be considered for the implementation of successful rural water programs, stresses the need to introduce simple, low-cost technologies for supplying safe water to small rural villages. The risk of failure is greatly reduced if there is an active participation of villagers in the various phases of the project. Health education village sanitation and training in the use and repair of equipment are essential for the long life of the water systems.
Caffrey, Rosalie A
Rural elderly individuals are an underserved population with limited access to health care. There is an increasing need for independent community care nurses to provide assistance to home-based elderly individuals with chronic illnesses to prevent unnecessary medical and placement decisions and, thus, allow them to maintain independence and quality of life. This article describes the rural setting and why community care nurses are needed, and explores strategies for implementing the role of the independent nurse entrepreneur in caring for community-based elderly individuals in rural settings.
Questionnaires are used to examine Chinese rural primary school English teachers' needs and challenges and perceptions in the implementation of Standards for Teachers of English in Primary Schools as professional development in rural school contexts in China. A total of 300 teachers participated in the research. Their feedback illustrates that…
Ilbery, Brian; Maye, Damian; Kneafsey, Moya; Jenkins, Tim; Walkley, Catherine
Endemic problems in EU "lagging rural regions" (LRRs) are well documented and various support mechanisms have long been in place to help overcome structural difficulties. Nevertheless, new rural development architectures are now being sought and some scholars have posited that LRRs may benefit from the "quality (re)turn" in…
Grinstein-Weiss, Michal; Curley, Jami; Charles, Pajarita
This study examines the unique experiences of low-income rural participants in an asset building program--the Individual Development Account. Using data from the American Dream Demonstration, this study addresses three main questions: (1) What are the individual characteristics associated with saving outcomes among rural IDA participants? (2) What…
Love, Thomas; Garwood, Anna
Drawing on recent research with NGO-driven projects in rural Cajamarca, Peru, we examine the paradoxes of relying on wind, solar and micro-hydro generation of electricity for rural community development. In spite of cost, vagaries of these energy resources and limited material benefits, especially with wind and solar systems, villagers are eagerly…
Witteveen, Loes; Lie, Rico
Rural Development Professionals (RDPs) are key actors in processes of social change for people living with HIV/AIDS in rural areas. This article reports on the filming of a series of workshops and courses for RDPs in Ghana, India, Tanzania and Zambia. In this article the filming and the films are analyzed as tools for learning and social change…
Northeast Regional Center for Rural Development, University Park, PA.
The Northeast Regional Center for Rural Development is funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and private foundations, and invests in research and education to help rural communities meet the challenges of today's global society through a multidisciplinary network of university research and extension faculty, policy makers, and rural…
Malek, Jalaluddin Abdul; Razaq Ahmad, Abdul; Mahzan Awang, Mohd; Alfitri
Telecentres in the 21st century may be able to improve standard of living, quality of life, and stability of knowledge for the rural population. The role of telecentres is widely increasing in developing political and management awareness, economic, socio-culture, technology, education and regulation awareness in rural communities. Telecentres in…
... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rural development investments before November 28, 1990. 1744.208 Section 1744.208 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POST-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON...
North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2009
The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development (NCRCRD) is one of four centers in the United States that work to improve opportunities and quality of life in rural communities. With funding from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the land-grant universities in its 12-state region, the NCRCRD engages Extension…
This paper considers the important issue of women's economic participation in rural community development and regeneration. The paper explores the economic lives and actions of women residents in ''Ilston'', a village in the Northumberland Rural Coalfield. The women's narratives illustrate the economic connections between private and public…
In order to sustain the rural education community, access to high quality professional development opportunities must become a priority. Teachers in rural areas face many challenges in order to access professional learning equitable to their city counterparts. In the current climate, the Federal government of Australia is committed to initiatives…
...This Notice announces the availability of $6,256,000 of competitive grant funds for the RCDI program through the Rural Housing Service (RHS), an agency within the USDA Rural Development mission area herein referred to as the Agency. Applicants must provide matching funds in an amount at least equal to the Federal grant. These grants will be made to qualified intermediary organizations that......
Massey, Romeo M.
This study describes Uganda, its rural primary schools, and the Namutamba-Basic Education Integrated into Rural Development (BEIRD) project from 1971 through 1979, which infused agriculture and appropriate technology into the curricula of teacher colleges and primary schools. A similar project in Belize, the Relevant Education for Agriculture and…
Hansen, Niles M.
Economic problems in rural and urban settings are discussed in this book. Central cities, suburbs, and rural areas are examined with particular emphasis on problems and opportunities in the South and in the Appalachian region. The regional commissions (the Ozarks Region, New England, etc.) and the role of the Economic Development Administration…
Bruno, A. Lee; Wright, L. M., Jr.
This collection contains 20 case studies illustrating some of the contributions Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) programs have made to economic development and job creation efforts in rural areas. The collection is a companion volume to the monograph entitled "Rural Job Creation--a Study of CETA Linkages with Economic…
Abbott, Marilyn L.; Rossiter, Marian J.
In this article, we report perceived professional development (PD) needs, interests, and challenges of ESL instructors in rural Alberta from the perspectives of instructors and administrators. We collected questionnaire responses from instructors who taught in programs offered in five rural locations with a large recent influx of newcomers…
Saxena, Gunjan; Ilbery, Brian
This paper examines community attitudes and distinctive practices that shape local responses to integrated rural tourism (IRT) development in the lagging rural region of the English/Welsh border area. The focus is on how actors acquire attributes as a result of their relations with others and how these assumed identities are performed in, by and…
Morris, Sandra L.
This fact sheet offers basic information on developing and implementing rural respite and crisis nursery programs. It first defines "respite" as temporary relief for caregivers and families of children with disabilities, chronic or terminal illnesses, and/or for children at risk of abuse and neglect. It also defines "rural" and…
The Rural Development Distance Learning and Training Strategy targets locally recruited field staff of the World Bank Rural Sector. Field staff at the bank's mission offices worldwide are heterogeneous in terms of culture, ethnicity, race, gender, social class, and religion. However, they have the following in common: they follow the Bank's work…
Stoll, William F.
This article describes examples of new food product development activities engaged in at the University of Minnesota Technical College with local industry, showing how they have been used as teaching models in the classroom. These activities have led to a program of New Product Development Assistance for small food companies in southeastern…
Floysand, Arnt; Jakobsen, Stig-Erik
One of the most significant recent elements of restructuring in rural areas is the transition from an economy based on agricultural production to an economy based on the countryside as a form of commodity. In this transition process, different narratives or images of an area are produced to promote villages and other places in the countryside as…
Arnold, Gail D.
Based on the 1979 Annual Housing Survey, the elderly--especially the rural elderly--are more likely than other groups to live in inadequate housing. Housing was defined as inadequate if it had one or more of the following flaws: incomplete plumbing facilities, incomplete kitchen facilities, leaking roof, holes in walls or ceilings, and exposed…
Hagood, Richard A.
Covering 1978-1979, the third annual report of the Partnership for Rural Improvement (PRI) highlights the progress made toward major program objectives and points out certain weaknesses in the model. Section I discusses program rationale, program design, and evaluation research design. Section II summarizes a selection of the major achievements…
Winterton, Rachel; Hulme Chambers, Alana
This qualitative study explores barriers to delivering sustainable rural community programmes to increase social participation among Australian ethnic seniors. In 2013, in-depth interviews were conducted with 14 stakeholders across eight rural/regional organisations that had received state government funding to provide social participation initiatives for ethnic seniors. Within interviews, participants were asked to outline factors that had enhanced or hindered their capacity to deliver the funded projects, and their plans for sustainability. Data were analysed thematically in accordance with Shediac-Rizkallah and Bone's (1998) tripartite programme sustainability framework (project design and implementation, organisational setting and broader community environment). Findings indicate that in the context of resource and staffing constraints and a lack of ethnic critical mass, programme sustainability reflected the increased capacity of rural ethnic seniors to integrate into existing community groups and maintain their own groups and activities. However, this is dependent on the ability of mainstream government, health and social care services to cater for diverse cultural needs and preferences, the ability of rural organisations to support ethnic seniors to manage their own cultural groups and activities, and the capacity of funding bodies, rural community and policy structures to maintain cultural sensitivity while compensating for the rural premium. In addition to identifying some key learnings for rural governments, health and community organisations, this research highlights the precarious nature of rural programme sustainability for ethnic seniors in the context of wider community, organisational and policy constraints.
Zhu, Thein Hlaing; Hollister, Lisa; Scheumann, Christopher; Konger, Jennifer; Opoku, Dazar
The study evaluates (1) health care provider perception of the Rural Trauma Team Development Course (RTTDC); (2) improvement in acute trauma emergency care knowledge; and (3) early transfer of trauma patients from rural emergency departments (EDs) to a verified trauma center. A 1-day, 8-hour RTTDC was given to 101 nurses and other health care providers from nine rural community hospitals from 2011 to 2013. RTTDC participants completed questionnaires to address objectives (1) and (2). ED and trauma registry data were queried to achieve objective (3) for assessing reduction in ED time (EDT), from patient arrival to decision to transfer and ED length of stay (LOS). The RTTDC was positively perceived by health care providers (96.3% of them completed the program). Significant improvement in 13 of the 19 knowledge items was observed in nurses. Education intervention was an independent predictor in reducing EDT by 28 minutes and 95% confidence interval (CI) [-57, -0.1] at 6 months post-RTTDC, and 29 minutes and 95% CI [-53, -6] at 12 months post-RTTDC. Similar results were observed with ED LOS. The RTTDC is well-perceived as an education program. It improves acute trauma emergency care knowledge in rural health care providers. It promotes early transfer of severely injured patients to a higher level of care.
Roundy, R W
The decade of the 1980s is declared as a time to solve global domestic water supply problems. By 1990 international goals include the provision of adequate quantities of clean water to every person on earth. Such goals are justified on the basis of human health, economic well being, political development and equity and public safety. Drawing upon observations from Ethiopia, Malaysia and Liberia, cases where attempts to provide domestic water to villagers and rural town dwellers are presented. In all cited cases attempts to provide safe water have failed or are in jeopardy. Conclusions drawn from these cases include acknowledgement that global goals will best be achieved by approaching local problems one-by-one and recognizing the technical, environmental and human constraints upon safe water provision interact differently from one site to another. To properly plan, implement and maintain safe water systems the current technical solutions must be combined with the contributions of social and environmental scientists on a case-by-case basis.
Du Guerny, J.
In their role as change agents, rural development personnel often modify the environment in which they are operating when they introduce different technology, institutional modifications, etc. Because these actions can change the relationship between the rural population and its habitat and may encourage out-migration or in-migration, rural…
Chung-Do, Jane; Helm, Susana; Fukuda, Michael; Alicata, Dan; Nishimura, Stephanie; Else, Iwalani
In Hawai'i, rural residents suffer disproportionately from poor health and mental health outcomes. Hawai'i's island geography makes rural health service disparities especially compelling. Physician workforce shortages are projected to increase, despite 30 years of programs aimed at recruiting physicians to rural areas. Telepsychiatry has been shown to be a feasible way to provide a variety of health services to individuals living in rural areas with limited access to healthcare. The University of Hawai'i Rural Health Collaboration (UHRHC) was established by the Department of Psychiatry to address the need for workforce development and rural access to mental health services across the State of Hawai'i by using telepsychiatry. Partnerships with community health clinics have been formed to provide patient care and consultation-liaison services through telepsychiatry technology. In addition, UHRHC focuses on workforce development in its residency training curriculum by utilizing a service-learning approach to rural mental health. Evaluation of these efforts is currently underway, with preliminary evidence suggesting that UHRHC is a promising strategy to increase access to critical mental health services and reduce health disparities in rural Hawai'i.
"This paper reopens the debate between Weekley (1988) and Rowsell (1989) over why pockets of depopulation have persisted within parts of rural Britain which have experienced net growth through counterurbanisation. It argues that Weekley has not fully appreciated the context for local population losses, namely the emergence of a new structural relationship between people, households, and dwellings, and the growing tension between production and consumption interests in rural locales. Moreover, the paper disputes claims that depopulation is triggered by the actions of either the landowner or the planner. Drawing on case study material informed by critical realism, it argues that planners and landowners have been drawn into an asymmetrical power relationship. This has tended to buttress landed interests and, in so doing, reproduce mechanisms which protect the less populous communities from growth and change."
Carder, Kendall L.
The task of algorithm-development activities at USF continues. The algorithm for determining chlorophyll alpha concentration, (Chl alpha) and gelbstoff absorption coefficient for SeaWiFS and MODIS-N radiance data is our current priority.
Obura, Willis Bill
Rural Africa includes some 80% of the African population; its people are poverty stricken, illiterate, ill-sheltered, and ill-nourished. These circumstances make rural development absolutely vital. However, past rural development policies have failed to take into consideration the structure and division of labor in the farm family, the traditional…
Zuber, Eileen, Ed.; Heasley, Daryl K., Ed.
Small towns and rural places face numerous barriers to development. In response, the four Regional Rural Development Centers serve as regional and national networks to catalyze, initiate, facilitate, and evaluate research and educational programs that have potential to improve rural economic and social well-being. Such programs focus on developing…
Spano, Richard; Nagy, Steve
Although the overall crime rate dropped between 1993 and 2000, both adolescent violence and violent crime in rural areas has been on the rise. However, little research has been conducted on the determinants of rural violence using targeted regional samples of rural youth. This study examines the applicability of lifestyle/routine activities (RA)…
Tarapur is a village in the district of Rajshahi, Bangladesh, covering an area of 821.05 acres. 342 households with a total population of 1981 were identified in the village by the 1985 census. The author investigated the use of time during 1984 and 1985 in busy, intermediate, and slack seasons among the village population to examine the variation in time use by gender and social class. Activity patterns were found to vary from one season to another, and also across social classes. The study highlights the need to refine some of the conceptual and methodological issues in the collection of data on women and work. The study also presents useful data on home-based production and market-oriented work. It could be useful to adopt an anthropological approach in order to understand the allocation of time by men and women from the perspective of household production and the local economy and culture. Study findings focus upon the following policy issues: the need for a better understanding and recognition of the significant role of women in field agriculture and postharvest processing, creation of further nontraditional employment and business opportunities for poor women in rural areas, and consciousness-raising and the challenge of cultural barriers affecting women. Rural women, especially those in need of employment and involved in market-oriented production, should be the target of mainstream development activities in future planning.
van der Ploeg, Jan Douwe; Jingzhong, Ye
This paper examines some of the interrelations that exist between rural China's peasant economy and the wider economy in which it is embedded. In doing so it focuses on the circular flows that link town and countryside. Multiple job holding is strategic in this respect. The paper draws on research undertaken in a peasant village in Hebei Province. The research highlights some remarkable differences that exist between development processes in China and in other developing countries and traces these back to a combination of an enlightened rural policy and the strong linkages that exist between rural China and its urban "global factory".
Clark, Carol A. M.
To investigate whether low school attendance rates in Guatemala (about 35% of primary school aged children do not attend) are due primarily to the need for children in low income families to contribute to family income or child care and other housekeeping tasks, time use data were collected in 4 rural villages from mothers of 369 children, aged…
Gurianova, M. P.
Two decades of experience with the use of school counselors in rural areas of Russia has demonstrated their necessity in supporting students, but their further development and increasing effectiveness requires a significant increase in resources provided to them.
... Portfolio Management Division, Rural Development, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1400 Independence Avenue... approved by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44...
..., Multi- Family Housing Portfolio Management Division, Rural Development, U.S. Department of Agriculture... of Management and Budget (OMB) under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501-3520)...
Gould, Marvin W.; Harris, Donna
The educational reform movement has resulted in staff development requirements which have created implementation problems for rural schools. The educational cooperative provides a solution to these implementation problems. (JD)
Zhou, Hao; Li, Yuqian; Liu, Xiaotian; Xu, Fei; Li, Linlin; Yang, Kaili; Qian, Xinling; Liu, Ruihua; Bie, Ronghai; Wang, Chongjian
The purpose of this study was to establish a simple and effective risk score for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in middle-aged rural Chinese. Total of 5453 participants aged 30–59 years from the Rural Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (RuralDiab) study were recruited for establishing the RuralDiab risk score by using logistic regression analysis. The RuralDiab risk score was validated in a prospective study from Henan Province of China, and compared with previous risk scores by using the receiver-operating characteristics cure. Ultimately, sex, age, family history of diabetes, physical activity, waist circumference, history of dyslipidemia, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index were included in the RuralDiab risk score (range from 0 to 36), and the optimal cutoff value was 17 with 67.9% sensitivity and 67.8% specificity. The area under the cures (AUC) of the RuralDiab risk score was 0.723(95%CI: 0.710–0.735) for T2DM in validation population, which was significant higher than the American Diabetes Association score (AUC: 0.636), the Inter99 score (AUC: 0.669), the Oman risk score (AUC: 0.675). The RuralDiab risk score was established and demonstrated an appropriate performance for predicting T2DM in middle-aged Chinese rural population. Further studies for validation should be implemented in different populations. PMID:28209984
Oman, Kathleen S; Fink, Regina M; Krugman, Mary; Goode, Colleen J; Traditi, Lisa K
To provide quality patient care and achieve positive patient outcomes, it is widely recognized that organizations must develop a supportive environment that encourages individuals to practice from a research- and evidence-based framework. This article describes a Web-based professional educational program designed to teach principles of evidence-based practice to nurses in rural hospitals. Nurses working in staff development will find this useful for designing educational programs for staff in rural hospitals.
Cornman, John M.; Madden, J. Patrick
During its three-year pilot period, Title V of the Rural Development Act of 1972 demonstrated its potential as part of a broad national rural strategy and should be carefully expanded with special attention to funding, organization, and evaluation policies. Initial funding at $20 million yearly would provide each state with $100,000 (an amount…
Matthes, William A.; Carlson, Robert V.
The paper summarizes recruitment and retention approaches designed to assist rural school administrators in securing/holding well-prepared/qualified teachers and presents findings from a 1985 study that examined teachers' perceptions of professional preparation. Outlined recruitment approaches include paying candidate's interview and moving…
The topic of this paper has emerged from the work of Shelton (2000, 2003), Bernhardt, Kawagley and Hill (2000), Boylan and McSwan (1998), Bryden and Boylan (2004) and others on "place-based" and "consequential" education in rural areas, prompting the question: if place-based and consequential education is "good" for…
Compulsory education in China's rural areas has come a long way since China adopted the policy of reform and opening up to the outside world toward the end of 1978. By 2004, compulsory education had become available and illiteracy had been eliminated among 93.6 percent of the nation's total population; the enrollment rate of school-age children…
Hautecoeur, Jean-Paul, Ed.
This book compiles 21 action research articles from 12 countries that describe community-based initiatives in adult literacy education in peripheral rural areas. These initiatives represent dynamic experiments in cultural action that explicitly link individual basic education and a collective change in the conditions of local life. The reports…
Dionne, Hughes; Horth, Raynald
Nearly half of Quebec's municipalities have fewer than 800 inhabitants and are struggling with conditions of economic decline, outmigration of youth, and political marginalization. In 1991, a regional coalition called Coalition Urgence Rurale was formed in the Lower Saint Lawrence area to support initiatives that promote community empowerment,…
Goos, Merrilyn; Dole, Shelley; Geiger, Vince
In Australia, concerns about the quality of mathematics education that students experience are particularly salient in rural schools. These schools typically report great difficulty in attracting and retaining qualified teachers of mathematics. Teachers in non-metropolitan locations may also experience professional isolation if they have limited…
Odongo, Charles Okot; Musisi, Nathan Lubowa; Waako, Paul; Obua, Celestino
Background: The high dental disease burden in developing countries has created a need to explore and develop cheap and accessible methods of dental disease prevention. Traditional toothbrushes (chewing-sticks) prepared from specific plants have been used for dental hygiene for generations. When properly used, chewing-sticks may be as effective as synthetic toothbrushes. This study set out to describe traditional chewing-stick practices in a Ugandan rural community, and evaluate the antibacterial activity of two most commonly used plants. Methods: Interviews were done to identify chewing-stick plants and obtain socio-cultural information relating to the practice in two villages in rural Uganda. Field walks were done to pick and voucher the plants, for taxonomical identification and storage. For the two most reported plants, aqueous extracts were prepared and tested for antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans using the agar-well diffusion method. Results: Of the 21 key informants interviewed, all were using or had used chewing-sticks in the past. A total of eight plants were identified as sources of chewing-sticks, with Rhus vulgaris and Lantana trifolia most commonly mentioned. Chewing-sticks were preferred over synthetic tooth brushes because they were less likely to traumatize the gums. Their use has been limited of recent due to scarcity of some plants. R. vulgaris and L. trifolia aqueous extracts showed antibacterial activity against S. mutans with mean diameters of inhibition of 24.33 ± 0.58 and 14.17 ± 0.29 mm on Blood agar respectively, compared to benzyl penicillin control 30.67 ± 0.29 mm. Conclusion: R. vulgaris and L. trifolia are the most common sources of chewing-sticks for cleaning teeth in this community. The plants contain compounds that are active against S. mutans. These plants merit further studies as they are possible sources of cheap dental health care for the rural poor. PMID:21687508
Hackett, Judith C., Ed.; McLemore, Lisa Ann, Ed.
The conference reported in this proceedings brought together states' rural development policymakers in an effort to identify the programs and research needed to establish successful state policies. Topics of papers presented at the conference and included in the proceedings covered: (1) telecommunications and computer technology as sources of…
Rural Development Service (USDA), Washington, DC.
The executive summary of the first meeting of the National Advisory Council on Rural Development gives highlights of remarks and presentations by 16 speakers and discussions by subgroups on supporting state and local government (management and rural development roles), on new ways for rural development, and on financing rural development. Purposes…
Mills, Jane; Lennon, Donna; Francis, Karen
Mentoring in rural and remote nursing receives little attention in the literature, even though it is emerging in Australia as a popular strategy to improve the retention of staff. The Association for Australian Rural Nurses established a 2-year Mentor Development and Support Project in 2003 with the aim of promoting mentoring among rural and remote nurses. During the life of the project, 101 such nurses attended Mentor Development Workshops. This project demonstrated that training is an important prerequisite for rural and remote nurses who are planning to enter a mentoring relationship. Participant evaluation showed an increase in mentoring knowledge and skills and a subsequent rise in confidence about undertaking the role. Participants also believed that their increased capacity to mentor was reflected in their workplaces, contributing to a positive culture of learning.
Bentley, M E; Caulfield, L E; Ram, M; Santizo, M C; Hurtado, E; Rivera, J A; Ruel, M T; Brown, K H
Zinc deficiency has been associated with growth deficits, reduced dietary intake and appetite, and has been hypothesized to result in reduced activity. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined whether 10 mg of oral zinc as zinc sulfate, given daily for up to 7 mo, affected activity patterns of 85 Guatemalan infants recruited at 6-9 mo of age. Infant activity was assessed by time sampling-observation method at 10-min intervals during a 12-h data collection period, at base line, 3 and 7 mo follow-up. Motor development and the percentage of time infants were observed in various positions (being carried, lying down, sitting, crawling, standing or walking) and engaged in various activities (eating, sleeping, resting, crying/whining or playing) were compared by treatment group. No differences in motor development were observed by treatment group. However, at follow-up 2 (after 7 mo of supplementation), zinc-supplemented infants were significantly more frequently observed sitting up compared with lying down, and were playing during 4.18 +/- 1.95% (P < 0.05) more observations than unsupplemented infants. They were also somewhat less likely to be observed crying or whining (P < 0.10) compared with those receiving the placebo. These effects are independent of other factors including infant age, motor development, sex, maternal education, family socioeconomic status and nutritional status at base line. Further research must be conducted to determine the long-term developmental importance of these differences in activity patterns associated with zinc supplementation in this setting.
Farooq, Muhammad Sabil; Kai, Yuan Tong
Education means all round development, this all round development means intellectual, social and emotional development. It is only education that can mould the behavior of an individual. READ (Rural Education and Development) Foundation is not-for-profit organization established in 1994 to address the dire need for education and literacy in…
Mamary, Edward M; Toevs, Kim; Burnworth, Karla B; Becker, Lin
Abstract Objectives As part of a broader medical and psychosocial needs assessment in a rural region of northern California, USA, five focus groups were conducted to explore innovative approaches to creating a system of consumer involvement in the delivery of HIV primary care services in the region. Design A total of five focus groups (n = 30) were conducted with clients from three of five counties in the region with the highest number of HIV patients receiving primary care. Setting and participants Participants were recruited by their HIV case managers. They were adults living with HIV, who were receiving health care, and who resided in a rural mountain region of northern California. Variables studied Group discussions explored ideas for new strategies and examined traditional methods of consumer involvement, considering ways they could be adapted for a rural environment. Results Recommendations for consumer involvement included a multi‐method approach consisting of traditional written surveys, a formal advisory group, and monthly consumer led social support/informal input groups. Specific challenges discussed included winter weather conditions, transportation barriers, physical limitations, confidentiality concerns, and needs for social support and education. Conclusions A multiple‐method approach would ensure more comprehensive consumer involvement in the programme planning process. It is also evident that methods for incorporating consumer involvement must be adapted to the specific context and circumstances of a given programme. PMID:15117390
Felton, Gwen M.; Dowda, Marsha; Ward, Dianne S.; Dishman, Rod K.; Trost, Stewart G.; Saunders, Ruth; Pate, Russell R.
Examined the relationship of race and rural/urban setting to physical, behavioral, psychosocial, and environmental factors associated with physical activity among eighth grade girls. More differences related to race than setting. Black girls were less active and more heavy than white girls. Enjoyment of physical education and family involvement in…
Millward, Hugh; Spinney, Jamie
Purpose: This paper assesses the degree to which "active living" varies along the rural-urban continuum, within the county-sized regional municipality of Halifax, Nova Scotia. Methods: Time-diary data from the Halifax Space-Time Activity Research project were used to compute daily participation rates (PRs) and time durations, at various…
McWhinney, Sharon; McDonald, Andrea; Dawkins-Moultin, Lenna; Outley, Corliss; McKyer, E. Lisako; Thomas, Audrene
A comprehensive understanding of the barriers inhibiting physical activity among children is critical in the fight against childhood obesity. This qualitative interview study examined parents' and children's perceptions of the barriers to physical activity in rural communities of low socioeconomic status. Parents and children concurred that the…
Kuipers, P; Kendall, E; Hancock, T
In response to widely recognised dilemmas associated with rehabilitation and disability service provision in remote and rural areas of Australia, a community-based, participatory approach to service development was adapted for a disability service project in central Queensland. The service framework, known as Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR), fosters the involvement of community members in disability service provision. Although this framework has been described previously, few guidelines exist regarding appropriate implementation of such an approach. Consequently, the implementation strategy known as Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) was adopted. Participatory Rural Appraisal has been reported to foster the participation and decision-making of community members in community projects. The present article describes the application of this implementation strategy to disability service provision in a relatively under-resourced rural shire. The rationale, framework and process of the pilot are described. A subsequent publication will document the service component, detail evaluation findings and describe the long-term outcomes of this research.
In less-developed countries schools in remote rural areas are likely to be poor in quality. One important aspect of this in certain contexts is the comparatively low quality of teachers and the high rate of teacher turnover in rural schools in these areas. It is likely that contributory factors are the ways in which posting and transfer procedures operate, inadequate preparation and support for teachers, and their own characteristics, values and interests. For purposes of analysis, two models are suggested which illuminate the policy assumptions behind different strategies used to try to remedy the situation. The rural deficit model tends to encourage the use of compulsory posting and incentives while the rural challenge model searches for better ways of preparing teachers for service in remote rural schools. From analysis of the literature, the author suggests that there are four inter-related features of contemporary teacher-education programmes which have potential and should be developed if good teachers are to be attracted to and retained in remote rural schools. These are field-based preparation, teamwork in training, community support of training and the recruitment and preparation of local teachers. A few examples of schemes employing these principles are described briefly.
Schafft, Kai A.
Despite the significant proportions of rural Americans, schools, and public school students situated in the geographic peripheries of an increasingly urbanizing country, rural education in the United States has consistently occupied both scholarly and policy peripheries. This is to the detriment of rural America, especially to the extent that…
Kornilov, Sergey A.; Lebedeva, Tatiana V.; Zhukova, Marina A.; Prikhoda, Natalia A.; Korotaeva, Irina V.; Koposov, Roman A.; Hart, Lesley; Reich, Jodi; Grigorenko, Elena L.
Using a newly developed Assessment of the Development of Russian Language (ORRIA), we investigated differences in language development between rural vs. urban Russian-speaking children (n = 100 with a mean age of 6.75) subdivided into groups with and without developmental language disorders. Using classical test theory and item response theory approaches, we found that while ORRIA displayed overall satisfactory psychometric properties, several of its items showed differential item functioning favoring rural children, and several others favoring urban children. After the removal of these items, rural children significantly underperformed on ORRIA compared to urban children. The urbanization factor did not significantly interact with language group. We discuss the latter finding in the context of the multiple additive risk factors for language development and emphasize the need for future studies of the mechanisms that underlie these influences and the implications of these findings for our understanding of the etiological architecture of children's language development. PMID:27346924
Kornilov, Sergey A; Lebedeva, Tatiana V; Zhukova, Marina A; Prikhoda, Natalia A; Korotaeva, Irina V; Koposov, Roman A; Hart, Lesley; Reich, Jodi; Grigorenko, Elena L
Using a newly developed Assessment of the Development of Russian Language (ORRIA), we investigated differences in language development between rural vs. urban Russian-speaking children (n = 100 with a mean age of 6.75) subdivided into groups with and without developmental language disorders. Using classical test theory and item response theory approaches, we found that while ORRIA displayed overall satisfactory psychometric properties, several of its items showed differential item functioning favoring rural children, and several others favoring urban children. After the removal of these items, rural children significantly underperformed on ORRIA compared to urban children. The urbanization factor did not significantly interact with language group. We discuss the latter finding in the context of the multiple additive risk factors for language development and emphasize the need for future studies of the mechanisms that underlie these influences and the implications of these findings for our understanding of the etiological architecture of children's language development.
Development of the Oxford Hills Healthy Moms Project using a social marketing process: a community-based physical activity and nutrition intervention for low-socioeconomic-status mothers in a rural area in Maine.
Dharod, Jigna M; Drewette-Card, Rebecca; Crawford, David
A physical activity and nutrition community intervention called the Oxford Hills Healthy Moms (OHHM) Project was developed using a multifaceted social marketing process, including review of state surveillance results, key informant interviews, and a survey and focus group discussions with low-socioeconomic-status (low-SES) mothers. This formative work was used to make key decisions on the selection of the intervention region, segmentation of the audience, and design of intervention strategies addressing multiple levels of the socioecological model. The OHHM Project aims to increase fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity levels among low-SES mothers in the Oxford Hills region of Maine. The OHHM Project includes five components: (a) physical activity buddy program, (b) cooking club with education, (c) fruit and vegetable discount buying club with education, (d) increased access to produce vendors, and (e) increased access to places for physical activity.
Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC. Economic Development Div.
The 5th annual report of the President to Congress on the availability of government and government-assisted services to rural areas, this report outlines executive branch efforts to improve services to rural America during fiscal year (FY) 1973. Services to rural America are measured by comparing the distribution of FY 1973 outlays in 5 broad…
Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC. Economic Development Div.
As the sixth annual report on the availability of government and government assisted rural services, this report: (1) outlines executive branch efforts to improve services to rural America during fiscal year 1974; (2) measures services to rural America by comparing the distribution of 1974 outlays in 4 broad program categories important to rural…
Barrett, Nathan; Cowen, Joshua; Toma, Eugenia; Troske, Suzanne
In-service teacher professional development has been used to improve teacher effectiveness. In Kentucky, the National Science Foundation funded a large professional development program called the Appalachian Math and Science Partnership (AMSP) to provide content-based professional development to teachers in rural schools. We show that students…
The purpose of this study was to examine the teaching strategies of early childhood development teachers in rural East Africa. Teams of early childhood educators from the United States presented professional development conferences for East African Early Childhood Development teachers during the summers of 2007 and 2008. The conferences introduced…
The paper discusses the effects of the changes of rural income level on family planning practice based a survey of 200 rural families in a affluent vegetable producing area of suburban Beijing. In 1984, 99.7% of child birth followed the local birth planning, and 99.1% of families with one child received One Child Certificates. The annual per capita income of the 200 families was 1,092 yuan (1 US$ = 3.7 yuan) in 1984 even higher than the community average. The number of children was negatively associated with the per capita income and per capita consumption except families with 4 children, most of whom have grown up. The rural mechanization in the community has greatly increased the need for skills and technology rather than strong laborers. The provision of community welfare programs and the increased living standard changed the value of children and also changed people's perception in favor of gender equality. Among families with 1 or 2 children, most preferred to have girls. And among families with more children, the preferred family size is smaller than the actual size, which shows a tendency towards favoring a small family. Among 1 child families, 58.7% considered 1 boy and 1 girl to be ideal, and 37.7% was happy with the only child. As the community becomes richer, both the community and individual families increased their investment in education. The spending on education per child was over 2 times as high in 1 child families than the families with more children. The educational status of parents is positively associated with the exception of children's future education and current spending on education. The concern of parents over children's education is an important factor in improving the quality of labor force. Women of higher education status are more acceptable to contraception and family planning policy. The relatively high level of education of the community has been conducive to it fertility decline.
Vandehaar, Alan, Ed.
This booklet contains summaries of workshop presentations at the conference on community development. This conference brought local community officials and leaders together with interested citizens to learn about successful rural community development activities occurring in Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, and South Dakota. Sessions covered four main…
37 9.1 Imitations of the TVA model 38 9.2 Pilot projects of the sixties--Comilla, Puebla & CADU . 39 10. THE SEVENTIES--A DECADE OF CONSOLIDATION OF...three other ideologies--the Gandhian, Fabian Socialist, and Marxist Socialist. Let us glance briefly at their rural visions . For thirty years Gandhi’s...but also rejected industrialism and urbanization. His vision of the good life was not the acquisition of abundance, but the curbing of wants, an ascetic
Rosenblum, L.; Bifano, W. J.; Hein, G. F.; Ratajczak, A. F.
Photovoltaic (PV) applications for rural areas of underdeveloped countries are discussed in relation to PV system technology, reliability, and present and projected cost. The information presented is derived mainly from NASA, Lewis Research Center experience with PV systems deployed with a variety of users for applications relevant to LDCs. A detailed description of two village power systems is included. Energy cost comparisons are presented for PV systems versus alternative energy sources. It is concluded, based on present PV system technology, reliability and cost that photovoltaics provides a realistic energy option for LDCs in both the near- and far-term.
Training Home Economists for Rural Development. Report of a Global Study on the Development of Criteria for Establishing Training Institutions for Home Economics Staff in Rural Development. FAO Economic and Social Development Paper 6.
Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY.
In 1973 a global study aimed toward the development of criteria for establishing institutions for training home economists for rural development programs was initiated by the Home Economics and Social Programmes Services of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the U.N. As a first step, a survey was developed on the variety of roles appropriate…
Cotruvo, J A; Trevant, C
At the fundamental level, there are remarkable parallels between developed and less developed countries in problems of providing safe drinking water in rural areas, but of course, they differ greatly in degree and in the opportunities for resolution. Small water supplies frequently encounter difficulty accessing sufficient quantities of drinking water for all domestic uses. If the water must be treated for safety reasons, then treatment facilities and trained operating personnel and finances are always in short supply. Ideally, each solution should be sustainable within its own cultural, political and economic context, and preferably with local personnel and financial resources. Otherwise, the water supply will be continuously dependent on outside resources and thus will not be able to control its destiny, and its future will be questionable. The history of success in this regard has been inconsistent, particularly in less developed but also in some developed countries. The traditional and ideal solution in developing countries has been central water treatment and a piped distribution network, however, results have had a mixed history primarily due to high initial costs and operation and maintenance, inadequate access to training, management and finance sufficient to support a fairly complex system for the long term. These complete systems are also slow to be implemented so waterborne disease continues in the interim. Thus, non-traditional, creative, cost-effective practical solutions that can be more rapidly implemented are needed. Some of these options could involve: small package central treatment coupled with non piped distribution, e.g. community supplied bottled water; decentralized treatment for the home using basic filtration and/or disinfection; higher levels of technology to deal with chemical contaminants e.g. natural fluoride or arsenic. These technological options coupled with training, technical support and other essential elements like community
Oberai, A S; Singh, H K
Rural household survey data in the Ludhiana district of the Indian Punjab was used to study the nature and role of remittances in rural development. Of the 1646 outmigrants from the area since 1961, the 949 women who migrated for marriage and children under 12 years old were excluded from the study. Nearly all husbands who outmigrated had sent remittances. Parents and grandparents were 2nd and 3rd most likely to remit, but their numbers were small. Education did not correlate with remittance. Distance and time since emigration did not affect remittance. The frequency and the size of remittances are discussed. Remittances to outmigrants were insignificant. The remittances from outmigrants seem to raise the incomes and the levels of living of rural households. The remittances serve the purpose of redistributing income from urban to rural areas. Remittances also widened the gap between rich and poor in the rural areas because the better-off groups were more likely to receive remittances than the poorer groups. Most of the money sent from outmigrants was spent on consumable goods, food and clothing. Only a small proportion was spent on productive investment. This was usually done by farming families who invested in land or farm necessities. It is concluded that remittances from outmigrants can have a positive effect on the rural economies. Investment opportunities for nonagricultural families must be provided.
We examined schoolchildren aged from 7 to 17 years: 2683 in Krasnoyarsk and 1552 in districts of Krasnoyarsk territory in order to study the level of their physical development. We performed somatometry (body mass and length measurements) and worked out comparative evaluation of harmony in physical development upon Ketle2 index (BM1 kg/m2). We found out that the majority of the tested schoolchildren show disharmony variants in physical development. Body mass deficit was registered more often in rural (26.8%), than in urban schoolchildren (15.4%; p < 0.001). Overweight was marked more often in urban (38.2%) than in rural schoolchildren (26.4%; p < 0.001). In 6.9% of urban and in 6.8% of rural schoolchildren the overweight approached the level, which is diagnosed as obesity.
"Rural Prairie Women" contains the work of two task forces: the Rural Social Work Task Force which looked at the forces active in North Dakota rural areas and the Rural Women Task Force which examined the position of women within those same rural communities. The relationship between the land, small towns, and sparse population is…
Booker T. Washington Foundation, Detroit, MI.
The Economic Development Administration (EDA) requested working information to help determine national policy regarding the future course of telecommunications research and development as related to rural economic development. A review sought to identify various opinions, demonstrations, programs and proposed pilot projects which indicate that…
Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Hamelin-Brabant, Louise
Shortage of healthcare workers in rural and remote areas remains a growing concern both in developed and developing countries. This review aims to synthesize the significant factors impacting healthcare professionals’ recruitment and retention in rural and remote areas, and to identify those relevant for developing countries. This paper included the following steps: exploring scientific literature through predetermined criteria and extracting relevant information by two independents reviewers. The AMSTAR tool was used to assess the methodological quality. Of the 224 screened publications, 15 reviews were included. Four reviews focused on recruitment factors, and another four reviews focused on retention factors. The remaining focused both on recruitment and retention factors. The most important factors influencing recruitment were rural background and rural origin, followed by career development. Opportunities for professional advancement, professional support networks and financial incentives were factors impacting retention. While the main factors influencing recruitment and retention have been largely explored in the literature, the evidence on strategies to reduce the shortage of healthcare workers in rural area, particularly in developing countries, is low. Further research in this field is needed. PMID:28299160
Casey, M.; Mooney, A.; Smyth, J.; Payne, W.
Drawing on interpretations of Foucault's techniques of power, we explored the discourses and power relations operative between groups of girls that appeared to influence their participation in Physical Education (PE) and outside of school in sport and physical activity (PA) in rural and regional communities. Interviews and focus groups were…
Anderson, Ruth B.
Programs and courses about the gifted in rural areas have been offered by the University of Maine at Presque Isle since 1973. Activities (such as designing and building rockets, play writing and producing, and park design) and workshops have been held for and about the gifted. One of the problems with programs for this population is that they are…
Eime, R. M.; Payne, W. R.; Casey, M. M.; Harvey, J. T.
Physical activity (PA) is important for lifelong health; however, participation is lower in rural compared with metropolitan areas and declines during adolescence, particularly for girls. It is likely that this decline is related to the number of life transitions that occur during adolescence. This qualitative study examined the views of active…
Cho, Eun Ji
China has been undergoing a rapid development over the past decades, and rural areas are facing a number of challenges in the process of the change. The "New Channel" project, initiated to promote sustainable development and protect natural and cultural heritage in Tongdao county in China from a rapid urbanization and economic…
Bourke, Lisa; Best, James D.; Wakerman, John; Humphreys, John S.; Wright, Julian R.
There is a dearth of literature on how research agendas have been developed. In this article, the authors reflect on the process of developing a research agenda through a case study of a rural health university centre. The aim is to contribute to understanding how a team can effectively plan research. Two leaders of the process, as well as…
Delaware Univ., Georgetown. Cooperative Extension Service.
The bibliography cites 127 publications and periodicals useful for rural development which were in the most current Government Printing Office's price lists. It is divided into 5 categories: (1) People Building; (2) Community Facilities; (3) Environmental Improvement; (4) Economic Development; and (5) Government Periodicals. Topics covered are:…
Austin, Ann M. Berghout; Blevins-Knabe, Belinda; de Aquino, Cyle Nielsen; de Burro, Elizabeth Urbieta; Park, Kyung-Eun; Bayley, Bruce; Christensen, Matthew; Leavitt, Spencer; Merrill, Junius; Taylor, Denise; George, Anne Thomas
This study examined the specific factors relative to healthy socialization and economic well-being that predicted toddler mental development in rural Paraguay. Thirty toddlers and their primary caregivers were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (BSID-II), the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) to…
A discussion of regional community development through self-help programs in rural developing areas presents the need for a diversified system of institutions to ensure a developmental process based on qualitative rather than quantitative criteria. Available from: Editorial and Business Offices, Piazza Cavalieri di Malta, 2, 00153 Rome, Italy. (EA)
Belay, Abraham; Ghebreab, Freweini; Ghebremichael, Tewolde; Ghebreselassie, Asmerom; Holmes, John; White, Goodith
This paper reports on the professional development of a small group of newly qualified teachers (NQTs) who began their careers in four rural schools in Eritrea. These teachers were monitored over a period of four years from 2001 to 2004. Their development as primary practitioners was recorded by videoing and observing their classes and by…
Day, Kathryn Louise
This study examined conceptions of the right to literacy in children, adolescents, and young adults living in rural Zulu villages in the mountains of KwaZulu Natal, South Africa, as one instantiation of the development of conceptions of human rights in a developing world setting. Of human rights, literacy was chosen because of its familiarity to…
Axinn, George H.; And Others
Based on five working papers developed as part of the Program of Studies in Nonformal Education at Michigan State University, this monograph suggests a conceptual framework for analysis of rural development and nonformal education and the relationship which exists between them. The four sections of this monograph are titled and subtitled as…
Helvenston, Susan S.
This study reviews the state of professional development (PD) for teachers of beginning readers in Florida's rural schools. Teachers of beginning readers need to have a deep understanding of language, of how the reading process develops, and of effective pedagogy in early literacy. Few teachers begin their careers with sufficient knowledge and…
Michelini, Juan Jose
The importance of social capital as a resource for rural development, especially in the context of projects involving joint participation of state and civil society, is widely recognized today. This paper analyzes the obstacles confronted by local players--small farmers and government organizations--in the development of an irrigation area through…
Torimiro, D. O.; Malik, M.; Kolawole, O. D.
The study investigated the perceived roles of African rural parents in child education and development. It examined among other things, some selected personal and socio-economic characteristics of parents and their level of role performance in the education and development of their children, and recommendations were made for enhancing adequate…
Ramniceanu, Irina; Ackrill, Robert
European Union (EU) enlargement has seen 10 new member states (NMS) adopt the full range of EU policies. Within this, the rural development arm of the Common Agricultural Policy offers particular points of interest. Member states chose from an extensive list of policy measures developed within the EU15 and intended, in particular, to…
Crowe, Jessica A.
Routes to economic development attract considerable attention in community and rural sociology. Social scientists draw increasingly on studies of social capital and environmental surroundings as they examine the factors that facilitate and inhibit economic development. However, few empirical analyses exist that analyze the impact of the…
Howley, Aimee; Chadwick, Kristine; Howley, Caitlin
Mentorship programs are a promising approach to the professional development needs of new principals. The Southeastern Regional Principals' Academy provides professional development and collegial support for early-career principals in the primarily rural schools of southeast Ohio. For its 1999-2001 pilot program, 19 principals were organized into…
Zhang, Jing; Lin, Dan-dan
Owing to human parasitic diseases being related to behavior, the health education as an important measure to prevent parasite infections through human behavior intervention, has played an important role in the process of parasitic disease prevention and control in rural area of China. This paper comments on the development history of the health education for parasitic disease prevention and control, current intervention modes and the effect of the health education for parasitic diseases in rural area. This paper also summarizes the role and impact of different modes of the health education for parasitic disease prevention and control and gives some suggestions to future development of the health education in rural area under current prevalent situation of parasitic diseases.
Vargas, André; Verdier, Nicolas; Escarnot, Jean-Pierre; Vargas, André
Recent safety rules and gondola obsolescence oblige CNES to initiate new developments to improve performances according scientific needs. A large project called NOSYCA will able to offer versatile housekeeping and science telemetry system for Zero Pressure Balloons. This concept is modular, use IP protocol for scientific high data rate and mix telemetry systems to perform long duration flight. To respect safety duties, the long duration flight ISBA gondola is modified. New functions are implemented to increase reliability for stratospheric super and zero Pressure balloons flights. "Pointed gondola activity" is also concerned by improvements. After the First Fireball flight, new equipment designs are in progress for future missions. At least, boundary layer balloons performances of science payload and housekeeping system increase with new instrumentation and network telemetry concepts.
... activities. In-kind contributions such as salaries, donated time and effort, real and nonexpendable personal... included in this Notice. A map showing eligible rural areas can be found at the following link: http... the intermediary, if it meets the definition of a recipient, provided the relationship does not...
Miller, Michael T.; Tuttle, Courtney C.
Community colleges in rural environments provide a variety of services. There is a great deal of documentation supporting those services that are academic and economic. The noneconomic and nonacademic results of community college activities, however, have an undocumented yet significant impact on local communities. The current study focused on how…
Selfa, Theresa L; Goe, Richard; Kulcsar, Laszlo; Middendorf, Gerad; Bain, Carmen
The aim of this research was an in-depth analysis of the impacts of biofuels industry and ethanol plants on six rural communities in the Midwestern states of Kansas and Iowa. The goal was to provide a better understanding of the social, cultural, and economic implications of biofuels development, and to contribute to more informed policy development regarding bioenergy.Specific project objectives were: 1. To understand how the growth of biofuel production has affected and will affect Midwestern farmers and rural communities in terms of economic, demographic, and socio-cultural impacts; 2. To determine how state agencies, groundwater management districts, local governments and policy makers evaluate or manage bioenergy development in relation to competing demands for economic growth, diminishing water resources, and social considerations; 3. To determine the factors that influence the water management practices of agricultural producers in Kansas and Iowa (e.g. geographic setting, water management institutions, competing water-use demands as well as producers attitudes, beliefs, and values) and how these influences relate to bioenergy feedstock production and biofuel processing; 4. To determine the relative importance of social-cultural, environmental and/or economic factors in the promotion of biofuels development and expansion in rural communities; The research objectives were met through the completion of six detailed case studies of rural communities that are current or planned locations for ethanol biorefineries. Of the six case studies, two will be conducted on rural communities in Iowa and four will be conducted on rural communities in Kansas. A multi-method or mixed method research methodology was employed for each case study.
The focus of the DOE/USDA sponsored biomass power for rural development project is to develop commercial energy crops for power generation by the year 2000. The New York based Salix Consortium project is a multi-partner endeavor, implemented in three stages. Phase-1, Final Design and Project Development, will conclude with the preparation of construction and/or operating permits, feedstock production plans, and contracts ready for signature. Field trials of willow (Salix) have been initiated at several locations in New York (Tully, Lockport, King Ferry, La Fayette, Massena, and Himrod) and co-firing tests are underway at Greenidge Station (NYSEG) and Dunkirk Station (NMPC). Phase-2 of the project will focus on scale-up of willow crop acreage, construction of co-firing facilities at Dunkirk Station (NMPC), and final modifications for Greenidge Station. Cofiring willow is also under consideration for GPU`s Seward Station where testing is underway. There will be an evaluation of the energy crop as part of the gasification trials occurring at BED`s McNeill power station. Phase-3 will represent fullscale commercialization of the energy crop and power generation on a sustainable basis. During the third quarter of 1997, much of the Consortium`s effort has focused on outreach activities, continued feedstock development, fuel supply planning, and fuel contract development, and preparation for 1998 scale-up activities. The Consortium also submitted a Phase-1 extension proposal during this period. A few of the more important milestones are outlined below. The fourth quarter of 1997 is expected to be dominated by Phase-II proposal efforts and planning for 1998 activities.
Koppel, Bruce; Schlegel, Charles
The principal sociological frameworks used in energy research on developing countries can be appraised in terms of the view of the energy-rural development problem that each framework implies. "Socio-Technical Analysis," which is used most in industrial and organizational sociology and in ecological anthropology, is oriented to the decomposition…
The most spectacular backlash of growth of developing countries is the migration of the rural population to the cities, where many families live in deplorable conditions with income below the poverty line. To deal with this situation, most governments have embarked on a policy of subsidizing consumer prices for basic commodities. This policy has proved unfavorable to small farmers, thereby accelerating the migration to cities. Thus we are witnessing an inexorable growth in the labor shortage in rural areas and a surplus of mouths to feed in the urban areas. The problem facing governments is to discover how to reprime the internal food pump and thus reestablish a balanced distribution of the population, and food self-sufficiency for the country. This implies a need for the rehabilitation of food crop production to meet the new and specific requirements of urban consumers, and a need for a thorough knowledge of urban consumption and the factors influencing it. Where budgets are inadequate to meet minimal needs, programs that improve public transportation or housing, could, by reducing the relevant budgetary items, correspondingly increase the food purchasing power of certain socioeconomic groups. Eating habits change with migration to a city. Although in certain countries traditional foods lend themselves to the urban way of life, like the tortilla in Mexico, this is not so with cassava and coarse grains. These basic foods, the only ones that can be produced economically in local ecological conditions, can be processed and packaged to make them acceptable to urban consumers. To reverse the decades-old trend of the rush to the cities will require a sustained political will and the coordination of activities of all kinds.
Caughman, Susan L.
In June, 1977, a 2-week tie-dyeing and batik training program was undertaken for 12 Malian community development workers by a newly formed cooperative of urban dyers in Gambia. Need for income-producing activity for women in the Bambara regions of rural Mali led to a decision to promote cloth processing and in 1974 training sessions were held in…
Mount Carmel International Training Centre for Community Development, Haifa (Israel).
This report describes a community development course focusing on income-generating projects for rural women. The first section outlines the schedule of activities for each day of the 16-day course. The second section defines course objectives, including purpose and methodology, planning, group dynamics, cooperation, communication, negotiation, and…
Kinsman, John; Norris, Shane A.; Kahn, Kathleen; Twine, Rhian; Riggle, Kari; Edin, Kerstin; Mathebula, Jennifer; Ngobeni, Sizzy; Monareng, Nester; Micklesfield, Lisa K.
Background In South Africa, the expanding epidemic of non-communicable diseases is partly fuelled by high levels of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour. Women especially are at high risk, and interventions promoting physical activity are urgently needed for girls in their adolescence, as this is the time when many girls adopt unhealthy lifestyles. Objective This qualitative study aimed to identify and describe facilitating factors and barriers that are associated with physical activity among adolescent girls in rural, north-eastern South Africa and, based on these, to develop a model for promoting leisure-time physical activity within this population. Design The study was conducted in and around three secondary schools. Six focus group discussions were conducted with adolescent girls from the schools, and seven qualitative interviews were held with sports teachers and youth leaders. The data were subjected to thematic analysis. Results Seven thematic areas were identified, each of which was associated with the girls’ self-reported levels of physical activity. The thematic areas are 1) poverty, 2) body image ideals, 3) gender, 4) parents and home life, 5) demographic factors, 6) perceived health effects of physical activity, and 7) human and infrastructural resources. More barriers to physical activity were reported than facilitating factors. Conclusions Analysis of the barriers found in the different themes indicated potential remedial actions that could be taken, and these were synthesised into a model for promoting physical activity among South African adolescent girls in resource-poor environments. The model presents a series of action points, seen both from the ‘supply-side’ perspective (such as the provision of resources and training for the individuals, schools, and organisations which facilitate the activities) and from the ‘demand-side’ perspective (such as the development of empowering messages about body image for teenage girls, and
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.
Prepared to assist both the Congress and the public involved in Rural Development (RD), the 1975 Revised Guide to the Rural Development Act of 1972 provides definitive and implemental information. Part 1 deals with the Act itself, detailing its purpose, historical perspective, and major provisions. Divided into three areas of concern, Part 2 deals…
Eriksson, Lisbeth; Forsberg, Anette
On the basis of a three-year study of the role of popular education in local development processes in Sweden (2006-2008), this paper sets out to outline the role of popular education as a development actor in rural and urban contexts. Two different scenarios and approaches are discussed. One is the role of popular education in rural areas, which…
Sorensen, Donald M.
Based on the available documentation of Title V (Rural Development Act of 1972) rural development programs currently underway in the Western Region (13 states), this report summarizes project endeavors to: (1) improve income and employment; (2) enrich environmental quality; (3) enhance social and health amenities; and (4) improve the quality of…
Considerable importance is attached to social exclusion/inclusion in recent EU rural development programmes. At the national/regional operation of these programmes groups of people who are not participating are often identified as "socially excluded groups". This article contends that rural development programmes are misinterpreting the…
Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Garita-Arce, Carlos; Sanchez-Lopez, Marta; Colon-Ramos, Uriyoan
Objective: To assess the perceptions of rural and urban Costa Rican adolescents regarding which barriers and motivators affect their adoption of an active lifestyle. Design: Data were collected in focus group discussions. Participants: 108 male and female adolescents aged 12 to 18 from the 7th to 11th grades. Setting: Two urban and 1 rural high…
Markantoni, Marianna; van Hoven, Bettina
Over the past 20 years, rural areas in Western societies have transformed from a production to a consumption space. Much research on rural diversification and revitalization has focused on farmers and their wives. However, it is useful to examine side activities run by non-farm women which have slowly emerged in the last few years. In view of…
Khomelyansky, B N
This study is concerned with the problems caused by rural-urban migration in the USSR and with the policies that have been developed to deal with those problems. The author suggests that "the increase in the material prosperity of collective farmers since the Revolution, although a necessary condition for discouraging rural migration, has not in itself been sufficient to prevent the occurrence of rural manpower shortages. He points to the need for an all-round approach to improving conditions of life in the countryside, with due regard for cultural/utilitarian and socio-psychological factors, and suggests that the solution to the problem lies in agro-industrial integration, the improvement of public transport and the extension of the all-weather road network."
The focus of the DOE/USDA sponsored biomass power for rural development project is to develop commercial energy crops for power generation by the year 2000. The New York based Salix Consortium project is a multi-partner endeavor, implemented in three stages. Phase-1, Final Design and Project Development, will conclude with the preparation of construction and/or operating permits, feedstock production plans, and contracts ready for signature. Field trials of willow (Salix) have been initiated at several locations in New York (Tully, Lockport, King Ferry, La Fayette, Massena, and Himrod) and co-firing tests are underway at Greenidge Station (NYSEG) and Dunkirk Station (NMPC). Phase-2 of the project will focus on scale-up of willow crop acreage, construction of co-firing facilities at Dunkirk Station (NMPC), and final modifications for Greenidge Station. Cofiring willow is also under consideration for GPU`s Seward Station where testing is underway. There will be an evaluation of the energy crop as part of the gasification trials occurring at BED`s McNeill Power Station. Phase-3 will represent fullscale commercialization of the energy crop and power generation on a sustainable basis. During the fourth quarter of 1997 the Consortium submitted a Phase-2 proposal. A few of the other more important milestones are outlined below. The first quarter of 1998 will be dominated by pre-planting activity in the spring.
Sun, Xiaojun; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Yongxin; Xie, Xiaochun; Heath, Melissa A.; Zhou, Zongkui
With China's rapidly developing economy and increasing urbanization, many adults from rural areas migrate to urban areas for better paid jobs. A side effect of this migration is that parents frequently leave their children behind (left-behind children). This research investigated left-behind children's and non-left-behind children's psychological,…
Vera, Hernan; Gamio, Raul Santoyo
Chilean "asentados" and Mexican "ejidatarios" as observed between 1965-73 and 1972-76, respectively, constitute the basis for an analysis of the interaction between peasants and agents of social change in the rural development process. Encounters between peasants and functionaries can be conceived as ceremonies incorporating…
Blanchard, Margaret R.; LePrevost, Catherine E.; Tolin, A. Dell; Gutierrez, Kristie S.
This 3-year, mixed-methods study investigated the effects of teacher technology-enhanced professional development (TPD) on 20 teachers' beliefs and practices. Teachers in two middle schools located in neighboring rural, high-poverty districts in the southeastern United States participated in reform-based lessons and learned how to integrate…
Miller, Lucinda G.; And Others
Two pharmacy computer training laboratories were developed in Nebraska to facilitate student acquisition of computer skills for patient education prior to their clerkships at Nebraska Drug Information Network rural sites. Students' previous computer experience and computer use in delivering education during clerkships were assessed. Patterns in…
... the Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations... evaluated; and 3. Provide an accounting for the money received by the grantee in accordance with 7 CFR part... Center (7 U.S.C. 1932(e)(5)and 7 U.S.C. 1932(e)(4)(c)): i. Applied research, feasibility,...
.... Persons with hearing or speech impairments may access this number via TDD by calling the toll-free Federal... Program. Rural Development must inspect the unit and ensure that the unit meets the housing inspection... determines the unit meets the housing inspection standards. In the case of properties financed by...
Wang, Tengfei; Ren, Xuezhu; Schweizer, Karl; Xu, Fen
The current research investigated the variability of school effects on intelligence development in considering two economically and socially distinct groups of children. The data came from a nationally representative sample of primary school children from urban and rural areas of China. Two standardised reasoning tests were used to assess fluid…
Martinez-Brawley, Emilia E.
This paper analyzes principles of knowledge diffusion and provides a framework for applying new ideas or innovations, particularly in relation to rural community development. As new knowledge is created or old knowledge is found to have new applications, the art of spreading knowledge and managing innovation has become more crucial in both urban…
Castleman, Jacquelyn B.
This practicum reports on the creation of a professional development school (PDS) designed to improve field experiences for early childhood education majors at a rural private college. The goal of the project was to increase the number of qualified teachers at a local primary school who would be willing to participate in the supervision of student…
Bradshaw, Ted K.; Blakely, Edward J.
Using in-person questionnaires, 553 newcomers and 106 long-term residents were interviewed in late 1979 and early 1980 in 5 small northern California communities to explore the role of newcomers in developing the rural economy, and especially to analyze the resources emigrants bring with them: their skills, education, background, and business and…
Henness, Steven A.; Ball, Anna L.; Moncheski, MaryJo
Using 4-H and FFA case study findings, this article explores how community service-learning supports the building of social capital between rural youth and adults and the positive effects on community viability. Key elements of practice form a community development approach to service-learning, which opens up doorways for youth to partner with…
Across the United States, partnerships have formed between business and industry and rural community college workforce development customize training programs to meet the demands of the 21st century labor market. For many business and industry managers, a partnership has become a necessary means to train the unskilled as well as update skills…
Sherbini, Jaleh T.
The purpose of this study was to examine institution-based leadership development programs in rural community colleges in Illinois, and the impact of these programs in supporting and preparing future community college leaders. The study also explored the efficacy of these programs and whether their implementation aligns with the institutions'…
...: (1) The extent to which a project stimulate rural development by creating new jobs of a permanent nature or retaining existing jobs by enabling new small businesses to be started, or existing businesses... regional area economy. (3) The extent to which a project will generate or retain jobs for local or...
Pelton, Mary Helen White
Staff development is the small school district's key to survival in the 1980's. Although small rural districts may face problems like isolation and limited resources, they have distinct advantages. Chapter 1 of this guide provides a list of advantages, which include close contact between teachers and administrators, strong ties to the local…
Williams, Stacy A. S.; Staulters, Merry L.
Rural educators from several elementary schools in southwest Jamaica completed pre- and post-literacy surveys. Professional training was developed and provided in response to the pre-assessment results. Literacy training combined two essential skills: (a) ongoing assessment of literacy achievement and (b) evidenced-based intervention strategies.…
Gur'ianova, M. P.
It is well known that to a large extent, it is the young people of today who will determine the intellectual, economic, cultural, and spiritual face of rural Russia in the twenty-first century. Unless young people take part in the modernization of the economy and in its social development, the Russian countryside will not have a future. Among…
Beaulieu, Lionel J.; Molnar, Joseph J.
Findings from current literature form the basis for this examination of five critical elements of change and development within the local community setting which impact on agriculture: population, employment, land, water, and environment. Renewed rural population growth during the 1970's has reversed small farm trends but placed strains on local…
Cox, Robin S.; Espinoza, Adriana
The authors propose a framework for career counseling in rural communities that addresses the psychosocial and economic challenges of natural disasters and other catastrophic transitions. The career-community development framework expands the notion of "client" to include a community-as-client approach within a capacity building…
Berstecher, D., Ed.; And Others
This book is the final outcome of a research project begun in 1981 by the International Institute for Educational Planning under the title, "Planning and Management of Formal and Nonformal Education within Integrated Rural Development Projects." Part 1 reports the concluding 1984 Nepal seminar to pinpoint the real role of education as a…
McNamara, Kevin T.; Deaton, Brady J.
Support for public education wavers in a number of states due to a lack of evidence indicating that increased funding is associated with increases in output. Maintaining and increasing this support, however, is critical for rural communities as they seek to strengthen their human capital base as a strategy for economic growth and development. The…
Gallo, Jessica R.
This dissertation examines the various ways that teachers in two school districts in rural northern Wisconsin participate in professional development. This case study research analyzes interview data with two teachers, their administrators, and a Cooperative Educational Service Agency professional using a critical sociocultural framework in order…
Grant, Thomas N.
Case studies of two, successful, rural, self-development programs in India are presented in this document, which is designed to supplement the study of India in the social studies curriculum. After a brief introduction to India's village system, the two projects are discussed. The first case study presents a water collection system in Bagrunda…
In most countries, agricultural research (AR), institutions of higher education in agriculture (HEA), and agricultural advisory services (AAS) function as separate agencies. So far, in most countries, AR, HEA, and AAS have not had a common vision for rural development. In Finland, domination of agricultural production in Finland has led to a lack…
Nkwocha, E. E.
There is a growing concern about the marginalization of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria in terms of infrastructural and social services provision. This study examined the water supply deficiency and its general implications for rural development within the region. Data and other study characteristics were extracted from 501 subjects drawn from…
Phillips, Kristin D.
Since the 1940s, the concept of community participation has framed, mobilized, and legitimated national development agendas in the Singida Region of rural central Tanzania. Based on 19 months of ethnographic and archival research, this study examines the forms of community participation elicited through state and international development…
Zhao, Meng; Glewwe, Paul
This paper analyzes recent household survey data from Gansu, a less developed province in Northwest China, to examine school attainment in a poor rural area of China. Censored ordered probit regressions are used to estimate the determinants of years of schooling. Child nutritional status, as measured by height-for-age Z-scores, and household…
Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; McClain, Latoya L.; Dinson, Ay-Laina
The purpose of this study was to adapt and validate narrative scripts to be used for the video components of a culturally grounded drug prevention program for rural Native Hawaiian youth. Scripts to be used to film short video vignettes of drug-related problem situations were developed based on a foundation of pre-prevention research funded by the…
Schafft, Kai A.; Alter, Theodore R.; Bridger, Jeffrey C.
We draw on interactional community theory to analyze the relationship between information technology and local development through a case study of a geographically isolated and economically disadvantaged rural school district. This district has used state-of-the-art information technology infrastructure in a broad-based community and economic…
Aarts, Noelle; Leeuwis, Cees
Purpose: To examine the role of power in interactive policymaking settings. Design/Methodology/Approach: A literature study is combined with four case studies relating to citizen participation in natural resource management and rural development in the Netherlands. Findings: Many of the identified problems and dilemmas of interactive policymaking…
Tumosa, Nina; Horvath, Kathy J.; Huh, Terri; Livote, Elayne E.; Howe, Judith L.; Jones, Lauren Ila; Kramer, B. Josea
The Geriatric Scholar Program (GSP) is a Department of Veterans Affairs' (VA) workforce development program to infuse geriatrics competencies in primary care. This multimodal educational program is targeted to primary care providers and ancillary staff who work in VA's rural clinics. GSP consists of didactic education and training in geriatrics…
Courtney, Paul; Hill, Gary; Roberts, Deborah
There is growing recognition of the important role played by natural heritage in rural economic development, but limited empirical work as yet to inform this debate. This paper examines the nature and strength of local economic linkages associated with the natural heritage in four case study areas in Scotland, differentiated in terms of their…
... Contact (SPOC) to facilitate this consultation. For a list of states that maintain an SPOC, please see the White House Web site: http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/grants_spoc . If an applicant's state has an SPOC... the SPOC must be provided to USDA Rural Development for consideration as part of the application....
Pacza, Tom; Steele, Lesley; Tennant, Marc
A culturally appropriate oral health training course tailored to the needs of rural Aboriginal health workers was developed in Western Australia. The course is taught in three modules ranging from introductory material to comprehensive practical and theoretical knowledge of basic dental health care. The program encourages Aboriginal health workers…
Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Land Tenure Center.
Compiled in December 1971, this bibliography lists approximately 940 books, journals, periodicals, and unpublished mimeographs dealing with rural development in north, west, and southern Africa. All materials are dated between 1953 and 1971. Entries are listed by country under the following headings: agriculture, economic affairs, social affairs,…
Anderson, Teresa, Comp.; And Others
Compiled in July, 1971, this bibliography lists approximately 1,950 books, journal articles, and unpublished manuscripts dealing with rural development in Africa generally and in central and east Africa specifically. General entries appear under the following headings: agriculture; economic affairs; bibliography; law; economic and technical…
This document was produced by the author(s) based on their research for the report, "The Role of Community Development Employment Projects in Rural and Remote Communities," (ED495158) and is an added resource for further information. The contents of this support docment include: (1) Regional Council--Roma; (2) Regional Council--Tennant…
Ndoutorlengar, Médard; Djangrang, Man-na; Mamgue, Bassinang; Yongsi, H. B. Nguendo; Groza, Octavian
The schools in rural areas in developing countries are often confronted with difficulties which are, in general, related to poverty, the quantitative and qualitative insufficiency of the professionals and the organization. Consequently, every year, the examinations results are unsatisfactory playing on the curriculum and excellence in the…
Fallin, Amanda; Parker, Lindsay; Lindgreen, Janine; Riker, Carol; Kercsmar, Sarah; Hahn, Ellen J.
Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure causes cardiovascular disease, lung cancer and pulmonary disorders. Smoke-free policies are the most effective way to prevent exposure to SHS. A 5-year community-based randomized control trial (RCT) is in progress to assess factors associated with smoke-free policy development in rural communities. Considering…
McIlveen, Peter; Morgan, Tanya; Bimrose, Jennifer
This study investigated students' experiences of a career development program that was established to foster interest in and aspirations for higher education within high school students residing in rural and isolated areas of Australia. Nine students who participated in the program were interviewed 18 months later to explore their recollections of…
Cabraal, A.; Delansanta, D.; Burrill, G.
The suitability (i.e., cost competitiveness and reliability) of photovoltaic (PV) power systems for rural applications in developing countries is considered. Potential application sectors include health delivery, education and communication where small amounts of electricity are needed to meet critical needs.
Rural Development Service (USDA), Washington, DC.
As the fourth in a series of annual reports to the Congress by the President on the availability of government and government-assisted services to rural areas, this report first delineates U.S. counties into 10 county groups representing an urban-to-rural continuum and then divides 209 selected Federal programs into five categories (Housing;…
It is becoming increasingly apparent that rural communities will have to alter their economic patterns as the United States economy shifts and rural areas cannot compete successfully with cities for emerging industries and future jobs. Instead of catering to the large firms and high-tech companies that are expected to predominate in the future,…
Rural Development Service (USDA), Washington, DC.
Information derived from the Federal Information Exchange System on Federal outlays in rural America (160 Federal programs) provides the basis for this initial annual report. Information is reported via narrative and tabular data and relates only to Federal assistance. Highlighting some of the recent rural socioeconomic trends, the narrative…
Cleland, Verity; Sodergren, Marita; Otahal, Petr; Timperio, Anna; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; Salmon, Jo; McNaughton, Sarah A
This study aimed to determine whether associations between the perceived environment and physical activity are moderated by urban-rural status among midolder aged adults. Environmental (safety, aesthetics, physical activity environment) and physical activity (total, leisure, transport) data from 3,888 adults (55 to 65 years) from urban and rural areas of Victoria, Australia, were analyzed. Multinomial logistic regression examined interactions between urban-rural status and environments in associations with physical activity. Significant (P < .05) interactions were evident and indicated positive associations only among older rural adults for both safety and aesthetics with total and transport physical activity (e.g., rural adults reporting higher safety were 91% to 118% more likely to have higher activity than rural adults reporting low safety). In contrast, the physical activity environment was positively associated with leisure activity among only urban adults. Findings suggest that some tailoring of physical activity promotion strategies targeting the environment may be required for urban and rural midolder aged adults.
Webster, J Matthew; Oser, Carrie B; Mateyoke-Scrivner, Allison; Cline, Virginia Depp; Havens, Jennifer R; Leukefeld, Carl G
The present study examined whether ever being arrested for driving under the influence (DUI) was associated with higher levels of substance use and criminal activity in a sample of 800 probationers. Lifetime and 30-day histories of substance use and criminal activity were compared across three groups of probationers from rural Kentucky: those with a single DUI arrest, those with two or more DUI arrests, and those with no DUI arrests. A larger percentage of probationers with a DUI arrest reported lifetime and 30-day substance use than non-DUI offenders in almost all drug and alcohol categories. Higher prevalence of criminal activity was limited primarily to the multiple DUI arrest group. Findings add to the literature on rural substance abusers and indicate that DUI may be used as a marker to help identify opportunities for targeted substance abuse interventions.
Findholt, Nancy E; Michael, Yvonne L; Jerofke, Linda J; Brogoitti, Victoria W
PURPOSE. To identify environmental barriers and facilitators of children's physical activity and healthy eating in a rural county. DESIGN. Community-based participatory research using mixed methods, primarily qualitative. SETTING. A rural Oregon county. SUBJECTS. Ninety-five adults, 6 high school students, and 41 fifth-grade students. MEASURES. In-depth interviews, focus groups, Photovoice, and structured observations using the Physical Activity Resource Assessment, System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity, Community Food Security Assessment Toolkit, and School Food and Beverage Marketing Assessment Tool. ANALYSIS. Qualitative data were coded by investigators; observational data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings were triangulated to produce a composite of environmental barriers and assets. RESULTS. Limited recreational resources, street-related hazards, fear of strangers, inadequate physical education, and denial of recess hindered physical activity, whereas popularity of youth sports and proximity to natural areas promoted physical activity. Limited availability and high cost of healthy food, busy lifestyles, convenience stores near schools, few healthy meal choices at school, children's being permitted to bring snacks to school, candy used as incentives, and teachers' modeling unhealthy eating habits hindered healthy eating, whereas the agricultural setting and popularity of gardening promoted healthy eating. CONCLUSIONS. This study provides data on a neglected area of research, namely environmental determinants of rural childhood obesity, and points to the need for multifaceted and multilevel environmental change interventions.
Regis, Manuela Ferreira; de Oliveira, Luciano Machado Ferreira Tenório; dos Santos, Ana Raquel Mendes; Leonidio, Ameliane da Conceição Reubens; Diniz, Paula Rejane Beserra; de Freitas, Clara Maria Silvestre Monteiro
ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior in adolescents living in urban and rural areas. Methods An epidemiological, cross-section study with quantitative design, carried out at the regional level. The sample comprised 6,234 students aged 14 to 19 years, selected using random cluster sampling. The χ2 test and binary logistic regression were used in the analysis. Results A total of 74.5% of adolescents lived in urban areas. After adjustment, rural residents spent less time watching television (odds ratio – OR: 0.45; 95% confidence interval – 95%CI: 0.39-0.52), using a computer and/or playing video games (OR: 0.30; 95%CI: 0.22-0.42), or sitting down (OR: 0.66; 95%CI: 0.54-0.80); chose passive leisure less often (OR: 0.83; 95%IC: 0.72-0.95) and were less likely to be classified as insufficiently active (OR: 0.88; 95%IC: 0.78-0.99) when compared to urban residents, regardless of sex or age. The fact that adolescents living in rural areas who did not work were more likely to be classified as insufficiently active (OR: 2.59; 95%CI: 2.07-3.24) emphasized the significant role of occupation in physical activity levels in this group. Conclusion Adolescents living in rural areas were less exposed to the sedentary behaviors, chose more active leisure, and had higher levels of physical activity. Place of residence and occupation may play a major role in youth lifestyle. PMID:28076591
Khadse, G K; Talkhande, A V; Andey, S P; Kelkar, P S
The Himalayan region of Tehri Garhwal in India has scattered habitations in the villages with scanty, non-perennial and unsafe water resources like springs and streams. Poor environmental conditions arising from unsafe drinking water, inadequate sanitary measures, unhygienic disposal of excreta, sullage and accumulation of solid wastes have resulted in poor public health. The experiences gained through water supply and sanitation studies carried out especially in this rural area have been shared in this paper so as to enable adoption of relevant practices and technologies developed by the National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI, India) in the affected areas. Environmental protection of the streams and springs for sustained water availability and safe drinking water supply was ensured with active public participation, training, and awareness programs. Various surface rainwater harvesting structures were constructed at suitable sites along with ferro-cement roofwater harvesting tanks in selected villages. The activities related to designing and commissioning of a small slow sand filtration unit were carried out at Chhati (Nakot) village for safe drinking water supply. Chlorination pots were demonstrated and installed in rainwater harvesting tanks for disinfection of water for drinking purpose. Water quality assessment and health survey (parasitic and hemoglobin investigation) in the affected villages were carried out before and after technological intervention. The training and awareness programs were organised for people of 23 villages in the study area covering water and sanitation related topics. The beneficiary's opinions, perceptions, apprehensions, as well as expectations reflected positive approach towards the achievement of anticipated benefits and impacts.
Agriculture, Rural Development, and the Use of Land. A Series of Papers Compiled by the Subcommittee on Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, United States Senate. Committee Print, 93rd Congress, 2nd Session, April 16, 1974.
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.
Compiled by the members of the U.S. Senate Subcommittee on Rural Development, this series of papers presents varying views on rural land-use issues. The 19 papers are titled as follows: (1) "Planning: Some questions, Answers, and Issues"; (2) "Evolution of Planning Theory and Practice: A Response to Changing Problems and Institutions"; (3) "The…
Bryant, Keneshia; Moore, Todd; Willis, Nathaniel; Hadden, Kristie
Background Faith-based mental health interventions developed and implemented using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach hold promise for reaching rural African Americans and addressing health disparities. Objectives To describe the development, challenges, and lessons learned from the Trinity Life Management, a faith-based stress management intervention in a rural African American faith community. Methods The researchers used a CBPR approach by partnering with the African American faith community to develop a stress management intervention. Development strategies include working with key informants, focus groups, and a community advisory board (CAB). Results The community identified the key concepts that should be included in a stress management intervention. Conclusions The faith-based “Trinity Life Management” stress management intervention was developed collaboratively by a CAB and an academic research team. The intervention includes stress management techniques that incorporate Biblical principles and information about the stress–distress–depression continuum. PMID:26548794
Mahasarakham province in Thailand has adopted family planning as its primary development policy. Although not a new issue, family planning until now has been largely ignored by most government sectors. Most consider family planning to be the sole responsibility of the Ministry of Public Ealth (MOPH), and this is why family planning has not been as successful as it should be. Discussion covers the general problem (rapid population increase, limited arable land, productivity, social and economic development, and deforestation), problems of family planning in the past (trained personnel and accessibility and government sectors ignoring or hindering family planning programs), integrated rural development (motivation, mobilizing teamwork, the integrated approach, mobile medical team, family planning for both the rich and the poor, and emphasis on vasectomy and IUD), objectives of the family planning program, and implementation. Mahasarakham uses an integrated rural development approach that emphasizes 9 development components: family planning, fisheries development, vegetable growing, water purification, rice banks, soy beans, using anchovies for natural fish sauce, insect extermination by electricity, and fuel from rice banks. All of these components contribute to the development of a better quality of rural life. The major problem is population growth, which at 1.8% remains high. Mahasarakham will promote the family planning program as the top priority, and this service will be brought to the people. The objectives of the family planning program are: to reduce the population growth rate Mahasarakham to zero growth within 2-3 years: to provide access to family planning services to all people in Mahasarakham; to educate people about family planning to increase its acceptance: to initiate a proper rural development program in Mahasarakham; and to promote intergovernmental cooperation by means of the integrated approach, which will have good results in later rural
The Isoya Rural Development Project appears to have enhanced Nigerian women's multiple roles (maternal, occupational, conjugal, domestic, kin, community, and individual). Limitations of the project include poor rural infrastructure, male-oriented cultural norms, and lack of direct access to land by women. (SK)
Parker, Elizabeth; O'Connor-Fleming, M.; Tooth, L.; Humphries, R. J.
A resource manual on cardiac rehabilitation education was developed for health workers providing patient education in rural and remote Queensland (Australia). A process evaluation of the manual received feedback from 5 key informants and 31 rural health care workers following a 3-month trial. Overall, feedback was positive. Recommended content…
This essay examines how the social construction of community may influence faculty perceptions, roles, and actions in rural community development outreach. Special attention is given to the social construction of rural communities and how disciplinary perspective and popular culture influence these perceptions of community. The essay considers how…
Dunne, Faith; And Others
The fourth and final unit in a 9-12 week life planning and career development program designed for high school students in rural areas uses imaginary case studies of rural women to involve students in solving complex life problems through simulation. Individual lessons in the 13-day unit focus on job search techniques (resumes, interviews, skills…
Four kinds of U.S. anti-poverty programs were analyzed in terms of their impact upon the rural poor. Examination of 13 rural Community Development Corporations (CDC) in terms of prior and present poverty of non-manager employees indicated the effect of these programs was one of merely changing the source of income rather than the stratification…
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Asian Centre for Educational Innovation for Development.
Volume 4 in a five-volume portfolio of studies reflecting different facets of the concept of education for rural development consists of three studies. The first study, "Planning for Meeting Manpower Requirements and Training for Self-Employment in Rural Areas," by Jose R. Vergara (Philippines), analyzes the scenario of growth and…
Diaz-Puente, Jose M.; Moreno, Francisco Jose Gallego; Zamorano, Ramon
Training is a key tool for community development processes in rural areas. This training is made difficult by the characteristics of the rural areas and their population. Furthermore, the methods used by traditional training bodies are not adapted to the peculiarities of these areas. This article analyses the training methodology used by the…
Dunne, Faith; And Others
Unit I of a 4-unit (9-12 week) career development and life planning program for rural high school students focuses on life in rural localities. Designed to last approximately 13 days, the unit uses student experience and supplementary data as a basis for discussion of the local area, its people and their roles, the advantages and disadvantages of…
Martin, Sarah Levin; Kirkner, Gregory J.; Mayo, Kelly; Matthews, Charles E.; Durstine, Larry; Hebert, James R.
Purpose: There is some speculation about geographic differences in physical activity (PA) levels. We examined the prevalence of physical inactivity (PIA) and whether US citizens met the recommended levels of PA across the United States. In addition, the association between PIA/PA and degree of urbanization in the 4 main US regions (Northeast,…
Oh, Hyun-Ju; Rana, Sharon
The purposes of this investigation were to examine whether pedometer-assessed physical activity (PA) in Appalachian Ohio students differed by body mass index (BMI), school level (middle school vs. high school), and gender during school days and nonschool days and whether students met the recommended PA guidelines. Participants (N = 149) were…
Gupta, M R
"A theoretical model of rural-urban migration has been developed with special reference to the informal sector. The wage rate and employment in the informal sector are determined endogenously. The paper shows the simultaneous existence of open unemployment and informal sector in the urban area in migration equilibrium. The effects of alternative subsidy policies on unemployment and welfare of the workers are studied." The model is intended primarily for use in analyzing trends and policies in developing countries.
Krause, Rachel J; Koski, Kristine G; Pons, Emérita; Sinisterra, Odalis; Scott, Marilyn E
This longitudinal study explored whether aspects of subsistence agriculture were associated with presence and intensity of Ascaris and hookworm in preschool children in rural Panama. Questionnaires were used to collect data on household socio-demographics, child exposure to agriculture and household agricultural practices. Stool samples were collected from children (6 months-5 years) at 3 time points, with albendazole administered after each to clear infections, resulting in 1 baseline and 2 reinfection measures. A novel Agricultural Activity Index (AAI) was developed using principal components analysis to measure the intensity of household agricultural practices. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed baseline hookworm egg counts were higher if children went to the agricultural plot and if the plot was smaller. Baseline and reinfection Ascaris egg counts were higher if children went to the plot and households had higher AAI, and higher at baseline if the plot was smaller. Caregiver time in the plot was negatively associated with baseline Ascaris egg counts, but positively associated with baseline hookworm and Ascaris reinfection egg counts. Children who spent more time playing around the home were less likely to be infected with Ascaris at baseline. We conclude that preschool child exposure to subsistence agriculture increased Ascaris and hookworm intensity.
Vangenderen, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Lock, B. F.
The author has identified the following significant results. This research program has developed a viable methodology for producing small scale rural land use maps in semi-arid developing countries using imagery obtained from orbital multispectral scanners.
Eime, R M; Payne, W R; Casey, M M; Harvey, J T
Physical activity (PA) is important for lifelong health; however, participation is lower in rural compared with metropolitan areas and declines during adolescence, particularly for girls. It is likely that this decline is related to the number of life transitions that occur during adolescence. This qualitative study examined the views of active rural living girls regarding the factors affecting their sport and PA participation, using the socioecological model. Twenty-seven girls aged 16-17 from four schools participated in semi-structured focus group discussions. Content and thematic analysis was conducted from verbatim transcripts using NVivo. The girls enjoyed involvement in community club sport with friends and they reported living in communities where participation in sport was a major form of social interaction. However, the desire to succeed educationally was a critical factor affecting their participation in sport and PA and influenced their movement from structured club sport to more flexible, but socially isolated individual activities. It is recommended that future longitudinal research should track rural living adolescent females as they complete secondary school, in order to better understand the influence of educational priorities upon sport and PA participation and to identify practical strategies for both schools and community organizations to foster continuing participation throughout this crucial period of life transition.
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.
Submitted to the U.S. Senate by the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, this report on the Rural Development Act of 1972 contains the following: (1) Brief Explanation of the Bill (Titles I-VII); (2) Statements on the Need for Rural Development and Rural Development Credit and Investment; (3) Titles I-VII (presented via a short explanation, a…
Caspary, Georg; O'Connor, David
Rural areas of the developing world are the last frontier of the information technology revolution. Telephone and internet penetration there remains a small fraction of what it is in the developed world. Limited means of electronic communication with the outside world are just one source of isolation of rural communities and economies from the…
Maine State Dept. of Manpower Affairs, Augusta.
The Annual Rural Manpower Report is a summary of events and programs affecting rural communities during 1975. Intended as a general overview of activities in rural Maine, it is not an indepth study of all manpower programs serving the state. Part I provides the annual summary and discusses planning, economic development, employment and…
Treillon, Roland; And Others
This publication describes the formation and evolution of rural agribusiness (RA) in the southern hemisphere as a precondition for improving the lives of families in rural communities, and focuses on RA endeavors created by development projects in Latin America, the Caribbean, and Africa. After a short introduction, the first section of this study…
Seguin, Rebecca; Nelson, Miriam; LaCroix, Andrea
Objective. Studies demonstrate that people's food and physical activity (PA) environments influence behavior, yet research examining this in rural communities is limited. Methods. Focus groups of 8–15 women were conducted in rural communities in seven US states. Questions were designed to identify factors within residents' food and PA environments they felt helped or hindered them from eating healthfully and being physically active. Results. Participants were aged 30–84 years; mean (SD) = 61 (14) (N = 95). On average, communities had fewer than 5,000 residents. Limited time, social norms, and distances from or lack of exercise facilities were common PA barriers. Facilitators for PA included social support, dog walking, and availability of affordable facilities. Healthy eating barriers included the perception that healthy foods were too expensive; calorically dense large portion sizes served at family meals; and frequency of eating foods away from home, which were perceived as generally unhealthy. Healthy eating supports included culture/value around local food gathering (e.g., hunting and gardening) and preservation (e.g., canning and smoking). Friends and family were frequently identified as key influencers of eating and PA behavior. Conclusions. Targeting both social and built environment factors, particularly those unique to rural locales, may enhance support for healthy eating and PA behavior change interventions. PMID:25574386
This article is a response to Kassam, Avery, and Ruelle's insights as presented in this forum on rural science education. Topics considered include troubling the urban/rural divide in the context of Indigenous knowledge and expanding to include the common Canadian notion of the "remote", a designation rooted in our national colonial narrative for the mythic, typically northern, wilderness sparsely inhabited by primarily Indigenous peoples. These concepts are further considered through exploration of Indigenous and allied ecological activism in Canada and the United States related to the proposed Northern Gateway and Keystone XL pipelines. This discussion concludes with an argument for the inherent pedagogical opportunity presented by such cases for contemporary educators to engage students in consideration of wicked problems, geographically rooted cognitive diversity, and the legal, economic, ecological, and cultural underpinnings and ramifications of the current events prominent in their home communities and abroad.
This article is a response to Kassam, Avery, and Ruelle's insights as presented in this forum on rural science education. Topics considered include troubling the urban/rural divide in the context of Indigenous knowledge and expanding to include the common Canadian notion of the "remote", a designation rooted in our national colonial narrative for the mythic, typically northern, wilderness sparsely inhabited by primarily Indigenous peoples. These concepts are further considered through exploration of Indigenous and allied ecological activism in Canada and the United States related to the proposed Northern Gateway and Keystone XL pipelines. This discussion concludes with an argument for the inherent pedagogical opportunity presented by such cases for contemporary educators to engage students in consideration of wicked problems, geographically rooted cognitive diversity, and the legal, economic, ecological, and cultural underpinnings and ramifications of the current events prominent in their home communities and abroad.
Adewumi, B. A.
Agricultural Engineering has transformed agricultural practices from subsistence level to medium and large-scale production via mechanisation in the developed nations. This has reduced the labour force requirements in agriculture; increased production levels and efficiency, product shelf life and product quality; and resulted into…
Benge, Beverly; Montgomery, Diane
Twice exceptional students are those who have emotional disturbances or behavioral disorders (E/BD) and who also display characteristics of high intellectual ability. Case studies were developed over a 3-year period on three male junior high school students who fit this definition. Data were interpreted using Kazimierz Dabrowski's Theory of…
..., and Energy Act of 2008 (7 U.S.C. 6941a). (30) Related to biomass research and development. Administer... energy. (i) Provide Department-wide operational support and coordination for loan and grant programs to... the Department of Energy and other government agencies and departments with respect to...
Stokowski, Patricia A.
Three small Colorado towns that faced a declining economy as the mining resource ran out used gambling-based tourism as a strategy for community development. Although economic benefits to the towns have far exceeded expectations, negative social, environmental, and political changes, such as crime alcoholism, traffic problems, and conflicts…
Fishbaugh, Mary Susan E.; Hecimovic, Tony
A teacher study group was formed at Garfield Elementary School (Billings, Montana) to provide opportunities for professional development. Garfield Elementary has a student population of over 400 students, approximately 50 of whom qualify for special education services. The majority of children come from lower socioeconomic backgrounds and…
Addington, James R.
This study examines education and development in Appalachia using environmental education as the theoretical basis. Despite over 50 years of public attention to the educational and developmental disparities in the Central Appalachian region, these disparities still exist. Thus, the investigation into a new paradigm seems appropriate (Eller, 2008).…
Swan, Gillian M; Selvaraj, Sivasubramaniam; Godden, David J
Background The configuration of rural health services is influenced by geography. Rural health practitioners provide a broader range of services to smaller populations scattered over wider areas or more difficult terrain than their urban counterparts. This has implications for training and quality assurance of outcomes. This exploratory study describes the development of a "clinical peripherality" indicator that has potential application to remote and rural general practice communities for planning and research purposes. Methods Profiles of general practice communities in Scotland were created from a variety of public data sources. Four candidate variables were chosen that described demographic and geographic characteristics of each practice: population density, number of patients on the practice list, travel time to nearest specialist led hospital and travel time to Health Board administrative headquarters. A clinical peripherality index, based on these variables, was derived using factor analysis. Relationships between the clinical peripherality index and services offered by the practices and the staff profile of the practices were explored in a series of univariate analyses. Results Factor analysis on the four candidate variables yielded a robust one-factor solution explaining 75% variance with factor loadings ranging from 0.83 to 0.89. Rural and remote areas had higher median values and a greater scatter of clinical peripherality indices among their practices than an urban comparison area. The range of services offered and the profile of staffing of practices was associated with the peripherality index. Conclusion Clinical peripherality is determined by the nature of the practice and its location relative to secondary care and administrative and educational facilities. It has features of both gravity model-based and travel time/accessibility indicators and has the potential to be applied to training of staff for rural and remote locations and to other aspects
Available in English or Spanish, this resource guide aims to help rural schools and communities learn ways of supporting each other so that both can thrive. Background information and basic tools are provided for starting a joint school-community development effort. Chapters contain: (1) outline of the guide and statement of beliefs about…
Most university students in China have their sights firmly set on future job and study opportunities in urban cities and abroad. However, a network of student volunteers felt compelled to join the cause of rural development and villager empowerment, reminiscent of efforts promoted forty years ago by Chairman Mao who sent "educated youth"…
Mugisha, J F
This project revitalised continuing professional development (CPD) among rural health professionals in Uganda, Africa, using information and communication technology (ICT). The project was piloted in 3 rural hospitals where CPD activities were failing to meet demand because activities were not properly coordinated, the meetings were too infrequent, the delivery methods were inappropriate, and the content was highly supply-driven and generally irrelevant to the performance needs of the health workers. The project intervention involved the installation of various ICT equipment including computers, liquid crystal display (LCD) projectors, office copiers, printers, spiral binders and CDs. A number of health workers were also trained in ICT use. Three years later, an evaluation study was conducted using interviews, focus group discussions and document review. The results indicated that there had been a rapid increase in the number of staff attending the CPD sessions, an increased staff mix among participants, improved quality of CPD presentations, increased use of locally produced content, more relevant topics discussed and an increased interest by hospital management in CPD, manifested by commitment of staff training funds. Staff motivation, attitude and responsiveness to clients had also improved as a result of the invigorated CPD activities.
Assal, Timothy J.; Montag, Jessica M.
This paper describes a spatiotemporal land use map for a rural county in the western United States. Sublette County, Wyoming has undergone recent land use change in the form of heightened rural residential development on private land and increased energy development on both public and private land. In this study we integrate energy production data, population census data, ownership parcel data, and a series of Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper scenes (over a 25-year period) to create a map that illustrates the changing landscape. Spatial change on the landscape is mapped at 30 square meters, congruent with a Landsat pixel. Sublette County has a wealth of wildlife and associated habitat which is affected by both types of growth. While we do not attempt to quantify the effect of disturbance on wildlife species, we believe our results can provide important baseline data that can be incorporated into land use planning and ecological-wildlife research at the landscape scale.
Ooi, W. H.; Shahrizal, I. M.; Noordin, A.; Nurulain, M. I.; Norhan, M. Y.
Emergency medical services are dedicated services in providing out-of-hospital transport to definitive care or patients with illnesses and injuries. In this service the response time and the preparedness of medical services is of prime importance. The application of space and geospatial technology such as satellite navigation system and Geographical Information System (GIS) was proven to improve the emergency operation in many developed countries. In collaboration with a medical service NGO, the National Space Agency (ANGKASA) has developed a prototype Rural Emergency Medical System (REMS), focusing on providing medical services to rural areas and incorporating satellite based tracking module integrated with GIS and patience database to improve the response time of the paramedic team during emergency. With the aim to benefit the grassroots community by exploiting space technology, the project was able to prove the system concept which will be addressed in this paper.
Rosenblum, L.; Bifano, W. J.; Hein, G. F.; Ratajczak, A. F.
Systems technology, reliability, and present and projected costs of photovoltaic systems are discussed using data derived from NASA, Lewis Research Center experience with photovoltaic systems deployed with a variety of users. Operating systems in two villages, one in Upper Volta and the other in southwestern Arizona are described. Energy cost comparisons are presented for photovoltaic systems versus alternative energy sources. Based on present system technology, reliability, and costs, photovoltaics provides a realistic energy option for developing nations.
Karim, K M Rabiul; Emmelin, Maria; Resurreccion, Bernadette P; Wamala, Sarah
In this study, we explored the implications of a groundwater development project on women's workload and their experience of marital violence in a Bangladesh village. We believe that the project facilitated irrigation water but also that it resulted in seasonal domestic water shortages. Men used deep motorized pumps for irrigation, and women used shallow handpumps for domestic purposes. Many handpumps dried out, so women had to walk to distant wells. This increased their workload and challenged their possibilities of fulfilling household obligations, thereby increasing the risk of normative marital male violence against women as a punishment for their failure.
Johnson, Dana M; Hokanson, David R; Zhang, Qiong; Czupinski, Kevin D; Tang, Jinxian
Water scarcity is threatening social and economic growth in rural areas of developing countries. There are potential markets for water purification technologies in these regions. The main focus of this article is to evaluate the social, economic and political feasibilities of providing water purification technologies to rural areas of developing countries. The findings of this research can serve as the basis for private investors interested in entering this market. Four representative regions were selected for the study. Economic, demographic, and environmental variables of each region were collected and analyzed along with domestic markets and political information. Rural areas of the developing world are populated with poor people unable to fulfill the basic needs for clean water and sanitation. These people represent an important group of potential users. Due to economic, social, and political risks in these areas, it is difficult to build a strong case for any business or organization focusing on immediate returns on capital investment. A plausible business strategy would be to approach the water purification market as a corporate responsibility and social investing in the short term. This would allow an organization to be well positioned once the economic ability of individuals, governments, and donor agencies are better aligned.
School nurses who serve public school districts in rural Northwest Washington face barriers in accessing Continuing Education (CE) for professional development as they often practice in remote, isolated school communities. Acknowledging these barriers, the author discusses the inclusion of book studies within an existing training structure as an innovative method of providing professional development. By utilizing training that is already attended by rural school nurses, CE can be enhanced without incurring additional travel, cost, or training time. The school nurse's perception of the effectiveness of book studies as a CE method was examined per a descriptive, qualitative program evaluation. Over a period of 5 years, evaluation and feedback data from 12 rural school nurses were compiled from nine individual school nurse book study evaluations and one general satisfaction survey. Findings indicated overall school nurse satisfaction and belief that school nurse book studies are an effective and beneficial method for the delivery of professional development--a method that promotes collaborative learning and collegiality, informs practice, and provides insight into the broader health and social issues impacting today's students.
Holdcroft, Lane E.
The purpose of this paper is to trace the rise and fall of community development and to draw lessons for developing countries and donors interested in helping the rural poor. Community development is defined as a process, method, program, institution, and/or movement involving communities in the solution of problems, teaching democratic processes,…
Renewable energy needs to be incorporated into the larger picture of sustainable agriculture and rural development if it is to serve the needs of the 3.25 billion human beings whose livelihoods and based on rural economies and ecologies. For rural communities, increasing agriculture production is key to raising income generation and improving social well-being, but this linkage depends also upon not harming natural resources. This dissertation provides an overview of recent Chinese agriculture history, discusses the role of energy in contemporary's China's agriculture and rural development, and introduces a new approach---the integrated agricultural bio-energy (IAB) system---to address the challenge of sustainable agriculture and rural development. IAB is an innovative design and offers a renewable energy solution for improving agricultural productivity, realizing efficient resource management, and enhancing social well-being for rural development. In order to understand how the IAB system can help to achieve sustainable agricultural and rural development in China, a comprehensive evaluation methodology is developed from health, ecological, energy and economic (HE3) perspectives. With data from surveys of 200 small farm households, a detailed study of IAB and conventional agricultural energy (CAE) system applications (in China's Liaoning and Yunnan Province) is conducted. The HE3 impacts of IAB systems in China's rural areas (compared to existing CAE systems) are quantified. The dissertation analyzes the full life-cycle costs and benefits of IAB systems, including their contributions to energy savings, CO2 emissions reduction, agricultural waste reduction, increased rural incomes, better rural health, and improved ecosystem sustainability. The analysis relies upon qualitative and quantitative modeling in order to produce a comprehensive assessment of IAB system impacts. Finally, the dissertation discusses the barriers to greater diffusion of the IAB systems
Soil information is essential for land planning at different administrative levels. Currently, in Europe there is a hierarchy of at least seven main territorial administrative entities which consider soil in their land planning policies. In this study, European, national and regional regulations that affect soil are discussed, considering themes, priorities, and focus areas. A better attention on the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) of the Rural Development Plans (RDP) 2014-2020 is given, by analysing the Environmental Reports produced in the framework of the SEA of the RDP 2014-2020 of some European Regions. Both old and new soil indicators are introduced, as well as the consequences of their adoption for soil science and soil scientists. It is evident from this study that soil information is treated very variably, not only because of the different kinds of available information, but mainly as a consequence of the expertise and sensitivity to the soil issues of the authors, since they can be different kinds of public or private bodies hired by regional authorities. Therefore, despite having the same reference, the SEAs are very different. In most cases, the amount of soil information is little or negligible, even when available. The ex-ante impacts are often only qualitative, or quantified only in terms of the areal extent of applied measures. On the other hand, following the European recommendations, the ongoing and ex-post reports of the monitoring activities of RDP are expected to provide a wealth of soil information, both qualitative and quantitative. Soil scientists, soil and water conservationists, and management experts will be requested to provide more sophisticated and dynamic types of information. Therefore, the SEA of RDP and similar land planning activities will provide greater scientific and technical opportunities for soil science, provided that the public bodies in charge of evaluations, namely Member States, Regions and their auditing
Batsis, John A.; Naslund, John A.; Gill, Lydia E.; Masutani, Rebecca K.; Agarwal, Nayan; Bartels, Stephen J.
Objective: Assess the feasibility and acceptability of Fitbit for supporting behavioral change in rural, older adults with obesity. Method: Eight adults aged ≥65 with a body mass index (BMI) ≥30kg/m2 were recruited from a rural practice and provided a Fitbit Zip device for 30 days. Participants completed validated questionnaires/interviews. Results: Mean age was 73.4 ± 4.0 years (50% female) with a mean BMI of 34.5 ± 4.5kg/m2. We observed reductions in exercise confidence (sticking to it: 34.5 ± 3.3 to 30.9 ± 4.3, p = .04; making time: 18.9 ± 1.3 to 17.0 ± 2.6, p = .03) but no changes in patient activation (45.4 ± 4.3 vs. 45.0 ± 3.9). All reported high satisfaction, seven (87.5%) found Fitbit easy to use, and five (62.5%) found the feedback useful. The majority (n = 6 [75.0%]) were mostly/very satisfied with the intervention. Consistent themes emerged regarding the benefit of self-monitoring and participant motivation. Common concerns included finding time to exercise and lack of a peer group. Conclusion: Use of Fitbit is feasible/acceptable for use among older rural obese adults but may lead to reduced confidence. PMID:28138502
Batsis, John A; Naslund, John A; Gill, Lydia E; Masutani, Rebecca K; Agarwal, Nayan; Bartels, Stephen J
Objective: Assess the feasibility and acceptability of Fitbit for supporting behavioral change in rural, older adults with obesity. Method: Eight adults aged ≥65 with a body mass index (BMI) ≥30kg/m(2) were recruited from a rural practice and provided a Fitbit Zip device for 30 days. Participants completed validated questionnaires/interviews. Results: Mean age was 73.4 ± 4.0 years (50% female) with a mean BMI of 34.5 ± 4.5kg/m(2). We observed reductions in exercise confidence (sticking to it: 34.5 ± 3.3 to 30.9 ± 4.3, p = .04; making time: 18.9 ± 1.3 to 17.0 ± 2.6, p = .03) but no changes in patient activation (45.4 ± 4.3 vs. 45.0 ± 3.9). All reported high satisfaction, seven (87.5%) found Fitbit easy to use, and five (62.5%) found the feedback useful. The majority (n = 6 [75.0%]) were mostly/very satisfied with the intervention. Consistent themes emerged regarding the benefit of self-monitoring and participant motivation. Common concerns included finding time to exercise and lack of a peer group. Conclusion: Use of Fitbit is feasible/acceptable for use among older rural obese adults but may lead to reduced confidence.
Carnahan, Leslie R.; Peacock, Nadine R.
Introduction Women living in rural areas in the United States experience disproportionately high rates of diseases such as obesity and heart disease and are less likely than women living in urban areas to meet daily physical activity (PA) recommendations. The purpose of our research was to understand age-specific perceptions of barriers and facilitators to rural women engaging in PA and to identify strategies to promote PA among these women. Methods As part of a community health assessment to learn about women’s health issues, 110 adult women participated in 14 focus groups. The women were divided into 4 age groups, and focus groups were held in various community settings. We used qualitative analysis methods to explore themes in the women’s narratives, including themes related to PA knowledge, PA behavior, and access to PA facilities. Results Participants described multiple and often conflicting individual, social, and environmental barriers and facilitators to PA. Several barriers and facilitators were shared across age groups (eg, competing priorities and inadequate knowledge about PA’s role in disease prevention and disease management). Other barriers (eg, illness and injury) and facilitators (eg, PA as a social opportunity) differed by age group. Conclusion Rural women in southernmost Illinois have often contradictory barriers and facilitators to PA, and those barriers and facilitators are different at different points in a woman’s life. Our findings suggest the need for multilevel, multisector approaches to promote PA. Additionally, this research supports the need for tailored PA promotion programs for rural women to address the barriers these women face across their lifespan. PMID:27685431
Jones, Robert M.; Piper, Martha
Describes how science activities can be used to stimulate language development in the elementary grades. Two aerospace activities are described involving liquid nitrogen and the launching of a weather balloon which integrate aerospace interests into the development of language skills. (BR)
Weibel-Orlando, J; Weisner, T; Long, J
Alcohol misuse has taken on epidemic proportions among some (but not all) American Indian populations. Cultural, psychological, socioeconomic and genetic etiologies have been offered to explain this social phenomenon. This study identifies the relative strengths of these causal models to differentiate among both current and lifelong drinking career patterns. Further, antecedent and drinking level differences between urban and rural Indian populations in California are described. Age, sex, level of stress as measured by the Cornell Medical Index, percent of Indian ancestry and level of drinking in the family of origin are less powerful predictors of drinking level. Policy implications of these findings include: the development of intervention programs which involve members of the patient's support network, accelerated interventions in rural Indian communities and mid-level interventions among younger and less debilitated, but identifiably "at risk", populations.