Science.gov

Sample records for rural spanish women

  1. Rural Prairie Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Kari

    "Rural Prairie Women" contains the work of two task forces: the Rural Social Work Task Force which looked at the forces active in North Dakota rural areas and the Rural Women Task Force which examined the position of women within those same rural communities. The relationship between the land, small towns, and sparse population is…

  2. Women in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural America, Inc., Washington, DC.

    In rural America 34 million culturally and economically diverse women share the common problem of unfair treatment based on sex. Although in recent years women have begun to question the social attitudes limiting their aspirations, a formidable gap exists between their expectations and the archaic legal, social, and economic policies that continue…

  3. Women's Status in a Rural Chinese Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jianghong

    2005-01-01

    This study extends the literature by identifying two new dimensions of rural women?s status (husband?s housework sharing and women?s exposure to the larger world, in addition to power and autonomy) based on rich information from a representative sample of 1.062 childbearing women in rural Yunnan, China. It utilizes linear structural relations…

  4. English- and Spanish-Speaking Women's Use of Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tower, Leslie E.; Fernandez, Maria Elena

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzes variables related to the context and consequences of women's use of violence as well as a wide range of violent behaviors used and experienced by court-ordered English- and Spanish-speaking women. Data were derived from intake assessments of 125 court-ordered women over 24 months. Almost all of the women reported a history of…

  5. Meeting the Needs of Rural Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alston, Margaret

    This paper examines the gender order that operates in rural areas of Australia, ensuring that women are accorded secondary status, that their contributions are discounted, and that their concerns are trivialized. Women are disadvantaged by patriarchal gender relations that dominate rural society and that are reinforced by ideologies of family and…

  6. 34. View of the Women's lounge (Spanish room) looking northwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. View of the Women's lounge (Spanish room) looking northwest. A Mural by Merlin Hardy depicts a "Spanish dance theme in a 19th century setting." (removed 1997) - Fort Ord, Soldiers' Club, California State Highway 1 near Eighth Street, Seaside, Monterey County, CA

  7. Incidental Education (for Women) in Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Valmai

    The Country Women's Association (CWA) is a nationwide Australian group that started in the 1920s in response to isolated women's need to socialize. The group's activities have expanded greatly over time. It distributes essential food and clothing to needy rural families, and its extensive involvement in incidental education for women includes…

  8. A Spanish Language Narrative Simulation to Prevent Horseback Riding Head Injury among Rural Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrowsmith, Heather E.; Cole, Henry P.; Mazur, Joan M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: A Spanish language version of an exercise about adolescent horseback riders' exposure to traumatic brain injuries was integrated into the Spanish curriculum in a rural Kentucky high school. Design: An exploratory case study design with two groups of students. Setting and Method: Thirty-eight students, enrolled in intermediate Spanish IV…

  9. Reaching Rural Women: Case Studies and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colle, Royal D.; Fernandez de Colle, Susana

    Although not often considered in the past by planners because their economic contributions are not performed for money, rural women are contributors to the development of their countries. The urgency of reaching women with important information to break the cycle of poverty is now being recognized by the major development agencies. While there are…

  10. Rural Women, Money and Financial Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiggins, Janice

    1985-01-01

    The author points out the multifaceted aspects of the problems associated with rural women's need for money and financial services and outlines innovative schemes in this area such as the bank for the landless in Bangladesh, a savings and loan cooperative for market women in Nicaragua, and a savings development movement in Zimbabwe. (CT)

  11. Women, population and development: rural women's passage to empowerment.

    PubMed

    Villareal, F L

    1995-12-01

    This article describes the Women's Population and Development (WPD) program among rural women in 35 poor counties in 10 provinces in China in 1988. The provinces included Xinjiang, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Guizhou, Hubei, and Anhui, which are mostly located in the arid northwest or pastoral northeast China. The study area is inclined to have harsh agro-ecological conditions and environmental degradation. Women's income ranges from RMB 350 to 650 Yuan. About 35% were literate. 40-50% of the rural agricultural labor force and about 60% of all farm labor were women. Out migration of men was increasing. This WPD program was supported by the Ministry of Foreign Technical and Economic Cooperation, the UNFPA, and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization. The program aim is to use alternative family planning strategies, alleviate poverty, and improve rural women's status. Initial discussions revealed different goals among rural women and county leaders. Women wanted direct access and control over resources. County leaders desired increased productivity among a selected number of small scale enterprises. The project stipulated that 80% of funding was to be allocated as credit for rural women, that a revolving fund would give women direct access and control of resources, and that women would be recognized for their dual roles. Partnerships were formed between women's voluntary groups and project management. Prospective members of women's self-help groups received a 60-70 hour workshop. This workshop helped to identity the root causes of low status and feasible approaches to improving the status and to developed program activities. Counties were gradually included during 1990-93. This program evaluation pertains to analysis of 1994-95 data among 1300 respondents at four points in time. Impact indicators include 18 measures. The most important measure is that women gained control over their own lives and a partnership with husbands. The program

  12. Rural Women and Osteoporosis: Awareness and Educational Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Hollie L.; Laya, Mary; DeWitt, Dawn E.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Little is known about rural women's knowledge about osteoporosis. Purpose: To explore what women from high-prevalence rural communities know about osteoporosis and to assess their learning preferences. Methods: We surveyed 437 women in rural Washington and Oregon. Findings: The response rate was 93% (N = 406). The mean age of respondents…

  13. How the Budget Cuts Undercut Rural Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Jane

    This study describes the status of 34 million rural women and analyzes how they and their families will be directly affected by cuts in the 1983 federal budget in the areas of legal services, vocational education, domestic violence intervention, energy assistance and alternative energy development, public housing, unemployment compensation, social…

  14. Rural Women's Transitions to Motherhood: Understanding Social Support in a Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Weaver, Addie; Schommer, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Social support protects women from various negative consequences, yet we have little understanding of how rural women acquire and utilize social support. Using interviews of 24 women in a North Dakota community, this research sought to understand how rural women were supported as new mothers. One, familial women and partners were vital supports to…

  15. Depression Screening Patterns for Women in Rural Health Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudiver, Fred; Edwards, Joellen Beckett; Pfortmiller, Deborah T.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Rates and types of screening for depression in rural primary care practices are unknown. Purpose: To identify rates of depression screening among rural women in a sample of rural health clinics (RHCs). Methods: A chart review of 759 women's charts in 19 randomly selected RHCs across the nation. Data were collected from charts of female…

  16. Canadian Rural Girls and Women: Preparing for the Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varpalotai, Aniko

    Over the past century, rural girls and women have increasingly taken on leadership roles in response to rural community development concerns and farm crises threatening the very existence of family farms and surrounding communities. This paper provides a brief historical overview of the status of women in rural Canada, and then describes the…

  17. Women in the Rural Occupational Structure: The Poverty Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Brawley, Emilia E.; Durbin, Nancy

    1987-01-01

    Reviews historical patterns in the employment of rural women and explains the policy implications of their unique labor market experiences. Analyzes current differences between rural and urban female employment, emphasizing the narrow range of occupations open to rural women and their resulting employment deprivation and vulnerability to poverty.…

  18. How poor are women in rural India?

    PubMed

    Rajuladevi, A K

    1992-07-01

    The assessment of poor women in India as dependent and exploited regardless of poverty focused strategies is reflected in this review of relevant literature. The scholarly approaches to the problems of poor women involve redirection and expansion of resources to women (increase bank credit) through policy and institutional changes, and involve improving women's welfare through changes in class and gender hierarchies; both pertain to restructuring power groups. A little ascribed to belief is that the organization of women's numbers will empower women; the constraints are stated. There is also some argument over whether to design women-specific programs or integrate women into existing programs; some examples are given of successes and difficulties. The regionalization of poverty in eastern and central India is discussed. The growth of the poor has been among the landless, wage-dependent households. 9.6% of households (7.5 million) are headed by women. Women work fewer hours and at lower wage scales and have fewer employment opportunities. Lower earnings are coupled with differentials in demand for female and male labor in agriculture and a crowded labor market. There is a concentration of women in less visible, nonmonetary subsistence production and domestic work. Women are undercounted in employment studies. Women predominate in agricultural activity. Women's status is influenced by economic status, caste, and ethnic background. Domestic work increases status for women and households. The poorer households have greater labor force participation, particularly as wage laborers rather than unpaid family workers. Regional factors affecting rural household strategies are factors affecting the economy (topography, rainfall, climate) and the degree of development, plus sociocultural variables (kinship and religious beliefs which affect the social domain of women), and the degree of dependence on hired vs. family labor. There are sharp contrasts in the value and survival

  19. [Women's education according to the first women to receive doctorates in medicine from Spanish universities, 1882].

    PubMed

    Flecha Garcia, C

    1999-01-01

    This study looks at the topic of women's education as considered by the first two women to receive the degree of Doctor in Medicine from a Spanish university. Delores Aleu and Martina Castells decided to present as a doctoral thesis the development of an issue of particular relevance during the final decades of the 19th century. The importance given to public education and the difficulties young women encountered in participating under the same conditions as young men led these two women--who both held a bachelor's degree--to raise the issue and defend personal and social reasons that justified their full participation in different levels of education.

  20. Worry and bother: factors in rural women's health decision making.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, B Jan; Jackson, Melanie N G; Lassig, Sara L

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study examined older rural women's health decision making. Thirty-three rural women were recruited to participate in semistructured qualitative interviews. Major themes emerged that focused on rural women's comments regarding their concerns about not worrying or bothering their children with personal health matters. Themes were discussed in the context of an ethic of care. Results suggest that it is important for mental health professionals, family physicians, social workers, and other practitioners to be aware of the sense of worry and concern for others that older rural women bring to bear in decision making about personal health issues.

  1. Polygyny and women's health in rural Mali.

    PubMed

    Bove, R M; Vala-Haynes, Emily; Valeggia, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Women's social networks and social power are increasingly seen as important factors modulating their health in sub-Saharan Africa. Polygyny, a common marital structure in many societies, mediates important intra-household relationships by requiring both competition and co-operation among co-wives. Using mixed methods, semi-structured questionnaires were administered to 298 women aged 15-84 living in the Kolondiéba region of rural Mali in 1999, and supplemented by detailed interviews with 40 women. Three categories of outcome were explored: illness experience, therapeutic itinerary and social support received. Quantitative data were analysed using regression analysis and qualitative data using a grounded theory approach. In quantitative analyses, controlling for age and household wealth index, senior wives were less likely to be escorted to a healer by their husbands during illness than were junior wives or monogamous women. Polygynous women were also less likely to obtain a treatment for which there was a monetary fee. Fewer than one-third of polygynous women reported the assistance of a co-wife during illness in any given task. In qualitative analyses, women further related varied mechanisms through which polygyny impacted their health trajectories. These ranged from strongly supportive relationships, to jealousy because of unequal health or fertility, bias in emotional and material support provided by husbands, and accusations of wrong-doing and witchcraft. This study highlights the need for more prospective mixed methods analyses to further clarify the impact of polygyny on women's health-related experiences and behaviours in sub-Saharan Africa.

  2. Polygyny and Women's Health in Rural Mali

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Riley M; Vala-Haynes, Emily; Valeggia, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Women's social networks and social power are increasingly seen as important factors modulating their health in sub-Saharan Africa. Polygyny, a common marital structure in many societies, mediates important intra-household relationships by requiring both competition and cooperation among co-wives. Using mixed methods, semi-structured questionnaires were administered to 298 women aged 15 to 84 living in the Kolondiéba region of rural Mali in 1999, and supplemented by detailed interviews with 40 women. Three categories of outcome were explored: illness experience, therapeutic itinerary, and social support received. Quantitative data were analyzed using regression analysis and qualitative data using a grounded theory approach. In quantitative analyses, controlling for age and household wealth index, senior wives were less likely to be escorted to a healer by their husbands during illness than were junior wives or monogamous women. Polygynous women were also less likely to obtain a treatment for which there was a monetary fee. Fewer than one third of polygynous women reported the assistance of a co-wife during illness in any given task. In qualitative analyses, women further related varied mechanisms through which polygyny impacted their health trajectories. These ranged from strongly supportive relationships, to jealousy because of unequal health or fertility, bias in emotional and material support provided by husbands, and accusations of wrong-doing and witchcraft. This study highlights the need for more prospective mixed methods analyses to further clarify the impact of polygyny on women's health-related experiences and behaviors in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:23480408

  3. Rural Women Teachers in the United States. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyman, Andrea

    This presentation examines the history of women teachers in the rural United States. The earliest classrooms in America were a male environment modeled after European schools. But in the mid-19th century, the Civil War and westward expansion depleted the number of male teachers and brought rural women teachers to the helm of American education.…

  4. A Qualitative Assessment of Weight Control among Rural Kansas Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ely, Andrea C.; Befort, Christie; Banitt, Angela; Gibson, Cheryl; Sullivan, Debra

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore weight control beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, and practices among rural Kansas women, and to characterize the relationship of these women with their primary-care providers around weight control. Design: Qualitative research using focus groups. Setting: Three separate communities of rural Kansas. Participants: Six focus groups…

  5. Southern Seven Women's Initiative for Cardiovascular Health: Lessons Learned in Community Health Outreach with Rural Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Kristine; Khare, Manorama M.; Huber, Rachel; Moehring, Patricia A.; Koch, Abby; Geller, Stacie E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women in the United States. Rural women have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease due to both behavioral and environmental factors. Models of prevention that are tailored to community needs and build on existing resources are essential for effective outreach to rural women.…

  6. Uptake of Free HPV Vaccination among Young Women: A Comparison of Rural versus Urban Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; Casey, Baretta R.; Vanderpool, Robin; Collins, Tom; Moore, Gregory R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To contrast rates of initial HPV vaccine uptake, offered at no cost, between a rural clinic, a rural community college, and an urban college clinic and to identify rural versus urban differences in uptake of free booster doses. Methods: Young rural women attending rural clinics (n = 246), young women attending a rural community college (n…

  7. Rural women in Africa and technological change: some issues.

    PubMed

    Date-bah, E; Stevens, Y

    1981-01-01

    The attempt is made in this discussion to highlight some of the important sociological and technical issues relating to rural women in Africa and technological change which appear to have been underplayed, misconceived or overlooked in the past. Attention is directed to the rural woman as a member of the family unit, the image of the rural man, rural women as a diversified group, community and national governmental commitment to rural technology innovations, the use of already existing traditional groups and institutions to effect rural technological change, and design specifications and shortcomings of equipment and tools (manufacturing costs, exploitation of locally available energy resources, the simplicity of the devices), and infrastructural and marketing problems. Numberous projects aimed at improving the lot of women in the rural areas have focused only on women, rather than the woman as a member of an extended as well as a nuclear family unit. Consequently, they have failed, for rural women do not exist or operate in isolation. It is difficult to believe the overall image in much of the literature that the husbands of rural women show no sympathy or regard for their wives. In the effort to attract investment to improve upon the position of rural women, reality should not be distorted with this one-sided view. Men should be involved in the technology planned for rural women, and the technological change should be planned and implemented in such a way that it results in an improvement in the relationship between the rural couple and generally between members of the rural family and between males and females in the village. Another problem is overgeneralization, and it must be recognized that considerable differentiation exists between rural women themselves. The importance of community, governmental and political commitment to rural technology innovations in order to ensure their success is neglected in the literature. The government and polictical leadership

  8. Evolutionary Approach of Virtual Communities of Practice: A Reflection within a Network of Spanish Rural Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frossard, Frédérique; Trifonova, Anna; Barajas Frutos, Mario

    The isolation of rural communities creates special necessities for teachers and students in rural schools. The present article describes "Rural Virtual School", a Virtual Community of Practice (VCoP) in which Spanish teachers of rural schools share learning resources and teaching methodologies through social software applications. The article arrives to an evolutionary model, in which the use of the social software tools evolves together with the needs and the activities of the VCoP through the different stages of its lifetime. Currently, the community has reached a high level of maturity and, in order to keep its momentum, the members intentionally use appropriate technologies specially designed to enhance rich innovative educational approaches, through which they collaboratively generate creative practices.

  9. Marriage and Suicide among Chinese Rural Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jie

    2010-01-01

    Suicides by young females in rural China contribute substantially to the high rate of suicide and the total number of suicides in China. Given the traditional familial structure that remains largely intact in rural China, this research focuses on whether being married is a risk or protective factor for suicide by young women. I examined 168 rural…

  10. Women's Understanding of the Term 'Pap smear': A Comparison of Spanish-Speaking Versus English-Speaking Women.

    PubMed

    Howard, David L; Soulli, Beth; Johnson, Nicole; Cooper, Saladin

    2016-11-01

    Objective To compare the understanding of the term 'Pap smear' among Spanish-speaking women, as compared to their English-speaking counterparts. Methods Surveys were distributed to English and Spanish speaking female patients in an urban Obstetrics and Gynecology clinic. Patients were at least 18 years old or they were less than 18 years old and pregnant. Results A majority of participants (77.3 % English-speaking vs. 74.1 % Spanish-speaking, respectively) were able to identify at least one correct descriptor for the term Pap smear. However, Spanish-speaking women were significantly less likely to choose incorrect descriptors. Spanish-speaking women were much less likely to say that a Pap smear was the same as a Pelvic exam (45.7 vs. 78.8 %; p = 0.001), or a test for a sexually transmitted disease (25 vs. 60.6 %; p = 0.001). Conclusions for Practice Compared to English-speaking women, Spanish-speaking women are much less likely to conflate a pelvic exam with a Pap smear. Overall understanding was suboptimal, regardless of primary language, indicating that major efforts are still needed to improve functional health literacy with respect to cervical cancer screening.

  11. Empowering Rural Women through Mobile Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagarajan, P.; Jiji, G. Wiselin

    2010-01-01

    This paper is intended as a gender issue to the rural finance practitioners. It highlights the questions that need to be asked and addressed to the gender mainstream. It will also be useful to gender experts to wish to increase their understanding on specific gender issues in rural finance through mobile services. It focuses on rural microfinance…

  12. Spanish Speaking Women and Higher Education: A Review of Their Current Status. Minority Women and Higher Education #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Colleges, Washington, DC. Project on the Status and Education of Women.

    Educators are increasingly seeking information about minority women as they attempt to develop realistic, viable programs to benefit them. This paper summarizes some of the relevant data concerning the educational and economic status of Spanish speaking women. Whenever possible, ethnic variations are noted. In general, the data are divided into…

  13. RESPIRATORY HEALTH OF RURAL AND FARM WOMEN IN THE KEOKUK COUNTY RURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    RESPIRATORY HEALTH OF RURAL AND FARM WOMEN IN THE KEOKUK COUNTY RURAL HEALTH STUDY
    Allison L. Naleway*, Nancy L. Sprince?, Erik R. Svendsen?, Ann M. Stromquist?, James A. Merchant?
    *Marshfield Medical Research and Education Foundation, Marshfield, WI; ?University of Iowa Co...

  14. Understanding Contexts of Family Violence in Rural, Farming Communities: Implications for Rural Women's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendt, Sarah; Hornosty, Jennie

    2010-01-01

    Research on family violence in rural communities in Australia and Canada has shown that women's experience of family violence is shaped by social and cultural factors. Concern for economic security and inheritance for children, closeness and belonging, and values of family unity and traditional gender roles are factors in rural communities that…

  15. Status of Thai Women in Two Rural Areas. Survey Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Women of Thailand.

    Chachoengsao Province and Lampang Province were selected in 1976 as sites for an "action survey" to identify appropriate program areas for rural women so that governmental and voluntary agencies could be assisted in planning. During December 994 families and 1,272 women (ranging from 15-70 years old) were surveyed. Interviews were…

  16. Educational Policies and Priorities for Rural Women in Southern Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutanyatta, J. N. S.

    Despite their significant role in African economies, women are still the victims of poverty, illiteracy, discrimination, and powerlessness. Most African countries are classified as "low" on the Human Development Index and exhibit a relationship between per capita gross domestic product and the adult literacy rate. Rural women appear to…

  17. A consultation with Canadian rural women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Ross E.; James, Pamela; Manthorne, Jackie; Gould, Judy; Fitch, Margaret I.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Objective  Relatively little research has been carried out on the health and supportive care needs of rural women living with breast cancer. In this study, results from a Canadian focus group study are used to highlight issues of importance to rural women. Setting and participants  A total of 276 rural women with breast cancer divided into 17 focus groups participated in the study conducted across Canada. A standardized protocol for discussion was employed. Issues of access to information, support and services were discussed, with women describing their experiences in trying to find appropriate programmes and services. Main results  The major theme identified through analysis of qualitative data was ‘becoming aware of and/or gaining access to health care information, support and services.’ Other major themes included: (1) dealing with isolation; (2) having to travel; (3) feeling the financial burden and (4) coping with changing work. Conclusions  Rural women with breast cancer have supportive care challenges related to their circumstances. A series of recommendations were generated through the consultation process which are contributing to the development of a national strategy focusing on the development and extension of programmes for rural women with breast cancer. Although the research on the project was not to specified standards, and suffered from less attention than community capacity building and advocacy, it proved to be of worth and revealed potential benefits from collaborations between researchers and community organizations. PMID:14982498

  18. Rural pregnant women's stressors and priorities for stress reduction.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Tina L; Bullock, Linda F C; Parsons, Lindsay

    2012-12-01

    Rural residence and maternal stress are risk factors for adverse maternal-child health outcomes across the globe, but rural women have been largely overlooked in maternal stress research. We recruited low-income, rural pregnant women for qualitative interviews to explore their stress exposures during pregnancy, reactions to stress, and priorities for stress reduction. We also used quantitative measures (Perceived Stress Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale-Revised, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian, Lifetime Exposure to Violence Scale) to describe stress exposures and reactions. We interviewed 24 pregnant rural women from a Midwestern US state, who were primarily young, white, partnered, and unemployed. Women's predominant stressor was financial stress, compounded by a lack of employment, transportation, and affordable housing options; extended family interdependence; small-town gossip; isolation/loneliness; and boredom. Quantitative measures revealed high levels of global perceived stress, violence exposure, and symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder among the sample. Women most commonly reported that employment and interventions to increase their employability would most effectively decrease their stress, but faced numerous barriers to education or job training. Tested maternal stress interventions to date include nurse-case management, teaching women stress management techniques, and mind-body interventions. Pregnant women's own priorities for stress-reduction intervention may differ, depending on the population under study. Our findings suggest that rural clinicians should address maternal stress, violence exposure, and mental health symptoms in prenatal care visits and that clinicians and researchers should include the voices of rural women in the conceptualization, design, implementation, and evaluation of maternal stress-reduction interventions.

  19. Psychosocial Work Characteristics Predict Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Health Functioning in Rural Women: The Wisconsin Rural Women's Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikani, Vatsal; Reding, Douglas; Gunderson, Paul; McCarty, Catherine A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between psychosocial work characteristics and health functioning and cardiovascular disease risk factors among rural women of central Wisconsin and compare psychosocial work characteristics between farm and nonfarm women. Methods: Stratified sampling was used to select a…

  20. [Social capital in rural areas: adaptation to Spanish and factor validation of a scale].

    PubMed

    Fernández Niño, Julián Alfredo; Pinzón Flórez, Carlos Eduardo; Moreno Montoya, José; Cepeda Gil, Magda Cristiana; Idrovo Velandia, Alvaro Javier

    2014-07-01

    Social capital is considered a structural determinant of social development and wellbeing. Its cognitive component assesses the degree of confidence of the population in their systems for social organization, as well as community interactions to coordinate social responses to social problems. There are few available scales for measuring this construct. This work presents the adaptation to Spanish and psychometric validation of a scale for measuring social capital in a rural setting. The Wang Social Cognitive Scale was also adapted to Spanish. 1200 questionnaires were applied to adults in 12 villages of the municipality of Tierra Alta, (Colombia) recruited by random sampling. Factor analysis of the scale was performed based on a polychoric correlation matrix. Exploratory factor analysis suggests the existence of two principal factors distributed as follows: 7 items for factor 1, trust (eigenvalue 3.23) and 2 items, for factor 2, distrust (eigenvalue 1.40). As observed by Wang, Q9 and Q10 could be ambiguous questions which do not contribute enough to either of the factors. The first factor validation to Spanish language of the Wang Social Capital Scale is presented in the social context of rural Colombia.

  1. The plight of rural women: alternatives for action.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Z

    1980-01-01

    Women in rural areas perform many of the agricultural tasks as well as the household care tasks. In addition to food production, looking after children, and cultivating cash crops, women also process food, carry water, make cloth, and work 15-16 hours, often much longer than the men. Too often development programs disregard the needs of women altogether. Modernization has often had a negative effect on women. They have no access to modern tools or credit. Land reform, land settlement programs, and cooperatives have neglected to consider women's interests, roles, and position. Technogical progress has resulted in creating new inequalities between rural men and women. Development has increased the workload of women who are unpaid family helpers, and time-saving mechanised device have replaced women's jobs. In most developing countries women are active in home-based industrial production. The contractor who provides the material and collects the finished product is often a wealthy landowner who also get the profits. Technical cooperation projects should be geared more directly to food processing and traditional sectors where women predominate with the goal of reducing work loads. Organization or group action is necessary to achieve economies of scale; to eliminate middle men, money-lenders and traders profiting from women's work; and, to provide solidarity and support to women otherwise isolated in their homes and on their farms.

  2. Fact Sheet on Women of Spanish Origin in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Women's Bureau.

    March 1971 data are given for women of Spanish origin in the United States. Country of origin, population, family composition, educational attainment, labor force participation, type of work, income, and low income level are covered. Where separate data for women are not available, data for both sexes are shown. (KM)

  3. Rurality, mobility, identity: women's use of complementary and alternative medicine in rural Australia.

    PubMed

    Meurk, Carla; Broom, Alex; Adams, Jon; Sibbritt, David

    2013-03-01

    This article explores why women in rural and remote areas of Australia use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) at higher rates than their counterparts in urban areas. Drawing on qualitative interviews with 60 women 60-65 years of age, currently living in rural Australia, we explore the possibility that CAM use in rural areas may be embedded in processes of spatialised identity-building and the health-creating practices of mobile, ex-urban, individuals who drive this process. We problematise previous explanations which suggest CAM use in rural areas is principally derived from a lack of biomedical service provision and enhanced community ties showing instead how and why identity and mobility are useful additional variables for understanding CAM use in rural areas.

  4. [Determinants of urban obstetrical service utilization in rural pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Park, J S

    1991-12-01

    This study examines the decisions of rural pregnant women who sought obstetric care elsewhere, especially in an urban area. The principal data source was the "Patients' Survey of 1988", a nationwide data collection. Among 4091 rural pregnant women, 3090 women left their home counties for obstetric care; 1946 women went to small or medium-sized cities, 645 to large cities. Multivariate techniques were used to examine the factors related to selecting urban obstetric care. The analysis shows that younger, abnormally delivered women were more likely to seek urban obstetrical facilities. In addition, medical insurance, the number of registered cars/1000, the number of general hospitals in the county, and the distance to the nearest large city were positively related to the decision to go to any city. However, distance to the nearest small or medium-sized city had a negatively significant effect on urban obstetrical service utilization. (author's modified)

  5. How and what rural women know: experiences in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Martius-von Harder, G

    1979-01-01

    A study was conducted in Bangladesh to determine the contribution rural women make to the economic conditions in their country. The study was necessary because little research has been done into the working patterns of rural women and their economic contributions have often been overlooked because they do not produce actual income. This article is a discussion of the problems faced by field researchers in countries like Bangladesh. Certain types of questions cannot be asked of women in rural Muslim areas, e.g., questions dealing with acreage of property, supply and demand in the marketplace, and irrigated land. Secluded women would have no way of knowing answers to these questions. Observation had to be used for a study of time-use, since the women do not live by the clock. Questions on women's ages can never be asked. Questions to females had to concern themselves with activities of females and questions to males, with activities of males. Rural people in Bangladesh do not seem to think in terms of exact measurement; this must be taken into account when analyzing answers. Researchers have to adapt their interviewing to the socioeconomic conditions of the area.

  6. Using a Spanish Surname Match to Improve Identification of Hispanic Women in Medicare Administrative Data

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Iris I; Virnig, Beth A; John, Dolly A; Morgan, Robert O

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of a Spanish surname match for improving the identification of Hispanic women in Medicare administrative data in which Hispanics are historically underrepresented. Data Sources We collected self-identified race/ethnicity data (N = 2,997) from a mailed survey sent to elderly Medicare beneficiaries who resided in 11 geographic areas consisting of eight metropolitan counties and three nonmetropolitan areas (171 counties) in the fall of 2004. The 1990 Census Spanish Surname list was used to identify Hispanics in the Medicare data. In addition, we used data published on the U.S. Census Bureau website to obtain estimates of elderly Hispanics. Study Design We used self-identified race/ethnicity as the gold standard to examine the agreement with Medicare race code alone, and with Medicare race code+Spanish surname match. Additionally, we estimated the proportions of Hispanic women and men, in each of the 11 geographic areas in our survey, using the Medicare race code alone and the Medicare race code+Spanish surname match, and compared those estimates with estimates derived from U.S. Census 2000 data. Principal Findings The Spanish surname match dramatically increased the accuracy of the Medicare race code for identifying both Hispanic and white women, producing improvements comparable with those seen for men. Conclusions We recommend the addition of a proxy race code in the Medicare data using the Spanish surname match to improve the accuracy of racial/ethnic representation. PMID:16899019

  7. Smokeless tobacco use among rural women in NE Alabama.

    PubMed

    Talley, Brenda; Rushing, Alison; Gee, Rose Mary

    2014-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco use among women living in rural areas is poorly understood and largely ignored. This qualitative study explored the use of smokeless tobacco with 10 participants living in rural areas in Alabama, with the women telling their own stories of use. Themes emerging from interviews included the initiation of use, secrecy, health-risk beliefs, daily-use patterns, and thoughts about quitting. The study results could assist community health nurses in awareness of risks, case finding, and development of community-based prevention strategies. Additional research would help better understanding of the epidemiology of the problem, cultural implications, and practice interventions.

  8. Effects of rural-urban return migration on women's family planning and reproductive health attitudes and behavior in rural China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiajian; Liu, Hongyan; Xie, Zhenming

    2010-03-01

    This study examines the effects of rural-urban return migration on women's family planning and reproductive health attitudes and behavior in the sending areas of rural China. Based on data from a survey of rural women aged 16-40 in Sichuan and Anhui Provinces in 2000, our study finds that migrant women returning from cities to the countryside, especially those who have been living in a large city, are more likely than nonmigrant women to adopt positive family planning and reproductive health attitudes and behavior in their rural communities of origin. We find, moreover, that living in a rural community where the prevalence of such return migrant women is higher is positively associated with new fertility and gender attitudes and with knowledge of self-controllable contraceptives. The findings of significant rural-urban return-migration effects have important policy implications for shaping family planning and reproductive health attitudes and behaviors in rural China.

  9. Women's property rights and gendered policies: implications for women's long-term welfare in rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Peterman, Amber

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates effects of community-level women's property and inheritance rights on women's economic outcomes using a 13 year longitudinal panel from rural Tanzania. In the preferred model specification, inverse probability weighting is applied to a woman-level fixed effects model to control for individual-level time invariant heterogeneity and attrition. Results indicate that changes in women's property and inheritance rights are significantly associated with women's employment outside the home, self-employment and earnings. Results are not limited to sub-groups of marginalised women. Findings indicate lack of gender equity in sub-Saharan Africa may inhibit economic development for women and society as a whole.

  10. The Voices of Black and White Rural Battered Women in Domestic Violence Shelters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Few, April L.

    2005-01-01

    Very little research has examined the experiences of Black and White rural battered women. In this exploratory study of 88 participants, 30 rural battered women who sought assistance from domestic violence shelters in southwest Virginia were interviewed. Black and White rural women's experiences in the shelters, helpseeking, and perceived social…

  11. Functional Impacts of Adult Literacy Programme on Rural Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbah, Blessing Akaraka

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the functional impacts of adult literacy programme among rural women participants in Ishielu Local Government Area (LGA) of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. The population of the study was made up of 115 adult instructors and 2,408 adult learners giving a total of 2,623. The sample…

  12. Disabled women׳s maternal and newborn health care in rural Nepal: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Joanna; Basnet, Machhindra; Budhathoki, Bharat; Adhikari, Dhruba; Tumbahangphe, Kirti; Manandhar, Dharma; Costello, Anthony; Groce, Nora

    2014-01-01

    Objective there is little evidence about disabled women׳s access to maternal and newborn health services in low-income countries and few studies consult disabled women themselves to understand their experience of care and care seeking. Our study explores disabled women׳s experiences of maternal and newborn care in rural Nepal. Design we used a qualitative methodology, using semi-structured interviews. Setting rural Makwanpur District of central Nepal. Participants we purposively sampled married women with different impairments who had delivered a baby in the past 10 years from different topographical areas of the district. We also interviewed maternal health workers. We compared our findings with a recent qualitative study of non-disabled women in the same district to explore the differences between disabled and non-disabled women. Findings married disabled women considered pregnancy and childbirth to be normal and preferred to deliver at home. Issues of quality, cost and lack of family support were as pertinent for disabled women as they were for their non-disabled peers. Health workers felt unprepared to meet the maternal health needs of disabled women. Key conclusions and implications for practice integration of disability into existing Skilled Birth Attendant training curricula may improve maternal health care for disabled women. There is a need to monitor progress of interventions that encourage institutional delivery through the use of disaggregated data, to check that disabled women are benefiting equally in efforts to improve access to maternal health care. PMID:24768318

  13. Appetite sensations in pregnancy among agropastoral women in rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Patil, Crystal L

    2012-01-01

    Women all over the globe report physical and appetite sensations in early pregnancy, and this study contributes to this growing literature by reporting on the appetite sensations experienced by pregnant women from rural Tanzania. Appetite changes associated with 545 pregnancies were compiled from surveys conducted to report on the prevalence of appetite loss, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, joint pain, cravings, aversions, and pica experienced by agropastoral women from rural north-central Tanzania. In addition to these symptoms, specific craved and aversive food groups are described. Statistical associations among appetite sensations, NVP, and birthweight are tested. The only symptom associated with a lower average birth weight for newborns was vomiting. In addition to investigating micronutrient content and chemical properties of specific food and non-food items, future research should include assessing relationships among various appetite sensations and short- and long-term health outcomes for both the mother and child.

  14. The Assessment of Intimate Partner Violence in Spanish Women: The Index of Spouse Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plazaola-Castano, Juncal; Ruiz-Perez, Isabel; Escriba-Aguir, Vicenta; Montero-Pinar, Isabel; Vives-Cases, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to analyze the internal consistency and construct validity of the Spanish version of the Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA) in a representative sample of 8,995 women attending general practice in Spain in 2006-2007. The factor structure analysis shows that the ISA measures four intimate partner violence (IPV) dimensions: emotional, physical, and…

  15. The Role of Internet Use and Parental Mediation on Cyberbullying Victimization among Spanish Children from Rural Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Raúl; Serna, Cristina; Martínez, Verónica; Ruiz-Oliva, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Cyberbullying victimization research on individual and familial correlates is scarce in Spain. By building upon previous studies, this research examines the role of Internet usage and parental mediation in online victimization. Spanish children from rural public schools (10-12 years; n?=?1068) completed a self-report questionnaire which measured…

  16. Circumventing problems of accessibility to rural muslim women.

    PubMed

    Safai, M

    1979-01-01

    A study of rural women's work was undertaken in 1977 by the Center for National Spatial Planning of the Plan and Budget Organization of Iran. Within the dehestan (smallest administrative unit) of Amlash, a region near the Caspian seacoast, 2-stage probability sampling procedures were used: villages were divided into 4 population strata, then 1 village selected randomly from each 1. A 20% random sample of women was selected. The women were interviewed in the field or working at home. Most of the men in the villages were quick to give credit to their wives and seemed eager for their wives to be interviewed. The rural women were willing and able to discuss the work they do; they know the steps and the technology involved and provide exact answers. With the exception of the 1st stage of rice production, women do considerable work. The assumption that women's work can be measured proved to be accurate. Generally, it was found that little impact has been made on the traditional division of labor. The tasks that have been known to be done primarily by women, including transplanting, weeding, and tea picking, are still done by women. The experience in Amlash demonstrates that random sampling is possible at the village level and within villages; that men need not feel threatened by a female research team; that it is possible to obtain reliable information from women about what they do and how much work is theirs; and that the women are willing and eager to discuss the work they do.

  17. Rural women, technology, and self-management of chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Weinert, Clarann; Cudney, Shirley; Hill, Wade G

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the differences in the psychosocial status of 3 groups of chronically ill rural women participating in a computer intervention. The 3 groups were: intense intervention, less-intense intervention, and control. At baseline and following the intervention, measures were taken for social support, self-esteem, empowerment, self-efficacy, depression, stress, and loneliness. ANCOVA results showed group differences for social support and self-efficacy among the overall group. The findings differed for a vulnerable subgroup, with significant between-group differences for social support and loneliness. It was concluded that a computer-delivered intervention can improve social support and self-efficacy and reduce loneliness in rural women, enhancing their ability to self-manage and adapt to chronic illness.

  18. Women's rights, domestic violence, and recourse seeking in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Bates, Lisa M; Islam, Farzana

    2008-03-01

    This article seeks to deepen understanding of the reasons that abused women in a resource-poor rural setting seek recourse so seldom and with so little success. Data from in-depth interviews and group discussions are used to explore the range of responses to domestic violence and to examine barriers to recourse seeking. Findings illustrate how the combination of poverty and gender inequality, inequities in the legal framework, and patriarchal attitudes and corruption in both formal and informal institutions at the local level discourage abused women from seeking recourse and decrease the likelihood of a favorable outcome when they do.

  19. STRUCTURAL INEQUALITY AND SOCIAL SUPPORT FOR WOMEN PRISONERS RELEASED TO RURAL COMMUNITIES

    PubMed Central

    Nicdao, Ethel G.; Trott, Elise M.; Kellett, Nicole C.

    2016-01-01

    Incarceration and community reentry for rural women reflect gendered processes. We draw upon in-depth semi-structured interviews and focus groups to examine the return of women prisoners to underserved rural communities, while attending to the perspectives of their closest social supporters. Our findings underscore the complexity of the reentry process for rural women and its particular impact on their families. We challenge dominant discourses of personal responsibility that detract from the structura violence and injustice shaping reentry experiences for women and their social supporters. We also consider the policy implications of discharge and reentry planning for rural women and their families, as well as strategies to reduce recidivism. PMID:27274615

  20. The Vulnerable Personality Style Questionnaire: psychometric properties in Spanish postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Gelabert, Estel; Subirà, Susana; Plaza, Anna; Torres, Anna; Navarro, Purificación; Imaz, María Luisa; Valdés, Manuel; García-Esteve, Lluïsa; Martín-Santos, Rocío

    2011-04-01

    The Vulnerable Personality Style Questionnaire (VPSQ) is a nine-item self-report scale developed to asses personality traits which increase the risk of postpartum depression. The aim of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the VPSQ in a sample of postpartum women. A cohort of 309 postpartum women was followed up for 32 weeks after delivery. All women were assessed with the Spanish version of the VPSQ, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-R Short Scale, the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and the harm avoidance dimension of the Temperament and Character Inventory at 2-3 days postpartum. Depressive symptoms were evaluated at 8 and 32 weeks after delivery by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and a diagnostic interview was used to confirm the presence of major depression disorder. Factor analysis results revealed the unidimensionality of the Spanish version of the VPSQ. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the VPSQ total score was 0.63. The test-retest reliability indicated a good temporal stability (ICC = 0.88; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.82-0.91). A moderate association between the VPSQ and other personality measures provided evidence for its construct validity. Logistic regression analyses showed that women with higher scores on the VPSQ had a higher risk of developing depressive symptoms (OR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.11-1.29) and major depression (OR = 1.16; 95% CI = 1.07-1.26) throughout the 32 weeks after delivery. Overall, our results suggest adequate psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the VPSQ and its usefulness in identifying women with a personality style that increases the risk of developing postpartum depression.

  1. Issues of poor rural self-employed women.

    PubMed

    Jumani, U

    1994-01-01

    Most Indian women are low income and self-employed, but women's studies have not focused on this large population. In order to fill in the gap in the literature on women's employment in India, a study was conducted in 1985 among 800 women from 5 "talukas" in Ahmedabad district. This article describes the common social and economic issues faced by poor, rural, self-employed women. Most of the sample belong to lower caste groups. The caste system contributed largely to their poverty, exploitation, and lack of access to facilities. The Harijans are treated the worst and many villages consider them untouchables. The Vaghris and the Dehgam are considered low caste but not untouchables. These groups are not treated much better than the Harijans. Relations between various castes are often strained. In many villages access to information about government programs is controlled by the Sarpanch and Talati and denied to the lower castes. Women's division of labor is determined by caste. The response to the demands of survival among low-income women is to adopt a "contingency" approach to life. These women are mobile, travel with few belongings, and seek shelter anywhere. Children are not sent to school. Many are untrained even in a caste-based occupation. The poor are generally landless and without assets. Work skills are acquired from family or neighbors. Women and poor people lack access to loans and lack awareness of detailed procedures. Cash payment does not usually go to women. Women work in caste-based occupations in addition to two or three seasonal agricultural labor jobs. Development programs do not address the current situation of the poor.

  2. Dietary and Health Profiles of Spanish Women in Preconception, Pregnancy and Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Cuervo, Marta; Sayon-Orea, Carmen; Santiago, Susana; Martínez, Jose Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The nutritional status and lifestyle of women in preconception, pregnancy and lactation determine maternal, fetal and child health. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate dietary patterns and lifestyles according the perinatal physiological status in a large sample of Spanish women. Community pharmacists that were previously trained to collect the data recruited 13,845 women. General information, anthropometric measurements, physical activity, unhealthy habits and dietary data were assessed using a validated questionnaire. Mean values and percentages were used as descriptive statistics. The t-test, ANOVA or chi-squared test were used to compare groups. A score that included dietary and behavioral characteristics was generated to compare lifestyles in the three physiological situations. The analysis revealed that diet quality should be improved in the three stages, but in a different manner. While women seeking a pregnancy only met dairy recommendations, those who were pregnant only fulfilled fresh fruits servings and lactating women only covered protein group requirements. In all cases, the consumption allowances of sausages, buns and pastries were exceeded. Food patterns and unhealthy behaviors of Spanish women in preconception, pregnancy and lactation should be improved, particularly in preconception. This information might be useful in order to implement educational programs for each population group. PMID:25333199

  3. Dietary and health profiles of Spanish women in preconception, pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Cuervo, Marta; Sayon-Orea, Carmen; Santiago, Susana; Martínez, Jose Alfredo

    2014-10-20

    The nutritional status and lifestyle of women in preconception, pregnancy and lactation determine maternal, fetal and child health. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate dietary patterns and lifestyles according the perinatal physiological status in a large sample of Spanish women. Community pharmacists that were previously trained to collect the data recruited 13,845 women. General information, anthropometric measurements, physical activity, unhealthy habits and dietary data were assessed using a validated questionnaire. Mean values and percentages were used as descriptive statistics. The t-test, ANOVA or chi-squared test were used to compare groups. A score that included dietary and behavioral characteristics was generated to compare lifestyles in the three physiological situations. The analysis revealed that diet quality should be improved in the three stages, but in a different manner. While women seeking a pregnancy only met dairy recommendations, those who were pregnant only fulfilled fresh fruits servings and lactating women only covered protein group requirements. In all cases, the consumption allowances of sausages, buns and pastries were exceeded. Food patterns and unhealthy behaviors of Spanish women in preconception, pregnancy and lactation should be improved, particularly in preconception. This information might be useful in order to implement educational programs for each population group.

  4. Using Communication and Information Technologies To Empower Women in Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Margaret

    Research aimed to enhance rural women's access to communication and information technologies and to assess the impact of their technology use on their participation in small business development and community development. Over 200 women throughout Queensland (Australia) were involved. A trial electronic mailing list linking rural women to urban…

  5. Outcomes of On-Line Financial Education for Chronically Ill Rural Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Deborah C.; Haynes, George W.; Weinert, Clarann

    2011-01-01

    This research was part of a larger longitudinal study of chronically ill rural women to determine if computer technology could be effective in allowing the women to take control of their own well-being, including finances. The current study examined whether chronically ill rural women can effectively use on-line personal finance educational…

  6. Smoking and drinking habits before and during pregnancy in Spanish women.

    PubMed Central

    Bolumar, F; Rebagliato, M; Hernandez-Aguado, I; Florey, C D

    1994-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To investigate possible changes in smoking and drinking habits during pregnancy and to elucidate the sociodemographic factors associated with these changes in Spanish women. DESIGN--A cross-sectional survey. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING--A total of 1004 pregnant women of between 12 and 18 weeks of gestation who were attending the antenatal clinic of the main regional hospital of Valencia (Spain) during 1989 were studied. All participants completed the study and only one eligible woman refused to participate when approached. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Information was obtained by structured questionnaire (Euromac questionnaire), which included items on age, educational level, marital status, occupation, parity, previous and present smoking habits, and previous and present alcohol consumption. Women were asked about the consumption of cigarettes and alcohol for a typical week before they knew they were pregnant, and details of current consumption were obtained for the week before the interview. The number of drinks taken per week was later converted to the amount of absolute alcohol (in g). Sixty per cent of the women smoked and 72% drank alcohol before pregnancy. Forty eight per cent of smokers stopped smoking and 37% of drinkers stopped drinking alcohol during pregnancy. No sociodemographic factor showed an independent association with either smoking or drinking cessation. Only the number of cigarettes and the amount of alcohol consumed before pregnancy were identified as significant independent predictors for stopping. CONCLUSIONS--Pregnant Spanish women seemed to stop smoking at about three times the rate found in Spanish women in the reproductive years. The sociodemographic variables usually associated with stopping smoking could not account for the high rate of quitting in these Spanish women, a rate higher than that in women from other developed countries. The high prevalence of smoking before pregnancy might explain not only the high rate of

  7. Capacity building to improve women's health in rural China.

    PubMed

    Li, V C; Shaoxian, W; Kunyi, W; Wentao, Z; Buchthal, O; Wong, G C; Burris, M A

    2001-01-01

    The Women's Reproductive Health and Development Program (WRDHP) is an ambitious attempt to operationalize two important tenets of health development thinking within a rural reproductive health context. First, it is important for communities to participate in decisions about the services and programs that affect them. Secondly, the complex nature of healthcare is best addressed by intervention processes which call for a multi-functional approach to planning and coordination. In both planning and intervention approach, the WRHDP recognizes the social, cultural and economic realities that affect women's efforts to secure the health and well-being of themselves and their families. The focus of the WRHDP is on capacity-building within a rural reproductive health environment, in this case Yunnan Province in rural China. Rather than using international donor funding to provide a specific intervention, the WRDHP used Ford Foundation funding as a lever to encourage community investment in environmental resources that affect health, to improve the technical skills of individuals within the existing health bureaucracies, and to promote structural changes within existing health and development bureaucracies to support interagency collaboration and community empowerment within the region's health and development agencies. This article describes how the WRHDP created new methods for provincial and local agencies to overcome obstacles and work with one another to improve women's health. It also describes the processes used in the rural areas of Chengjiang and Luliang counties to assess local conditions and needs, and the supported and expanded local efforts in improving woman's reproductive and family health that resulted from the processes.

  8. Leveraging community-based financing for women's nonmaternal health care: experiences of rural Indian women.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, Saji S; Durairaj, Varatharajan

    2015-03-01

    Given the increasing need for mainstreaming household financing for women's nonmaternal health care and evidences on community-based financing's contribution to women's health care in general, this study explored their scope for nonmaternal health care in Orissa. A qualitative assessment conducted focus group discussions with rural women who met the eligibility criteria. Community-based financing provided financial access and risk protection for women's nonmaternal health care during the previous 1 year, though not adequately. Schemes covering outpatient care (or mild illnesses) provided relatively more financial access. The major determinants of their restricted financial access were limited sum assured, noncomprehensive coverage of services, exclusion of elderly women, and the lower priority households gave to nonmaternal health care. Community-based financing requires relevant structural changes along with demand-side behavioral modifications to ensure optimal attention to women's nonmaternal health care.

  9. Women Managing/Managing Women: The Marginalization of Female Leadership in Rural School Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Examines 21 female administrators' accounts of their experience in a rural Nova Scotia school district. Presents preliminary findings of these women's own responses, resistances, and initiatives while attempting to legitimize and implement their preferred leadership styles, which stressed relationships, instructional leadership, communication, and…

  10. Perceived Impact of the Women's Movement: Views of Rural Midwestern University Men and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Roger L.; Schechterman, Andrew L.

    Current male/female role perceptions appear to be in concert with the egalitarian trend of society in general, according to this study conducted with 159 undergraduate students (99 females, 60 males) at a rural midwestern university. The FEM Scale, developed by Smith and other researchers (1975), was used to measure attitudes toward the women's…

  11. Women's Status and Violence against Young Married Women in Rural Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies conducted around the world consistently show the existence of violence against women. Despite the increasing number of studies being conducted on violence against young married women elsewhere, this subject has received little attention from researchers and policy makers in Nepal. This paper assesses the prevalence of violence among young married women in rural Nepal. Specifically, it examines [factors related to] women's status in order to better understand the risk of violence. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009 among 1,296 young married women aged 15-24 years in four major ethnic groups. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine the association between selected risk factors and violence. Results More than half the women (51.9%) reported having experienced some form of violence in their lifetime. One-fourth (25.3%) reported physical violence and nearly half (46.2%) reported sexual violence. Likewise, one-third (35.8%) of women reported experiencing some form of violence in the past 12 months. No or little inter-spousal communication and low autonomy of women significantly increases the odds of experiencing violence among married women. Conclusions The violence against women is quite common among young married women in rural Nepal. Although the Domestic Violence and Punishment Act 2066 has been enacted, equal attention needs to be given to increasing women's autonomy and activities that encourage inter-spousal communication. Furthermore, more research is required in Nepal that examines dynamics of violence perpetrated by husbands. PMID:21612603

  12. Rural women's aspirations through art work. Responses to ICPD.

    PubMed

    1995-04-01

    Members of Women, Population and Development groups, which aim to improve women's status in rural areas of China, will use their embroidery and tapestries to tell their stories at the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing in September 1995. Contests were held at the county and provincial levels to decide whose artwork, from over a 1000 groups, would go to the conference. 35 pieces (one group tapestry or embroidery from each county) were judged at the provincial level based on how the artwork and the stories of the women who made it demonstrated the achievements of the women as a result of their group involvement. The criteria included: 1) higher self image, confidence, and desire for personal growth; 2) increased social mobility and creativity; 3) more independence and self-reliance in income generation and other activities; 4) increased ability to make decisions for self; 5) increased respect within family and community; 6) more consciousness of maternal and child health and family planning needs; and 7) more awareness of the need for literacy. The Women, Population and Development Project is funded by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), executed by FAO, and implemented by MOFTEC¿DIR.

  13. Correlates of victim-blaming attitudes regarding partner violence against women among the Spanish general population.

    PubMed

    Gracia, Enrique; Tomás, José M

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes correlates of victim-blaming attitudes regarding partner violence against women (PVAW) among the Spanish general population (N = 1,006). Results showed that victim-blaming attitudes were more common among respondents who were older, less educated, and who placed themselves at the bottom of the social scale. Furthermore, the odds of expressing victim-blaming attitudes were higher among respondents who thought that PVAW was common in society, considered it more acceptable, and knew women victims of partner violence in their circle of friends and family. Implications for public education are discussed.

  14. Comparison of domestic violence against women in urban versus rural areas of southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ajah, Leonard Ogbonna; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Nkwo, Peter Onubiwe; Nwakoby, Boniface; Ezeonu, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background The perception and prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in rural areas is poorly understood; the result is that most efforts at eradicating this harmful practice are concentrated in urban areas. The objective of the study was to compare the burden and perception of DV among women living in rural and urban Igbo communities of southeast Nigeria. Methods This was a comparative, cross-sectional study of women residing in rural and urban communities in Enugu, Nigeria, who had gathered for an annual religious meeting from August 1–7, 2011. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics and was conducted with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, software version 17.0, at a 95% level of confidence. Results A total of 836 women who met the eligibility criteria participated in the survey. Of these, 376 were from Okpanku, a rural community, while 460 were from Ogui Nike, an urban community. The prevalence of DV among rural women was significantly higher than that among urban women (97% versus 81%, P<0.001). In particular, the prevalence of physical violence was significantly higher among rural women than among urban women (37.2% versus 23.5%; P=0.05). In contrast, rural and urban women did not differ significantly in the proportions that had experienced psychological or sexual violence. The proportion of women who believed that DV was excusable was significantly higher among rural dwellers than among urban dwellers (58.5% versus 29.6%; P=0.03). Conclusion The burden of DV against women may be higher in rural communities than in urban communities in southeast Nigeria. More rural women perceived DV as excusable; this finding suggests that factors that sustain DV could be strong in rural areas. A comprehensive program to curb DV in this area may need to significantly involve the rural areas. PMID:25336992

  15. Disseminating maternal health information to rural women: a user centered design framework.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Vikram

    2010-11-13

    The delivery of primary health information to rural women is a considerable challenge for government and private sectors in rural India. This paper illustrates how by applying the proposed user centered framework dissemination of maternal health information to rural women can be improved. First, the paper presents baseline study to obtain existing knowledge level of women and design requirements for a Primary Health Information System (PHIS). Second, the paper presents a brief description of the PHIS system which was deployed in a village for sixteen months in rural India. Third, the paper explains longitudinal study conducted post intervention of PHIS to measure the impact of PHIS on the knowledge level and health behaviour of rural women in comparison to the baseline study. The results indicate that by following the proposed user centered approach to design the PHIS, a significant improvement in knowledge level of rural women and positive changes in health practices are achieved.

  16. Secure Cloud-Based Solutions for Different eHealth Services in Spanish Rural Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The combination of eHealth applications and/or services with cloud technology provides health care staff—with sufficient mobility and accessibility for them—to be able to transparently check any data they may need without having to worry about its physical location. Objective The main aim of this paper is to put forward secure cloud-based solutions for a range of eHealth services such as electronic health records (EHRs), telecardiology, teleconsultation, and telediagnosis. Methods The scenario chosen for introducing the services is a set of four rural health centers located within the same Spanish region. iCanCloud software was used to perform simulations in the proposed scenario. We chose online traffic and the cost per unit in terms of time as the parameters for choosing the secure solution on the most optimum cloud for each service. Results We suggest that load balancers always be fitted for all solutions in communication together with several Internet service providers and that smartcards be used to maintain identity to an appropriate extent. The solutions offered via private cloud for EHRs, teleconsultation, and telediagnosis services require a volume of online traffic calculated at being able to reach 2 Gbps per consultation. This may entail an average cost of €500/month. Conclusions The security solutions put forward for each eHealth service constitute an attempt to centralize all information on the cloud, thus offering greater accessibility to medical information in the case of EHRs alongside more reliable diagnoses and treatment for telecardiology, telediagnosis, and teleconsultation services. Therefore, better health care for the rural patient can be obtained at a reasonable cost. PMID:26215155

  17. The status of women in rural India: a village study.

    PubMed

    Vlassoff, C

    1982-01-01

    This paper examines the status of rural Indian women and how their status has been affected by progressive legislation designed to remove previous inequalities. A socio-demographic survey of women and adolescent girls was conducted in a Maharashtrian village of 2100 people in 1975-76. The village economy was based on subsistence agriculture with 94% of females and 84% of males engaged in farming. Data were collected by means of participant observation and questionnaire interviews. Overall levels of education were low, with only 5% of females and 15% of males having any high school education. Over 50% of females had received no education, 28% of males. Inequalities between males and females persisted throughout all age groups but were less obvious at younger ages. 97% of women felt that boys should attend school beyond the primary level, 75% said that girls should. Many adolescent girls said they would like to continue their education but admitted that they would soon marry and advanced education was unnecessary. 62% of women favored modern medicine but 57% still felt that smallpox was a punishment from the gods; fewer educated women than illiterate women answered this way. Average age of marriage was 14.1 years; 69% of the women felt that girls should be married by age 16, but 70% believed that boys should not marry until age 18 so that they can complete their studies. 62% of women who had discussed family size with their husbands also approved of eating together and 55% felt that joint discussion was preferable. Only 25% felt that large families meant greater happiness and on the average 3.4 children (2 sons, 1.4 daughters) were preferred; over 75% said that they would exceed their ideal family size if they had borne only daughters. The local family planning program was approved by 90% of the women and use has increased from 13-43% from 1966-76. Low caste was related to low levels of education for women, but there is little difference in the number of children

  18. Seasonal BMI Changes of Rural Women Living in Anatolia

    PubMed Central

    Sabbağ, Çiğdem

    2012-01-01

    Today, obesity is one of the most evident public health problems in many parts of the World and it is more common among women. Several factors are affecting women’s obesity, among these short term weight fluctuations, either gain or loss, cause severe health disorders, particularly in rural areas where seasonal activity differs significantly throughout the year. Since this case has not been studied in detail, our research focused on prevalence and probable causes of seasonal rural obesity among women in two rural areas of Turkey. The study was undertaken with 100 participants. One-way ANOVA and one-way repeated ANOVA tests were utilized for categorical, continuous and repeated variables as study contains groups with more than one and repeated variables. Overweight is more common in the 18–30 years and 50+ years groups, whereas the absence of obesity, except during winter of 2010 in the 50+ years of age group, is most probably due to the widespread occurrence of diabetes for this age group. The highest BMI values for all groups, which were 25.2 ± 3.39 for 2009 and 26.1 ± 3.40 for 2010, were determined in winter, because of minimum physical activity, while summer BMIs were 24.1 ± 3.39 in 2009 and 25.1 ± 3.35 in 2010. This decrease was most probably due to intense agricultural field work in both regions. The majority of the women claimed that their weight is balanced in summer but results revealed that participants did not lose all the weight which was gained during winter months although BMI showed a significant fall from spring to autumn. PMID:22690188

  19. Away from the mainstream: medical women in one region of rural New South Wales.

    PubMed

    Harding, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Despite recent research on the difficulties associated with attracting women to the rural medical workforce, and the perception that the image of the rural doctor is male, women have had a history in rural medicine in southwest New South Wales that spans a century. This paper explores the contribution to medicine of women medical practitioners working within one geographical area of rural New South Wales. It traces these women, documenting the diversity of women's medical work and some of the challenges faced. Based largely on data from contemporary reports in two local newspapers, the Daily Express and The Daily Advertiser, this paper shows that some of the silence associated with the role of women in rural medicine could be attributed to them holding positions at the margins of what is depicted as 'real' medicine, in fields that include public health and education.

  20. Racial Differences in HPV Knowledge, HPV Vaccine Acceptability, and Related Beliefs among Rural, Southern Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Joan R.; Brewer, Noel T.; Fazekas, Karah I.; Mitchell, Cicely E.; Smith, Jennifer S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Because cervical cancer mortality in the United States is twice as high among black women as white women and higher in rural areas, providing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to rural black adolescents is a high priority. Purpose: To identify racial differences in knowledge and attitudes about HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine…

  1. Community Partnerships, Food Pantries, and an Evidence-Based Intervention to Increase Mammography among Rural Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bencivenga, Marcyann; DeRubis, Susan; Leach, Patricia; Lotito, Lisa; Shoemaker, Charles; Lengerich, Eugene J.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Multiple national agencies and organizations recommend that women age 40 years and older have an annual screening mammogram. Women who are poor, less educated, lack a usual source of care, and reside in rural Appalachia are less likely to have had a recent mammogram. Purpose: To increase use of mammography among a rural Appalachian…

  2. The Impact of Education on Rural Women's Participation in Political and Economic Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishaw, Alemayehu

    2014-01-01

    This study endeavored to investigate the impact of education on rural women's participation in political and economic activities. Six hundred rural women and 12 gender Activists were selected for this study from three Zones of Amhara Region, Ethiopia using multi-stage random sampling technique and purposeful sampling techniques respectively.…

  3. Depression and Poverty among Rural Women: A Relationship of Social Causation or Social Selection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Leigh A.; Braun, Bonnie; Charnigo, Richard; Havens, Jennifer R.; Wright, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Context and Purpose: Depression among rural women is a major public health concern. The purpose of this study was to test the competing theories of social causation and social selection to assess the relationship between depression and economic status for a sample of rural, low-income women in the United States. Methods: Structural equation…

  4. Post-Secondary Education and Rural Women Enrolled in Liberal Arts Undergraduate Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois, Monique; Kirby, Dale

    2012-01-01

    The significance of post-secondary education is investigated for rural Newfoundland women enrolled in undergraduate liberal arts degree programs. Data collection for this research involved comprehensive, detailed semi-structured biographical interviews with rural women studying liberal arts disciplines during the 2006-2007 academic year at…

  5. Adaptation of the food-craving questionnaire trait for the assessment of chocolate cravings: validation across British and Spanish women.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Sonia; Warren, Cortney S; Moreno, Silvia; Cepeda-Benito, Antonio; Gleaves, David H; Fernández, María del Carmen; Vila, Jaime

    2007-07-01

    English and Spanish versions of the FCQ-T [Cepeda-Benito, A., Gleaves, D. H., Williams, T. L., & Erath, S. A. (2000). The development and validation of the state and trait food-cravings questionnaires. Behavior Therapy, 31, 151-173] were adapted to create the food chocolate-craving questionnaire trait (FCCQ-T). Female college students from England (N=293), and Spain (N=373) completed the FCCQ-T. Good and similar measurement fits for the English and Spanish versions were found. In concordance with the higher consumption of chocolate in Britain, British women reported greater chocolate cravings than Spanish women. Overall, the FCCQ-T appears a well-suited instrument to investigate chocolate cravings in English- and Spanish-speaking populations.

  6. Stress and coping in rural women with alcohol and other drug disorders.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Mary R; Bland, Ann; Herman, Jennifer; Mestler, Lynne; Murr, Lisa; Potts, Liz

    2002-12-01

    Alcohol and other drug disorders (AOD) are a growing problem among women with estimates as high as 11 million U.S. women affected. This is a report of the results of two studies investigating risk factors for AOD disorders in rural women, a population that is difficult to access. Samples of the two studies were combined for a total of 267 women. Analyses focus on stress, coping, alcohol expectancies, and self-esteem. Results indicate that rural women with AOD disorders experience more stressors and fewer uplifting events, have fewer coping resources, and use more emotion-focused coping strategies than women without AOD disorders.

  7. What do popular Spanish women's magazines say about caesarean section? A 21-year survey

    PubMed Central

    Torloni, MR; Campos Mansilla, B; Merialdi, M; Betrán, AP

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Caesarean section (CS) rates are increasing worldwide and maternal request is cited as one of the main reasons for this trend. Women's preferences for route of delivery are influenced by popular media, including magazines. We assessed the information on CS presented in Spanish women's magazines. Design Systematic review. Setting Women's magazines printed from 1989 to 2009 with the largest national distribution. Sample Articles with any information on CS. Methods Articles were selected, read and abstracted in duplicate. Sources of information, scientific accuracy, comprehensiveness and women's testimonials were objectively extracted using a content analysis form designed for this study. Main outcome measures Accuracy, comprehensiveness and sources of information. Results Most (67%) of the 1223 selected articles presented exclusively personal opinion/birth stories, 12% reported the potential benefits of CS, 26% mentioned the short-term and 10% mentioned the long-term maternal risks, and 6% highlighted the perinatal risks of CS. The most frequent short-term risks were the increased time for maternal recovery (n = 86), frustration/feelings of failure (n = 83) and increased post-surgical pain (n = 71). The most frequently cited long-term risks were uterine rupture (n = 57) and the need for another CS in any subsequent pregnancy (n = 42). Less than 5% of the selected articles reported that CS could increase the risks of infection (n = 53), haemorrhage (n = 31) or placenta praevia/accreta in future pregnancies (n = 6). The sources of information were not reported by 68% of the articles. Conclusions The portrayal of CS in Spanish women's magazines is not sufficiently comprehensive and does not provide adequate important information to help the readership to understand the real benefits and risks of this route of delivery. PMID:24467797

  8. Women's work and family size in rural Thailand.

    PubMed

    Podhisita, C; Havanon, N; Knodel, J; Sittitrai, W

    1990-06-01

    Surveys of 612 couples in 2 districts of rural Thailand were conducted to analyze the extent to which the birth of each child and the cumulative effect of childbearing interrupts, interferes with, or influences women's economic activity. The districts were in a northern area, Lamphun, where fertility has declined rapidly since the 1960s, and central Suphanburi province where the decline has been slower. Couples were selected for having completed families or 1 or 2 children, or 4 or more surviving children, and were matched for age. Information was obtained by survey questionnaires and by focus groups. Small family couples were somewhat better educated and of higher socioeconomic status, and tended to be farmers, while large family couples were more likely to engage in wage labor. These couples viewed women's labor as an economic necessity, either for survival or to educate and provide for their families. To cope with child care, women resorted to relatives, older children, hired child care, nursery school, primary school, took their children with them to work or modified their work schedule. The double burden of income-earning activity and child care caused considerable strains for working mothers. There was an overwhelming consensus among both groups that childbearing interrupts and that child care interferes with women's work. 95% of the small and 90% of the large families felt that more work could be done if families were kept small. Implications of this study are that government sponsored family planned should continue, and that some type of subsidized day care is needed, including early morning hours when farm women leave for work.

  9. Maternal health literacy progression among rural perinatal women.

    PubMed

    Mobley, Sandra C; Thomas, Suzanne Dixson; Sutherland, Donald E; Hudgins, Jodi; Ange, Brittany L; Johnson, Maribeth H

    2014-10-01

    This research examined changes in maternal health literacy progression among 106 low income, high risk, rural perinatal African American and White women who received home visits by Registered Nurse Case Managers through the Enterprise Community Healthy Start Program. Maternal health literacy progression would enable women to better address intermediate factors in their lives that impacted birth outcomes, and ultimately infant mortality (Lu and Halfon in Mater Child Health J 7(1):13-30, 2003; Sharma et al. in J Natl Med Assoc 86(11):857-860, 1994). The Life Skills Progression Instrument (LSP) (Wollesen and Peifer, in Life skills progression. An outcome and intervention planning instrument for use with families at risk. Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co., Baltimore, 2006) measured changes in behaviors that represented intermediate factors in birth outcomes. Maternal Health Care Literacy (LSP/M-HCL) was a woman's use of information, critical thinking and health care services; Maternal Self Care Literacy (LSP/M-SCL) was a woman's management of personal and child health at home (Smith and Moore in Health literacy and depression in the context of home visitation. Mater Child Health J, 2011). Adequacy was set at a score of (≥4). Among 106 women in the study initial scores were inadequate (<4) on LSP/M-HCL (83 %), and on LSP/M-SCL (30 %). Significant positive changes were noted in maternal health literacy progression from the initial prenatal assessment to the first (p < .01) postpartum assessment and to the final (p < .01) postpartum assessment using McNemar's test of gain scores. Numeric comparison of first and last gain scores indicated women's scores progressed (LSP/M-HCL; p < .0001) and (LSP/M-SCL; p < .0001). Elevated depression scores were most frequent among women with <4 LSP/M-HCL and/or <4 LSP/M-SCL. Visit notes indicated lack or loss of relationship with the father of the baby and intimate partner discord contributed to higher depression scores.

  10. Peace, justice and disabled women's advocacy: Tamil women with disabilities in rural post-conflict Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Niro; Soldatic, Karen; Samararatne, Dinesha

    2016-10-13

    This article draws on grounded qualitative research with rural Tamil women who acquired a disability during the civil war in Sri Lanka and conceptualizes an intersectionality-peace framework. Three main themes were developed from the interviews: narratives of conflict, survival outcomes of social assistance and mobilization of cross-ethnic relationships. With the support of a local women's disability advocacy organization, Tamil women with disabilities were enabled to overcome social stigma and claim a positive identity as women with disabilities. The organization's focus on realizing disability rights created new opportunities for these highly marginalized rural women. The women were also supported to form cross-ethnic relationships with women who similarly faced multiple oppressions. These relationships transformed the women into 'agents of peace', using their newfound disability identity to foster cross-ethnic dialogue and create safe spaces in the post-conflict context.

  11. Salud es Vida: a Cervical Cancer Screening Intervention for Rural Latina Immigrant Women.

    PubMed

    Luque, John S; Tarasenko, Yelena N; Reyes-Garcia, Claudia; Alfonso, Moya L; Suazo, Norma; Rebing, Laura; Ferris, Daron G

    2016-01-12

    This study examined the feasibility and efficacy of Salud es Vida-a promotora-led, Spanish language educational group session on cervical cancer screening (Pap tests)-self-efficacy (belief in ability to schedule and complete a Pap test), and knowledge among immigrant Hispanic/Latina women from farmworker backgrounds. These women are disproportionately burdened with cervical cancer, with mortality rates significantly higher than non-Hispanic whites. The two-arm, quasi-experimental study was conducted in four rural counties of Southeast Georgia in 2014-2015. Hispanic/Latina immigrant women aged 21-65 years and overdue for a Pap test were included as intervention (N = 38) and control (N = 52) group participants. The intervention was developed in partnership with a group of promotoras to create the toolkit of materials which includes a curriculum guide, a brochure, a flipchart, a short animated video, and in-class activities. Twelve (32 %) intervention group participants received the Pap test compared to 10 (19 %) control group participants (p = 0.178). The intervention group scored significantly higher on both cervical cancer knowledge recall and retention than the control group (p < 0.001). While there was no statistically significant difference in cervical cancer screening self-efficacy scores between the group participants, both groups scored higher at follow-up, adjusting for the baseline scores. The group intervention approach was associated with increased cervical cancer knowledge but not uptake of Pap test. More intensive interventions using patient navigation approaches or promotoras who actively follow participants or conducting one-on-one rather than group sessions may be needed to achieve improved screening outcomes with this population.

  12. Adult Pornography and Violence Against Women in the Heartland: Results From a Rural Southeast Ohio Study.

    PubMed

    DeKeseredy, Walter S; Hall-Sanchez, Amanda

    2016-05-22

    Many rural parts of the United States are now "pornified." There is growing quantitative evidence revealing that rural women are at higher risk of being victimized by intimate violence than their urban and suburban counterparts. In-depth interviews with 55 rural southeast Ohio women who wanted to leave, were trying to leave, or were in the process of leaving, or who have left their male marital/cohabiting partners reveal that pornography is a major component of the problem of rural woman abuse. The main objective of this article is twofold: (a) to present the results of our qualitative study, and (b) to suggest future directions in theoretical and empirical work.

  13. PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF THE RURAL SPANISH AMERICAN VILLAGE OF NORTHERN NEW MEXICO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1963

    THIS SPEECH WAS DELIVERED TO THE NEW MEXICO CONFERENCE FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND WAS CONCERNED WITH THE PROBLEMS FACING SPANISH AMERICAN VILLAGE SETTLEMENTS IN NORTHERN NEW MEXICO. IT WAS STATED THAT THE FUNDAMENTAL REASONS FOR THE DECLINE OF THE SPANISH AMERICAN FARM VILLAGE INVOLVE THE PROCESS OF ACCULTURATION AND SOCIOECONOMIC ADJUSTMENT IN A…

  14. Four Generations of Women's Educational Experience in a Rural Chinese Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Haigen; Placier, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Our study sought to understand changes in gender inequality in education across four generations of rural Chinese women's educational experiences in a small community in southern China. The 24 interviews and numerous informal conversations with 12 women showed that gender-based favouritism for men and against women undergirded family expectations,…

  15. Rural Women with HIV and AIDS: Perceptions of Service Accessibility, Psychosocial, and Mental Health Counseling Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Jennifer

    2002-01-01

    Study examines rural women with HIV and AIDS and the staff members who work with them. Results revealed (a) barriers to these women regarding the accessibility of services, including mental health counseling; (b) a need to empower these women to be proactive in their health care; and (c) a stronger social support system and sense of hope in women…

  16. Communication Between Physicians And Spanish-Speaking Latin American Women With Pelvic Floor Disorders: A Cycle Of Misunderstanding?

    PubMed Central

    Sevilla, Claudia; Wieslander, Cecilia K.; Alas, Alexandriah N.; Dunivan, Gena C.; Khan, Aqsa A.; Maliski RN, Sally L.; Rogers, Rebecca G.; Anger, Jennifer T.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effect of the initial visit with a specialist on disease understanding among Spanish-speaking women with pelvic floor disorders. Methods Spanish-speaking women with referrals suggestive of urinary incontinence (UI) and/or pelvic organ prolapse (POP) were recruited from public urogynecology clinics. Patients participated in a health literacy assessment and interview before and after their physician encounter. All interviews were analyzed using Grounded Theory qualitative methods. Results Twenty-seven women with POP (N=6), UI (N=11), and POP/UI (N=10) were enrolled in this study. The mean age was 55.5 years and the majority of women had marginal levels of health literacy. From our qualitative analysis, three concepts emerged. First, was that patients had poor understanding of their diagnosis before and after the encounter regardless of how extensive the physician’s explanation or level of Spanish-proficiency. Secondly, patients were overwhelmed with the amount of information given to them. Lastly, patients ultimately put their trust in the physician, relying on them for treatment recommendations. Conclusions Our findings emphasize the difficulty Spanish-speaking women with low health literacy have in understanding information regarding pelvic floor disorders. In this specific population, the physician has a major role in influencing patients’ treatment decisions and helping them overcome fears they may have about their condition. PMID:23442506

  17. Raising rural women's voices: From self-silencing to self-expression.

    PubMed

    Bogar, Sandra; Ganos, Emmy; Hoormann, Kelly; Bub-Standal, Caryn; Beyer, Kirsten M M

    2016-12-29

    Within the context of a community-academic partnership, we undertook a mixed-methods study to identify and explore health status, priorities, and management strategies among aging Wisconsin rural women. A questionnaire measuring diverse wellness needs was administered to women participating in personal development programming offered by a rural nonprofit organization. A subgroup participated in qualitative interviews to deepen the understanding of identified health priorities and methods of coping and healing. Findings provide insight into the prevalence of self-silencing among rural women and highlight mechanisms that help to facilitate the dismantling of self-silencing.

  18. Depression and Rural Environment are Associated With Poor Oral Health Among Pregnant Women in Northern Appalachia.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Daniel W; Hayes, Sarah E; Randall, Cameron L; Polk, Deborah E; Neiswanger, Kathy; Shaffer, John R; Weyant, Robert J; Foxman, Betsy; Kao, Elizabeth; Crout, Richard J; Chapman, Stella; Brown, Linda J; Maurer, Jennifer L; Marazita, Mary L

    2016-01-01

    Both oral health problems and depression among pregnant women contribute to maternal-infant health outcomes. Little is known, however, about the potential effects of clinically significant depression on the oral health status of pregnant women. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of clinically significant depression and rural- or urban-dwelling status on oral health outcomes among pregnant women. Pregnant women (N = 685) in rural (i.e., West Virginia) and urban (i.e., Pittsburgh, PA) areas of northern Appalachia were assessed by calibrated examiners regarding gingivitis, oral hygiene, and DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled teeth), completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) and provided demographics. Participants were categorized based on clinically significant depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 16) and rural/urban domicile. Women with depression and those living in rural areas had worse oral health on all three indices than their non-depressed and urban counterparts. Depression, particularly among women in rural areas, affects certain oral health indices and represents a modifiable target for intervention. Moreover, treatments designed specifically for rural populations may be of particular utility. Women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant may benefit from regular depression screenings from their dental and medical health care providers.

  19. Women of Spanish Origin in the United States, 1976. La Mujer de Origen Hispano en los Estados Unidos, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Women's Bureau.

    The report presents data on selected social, economic, and demographic characteristics of women of Spanish origin in the United States. Derived from the population reports of the U.S. Census Bureau and the March 1973 Manpower Report of the President, the statistical data pertain to age, residence, marital status, heads of families and households,…

  20. Examining the Factor Structure and Discriminant Validity of the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) Among Spanish Postpartum Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguado, Jaume; Campbell, Alistair; Ascaso, Carlos; Navarro, Purificacion; Garcia-Esteve, Lluisa; Luciano, Juan V.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors tested alternative factor models of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) in a sample of Spanish postpartum women, using confirmatory factor analysis. The authors report the results of modeling three different methods for scoring the GHQ-12 using estimation methods recommended for categorical and binary data.…

  1. Spanish consensus on sexual health in men and women over 50.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Borrego, Rafael; Molero, Francisca; Castaño, Rosario; Castelo-Branco, Camil; Honrado, Manel; Jurado, Ana Rosa; Laforet, Encarna; Prieto, Rafael; Cabello, Francisco; Larrazabal, Miren; Sánchez, Froilán; Florido, Jesús; Mendoza, Nicolas

    2014-06-01

    Sexual health has been defined as "the state of physical, emotional and social wellbeing related to sexuality. However, there are medical, psychological and social reasons that complicate full sexual health that are frequently not attended to sufficiently. The objective of this guide will be to analyze the factors that impact the sexual health of men and women over 50 and to provide recommendations for the most appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic measures for this age group. A panel of experts from various Spanish scientific societies related to sexual health (Spanish Menopause Society, SMS; Asociación Española de Andrología, Medicina Sexual y Reproductiva, ASESA; Federación Española de Sociedades de Sexología, FESS; and Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria SEMERGEN) met to reach a consensus on these issues and to decide the optimal timing and methods based on the best evidence available.

  2. Analysis of Body Composition and Food Habits of Spanish Celiac Women.

    PubMed

    Churruca, Itziar; Miranda, Jonatan; Lasa, Arrate; Bustamante, María Á; Larretxi, Idoia; Simon, Edurne

    2015-07-08

    The purpose of the present work was both to analyze composition of Spanish celiac women and to study the food habits and gluten-free diet of these celiac patients, in order to determine whether they achieve a balanced and healthy diet as well as to highlight nutritional qualitative and/or quantitative differences. 54 adult celiac women (34 ± 13 years) took part in the six-month study. Height, weight and body composition were measured. An analysis of energy consumption and of the macronutrient distribution of their diet was carried out. Their fulfillment of micronutrient intake recommendations was verified. Participants showed a Body Mass Index of 21.6 ± 2.4 kg/m2. Energy Intake was slightly lower than the Dietary Reference Intakes. Excessive protein apart from over-consumption of fat was observed. More than three quarters of participants consumed meat in excess. Carbohydrate consumption along with that of fiber was below recommended levels. Vitamin D, iron, and iodine had a low percentage of recommendation compliance. In general, participants followed the recommendations of dairy products and fruit intake whereas vegetable consumption was not enough for the vast majority. We conclude that although the diet of celiac women does not differ much from the diet of general population, some considerations, such as reducing fat and protein consumption and increasing fiber intake, must be taken into account.

  3. Analysis of Body Composition and Food Habits of Spanish Celiac Women

    PubMed Central

    Churruca, Itziar; Miranda, Jonatan; Lasa, Arrate; Bustamante, María Á.; Larretxi, Idoia; Simon, Edurne

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was both to analyze composition of Spanish celiac women and to study the food habits and gluten-free diet of these celiac patients, in order to determine whether they achieve a balanced and healthy diet as well as to highlight nutritional qualitative and/or quantitative differences. 54 adult celiac women (34 ± 13 years) took part in the six-month study. Height, weight and body composition were measured. An analysis of energy consumption and of the macronutrient distribution of their diet was carried out. Their fulfillment of micronutrient intake recommendations was verified. Participants showed a Body Mass Index of 21.6 ± 2.4 kg/m2. Energy Intake was slightly lower than the Dietary Reference Intakes. Excessive protein apart from over-consumption of fat was observed. More than three quarters of participants consumed meat in excess. Carbohydrate consumption along with that of fiber was below recommended levels. Vitamin D, iron, and iodine had a low percentage of recommendation compliance. In general, participants followed the recommendations of dairy products and fruit intake whereas vegetable consumption was not enough for the vast majority. We conclude that although the diet of celiac women does not differ much from the diet of general population, some considerations, such as reducing fat and protein consumption and increasing fiber intake, must be taken into account. PMID:26184289

  4. The intellectual legacy of Mary Neth's work on farm women and rural communities.

    PubMed

    Osterud, Grey

    2009-01-01

    Mary Neth's 1995 book, "Preserving the Family Farm: Women, Community, and the Foundations of Agribusiness in the Midwest, 1900-1940," made a major contribution to the analysis of the connections between gender and the political economy that shaped farm women's lives and fueled farmers' resistance to the transformation of rural life wrought by agribusiness. Focusing on the processes of negotiation between women and men in farming families and rural communities, Neth illuminated the relationship between women's work and their power. Tracing the dense networks that connected farm families, she also showed how cooperation in work generated and sustained radical farm movements.

  5. Policy Implications for Using ICTs for Empowerment of Rural Women in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwapong, Olivia Adwoa Tiwaah Frimpong

    2008-01-01

    Using rural household survey data collected from 1000 female household heads selected from all the ten administrative regions in Ghana, this paper explored the policy implications for using ICTs for empowerment of rural women. A contingent valuation (CV) method was used to quantitatively estimate the influence of selected socio-economic factors on…

  6. Position of the Spanish Menopause Society regarding vaginal health care in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Borrego, Rafael; Manubens, Montserrat; Navarro, Maria Concepción; Cancelo, Ma Jesús; Beltrán, Estanislao; Duran, Magda; Orte, Teresa; Baquedano, Laura; Palacios, Santiago; Mendoza, Nicolás

    2014-06-01

    Vaginal health, defined as the vaginal state in which the physiological condition remains stable, being protected from the onset of symptoms and facilitating a satisfying sex life, is one of the most common and less valued concerns in postmenopausal women. Many of the conditions that affect the vagina are related to its trophism and susceptibility to infection by unusual germs, which are phenomena strongly influenced by estrogen impregnation and the microbiota composition, ultimately affecting sexuality and the quality of life. An expert panel of the Spanish Menopause Society met to establish criteria for diagnosing and treating the processes that affect overall vaginal health and to decide the optimal timing and methods based on the best evidence available.

  7. "Sometimes I Am Spanish and Sometimes Not": A Study of the Identity and Integration of Spanish Muslim Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibai, Salam Adlbi

    2010-01-01

    This article reports part of a wider investigation which is still being developed and analyzes in depth the lives of female university students who are both Spanish and Muslim. The first part of this research was published in the "Revista Espanola de Educacion Comparada," where the results of the study in Madrid are presented. Here, the…

  8. Strengthening resources for midlife and older rural women who experience intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Lori E; Macquarrie, Colleen; Begley, Lorraine; Gill, Carmen; Leblanc, Kristal D

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about midlife and older women who experience intimate partner violence living in rural places and their resource needs. Guided by a strengths perspective, we provided insights into resources that midlife and older women use, or would like to use, in their journey in leaving an abusive partner. Eight women who had left an abusive partner participated in a face-to-face interview. They drew on a wide variety of paid and unpaid resources, while each woman had a unique set of resources that contributed to her being able to make such a significant life transition. It is clear that we need to have a variety of formal and informal resources available to older women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) in rural places, and new forms of resources need to be developed. Our results also indicate that increased efforts are needed in improving both public and professional education regarding older rural women and IPV.

  9. Mental health services provided through the National Centers of Excellence in Women's Health: do they reach rural women?

    PubMed

    Hillemeier, Marianne M; Weisman, Carol S; Baker, Katie; Primavera, Kaitlin

    2005-01-01

    The National Centers of Excellence in Women's Health (CoEs) were established in part to provide integrated, comprehensive health care including mental health services to women. The purpose of this study was to identify mental health services currently provided by each of the 19 CoEs throughout the United States and to assess the extent to which these services are targeted to and utilized by rural women. Methods included both website review and semistructured interviews with knowledgeable informants in the CoEs. Center websites varied widely in mental health services mentioned: one CoE described services for nine different types of mental health issues, while one-fourth of the CoEs included no mention of any specific mental health services. Only four websites indicated that rural women were part of the CoE target population. Knowledgeable informant interviews indicated that seven of the CoEs had mental health staff onsite providing mental and behavioral health services. These services most often included treatment for depression and other mood disorders and for stress, as well as counseling for domestic violence issues. None of the CoEs offered mental or behavioral health services specifically targeted to rural women. We conclude that although they have not done so to date, the CoEs would be good sites in which to develop and test mental health outreach services for rural women.

  10. Rurality and Self-Reported Health in Women with a History of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Rafat; Loxton, Deborah; Khan, Asad

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate differences in self-reported health among Australian women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV) in relation to rurality of residence. Methods Data were drawn from six survey waves of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health 1973–78 birth cohort. Self-reported general and mental health scores derived from the SF-36 scale were compared for women with a history of IPV living in metropolitan, regional and rural areas. Multivariable generalised estimating equations were constructed adjusting for income hardship, number of children, education, social support, age and marital status. Results Women with a history of IPV living in regional and rural areas had no significant differences in self-reported general health scores compared to their metropolitan counterparts. Rural women affected by IPV had slightly better self-reported mental health than equivalent women living in metropolitan or regional areas. The socio-demographic factors with the strongest association with self-reported health were income, education, social support, and number of children. Conclusions Women in regional and rural areas were no more disadvantaged, in terms of self-reported general health or mental health, than IPV affected women living in major cities in Australia. PMID:27622559

  11. Places in the System: New Directions for the Vocational Education of Rural Women. Occasional Paper No. 108.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Faith

    Over the last 20 years, changes in the American culture and the perceptions of women's roles have altered the impact of work on rural women. These changes have altered new needs for vocational preparation and job structures. The "new feminism" has caught rural women in a double bind. They are participants in a modern society saturated with the new…

  12. Impact of Asha intervention on stigma among rural Indian women with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Ekstrand, Maria; Salem, Benissa E; Sinha, Sanjeev; Ganguly, Kalyan K; Leake, Barbara

    2013-08-01

    Rural women living with HIV/AIDS (WLA) in India face multifarious challenges which affect access to antiretroviral regimens and management of HIV/AIDS. The purpose of this pilot study, using cluster randomization, is to compare the effectiveness of the Asha-Life (AL) intervention, delivered by HIV-trained village women, Asha (Accredited Social Health Activists), with a usual care group on reduction of internalized stigma and avoidant coping among 68 WLA in rural India over a 6-month period. The findings demonstrated that participation in the AL intervention was associated with significant reductions in internalized stigma and the use of avoidant coping strategies at follow-up. The findings of our study are promising in terms of the role rural village women (Asha) may play in reducing internalized stigma and avoidant coping in the lives of rural WLA in India.

  13. [Use of resources and costs associated to fractures in Spanish women].

    PubMed

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Ibáñez-Nolla, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the use of resources and costs due to bone fractures in Spanish women above 50 years of age in the population scope. An observational and retrospective study was conducted in six primary care centers and two urban hospitals in Spain. Socio-demographic and co-morbidity data, use of resources (primary care consultations, complementary tests, medications, specialized care, hospitalizations, visits, urgencies), costs and productivity losses were registered. Records of 19 022 women were included, 7% showed some type of fracture between 2003 and 2007. Fractures were mostly associated with osteoporosis (OR: 3.2), fibromyalgia (OR: 2.4) and thyroid changes (OR: 2.2). In the corrected model, the total cost for patients who had a fracture was USD 3727 compared to USD 2705.5 (p<0.001) for those who did not have it. Patients with a fracture generate a greater use of resources, sanitation costs and work productivity losses.

  14. Responsiveness to HIV education and VCT services among Kenyan rural women: a community-based survey.

    PubMed

    Karau, Paul Bundi; Winnie, Mueni Saumu; Geoffrey, Muriira; Mwenda, Mukuthuria

    2010-09-01

    Uptake of VCT and other HIV prevention strategies among rural African women is affected by various socio-cultural and economic factors which need elucidation. Our aim was to establish the responsiveness to HIV education among rural women attending three dispensaries in Kenya. This study was designed to assess gender and psycho-social factors that influence HIV dynamics in rural Kenya. This was a cross-sectional questionnaire based study of 1347 women, conducted in October 2009. Socio-economic status as well as knowledge on methods of HIV transmission was assessed. Testing status, knowledge on existing VCT services and willingness to share HIV information with their children was assessed. Majority of the women have heard about VCT services, but significantly few of them have been tested. Those with secondary school education and above are more knowledgeable on methods of HIV transmission, while those with inadequate education are more likely to cite shaking hands, sharing utensils, mosquito bites and hugging as means of transmission (p = 0.001). 90% of educated women are willing to share HIV information with their children, compared to 40% of uneducated women. Marital status is seen to positively influence testing status, but has no significant effect on dissemination of information to children. We conclude that despite the aggressive HIV education and proliferation of VCT services in Kenya, women are not heeding the call to get tested. Education has a positive impact on dissemination of HIV information. Focus needs to shift into increasing acceptability of testing by women in rural Kenya.

  15. Using Community Radio in a Rural Women's Post-Literacy Programme in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagaoka, Chizuko; Karki, Manohar

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the literacy and post-literacy needs of rural women in Nepal, describes a pilot study in using community radio to supplement a classroom-based post-literacy programme for these women, analyses the findings of this intervention and considers the implications for similar programmes in other settings.

  16. Using Mobile Phones to Promote Lifelong Learning among Rural Women in Southern India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balasubramanian, K.; Thamizoli, P.; Umar, Abdurrahman; Kanwar, Asha

    2010-01-01

    This article is an attempt to study the role of mobile phones in the non-formal and informal context among rural women from resource poor communities. In particular, it focuses on the women's control over the mobile phone as a learning tool through the domestication of technologies. The distance learning, gender dimensions, and use of technologies…

  17. Vocational Training for Liushou Women in Rural China: Development by Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shan, Hongxia; Liu, Zhiwen; Li, Ling

    2015-01-01

    As industrialisation and urbanisation aggressively take hold in China, all possible labour pools are being tapped to meet the market demands. Liushou women, or women who stay behind in rural areas as their spouses join the massive migrant workforce, are one such labour pool. Vocational training has been adopted by the Chinese state as a…

  18. Strength Training Improves Body Image and Physical Activity Behaviors among Midlife and Older Rural Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seguin, Rebecca A.; Eldridge, Galen; Lynch, Wesley; Paul, Lynn C.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of strength training on body image is understudied. The Strong Women Program, a 10-week, twice weekly strength-training program, was provided by Extension agents to 341 older rural women (62 ± 12 years); changes in body image and other psychosocial variables were evaluated. Paired-sample t-test analyses were conducted to assess mean…

  19. Placing Rural Minority Women in Training Situations for Non-Traditional Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paris, Alice Somerville; Woolridge, Schadell

    Detailed practical information is provided in this guidebook describing the services and resources needed to increase the participation of rural minority women in training for non-traditional jobs. Designed for use by a variety of organizations (women's clubs, service organizations, government agencies, and vocational/technical schools), the…

  20. The Environment, Attitudes and Activities of Rural Women: A Case Study of Jhok Sayal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Seemin Anwar

    Conducted in the Punjab in Jhok Sayal, a predominantly Muslim village, this narrative study described: the environment and living conditions of women in this rural village (comprised mainly of tenants and landless labourers); the attitudes of the women toward education, marriage, family planning, and skills; and the woman's daily and annual…

  1. A Tangled Weave: Tracing Outcomes of Education in Rural Women's Lives in North India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghose, Malini; Mullick, Disha

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on the findings of a research study which traced 56 rural women learners 15 years after they had participated in an empowerment and education programme in North India. It attempts to understand, from the perspectives of women from marginalised communities, the ways in which participating in the programme had been empowering for…

  2. Strategies Pregnant Rural Women Employ to Deal with Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F. C.; Sharps, Phyllis W.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored strategies from the Intimate Partner Violence Strategy Index (IPVSI) that a sub-set of 20 rural, low-income, abused women of a larger, multi-site, mixed-method study employed to deal with Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) during the perinatal period. We conducted 32 in-depth interviews with women who were pregnant (N = 12) and/or…

  3. Unfolding Possibilities through a Decolonizing Project: Indigenous Knowledges and Rural Japanese Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayuzumi, Kimine

    2009-01-01

    Rural Japanese women have been overlooked or misrepresented in the academic and nationalist discourses on Japanese women. Using an anti-colonial feminist framework, I advocate that centering discussions on Indigenous knowledges will help fill this gap based on the belief that Indigenous-knowledge framework is a tool to show the agency of the…

  4. Women, doctors, and family health care: some lessons from rural Java.

    PubMed

    Hull, V J

    1979-01-01

    The following article describes traditional health care systems of rural Indonesian women. It distinguishes the central from the peripheral aspects of systems that women have developed to meet their own needs and contrasts them with modern health care systems. It suggests what can be done to keep the valuable features of each approach.

  5. Pregnancy and Intimate Partner Violence: How do Rural, Low-Income Women Cope?

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F.; Anderson, Kim M.; Danis, Fran S.; Sharps, Phyllis W.

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted thirty-two in-depth interviews with 20 rural, low-income, women residing in the United States, who were pregnant (n =12) or three months postpartum (n =8) and had experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Using purposive sampling and the grounded theory method, the authors generated a conceptual model of coping. The urge to protect the unborn baby was the primary influence for participants’ decisions about separating from or permanently leaving an abusive relationship. Implications include universal screening for IPV in child-bearing women, inquiry into maternal identity development during pregnancy, and improved resource access for rural, low-income women. PMID:21834721

  6. La Exploracion Del Contexto Social y Sus Efectos en el Programa de Espanol en Mexico Rural. (Exploring the Social Context Affecting a Pre-School Spanish Program in Rural Mexico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finegold, Lynda

    A major stumbling block for the implementation of Mexico's Global Development Plan has been the country's large rural population of Indians. One government strategy to integrate this sector into the mainstream of society has been to teach Spanish, the official language, as a second language, while at the same time fostering ethnic pride. The…

  7. Rural-Urban Migration and Working-Class Consciousness: A Spanish Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, John R.

    1978-01-01

    Results indicate that rural-urban migration seems to be a source of increasing class consciousness in Spain's industrial workforce in two ways, neither of which supports a mass society interpretation of working-class politics in that country. (Author)

  8. Going the distance--experiences of women with gynaecological cancer residing in rural remote north Queensland.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Adele E; Usher, Kim

    2008-08-01

    Women who are diagnosed with gynaecological cancer face a difficult journey. For women residing in areas geographically removed from major health providers the journey can be much more difficult. While they 'make do' and 'struggle on', their lived experiences can provide valuable insight into the complex issues surrounding a cancer diagnosis in rural areas. This study aimed to understand their experiences through the women's stories and sought to identify the major themes impacting on these stories. This qualitative phenomenological study undertook interviews with seven women with gynaecological cancer who reside in rural and remote north Queensland. Analysis of the data collected revealed three themes: seeking answers at a distance; sharing information within a small community; and experiences of navigating the health system. The results show the inherent difficulties in accessing support in rural areas and the difficulties associated with travelling considerable distances to undergo treatment.

  9. What Influences Where They Give Birth? Determinants of Place of Delivery among Women in Rural Ghana.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Kwamena Sekyi; Adde, Kenneth Setorwu; Amu, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    Background. There is a paucity of empirical literature in Ghana on rural areas and their utilisation of health facilities. The study examined the effects of the sociodemographics of rural women on place of delivery in the country. Methods. The paper made use of data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Women from rural areas who had given birth within five years prior to the survey were included in the analysis. Descriptive analyses and binary logistic regression were used to analyse the data. Results. Wealth, maternal education, ecological zone, getting money for treatment, ethnicity, partner's education, parity, and distance to a health facility were found as the determinants of place of delivery among women in rural Ghana. Women in the richest wealth quintile were three times (OR = 3.04, 95% CI = 0.35-26.4) more likely to deliver at a health facility than the poorest women. Conclusions. It behoves the relevant stakeholders including the Ghana Health Service and the Ministry of Health to pay attention to the wealth status, maternal education, ecological zone, ethnicity, partner's education, parity, and distance in their planning regarding delivery care in rural Ghana.

  10. What Influences Where They Give Birth? Determinants of Place of Delivery among Women in Rural Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Adde, Kenneth Setorwu

    2016-01-01

    Background. There is a paucity of empirical literature in Ghana on rural areas and their utilisation of health facilities. The study examined the effects of the sociodemographics of rural women on place of delivery in the country. Methods. The paper made use of data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Women from rural areas who had given birth within five years prior to the survey were included in the analysis. Descriptive analyses and binary logistic regression were used to analyse the data. Results. Wealth, maternal education, ecological zone, getting money for treatment, ethnicity, partner's education, parity, and distance to a health facility were found as the determinants of place of delivery among women in rural Ghana. Women in the richest wealth quintile were three times (OR = 3.04, 95% CI = 0.35–26.4) more likely to deliver at a health facility than the poorest women. Conclusions. It behoves the relevant stakeholders including the Ghana Health Service and the Ministry of Health to pay attention to the wealth status, maternal education, ecological zone, ethnicity, partner's education, parity, and distance in their planning regarding delivery care in rural Ghana. PMID:28101522

  11. Rural Women Family Physicians: Strategies for Successful Work-Life Balance

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Julie; Hustedde, Carol; Bjorkman, Sarah; Prasad, Rupa; Sola, Orlando; Wendling, Andrea; Bjorkman, Kurt; Paladine, Heather

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Women family physicians experience challenges in maintaining work-life balance while practicing in rural communities. We sought to better understand the personal and professional strategies that enable women in rural family medicine to balance work and personal demands and achieve long-term career satisfaction. METHODS Women family physicians practicing in rural communities in the United States were interviewed using a semistructured format. Interviews were recorded, professionally transcribed, and analyzed using an immersion and crystallization approach, followed by detailed coding of emergent themes. RESULTS The 25 participants described a set of strategies that facilitated successful work-life balance. First, they used reduced or flexible work hours to help achieve balance with personal roles. Second, many had supportive relationships with spouses and partners, parents, or other members of the community, which facilitated their ability to be readily available to their patients. Third, participants maintained clear boundaries around their work lives, which helped them to have adequate time for parenting, recreation, and rest. CONCLUSIONS Women family physicians can build successful careers in rural communities, but supportive employers, relationships, and patient approaches provide a foundation for this success. Educators, employers, communities, and policymakers can adapt their practices to help women family physicians thrive in rural communities. PMID:27184995

  12. The role of women in environmental management: an overview of the rural Cameroonian situation.

    PubMed

    Ngwa Nebasina, E

    1995-04-01

    Women in Cameroon are estimated to perform about 66% of housework and agricultural work in rural areas. Women are 56.6% of the rural production force in Cameroon. This article explores the role of women in Cameroon and their impact on the environment in various ecological zones. In North Cameroon traditional practices restrict rural women to a geographic distance around their home or farm community. Women's engagement in farming is largely determined by men. Few women have environmental knowledge. In South Cameroon women are engaged in every farming activity and there is mass tilling of the soil. In North West Cameroon women use earth mounding as an agricultural technique for intensive farming and moisture retention. The practice of bush burning is widespread in all regions. In all regions women contribute substantially to the process of environmental degradation. It is suggested that group farming or block farming should be used to increase the use of beneficial technology. Women should receive counseling and technical training from nongovernmental and governmental groups. Successful programs in Cameroon were developed in the early 1960s around rural collectives in the North West. The women were known as the Corn-Mill Societies and engaged in micro-enterprises that protected communal forests and woodlots. Other micro-enterprises flourished in the Oku-Kilum Mountain forests, the Bafut Village Community Zone, and the Mount Kupe forests. Alternative energy sources or improved cooking units are still needed. Improved earth ovens were successful in Senegal in reducing fuel consumption. Village meetings and church and social gatherings might be used to further environmental education.

  13. Feet and fabrication: footbinding and early twentieth-century rural women's labor in Shaanxi.

    PubMed

    Bossen, Laurel; Xurui, Wang; Brown, Melissa J; Gates, Hill

    2011-01-01

    The early twentieth-century transformations of rural Chinese women’s work have received relatively little direct attention. By contrast, the former custom of footbinding continues to fascinate and is often used to illustrate or contest theories about Chinese women’s status. Arguing that for rural women at least, footbinding needs to be understood in relation to rural economic conditions, the authors focus on changes in textile production and in footbinding in two counties in Shaanxi province. Drawing on historical sources and their own interview data from rural women who grew up in this period, the authors find evidence that transformations in textile production undercut the custom of footbinding and contributed to its rapid demise.

  14. The birthing experiences of rural Aboriginal women in context: implications for nursing.

    PubMed

    Brown, Helen; Varcoe, Colleen; Calam, Betty

    2011-12-01

    It has been established that the birthing experiences and outcomes of rural women are shaped by poverty, isolation, limited economic opportunities, and diminishing maternity services. We lack research into how these dynamics are compounded by intersecting forms of oppression faced by Aboriginal women, to impact on their birthing experiences and outcomes. The findings of this study of rural Aboriginal maternity care in 4 communities in British Columbia show how diminishing local birthing choices and women's struggles to exert power, choice, and control are influenced by centuries of colonization. The research questions focus on rural Aboriginal women's experiences of birthing and maternity care in this neocolonial context and their desire for supportive birthing environments. A community-based participatory and ethnographic design was employed. Individual interviews, focus groups, and participant observation were the primary data sources. Although the women's experiences in each community were shaped by distinct histories and traditions, economics, politics, and geographies, the impacts of colonization and medical paternalism and the struggle for control of women's bodies during birth intersect, placing additional stress on women. The implications for nurses of accounting for the intersecting dynamics that shape Aboriginal women's experiences and birth outcomes are discussed.

  15. Rural and indigenous women speak out on the impact of globalization.

    PubMed

    Kelkar, G

    1998-01-01

    This article describes approach papers, proposed strategies, and closing agreements among those attending the May 1998 Asian Pacific Forum on Women, Law, and Development (APWLD) among rural, indigenous women (IW). IW spoke of their experiences with globalization. The aim was to examine the effects of deregulation and privatization, liberalization, and global market and foreign monopoly capital on rural, IW in Asia. The expected outcome was an advocacy directive for APWLD in the forthcoming APEC and People's Summit in November 1998. Approach papers included F. N. Burnad's paper on the "Impact of Globalization on Rural Women" and V. Tauli-Corpuz's paper on "Globalization and its Impacts on Indigenous Women: The Philippine Experience." These papers emphasized the multiple roles of women, their increasing resourcefulness which leads to their enslavement, links between globalization and continuing colonization by transnationals and international institutions, access to ancestral resources, and promotion of export led production that threatens food security. Suggested strategies were to mobilize opposition to globalization and greater control over traditional resources and knowledge by IW. Several important questions were raised about nation states, dominant cultures, human rights violations, technology, and the close link between militarization and globalization. Participants agreed to mobilize for effectively resisting and eliminating unjust and unequal systems that exploit and oppress rural, poor, and indigenous people, especially women.

  16. Breaking the Silence at Spanish Universities: Findings From the First Study of Violence Against Women on Campuses in Spain.

    PubMed

    Valls, Rosa; Puigvert, Lídia; Melgar, Patricia; Garcia-Yeste, Carme

    2016-11-01

    The first research conducted on violence against women in the university context in Spain reveals that 62% of the students know of or have experienced situations of this kind within the university institutions, but only 13% identify these situations in the first place. Two main interrelated aspects arise from the data analysis: not identifying and acknowledging violent situations, and the lack of reporting them. Policies and actions developed by Spanish universities need to be grounded in two goals: intransigence toward any kind of violence against women, and bystander intervention, support, and solidarity with the victims and with the people supporting the victims.

  17. Access to Money and Relation to Women's Use of Family Planning Methods Among Young Married Women in Rural India.

    PubMed

    Reed, Elizabeth; Donta, Balaiah; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusudana; Nair, Saritha; Silverman, Jay; Jadhav, Arun; Palaye, Prajakta; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita

    2016-06-01

    Objectives The social positioning (i.e. social status and autonomy) of women in the household facilitates women's access to and decision-making power related to family planning (FP). Women's access to spending money, which may be an indicator of greater social positioning in the household, may also be greater among women who engage in income generating activities for their families, regardless of women's status in the household. However, in both scenarios, access to money may independently afford greater opportunity to obtain family planning services among women. This study seeks to assess whether access to money is associated with FP outcomes independently of women's social positioning in their households. Methods Using survey data from married couples in rural Maharashtra, India (n = 855), crude and adjusted regression was used to assess women's access to their own spending money in relation to past 3 month use of condoms and other forms of contraceptives (pills, injectables, intrauterine device). Results Access to money (59 %) was associated with condom and other contraceptive use (AORs ranged 1.5-1.8). These findings remained significant after adjusting for women's FP decision-making power in the household and mobility to seek FP services. Conclusion While preliminary, findings suggest that access to money may increase women's ability to obtain FP methods, even in contexts where social norms to support women's power in FP decision-making may not be readily adopted.

  18. Language, Identity and Educational Success: An Ethnographic Study of Spanish-Speaking Children in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wortham, Stanton

    An ethnographic study examined the role of language, discrimination, and aspirations in the school success of Latino students in a small rural town. The town, located about 1,000 miles from Mexico and about 200 miles from any sizeable Latino community, contains about 200 Latinos. Almost all are Mexicans or Mexican Americans and have come to work…

  19. Intimate relationship status variations in violence against women: urban, suburban, and rural differences.

    PubMed

    Rennison, Callie Marie; DeKeseredy, Walter S; Dragiewicz, Molly

    2013-11-01

    Woman abuse varies across intimate relationship categories (e.g., marriage, divorce, separation). However, it is unclear whether relationship status variations in violence against women differ across urban, suburban, and rural areas. We test the hypothesis that rural females, regardless of their intimate partner relationship status, are at higher risk of intimate violence than their urban and suburban counterparts. Results indicate that marital status is an important aspect of the relationship between intimate victimization and geographic area and that rural divorced and separated females are victimized at rates exceeding their urban counterparts.

  20. Improving access to government health care in rural bangladesh: the voice of older adult women.

    PubMed

    Hossen, Abul; Westhues, Anne

    2011-12-01

    Our purpose in this study was to provide an in-depth understanding of the health-system-related barriers to utilization of health services by older women living in rural Bangladesh. Interviews were conducted with 17 women in Bibirchar Union, Sherpur district, Bangladesh, in June 2006. Three main barriers were identified: perceived discrimination based on age, class, and gender; structural aspects of the health care delivery system; and quality of care. Recommendations for change in the delivery of health care in the rural regions of Bangladesh are made based on the insights provided by this marginalized group of health care service users.

  1. Context and the Gendered Status of Teachers: Women's Empowerment through Leadership of Non-Formal Schooling in Rural Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperandio, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Empowering women to control and change their lives continues to be an important goal for many nations. This article examines the empowering effects of being selected and trained to lead rural schools in Bangladesh, using survey and interview data from 152 village women working with the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee education programme.…

  2. Enhancing the Performance of Women's Multiple Roles: A Case Study of Isoya Rural Development Project, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akande, M.

    1992-01-01

    The Isoya Rural Development Project appears to have enhanced Nigerian women's multiple roles (maternal, occupational, conjugal, domestic, kin, community, and individual). Limitations of the project include poor rural infrastructure, male-oriented cultural norms, and lack of direct access to land by women. (SK)

  3. "I'm Just Glad My Three Jobs Could Be during the Day": Women and Work in a Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Barbara D.; Brosi, Whitney A.; Damiano-Teixeira, Karla M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to better understand the experience of wage-earning women in the context of rural economic restructuring. An ecological and life course theoretical framework was used. Nine community leaders and 17 wage-earning women residing in a rural northern Michigan county participated in semistructured interviews,…

  4. Are Rural Women Powerless When it Comes to HIV & AIDS Risk? Implications for Adult Education Programmes in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiggundu, Edith; Castle, Jane

    2007-01-01

    There is an urgent need for fresh approaches to HIV & AIDS education for adults and youth in South Africa, particularly for those marginalised by society, such as rural black women. In this article we explore the factors which affect awareness, condom use and HIV & AIDS risk among a group of women who attend classes in a rural Adult…

  5. Stepped-Care, Community Clinic Interventions to Promote Mammography Use among Low-Income Rural African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Delia Smith; Greene, Paul; Pulley, LeaVonne; Kratt, Polly; Gore, Stacy; Weiss, Heidi; Siegfried, Nicole

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have investigated community clinic-based interventions to promote mammography screening among rural African American women. This study randomized older low-income rural African American women who had not participated in screening in the previous 2 years to a theory-based, personalized letter or usual care; no group differences in…

  6. Colorectal Cancer Screening Practices Among Men and Women in Rural and Nonrural Areas of the United States, 1999

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Thompson, Trevor D.

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that men and women in rural areas are less likely than those in urban areas to receive routine cancer screening. Methods: We examined the colorectal cancer screening practices of men (n = 23,565) and women (n = 37,847) aged >50 years living in rural areas and other areas of the United States using data from the…

  7. Age-Associated Perceptions of Physical Activity Facilitators and Barriers Among Women in Rural Southernmost Illinois

    PubMed Central

    Carnahan, Leslie R.; Peacock, Nadine R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Women living in rural areas in the United States experience disproportionately high rates of diseases such as obesity and heart disease and are less likely than women living in urban areas to meet daily physical activity (PA) recommendations. The purpose of our research was to understand age-specific perceptions of barriers and facilitators to rural women engaging in PA and to identify strategies to promote PA among these women. Methods As part of a community health assessment to learn about women’s health issues, 110 adult women participated in 14 focus groups. The women were divided into 4 age groups, and focus groups were held in various community settings. We used qualitative analysis methods to explore themes in the women’s narratives, including themes related to PA knowledge, PA behavior, and access to PA facilities. Results Participants described multiple and often conflicting individual, social, and environmental barriers and facilitators to PA. Several barriers and facilitators were shared across age groups (eg, competing priorities and inadequate knowledge about PA’s role in disease prevention and disease management). Other barriers (eg, illness and injury) and facilitators (eg, PA as a social opportunity) differed by age group. Conclusion Rural women in southernmost Illinois have often contradictory barriers and facilitators to PA, and those barriers and facilitators are different at different points in a woman’s life. Our findings suggest the need for multilevel, multisector approaches to promote PA. Additionally, this research supports the need for tailored PA promotion programs for rural women to address the barriers these women face across their lifespan. PMID:27685431

  8. The Prevalence of Distress and Depression among Women in Rural Sichuan Province

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Peiyuan; Caine, Eric D.; Hou, Fengsu; Cerulli, Catherine; Wittink, Marsha N.; Li, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background In this paper, we report findings regarding the prevalence of expressed distress and depressive conditions among women living in a rural region of Sichuan Province. As well, we know of no data among women in rural China that examine whether “depression,” as categorically defined in classifications such as the DSM, adequately captures the expressed distress and symptomatic complaints of women in rural China. Methods A multistage sampling method was employed to recruit the target population. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to measure distress symptoms, and MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was employed to determine the prevalence of diagnosable depression and other disorders. Results Among 1898 rural women, 12.4% (236) scored ≥16 on the CES-D, indicative of distress, and a subset of 7.7% (146) had scores ≥21, highly suggestive of a clinically significant disorder. We found that 49.8% women with ≥16 CES-D score were identified as showing features consistent with a current major depressive episode (MDE) vs. 1.9% in a sample of randomly selected women with <16 CES-D score. Among respondents, 30 of 84 (35.7%) scoring 16–20 and 83 of 143 (58.0%) scoring ≥21 reported symptoms consistent with MDE. 25.1% of women with a positive CES-D score did not describe symptoms consistent with any DSM-IV disorder. Conclusions We found a higher portion of women reporting significant distress than previously described. Among them, there was a clear gradient, such that 41.7% of women with moderate distress did not have a psychiatric diagnosis, and even among those with more severe symptoms, 15.4% did not manifest a DSM-specific psychiatric condition. PMID:27526182

  9. Spanish version of the Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire: psychometric properties in a sample of women with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Pilar Martínez, M; Miró, Elena; Sánchez, Ana I; Lami, María J; Prados, Germán; Ávila, Daniela

    2015-01-08

    Excessive attention to pain is a common psychological characteristic among people who suffer from chronic pain. The Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire (PVAQ) is an internationally accepted tool to assess this feature, although there is no validated version of this measure for Spanish people with fibromyalgia. Since this pain syndrome mainly affects women, the aim of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the PVAQ in Spanish women with fibromyalgia. A group of 242 women diagnosed with fibromyalgia aged between 20 and 66 years participated in the study. The goodness of fit of several structures of the PVAQ reported in previous studies was compared via confirmatory factor analysis. A two-factor solution (active vigilance and passive awareness) of the 9-item shortened version (PVAQ-9) was identified as the most appropriate (RMSEA = .08, NNFI = .96, CFI = .97, GFI = .87). It showed good reliability (internal consistency α = .82), convergent validity and divergent validity (p < .01). The optimal cutoff point for identifying fibromyalgia women with worse daily functioning was a score of 24.5, with a sensitivity of .71 and a specificity of .75. The relevance of vigilance to pain for clinical research in fibromyalgia is discussed.

  10. Women in natural resource collection: Experience from rural Jharkhand in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Bhola Nath; De, Utpal Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Women living in rural areas are closely associated with the natural environment. Poor families are mostly dependent on natural resources for their survival activities viz. grazing of cattle, collection of water for drinking and cooking purposes and collection of fuel wood. In the poor families due to the compulsion of earning, adult males mostly go for outside activities and sometimes female members of the family also join them. The aforementioned natural resource collection activities are considered to be inferior, less remunerative and hence suitable for the women or young kids to perform. Thus, they are found to be more close to the nature than men and this very close relationship makes them perfect managers of the eco-system in their vicinity. The life of rural women is so much intertwined with the environment that they can't even think of her survival without it. However, there might be significant inter-household differences in the distribution of such activities between male and female members of the families, depending upon their socio-economic characteristics, cultural and religious beliefs and attitude towards women and children. The involvement of women in such activities is also found to be more in the tribal dominated societies. This paper tried to examine the extent to which women in rural Jharkhand are involved in such natural resource collection and management activities. Also, we tried to unearth various economic and cultural reasons and their impact on the involvement of women in such activities across various social and economic groups. The analysis of primary data collected from the rural areas of tribal dominated Jharkhand reveals that income, occupation and status of the families have significant inverse link with the involvement of women and also of girl children at the cost of their educational prospects. Religious and cultural beliefs also enter in the determination of extent of involvement of women and children in the rural society. It is

  11. Free Women's Contributions to Working-Class Women's Sexual Education during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giner, Elisenda; Ruiz, Laura; Serrano, Mª Ángeles; Valls, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Women's sexuality, and the ways they experience it, has been a major topic in feminist theories and movements throughout history. For the more than 20,000 working-class women who participated in the Free Women movement in Spain (the libertarian women's movement, which started in 1936), women's sexuality was also a key topic in…

  12. Genetic Analysis of High Bone Mass Cases from the BARCOS Cohort of Spanish Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Urreizti, Roser; Civit, Sergi; Cols, Neus; García-Giralt, Natàlia; Yoskovitz, Guy; Aranguren, Alvaro; Malouf, Jorge; Di Gregorio, Silvana; Río, Luís Del; Güerri, Roberto; Nogués, Xavier; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Grinberg, Daniel; Balcells, Susana

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the study were to establish the prevalence of high bone mass (HBM) in a cohort of Spanish postmenopausal women (BARCOS) and to assess the contribution of LRP5 and DKK1 mutations and of common bone mineral density (BMD) variants to a HBM phenotype. Furthermore, we describe the expression of several osteoblast-specific and Wnt-pathway genes in primary osteoblasts from two HBM cases. A 0.6% of individuals (10/1600) displayed Z-scores in the HBM range (sum Z-score >4). While no mutation in the relevant exons of LRP5 was detected, a rare missense change in DKK1 was found (p.Y74F), which cosegregated with the phenotype in a small pedigree. Fifty-five BMD SNPs from Estrada et al. [NatGenet 44:491-501,2012] were genotyped in the HBM cases to obtain risk scores for each individual. In this small group of samples, Z-scores were found inversely related to risk scores, suggestive of a polygenic etiology. There was a single exception, which may be explained by a rare penetrant genetic variant, counterbalancing the additive effect of the risk alleles. The expression analysis in primary osteoblasts from two HBM cases and five controls suggested that IL6R, DLX3, TWIST1 and PPARG are negatively related to Z-score. One HBM case presented with high levels of RUNX2, while the other displayed very low SOX6. In conclusion, we provide evidence of lack of LRP5 mutations and of a putative HBM-causing mutation in DKK1. Additionally, we present SNP genotyping and expression results that suggest additive effects of several genes for HBM. PMID:24736728

  13. Calorie intake, olive oil consumption and mammographic density among Spanish women

    PubMed Central

    García-Arenzana, Nicolás; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva María; Lope, Virginia; Moreo, Pilar; Vidal, Carmen; Laso-Pablos, Soledad; Ascunce, Nieves; Casanova-Gómez, Francisco; Sánchez-Contador, Carmen; Santamariña, Carmen; Aragonés, Nuria; Gómez, Beatriz Pérez; Vioque, Jesús; Pollán, Marina

    2014-01-01

    High mammographic density (MD) is one of the main risk factors for development of breast cancer. To date, however, relatively few studies have evaluated the association between MD and diet. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the association between MD (measured using Boyd's semiquantitative scale with five categories: <10%, 10–25%, 25–50%, 50–75% and >75%) and diet (measured using a food frequency questionnaire validated in a Spanish population) among 3,548 peri- and postmenopausal women drawn from seven breast cancer screening programs in Spain. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression models, adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), energy intake and protein consumption as well as other confounders, showed an association between greater calorie intake and greater MD [odds ratio (OR) = 1.23; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10-1.38, for every increase of 500 cal/day], yet high consumption of olive oil was nevertheless found to reduce the prevalence of high MD (OR = 0.86;95% CI = 0.76-0.96, for every increase of 22 g/day in olive oil consumption); and, while greater intake of whole milk was likewise associated with higher MD (OR = 1.10; 95%CI 1.00-1.20, for every increase of 200 g/day), higher consumption of protein (OR = 0.89; 95% CI 0.80-1.00, for every increase of 30 g/day) and white meat (p for trend 0.041) was found to be inversely associated with MD. Our study, the largest to date to assess the association between diet and MD, suggests that MD is associated with modifiable dietary factors, such as calorie intake and olive oil consumption. These foods could thus modulate the prevalence of high MD, and important risk marker for breast cancer. PMID:24254818

  14. Content and Valence of Sexual Cognitions and Their Relationship With Sexual Functioning in Spanish Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Moyano, Nieves; Byers, E Sandra; Sierra, Juan Carlos

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the relationship between various subtypes of positive and negative sexual cognitions (NSC) based on their content (intimate, exploratory, sadomasochistic, impersonal) and sexual functioning, including aspects of sexual response (desire), sexual motivation (sexual excitation and sexual inhibition), and cognitive-affective domains (satisfaction). Participants were 789 Spanish adults (322 men and 467 women) who were in a heterosexual relationship of at least 6 months duration. Overall, the men reported more frequent exploratory and impersonal positive sexual cognitions than did the women. The men and women did not differ in the frequency of their positive intimate and sadomasochistic cognitions or in any of their NSC. Using canonical correlation, the results revealed that, after controlling for the overall frequency of NSC, the men and women who reported a higher frequency of all subtypes of positive sexual cognitions reported more dyadic and solitary sexual desire, more propensity to get sexually excited, and less sexual inhibition. A second canonical variate was identified for both the men and the women that revealed different patterns of association between the subtypes of cognitions and specific areas of sexual functioning, highlighting the role of positive, intimate cognitions for dyadic aspects of sexual functioning. The subtypes of NSC were not associated with poorer sexual functioning for either men or women, perhaps because they, on average, occurred infrequently. The findings were discussed in terms of the relationship between the specific content of sexual cognitions and the sexual functioning of men and women.

  15. Post-Partum Depression, Personality, and Cognitive-Emotional Factors: A Longitudinal Study on Spanish Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Peñacoba-Puente, Cecilia; Marín-Morales, Dolores; Carmona-Monge, Francisco Javier; Velasco Furlong, Lilian

    2016-01-01

    In this study, our purpose was to examine whether personality and cognitive factors could be related to post-partum depression (PPD), mediated by anxiety, in Spanish women. Women were evaluated for personality and cognitive factors after the first trimester, for anxiety in the third trimester, and for PPD 4 months after childbirth. A structural equation model revealed that personality and cognitive factors were associated with anxiety and PPD as predictors. Neuroticism and extroversion proved to be the most relevant factors. Conscientiousness was associated with pregnancy anxiety. Pregnancy anxiety appeared as an independent predictor of PPD. The model presented here includes personality and cognitive and emotional factors as predictors of PPD. Comprehensive care for pregnant women should contemplate assessment and intervention on all these aspects. Special focus should be on cognitive factors and emotional regulation strategies, so as to minimize the risk of later development of emotional disorders during puerperal phases.

  16. Rural Women Proprietorship Project. Research and Development Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazard Community Coll., KY.

    A project was created to provide individualized and technical training specially designed for women who desired to become small business owners. Recruitment of eastern Kentucky women in the Hazard Community College five-county service area was done through direct mailing; posting of flyers; and newspaper, radio, and television publicity. In…

  17. Beliefs About Children’s Illness Among Rural Guatemalan Women.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-07-01

    Chew, and Gilda Pareja (1988) "Infection and Diarrhea Caused by Cryoptosporidium sp. among Guatemalan Infants." Journal of Clinical Microbiology 26(1...Campylobacter jejuni among Guatemala Rural Children." Pediatric Infectious Disease 13(3): 216-223. 35 Cruz, Jose R., Gilda Pareja , America de

  18. [Rural women's use of indoor air pollutants in Alexandria Governorate: relationship with sociodemographic characteristics and illness].

    PubMed

    El Asaal, Amal El Sayed

    2008-01-01

    This study determined the relationship between women's use of indoor air pollutants and sociodemographic variables and illness. Data were collected by observation and interview of 240 rural women in Alexandria Governorate. The use of chemical and microbial indoor air pollutants was high in 87.5% and 67.5% of the women respectively. Also, 27.5% of the women had chronic headache, 25.5% respiratory diseases and 16.3% eye diseases. There was a significant positive relationship between women's level of use and number of sons, type of family and number of family members; there was a significant negative relationship with women's education and their son's education. There were significant positive relationships between illness and overuse of insecticides, garbage burning in front of the house and having an unclean house.

  19. Why Diversity Matters in Rural America: Women Faculty of Color Challenging Whiteness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Keonghee Tao; Leonard, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    Using critical race theory as an analytical framework to examine White privilege and institutional racism, two teacher educators, in a rural predominantly White university tell counterstories about teaching for social justice in literacy and mathematics education courses. In sharing our counterstories in this paper, we, women faculty of color,…

  20. HPV Vaccine Acceptance in a Clinic-Based Sample of Women in the Rural South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Heather M.; Sharpe, Patricia A.; McCree, Donna H.; Wright, Marcie S.; Davis, Jennifer; Hutto, Brent E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a very common sexually transmitted infection linked to cervical disease. Vaccines for some types of HPV were in development at the time of the study. Purpose: The study examined HPV vaccine acceptability among underserved women in a rural region of the southeastern U.S. with high rates of cervical cancer…

  1. A Community Health Advisor Program to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk among Rural African-American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, C. E.; Littleton, M. A.; Greene, P. G.; Pulley, L.; Brownstein, J. N.; Sanderson, B. K.; Stalker, V. G.; Matson-Koffman, D.; Struempler, B.; Raczynski, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The Uniontown, Alabama Community Health Project trained and facilitated Community Health Advisors (CHAs) in conducting a theory-based intervention designed to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among rural African-American women. The multiphased project included formative evaluation and community organization, CHA recruitment and…

  2. Utilization of Mammography Services among Elderly Rural and Urban African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agho, Augustine O; Mosley, Barbara W; Rivers, Patrick A; Parker, Shandowyn

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study was a two-year educational intervention and research project aimed at increasing the awareness of breast cancer and the utilization of Clinical Breast Examination (CBE) services and Self-Breast Examination (SBE) among elderly rural and urban African American women who are Medicare beneficiaries. Design: The study was…

  3. Rural Adult Education and the Health Transformation of Pastoral Women of Northern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usman, Lantana M.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, politics of education in Nigeria have shifted from urban to rural literacy, which led to the development of programmes such as the nomadic women's adult education programme. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the programme's implementation strategies, and the extent to which the health educational…

  4. Spirituality and Religiosity: Factors Affecting Wellness among Low-Income, Rural Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Carman S.; Barrio Minton, Casey A.; Myers, Jane E.

    2010-01-01

    A study including measures of spirituality, religiosity, and wellness was conducted to identify coping strategies for the multiple challenges to wellness faced by low-income, rural women. Total spirituality and religiosity accounted for 39% of the variance in wellness, with purpose and meaning in life, unifying interconnectedness, and private…

  5. The Economic Contributions of Women in a Rural Western Navajo Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Scott C.; McDonald, Mark B.

    1982-01-01

    Examines and enumerates economic changes that have occurred in the traditional rural Navajo community of Shonto. While women's net income contributions to Shonto's economy has declined, their position has seen only a slight erosion; their activities (sheep and goat husbandry, agriculture, arts and crafts) are still considered necessary and…

  6. Creating Opportunities: Good Practice in Small Business Training for Australian Rural Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Lyn; Daws, Leonie; Wood, Leanne

    2002-01-01

    To overcome barriers to participation in small business training faced by rural Australian women, training needs and delivery issues were identified and a good practice matrix was developed with the following components: marketing, content, delivery, support, impact, and innovation. Underlying principles included unique needs, diversity, use of…

  7. "This Job Is Harder Than It Looks": Rural Oaxacan Women Explain Why They Became Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Jayne

    1997-01-01

    Explores the reasons rural women have become elementary school teachers in the state of Oaxaca (Mexico), and examines how recent economic changes may be changing the female population that wants to become teachers to an even poorer segment of society. Ethnographic research was conducted with 35 Oaxacan teachers or teacher candidates. (SLD)

  8. Post-Primary Education and Capabilities: Insights from Young Women in Rural Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Shelley K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents findings from the third stage of a longitudinal, qualitative study involving nine female participants from a class cohort in a secondary school in rural Uganda. Since 2004-05, this study has tracked the progress of these young women's lives, and the present aspect of the study explores the ways in which they have found that…

  9. ‘Elastic band strategy’: women's lived experiences of coping with domestic violence in rural Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Hayati, Elli Nur; Eriksson, Malin; Hakimi, Mohammad; Högberg, Ulf; Emmelin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Background Experiencing domestic violence is considered a chronic and stressful life event. A theoretical framework of coping strategies can be used to understand how women deal with domestic violence. Traditional values strongly influenced by religious teachings that interpret men as the leaders of women play an important role in the lives of Javanese women, where women are obliged to obey their husbands. Little is known about how sociocultural and psychosocial contexts influence the ways in which women cope with domestic violence. Objective Our study aimed to deepen our understanding of how rural Javanese women cope with domestic violence. Our objective was to explore how the sociocultural context influences coping dynamics of women survivors of domestic violence in rural Purworejo. Design A phenomenological approach was used to transform lived experiences into textual expressions of the coping dynamics of women survivors of domestic violence. Results Experiencing chronic violence ruined the women's personal lives because of the associated physical, mental, psychosocial, and financial impairments. These chronic stressors led women to access external and internal resources to form coping strategies. Both external and internal factors prompted conflicting impulses to seek support, that is, to escape versus remain in the relationship. This strong tension led to a coping strategy that implied a long-term process of moving between actively opposing the violence and surrendering or tolerating the situation, resembling an elastic band that stretches in and out. Conclusions Women survivors in Purworejo face a lack of institutional support and tend to have traditional beliefs that hamper their potential to stop the abuse. Although the women in this study were educated and economically independent, they still had difficulty mobilizing internal and external support to end the abuse, partly due to internalized gender norms. PMID:23336615

  10. Women's health in a rural setting in societal transition in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Berhane, Y; Gossaye, Y; Emmelin, M; Hogberg, U

    2001-12-01

    There are reports indicating a worsening of women's health in transitional rural societies in sub-Saharan Africa in relation to autonomy, workload, illiteracy, nutrition and disease prevalence. Although these problems are rampant, proper documentation is lacking. The objective of this study was to reflect the health situation of women in rural Ethiopia. Furthermore, the study attempts to address the socio-demographic and cultural factors that have potential influence on the health of women in the context of a low-income setting. A combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods was utilised. In-depth interviews and a cross-sectional survey of randomly selected women were the main methods employed. The Butajira Rural Health Program demographic surveillance database provided the sampling frame. Heavy workload, lack of access to health services, poverty, traditional practices, poor social status and decision-making power, and lack of access to education were among the highly prevalent socio-cultural factors that potentially affect the health of women in Butajira. Though the majority of the women use traditional healers younger women show more tendency to use health services. No improvement of women's status was perceived by the younger generation compared to the older generation. Female genital mutilation is universal with a strong motivation to its maintenance. Nail polish has replaced the rite of nail-extraction before marriage in the younger generation. As the factors influencing the health of women are multiple and complex a holistic approach should be adopted with emphasis on improving access to health care and education, enhancing social status, and mechanisms to alleviate poverty.

  11. [A correlation study on homocysteine metabolism in pregnant women and neural tube defects in urban and rural areas].

    PubMed

    Zhan, S; Hu, Y; Li, L

    1997-07-01

    Serum levels of homocysteine, folic acid and vitamin B12 in pregnant women in urban and rural areas were compared to study the relationship between homocysteine metabolism and neural tube defects. Four hundred and eleven serum specimens were sampled randomly from a serum bank for women with early pregnancy in Beijing area, 195 from urban and 216 from rural. Their levels of homocysteine were determined by high performance liquid chromatography combined with electrochemical methods, and those of folic acid and vitamin B12 by radioimmunoassay. Results showed that level of homocysteine was significantly higher in rural pregnant women than that in urban, with 9.31 mumol/L and 5.73 mumol/L, respectively, level of vitamin B12 was lower in rural than that in urban women, with 210.09 pmol/L and 233.35 pmol/L, respectively, and level of folic acid was higher in rural than that in urban women, but no significant difference in deficiency of folic acid between rural and urban was found. The average ratio of folic acid to homocysteine and that of vitamin B12 to homocysteine were higher in rural than those in urban women. It suggests that abnormal metabolism of homocysteine usually correlates with high incidence of neural tube defects in rural area.

  12. "Como si nada": Enduring violence and diabetes among rural women in Southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Montesi, Laura

    2017-04-14

    Rural women in Southern Mexico link their diabetes to distressful life experiences rooted in ordinary violence. While much has been written on the use that diabetes sufferers make of their morbid condition as an idiom of distress, I investigate the personal and social effects that such an idiom has on women. As I illustrate, diabetes reflects an ambivalence that helps women to speak about the unspeakable and, at the same time, reinforces their ideas of culpability, namely that they are to blame for both the gendered violence that they endure and the diabetes from which they suffer.

  13. Inequality of the use of skilled birth assistance among rural women in Bangladesh: facts and factors.

    PubMed

    Kamal, S M Mostafa; Hassan, Che Hashim; Kabir, M A

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the inequality of the use of skilled delivery assistance by the rural women of Bangladesh using the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey data. Simple cross-tabulation and univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were employed in the study. Overall, 56.1% of the women received at least one antenatal care visit, whereas only 13.2% births were assisted by skilled personnel. Findings revealed apparent inequality in using skilled delivery assistance by socioeconomic strata. Birth order, women's education, religion, wealth index, region and antenatal care are important determinants of seeking skilled assistance. To ensure safe motherhood initiative, government should pay special attention to reduce inequality in seeking skilled delivery assistance. A strong focus on community-based and regional interventions is important in order to increase the utilization of safe maternal health care services in rural Bangladesh.

  14. Lipid profiles, serum immunoglobulins, dietary intake, and drug use of older rural Iowa women.

    PubMed

    Witte-Foster, S R; Garcia, P A; Dove, C R

    1991-06-01

    Serum lipid profiles, serum immunoglobulins, and serum proteins were investigated in 65 noninstitutionalized older women living in a rural community. All women were mentally and physically able to participate in the study. They did not have any overt disease nor were they taking any prescription or nonprescription drugs that would interfere with the study. Personal interview elicited medical history, drug usage, dietary information, height, and weight from 25 reference women (50 through 64 years old), 28 young-old women (65 through 84 years old), and 12 old-old women (85 through 92 years old). Blood samples were obtained from fasting participants and analyzed for total serum cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, serum triglyceride, serum immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, and IgM), serum albumin, and total serum protein. Serum lipids were not significantly affected by age, drug use, or age-by-drug use interaction. Effects of age were observed for IgA and serum albumin. Mean concentrations of serum immunoglobulins, serum albumin, and total serum proteins were within normal limits for all participants. Based on this small sample of rural older women, our results indicate that the normal levels of high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and the healthy life-styles of these women may help offset any possible negative effects of elevated serum cholesterol concentrations.

  15. Evaluation of an educational program on cervical cancer for rural women in Mangalore, Southern India.

    PubMed

    Mary, Bright; D'Sa, Juliana Linnette

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer in women worldwide. One way by which the incidence of this malignant disease can be minimized is by imparting knowledge through health education. This study aimed at developing an educational package on cervical cancer (EPCC) and determining its effectiveness in terms of significant increase in knowledge of rural women regarding cervical cancer. A one group pre-test, post-test design was adopted. Thirty rural women were selected using a convenient sampling method. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and a structured knowledge questionnaire developed by the researchers. The EPCC was designed for a duration of one hour and 10 minutes. The structured knowledge questionnaire was first administered as the pre-test, following which knowledge on cervical cancer was imparted using the EPCC. On the 8th day, the post-test was administered. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean post-test knowledge score of the women regarding cervical cancer was significantly higher than that of their mean pre-test score, indicating that the EPCC was effective in improving the knowledge of rural women on cervical cancer. The association between pre-test knowledge scores and selected demo-graphic variables were computed using chi-square test showed that pre-test knowledge score of the women regarding cervical cancer was independent of all the socio-demographic variables. It was concluded that the EPCC is effective in improving the knowledge of women, regarding cervical cancer. Since the prevalence of cervical cancer is high, there is an immediate need to educate women on prevention of cervical cancer.

  16. Obesity as a public health problem among adult women in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Keding, Gudrun B; Msuya, John M; Maass, Brigitte L; Krawinkel, Michael B

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: For many developing countries, obesity and its sequelae have become a challenge of a magnitude similar to hunger and undernutrition. The main objective of this study was, therefore, to investigate the weight status of women in rural Tanzania with reference to season as well as the link between women's weight, food consumption, and attitudes toward obesity. Methods: Three cross-sectional surveys in 3 different seasons within 1 year interviewed the same 210 women, ages 17–45 years, from 3 rural districts of northeastern and central Tanzania. These surveys assessed body mass index (BMI), food intake, and dietary diversity through 24-hour recalls, women's attitudes toward obesity, vegetable production, and socioeconomic status. Results: Although 71% of the women had a normal BMI, 7% were underweight, 16% overweight, and 6% obese. The BMI was correlated with the Dietary Diversity Score (DDS), the Food Variety Score (FVS), with the consumption of foods from the food groups “bread/cakes,” “sugar,” and “tea,” and with the production of exotic vegetables. In a multiple regression model, FVS was directly associated with BMI. When asked to describe the typical characteristics of an obese person, women mentioned more negative than positive characteristics. Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 3 times higher than that of underweight. Apparently, even in rural areas of Tanzania, a nutrition transition is underway. No direct association was identified between vegetable consumption and BMI. Although this study did not assess behavioral factors, such behavioral factors as activity levels as well as attitudes need to be considered, even in rural settings, to address all facets of malnutrition. PMID:25276549

  17. Assessing women's understandings of health in rural Papua New Guinea: implications for health policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Rachael; Earnest, Jaya

    2011-01-01

    In Papua New Guinea (PNG), women's health is addressed by applying biomedical solutions which often ignore the complexity of women's histories, cultural contexts and lived experiences. The objective of this study was to examine adult and older women's perceptions of health and well-being to identify priority areas for public service interventions. Rapid ethnographic assessment was conducted in the Wosera district, a rural area of PNG from mid-2005 to early 2006, to examine the health concerns of women. Twenty-seven adult women and 10 older women participated in the study. Health was not limited to one aspect of a woman's life, such as their biology or maternal roles; it was also connected with the social, cultural and spiritual dimensions of women's daily existence. Participants also identified access to money and supportive interpersonal relationships as significant for good health. A disconnect was found to exist between women's understandings of good health and socio-political health policies in PNG, something likely to be repeated in health service delivery to different cultural groups across the Asia Pacific region. Health and development practitioners in PNG must become responsive to the complexity of women's social relationships and to issues relating to the context of women's empowerment in their programmes.

  18. Freedom, Imagination and Grace: The Life Stories of Rural Women Art Educators from the Foothills of North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingler, Sylvia Adams

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the narratives of four rural art educators of the Foothills of Western North Carolina. These women are the first art educators in this area in public education. They are often viewed as the invisible women in art who support community arts, much like the "invisible women in art history." From the view of the…

  19. Women and work in rural Taiwan: building a contextual model linking employment and health.

    PubMed

    Gallin, R S

    1989-12-01

    This paper is based on ethnographic research in a rural Taiwanese village in which married women with children are a major source of labor for local industry. Responsibility for job and home exposes these women to repeated stressors that can increase their susceptibility to illness. Existing explanatory models linking employment and women's health, however, do not explain adequately the women's response to their wage labor and the consequences of the social aspects of their work on their health. This paper describes women's work and its meaning, and discusses the way in which micro phenomena such as meanings and health states are linked to macro phenomena such as national political-economic processes and the world capitalist system.

  20. Rural women, development, and telecommunications: a pilot programme in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, H

    1999-07-01

    This article focuses on the impact of a telecenter program in Bamshela, South Africa, on women in the local community. The Government's telecenter initiative was conceived with an awareness of gender issues and the need to promote women's needs and rights in mind. However, as the center moves into its second year, many opportunities for the it to have a meaningful impact on the community from the start have already been lost. It has not generated enough income to keep prices at an affordable rate. Research has shown that many Bamshela women are using the telecenter as a phoneshop. Lack of knowledge, skills, and education among women is an obstacle to their use of computers at the center; however, center managers believe that rural women will become familiar with electronic methods of communication and may come to use these services. The telecenter has a long way to go before it can replace face-to-face communication and bring prestige to the community.

  1. Rural Women: An Untapped Resource. Proceedings of the Governor's Council on Rural Development Conference (Willmar, Minnesota, May 20-21, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Energy and Economic Development, St. Paul.

    The texts of four speeches and seven workshop presentations comprise this report intended to be a resource for rural women seeking careers in business ownership and to assist Minnesota's legislature and others interested in helping them. Presentations provide practical, technical, and inspirational information by 18 women with experience and…

  2. Nonmedical use of sedative-hypnotics and opiates among rural and urban women with protective orders.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jennifer; Logan, T K

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and risk factors for lifetime nonmedical use of sedative-hypnotics and opiates among a sample of rural and urban women with recent partner violence victimization (n=756). Nearly one third of the sample (32.8%) reported ever using illicit sedative-hypnotics or opiates. Nonmedical use of sedative-hypnotics and opiates was significantly associated with lifetime cumulative exposure to interpersonal victimization, rural Appalachian residency, past-year use of other substances and other substance-related problems, and lifetime unmet health care needs. Findings have implications for substance abuse prevention and treatment and victim advocacy programs.

  3. Maternal morbidity and perinatal outcomes among women in rural versus urban areas

    PubMed Central

    Lisonkova, Sarka; Haslam, Matthew D.; Dahlgren, Leanne; Chen, Innie; Synnes, Anne R.; Lim, Kenneth I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most studies examining geographic barriers to maternity care in industrialized countries have focused solely on fetal and neonatal outcomes. We examined the association between rural residence and severe maternal morbidity, in addition to perinatal mortality and morbidity. Methods: We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study of all women who gave birth in British Columbia, Canada, between Jan. 1, 2005, and Dec. 31, 2010. We compared maternal mortality and severe morbidity (e.g., eclampsia) and adverse perinatal outcomes (e.g., perinatal death) between women residing in areas with moderate to no metropolitan influence (rural) and those living in metropolitan areas or areas with a strong metropolitan influence (urban). We used logistic regression analysis to obtain adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: We found a significant association between death or severe maternal morbidity and rural residence (adjusted OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.03–1.28). In particular, women in rural areas had significantly higher rates of eclampsia (adjusted OR 2.70, 95% CI 1.79–4.08), obstetric embolism (adjusted OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.14–4.07) and uterine rupture or dehiscence (adjusted OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.42–2.72) than women in urban areas. Perinatal mortality did not differ significantly between the study groups. Infants in rural areas were more likely than those in urban areas to have a severe neonatal morbidity (adjusted OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02–1.29), to be born preterm (adjusted OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01–1.11), to have an Apgar score of less than 7 at 5 minutes (adjusted OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.13–1.31) and to be large for gestational age (adjusted OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.10–1.19). They were less likely to be small for gestational age (adjusted OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.85–0.95) and to be admitted to an neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) (adjusted OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.33–0.38) compared with infants in urban areas. Interpretation: Compared with women

  4. Correlation between the Yale Physical Activity Survey (YPAS) and a submaximal performance-based test: a study in a population of elderly Spanish women.

    PubMed

    Martín, Vicente; Ayán, Carlos; Molina, Antonio J; Alvarez, María J; Varela, Silvia; Cancela, José M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to research the degree of correlation between the Spanish version of the questionnaire YPAS and the 6-minute walking test (6MWT) in women over 60. In addition, the authors analyzed the relationship between the variables age and body mass index (BMI) and the walked distance. The study was carried out with 44 elderly women (68.1 ± 5.4 years) who filled in the questionnaire and immediately afterwards performed the 6MWT. Total time and energy expenditure (EE) values obtained in the questionnaire are significantly correlated with the 6MWT (p=0.02; p=0.01, respectively), while BMI and age showed an inverse association (r=-0.433; r=-0.318, respectively) with the walked distance. The Spanish version of YPAS is beginning to be considered as a valid and useful tool for habitual physical activity (PA) measurement and can be used among elderly Spanish speaking women.

  5. A Pilot Test of the Everyday Stressors Index–Spanish Version in a Sample of Hispanic Women Attending Prenatal Care

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, María L.; Ashford, Kristin; Linares, Ana M.; Hall, Lynne A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Prenatal and postpartum psychosocial stress are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Hispanic women experience higher levels of stress during pregnancy. This pilot study assessed the psychometric characteristics of the Everyday Stressors Index-Spanish (ESI-S) version. Methods Secondary analysis in a convenience sample, n = 51 women. Results The ESI-S showed adequate internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = .86). Two factors accounted for 40% of the item variance. The greatest sources of stress were “having too many responsibilities” and “not enough money for basics”. Higher levels of stressors were associated with older age, living without a partner, and working part or full time. The ESI-S was positively correlated with measures of perinatal depression. Conclusions Findings support the reliability and validity of the newly translated ESI-S. PMID:26673774

  6. "Remnants of feudalism"? Women's health and their utilization of health services in rural China.

    PubMed

    Anson, O; Haanappel, F W

    1999-01-01

    Almost five decades ago, the Chinese Communist Party wished to abolish all "remnants of feudalism," including the patriarchal social order. Just one year after the revolution, the Marriage Law endorsed women's rights within the family, but no operative measures were taken to enforce it. Some of the economic reforms since independence even strengthened patrilocality and, possibly, patriarchal values. The purpose of this study was to explore the degree to which patrilocality served to maintain the traditional patriarchal stratification among women in the household by exploring women's health patterns and utilization of health services. Data were collected from 3859 women residing in rural Hebei, and variation in health and help seeking of six categories of relation to household head--mothers, wives, daughters, daughters-in-law, family heads, and other relatives--were explored. Utilization of health services is not dependent on women's position in the household, but primarily on per-capita income. Health patterns seem to indicate that mothers of the head of the household still have a considerable power to define their roles and share of household work. Women head of family, most of whom are married, appear to be under strain, which could be a result of their culturally "deviant" position. We conclude that old patriarchal values are intertwined with values of equality in current rural China.

  7. A Village-Based Intervention: Promoting Folic Acid Use among Rural Chinese Women

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qian; Yang, Lina; Li, Fang; Qin, Hong; Li, Mingzhi; Chen, Jihua; Deng, Jing; Hu, Xiangying

    2017-01-01

    Background: Folic acid supplementation is effective in reducing the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the use of folic acid is low among rural women in China. Nutrition education can provide information about folic acid and encourage its use. The primary objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of a village-based nutrition intervention on folic acid use among rural women. Methods: Sixty villages were randomly selected using multiple-stage sampling and were divided into control and intervention groups. The intervention included nutritional education at village clinics, written materials, and text messages (SMS). Folic acid use knowledge and behavior was assessed at baseline and after the intervention. Results: Self-reported compliance with folic acid supplement use increased from 17.0%–29.2% at baseline to 41.7%–59.2% one year post-intervention. During the same period, the folic acid knowledge score in the intervention group increased from 3.07 to 3.65, significantly higher than the control group (3.11 to 3.35). Multivariate binary logistic regression showed that the women who received folic acid education and SMS intervention were more likely to comply with folic acid supplement recommendations. Conclusions: The results indicated that an integrated village-based folic acid education intervention may be an effective way of promoting folic acid use for the prevention of NTDs in rural women. PMID:28230798

  8. Development of safety performance functions for Spanish two-lane rural highways on flat terrain.

    PubMed

    Garach, Laura; de Oña, Juan; López, Griselda; Baena, Leticia

    2016-10-01

    Over decades safety performance functions (SPF) have been developed as a tool for traffic safety in order to estimate the number of crashes in a specific road section. Despite the steady progression of methodological innovations in the crash analysis field, many fundamental issues have not been completely addressed. For instance: Is it better to use parsimonious or fully specified models? How should the goodness-of-fit of the models be assessed? Is it better to use a general model for the entire sample or specific models based on sample stratifications? This paper investigates the above issues by means of several SPFs developed using negative binomial regression models for two-lane rural highways in Spain. The models were based on crash data gathered over a 5-year period, using a broad number of explanatory variables related to exposure, geometry, design consistency and roadside features. Results show that the principle of parsimony could be too restrictive and that it provided simplistic models. Most previous studies apply conventional measurements (i.e., R(2), BIC, AIC, etc.) to assess the goodness-of-fit of models. Seldom do studies apply cumulative residual (CURE) analysis as a tool for model evaluation. This paper shows that CURE plots are essential tools for calibrating SPF, while also providing information for possible sample stratification. Previous authors suggest that sample segmentation increases the model accuracy. The results presented here confirm that finding, and show that the number of significant variables in the final models increases with sample stratification. This paper point out that fully models based on sample segmentation and on CURE may provide more useful insights about traffic crashes than general parsimonious models when developing SPF.

  9. Domestic violence against women: a qualitative study in a rural community.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ravneet; Garg, Suneela

    2010-04-01

    Domestic violence is a major contributor to physical and mental ill health of women and is evident, to some degree, in every society in the world. The World Health Organization reports that globally 29% to 62% of women have experienced physical or sexual violence by an intimate partner. Ending gender discrimination and all forms of violence against women requires an understanding of the prevailing culture of bias and violence. The present study was conducted in a rural area in India. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted among married women in the age group of 18 to 35 years. Physical violence was a major cause of concern among these women. Some women had to suffer even during pregnancy. An alcoholic husband emerged as the main cause for domestic violence. Husbands' relatives instigating wife beating was also common. Majority of the women preferred to remain silent despite being victimized. The women feared to resort to law because of implications such as social isolation. To address this, all sectors including education, health, legal, and judicial must work in liaison. Gender inequality must be eliminated and equal participation of women in the decision-making and development processes must be ensured.

  10. A tangled weave: Tracing outcomes of education in rural women's lives in North India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghose, Malini; Mullick, Disha

    2015-06-01

    This paper is based on the findings of a research study which traced 56 rural women learners 15 years after they had participated in an empowerment and education programme in North India. It attempts to understand, from the perspectives of women from marginalised communities, the ways in which participating in the programme had been empowering for them, or not. While most of the women were indeed able to transform several areas in their lives, this study illustrates that empowering outcomes cannot be assumed or articulated in categorical terms and that bringing about change requires the negotiation of power at various levels. The women's narratives stand in contrast to the prevalent discourses around women's literacy and empowerment, which highlight the importance of literacy only in terms of its positive impact on attaining development goals. Despite the vigorously discussed de-politicisation of the concept of empowerment, the authors show in this paper that empowerment, when informed by a critical feminist understanding, continues to provide a useful framework to analyse women's experiences related to education, as a process enabling women to understand and negotiate structures of power - which are neither static nor wholly dominating - and to find spaces to exercise agency. There are few longitudinal studies which trace the long-term impact of educational programmes on adult women, and most studies are in the nature of impact assessments of programmes. Through this paper the authors argue for the need to analyse the complexities around the relationship between women's education and empowerment.

  11. Dietary habits, nutrients and bone mass in Spanish premenopausal women: the contribution of fish to better bone health.

    PubMed

    Calderon-Garcia, Julian F; Moran, Jose M; Roncero-Martin, Raul; Rey-Sanchez, Purificacion; Rodriguez-Velasco, Francisco J; Pedrera-Zamorano, Juan D

    2012-12-27

    The moderate consumption of fish is recommended for a healthy diet and is also a feature of the Mediterranean diet. Fish is a major food group in diets throughout the world, and studies show that fish consumption is associated with a lower risk of a number of conditions. Spain has one of the highest annual per capita consumptions of fish worldwide. As fish is a source of high quality protein; n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; vitamins, such as A and D; and minerals, such as selenium, calcium, iodine, magnesium, copper and zinc, nutrients that have positive effects on bone characteristics, it has been proposed that its consumption could improve bone health. In this cross-sectional study, we have investigated the relationship between dietary habits and nutrient intake of 151 Spanish premenopausal women and analyzed the association of fish consumption on bone mass measured by quantitative ultrasound of the phalanges. A higher (P < 0.05) bone mass and vitamin D intake (P < 0.05) was observed in the group with a fish intake of 5-7 servings/week. We conclude that increased fish consumption is helpful in maintaining an adequate bone mass in Spanish premenopausal women.

  12. Depression and a Rural Environment are Associated with Poor Oral Health among Pregnant Women in Northern Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, Daniel W.; Hayes, Sarah E.; Randall, Cameron L.; Polk, Deborah E.; Neiswanger, Kathy; Shaffer, John R.; Weyant, Robert J.; Foxman, Betsy; Kao, Elizabeth; Crout, Richard J.; Chapman, Stella; Brown, Linda J.; Maurer, Jennifer L.; Marazita, Mary L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Both oral health problems and depression among pregnant women contribute to maternal-infant health outcomes. Little is known, however, about the potential effects of clinically-significant depression on the oral health status of pregnant women. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of clinically-significant depression and rural- or urban-dwelling status on oral health outcomes among pregnant women. Materials and Methods Pregnant women (N=685) in rural (i.e., West Virginia) and urban (i.e., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) areas of northern Appalachia were assessed by calibrated examiners regarding gingivitis, oral hygiene, and DMFT, completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies–Depression scale (CESD), and provided demographics. Participants were categorized based on clinically significant depressive symptoms (CESD>=16) and rural/urban domicile. Results Women with depression and those living in rural areas had worse oral health on all three indices than their non-depressed and urban counterparts. Conclusions Depression, particularly among women in rural areas, impacts certain oral health indices, and represents a modifiable target for intervention. Moreover, treatments designed specifically for rural populations may be of particular utility. Women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant may benefit from regular depression screenings from their dental and medical healthcare providers. PMID:26643277

  13. Correlates of Stigma among Rural Indian Women Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Ekstrand, Maria; Zolt-Gilburne, Jessica; Ganguly, Kalyan; Sinha, Sanjeev; Ramakrishnan, Padma; Suresh, P.; Marfisee, Mary; Leake, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    AIDS-related stigma has received increasing attention in the literature; however, little is known about the devastating impact it has on rural women living with AIDS (WLA) in India. This cross-sectional study (N = 68), analyzed from complete baseline data, identified a number of correlates of stigma among rural WLA in South India. Structured instruments were used to capture sociodemographic history, stigma, knowledge of HIV, depressive symptoms along with the recording of CD4 data. A higher level of felt stigma and more AIDS symptoms were related to avoidant coping, while fewer adherence strategies and lower support for ART adherence were also associated with avoidant coping. These findings promote the need for support and resources for rural India WLA. PMID:21915715

  14. Comparative Haematological Screening of Urban and Rural Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Lagos and Its Environs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abidoye, R. O.; Olukoya, A. A.

    1993-01-01

    Compared blood screening data for 200 urban and rural pregnant women in Nigeria. Found that rural subjects had a greater incidence of moderate anemia than did urban subjects, and corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations fell with increased gestational age. No relationship was found between hemoglobin counts and nutrition habits. (HTH)

  15. Light and the City: Breast Cancer Risk Factors Differ Between Urban and Rural Women in Israel.

    PubMed

    Keshet-Sitton, Atalya; Or-Chen, Keren; Yitzhak, Sara; Tzabary, Ilana; Haim, Abraham

    2016-07-20

    Women are exposed to indoor and outdoor artificial light at night (ALAN) in urban and rural environments. Excessive exposure to hazardous ALAN containing short wavelength light may suppress pineal melatonin production and lead to an increased breast cancer (BC) risk. Our objective was to address the differences in BC risks related to light exposure in urban and rural communities. We examined indoor and outdoor light habits of BC patients and controls that had lived in urban and rural areas in a 5-year period, 10 to 15 years before the time of the study. Individual data, night time sleeping habits and individual exposure to ALAN habits were collected using a questionnaire. A total of 252 women (110 BC patients and 142 controls) participated in this study. The sample was divided to subgroups according to dwelling area and disease status. Age matching was completed between all subgroups. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for urban and rural women separately, using binary logistic regression. OR results of urban population (92 BC patients and 72 control) revealed that BC risk increases with daily use of cellphone (OR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.01-4.49, P < .05) and residence near strong ALAN sources (OR = 1.51, 95% CI = 0.99-2.30, P < .06). Nevertheless, BC risk decreases if a woman was born in Israel (OR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.21-0.93, P < .03), longer sleep duration (OR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.53-1.05, P < .1), and reading with bed light illumination before retiring to sleep (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.61-0.96, P < .02). Furthermore, in the rural population (18 BC patients and 66 control) BC risk increases with the number of years past since the last menstruation (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.03-1.22, P < .01). However, BC risk decreases with longer sleep duration (OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.24-1.14, P < .1), reading with room light illumination before retiring to sleep (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.29-1.06, P < .07), and sleeping with closed shutters during the night (OR

  16. African American women's experience of infection with HIV in the rural southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Mallory, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    The design of effective behavioral interventions to prevent HIV infection among African American women requires a more complete understanding of the context and circumstances that precipitate infection with the virus. A descriptive study was designed to explore African American women's experiences of infection with HIV in the rural southeastern United States. Ten women living with HIV participated in interviews. All were infected through sex with a man or men; three had engaged in high-risk activities associated with HIV infection including sex trading; seven described themselves as at low risk for infection related to serial monogamy, no injection drug use, and no history of addiction. Participants reported that desire for intimacy coupled with inaccurate risk appraisal of sex partners contributed to their infection. These results provide insight into the role of intimacy in sexual risk taking. Inquiry into how women can be assisted to protect themselves in the context of intimate relationships may improve interventions to prevent HIV.

  17. Insecticide treated bednet strategy in rural settings: can we exploit women's decision making power?

    PubMed

    Tilak, Rina; Tilak, V W; Bhalwar, R

    2007-01-01

    Use of insecticide treated bednets in prevention of malaria is a widely propagated global strategy, however, its use has been reported to be influenced and limited by many variables especially gender bias. A cross sectional field epidemiological study was conducted in a rural setting with two outcome variables, 'Bednet use'(primary outcome variable) and 'Women's Decision Making Power' which were studied in reference to various predictor variables. Analysis reveals a significant effect on the primary outcome variable 'Bednet use' of the predictor variables- age, occupation, bednet purchase decision, women's decision making power, husband's education and knowledge about malaria and its prevention. The study recommends IEC on treated bednets to be disseminated through TV targeting the elderly women who have better decision making power and mobilizing younger women who were found to prefer bednets for prevention of mosquito bites for optimizing the use of treated bednets in similar settings.

  18. Assessing face validity of a physical activity questionnaire for Spanish-speaking women in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: A review of the literature produced no rigorously tested and validated Spanish-language physical activity survey or evaluation tools for use by USDA’s food assistance and education programs. The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate the face validity of a visually enha...

  19. Sexual Aggression against Women by Men Acquaintances: Attitudes and Experiences among Spanish University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipsma, Eric; Isabel, Jose-Antonio Carrobles; Cerrato, Ignacio Montorio; Everaerd, Walter

    2000-01-01

    Assessed Spanish college students' attitudes about forced sex and actual experiences with male-against-female sexual aggression. Students analyzed a date rape story discussed their coercive sexual activities and help-seeking behaviors. Acceptance of forced sex significantly related to sex, age, and experience with sexual aggression. Only 39…

  20. Drug use, hepatitis C, and service availability: Perspectives of incarcerated rural women

    PubMed Central

    Staton-Tindall, Michele; Webster, J. Matthew; Oser, Carrie B.; Havens, Jennifer R.; Leukefeld, Carl G.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined drug use, hepatitis C, and service availability and use among a high-risk sample of rural women serving time in jails. Data was collected from female offenders (n=22) who participated in four focus groups in three rural jail facilities located in Appalachia. Findings indicated that drug misuse is prevalent in this impoverished area of the country, and that the primary route of administration of drug use is injection. Findings also indicate that injection drug use is also commonly associated with contracting hepatitis C (HCV), which is also perceived to be prevalent in the area. Despite knowledge associated with HCV risks, women in this sample were seemingly apathetic about the increasing spread of HCV in the area and unconcerned about the long-term consequences of the course of the infection. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:25950907

  1. Factors that promote success in women enrolled in STEM disciplines in rural North Carolina community colleges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kincaid, Shannon D.

    Women have historically been underrepresented in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM fields). The underrepresentation of women in STEM may be attributable to a variety of factors. These may include different choices men and women typically make in response to incentives in STEM education. For example, STEM career paths may be less accommodating to people who are less resilient. Another factor may be that there are relatively few female STEM role models. Perhaps strong gender stereotypes discourage women from pursuing STEM education and STEM jobs. The factors that contribute to success and the barriers that impeded success must be identified before any steps can be taken to improve the educational outcomes for women in STEM disciplines. Consequently, relatively little is known about the role of resilience in academically successful adult women in rural community colleges enrolled in STEM disciplines and the mechanisms that underlie the performance deficits that occur as a result of stereotype threat effect. This mixed method study addressed those knowledge gaps by determining: (1) if high resilience is positively correlated to high grade point average for women enrolled in STEM disciplines in rural community colleges in North Carolina, and (2) if stereotype threat effect is a risk factor for these women. Quantitative data were collected by using "The Resilience Scale" (Wagnild & Young, 1987) and through examination of grade point average of students from Datatel data management software. Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured focus group interviews. Findings from this study indicate high resilience is positively correlated to high grade point average for women enrolled in STEM disciplines in rural community colleges in North Carolina, and stereotype threat effect was a risk factor for low-scoring women (i.e. those women who reported resilience scores less than 121 and grade point averages lower than 2.70) and was not a

  2. Retention in a computer-based outreach intervention for chronically ill rural women.

    PubMed

    Weinert, Clarann; Cudney, Shirley; Hill, Wade

    2008-02-01

    The study's purpose was to examine retention factors in a computer intervention with 158 chronically ill rural women. After a 22-week intervention, 18.9% of the women had dropped out. A Cox regression survival analysis was performed to assess the effects of selected covariates on retention. Reasons for dropping out were tallied and categorized. Major reasons for dropping out were as follows: lack of time, decline in health status, and nonparticipation in study activities. Four covariates predicted survival time: level of computer skills, marital status, work outside the home, and impact of social events on participants' lives. Retention-enhancing strategies are suggested for implementation.

  3. Comparison of Abuse Experiences of Rural and Urban African American Women During Perinatal Period

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F. C.; Richardson, Jeanita W.; Kimeto, Pamela; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Sharps, Phyllis W.

    2015-01-01

    A subsample of 12 African American women (6 urban and 6 rural) were selected from a larger longitudinal, randomized control trial, Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation (DOVE-R01 900903 National Institute of Nursing Research [NINR]/National Institutes of Health [NIH]). All African American women were chosen to control for any racial- and/or race-related cultural differences that may exist among women across geographical areas. The experiences of abuse during the perinatal period are drawn from in-depth interviews conducted at five points in time during pregnancy and the post-partum period. The analysis describes three major themes that highlight the similarities and differences among rural and urban women. The main themes found were (1) types of abuse, (2) location of abuse, and (3) response to abuse. In addition, two sub-themes (a) defiance and compliance and (b) role of children were also identified. Implications for universal screening for women of reproductive age, safer gun laws, and the need for further research are discussed. PMID:25315478

  4. Comparison of abuse experiences of rural and urban African American women during perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F C; Richardson, Jeanita W; Kimeto, Pamela; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Sharps, Phyllis W

    2015-07-01

    A subsample of 12 African American women (6 urban and 6 rural) were selected from a larger longitudinal, randomized control trial, Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation (DOVE-R01 900903 National Institute of Nursing Research [NINR]/National Institutes of Health [NIH]). All African American women were chosen to control for any racial- and/or race-related cultural differences that may exist among women across geographical areas. The experiences of abuse during the perinatal period are drawn from in-depth interviews conducted at five points in time during pregnancy and the post-partum period. The analysis describes three major themes that highlight the similarities and differences among rural and urban women. The main themes found were (1) types of abuse, (2) location of abuse, and (3) response to abuse. In addition, two sub-themes (a) defiance and compliance and (b) role of children were also identified. Implications for universal screening for women of reproductive age, safer gun laws, and the need for further research are discussed.

  5. HPV infection among rural American Indian women and urban white women in South Dakota: an HPV prevalence study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background High-risk strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) cause cervical cancer. American Indian (AI) women in the Northern Plains of the U.S. have significantly higher incidence and mortality rates for cervical cancer than White women in the same geographical area. We compared HPV prevalence, patterns of HPV types, and infection with multiple HPV types in AI and White women living in South Dakota, U.S. Methods We analyzed the HPV status of cervical samples collected in 2006-2008 from women aged 18-65 years who attended two rural AI reservation clinics (n = 235) or an urban clinic in the same area serving mostly White women (n = 246). Data collection occurred before HPV vaccination was available to study participants. HPV DNA was amplified by using the L1 consensus primer system and an HPV Linear Array detection assay to identify HPV types. We used chi-square tests to compare HPV variables, with percentages standardized by age and lifetime number of sexual partners. Results Compared to White women, AI women were younger (p = 0.01) and reported more sexual partners (p < 0.001). A lower percentage of AI women tested negative for HPV infection compared to Whites (58% [95% CI = 51-65] vs. 77% [95% CI = 71-82]; p < 0.001), and a higher percentage of AI women were infected by oncogenic types (30% [95% CI = 25-36] vs. 16% [95% CI = 11-21]; p = 0.001). Infections among AI women showed a wider variety and very different pattern of HPV types, including a higher prevalence of mixed HPV infections (19% [95% CI = 26-38] vs. 7% [95% CI = 4-11]; p = 0.001). AI women had a higher percentage of HPV infections that were not preventable by HPV vaccination (32% [95% CI = 26-38] vs. 15% [95% CI = 11-21]; p < 0.001). Conclusions A higher HPV burden and a different HPV genotyping profile may contribute to the high rate of cervical cancer among AI women. PMID:21943050

  6. Transgressive women don't deserve protection: young men's narratives of sexual violence against women in rural Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Kelly-Hanku, A; Aeno, H; Wilson, L; Eves, R; Mek, A; Nake Trumb, R; Whittaker, M; Fitzgerald, L; Kaldor, J M; Vallely, A

    2016-11-01

    Sexual violence against women and girls is commonplace in Papua New Guinea (PNG). While the experiences of women are rightly given central place in institutional responses to sexual violence, the men who perpetrate violence are often overlooked, an oversight that undermines the effectiveness of prevention efforts. This paper draws on interviews conducted with young men as part of a qualitative longitudinal study of masculinity and male sexuality in a rural highland area of PNG. It explores one aspect of male sexuality: men's narratives of sexual violence. Most striking from the data is that the collective enactment of sexual violence against women and girls is reported as an everyday and accepted practice amongst young men. However, not all women and girls were described as equally at risk, with those who transgress gender roles and roles inscribed and reinforced by patriarchal structures, at greater risk. To address this situation, efforts to reduce sexual violence against women and girls require an increased focus on male-centred intervention to critically engage with the forms of patriarchal authority that give license to sexual violence. Understanding the perceptions and experiences of men as perpetrators of sexual violence is a critical first step in the process of changing normative perceptions of gender, a task crucial to reducing sexual violence in countries such as PNG.

  7. Last menstrual period provides the best estimate of gestation length for women in rural Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Lynnette M; Haas, Jere D; Grajéda, Ruben; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2006-07-01

    The accurate estimation of gestational age in field studies in rural areas of developing countries continues to present difficulties for researchers. Our objective was to determine the best method for gestational age estimation in rural Guatemala. Women of childbearing age from four communities in rural Guatemala were invited to participate in a longitudinal study. Gestational age at birth was determined by an early second trimester measure of biparietal diameter, last menstrual period (LMP), the Capurro neonatal examination and symphysis-fundus height (SFH) for 171 women-infant pairs. Regression modelling was used to determine which method provided the best estimate of gestational age using ultrasound as the reference. Gestational age estimated by LMP was within +/-14 days of the ultrasound estimate for 94% of the sample. LMP-estimated gestational age explained 46% of the variance in gestational age estimated by ultrasound whereas the neonatal examination explained only 20%. The results of this study suggest that, when trained field personnel assist women to recall their date of LMP, this date provides the best estimate of gestational age. SFH measured during the second trimester may provide a reasonable alternative when LMP is unavailable.

  8. Unrecognized sexually transmitted infections in rural South African women: a hidden epidemic.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, D.; Abdool Karim, S. S.; Harrison, A.; Lurie, M.; Colvin, M.; Connolly, C.; Sturm, A. W.

    1999-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are of major public health concern in developing countries, not least because they facilitate transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The present article presents estimates of the prevalence, on any given day, of STIs among women in rural South Africa and the proportion who are asymptomatic, symptomatic but not seeking care, and symptomatic and seeking care. The following data sources from Hlabisa district were used: clinical surveillance for STI syndromes treated in health facilities, microbiological studies among women attending antenatal and family planning clinics, and a community survey. Population census provided denominator data. Adequacy of drug treatment was determined through quality of care surveys. Of 55,974 women aged 15-49 years, a total of 13,943 (24.9%) were infected on any given day with at least one of Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, or Treponema pallidum. Of the women investigated, 6697 (48%) were asymptomatic, 6994 (50%) were symptomatic but not seeking care, 238 (1.7%) were symptomatic and would seek care, and 14 (0.3%) were seeking care on that day. Only 9 of the 14 women (65%) were adequately treated. STIs remained untreated because either women were asymptomatic or the symptoms were not recognized and acted upon. Improved case management alone is therefore unlikely to have a major public health impact. Improving partner treatment and women's awareness of symptoms is essential, while the potential of mass STI treatment needs to be explored. PMID:10063657

  9. Factors associated with pregnant women's anticipations and experiences of HIV-related stigma in rural Kenya.

    PubMed

    Cuca, Yvette P; Onono, Maricianah; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Turan, Janet M

    2012-01-01

    Pregnant women who fear or experience HIV-related stigma may not get care for their own health or medications to reduce perinatal transmission of HIV. This study examined factors associated with anticipating and experiencing HIV-related stigma among 1777 pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics in rural Kenya. Women were interviewed at baseline, offered HIV testing and care, and a sub-set was re-interviewed at 4-8 weeks postpartum. Women who were older, had less education, whose husbands had other wives, and who perceived community discrimination against people with HIV had significantly greater adjusted odds of anticipating HIV stigma. Over half of the HIV-positive women interviewed postpartum reported having experienced stigma, much of which was self-stigma. Women experiencing minor depression, and those whose family knew of their HIV status had significantly greater adjusted odds of experiencing stigma. Lack of women's empowerment, as well as depression, may be important risk factors for HIV-related stigma and discrimination.

  10. The impact of Gonoshasthaya Kendra's Micro Health Insurance plan on antenatal care among poor women in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Touhidul; Igarashi, Isao; Kawabuchi, Koichi

    2012-08-01

    Low utilization of antenatal care (ANC) by pregnant women, particularly in rural areas, is an obstacle to ensuring safe motherhood in Bangladesh. Currently, Micro Health Insurance (MHI) is being considered in many developing countries as a potential method for assuring greater access to health care, especially for the poor. So far, there is only limited evidence evaluating MHI schemes. This study assesses the impact of MHI administered by Gonoshasthaya Kendra (GK) on ANC utilization by poor women in rural Bangladesh. We conducted a questionnaire survey and collected 321 valid responses from women enrolled in GK's MHI scheme and 271 from women not enrolled in any health insurance plan. We used a two-part model in which dependent variables were whether or not women utilized ANC and the number of times ANC was used. The model consisted of logistic regression analysis and ordinary least squares regression analysis. The main independent variables were dummies for socioeconomic classes according to GK, each of which represented the premiums and co-payments charged by class. The results showed that destitute, ultra-poor, and poor women enrolled in MHI used ANC significantly more than women not enrolled in health insurance. Women enrolled in MHI, except for those who were destitute or ultra-poor, utilized ANC significantly more times than women not enrolled in health insurance. We assume that GK's sliding premium and co-payment scales are key to ANC utilization by women. Expanding the MHI scheme may enhance ANC utilization among poor women in rural Bangladesh.

  11. Reproducibility of data-driven dietary patterns in two groups of adult Spanish women from different studies.

    PubMed

    Castelló, Adela; Lope, Virginia; Vioque, Jesús; Santamariña, Carmen; Pedraz-Pingarrón, Carmen; Abad, Soledad; Ederra, Maria; Salas-Trejo, Dolores; Vidal, Carmen; Sánchez-Contador, Carmen; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the reproducibility of data-driven dietary patterns in different samples extracted from similar populations. Dietary patterns were extracted by applying principal component analyses to the dietary information collected from a sample of 3550 women recruited from seven screening centres belonging to the Spanish breast cancer (BC) screening network (Determinants of Mammographic Density in Spain (DDM-Spain) study). The resulting patterns were compared with three dietary patterns obtained from a previous Spanish case-control study on female BC (Epidemiological study of the Spanish group for breast cancer research (GEICAM: grupo Español de investigación en cáncer de mama)) using the dietary intake data of 973 healthy participants. The level of agreement between patterns was determined using both the congruence coefficient (CC) between the pattern loadings (considering patterns with a CC≥0·85 as fairly similar) and the linear correlation between patterns scores (considering as fairly similar those patterns with a statistically significant correlation). The conclusions reached with both methods were compared. This is the first study exploring the reproducibility of data-driven patterns from two studies and the first using the CC to determine pattern similarity. We were able to reproduce the EpiGEICAM Western pattern in the DDM-Spain sample (CC=0·90). However, the reproducibility of the Prudent (CC=0·76) and Mediterranean (CC=0·77) patterns was not as good. The linear correlation between pattern scores was statistically significant in all cases, highlighting its arbitrariness for determining pattern similarity. We conclude that the reproducibility of widely prevalent dietary patterns is better than the reproducibility of more population-specific patterns. More methodological studies are needed to establish an objective measurement and threshold to determine pattern similarity.

  12. American rural women's exercise self-efficacy and awareness of exercise benefits and safety during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Melton, Bridget; Marshall, Elaine; Bland, Helen; Schmidt, Michael; Guion, W Kent

    2013-12-01

    Though the positive link between physical activity and maternal health is well documented, physical activity declines during pregnancy and, internationally, rural mothers are less likely than urban mothers to engage in physical activity. Some evidence suggests that self-efficacy is related to sustained engagement in physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine self-efficacy, perceived benefits, and knowledge of safe exercise among 88 rural pregnant women in a southeastern region of the United States. Exercise self-efficacy was significantly related to maternal age and gestation. Women over age 26 years, and those in the second and third trimesters, scored significantly higher than younger women or those in the first trimester. Fifty-two percent (n = 46) of participants perceived that activity would decrease energy levels, 37.5% (n = 33) did not know that exercise can decrease the risk of gestational diabetes, and 47.6% (n = 41) were unaware that a mother who is overweight is more likely to have an overweight child. Results confirm a need for education to improve women's knowledge about health benefits and safety information related to physical activity during pregnancy.

  13. Knowledge, attitude and practice of modern contraception among single women in a rural and urban community in southeast Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ozumba, B C; Obi, S N; Ijioma, N N

    2005-04-01

    The contraceptive information and services offered to single women in most developing countries is compromised by stigma attached to premarital sex. This study was to ascertain the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception among single women in a rural and urban community in southeast Nigeria, using a cross-sectional survey of 279 and 295 single women in Ngwo (rural) and Enugu (urban) community. The mean age of the population was 21.3 years. Contraceptive awareness was more among the urban than rural respondents (90.2% vs 34.1%). The major sources of contraceptive knowledge were mass media (68%) and peer groups (86.3%) for the urban and rural respondents, respectively. Most respondents in both groups had positive attitude towards contraception. More urban than rural respondents (68.3% vs 12.5%) began sexual activity during adolescence and the level of contraceptive use during first coitus were 48.4% and 13.7%, respectively. Of the currently sexually active respondents, 32.5% (rural) and 59.7% (urban) were using a form of modern contraception. Condoms, followed by oral pills were the most popular contraceptive method because they can easily procure them over the counter. Poor contraceptive information, highly critical behavior of family planning providers towards unmarried women seeking contraception and attitude of male partners militate against contraceptive practice. There is need to promote information and education on contraception among single women, their male partners and family planning providers.

  14. Village Context, Women's Status, and Son Preference among Rural Chinese Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jianghong; Lavely, William

    2003-01-01

    This study analyzes the variation in one measure of son preference that is of particular relevance in rural China: whether a woman considers it important to have a son, and the reasons why sons are important. To summarize our conclusions, we find that the expectation that a son will provide financial support in old age is strongly associated with…

  15. Poverty and Gender Perspective in Productive Projects for Rural Women in Mexico: Impact Evaluation of a Pilot Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urquieta-Salomon, Jose E.; Tepichin-Valle, Ana Maria; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of a pilot study that promoted productive and capacity-building activities among deprived rural women of Mexico. The evaluation design is observational; 1,278 women are interviewed, and the comparison group is estimated by propensity score matching. The results show a positive impact on the…

  16. How Multiple Roles Influence Adult College Women's Online Student Experiences in a Rural Community College Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetzel, Lisa C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how adult college women attending rural community colleges experience being an online student. A study of this nature was warranted as enrollment in online courses continues to increase (Allen & Seaman, 2010) and as women are more likely to enroll in online courses (Kramarae, 2001; van…

  17. Mapping Rural Women's Perspectives on Nonformal Education Experiences. APS Conceptual Mapping Project Research Report. Occasional Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Zebun N.

    A study explored how rural women in the village of Srefultoli, Bangladesh describe, from their own point of view, their experiences with nonformal education (NFE). Feminist research has shown that existing NFE programs in developing countries give women traditional knowledge of family planning, nutrition, and health care, but they do not deal with…

  18. The Experience of HIV/AIDS among Rural Women in the Northwestern United States: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mphande-Finn, Joyce T.; Sommers-Flanagan, John

    2007-01-01

    The unique experience of HIV/AIDS among rural women in the United States was explored using qualitative interviews with 7 women who are HIV positive. Based on these interviews, eight themes emerged. These included (a) daily powerful emotions, (b) emotional and physical abandonment, (c) romantic betrayal, (d) medical treatment issues, (e) loss and…

  19. Association between Education and Domestic Violence among Women Being Offered an HIV Test in Urban and Rural Areas in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abuya, Benta A.; Onsomu, Elijah O.; Moore, DaKysha; Piper, Crystal N.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between education and domestic violence among women being offered an HIV test in urban and rural areas in Kenya. A sample selection of women who experienced physical (n = 4,308), sexual (n = 4,309), and emotional violence (n = 4,312) aged 15 to 49 allowed for the estimation of the…

  20. Identifying Structural Changes from Within: Emancipatory Narratives Exploring Community Constraints to Women's Education and Empowerment in Rural India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baily, Supriya

    2015-01-01

    Using a critical theory framework, the article explores emancipatory narratives obtained through a case study of women in rural India. In-depth interviews, focus group conversations, observations, and document analysis highlight the complexity of the subsequent set of challenges facing women as it relates to both the education and empowerment for…

  1. Seroepidemiology of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Pregnant Women in Rural Durango, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme

    2013-01-01

    The seroepidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in pregnant women in Durango, Mexico is largely unknown. The prevalence of anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies was examined in 343 pregnant women living in rural areas in 7 municipalities in Durango State, Mexico, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). A correlation of H. pylori seropositivity with socio-demographic, obstetric and behavioral characteristics of pregnant women was also assessed. In total, 179 (52.2%) of the 343 pregnant women (mean age, 24.2 ± 5.9 years) had H. pylori IgG antibodies, 75 (41.9%) of whom had H. pylori IgG antibody levels higher than 100 U/mL. The seroprevalence of H. pylori infection varied from 33.3% to 65% among municipalities. In contrast, the seroprevalence was comparable among women regardless their age, educational level, occupation, socioeconomic status, animal contacts, foreign travel, eating habits, contact with soil, crowding, sanitary conditions at home and educational level of the head of their families. Multivariant analysis of socio-demographic and behavioral variables showed that H. pylori seropositivity was associated with municipality (OR=1.12; 95% CI: 1.01–1.24; P=0.02). Of the obstetric characteristics, the seroprevalence of H. pylori infection increased significantly with the number of pregnancies and deliveries but not with the number of cesarean sections or miscarriages. Rural pregnant women in Durango had a lower seroprevalence of H. pylori infection than those from populations in developing countries. Results support a variability of H. pylori seroprevalence within a region. Further research at a municipal level might help to understand the epidemiology of H. pylori infection. PMID:24711758

  2. Women's nutrient intakes and food-related knowledge in rural Kandal province, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Lauren J; Summerlee, Alastair J S; Dewey, Cate E; Hak, Chantharith; Hall, Ann; Charles, Christopher V

    2014-01-01

    In Cambodia, both anaemia and vitamin A deficiency are serious health problems. Despite this, few comprehensive nutritional surveys have been completed to date. This study evaluates the adequacy of iron and vitamin A intakes, as well as women's nutritional knowledge in rural Kandal province. Twenty-four hour recalls, pile sort activities, socioeconomic surveys, focus groups, and market surveys were carried out with 67 women from 5 villages in rural Kandal Province. Ninety seven percent of women did not meet their daily-recommended intake of iron, while 70% did not meet their daily-recommended intake of vitamin A. Although many women consume vitamin A-rich and iron rich-foods daily, they do not consume large enough quantities of these foods. Results suggest that both the cost of foods as well as the extent of health knowledge is linked to nutritional practice. Most animal-source iron and vitamin A-rich foods are considered expensive; however, small fish, and several plant-source vitamin A-rich foods are inexpensive and easy to access. Despite health education, food restrictions lead some healthy foods to be considered to be harmful to women. Ultimately, this study demonstrates the importance of developing comprehensive nutritional interventions in Cambodia. Health programming must provide women with not only suggestions to include low-cost nutrient-rich foods, but also advise them about the quantities that are likely to have an impact on nutritional status. Programs should take a community-based, inter-sectoral approach that simultaneously combines culturally informed health education with initiatives that combat poverty and increase access to nutrient rich foods.

  3. Leadership Characteristics and Training Needs of Women and Men in Charge of Spanish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sánchez-Moreno, Marita; López-Yáñez, Julián; Altopiedi, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the results obtained by two consecutive enquiries into the leadership styles and training needs of women and men leading higher education organisations. It compares the findings of the first stage of two studies, based on ad hoc questionnaires responded to by 136 women and 129 men. Results showed only subtle differences…

  4. Hut lung: a domestically acquired pneumoconiosis of mixed aetiology in rural women.

    PubMed Central

    Grobbelaar, J P; Bateman, E D

    1991-01-01

    A form of pneumoconiosis in rural African women termed "Transkei silicosis" has been thought to be due to silica particles inhaled while they are hand grinding maize between rocks. Twenty five women were studied who were considered to have this condition according to the following criteria: rural domicile, radiographic and lung biopsy evidence of pneumoconiosis, no exposure to mining or industry and no evidence of active tuberculosis. They were assessed for radiological, pathological, physiological and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid features. Potential aetiological factors were assessed by determining levels of exposure to respirable quartz and non-quartz containing dusts and smoke in rural dwellings during maize grinding and cooking. Most of the women were symptomless. Radiological findings ranged from a miliary pattern to extensive fibrosis resembling progressive massive fibrosis. Histological features included simple "anthracosis" in 12, anthracosis with macules in six, and mixed dust fibrosis in seven. Cell numbers and their proportions in lavage fluid were normal. More than 60% of macrophages were heavily laden with inorganic inclusions. Respirable quartz concentrations and calculated cumulative time weighted exposures were below those recommended for industry during grinding with sandstone (100% quartz) and they were even lower during grinding with dolerite containing no quartz despite the presence of an appreciable amount of quartz in the ground maize. Total respirable dust and smoke concentrations were greater than the recommended safe levels. Three women had no exposure to maize grinding. It is concluded that the inhalation of non-quartz containing dust and smoke from biomass fuelled fires is more important in the aetiology of this condition than exposure to quartz dust. The term "hut lung" may be more appropriate. Images PMID:2068688

  5. Transactional sex among young women in rural South Africa: prevalence, mediators and association with HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Meghna; Heise, Lori; Pettifor, Audrey; Silverwood, Richard J; Selin, Amanda; MacPhail, Catherine; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Kahn, Kathleen; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Hughes, James P; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Watts, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Young adolescent women in sub-Saharan Africa are three to four times more likely to be HIV-positive than boys or men. One of the relationship dynamics that is likely to be associated with young women's increased vulnerability to HIV is transactional sex. There are a range of HIV-related risk behaviours that may drive this vulnerability. However, to date, limited epidemiological data exist on the role of transactional sex in increasing HIV acquisition, especially among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. Our paper presents data on the prevalence of self-reported engagement in transactional sex and explores whether transactional sex is associated with increased risk of HIV infection among a cohort of young, rural, sexually active South African women. We also explore whether this relationship is mediated through certain HIV-related risk behaviours. Methods We analyzed baseline data from a phase III trial of conditional cash transfers for HIV prevention of 693 sexually active, school-going young women aged 13–20 years in rural South Africa. We examined the association between young women's engagement in transactional sex and HIV infection. Transactional sex is defined as a non-commercial, non-marital sexual relationship whereby sex is exchanged for money and/or gifts. We explored whether this relationship is mediated by certain HIV-related risk behaviours. We used logistic and multinomial regression and report unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios with 95% CI. Results Overall, 14% (n=97) of sexually active young women reported engaging in transactional sex. Engagement in transactional sex was associated with an increased risk of being HIV-positive (aOR: 2.5, CI: 95% 1.19–5.25, p=0.01). The effect size of this association remained nearly unchanged when adjusted for certain other dimensions of HIV risk that might help explain the underlying pathways for this relationship. Conclusions This study provides quantitative support demonstrating that transactional

  6. Between affiliation and autonomy: navigating pathways of women's empowerment and gender justice in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Kabeer, Naila

    2011-01-01

    Inasmuch as women's subordinate status is a product of the patriarchal structures of constraint that prevail in specific contexts, pathways of women's empowerment are likely to be "path dependent." They will be shaped by women's struggles to act on the constraints that prevail in their societies, as much by what they seek to defend as by what they seek to change. The universal value that many feminists claim for individual autonomy may not therefore have the same purchase in all contexts. This article examines processes of empowerment as they play out in the lives of women associated with social mobilization organizations in the specific context of rural Bangladesh. It draws on their narratives to explore the collective strategies through which these organizations sought to empower the women and how they in turn drew on their newly established "communities of practice" to navigate their own pathways to wider social change. It concludes that while the value attached to social affiliations by the women in the study is clearly a product of the societies in which they have grown up, it may be no more context-specific than the apparently universal value attached to individual autonomy by many feminists.

  7. Examining health status of women in rural, peri-urban and urban areas in Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Paul A.; Eldemire-Shearer, Denise; McGrowder, Donovan; Crawford, Tazhmoye

    2009-01-01

    Background: A comprehensive review of the literature revealed that less information is available in literature on health status of women, and health status of women in 3 geographical zones in Jamaica. Aims: This study examined data on the health status of women in Jamaica in order to provide some scientific explanation of those factors that account for their health status; and differences based on area of residence. Materials and Methods: The sub-sample for the current study was 8,541 women ages of 15 and 100 years extracted from a national survey of 25,018 respondents. Stratified random sampling technique was used to draw the sample. Data were stored, retrieved and analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Descriptive statistics were used to provide background information on the subsample, and logistic regressions were utilized to model health statuses. Results: Rural women had the lowest health status (OR = 0.819, 95% CI = 0.679-0.989) among all women (peri-urban OR = 1.054, 95% CI = 0.842-1.320; urban OR = 1.00) and that they were the least likely to have health insurance coverage. Health insurance was the critical predictor of good health status of women in Jamaica, and this was equally the same across the 3 geographic areas; and that married women were 1.3 times more likely (OR 1.3, 95 CI = 1.036-1.501) to report good health compared to those who were never married. Conclusion: This study provides an understanding of women's health status in Jamaica as well as the disparity which correlates based on the different geographical regions. PMID:22666705

  8. Food, eating and body image in the lives of low socioeconomic status rural Mexican women living in Queretaro State, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Kimoto, Riko; Ronquillo, Dolores; Caamaño, Maria C; Martinez, Guadalupe; Schubert, Lisa; Rosado, Jorge L; Garcia, Olga; Long, Kurt Z

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative research using semi-structured interviews and key informant interviews were used to explore how women from low socioeconomic rural households in Queretaro State, Mexico perceived and reacted to their obesogenic environment. Reduced availability of healthy food options and household financial constraints along with reduced agency of women in this setting were factors that limited women's ability to access and consume diets consistent with the promotion of good health. The cultural values that emphasised obesity as a desirable state for women and the women's social networks that promoted these values were also identified as playing a role in reinforcing certain behaviours. Public health advocates wanting to design interventions in such settings need to be sensitive to the cultural as well as the environmental context described for rural Mexican women.

  9. An exploratory study of mental health and HIV risk behavior among drug-using rural women in jail

    PubMed Central

    Staton-Tindall, Michele; Harp, Kathi LH; Minieri, Alexandra; Oser, Carrie; Webster, J. Matthew; Havens, Jennifer; Leukefeld, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Objective Rural women, particularly those involved in the criminal justice system, are at risk for HIV due to the increasing prevalence of injection drug use, as well as limited services. Research on HIV risk correlates, including drug use and mental health, has primarily focused on urban women incarcerated in prisons. The purpose of this exploratory study is to examine dual HIV risk behavior by three different mental health problems (depression, anxiety, and PTSD) among drug-using women in rural jails. Methods This study involved random selection, screening, and face-to-face interviews with 136 women from rural jails in one Appalachian state. Analyses focused on the relationship between mental health and HIV risk among this sample of drug-using women. Findings Nearly 80% of women self-reported symptoms of depression, and more than 60% endorsed symptoms consistent with anxiety and PTSD symptoms. Mental health was significantly correlated with severity of certain types of drug use, as well as risky sexual activity. In addition, for women experiencing anxiety and PTSD, injection drug use moderated the relationship between mental health and risky sexual activity. Implications Based on these rates of drug use, mental health problems, and the emergence of injection drug use in rural Appalachia, the need to explore the relationships between these issues among vulnerable and understudied populations, such as rural women, is critical. Due to service limitations in rural communities, criminal justice venues such as jails provide opportune settings for screening, assessment, and intervention for drug use, mental health, and HIV education and prevention. PMID:25799305

  10. Online prevention of postpartum depression for Spanish- and English-speaking pregnant women: A pilot randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, Alinne Z.; Wickham, Robert E.; Muñoz, Ricardo F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Postpartum depression (PPD) is a maternal mental health problem that affects women from all regions of the world. Unfortunately, even in developed countries, half of the cases go undetected and, consequently, untreated. Individuals from low and middle income countries trend toward underutilization of mental health services, partly due to the limited number of available psychological resources. The primary aims of this pilot randomized controlled trial were to adapt to the Internet the Mothers and Babies Course/Curso Mamás y Bebés, a prevention of PPD intervention, to describe the characteristics of the pregnant women who engaged in the intervention site, and to obtain preliminary data on the efficacy of the Internet intervention to reduce the risk of PPD. Methods Pregnant women, 18 years or older who were interested in using the site for themselves were recruited and randomly assigned to a fully-automated self-help Internet intervention or to an information-only control condition. Randomized participants were invited to complete monthly depression assessments up to six months postpartum. To examine the prevention effects of the Internet intervention, pregnant women who did not meet current criteria for a major depressive episode, who engaged with the study website, and who provided depression data during the postpartum follow-up period were included in the study analyses. Results Participants were 111 predominantly Spanish-speaking (82.9%) and Latino/Hispanic (71.3%) pregnant women residing in 23 countries worldwide. The effect of the prevention intervention condition failed to reach significance at the a priori alpha-level. However, the observed coefficient trended in the hypothesized direction (b = −0.514, χ2 (1) = 3.43, p = .061; HR = 0.598). The benefits of receiving the e-MB Internet intervention was greater for pregnant women reporting high (vs. low) levels of prenatal depression symptoms (b = −0.605, χ2 (1) = 5.20, p =.023). Conclusions

  11. Dyslipidaemia in HIV-infected women on antiretroviral therapy. Analysis of 922 patients from the Spanish VACH cohort

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Information concerning lipid disturbances in HIV-infected women on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is scarce. The objective of the study is to describe the lipid profile in a large cohort of HIV-infected women on contemporary ART and analyse differences between regimes and patient's characteristics. Methods Observational, multicentre, cross-sectional study from the Spanish VACH Cohort. 922 women on stable ART without lipid-lowering treatment were included. Results Median age was 42 years, median CD4 lymphocyte count was 544 cells/mm3, and 85.6% presented undetectable HIV-1 viral load. Median total cholesterol (TC) was 189 mg/dL (interquartile range, IQR, 165-221), HDL cholesterol 53 mg/dL (IQR, 44-64), LDL cholesterol 108 mg/dL (IQR, 86-134), and triglycerides 116 mg/dL (IQR, 85-163). Mean accumulated time on ART was 116 months; 47.4% were on NNRTI-based regimes, 44.7% on PI, and 6.7% on only-NRTI therapy. 43.8% were also hepatitis C (HCV) coinfected. Patients on PI treatment presented higher TC/HDL ratio than those on NNRTI (p < 0.001). Significantly higher HDL values were observed in NNRTI-treated patients. HCV-coinfected patients presented lower TC/HDL ratio than the non HCV-coinfected. In multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with TC/HDL ratio were age, triglyceride levels and HCV co-infection. PI treatment presented a non-significant association with higher TC/HDL ratio. Conclusions In HIV-infected women, the NNRTI-based ART is associated with a better lipid profile than the PI-based. Factors unrelated to ART selection may also exert an independent, significant influence on lipids; in particular, age, and triglyceride levels are associated with an increased TC/HDL ratio while HCV co-infection is associated with a reduced TC/HDL ratio. PMID:21816091

  12. Assessment of Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease Using Heart Rate Variability in Postmenopausal Women: A Comparative Study between Urban and Rural Indian Women

    PubMed Central

    Narayanaswamy, Nikhil; Halahalli, Harsha; Mirajkar, Amrit M.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality in postmenopausal women. A major determinant of cardiovascular health is the status of autonomic nervous system and assessment of Heart Rate Variability (HRV). Heart Rate Variability is a noninvasive and sensitive technique to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic control. Reduced HRV is an independent risk factor for the development of heart disease. This study evaluated the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases using HRV, between urban and rural Indian postmenopausal women ranging in age from 40 to 75 years. Findings of the analysis of HRV have showed that the total power which reflects overall modulation of cardiac autonomic activity (759 ± 100  versus 444 ± 65), the absolute power of high frequency which is surrogate of cardiovagal activity (247 ± 41  versus 163 ± 45), and low frequency that reflects cardiac sympathetic activity (205 ± 26  versus 127 ± 18) were significantly higher in urban women than that of their rural counterparts. Further, among the anthropometric measures, waist circumference was significantly correlated with indices of HRV. The study concludes that rural Indian women are associated with an additional risk beyond that of ageing and postmenopausal status when compared to the urban women. The higher central obesity could be the contributing factor for developing higher risk for cardiovascular disease among the rural women. PMID:23936672

  13. Women, microcredit and family planning practices: a case study from rural Ghana.

    PubMed

    Norwood, Carolette

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of informal banking club participation on family planning practices in rural Ghana. Research from Asia suggests that family planning practices are improved by club participation. This study examines this thesis in an African context, using rural Ghana as a case study. A sample of 204 women (19 years and older) was drawn from Abokobi village, Ghana. Multivariate analyses of direct, mediating and moderating effects of women’s demographic background characteristics, membership status and length, and women’s empowerment status as predictors of family planning practices are assessed. Findings suggest that club membership and membership length is not associated with family planning practices; however, age, education level, number of children and empowerment status are.

  14. Urinary Concentrations of Insecticide and Herbicide Metabolites among Pregnant Women in Rural Ghana: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Blair J; Ae-Ngibise, Kenneth A; Boamah, Ellen A; Mujtaba, Mohammed; Messerlian, Carmen; Hauser, Russ; Coull, Brent; Calafat, Antonia M; Jack, Darby; Kinney, Patrick L; Whyatt, Robin; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Asante, Kwaku P

    2017-03-29

    Use of pesticides by households in rural Ghana is common for residential pest control, agricultural use, and for the reduction of vectors carrying disease. However, few data are available about exposure to pesticides among this population. Our objective was to quantify urinary concentrations of metabolites of organophosphate (OP), pyrethroid, and select herbicides during pregnancy, and to explore exposure determinants. In 2014, 17 pregnant women from rural Ghana were surveyed about household pesticide use and provided weekly first morning urine voids during three visits (n = 51 samples). A total of 90.1% (46/51) of samples had detectable OP metabolites [geometric mean, GM (95% CI): 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol 0.54 µg/L (0.36-0.81), para-nitrophenol 0.71 µg/L (0.51-1.00)], 75.5% (37/49) had detectable pyrethroid metabolites [GM: 3-phenoxybenzoic acid 0.23 µg/L (0.17, 0.32)], and 70.5% (36/51) had detectable 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid levels, a herbicide [GM: 0.46 µg/L (0.29-0.73)]. Concentrations of para-nitrophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in Ghanaian pregnant women appear higher when compared to nonpregnant reproductive-aged women in a reference U.S.

  15. Determinants of health-promoting lifestyle behaviors in rural older women.

    PubMed

    Pullen, C; Walker, S N; Fiandt, K

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (a) describe the health-promoting lifestyle behaviors and attempts at change among 102 community-dwelling rural women aged 65 and older, and (b) determine the extent to which personal influences (demographics, definition of health, and perceived health status) and contextual influences (sources of health information and provider counseling) explain health-promoting lifestyle behaviors and attempts at change among those women. They scored highest on frequency of nutrition behaviors and lowest on frequency of physical activity behaviors. They had attempted change in from zero to five areas of health-promoting lifestyle within the past year. Multiple regression analyses revealed that younger age, living with other(s), defining health as wellness, better perceived mental health, more sources of health information and provider counseling were significantly associated with health-promoting lifestyle behaviors. Only younger age and more sources of health information were significantly associated with attempts at change. These findings provide information that is relevant in designing interventions to enhance health-promoting lifestyle behaviors among rural older women.

  16. Rural Ugandan women and the technological race to the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Tumwine, I W

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses the needs in developing countries for simple and inexpensive technological devices to improve communications and transportation and to reduce time and energy spent on housework. Manufacturers in the developed world continue to export expensive technological products that ignore the lack of access to electricity among a large consumer population. Individuals and organizations can help developing country women by engaging in conversations with their counterparts and determining the nature and extent of assistance that is needed. Products, such as old computers, spare parts, and computer books, can be donated to organizations, such as the YWCA, which provide training to girls and women. Industry can produce and market technologically appropriate implements and appliances. Individuals and women's groups can lobby industrialists and manufacturers for initiatives that improve living conditions for millions in developing countries. Groups can mobilize financial resources for local and international projects. Partnerships can be formed between cities, local universities, nonprofit organizations, individual school classes, or individuals. Governments need to ensure that the educational system is producing skilled workers and to modify imported technologies for local development. In the race to the 21st century, there is a need for deliberate social action to make technology accessible to women, men, and children in remote rural communities in developing countries. The gain for women in developing countries would be substantially reduced time and energy expended in daily chores. In developing countries, most of the agricultural and domestic work is carried out by women. These women are not even at the starting gate, while women in developed countries are way ahead in the race for modernization and technological development.

  17. Reproductive tract infections in rural women from the highlands, jungle, and coastal regions of Peru.

    PubMed Central

    García, Patricia J.; Chavez, Susana; Feringa, Barbara; Chiappe, Marina; Li, Weili; Jansen, Kathrin U.; Cárcamo, César; Holmes, King K.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define the prevalences and manifestations of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) in rural Peruvian women. METHODS: During 1997-98, we visited 18 rural districts in coastal, highlands, and jungle regions of Peru. We administered standardized questionnaires and pelvic examinations to members of women's community-based organizations; and collected vaginal fluid for pH, amine odour, Gram stain, microscopy, and culture for Trichomonas vaginalis; cervical specimens for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae; human papilloma virus (HPV) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, and blood for syphilis serology. FINDINGS: The 754 participants averaged 36.9 years of age and 1.7 sex partners ever; 77% reported symptoms indicative of RTIs; 51% and 26% reported their symptoms spontaneously or only with specific questioning, respectively. Symptoms reported spontaneously included abnormal vaginal discharge (29.3% and 22.9%, respectively). One or more RTIs, found in 70.4% of participants, included bacterial vaginosis (43.7%), trichomoniasis (16.5%), vulvovaginal candidiasis (4.5%), chlamydial infection (6.8%), gonorrhoea (1.2%), syphilis seropositivity (1.7%), cervical HPV infection (4.9%), and genital warts or ulcers (2.8%). Of 715 adequate Pap smears, 7 revealed cancer, 4 high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (SIL) and 15 low-grade SIL. Clinical algorithms had very low sensitivity and predictive values for cervical infection, but over half the women with symptoms of malodorous vaginal discharge, signs of abnormal vaginal discharge, or both, had bacterial vaginosis or trichomoniasis. CONCLUSION: Overall, 77% of women had symptoms indicative of RTIs, and 70% had objective evidence of one or more RTIs. Women with selected symptoms and signs of vaginal infection could benefit from standard metronidazole therapy. PMID:15508193

  18. “Someone’s got to do it” – Primary care providers (PCPs) describe caring for rural women with mental health problems

    PubMed Central

    Colon-Gonzalez, Maria C.; McCall-Hosenfeld, Jennifer S.; Weisman, Carol S.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Perry, Amanda N.; Chuang, Cynthia H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Little is known about how primary care providers (PCPs) approach mental health care for low-income rural women. We developed a qualitative research study to explore the attitudes and practices of PCPs regarding the care of mood and anxiety disorders in rural women. Method We conducted semi-structured interviews with 19 family physicians, internists, and obstetrician-gynecologists (OBGYNs) in office-based practices in rural central Pennsylvania. Using thematic analysis, investigators developed a coding scheme. Questions focused on 1) screening and diagnosis of mental health conditions, 2) barriers to treatment among rural women, 3) management of mental illnesses in rural women, and 4) ideas to improve care for this population. Results PCP responses reflected these themes: 1) PCPs identify mental illnesses through several mechanisms including routine screening, indicator-based assessment, and self-identification by the patient; 2) Rural culture and social ecology are significant barriers to women in need of mental healthcare; 3) Mental healthcare resource limitations in rural communities lead PCPs to seek creative solutions to care for rural women with mental illnesses; 4) To improve mental healthcare in rural communities, both social norms and resource limitations must be addressed Conclusion Our findings can inform future interventions to improve women’s mental healthcare in rural communities. Ideas include promoting generalist education in mental healthcare, and expanding access to consultative networks. In addition, community programs to reduce the stigma of mental illnesses in rural communities may promote healthcare seeking and receptiveness to treatment. PMID:25632302

  19. Facilitating HIV status disclosure for pregnant women and partners in rural Kenya: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Women’s ability to safely disclose their HIV-positive status to male partners is essential for uptake and continued use of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services. However, little is known about the acceptability of potential approaches for facilitating partner disclosure. To lay the groundwork for developing an intervention, we conducted formative qualitative research to elicit feedback on three approaches for safe HIV disclosure for pregnant women and male partners in rural Kenya. Methods This qualitative acceptability research included in-depth interviews with HIV-infected pregnant women (n = 20) and male partners of HIV-infected women (n = 20) as well as two focus groups with service providers (n = 16). The participants were recruited at health care facilities in two communities in rural Nyanza Province, Kenya, during the period June to November 2011. Data were managed in NVivo 9 and analyzed using a framework approach, drawing on grounded theory. Results We found that facilitating HIV disclosure is acceptable in this context, but that individual participants have varying expectations depending on their personal situation. Many participants displayed a strong preference for couples HIV counseling and testing (CHCT) with mutual disclosure facilitated by a trained health worker. Home-based approaches and programs in which pregnant women are asked to bring their partners to the healthcare facility were equally favored. Participants felt that home-based CHCT would be acceptable for this rural setting, but special attention must be paid to how this service is introduced in the community, training of the health workers who will conduct the home visits, and confidentiality. Conclusion Pregnant couples should be given different options for assistance with HIV disclosure. Home-based CHCT could serve as an acceptable method to assist women and men with safe disclosure of HIV status. These findings can inform the design and

  20. What is a good life? Selecting capabilities to assess women's quality of life in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Greco, Giulia; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Mkandawire, Bryan; Mills, Anne

    2015-04-01

    There is growing interest in using Sen's Capability Approach to assess quality of life and to evaluate social policies. This paper describes the formative stages of developing a quality of life measure: the selection of the relevant capabilities. This measure is intended to provide a more comprehensive outcome measure for the evaluation of complex interventions such as Maimwana womens' groups, a community based participatory intervention to improve maternal health in rural Malawi. Fifteen focus group discussions with 129 women were conducted to explore relevant concepts of quality of life in rural Malawi. Data collection started in October 2009. Findings were elicited based on framework analysis. The findings portray a complex and highly nuanced perception that women in rural Malawi have of their life and wellbeing. Quality of life was described using a variety of dimensions that are highly interconnected. Quality of life emerges to be not only shaped by the realisation of basic material needs such as being sufficiently nourished and adequately sheltered, but is also highly dependent on complex feelings, relations and social norms. The full exposition of wellbeing with its domains was organised into a framework constituting six different spheres of wellbeing: physical strength, inner wellbeing, household wellbeing, community relations, economic security and happiness. Despite the list being developed in a specific context and for a specific group of people, the similarities with lists developed in other contexts, with different methods and for different purposes, are considerable. This suggests that there are a number of core aspects of wellbeing considered a minimum requirement for a life of human dignity, that should be included in any attempt to assess quality of life and human development across populations.

  1. Epidemiology of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Rural Southwestern Haiti: The Grand'Anse Women's Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Jobe, Kathleen A.; Downey, Robert F.; Hammar, Donna; Van Slyke, Lori; Schmidt, Terri A.

    2014-01-01

    The study attempts to define socioeconomic, clinical, and laboratory correlates in vaginitis and other sexually transmitted infections in rural southwestern Haiti. A convenience sample of subjects recruited from a rural women's health clinic and attending an established clinic at the Haitian Health Foundation (HHF) clinic was studied. A standardized history and physical examination, including speculum examination, and collection of blood, urine, and vaginal swabs were obtained from the women at the rural clinic. Additional vaginal swab samples only for Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAAT) testing were obtained from women at the HHF clinic in Jérémie. Laboratory results from Leon subjects were positive for Gardnerella vaginalis in 41% (41 of 100), Trichomonas vaginalis in 13.5% (14 of 104), Candida sp. in 9% (9 of 100), Mycoplasma genitalium in 6.7% (7 of 104), Chlamydia trachomatis in 1.9% (2 of 104), and Neisseria gonorrhea in 1% (1 of 104) of patients. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody tests were negative in 100% (103 of 103) of patients, and syphilis antibody testing was positive for treponemal antibodies in 7.7% (8 of 104) patients. For subjects from the HHF, 19.9% were positive for T. vaginalis, 11.9% were positive for C. trachomatis, 10.1% were positive for M. genitalium, and 4.1% were positive for N. gonorrhea. Infections with G. vaginalis, T. vaginalis, and Candida were the most common. N. gonorrhea, C. trachomatis, Candida sp., T. vaginalis, and M. genitalium infections were associated with younger age (less than 31 years old). PMID:25200263

  2. Epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections in rural southwestern Haiti: the Grand'Anse Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Jobe, Kathleen A; Downey, Robert F; Hammar, Donna; Van Slyke, Lori; Schmidt, Terri A

    2014-11-01

    The study attempts to define socioeconomic, clinical, and laboratory correlates in vaginitis and other sexually transmitted infections in rural southwestern Haiti. A convenience sample of subjects recruited from a rural women's health clinic and attending an established clinic at the Haitian Health Foundation (HHF) clinic was studied. A standardized history and physical examination, including speculum examination, and collection of blood, urine, and vaginal swabs were obtained from the women at the rural clinic. Additional vaginal swab samples only for Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAAT) testing were obtained from women at the HHF clinic in Jérémie. Laboratory results from Leon subjects were positive for Gardnerella vaginalis in 41% (41 of 100), Trichomonas vaginalis in 13.5% (14 of 104), Candida sp. in 9% (9 of 100), Mycoplasma genitalium in 6.7% (7 of 104), Chlamydia trachomatis in 1.9% (2 of 104), and Neisseria gonorrhea in 1% (1 of 104) of patients. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody tests were negative in 100% (103 of 103) of patients, and syphilis antibody testing was positive for treponemal antibodies in 7.7% (8 of 104) patients. For subjects from the HHF, 19.9% were positive for T. vaginalis, 11.9% were positive for C. trachomatis, 10.1% were positive for M. genitalium, and 4.1% were positive for N. gonorrhea. Infections with G. vaginalis, T. vaginalis, and Candida were the most common. N. gonorrhea, C. trachomatis, Candida sp., T. vaginalis, and M. genitalium infections were associated with younger age (less than 31 years old).

  3. Morbidity and nutrition status of rural drug-naïve Kenyan women living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Charlotte G; Nyandiko, Winstone; Siika, Abraham; Drorbaugh, Natalie; Samari, Goleen; Ettyang, Grace; Ernst, Judith A

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes morbidity in a group of HIV-positive drug-naïve rural women in western Kenya. A total of 226 drug-naïve HIV-positive women were evaluated for baseline morbidity, immune function, and anthropometry before a food-based nutrition intervention. Kenyan nurses visited women in their homes and conducted semi-structured interviews regarding symptoms and physical signs experienced at the time of the visit and during the previous week and physical inspection. Blood and urine samples were examined for determination of immune function (CD4, CD8, and total lymphocyte counts), anaemia, malaria, and pregnancy status. Intradermal skin testing with tuberculin (PPD), candida, and tetanus toxoid antigens was also performed to evaluate cell-mediated immunity. Anthropometry was measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Seventy-six per cent of the women reported being sick on the day of the interview or within the previous week. Illnesses considered serious were reported by 13.7% of women. The most frequent morbidity episodes reported were upper respiratory tract infections (13.3%), suspected malaria (5.85%), skeletal pain (4.87%), and stomach pain (4.42%). The most common morbidity signs on physical inspection were respiratory symptoms, most commonly rhinorrhea and coughing. Confirmed malaria and severe diarrhea were significantly associated with a higher BMI.

  4. [Rural women. Public health workshop of the Centro de Investigaciones en Psicologia Social].

    PubMed

    Juarez Bartola, M; Garcia Ventura, H; De Jesus Leon, M J

    1993-04-01

    Mexico's peasant sector is undergoing great change as a result of the insertion of capitalist relations into areas that were previously remote. The traditional peasant subsistence economy has been displaced, and peasants have been forced to adopt a series of new strategies for survival, entailing proletarianization or selling of labor. Women in the community of San Nicolas Zoyapetlayoca, in the municipio of Tepeaca, have lived in a situation of poverty and precariousness for some time. Most of the population historically depended on the neighboring haciendas for their livelihood. Women and children also worked there, mistreated and without social protection. The lands that were distributed after the Revolution are insufficient to support the community, and most families must look elsewhere for employment. Incomes are insufficient to cover all the necessities of education, health, nutrition, and other aspects of life. Most women are educated no farther than the primary level. They spend most of their time preparing food, carrying water, washing clothes, caring for their children, and in other domestic chores. Some women work for wages as laborers, factory workers, or domestics. Rural women are disadvantaged by poor working conditions, insufficient education, low levels of health and nutrition, limited participation in social and political life, poor housing and lack of services, and frequently by their own attitudes of traditionalism or fatalism.

  5. Frequency of intimate partner violence and rural women's mental health in four Indian states.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Rob; Winter, Amy; Hindin, Michelle

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the association between self-reported frequency of verbal, physical, and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health among 6,303 rural married women (age 15-49), in four Indian states: Bihar, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu. Data are taken from the 2002-2003 National Family Health Survey-2 Follow-Up Survey. The results indicate that experiencing physical, verbal, or sexual IPV is associated with an increased risk of adverse mental health outcomes. Our results provide support for the importance of screening for IPV in mental health settings, especially in resource-poor settings where both IPV and mental health are often overlooked.

  6. When status hurts: dimensions of women's status and domestic abuse in rural Northern India.

    PubMed

    Mogford, Elizabeth

    2011-07-01

    This study is a multiple logistic regression analysis of the relationship between dimensions of women's status and domestic abuse in rural Uttar Pradesh, India, using the 1998-1999 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2). Findings indicate that the effects of a woman's status on her likelihood of experiencing abuse depend on the social realm within which status operates. Specifically, more "public" dimensions of status are associated with a greater probability of abuse, while "domestic" dimensions are protective. The findings are interpreted in terms of transitioning gender norms in Uttar Pradesh and provide clarity to the literature on the complex relationship between status and abuse.

  7. ASHA-Life Intervention Perspectives Voiced By Rural Indian Women Living with AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Ekstrand, Maria; Srivastava, Neha; Carpenter, Catherine L.; Salem, Benissa E.; Al-Harassi, Shawana; Ramakrishnan, Padma; Sinha, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    In this focus group study, we explored the experiences of 16 rural women living with AIDS (WLA) who participated in the Asha-Life (AL) intervention to gain an understanding of the environmental, psychosocial and cultural impact of the AL on their lives. Four themes emerged among AL participants: a) The Importance of Tangible Support, b) Need for Social Support, c) Ongoing Challenges to Accessing Antiretroviral Therapy (ART), and d) Perspectives on Future Programs. Our research findings support the development of future programs targeting mother-child dyads which emphasize nutritional knowledge, while reducing barriers to receiving ART, and physical, emotional, and financial support. PMID:26147930

  8. Agreeableness and pregnancy: Relations with coping and psychiatric symptoms, a longitudinal study on Spanish pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Peñacoba, Cecilia; Rodríguez, Laura; Carmona, Javier; Marín, Dolores

    2017-01-19

    Agreeableness is associated with good mental health during pregnancy. Although different studies have indicated that agreeableness is related to adaptive coping, this relation has scarcely been studied in pregnant women. The aim of this study was to analyze the possible differences between high and low agreeableness in relation to coping strategies and psychiatric symptoms in pregnant women. We conducted a longitudinal prospective study between October 2009 and January 2013. Pregnant women (n = 285) were assessed in the first trimester of pregnancy, and 122 of them were assessed during the third. Data were collected using the Coping Strategies Questionnaire, the Symptom Check List 90-R, and the agreeableness subscale of the NEO-FFI. Using the SPSS 21 statistics package, binary logistic regression, two-way mixed analysis of variance, and multiple regression analyses and a Sobel test were conducted. Higher levels of agreeableness were associated with positive reappraisal and problem-solving, and lower levels of agreeableness were associated with overt emotional expression and negative self-focused coping. Women with low agreeableness had poorer mental health, especially in the first trimester. These findings should be taken into account to improve women's experiences during pregnancy. Nevertheless, given the scarcity of data, additional studies are needed.

  9. Women's participation in rural credit programmes in Bangladesh and their demand for formal health care: is there a positive impact?

    PubMed

    Nanda, P

    1999-08-01

    Within the overall aim of poverty alleviation, development efforts have included credit and self-employment programmes. In Bangladesh, the major beneficiaries of such group-based credit programmes are rural women who use the loans to initiate small informal income-generating activities. This paper explores the benefits of women's participation in credit programmes on their own health seeking. Using data from a sample of 1798 households from rural Bangladesh, conducted in 1991-1992 through repeated random sampling of 87 districts covered by Grameen Bank, Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) and Bangladesh Rural Development Board (BRDB), this paper addresses the question: does women's participation in credit programmes significantly affect their use of formal health care? A non-unitary household preference model is suggested to test the hypothesis that women's empowerment through participation in these programmes results in greater control of resources for their own demand for formal health care. The analysis controls for endogeneity due to self-selection and other unobserved village level factors through the use of a weighted two stage instrumental variable approach with village level fixed effects. The findings indicate a positive impact of women's participation in credit programmes on their demand for formal health care. The policy simulations on the results of this study highlight the importance of credit programmes as a health intervention in addition to being a mechanism for women's economic empowerment.

  10. Women's Nutribusiness cooperatives in Kenya: an integrated strategy for sustaining rural livelihoods.

    PubMed

    Maretzki, Audrey N

    2007-01-01

    With funding provided by the Center for Higher Education of the United States Agency for International Development, The Pennsylvania State University and Tuskegee University collaborated with the University of Nairobi in establishing women's NutriBusiness Cooperatives in the Rift Valley and Central Provinces of Kenya. Between 1992 and 1999, the cooperatives were established, facilities and equipment were supplied and extensive participatory training was provided by university-affiliated investigators and project staff. This initiative enabled approximately 2500 rural Kenyan women farmers to add value to their crops by processing and locally marketing nutritious, convenient, culturally-appropriate weaning food mixes. Implementation of the NutriBusiness model is described and challenges of cultural engagement are highlighted.

  11. Suicidal ideation and the prevalence of intimate partner violence against women in rural western China.

    PubMed

    Yanqiu, Gao; Yan, Wang; Lin, An

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the extent of the association between intimate partner violence (IPV) and suicidal ideation in a rural county in Western China. A sample of 1,771 women participated in the study. The lifetime prevalence of physical assault, psychological aggression, and sexual coercion was 34%, 68%, and 4%, respectively. The preceding-year prevalence of physical assault and psychological aggression was 8% and 32%, respectively. The prevalence of lifetime suicidal ideation was 15.9%, and 3.3% of the women had suicidal ideation during the preceding week. Physical abuse victims were at more than four times greater risk of having suicidal ideation than those who had not suffered physical assault.

  12. Men's role in women's antenatal health status: evidence from rural Rajshahi, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mosiur; Islam, Mohammad Touhidul; Mostofa, Md Golam; Reza, Md Shahin

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to extend notions of men's role in women's antenatal care (ANC) status in rural Rajshahi, Bangladesh. The analyses were based on response of 480 men aged 15 to 54 years, living with at least 1 child younger than 3 years. Only 27% men accompanied their wives for ANC. Men's perception of actual roles for ANC services was low: 63% approved of women undergoing checkups; 33% discussed their wives' pregnancy with health professionals. Only 18% scored highly on the overall index of knowledge. From multivariate analysis, it was found that the number of men accompanying their wives for ANC was higher among those respondents who were married for the first time in the age-group 25 to 34 years and aged 35 years or more, had their last child at age-group 20 to 24 years or 25 to 34 years, had completed primary or secondary and higher education, and had mass media facilities.

  13. Dietary Intake and Food Habits of Pregnant Women Residing in Urban and Rural Areas of Deyang City, Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Haoyue; Stiller, Caroline K.; Scherbaum, Veronika; Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Wang, Qi; Hormann, Elizabeth; Bellows, Anne C.

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies and imbalanced dietary intake tend to occur during the reproductive period among women in China. In accordance with traditional Chinese culture, pregnant women are commonly advised to follow a specific set of dietary precautions. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake data and identify risk factors for nutritional inadequacy in pregnant women from urban and rural areas of Deyang region, Sichuan province of China. Cross-sectional sampling was applied in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics (randomly selected) in Deyang region. Between July and October 2010, a total of 203 pregnant women in the third trimester, aged 19–42 years, were recruited on the basis of informed consent during antenatal clinic sessions. Semi-structured interviews on background information and 24-h dietary recalls were conducted. On the basis of self-reported height and pre-pregnancy weight, 68.7% of the women had a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) within the normal range (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25), 26.3% were found to be underweight with a BMI <18.5 (20.8% in urban vs. 35.6% in rural areas), while only 5.1% were overweight with a BMI ≥30. In view of acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs) the women’s overall dietary energy originated excessively from fat (39%), was low in carbohydrates (49.6%), and reached the lower limits for protein (12.1%). Compared to rural areas, women living in urban areas had significantly higher reference nutrient intake (RNI) fulfillment levels for energy (106.1% vs. 93.4%), fat (146.6% vs. 119.7%), protein (86.9% vs. 71.6%), vitamin A (94.3% vs. 65.2%), Zn (70.9% vs. 61.8%), Fe (56.3% vs. 48%), Ca (55.1% vs. 41%) and riboflavin (74.7% vs. 60%). The likelihood of pregnant women following traditional food recommendations, such as avoiding rabbit meat, beef and lamb, was higher in rural (80%) than in urban (65.1%) areas. In conclusion, culturally sensitive nutrition education sessions are necessary for both

  14. Factors Related to Intention to Undergo Female Sterilization Among Married Women in Rural Kathmandu, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Nanthamongkolchai, Sutham; Pitikultang, Supachai

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sterilization is most widely used fertility regulation method in Nepal. However, prevalence of uptake of female sterilization in central hilly region is less than the national average. The objective of the study was to explore the number and factors related to intention of married women to undergo female sterilization in rural Kathmandu which lies within central hilly region. Materials and Methods: This is a community based cross-sectional survey research conducted in rural area of Kathmandu valley. Two hundred and forty currently married women with at least one child of any age were interviewed using a structured pre-tested questionnaire. Results: More than four-fifth of the respondents intended to undergo sterilization. Almost two-third of them wanted to limit their family size by taking this option. More than one-third of women not-intending to undergo sterilization feared weakness after sterilization. Age of the respondents, duration of marriage, and number of living children were significantly associated with intention to undergo sterilization. 15-24 years age group were six times more likely to have the intention for sterilization (OR 6.79, CI 2.28-20.19) compared to age 35 years and above group. Mothers with less than 3 living children are about three times more likely to have the intention to undergo sterilization (OR 2.87, CI 1.3-6.33) compared to women with more than 2 living children. Women married for 6 to 10 years were three times more likely to have the intention (OR 3.0, CI 1.09-8.27). However, gender of the living children was not associated with intention to undergo sterilization. Conclusion: There were significant numbers of women intending to undergo sterilization. Age of the mother, number of living children and the duration of marriage were found to be significantly influencing the intention to undergo sterilization. However, as intention refers to future plan, the respondents’ intention may change over time. The national family

  15. Home Advantage in Men's and Women's Spanish First and Second Division Water Polo Leagues.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Jaime; Gómez, Miguel-Ángel; Pollard, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the home advantage in both men's and women's First and Second Division water polo leagues, to compare the results obtained according to sex of participants and the level of competition, and to test for possible differences in home advantage when considering the interaction between these two factors. The sample comprised four seasons from 2007-2008 to 2010-2011 for a total of 1942 games analyzed. The results showed the existence of home advantage in both men's and women's First and Second Divisions. After controlling for the competitive balance of each league in each season, there was a significant difference between men's and women's leagues, with higher home advantage for men's leagues (58.60% compared with 53.70% for women's leagues). There was also a significant difference between the levels of competition, with greater home advantage for the Second Division (57.95% compared with 54.35% for First Division). No significant differences in home advantage were found when considering the interaction between sex of participants and the level of competition. The results in relation to sex of participants and the level of competition are consistent with previous studies in other sports such as football or handball.

  16. Early postpartum maternal morbidity among rural women of Rajasthan, India: a community-based study.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, Kirti

    2012-06-01

    The first postpartum week is a high-risk period for mothers and newborns. Very few community-based studies have been conducted on patterns of maternal morbidity in resource-poor countries in that first week. An intervention on postpartum care for women within the first week after delivery was initiated in a rural area of Rajasthan, India. The intervention included a rigorous system of receiving reports of all deliveries in a defined population and providing home-level postpartum care to all women, irrespective of the place of delivery. Trained nurse-midwives used a structured checklist for detecting and managing maternal and neonatal conditions during postpartum-care visits. A total of 4,975 women, representing 87.1% of all expected deliveries in a population of 58,000, were examined in their first postpartum week during January 2007-December 2010. Haemoglobin was tested for 77.1% of women (n=3,836) who had a postnatal visit. The most common morbidity was postpartum anaemia--7.4% of women suffered from severe anaemia and 46% from moderate anaemia. Other common morbidities were fever (4%), breast conditions (4.9%), and perineal conditions (4.5%). Life-threatening postpartum morbidities were detected in 7.6% of women--9.7% among those who had deliveries at home and 6.6% among those who had institutional deliveries. None had a fistula. Severe anaemia had a strong correlation with perinatal death [p<0.000, adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-2.99], delivery at home [p<0.000, AOR=1.64 (95% CI 1.27-2.15)], socioeconomically-underprivileged scheduled caste or tribe [p<0.000, AOR=2.47 (95% CI 1.83-3.33)], and parity of three or more [p<0.000, AOR=1.52 (95% CI 1.18-1.97)]. The correlation with antenatal care was not significant. Perineal conditions were more frequent among women who had institutional deliveries while breast conditions were more common among those who had a perinatal death. This study adds valuable knowledge on postpartum

  17. Sexual relationship power and malnutrition among HIV-positive women in rural Uganda.

    PubMed

    Siedner, Mark J; Tsai, Alexander C; Dworkin, Shari; Mukiibi, Nozmo F B; Emenyonu, Nneka I; Hunt, Peter W; Haberer, Jessica E; Martin, Jeffrey N; Bangsberg, David R; Weiser, Sheri D

    2012-08-01

    Inequality within partner relationships is associated with HIV acquisition and gender violence, but little is known about more pervasive effects on women's health. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of associations between sexual relationship power and nutritional status among women in Uganda. Participants completed questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. We assessed sexual relationship power using the Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS). We performed logistic regression to test for associations between sexual relationship power and poor nutritional status including body mass index, body fat percentage, and mid-upper arm circumference. Women with higher sexual relationship power scores had decreased odds of low body mass index (OR 0.29, p = 0.01), low body fat percentage (OR 0.54, p = 0.04), and low mid-upper arm circumference (OR 0.22, p = 0.01). These relationships persisted in multivariable models adjusted for potential confounders. Targeted interventions to improve intimate partner relationship equality should be explored to improve health status among women living with HIV in rural Africa.

  18. Perceived discrimination and smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women in China.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sanghyuk S; Wan, Xia; Wang, Qian; Raymond, H Fisher; Liu, Huilin; Ding, Ding; Yang, Gonghuan; Novotny, Thomas E

    2013-02-01

    Smoking may be a coping mechanism for psychosocial stress caused by discrimination. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of rural-to-urban migrant women working as restaurant/hotel workers (RHWs) and those working as sex workers (FSWs) in 10 Chinese cities to investigate whether perceived discrimination is associated with smoking. We interviewed RHWs at medical examination clinics and FSWs at entertainment venues. Modified Poisson regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios. Of the 1,696 RHWs and 532 FSWs enrolled, 155 (9.1%) and 63 (11.8%) reported perceived discrimination, respectively. Perceived discrimination was independently associated with ever tried smoking (prevalence ratio [PR], 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-2.23) and current smoking (PR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.32-4.79) among RHWs and ever tried smoking (PR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.16-1.61) and current smoking (PR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.28-2.06) among FSWs. Perceived discrimination is associated with higher prevalence of smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women in China.

  19. A Community Health Advisor Program to reduce cardiovascular risk among rural African-American women.

    PubMed

    Cornell, C E; Littleton, M A; Greene, P G; Pulley, L; Brownstein, J N; Sanderson, B K; Stalker, V G; Matson-Koffman, D; Struempler, B; Raczynski, J M

    2009-08-01

    The Uniontown, Alabama Community Health Project trained and facilitated Community Health Advisors (CHAs) in conducting a theory-based intervention designed to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among rural African-American women. The multiphased project included formative evaluation and community organization, CHA recruitment and training, community intervention and maintenance. Formative data collected to develop the training, intervention and evaluation methods and materials indicated the need for programs to increase knowledge, skills and resources for changing behaviors that increase the risk of CVD. CHAs worked in partnership with staff to develop, implement, evaluate and maintain strategies to reduce risk for CVD in women and to influence city officials, business owners and community coalitions to facilitate project activities. Process data documented sustained increases in social capital and community capacity to address health-related issues, as well as improvements in the community's physical infrastructure. This project is unique in that it documents that a comprehensive CHA-based intervention for CVD can facilitate wide-reaching changes in capacity to address health issues in a rural community that include improvements in community infrastructure and are sustained beyond the scope of the originally funded intervention.

  20. A Community Health Advisor Program to reduce cardiovascular risk among rural African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Cornell, C. E.; Littleton, M. A.; Greene, P. G.; Pulley, L.; Brownstein, J. N.; Sanderson, B. K.; Stalker, V. G.; Matson-Koffman, D.; Struempler, B.; Raczynski, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The Uniontown, Alabama Community Health Project trained and facilitated Community Health Advisors (CHAs) in conducting a theory-based intervention designed to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among rural African-American women. The multiphased project included formative evaluation and community organization, CHA recruitment and training, community intervention and maintenance. Formative data collected to develop the training, intervention and evaluation methods and materials indicated the need for programs to increase knowledge, skills and resources for changing behaviors that increase the risk of CVD. CHAs worked in partnership with staff to develop, implement, evaluate and maintain strategies to reduce risk for CVD in women and to influence city officials, business owners and community coalitions to facilitate project activities. Process data documented sustained increases in social capital and community capacity to address health-related issues, as well as improvements in the community’s physical infrastructure. This project is unique in that it documents that a comprehensive CHA-based intervention for CVD can facilitate wide-reaching changes in capacity to address health issues in a rural community that include improvements in community infrastructure and are sustained beyond the scope of the originally funded intervention. PMID:19047648

  1. Poverty and gender perspective in productive projects for rural women in Mexico: impact evaluation of a pilot project.

    PubMed

    Urquieta-Salomón, José E; Tepichin-Valle, Ana María; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of a pilot study that promoted productive and capacity-building activities among deprived rural women of Mexico. The evaluation design is observational; 1,278 women are interviewed, and the comparison group is estimated by propensity score matching. The results show a positive impact on the carrying out of agricultural activities, in the autonomy of women in decision making, as does their perception of their role in the household. However, the project does not decrease the number of hours set aside for household chores or improve the women's technical and administrative skills.

  2. Perceived exercise barriers and their associations with regular exercise across three age groups of rural women in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing-Juin; Lin, Huey-Shyan; Lee, Bih-O; Chen, Ching-Huey

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to explore the differences in perceived exercise barriers across three age groups of Taiwanese rural women (30-50, 51-70, and >70 years old) and to examine the associations between perceived exercise barriers and regular exercise behavior. A total of 227 women completed the Self-Reported Exercise Behavior and the Perceived Exercise Barrier Scale. Women older than 70 reported higher physical and psychological barriers and lower administrative barriers than did the younger group. Women who did not exercise regularly tended to have a higher perception of exercise barriers.

  3. Perceived Impact of a Land and Property Rights Program on Violence Against Women in Rural Kenya: A Qualitative Investigation.

    PubMed

    Hilliard, Starr; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Grabe, Shelly; Lu, Tiffany; Hatcher, Abigail M; Kwena, Zachary; Mwaura-Muiru, Esther; Dworkin, Shari L

    2016-03-06

    The current study focuses on a community-led land and property rights program in two rural provinces in western Kenya. The program was designed to respond to women's property rights violations to reduce violence against women and HIV risks at the community level. Through in-depth interviews with 30 women, we examine the perceived impact that this community-level property rights program had on violence against women at the individual and community level. We also examine perceptions as to how reductions in violence were achieved. Finally, we consider how our findings may aid researchers in the design of structural violence-prevention strategies.

  4. Women and Literacy in Rural Mali: A Study of the Socio-economic Impact of Participating in Literacy Programs in Four Villages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puchner, L.

    2003-01-01

    Women's literacy programs in rural Mali were studied through observation and surveys of 42 participants and 29 nonparticipants. Few participants acquired literacy skills, those that did rarely used them, and literacy acquisition had little socioeconomic impact on women's lives. General constraints on literacy usage in rural villages are discussed,…

  5. Effects of Woodsmoke Exposure on Airway Inflammation in Rural Guatemalan Women

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Chandreyi; Diaz, Anaite; Pope, Daniel; Smith, Kirk R.; Smith-Sivertsen, Tone; Bruce, Nigel; Solomon, Colin; McCracken, John; Balmes, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Background More than two-fifths of the world’s population uses solid fuels, mostly biomass, for cooking. The resulting biomass smoke exposure is a major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among women in developing countries. Objective To assess whether lower woodsmoke exposure from use of a stove with a chimney, compared to open fires, is associated with lower markers of airway inflammation in young women. Design We carried out a cross-sectional analysis on a sub-cohort of participants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial in rural Guatemala, RESPIRE. Participants We recruited 45 indigenous women at the end of the 18-month trial; 19 women who had been using the chimney stove for 18–24 months and 26 women still using open fires. Measurements We obtained spirometry and induced sputum for cell counts, gene expression of IL-8, TNF-α, MMP-9 and 12, and protein concentrations of IL-8, myeloperoxidase and fibronectin. Exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) and 48-hr personal CO tubes were measured to assess smoke exposure. Results MMP-9 gene expression was significantly lower in women using chimney stoves. Higher exhaled CO concentrations were significantly associated with higher gene expression of IL-8, TNF-α, and MMP-9. Higher 48-hr personal CO concentrations were associated with higher gene expression of IL-8, TNF- α, MMP-9 and MMP-12; reaching statistical significance for MMP-9 and MMP-12. Conclusions Compared to using an open wood fire for cooking, use of a chimney stove was associated with lower gene expression of MMP-9, a potential mediator of airway remodeling. Among all participants, indoor biomass smoke exposure was associated with higher gene expression of multiple mediators of airway inflammation and remodeling; these mechanisms may explain some of the observed association between prolonged biomass smoke exposure and COPD. PMID:24625755

  6. Women's perceptions of antenatal, delivery, and postpartum services in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mahiti, Gladys Reuben; Mkoka, Dickson Ally; Kiwara, Angwara Dennis; Mbekenga, Columba Kokusiima; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Goicolea, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal health care provision remains a major challenge in developing countries. There is agreement that the provision of quality clinical services is essential if high rates of maternal death are to be reduced. However, despite efforts to improve access to these services, a high number of women in Tanzania do not access them. The aim of this study is to explore women's views about the maternal health services (pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum period) that they received at health facilities in order to identify gaps in service provision that may lead to low-quality maternal care and increased risks associated with maternal morbidity and mortality in rural Tanzania. Design We gathered qualitative data from 15 focus group discussions with women attending a health facility after child birth and transcribed it verbatim. Qualitative content analysis was used for analysis. Results ‘Three categories emerged that reflected women's perceptions of maternal health care services: “mothers perceive that maternal health services are beneficial,” “barriers to accessing maternal health services” such as availability and use of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and the long distances between some villages, and “ambivalence regarding the quality of maternal health services” reflecting that women had both positive and negative perceptions in relation to quality of health care services offered’. Conclusions Mothers perceived that maternal health care services are beneficial during pregnancy and delivery, but their awareness of postpartum complications and the role of medical services during that stage were poor. The study revealed an ambivalence regarding the perceived quality of health care services offered, partly due to shortages of material resources. Barriers to accessing maternal health care services, such as the cost of transport and the use of TBAs, were also shown. These findings call for improvement on the services provided. Improvements

  7. Community-Based Health Education has Positive Influence on the Attitude to Cervical Cancer Screening among Women in Rural Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shakya, Sunila; Karmacharya, Biraj Man; Afset, Jan Egil; Bofin, Anna; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav; Syversen, Unni; Tingulstad, Solveig

    2016-09-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge of cervical cancer among women in rural Nepal and explore the feasibility and impact of a community-based awareness program on cervical cancer. Community-based educational meetings on cervical cancer and its prevention were conducted among women's groups in rural Nepal. Through a questionnaire, the women's baseline knowledge of risk factors, symptoms, and perceived risk of cervical cancer were identified. The willingness to participate in cervical cancer screening was compared before and after the educational meeting. The meetings were followed by a cervical cancer screening program. Among the 122 participants at the educational meeting, only 6 % had heard of cervical cancer. Their baseline knowledge of risk factors and symptoms was poor. The proportion of women willing to participate in cervical screening increased from 15.6 to 100 % after attending the educational meeting. All the study subjects participated in the screening program. Additionally, the study participants recruited a further 222 of their peers for screening. Poor knowledge of cervical cancer among women in rural Nepal highlights the urgency of public awareness programs for cervical cancer at a national level. A community-based awareness program can change women's attitude to cervical screening, and women's groups can play a major role in promoting participation in cervical cancer screening programs.

  8. Rural women's knowledge of AIDS in the higher prevalence states of India: reproductive health and sociocultural correlates.

    PubMed

    Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Sanneh, Abdoulie; McWhirter, Jenny M; Stones, R William

    2005-09-01

    This study aimed to identify socio-cultural and reproductive health correlates of knowledge about AIDS among rural women using multivariate analysis of 1998-1999 National Family Health Survey (NFHS) data from two Indian states, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu, where the urban HIV prevalence is relatively high. Analysis using multiple logistic regression was undertaken, modelling women's knowledge of AIDS, of whether the disease can be avoided, and of effective means of protection. Although 47% of all rural women in Maharashtra were aware of AIDS only about 28% knew that one can avoid it, and only about 16% possessed correct knowledge about its transmission. In Tamil Nadu, where overall 82% of rural women had awareness of AIDS, about 71% knew that one can avoid the disease but only about 31% possessed correct knowledge about its transmission. In both states, women from socially and economically backward groups had lower odds both of having awareness of AIDS and knowledge of ways to avoid getting the disease. Associations with socio-cultural and reproductive variables and the impact of contact with family planning services differed in the two states. The spread of the epidemic to rural areas presents a need actively to disseminate AIDS related knowledge for health protection rather than waiting for knowledge to follow the appearance of the disease in communities. Approaches to health promotion that do not consider differing contextual factors are unlikely to succeed. In particular, innovative strategies to disseminate knowledge among disadvantaged population groups are needed.

  9. The Quality of Life During and After Menopause Among Rural Women

    PubMed Central

    G K, Poomalar; Arounassalame, Bupathy

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The overall health and well-being of middle-aged women has become a major public health concern around the world. More than 80% of the women experience physical or psychological symptoms in the years when they approach menopause, with various distresses and disturbances in their lives, leading to a decrease in the quality of life. The aim of our study was to assess the quality of life and the impact of hormonal changes in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women and to correlate the prevalence of the symptoms with their duration since menopause. Material and Methods: A cross- sectional study was done at Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College and Hospital, Puducherry, from January 2012 to April 2012. Five hundred women who were in the age group of 40-65 years, who came from rural areas to our hospital, were included in the study. The women who were receiving hormonal treatment and those who refused to participate in the study were excluded. The data such as the socio-demographic information and the menstruation status, which were based on the reported length of time since the last menstrual period and the experience of the symptoms, as were tested in the Menopause Specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) questionnaire, were collected from each patient. The women who were included in the study were divided into three groups as the menopause transition, early postmenopausal and the late postmenopausal groups. All the data which were gathered were analyzed by using SAS 9.2. The Chi square test and the relative risk and the confidence interval calculations were applied to compare the frequencies of the symptoms among the women with different menopausal statuses. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Mean menopausal age in the study group was 45 years. The most common symptom within study subjects were low back ache (79%) and muscle-joint pain (77.2%). The least frequent symptoms were increase in facial hair (15%) and

  10. Adult weight gain, fat distribution and mammographic density in Spanish pre- and post-menopausal women (DDM-Spain).

    PubMed

    Pollán, Marina; Lope, Virginia; Miranda-García, Josefa; García, Milagros; Casanova, Francisco; Sánchez-Contador, Carmen; Santamariña, Carmen; Moreo, Pilar; Vidal, Carmen; Peris, Mercé; Moreno, María Pilar; Vázquez-Carrete, José Antonio; Collado, Francisca; Pedraz-Pingarrón, Carmen; Ascunce, Nieves; Salas-Trejo, Dolores; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Ruiz-Perales, Francisco

    2012-07-01

    High mammographic density (MD) is a phenotype risk marker for breast cancer. Body mass index (BMI) is inversely associated with MD, with the breast being a fat storage site. We investigated the influence of abdominal fat distribution and adult weight gain on MD, taking age, BMI and other confounders into account. Because visceral adiposity and BMI are associated with breast cancer only after menopause, differences in pre- and post-menopausal women were also explored. We recruited 3,584 women aged 45-68 years within the Spanish breast cancer screening network. Demographic, reproductive, family and personal history data were collected by purpose-trained staff, who measured current weight, height, waist and hip circumferences under the same protocol and with the same tools. MD was assessed in the left craniocaudal view using Boyd's Semiquantitative Scale. Association between waist-to-hip ratio, adult weight gain (difference between current weight and self-reported weight at 18 years) and MD was quantified by ordinal logistic regression, with random center-specific intercepts. Models were adjusted for age, BMI, breast size, time since menopause, parity, family history of breast cancer and hormonal replacement therapy use. Natural splines were used to describe the shape of the relationship between these two variables and MD. Waist-to-hip ratio was inversely associated with MD, and the effect was more pronounced in pre-menopausal (OR = 0.53 per 0.1 units; 95 % CI = 0.42-0.66) than in post-menopausal women (OR = 0.73; 95 % CI = 0.65-0.82) (P of heterogeneity = 0.010). In contrast, adult weight gain displayed a positive association with MD, which was similar in both groups (OR = 1.17 per 6 kg; 95 % CI = 1.11-1.23). Women who had gained more than 24 kg displayed higher MD (OR = 2.05; 95 % CI = 1.53-2.73). MD was also evaluated using Wolfe's and Tabár's classifications, with similar results being obtained. Once BMI, fat distribution and other confounders were considered

  11. Dietary Diversity Is Not Associated with Haematological Status of Pregnant Women Resident in Rural Areas of Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Oladele, Jeremiah; Larbi, Asamoah; Hoeschle-Zeledon, Irmgard

    2017-01-01

    Background. Information regarding how dietary diversity is related to haematological status of the pregnant women in rural areas of Northern Ghana is limited. This study therefore evaluated maternal dietary intake and how it relates to the nutritional status of pregnant women belonging to different socioeconomic conditions in Northern Ghana. Methods. This study was cross-sectional in design involving 400 pregnant women. Midupper arm circumference (MUAC) and anaemia status were used to assess the nutritional status of pregnant women. Results. The mean dietary diversity score (DDS) of the study population from ten food groups was 4.2 ± 1.5 (95% CI: 4.08 to 4.37). Of the 400 women, 46.1% (95% CI: 40.0 to 52.2) met the new minimum dietary diversity for women (MDD-W). The mean haemoglobin concentration among the pregnant women studied was 10.1 g/dl ± 1.40 (95% CI: 9.8 to 10.3). The independent predictors of haemoglobin concentration were maternal educational attainment, gestational age, frequency of antenatal care (ANC) attendance, number of under-five children in the household, size of MUAC, and maternal height. Conclusions. Irrespective of the socioeconomic status, women minimum dietary diversity (MDD-W) was not associated with anaemia among pregnant women resident in the rural areas of Northern Ghana. PMID:28168052

  12. "Yes" to abortion but "no" to sexual rights: the paradoxical reality of married women in rural Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, T K Sundari; Balasubramanian, P

    2004-05-01

    This study in rural Tamil Nadu, India, explored the reasons why many married women in India undergo induced abortions rather than use reversible contraception to space or limit births in terms of women's sexual and reproductive rights within marriage, and in the context of gender relations between couples more generally. It is based on in-depth interviews with two generations of ever-married women, some of whom had had abortions and others who had not, from 98 rural hamlets. The respondents were 66 women and 44 of their husbands. Non-consensual sex, sexual violence and women's inability to refuse their husband's sexual demands appeared to underlie the need for abortion in both younger and older women. Many men seemed to believe that sex within marriage was their right, and that women had no say in the matter. The findings raise questions about the presumed association between legal abortion and the enjoyment of reproductive and sexual rights. A large number of women who had abortions in this study were denied their sexual rights but were permitted, even forced, to terminate their pregnancies for reasons unrelated to their right to choose abortion. The study brings home the need for activism to promote women's sexual rights and a campaign against sexual violence in marriage.

  13. Iron status of women is associated with the iron concentration of potable groundwater in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Rebecca D; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Ali, Hasmot; Jahan, Nusrat; Labrique, Alain B; Schulze, Kerry; Christian, Parul; West, Keith P

    2011-05-01

    Women of reproductive age are at a high risk of iron deficiency, often as a result of diets low in bioavailable iron. In some settings, the iron content of domestic groundwater sources is high, yet its contribution to iron intake and status has not been examined. In a rural Bangladeshi population of women deficient in dietary iron, we evaluated the association between groundwater iron intake and iron status. In 2008, participants (n = 209 with complete data) were visited to collect data on 7-d food frequency, 7-d morbidity history, 24-h drinking water intake, and rice preparation, and to measure the groundwater iron concentration. Blood was collected to assess iron and infection status. Plasma ferritin (μg/L) and body iron (mg/kg) concentrations were [median (IQR)] 67 (46, 99) and 10.4 ± 2.6, respectively, and the prevalence of iron deficiency (ferritin < 12 μg/L) was 0%. Daily iron intake from water [42 mg (18, 71)] was positively correlated with plasma ferritin (r = 0.36) and total body iron (r = 0.35) (P < 0.001 for both). In adjusted linear regression analyses, plasma ferritin increased by 6.1% (95% CI: 3.8, 8.4%) and body iron by 0.3 mg/kg (0.2, 0.4) for every 10-mg increase in iron intake from water (P < 0.001). In this rural area of northern Bangladesh, women of reproductive age had no iron deficiency likely attributable to iron consumed from drinking groundwater, which contributed substantially to dietary intake. These findings suggest that iron intake from water should be included in dietary assessments in such settings.

  14. [Plasma clearance of ethanol and its excretion in the milk of rural women who consume pulque].

    PubMed

    Argote-Espinosa, R M; Flores-Huerta, S; Hernández-Montes, H; Villalpando-Hernández, S

    1992-01-01

    Women from rural areas of the central plateau of Mexico drink during pregnancy and lactation a mild alcoholic beverage called pulque as a galactogogue. Ethanol present in milk could have a harmful effect on growth and development of breast-fed children. The purpose of this study was to quantify the ethanol consumed as pulque by eleven lactating rural women as well as its clearance rate in blood and milk. Mothers were separated in two groups depending upon the ethanol ingested in a single dose of pulque 0.21 +/- 0.08 g/kg of body weight (group A) and 0.44 +/- 0.11 g/kg (group B). Maximal concentration of ethanol was reached in milk at 60 minutes and almost equaled that in plasma. Both groups showed a similar clearance pattern regardless of the volume of pulque ingested. Clearance rates between groups were different: ethanol concentration in milk at 60 min were 8.4 +/- 3.0 mg/dL for group A and 26.2 +/- 7.0 mg/dL for group B. Two hours later ethanol levels were 3.6 +/- 3.4 mg/dL and 23.3 +/- 9.4 mg/dL respectively. Clearance rates were slower in mothers showing the highest concentration of ethanol in milk. The present data demonstrate that there is no differential elimination of ethanol in maternal blood and milk following ingestion of a moderate amount of pulque during lactation. The amount of ethanol received by infants through milk is relatively low and therefore it is unlikely to have harmful effects on them. Pulque consumption adds about 350 kcal/day to the customary dietary intake of these lactating women.

  15. Influence of CYP2D6 Polymorphisms on Serum Levels of Tamoxifen Metabolites in Spanish Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zafra-Ceres, Mercedes; de Haro, Tomas; Farez-Vidal, Esther; Blancas, Isabel; Bandres, Fernando; de Dueñas, Eduardo Martinez; Ochoa-Aranda, Enrique; Gomez-Capilla, Jose A.; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Background Estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer tumors depend on estrogen signaling for their growth and replication and can be treated by anti-estrogen therapy with tamoxifen. Polymorphisms of the CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genes are associated with an impaired response to tamoxifen. The study objective was to investigate the impact of genetic polymorphisms in CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 on the pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen and its metabolites in Spanish women with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer who were candidates for tamoxifen therapy. Methods: We studied 90 women with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, using the AmpliChip CYP450 test to determine CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 gene variants. Plasma levels of tamoxifen and its metabolites were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results The CYP2D6 phenotype was extensive metabolizer in 80%, intermediate metabolizer in 12.2%, ultra-rapid metabolizer in 2.2%, and poor metabolizer in 5.6% of patients, and the allele frequency was 35.0% for allele *1, 21.0% for *2, and 18.9% for *4. All poor metabolizers in this series were *4/*4, and their endoxifen and 4-hydroxy tamoxifen levels were 25% lower than those of extensive metabolizers. CYP2C19*2 allele, which has been related to breast cancer outcomes, was detected in 15.6% of the studied alleles. Conclusion CYP2D6*4/*4 genotype was inversely associated with 4-hydroxy tamoxifen and endoxifen levels. According to these results, CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotyping appears advisable before the prescription of tamoxifen therapy. PMID:23781139

  16. Medicine and nursing in the Spanish Civil War: women who served in the health services of the International Brigades (1936-1939).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Aguado, María del Carmen; Brugues, Eulalia; de Leiva-Perez, Alejandra; de Leiva, Alberto

    2010-12-01

    The outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936 had repercussions throughout the world. Even though Western democracies had signed a Non-Intervention Agreement, thousands of foreign volunteers fought on the Republican side. This paper briefly summarizes the issues that directly led to the war, and focuses on the intervention of the International Brigades, the origins of the International Sanitary Service (ISS) and the role played by women at the ISS. These women implemented and collaborated in important and innovative procedures in military medicine, that we analyze below.

  17. Case–control study of risk factors for infectious mastitis in Spanish breastfeeding women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify potential predisposing factors associated with human infectious mastitis. Methods We conducted a case–control study among breastfeeding women, with 368 cases (women with mastitis) and 148 controls. Data were collected by a questionnaire designed to obtain retrospective information about several factors related to medical history of mother and infant, different aspects of pregnancy, delivery and postpartum, and breastfeeding practices that could be involved in mastitis. Bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression model were used to examine the relationship between mastitis and these factors. Results The variables significantly- and independently-associated with mastitis were cracked nipples (P < 0.0001), oral antibiotics during breastfeeding (P < 0.0001), breast pumps (P < 0.0001), topical antifungal medication during breastfeeding (P = 0.0009), mastitis in previous lactations (P = 0.0014), breast milk coming in later than 24 h postpartum (P = 0.0016), history of mastitis in the family (P = 0.0028), mother-infant separation longer than 24 h (P = 0.0027), cream on nipples (P = 0.0228) and throat infection (P = 0.0224). Conclusions Valuable factors related to an increased risk of infectious mastitis have been identified. This knowledge will allow practitioners to provide appropriate management advice about modifiable risk factors, such as the use of pumps or inappropriate medication. They also could identify before delivery those women at an increased risk of developing mastitis, such as those having a familial history of mastitis, and thus develop strategies to prevent this condition. PMID:24902596

  18. Misreporting of dietary intake affects estimated nutrient intakes in low-income Spanish-speaking women.

    PubMed

    Banna, Jinan C; Fialkowski, Marie K; Townsend, Marilyn S

    2015-07-01

    Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on nutrient intake estimates in a sample of Mexican-American women in northern California in 2008. Nutrient intakes are compared with Dietary Reference Intake recommendations, and intakes of Mexican-American women in a national survey are presented as a reference. Eighty-two women provided three 24-hour recalls. Reported energy intakes were classified as biologically plausible or implausible using the reported energy intakes to total energy expenditure cutoff of <0.76 or >1.24, with low-active physical activity levels used to estimate total energy expenditure. Differences in the means of nutrient intakes between implausible (n=36) and plausible (n=46) reporters of energy intake were examined by bivariate linear regression. Estimated energy, protein, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and vitamin E intakes were significantly higher in plausible reporters than implausible. There was a significant difference between the proportions of plausible vs implausible reporters meeting recommendations for several nutrients, with a larger proportion of plausible reporters meeting recommendations. Further research related to misreporting in Hispanic populations is warranted to explore the causes and effects of misreporting in studies measuring dietary intake, as well as actions to be taken to prevent or account for this issue.

  19. Less – Known Medicinal Uses of Plants Among the Rural Women of Shahjahanpur District, U.P.

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, S.C.

    2000-01-01

    During the present study a valuable phytotherepeutic information on the various ailments of women was collected from the district, Traditionally the rural women prefer plant medicines than the modern medicines for their diseases including abortion, menstrual trouble, conception disorders, sterility, delivery problems etc, prevailing among them, Eighteen medicinal plants have been reported after making interview of medicine of the villages. The plants are arranged in alphabetical order according to the botanical names followed by family, vernacular names and herbarium number. PMID:22556995

  20. Peak expiratory flow rates among women exposed to different cooking fuels in rural India.

    PubMed

    Neelam, Sukhsohale D; Uday, Narlawar W; Sushama, Thakre S; Suresh, Ughade N

    2013-09-01

    Plant or animal based material burned for cooking or heating (biofuels) can cause indoor air pollution. We studied the effect of exposure to biofuel and other types of fuel smoke on peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR) among rural Indian women. We conducted a community based cross-sectional study of 760 non-smoking women who cooked using one of four types of fuel: biofuel, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or a combination of two or more fuels. A PEFR <80% of predicted was considered abnormal. An abnormal PEFR was seen in 43.3% of women using biofuels, 20.5% of those using kerosene, 23.4% of those using LPG and 21.4% of those using mixed fuel. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed among those using mixed fuel, age [OR: - 2.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32 - 3.28, p = 0.00], height (OR: -1.06, 95% CI: 1.00 - 1.12, p = 0.02) and exposure index (estimated hours spent cooking daily multiplied by the years cooked) (OR: -2.74, 95% CI: 1.68 - 4.47, p = 0.00) were significant predictors of abnormal PEFR. Among women using biofuels and LPG, only exposure index was found to be a significant predictor of abnormal PEFR (p<0.05). No significant association was found between abnormal PEFR and exposure index among women who used only kerosene for fuel (p>0.05). Using mixed fuel was found to be more likely to cause an abnormal PEFR.

  1. Reproductive health in Bali, Indonesia: findings from a needs assessment survey among rural women.

    PubMed

    Patten, J; Susanti, I; Sehati, Y; Kartini, I

    1998-01-01

    The reproductive health needs of rural women in Bali, Indonesia, were investigated through a survey conducted in 1995 in three of Bali's eight districts and focus group discussions with 23 nurse-midwives who serve the target population. Mean age at marriage was 21.0 years and mean age at first intercourse was 20.9 years. 85.1% of the 295 survey respondents were using a modern contraceptive method, primarily the IUD and Depo-Provera. Only 10.6% of respondents had ever used a condom. Of the 163 women who had ever experienced an adverse reproductive health symptom (e.g., vaginal discharge), 69 (42.3%) did not seek help from a medical provider. Among those who sought medical attention, 55 (58.5%) went to the community health center, 47 (50%) saw a private practice nurse, and 25 (26.6%) consulted a private practice doctor. 73.1% of respondents were satisfied with women's health services available in their area and 94.5% of ever-users of contraception were satisfied with family planning services. However, women indicated a need for more information on AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). 52.2% of women had never received any information about AIDS and 69% had not been counseled about STDs. The nurse-midwives reported they had never received special training in STDs and HIV/AIDS and did not feel equipped to respond to patients presenting with symptoms or questions. The strong health-seeking behavior and basic satisfaction with health care services documented in this study provide a good basis for strengthening reproductive health care programs in Bali.

  2. Learning effect of a conditional cash transfer programme on poor rural women's selection of delivery care in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Walker, Dilys; Serván, Edson; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio

    2011-11-01

    BACKGROUND The Mexican programme Oportunidades/Progresa conditionally transfers money to beneficiary families. Over the past 10 years, poor rural women have been obliged to attend antenatal care (ANC) visits and reproductive health talks. We propose that the length of time in the programme influences women's preferences, thus increasing their use not only of services directly linked to the cash transfers, but also of other services, such as clinic-based delivery, whose utilization is not obligatory. OBJECTIVE To analyse the long-term effect of Oportunidades on women's use of antenatal and delivery care. METHODOLOGY 5051 women aged between 15 and 49 years old with at least one child aged less than 24 months living in rural localities were analysed. Multilevel probit and logit models were used to analyse ANC visits and physician/nurse attended delivery, respectively. Models were adjusted with individual and socio-economic variables and the locality's exposure time to Oportunidades. Findings On average women living in localities with longer exposure to Oportunidades report 2.1% more ANC visits than women living in localities with less exposure. Young women aged 15-19 and 20-24 years and living in localities with longer exposure to Oportunidades (since 1998) have 88% and 41% greater likelihood of choosing a physician/nurse vs. traditional midwife for childbirth, respectively. Women of indigenous origin are 68.9% less likely to choose a physician/nurse for delivery care than non-indigenous women. CONCLUSIONS An increase in the average number of ANC visits has been achieved among Oportunidades beneficiaries. An indirect effect is the increased selection of a physician/nurse for delivery care among young women living in localities with greater exposure time to Oportunidades. Disadvantaged women in Mexico (indigenous women) continue to have less access to skilled delivery care. Developing countries must develop strategies to increase access and use of skilled obstetric

  3. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of English and Spanish Versions of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale Among Hispanic Women in a Primary Care Setting

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Chelsey M.; Barroso, Nicole; Rey, Yasmin; Pettit, Jeremy W.; Bagner, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although a number of studies have examined the factor structure of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in predominately White or African American samples, no published research has reported on the factor structure among Hispanic women who reside in the United States. Objective The current study examined the factor structure of the EPDS among Hispanic mothers in the United States. Method Among 220 Hispanic women, drawn from a pediatric primary care setting, with an infant aged 0 to 10 months, 6 structural models guided by the empirical literature were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis. Results Results supported a 2-factor model of depression and anxiety as the best fitting model. Multigroup models supported the factorial invariance across women who completed the EDPS in English and Spanish. Conclusion These findings provide initial support for the 2-factor structure of the EPDS among Hispanic women in the United States. PMID:24807217

  4. Effect of a computer-based intervention on social support for chronically ill rural women.

    PubMed

    Hill, Wade; Schillo, Leah; Weinert, Clarann

    2004-01-01

    Social support is a key factor in illness management. Despite the positive effects of support groups, there are barriers to participation by rural dwellers in face-to-face groups. To address these barriers, a computer-based support group intervention, the Women to Women Project, was designed to provide peer support and health information through a computer-based intervention. Data from three groups (intervention, information, comparison) of woman who participated in the program were analyzed. The pattern of improvement in social support was in the anticipated direction, but not significant in the main analysis. Exploratory analysis was conducted on a vulnerable subsample of women reporting low social support and high psychosocial distress. Results suggest that improvement in social support, based on the intervention, was greater for the vulnerable subsample as compared with the sample as a whole. An effective and efficient means of providing social support and facilitating the mobilization of this support is through self-help groups; this study demonstrates that virtual support groups can increase perceived social support.

  5. Association of socio-economic, gender and health factors with common mental disorders in women: a population-based study of 5703 married rural women in India

    PubMed Central

    Shidhaye, Rahul; Patel, Vikram

    2010-01-01

    Background There are few population-based studies from low- and middle-income countries that have described the association of socio-economic, gender and health factors with common mental disorders (CMDs) in rural women. Methods Population-based study of currently married rural women in the age group of 15–39 years. The baseline data are from the National Family Health Survey-II conducted in 1998. A follow-up study was conducted 4 years later in 2002–03. The outcome of CMD was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Due to the hierarchical nature and complex survey design, data were analysed using mixed-effect logistic regression with random intercept model. Results A total of 5703 women (representing 83.5% of eligible women) completed follow-up. The outcome of CMD was observed in 609 women (10.7%, 95% confidence interval 9.8–11.6). The following factors were independently associated with the outcome of CMD in the final multivariable model: higher age, low education, low standard of living, recent intimate partner violence (IPV), husband’s unsatisfactory reaction to dowry, husband’s alcohol use and women’s own tobacco use. Conclusions Socio-economic and gender disadvantage factors are independently associated with CMDs in this population of women. Strategies that address structural determinants, for example to promote women’s education and reduce their exposure to IPV, may reduce the burden of CMDs in women. PMID:21037247

  6. Iron Status of Pregnant Women in Rural and Urban Communities of Cross River State, South-South Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okafor, I M; Okpokam, D C; Antai, A B; Usanga, E A

    2017-03-06

    Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health problem in Nigeria. Iron deficiency is one of the major causes of anaemia in pregnancy.  Inadequate iron intake during pregnancy can be dangerous to both baby and mother. Iron status of pregnant women was assessed in two rural and one urban communities in Cross River State Nigeria. Packed cell volume, haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin concentration, red cell count, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor and soluble transferrin receptor/ferritin ratio were measured in plasma/serum of 170 pregnant women within the age range of 15-45 years. Seventy participants were from antenatal clinic of University of Calabar Teaching Hospital Calabar (urban community), 50 from St Joseph Hospital Ikot Ene (rural community) in Akpabuyo Local Government Area and the remaining 50 from University of Calabar Teaching Hospital   extension clinic in Okoyong (rural community), Odukpani Local Government Area of Cross River state. The prevalence of   anaemia, iron deficiency, iron depletion and iron deficiency anaemia were found to be significantly higher among pregnant women from the two rural communities when compared to the urban community. it was also observed that  the prevalence of  anaemia, iron deficiency, iron depletion and iron deficiency anaemia   were significantly higher (p<0.05) among pregnant women from Akpabuyo   38(76.00%),   20(40.00%),   23(46.0%)   ,   16(32.00%)   respectively followed   by  Okoyong 24(48.0%),  20(40.0%),  16(32.0%),  6(12.0)     and  then  those  from     Calabar  14(20%), 12(17.90%) , 14(20.0%).  The mean haemoglobin and haematocrit were significantly reduced in pregnant women from the two rural communities. Serum iron, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation showed no significant difference while total iron binding capacity and soluble transferrin receptor significantly increased among

  7. Knowledge of Obstetric Fistula Prevention amongst Young Women in Urban and Rural Burkina Faso: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Banke-Thomas, Aduragbemi O.; Kouraogo, Salam F.; Siribie, Aboubacar; Taddese, Henock B.; Mueller, Judith E.

    2013-01-01

    Obstetric fistula is a sequela of complicated labour, which, if untreated, leaves women handicapped and socially excluded. In Burkina Faso, incidence of obstetric fistula is 6/10,000 cases amongst gynaecological patients, with more patients affected in rural areas. This study aims to evaluate knowledge on obstetric fistula among young women in a health district of Burkina Faso, comparing rural and urban communities. This cross-sectional study employed multi-stage sampling to include 121 women aged 18-20 years residing in urban and rural communities of Boromo health district. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to compare differences between the groups and to identify predictors of observed knowledge levels. Rural women were more likely to be married (p<0.000) and had higher propensity to teenage pregnancy (p=0.006). The survey showed overall poor obstetric fistula awareness (36%). Rural residents were less likely to have adequate preventive knowledge than urban residents [OR=0.35 (95%-CI, 0.16–0.79)]. This effect was only slightly explained by lack of education [OR=0.41 (95%-CI, 0.18–0.93)] and only slightly underestimated due to previous pregnancy [OR=0.27 (95%-CI, 0.09–0.79)]. Media were the most popular source of awareness amongst urban young women in contrast to their rural counterparts (68% vs. 23%). Most rural young women became ‘aware’ through word-of-mouth (68% vs. 14%). All participants agreed that the hospital was safer for emergency obstetric care, but only 11.0% believed they could face pregnancy complications that would require emergency treatment. There is urgent need to increase emphasis on neglected health messages such as the risks of obstetric fistula. In this respect, obstetric fistula prevention programs need to be adapted to local contexts, whether urban or rural, and multi-sectoral efforts need to be exerted to maximise use of other sectoral resources and platforms, including existing routine

  8. Knowledge of obstetric fistula prevention amongst young women in urban and rural Burkina Faso: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Banke-Thomas, Aduragbemi O; Kouraogo, Salam F; Siribie, Aboubacar; Taddese, Henock B; Mueller, Judith E

    2013-01-01

    Obstetric fistula is a sequela of complicated labour, which, if untreated, leaves women handicapped and socially excluded. In Burkina Faso, incidence of obstetric fistula is 6/10,000 cases amongst gynaecological patients, with more patients affected in rural areas. This study aims to evaluate knowledge on obstetric fistula among young women in a health district of Burkina Faso, comparing rural and urban communities. This cross-sectional study employed multi-stage sampling to include 121 women aged 18-20 years residing in urban and rural communities of Boromo health district. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to compare differences between the groups and to identify predictors of observed knowledge levels. Rural women were more likely to be married (p<0.000) and had higher propensity to teenage pregnancy (p=0.006). The survey showed overall poor obstetric fistula awareness (36%). Rural residents were less likely to have adequate preventive knowledge than urban residents [OR=0.35 (95%-CI, 0.16-0.79)]. This effect was only slightly explained by lack of education [OR=0.41 (95%-CI, 0.18-0.93)] and only slightly underestimated due to previous pregnancy [OR=0.27 (95%-CI, 0.09-0.79)]. Media were the most popular source of awareness amongst urban young women in contrast to their rural counterparts (68% vs. 23%). Most rural young women became 'aware' through word-of-mouth (68% vs. 14%). All participants agreed that the hospital was safer for emergency obstetric care, but only 11.0% believed they could face pregnancy complications that would require emergency treatment. There is urgent need to increase emphasis on neglected health messages such as the risks of obstetric fistula. In this respect, obstetric fistula prevention programs need to be adapted to local contexts, whether urban or rural, and multi-sectoral efforts need to be exerted to maximise use of other sectoral resources and platforms, including existing routine health

  9. Meeting the Challenge of Health Literacy in Rural Uganda: The Critical Role of Women and Local Modes of Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendrick, Maureen; Mutonyi, Harriet

    2007-01-01

    This article seeks to better understand the relation between local and traditional modes of communication and health literacy within the context of a rural West Nile community in Northern Uganda. Drawing on social semiotics (multimodality) and Bakhtin's notion of the carnival, the focus is on a group of women participating in a grassroots literacy…

  10. An Empirical Approach to the Study of Well-Being among Rural Men and Women in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arku, Frank Sena; Filson, Glen C.; Shute, James

    2008-01-01

    The paper indicates using community development and sustainable livelihood theories as lenses that well-being indicators vary among societies, especially in developing countries due to cultural differences. The study which was carried in three rural communities in Ho Municipality in the Ghana was to show the extent to which men's and women's sense…

  11. African American Women Coping with the Lived Experiences of Limited Mental Healthcare Access in Rural North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesane, Everick S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of lived experiences among African American women with limited mental healthcare access in rural North Carolina. The research examined how those lived experiences-due to limited transportation, low socioeconomic status, and limited healthcare access-further exacerbate emotional challenges among African American…

  12. Women's Experiences of Principalship in Two South African High Schools in Multiply Deprived Rural Areas: A Life History Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on data collected from a wider, longitudinal life history study conducted in South Africa between 2010 and 2014. The study focussed specifically on the personal and professional pathways to principalship of a sample of women leaders of co-educational high schools in South Africa, in both rural and peri-urban provinces: a role…

  13. Testing the Feasibility of a Culturally Tailored Breast Cancer Screening Intervention with Native Hawaiian Women in Rural Churches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ka'opua, Lana Sue I.; Park, Soon H.; Ward, Margaret E.; Braun, Kathryn L.

    2011-01-01

    The authors report on the feasibility of delivering a church-based breast cancer screening intervention tailored on the cultural strengths of rural-dwelling Hawaiians. Native Hawaiian women are burdened by disproportionately high mortality from breast cancer, which is attributed to low participation in routine mammography. Mammography is proven to…

  14. Factors Influencing Rural Women Cassava Processors' Intention to Participate in an Agricultural Extension Education Program. Summary of Research 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojomo, Christian O.; McCaslin, N. L.

    A study examined factors influencing female cassava processors' intentions regarding participation in an extension education program on cassava processing in rural Nigeria. Interviews were conducted with 224 women who were purposely selected from areas of zone 3 of Ondo State, Nigeria, which has large concentrations of cassava processors.…

  15. A Rural Perspective on Perinatal Depression: Prevalence, Correlates, and Implications for Help-Seeking among Low-Income Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Sarah Kye; Proctor, Enola K.

    2009-01-01

    Context/Purpose: To examine a low-income sample of women in the rural Midwest (N = 1,086) who were screened for perinatal depression through the outreach and education activities within a Healthy Start Initiative project. Specifically, we describe the frequency and severity of depressive symptoms, explore social and demographic correlates of…

  16. Calming the Spirit and Ensuring Super-Vivencia: Rural Mexican Women-Centred Teaching and Learning Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvan, Ruth Trinidad

    2010-01-01

    The changing social, cultural and economic conditions of transmigrant communities in rural Mexico require that women who stay behind, while their loved ones travel back and forth to the USA, create social relations that ensure their survival. From over five years of ethnographic research, this article explores the healing potential of…

  17. Preliminary effectiveness of breast cancer screening among 1.22 million Chinese females and different cancer patterns between urban and rural women

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yubei; Dai, Hongji; Song, Fengju; Li, Haixin; Yan, Ye; Yang, Zhenhua; Ye, Zhaoxiang; Zhang, Sheng; Liu, Hong; Cao, Yali; Xiong, Li; Luo, Yahong; Pan, Tie; Ma, Xiangjun; Wang, Jie; Song, Xiuling; Leng, Ling; Zhang, Yeping; Sun, Jie; Wang, Jialin; Ma, Hengmin; Kong, Lingzhi; Lei, Zhenglong; Wang, Yaogang; Peishan, Wang; Han, Jiali; Hao, Xishan; Chen, Kexin

    2016-01-01

    To determine the preliminary effectiveness of breast cancer screening among Chinese females, 1226714 women aged 35–69 years first received clinical breast examinations. Urban women with suspected cancer received mammography followed by breast ultrasound (BUS), while rural suspected women underwent BUS followed by mammography. After one-year follow-up, 223 and 431 breast cancers were detected among urban and rural women (respectively), with overall detection rates of 0.56/1000 and 0.52/1000. Higher detection rates were significantly associated with older age at screening for both urban and rural women; additionally, urban women were at significantly higher risk if they had no job, no insurance, or were obese; additional risk factors specific to rural women included Han nationality, higher income, being unmarried, and having a family history of cancer (all P values < 0.05). Among screening-detected breast cancers in urban vs. rural women, 46.2% and 38.8% (respectively) were early stage, 62.5% and 66.3% were ≤2 centimeters, 38.0% and 47.3% included lymph-node involvement, and 14.0% and 6.0% were identified as carcinoma in situ. All abovementioned cancer characteristics were significantly better than clinic-detected cancers (all P values < 0.001). In conclusion, several important differences were found between urban and rural women in screening effectiveness and patterns of cancer distribution. PMID:27995968

  18. Sexually transmitted pathogens in pregnant women in a rural South African community.

    PubMed Central

    O'Farrell, N; Hoosen, A A; Kharsany, A B; van den Ende, J

    1989-01-01

    One hundred and ninety three consecutive pregnant women attending peripheral antenatal clinics attached to Ngwelezana Hospital, Empangeni, Kwa-Zulu, were examined for evidence of sexually transmitted pathogens. The following incidences were found: Trichomonas vaginalis 49.2% (95), Candida spp 38.3% (74), Chlamydia trachomatis 11.4% (22), Gardnerella vaginalis 6.2% (12), Neisseria gonorrhoeae 5.7% (11), positive syphilis serology results 11.9% (23), hepatitis B surface antigen 4.1% (eight). No woman had antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Dyskaryotic smears were found in 20 (10.4%). Human papillomavirus (HPV) was detected cytologically in 11 (5.7%). The range of sexually transmitted pathogens found in this rural community was similar to that found in urban groups studied in South Africa. PMID:2807289

  19. Expanding Women's Rural Medical Work in Early Modern Brittany: The Daughters of the Holy Spirit

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Tim

    2012-01-01

    During the eighteenth century, orders of nursing sisters took on an expanded role in the rural areas of Brittany. This article explores the impact of religious change on the medical activities of these women. While limits were placed on the medical practice of unlicensed individuals, areas of new opportunity for nuns as charitable practitioners were created by devout nobles throughout the eighteenth century. These nuns provided comprehensive care for the sick poor on their patrons' estates, acting not only as nurses, but also in lieu of physicians, surgeons, and apothecaries. This article argues that the medical knowledge and expertise of these sisters from the nursing orders were highly valued by the elites of early modern Brittany. PMID:21724643

  20. Source apportionment of air pollution exposures of rural Chinese women cooking with biomass fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Baumgartner, Jill; Zhang, Yuanxun; Wang, Yuqin; Schauer, James J.

    2015-03-01

    Particulate matter (PM) from different sources may differentially affect human health. Few studies have assessed the main sources of personal exposure to PM and their contributions among residents of developing countries, where pollution sources differ from those in higher-income settings. 116 daily (24-h) personal PM2.5 exposure samples were collected among 81 women cooking with biomass fuels in two villages in rural Yunnan, China. The PM samples were analyzed for mass and chemical composition, including water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), black carbon (BC), and molecular markers. We found black carbon, n-alkanes and levoglucosan dominated the most abundant fractions of the total measured species and average personal PM2.5 exposure was higher in winter than that in summer in both villages. The composition data were then analyzed using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model to identify the main PM emission sources contributing to women's exposures and to assess their spatial (between villages) and seasonal variation in our study setting. The 6-factor solution provided reasonably stable profiles and was selected for further analysis. Our results show that rural Chinese women cooking with biomass fuels are exposed to a variety of sources. The identified factors include wood combustion (41.1%), a cooking source (35.6%), a mobile source (12.6%), plant waxes (6.7%), pyrolysis combustion (3.0%), and secondary organic aerosols (SOA; 1.0%). The mean source contributions of the mobile source, cooking source, and wood combustion factor to PM2.5 exposure were significantly different between women living in the two study villages, whereas the mean SOA, wood combustion, and plant waxes factors differed seasonally. There was no relationship between source contributions and questionnaire-based measurements of source-specific exposures, implying that the impacts of source contributions on exposure are affected by complex spatial, temporal and behavioral patterns

  1. Trends in HIV prevalence in pregnant women in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kharsany, Ayesha BM; Frohlich, Janet A; Yende-Zuma, Nonhlanhla; Mahlase, Gethwana; Samsunder, Natasha; Dellar, Rachael C; Zuma-Mkhonza, May; Karim, Salim S Abdool; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite substantial progress in the delivery of HIV prevention programs, some communities continue to experience high rates of HIV infection. We report on temporal trends in HIV prevalence in pregnant women in a community in rural KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) in South Africa. Methods Annual, anonymous cross-sectional HIV sero-prevalence surveys were conducted between 2001 and 2013 amongst first visit prenatal clinic attendees. The time periods 2001 to 2003 were defined as pre-antiretroviral therapy (ART), 2004 to 2008 as early ART and 2009 to 2013 as contemporary ART roll-out to correspond with the substantial scale-up of ART program. Results Overall, HIV prevalence rose from 35.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) 32.3–38.3] pre-ART (2001–2003) to 39.0% (CI: 36.8–41.1) in the early ART (2004–2008) to 39.3% (CI: 37.2–41.4) in the contemporary ART (2009–2013) roll-out periods. In teenage women (<20 years), HIV prevalence declined from 22.5% (CI: 17.5–27.5) to 20.7% (CI: 17.5–23.8) and to 17.2% (CI: 14.3–20.2) over the similar ART roll-out periods (p=0.046). Prevalence increased significantly in women 30 years and older (p<0.001) over the same time period largely due to survival following ART scale up. Teenage girls with male partners 20–24 and ≥25 years had a 1.7-fold (CI: 1.3–2.4; p=0.001) and 3-fold (CI: 2.1–4.3; p<0.001) higher HIV prevalence respectively. Conclusion Notwithstanding the encouraging decline in teenagers, the ongoing high HIV prevalence in pregnant women in this rural community, despite prevention and treatment programs, is deeply concerning. Targeted interventions for teenagers, especially for those in age-disparate relationships, are needed to impact this HIV epidemic trajectory. PMID:26186507

  2. Excessive adiposity at low BMI levels among women in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Saijuddin; Jones-Smith, Jessica; Schulze, Kerry; Ali, Hasmot; Christian, Parul; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Mehra, Sucheta; Labrique, Alain; Klemm, Rolf; Wu, Lee; Rashid, Mahbubur; West, Keith P

    2016-01-01

    Asian populations have a higher percentage body fat (%BF) and are at higher risk for CVD and related complications at a given BMI compared with those of European descent. We explored whether %BF was disproportionately elevated in rural Bangladeshi women with low BMI. Height, weight, mid-upper arm circumference, triceps and subscapular skinfolds and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) were measured in 1555 women at 3 months postpartum. %BF was assessed by skinfolds and by BIA. BMI was calculated in adults and BMI Z-scores were calculated for females <20 years old. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves found the BMI and BMI Z-score cut-offs that optimally classified women as having moderately excessive adipose tissue (defined as >30 % body fat). Linear regressions estimated the association between BMI and BMI Z-score (among adolescents) and %BF. Mean BMI was 19·2 (sd 2·2) kg/m(2), and mean %BF was calculated as 23·7 (sd 4·8) % by skinfolds and 23·3 (sd 4·9) % by BIA. ROC analyses indicated that a BMI value of approximately 21 kg/m(2) optimised sensitivity (83·6 %) and specificity (84·2 %) for classifying subjects with >30 % body fat according to BIA among adults. This BMI level is substantially lower than the WHO recommended standard cut-off point of BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2). The equivalent cut-off among adolescents was a BMI Z-score of -0·36, with a sensitivity of 81·3 % and specificity of 80·9 %. These findings suggest that Bangladeshi women exhibit excess adipose tissue at substantially lower BMI compared with non-South Asian populations. This is important for the identification and prevention of obesity-related metabolic diseases.

  3. Systemic inflammatory changes and increased oxidative stress in rural Indian women cooking with biomass fuels.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Anindita; Ray, Manas Ranjan; Banerjee, Anirban

    2012-06-15

    The study was undertaken to investigate whether regular cooking with biomass aggravates systemic inflammation and oxidative stress that might result in increase in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rural Indian women compared to cooking with a cleaner fuel like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). A total of 635 women (median age 36 years) who cooked with biomass and 452 age-matched control women who cooked with LPG were enrolled. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured by ELISA. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by leukocytes was measured by flow cytometry, and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase (SOD) was measured by spectrophotometry. Hypertension was diagnosed following the Seventh Report of the Joint Committee. Tachycardia was determined as pulse rate >100 beats per minute. Particulate matter of diameter less than 10 and 2.5 μm (PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅, respectively) in cooking areas was measured using real-time aerosol monitor. Compared with control, biomass users had more particulate pollution in indoor air, their serum contained significantly elevated levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and CRP, and ROS generation was increased by 37% while SOD was depleted by 41.5%, greater prevalence of hypertension and tachycardia compared to their LPG-using neighbors. PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ levels were positively associated with markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and hypertension. Inflammatory markers correlated with raised blood pressure. Cooking with biomass exacerbates systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, hypertension and tachycardia in poor women cooking with biomass fuel and hence, predisposes them to increased risk of CVD development compared to the controls. Systemic inflammation and oxidative stress may be the mechanistic factors involved in the development of CVD.

  4. Perceptions of Hypertension and Contributing Personal and Environmental Factors among Rural Southern African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Cassandra D.; Kim, Mi Ja; Dancy, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to describe the perceptions of hypertensive southern rural African American women regarding personal and environmental factors that affect their hypertension. Design: A purposive sample of 25 African-American women aged, 40-74, who lived in rural Alabama participated in seven Talking Circles for 60 minutes. Results Most felt that hypertension was a “common occurrence” and it was “typical in the African American community.” They associated hypertension with stroke and heart attacks and referred hypertension as the “silent killer.” Barriers: to following the treatment plan were low income, high medical expenses, and lack of insurance; to medication were cost, dislike for taking medication, running out of medication, side effects, forgetting, and being tired; and to exercise were being tired, busy schedule, and safety. There were physical activity facilities such as walking paths, fitness centers, or malls to walk around. Healthcare facilities were accessible, and it was easier to get an appointment and receive respect from health care providers if they had money or insurance. Blood pressure monitors were available in their homes, at grocery stores and Wal-Mart. No church health programs were available, but some churches had nurses on duty who offered blood pressure and cholesterol screening; but no medication was provided. Grocery stores were accessible, and they had a flea market with fresh fruits and vegetables. Social environment, that included what participants' family and/or friends thought about hypertension and their levels and types, of support varied. Conclusion The findings of this study indicate that personal and environmental factors affect an individual's hypertensive status. More serious efforts and resources need to be made available for preventive measures. PMID:20073141

  5. Farm Exposure and Atopy in Men and Women: The Saskatchewan Rural Health Study.

    PubMed

    Rennie, Donna C; Lawson, Joshua A; Karunanayake, Chandima P; Pahwa, Punam; Chen, Yue; Chu, Luan; Dosman, James A

    2015-01-01

    Associations between farming exposures and atopy can vary by timing of exposure and sex. We examined associations between adult atopy, sex, and farm living in a rural Canadian population. In 2010, we conducted a baseline survey of 11,982 households located in four agricultural regions of Saskatchewan, Canada. Of the 7225 adults aged 18-75, 1658 underwent clinical assessments including skin testing. Of these, 1599 participants underwent skin prick testing to four common allergens. We defined atopy as >3 mm reaction to any of four allergens compared with saline control. Farming exposures were farm living in the first year of life and current farm living. All analyses were stratified by sex. The prevalence of atopy was 17.8% and was higher in men than women (P < .001). The most common allergy was to grasses (8.8%) followed by house dust mite (HDM) mixed (8.1%). Atopy was lower in those subjects with an early farm exposure (P = .08) and who were female (P = .03). After adjusting for education, age, and smoking status, both current and early farm exposures were associated with decreased sensitization to cat atopy in women that was stronger with current exposure (P < .05). Men had significantly decreased atopic sensitization to Alternaria with an early farm exposure and increased atopic sensitization to HDM with a current farm exposure. In this rural population, the protective effect of an early farm exposure for any atopy was weak overall. The impact of farming exposures on atopy was allergen dependent and varied by sex.

  6. Relationship between Pesticide Metabolites, Cytokine Patterns, and Asthma-Related Outcomes in Rural Women Workers

    PubMed Central

    Mwanga, Hussein H.; Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel; Singh, Tanusha S.; Channa, Kalavati; Jeebhay, Mohamed F.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between exposure to organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid (PYR) pesticides with serum cytokine patterns and asthma-related outcomes among rural women workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted among rural women (n = 211), including those working and living on farms and nearby town dwellers. Pesticide exposure was assessed using urinary metabolite concentrations of OP and PYR pesticides. Health outcome assessment was ascertained through the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) questionnaire, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), and serum cytokines associated with asthma. The prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma was 11%, adult-onset asthma 9%, and current asthma 6%. In this population, the proportion of T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokines (interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13) detectable in subjects was between 18% and 40%, while the proportion of non-Th2 cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, and interferon gamma) was between 35% and 71%. Most Th2 and non-Th2 cytokines were positively associated with either OP or PYR metabolites. Non-Th2 cytokines showed much stronger associations with OP metabolites (Dimethyl phosphate OR = 4.23; 95% CI: 1.54–11.65) than Th2 cytokines (Dimethyl phosphate OR = 1.69; 95% CI: 0.83–3.46). This study suggests that exposure to most OP and some PYR pesticides may be associated with asthma-related cytokines, with non-Th2 cytokines demonstrating consistently stronger relationships. PMID:27690066

  7. The prevalence of domestic violence and its associated factors among married women in a rural area of Puducherry, South India

    PubMed Central

    George, Jismary; Nair, Divya; Premkumar, Nancy R.; Saravanan, Nirmala; Chinnakali, Palanivel; Roy, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Violence against women is an emerging problem worldwide and more so in India. Considering its adverse effects on women's health, assessing the burden of violence in the community will help in planning services for the victims. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of domestic violence and to identify factors associated with domestic violence among married women in reproductive age group in rural Puducherry. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in a rural area of Puducherry, South India. Married women in reproductive age group were interviewed using structured pretested questionnaire. Domestic violence was assessed using 12 questions that were used in National Family Health Survey-3. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression to identify factors associated with violence. Results: Of 310 study participants, 56.7% of them reported some form of domestic violence, 51.3% reported psychological violence, 40% reported physical violence, and 13.5% reported sexual violence. A statistically significant association was found between illiteracy of women and domestic violence (AOR: 4.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.1–15.7 P: 0.03). The other factors such as love marriage and nonregistration of marriage were significantly associated with violence. Conclusion: The prevalence of domestic violence was found to be high in this rural setting. Multisectoral response such as improving literacy, creating awareness regarding legal aid and screening the victims of violence at primary health centers, should be initiated to mitigate this public health issue. PMID:28217603

  8. A Community-Supported Clinic-Based Program for Prevention of Violence against Pregnant Women in Rural Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Turan, Janet M.; Hatcher, Abigail M.; Odero, Merab; Onono, Maricianah; Kodero, Jannes; Romito, Patrizia; Mangone, Emily; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Pregnant women are especially vulnerable to adverse outcomes related to HIV infection and gender-based violence (GBV). We aimed at developing a program for prevention and mitigation of the effects of GBV among pregnant women at an antenatal clinic in rural Kenya. Methods. Based on formative research with pregnant women, male partners, and service providers, we developed a GBV program including comprehensive clinic training, risk assessments in the clinic, referrals supported by community volunteers, and community mobilization. To evaluate the program, we analyzed data from risk assessment forms and conducted focus groups (n = 2 groups) and in-depth interviews (n = 25) with healthcare workers and community members. Results. A total of 134 pregnant women were assessed during a 5-month period: 49 (37%) reported violence and of those 53% accepted referrals to local support resources. Qualitative findings suggested that the program was acceptable and feasible, as it aided pregnant women in accessing GBV services and raised awareness of GBV. Community collaboration was crucial in this low-resource setting. Conclusion. Integrating GBV programs into rural antenatal clinics has potential to contribute to both primary and secondary GBV prevention. Following further evaluation, this model may be deemed applicable for rural communities in Kenya and elsewhere in East Africa. PMID:23738056

  9. Women's autonomy and experience of physical violence within marriage in rural India: evidence from a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Sabarwal, Shagun; Santhya, K G; Jejeebhoy, Shireen J

    2014-01-01

    Evidence regarding the relationship between married women's autonomy and risk of marital violence remains mixed. Moreover, studies examining the contribution of specific aspects of women's autonomy in influencing the risk of marital violence using measures of autonomy that incorporate its dynamic nature are rare. We investigated the relationship between women's autonomy and their experience of marital violence in rural India using prospective data. We used data on 4,904 rural women drawn from two linked studies: the NFHS-2, conducted during 1998-1999 and a follow-up study for a subgroup of women carried out during 2002-2003. Three dimensions of autonomy were used: financial autonomy, freedom of movement, and household decision-making. Marital violence was measured as experience of physical violence in the year prior to the follow-up survey. Findings indicate the protective effects of financial autonomy and freedom of movement in reducing the risk of marital violence in the overall model. Furthermore, region-wise analysis revealed that in the more gender equitable settings of south India, financial autonomy exerted a protective influence on risk of marital violence. However, in the more gender-stratified settings of north India, none of the dimensions of autonomy were found to have any protective effect on women's risk of marital violence. Results argue for an increased focus on strategies aimed at improving women's financial status through livelihood skill-building opportunities, development of a strong savings orientation, and asset-building options.

  10. The Oportunidades Conditional Cash Transfer Program: Effects on Pregnancy and Contraceptive Use among Young Rural Women in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Darney, Blair G.; Weaver, Marcia R.; Sosa-Rubi, Sandra G.; Walker, Dilys; Servan-Mori, Edson; Prager, Sarah; Gakidou, Emmanuela

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT Oportunidades is a large conditional cash transfer program in Mexico. It is important to examine whether the program has any direct effect on pregnancy experience and contraceptive use among young rural women, apart from those through education. METHODS Data from the 1992, 2006 and 2009 waves of a nationally representative, population-based survey were used to describe trends in pregnancy experience, contraceptive use and education among rural adolescent (15–19) and young adult (20–24) women in Mexico. To examine differences in pregnancy experience and current modern contraceptive use among young women, multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted among matched 2006 samples of women with and without exposure to Oportunidades, predicted probabilities were calculated and indirect effects were estimated. RESULTS Over the three survey waves, the proportion of adolescent and young adult women reporting ever being pregnant stayed flat (33–36%) and contraceptive use increased steadily (from 13% in 1992 to 19% in 2009). Educational attainment rose dramatically: The proportion of women with a secondary education increased from 28% in 1992 to 46% in 2009. In multivariable analyses, exposure to Oportunidades was not associated with pregnancy experience among adolescents. Educational attainment, marital status, pregnancy experience and access to health insurance—but not exposure to Oportunidades—were positively associated with current modern contraceptive use among adolescent and young adult women. CONCLUSION Through its effect on education, Oportunidades indirectly influences fertility among adolescents. It is important for Mexico to focus on strategies to increase contraceptive use among young rural nulliparous women, regardless of whether they are enrolled in Oportunidades. PMID:24393726

  11. The calcium and phosphorus intakes of rural Gambian women during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Prentice, A; Laskey, M A; Shaw, J; Hudson, G J; Day, K C; Jarjou, L M; Dibba, B; Paul, A A

    1993-05-01

    The Ca and P intakes of 148 pregnant and lactating women in a rural village in The Gambia, West Africa, have been estimated by direct weighing of food on a total of 4188 d. The Ca and P contents of local foods were determined by analysis of raw ingredients, snack foods and prepared dishes. Information about the contribution of mineral-rich seasonings was obtained. Efforts were made to discover unusual sources of Ca that might not be perceived as food by subject or observer. The main contributors to daily Ca intake were shown to be leaves, fish, cereals, groundnuts and local salt. Cow's milk accounted for only 5% of Ca intake. Unusual sources of Ca were discovered, namely baobab (Adansonia digitata) fruit and selected earths, but these were consumed infrequently and their contributions to Ca intakes were small. Cereals and groundnuts were the main sources of P. Ca and P intakes (mg/d) were shown to average 404 (SD 110) and 887 (SD 219) respectively. Seasonal changes in the availability of leaves, cereals and groundnuts resulted in variations in Ca and P intakes. The rainy season was associated with increased Ca intakes (by 16%) but decreased P consumption (by 15%). No difference was observed in Ca intake between pregnant and lactating women but P intake in lactation was 11% higher than that in pregnancy during the post-harvest season. The implications of these low Ca intakes require investigation.

  12. Earning their keep: the productivity of older women and men in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Lisa J H; Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Khanam, Masuma Akter; Wahlin, Ake; Streatfield, Peter K

    2010-03-01

    In Bangladesh, being active and able to participate in productive activities is often essential to ensure ongoing health and survival. This study aims to describe and explore the patterns of participation in productive activities by older people in Matlab, a rural area of Bangladesh. Data from a cross sectional survey of people over 60 years of age was utilised. Six hundred and twenty five men and women participated in home based interviews providing information about their participation in productive activities including work, domestic activities and community groups. Overall, 94.4% of subjects reported participation in at least one productive activity. Men were the main participants in paid work and community groups, with 62% reporting engagement in paid work and 44% contributing to community groups. Both men (95.4%) and women (91.9%) reported performing at least one domestic activity. Performance of higher numbers of domestic tasks was associated with being younger, female, not requiring any assistance with self care, not married, not living with any children and earning between 100-999 Bangladesh Taka in the past month. Participation in community groups was low with only 26% of the sample reporting any involvement. This study indicates a high level of productivity in the older population in Matlab which benefits the individual, the family and the wider community. The safety and suitability of typical productive activities needs further investigation, in order to inform strategies protecting the older population from the effects of over work and harmful activities.

  13. Multivitamin and Iron Supplementation to Prevent Periconceptional Anemia in Rural Tanzanian Women: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gunaratna, Nilupa S.; Masanja, Honorati; Mrema, Sigilbert; Levira, Francis; Spiegelman, Donna; Hertzmark, Ellen; Saronga, Naomi; Irema, Kahema; Shuma, Mary; Elisaria, Ester; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Women’s nutritional status during conception and early pregnancy can influence maternal and infant outcomes. This study examined the efficacy of pre-pregnancy supplementation with iron and multivitamins to reduce the prevalence of anemia during the periconceptional period among rural Tanzanian women and adolescent girls. Design A double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted in which participants were individually randomized to receive daily oral supplements of folic acid alone, folic acid and iron, or folic acid, iron, and vitamins A, B-complex, C, and E at approximately single recommended dietary allowance (RDA) doses for six months. Setting Rural Rufiji District, Tanzania. Subjects Non-pregnant women and adolescent girls aged 15–29 years (n = 802). Results The study arms were comparable in demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, food security, nutritional status, pregnancy history, and compliance with the regimen (p>0.05). In total, 561 participants (70%) completed the study and were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Hemoglobin levels were not different across treatments (median: 11.1 g/dL, Q1-Q3: 10.0–12.4 g/dL, p = 0.65). However, compared with the folic acid arm (28%), there was a significant reduction in the risk of hypochromic microcytic anemia in the folic acid and iron arm (17%, RR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.42–0.90, p = 0.01) and the folic acid, iron, and multivitamin arm (19%, RR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.45–0.96, p = 0.03). Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) to adjust for potential selection bias due to loss to follow-up did not materially change these results. The effect of the regimens was not modified by frequency of household meat consumption, baseline underweight status, parity, breastfeeding status, or level of compliance (in all cases, p for interaction>0.2). Conclusions Daily oral supplementation with iron and folic acid among women and adolescents prior to pregnancy reduces risk of anemia. The

  14. [Lactation behavior and delivery care in a group of women from a Mexican rural community].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gil Romo, S E; de la Paz Andrade Contreras, M; Rueda Arroniz, F; Ysunza-Ogazón, A

    1991-09-01

    This article presents a brief discussion on the role that "medical practice" plays, related to the type of infant lactation after delivery, and breast-feeding practice during the first months of life. Data on hospital routines and how these predispose artificial feeding practices are seen from a critical angle. The information presented in this paper corresponds to a project carried out in a rural community of the state of México, called Malinalco, where the lactation behavior of 65 women after birth of the child, was followed as of their last period of pregnancy. The main objectives of the study were to determine the relationship between the place of delivery (hospital or home delivery) and the type of lactation practiced by the mothers, as well as to determine the infants nutritional status during their first year of life. Results showed that the greater part of women from the sample were young others (less than 30 years old) with one or two children. As to the place where delivery took place, 72% of the sample were attended by midwives at their own homes, and at last 65% practiced breast feeding exclusively during the first three months. No significant correlation between these two indicators (place of delivery and type of lactation) was found, although a tendency to a more prolonged breast-feeding practice was observed in those women who delivered at home. Problems related to weaning practices were detected, since they start this only with bean broth after five months of life. Finally, information on nutritional status during the first 12 months of life, shows serious nutritional problem after the child's third month of life, since the normality percentage starts decreasing while there occurs a significant increase of 1st an 2nd degree malnutrition.

  15. Systemic inflammatory changes and increased oxidative stress in rural Indian women cooking with biomass fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Anindita; Ray, Manas Ranjan; Banerjee, Anirban

    2012-06-15

    The study was undertaken to investigate whether regular cooking with biomass aggravates systemic inflammation and oxidative stress that might result in increase in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rural Indian women compared to cooking with a cleaner fuel like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). A total of 635 women (median age 36 years) who cooked with biomass and 452 age-matched control women who cooked with LPG were enrolled. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured by ELISA. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by leukocytes was measured by flow cytometry, and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase (SOD) was measured by spectrophotometry. Hypertension was diagnosed following the Seventh Report of the Joint Committee. Tachycardia was determined as pulse rate > 100 beats per minute. Particulate matter of diameter less than 10 and 2.5 μm (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}, respectively) in cooking areas was measured using real-time aerosol monitor. Compared with control, biomass users had more particulate pollution in indoor air, their serum contained significantly elevated levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and CRP, and ROS generation was increased by 37% while SOD was depleted by 41.5%, greater prevalence of hypertension and tachycardia compared to their LPG-using neighbors. PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} levels were positively associated with markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and hypertension. Inflammatory markers correlated with raised blood pressure. Cooking with biomass exacerbates systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, hypertension and tachycardia in poor women cooking with biomass fuel and hence, predisposes them to increased risk of CVD development compared to the controls. Systemic inflammation and oxidative stress may be the mechanistic factors involved in the development of CVD. -- Highlights: ► Effect of chronic biomass smoke exposure on

  16. Social context and drivers of intimate partner violence in rural Kenya: Implications for the health of pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Hatcher, Abigail M.; Romito, Patrizia; Odero, Merab; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Onono, Maricianah; Turan, Janet M.

    2013-01-01

    More than half of rural Kenyan women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) in their lifetime. Beyond physical consequences, IPV indirectly worsens maternal health because pregnant women avoid antenatal care or HIV testing when they fear violent reprisal from partners. To develop an intervention to mitigate violence towards pregnant women, we conducted qualitative research in rural Kenya. Through eight focus group discussions, four with pregnant women (n=29), four with male partners (n=32), and in-depth interviews with service providers (n=20), we explored the social context of IPV using an ecological model. We found that women experienced physical and sexual IPV, but also economic violence like forced exile from the marital home or losing material support. Relationship triggers of IPV included perceived sexual infidelity or transgressing gender norms. Women described hiding antenatal HIV testing from partners, as testing was perceived as a sign of infidelity. Extended families were sometimes supportive, but often encouraged silence to protect the family image. The broader community viewed IPV as an intractable, common issue, which seemed to normalise its use. These results resonate with global IPV research showing that factors beyond the individual – gender roles in intimate partnerships, family dynamics, and community norms – shape high rates of violence. PMID:23387300

  17. Ethnic Identity Attachment and Motivation for Weight Loss and Exercise Among Rural, Overweight, African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Smalley, K. Bryant; Warren, Jacob C.; McClendon, Sydney; Peacock, Wilburn; Caro, Marisol

    2016-01-01

    Rural and minority women are disproportionately impacted by the obesity epidemic; however, little research has studied the intersection of these disparity groups. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of racial identity on motivation for weight loss and exercise among rural, African-American women with an obesity-linked chronic disease. A total of 154 African-American women were recruited from the patient population of a Federally Qualified Health Center in the rural South to complete a questionnaire battery including the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and separate assessments of motivation for weight loss and exercise. Multivariate analyses, controlling for age, education status, insurance status, and body mass index revealed that attachment to ethnic identity was predictive of motivation for exercise but not for weight loss. Our findings suggest that attachment to ethnic identity may be an important factor in motivation for change among African-American women, particularly with respect to exercise, with direct implications for the development of culturally and geographically tailored weight loss interventions. PMID:27891059

  18. Ethnic Identity Attachment and Motivation for Weight Loss and Exercise Among Rural, Overweight, African-American Women.

    PubMed

    Smalley, K Bryant; Warren, Jacob C; McClendon, Sydney; Peacock, Wilburn; Caro, Marisol

    2016-01-01

    Rural and minority women are disproportionately impacted by the obesity epidemic; however, little research has studied the intersection of these disparity groups. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of racial identity on motivation for weight loss and exercise among rural, African-American women with an obesity-linked chronic disease. A total of 154 African-American women were recruited from the patient population of a Federally Qualified Health Center in the rural South to complete a questionnaire battery including the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and separate assessments of motivation for weight loss and exercise. Multivariate analyses, controlling for age, education status, insurance status, and body mass index revealed that attachment to ethnic identity was predictive of motivation for exercise but not for weight loss. Our findings suggest that attachment to ethnic identity may be an important factor in motivation for change among African-American women, particularly with respect to exercise, with direct implications for the development of culturally and geographically tailored weight loss interventions.

  19. Labor management and mode of delivery among migrant and Spanish women: does the variability reflect differences in obstetric decisions according to ethnic origin?

    PubMed

    Bernis, Cristina; Varea, Carlos; Bogin, Barry; González-González, Antonio

    2013-07-01

    Based on previous findings showing both better birth outcomes in migrant than in Spanish women and different rates of medical intervention according to mother's origin, we hypothesize that mode of delivery decisions to solve similar problems differ according to ethnic origin. Ethnic differences for maternal characteristics, medical intervention, and mode of delivery were evaluated in 16,589 births from a Maternity Hospital in Madrid (Spain). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of mother's ethnic origin on the mode of delivery, adjusting for mother's age, parity, gestational age, birth weight, and epidural anesthesia. Compared with the Spanish mothers, the risk of having a Caesarean section is significantly higher in Latin Americans and significantly lower for the Chinese. Both low birth weight and macrosomic deliveries are at higher risk for Caesarean section. The interventionist system characterizing Spain is being extended to all ethnic groups and, at the same time, different medical interventions are applied to similar problems depending on women's ethnic origin. Obstetric interventions might be contributing to the increasing trend of low birth weight and late preterm/early full term deliveries (37-38 weeks) observed in Spain. Behavioral and cultural values of the women and of the health care providers may contribute to systematic differences in labor management and mode of delivery.

  20. A Study of Women's Access to Higher Education in Rural and Urban China: An Analysis across Different Types of Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuoxu, Xie; Weihong, Wang; Xiaowei, Chen

    2010-01-01

    Based on a survey of student enrollment at fifty colleges and universities of varying types in ten provinces and urban districts, including Shaanxi, Fujian, Hunan, and Shanghai, we analyzed the overall disparity in urban and rural women college students' access to education, as well as the urban-rural disparity across different types of…

  1. What Explains Divorced Women's Poorer Health? The Mediating Role of Health Insurance and Access to Health Care in a Rural Iowan Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavelle, Bridget; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Wickrama, K. A. S.

    2012-01-01

    Economic restructuring in rural areas in recent decades has been accompanied by rising marital instability. To examine the implications of the increase in divorce for the health of rural women, we examine how marital status predicts adequacy of health insurance coverage and health care access, and whether these factors help to account for the…

  2. Poverty, Food Insufficiency and HIV Infection and Sexual Behaviour among Young Rural Zimbabwean Women

    PubMed Central

    Pascoe, Sophie J. S.; Langhaug, Lisa F.; Mavhu, Webster; Hargreaves, James; Jaffar, Shabbar; Hayes, Richard; Cowan, Frances M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite a recent decline, Zimbabwe still has the fifth highest adult HIV prevalence in the world at 14.7%; 56% of the population are currently living in extreme poverty. Design Cross-sectional population-based survey of 18–22 year olds, conducted in 30 communities in south-eastern Zimbabwe in 2007. Objective To examine whether the risk of HIV infection among young rural Zimbabwean women is associated with socio-economic position and whether different socio-economic domains, including food sufficiency, might be associated with HIV risk in different ways. Methods Eligible participants completed a structured questionnaire and provided a finger-prick blood sample tested for antibodies to HIV and HSV-2. The relationship between poverty and HIV was explored for three socio-economic domains: ability to afford essential items; asset wealth; food sufficiency. Analyses were performed to examine whether these domains were associated with HIV infection or risk factors for infection among young women, and to explore which factors might mediate the relationship between poverty and HIV. Results 2593 eligible females participated in the survey and were included in the analyses. Overall HIV prevalence among these young females was 7.7% (95% CI: 6.7–8.7); HSV-2 prevalence was 11.2% (95% CI: 9.9–12.4). Lower socio-economic position was associated with lower educational attainment, earlier marriage, increased risk of depression and anxiety disorders and increased reporting of higher risk sexual behaviours such as earlier sexual debut, more and older sexual partners and transactional sex. Young women reporting insufficient food were at increased risk of HIV infection and HSV-2. Conclusions This study provides evidence from Zimbabwe that among young poor women, economic need and food insufficiency are associated with the adoption of unsafe behaviours. Targeted structural interventions that aim to tackle social and economic constraints including insufficient food should

  3. An exploration of rural and urban Kenyan women's knowledge and attitudes regarding breast cancer and breast cancer early detection measures.

    PubMed

    Muthoni, Ann; Miller, Ann Neville

    2010-09-01

    Many women in Kenya with breast cancer symptoms do not seek medical attention until their cancer is very advanced, leading to high mortality rates and a heavy cancer burden on the nation. In this study we employed eight focus groups with low- and middle-income rural and urban Kenyan women to explore their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors concerning breast cancer and its early detection measures. Topics for discussion were derived from the components of the Health Belief Model (HBM). Findings revealed a huge divide between urban middle-income women and all other groups with respect to knowledge of breast cancer and early detection measures. In addition, women viewed breast cancer as a highly severe disease. Perceived benefits of early detection measures centered around preparing themselves for what was assumed to be inevitable death.

  4. Sex, lies, and videos in rural China: a qualitative study of women's sexual debut and risky sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Davidson, Pamela

    2006-08-01

    This paper attempts to understand the sexual behaviors of young, unmarried women living in rural China with a special focus on sexual debut, sexual risk-taking behaviors, and reproductive health consequences. The analysis is based on forty in-depth interviews with young women who had undergone induced abortion as well as information from focus group discussions. Study participants identified pornographic videos and parents' tacit approval and even encouragement as factors instigating their sexual debut. Reasons for unprotected intercourse include spontaneous sexual activity, misconceptions about fertility and the effective use of contraceptives, and the lack of negotiation skills. The results indicate the importance of making reproductive health education more accessible to rural populations in China, a group usually considered to be more traditional and less likely to engage in premarital sex.

  5. Some Factors Influencing Effective Utilization of Drinking Water Facilities: Women, Income, and Health in Rural North Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendie, S. B.

    1996-01-01

    In the examination of the implementation of rural drinking water facilities, not enough attention has been paid to analyzing the socioeconomic and political relationships that affect the effective utilization of the facilities, particularly as these relate to women in rural society. This paper suggests that much of the difficulty in instituting the utilization of safe water supply sources has to do with the rather low economic status of women—the main water collectors. Poverty consigns women to long periods of work in activities or jobs that bring little reward. This makes it difficult to effectively digest the messages delivered by program staff and limits the extent of usage of the safe water facilities.

  6. What Rural Women Want the Public Health Community to Know About Access to Healthful Food: A Qualitative Study, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Kristine; Peacock, Nadine R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Living in a rural food desert has been linked to poor dietary habits. Understanding community perspectives about available resources and feasible solutions may inform strategies to improve food access in rural food deserts. The objective of our study was to identify resources and solutions to the food access problems of women in rural, southernmost Illinois. Methods Fourteen focus groups with women (n = 110 participants) in 4 age groups were conducted in a 7-county region as part of a community assessment focused on women’s health. We used content analysis with inductive and deductive approaches to explore food access barriers and facilitators. Results Similar to participants in previous studies, participants in our study reported insufficient local food sources, which they believe contributed to poor dietary habits, high food prices, and the need to travel for healthful food. Participants identified existing local activities and resources that help to increase access, such as home and community gardens, food pantries, and public transportation, as well as local solutions, such as improving nutrition education and public transportation options. Conclusion Multilevel and collaborative strategies and policies are needed to address food access barriers in rural communities. At the individual level, education may help residents navigate geographic and economic barriers. Community solutions include collaborative strategies to increase availability of healthful foods through traditional and nontraditional food sources. Policy change is needed to promote local agriculture and distribution of privately grown food. Understanding needs and strengths in rural communities will ensure responsive and effective strategies to improve the rural food environment. PMID:27126555

  7. The convergence of HIV/AIDS and customary tenure on women's access to land in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Tschirhart, Naomi; Kabanga, Lucky; Nichols, Sue

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the convergence of HIV/AIDS and the social processes through which women access customary land in rural Malawi. Data were collected from focus group discussions with women in patrilineal and matrilineal communities. Women's land tenure is primarily determined through kinship group membership, customary inheritance practices and location of residence. In patrilineal communities, land is inherited through the male lineage and women access land through relationships with male members who are the rightful heirs. Conversely in matrilineal matrilocal communities, women as daughters directly inherit the land. This research found that in patrilineal communities, HIV/AIDS, gendered inequalities embedded in customary inheritance practices and resource shortages combine to affect women's access to land. HIV/AIDS may cause the termination of a woman's relationship with the access individual due to stigma or the individual's death. Termination of such relationships increases tenure insecurity for women accessing land in a community where they do not have inheritance rights. In contrast to the patrilineal patrilocal experience, research on matrilineal matrilocal communities demonstrates that where women are the inheritors of the land and have robust land tenure rights, they are not at risk of losing their access to land due to HIV/AIDS.

  8. [Nutritional status and dietary diversity in nomadic and sedentary rural women on the southeast bank of Lake Chad].

    PubMed

    Bechir, M; Schelling, E; Moto, D D; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J

    2011-12-01

    Malnutrition and undernourishment are widespread in the Sahelian region of Africa. The purpose of this study was to assess nutritional status and associated risk factors among nomadic and sedentary rural women on the southeast bank of Lake Chad. It was a repeated cross-sectional study based on semi-structured interviews and anthropometric measurements. A total of 734 women including 398 nomads and 336 sedentaries were randomly selected. Only non-pregnant women were included for calculation of the body mass index. Results showed a higher prevalence of malnutrition among nomadic women than sedentary women during the dry season: 48% (95% CI: 42-53) versus 16.2% (95% CI: 12-20). Obesity was observed in 4% (95% CI: 2.4-7) of sedentary women versus 0% of nomadic women. These rates were similar during the wet season. Malnutrition rates differed significantly (p<0.01) between the two groups within each season but not between seasons within each group. The average household dietary diversity score (HDDS) determined on a scale of 12 was low in both nomadic and sedentary women: 4.5 (95% CI: 4.4-4.6) and 5.1 (95% CI: 5.0-5.3) respectively. Malnutrition was significantly correlated with HDDS, number of children and ethnic group.

  9. The Influence of Religion and Ethnicity on Family Planning Approval: A Case for Women in Rural Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Bakibinga, Pauline; Mutombo, Namuunda; Mukiira, Carol; Kamande, Eva; Ezeh, Alex; Muga, Richard

    2016-02-01

    The role of sociocultural factors such as religion and ethnicity in aiding or hampering family planning (FP) uptake in rural Western Kenya, a region with persistently high fertility rates, is not well established. We explored whether attitudes towards FP can be attributed to religious affiliation and/or ethnicity among women in the region. Findings show that religion and ethnicity have no impact; the most significant factors are level of education and knowledge about the benefits of FP for the mother. FP interventions ought to include strategies aimed at enhancing women's knowledge about the positive impacts of family planning.

  10. Knowledge and attitudes about Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening among women in rural Uganda (POSTPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    about Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening among women in rural Uganda NKONWA INNOCENT H 1,2,3* , MICHAEL J...cancer and HPV in Uganda has been limited even among health workers. Objectives: To establish the level of knowledge in regard to HPV vaccination among...parents/guardians of the vaccinated girls and to assess the attitudes to HPV vaccination among parents/guardians of the vaccinated girls. Methods: A

  11. Knowledge and Attitudes About Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women in Rural Uganda

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-15

    1- Knowledge and attitudes about Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening among women in rural Uganda Authors... vaccination among parents/guardians of the vaccinated girls and to assess the attitudes to HPV vaccination among parents/guardians of the vaccinated girls...Methods: A cross-sectional study where 384 mothers/ female guardians of vaccinated girls were recruited into the study. One hundred and sixty four

  12. Comparison of Socio-Demographic Characteristics of a Computer Based Breastfeeding Educational Intervention Among Rural Hispanic Women.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Ashish; Amadi, Chioma; Meza, Jane; Aguirre, Trina; Wilhelm, Sue

    2015-10-01

    Examine association between socio-demographic characteristics and breastfeeding knowledge, self-efficacy and breastfeeding attrition prediction among rural Hispanic women. 46 rural Hispanic women, aged 18-38 years were enrolled from Regional West Medical Center, Scottsbluff, Nebraska. Intervention (n = 23) and attention control groups (n = 23) received bi-lingual breastfeeding education using touch screen computer and printed educational material. Participants were enrolled during last 6 weeks of pregnancy. Follow up assessments were at days 3 and 7, weeks 2 and 6, and months 3 and 6 postpartum. More than half of participants were single and had 10-12 years of education. Less than half of them had ever breastfed their children. No differences in knowledge, self-efficacy and intent to breastfeed scores were seen between two groups. Significant positive association was seen between self-efficacy and intent to breastfeed. Self-efficacy is an important predictor of intent to breastfeed among rural Hispanic women.

  13. Reaching rural women: breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors and interest in Internet, cell phone, and text use.

    PubMed

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Wilson, Susan; Vilchis, Hugo

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors among rural women, the prevalence of Internet, cell, and text use, and interest to receive breast cancer prevention information cell and text messages. While growing literature for breast cancer information sources supports the use of the Internet, little is known about breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors among rural women and mobile technology. Using a cross-sectional study design, data were collected using a survey. McGuire's Input-Ouput Model was used as the framework. Self-reported data were obtained from a convenience sample of 157 women with a mean age of 60 (SD = 12.12) at a rural New Mexico imaging center. Common interpersonal information sources were doctors, nurses, and friends and common channel information sources were television, magazines, and Internet. Overall, 87% used cell phones, 20% had an interest to receive cell phone breast cancer prevention messages, 47% used text messaging, 36% had an interest to receive text breast cancer prevention messages, and 37% had an interest to receive mammogram reminder text messages. Bivariate analysis revealed significant differences between age, income, and race/ethnicity and use of cell phones or text messaging. There were no differences between age and receiving text messages or text mammogram reminders. Assessment of health information seeking behaviors is important for community health educators to target populations for program development. Future research may identify additional socio-cultural differences.

  14. Utility of a mHealth App for Self-Management and Education of Cardiac Diseases in Spanish Urban and Rural Areas.

    PubMed

    de Garibay, Valentín González; Fernández, Miguel A; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; López-Coronado, Miguel

    2016-08-01

    Analyze the utility of a mobile health app named HeartKeeper in several groups of population and obtain conclusions to be applied to other similar apps. A questionnaire has been designed to evaluate the usage and utility of the HeartKeeper app. The questionnaire information was collected by collaborating cardiologists from 32 patients before and after they used the app. Patients were randomly selected with established quotas within interest groups, so that men and women, patients older or younger than 60 years old and patients living in urban or rural areas were equally represented. Using the appropriate statistical techniques we see that the HeartKeeper app was useful for patients as they qualify with 70 points (out of 100) the overall opinion of the app, it helps them remember more easily taking their pills with a mean improvement of 20.94 points (p < 0.001) and they perceive a global improvement of their health (8.28 points, p < 0.001). We also observe that these improvements do not depend, in general, on the area (urban or rural) where the patient comes from or on their sex. Although older patients needed more help to use the app and used it slightly less frequently, the improvements on several measures considered, such as remembering taking pills, breathing problems or trouble developing activities, depend significantly (p < 0.05) on age with older patients reporting higher improvements than younger ones. The results obtained with the sample of patients considered in this research prove the utility of the HeartKeeper app. This utility is similar in urban and rural areas and for patients of both sexes and, to some extent, depends on the age of the patient with older patients reporting slightly lower frequency of use but higher health improvements than younger ones.

  15. C-C3-02: Developing a Culturally Appropriate Weight-Loss Intervention Program for Spanish-Speaking Mexican-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Nangel; Stevens, Victor; Calderon, Mariana Rosales; Cervantes, Mayan; Gullion, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Background In the USA, 77% of Hispanic women age 20 and older are classified as overweight or obese. There is evidence that Hispanics tend to be less successful than non-Hispanic whites in standard weight-loss interventions. This study assessed the feasibility of a culturally-tailored behavioral weight-loss intervention specifically designed for Spanish-speaking women of Mexican origin. Methods This 6-month intervention consisting of weekly sessions was based on approaches previously used successfully with English-speaking participants in the PREMIER and Weight Loss Maintenance trials. Cultural adaptations were implemented throughout the program based on information derived from focus groups, available literature, and a multidisciplinary team that included Mexican experts in behavioral interventions and nutritional anthropology. The intervention was conducted entirely in Spanish. Beyond language, specific cultural adaptations included: “Grupos de mujeres” (“women-only” groups) of a wide range of age—covering topics central to the immigration experience (e.g., the loss of social networks, differing body-shape ideals in Mexican and American cultures, and the pressure of maintaining Mexican traditions while adopting “American ways”). Focusing on staple foods in the Mexican diet: returning to a traditional diet, how to make healthy choices. Providing basic instruction on nutrition, and hands-on training on standard food measurement for portion control. Addressing Mexican folk remedies and traditional beliefs regarding food and diet (e.g. “hot” and “cold” foods, “empacho,” etc.). Developing food-intake journals for people of limited literacy. Results The recruitment strategies used resulted in a significantly larger-than-expected response. There were 47 participants in the study. Thirty-one participants completed the intervention and had main outcome data available. Participants did not complete the intervention because they became pregnant (2

  16. Responses to and Resources for Intimate Partner Violence: Qualitative Findings from Women, Men, and Service Providers in Rural Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Odero, Merab; Hatcher, Abigail M; Bryant, Chenoia; Onono, Maricianah; Romito, Patrizia; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Turan, Janet M.

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is reported by one in five women globally, but the prevalence is much higher in East Africa. Though some formal and informal resources do exist for women experiencing IPV, data suggest that disclosure, help seeking, and subsequent utilization of these resources are often hindered by socio-cultural, economic, and institutional factors. This paper explores actions taken by victims, available support services, and barriers to utilization of available IPV resources by pregnant women in rural Nyanza, Kenya. Qualitative data were collected through 9 focus group discussions and 20 in-depth interviews with pregnant women, partners or male relatives of pregnant women, and service providers. Data were managed in NVivo 8 using a descriptive analytical approach that harnessed thematic content coding and in-depth grounded analysis. We found that while formal resources for IPV were scarce, women utilized many informal resources (family, pastors, local leaders) as well as the health facility. In rare occasions, women escalated their response to formal services (police, judiciary). The community was sometimes responsive to women experiencing IPV, but often viewed it as a “normal” part of local culture. Further barriers to women accessing services included logistical challenges and providers who were under-trained or uncommitted to responding to IPV appropriately. Moreover, the very sanctions meant to address violence (such as fines or jail) were often inhibiting for women who depended on their partners for financial resources. The results suggest that future IPV interventions should address community views around IPV and build upon locally available resources – including the health clinic - to address violence among women of child-bearing age. PMID:24255067

  17. Child care hygiene practices of women migrating from rural to urban areas of bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Begum, Housne Ara; Moneesha, Shanta Shyamolee; Sayem, Amir Mohammad

    2013-07-01

    Children's hygiene is very important for better health but there is a paucity of studies in this area. This questionnaire study examined the child care hygiene practices of mothers of young children. A total of 354 women from slum areas of Dhaka city, Bangladesh, who migrated from rural to urban areas were selected for this study. The mean score on hygiene practice was 6.21 of 10 items (SD = 2.113). Low (score = 3) and high hygiene practice (score = 7-10) were practiced by 12.4% and 45.8% of participants, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that independent variables explained 39.9% of variance in hygiene practices. Eight variables have significant effect: participant's education (0.108; P < .05), time spent since marriage to first birth (0.030; P < .05), number of children (-0.105; P < .05), number of antenatal visits (0.319; P < .001), microcredit status (0.214; P < .001), breastfeeding (0.224; P < .001), husband's monthly income (0.146; P < .001), and household economic status (-0.0114; P < .05). The overall hygiene practice indicates the necessity of awareness building initiatives.

  18. Persistent organic pollutants in human milk in women from urban and rural areas in northern China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Su-Ju; Zhao, Jian-Hong; Koga, Minoru; Ma, Yu-Xia; Liu, Dian-Wu; Nakamura, Masafumi; Liu, Huai-Jun; Horiguchi, Hyogo; Clark, George C; Kayama, Fujio

    2005-11-01

    Human milk specimens from 55 women in Shijiazhuang urban and Tangshan rural areas in Hebei Province in northern China were collected and analyzed for persistent organic pollutants, such as p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), and dioxins. We administered a questionnaire to milk donors at collection time, asking about lifestyle factors that potentially influence organochlorine pesticide (OCP) levels in human milk. We found that the concentrations of p,p'-DDE and beta-HCH in human milk from the primiparous mothers in Shijiazhuang (3330 and 108.8 ng/g fat, respectively) were higher than in samples from mothers from Tangshan (1916 and 21.2 ng/g fat, respectively). In addition, we found the level of p,p'-DDE correlated positively with a dietary history of meat consumption or consumption of internal organs of pigs and sheep (r=0.38 and r=0.52, respectively), but not with intake frequencies of vegetables and fruits in primiparous mothers. The higher level for p,p'-DDE may be due to a greater intake of contaminated fatty foods in the industrialized areas. We also showed that the body burden of p,p'-DDE was higher in the urban group compared to the values in other regions in China after 1998. However, there was no difference in dioxin levels between the two regions. Comprehensive monitoring of persistent organic pollutants in human milk and food is needed in China.

  19. Paramedic-conducted Mental Health Counselling for Abused Women in Rural Bangladesh: An Evaluation from the Perspective of Participants

    PubMed Central

    Rimi, Nadia A; Jahan, Shamshad; Lindmark, and Gunilla

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on evaluation of an initiative to use paramedics as the first-level mental health counsellors of abused women in rural Bangladesh (2003–2004) from the perspective of the abused women who participated in one or more counselling sessions. Thirty in-depth interviews, followed by a survey (n=372), targeted to cover all participants, were conducted in 2006. Overall, the arrangement, management of ethical issues, and skills of paramedics were rated favourably. Most (89%) abused women (n=372) considered the session useful; one-fourth of these women considered it very useful; and only a few abused women considered the session useless. Usefulness of the session was expressed mostly in terms of relief attained after talking about the issue. Most (87%) women reported being encouraged to be self-confident. In a context characterized by low self-confidence of women, lack of opportunity to talk about violence, and absence of professional mental health counselling services, this initiative is sufficiently promising to warrant further testing. PMID:19761082

  20. Risk assessment and other screening options for gonorrhoea and chlamydial infections in women attending rural Tanzanian antenatal clinics.

    PubMed Central

    Mayaud, P.; Grosskurth, H.; Changalucha, J.; Todd, J.; West, B.; Gabone, R.; Senkoro, K.; Rusizoka, M.; Laga, M.; Hayes, R.

    1995-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries and may play a key role in enhancing the heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Treatment of STDs is one of the most cost-effective of all health interventions in developing countries; however, STDs among women in rural populations have received little attention. In this study, we report that prevalences of STDs among 964 women attending antenatal clinics in a rural area of the United Republic of Tanzania. A total of 378 (39%) of these women were infected with at least one STD pathogen, 97 (10%) had syphilis, and 81 (8%) has Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and/or Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection. The recommended syndromic approach to screening for NG/CT infection, based on reported genital symptoms, had a low sensitivity (43%) and failed to discriminate between infected and uninfected women. A risk score approach that we developed, based on sociodemographic and other factors associated with NG/CT infection, had a higher sensitivity and lower cost per true case treated than other approaches, although its positive predictive value was only about 20%. PMID:8846488

  1. Negative Life Events and Antenatal Depression among Pregnant Women in Rural China: The Role of Negative Automatic Thoughts

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Liu, Fangnan; Jiang, Xiaoning; Xiao, Yun; Dong, Xuehan; Kong, Xianglei; Yang, Xuemei; Tian, Donghua; Qu, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies have looked at the relationship between psychological and the mental health status of pregnant women in rural China. The current study aims to explore the potential mediating effect of negative automatic thoughts between negative life events and antenatal depression. Methods Data were collected in June 2012 and October 2012. 495 rural pregnant women were interviewed. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, stresses of pregnancy were measured by the pregnancy pressure scale, negative automatic thoughts were measured by the automatic thoughts questionnaire, and negative life events were measured by the life events scale for pregnant women. We used logistic regression and path analysis to test the mediating effect. Results The prevalence of antenatal depression was 13.7%. In the logistic regression, the only socio-demographic and health behavior factor significantly related to antenatal depression was sleep quality. Negative life events were not associated with depression in the fully adjusted model. Path analysis showed that the eventual direct and general effects of negative automatic thoughts were 0.39 and 0.51, which were larger than the effects of negative life events. Conclusions This study suggested that there was a potentially significant mediating effect of negative automatic thoughts. Pregnant women who had lower scores of negative automatic thoughts were more likely to suffer less from negative life events which might lead to antenatal depression. PMID:27977715

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of iron-deficiency anaemia among pregnant women in rural districts of Menoufia governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Rezk, M; Marawan, H; Dawood, R; Masood, A; Abo-Elnasr, M

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional community-based study with analytic component was conducted among Egyptian pregnant women in rural districts during January to December 2013. A total of 2470 pregnant women were enrolled for laboratory tests for iron- deficiency anaemia (IDA). The prevalence of IDA was 51.3% (1267 of 2470); IDA affects about one in every two pregnant women in rural districts in Egypt. Women who are older than 30 years (Odds ratio [OR], 0.73) had more than three children (OR, 0.73), with body mass index less than 20 (OR, 1.57), shorter birth spacing less than 2 years (OR, 0.68), lack of antenatal care visits (OR, 1.25), low intake of foods of animal origin (OR, 1.57), vegetables and fruits (OR, 1.29) and having intestinal parasites (OR, 0.74) were positively associated with anaemia [at confidence interval 95%]. In addition to nutritional deficiency, multiparity and increasing maternal age are the main causes of IDA.

  3. The Effect of Brief Interventions on the Drinking Behaviour of Pregnant Women in a High-Risk Rural South African Community: A Cluster Randomised Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marais, Sandra; Jordaan, Esme; Viljoen, Dennis; Olivier, Leana; de Waal, Johanna; Poole, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of a series of brief interventions (BIs) on anti-natal alcohol consumption of women from a disadvantaged and high-risk background attending state health clinics in a rural district, Western Cape Province, South Africa. A pragmatic cluster randomised trial design was followed. All pregnant women,…

  4. Rural Australian women's legal help seeking for intimate partner violence: women intimate partner violence victim survivors' perceptions of criminal justice support services.

    PubMed

    Ragusa, Angela T

    2013-03-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a widespread, ongoing, and complex global social problem, whose victims continue to be largely women. Women often prefer to rely on friends and family for IPV help, yet when informal support is unavailable they remain hesitant to contact formal services, particularly legal support for many reasons. This study applies a sociological lens by framing the IPV and legal help-seeking experiences of rural Australian women gained from 36 in-depth face-to-face interviews as socially contextualized interactions. Findings reveal police and court responses reflect broader social inequalities and rurality exacerbates concerns such as anonymity and lack of service. Cultural differences and power imbalances between survivors and formal support providers are manifested to inform future research seeking to improve survivors' willingness to engage and satisfaction with formal services. Finally, the important role police and the criminal justice system play in de-stigmatizing IPV and legitimating its unacceptability is argued a crucial, yet unrecognized, key to social change.

  5. Money isn't everything: rural physicians identify other factors that facilitate providing prenatal care for low-income women.

    PubMed Central

    Machala, M; Miner, M W

    1994-01-01

    The problem of physicians dropping the practice of obstetrics is becoming more serious each year in the United States. Those who remain in practice are increasingly reluctant to serve women who receive Medicaid assistance. Previous research has tended to focus on low reimbursement and liability as barriers that physicians perceive to providing prenatal care to low-income clients. In a 1992 survey in rural Idaho, however, physicians who have been serving these clients for at least 4 years rated other factors equally or more important in treating low-income women. These other factors, discussed in this paper, have to do with the administrative and psychosocial support coordinated by public health nurses for their internal clients, the physicians, as well as for their external clients, pregnant women. PMID:8190869

  6. Characteristics of African American Women and their Partners with Perceived Concurrent Partnerships in Four Rural Counties in the Southeastern US

    PubMed Central

    Ludema, Christina; Doherty, Irene A.; White, Becky L.; Simpson, Cathy; Villar-Loubet, Olga; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; O'Daniels, Christine M.; Adimora, Adaora A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Among African American women from four rural Southeastern counties, partner's concurrency was associated with intimate partner violence, and forced sex, but not economic benefit. Background To the individual with concurrent partners, it is thought that having concurrent partnerships confers no greater risk of acquiring HIV than having multiple consecutive partnerships. However, an individual whose partner has concurrent partnerships (partner's concurrency) is at increased risk of incident HIV infection. We sought to better understand relationships characterized by partner's concurrency among African American women. Methods A total of 1,013 African American women participated in a cross-sectional survey from four rural Southeastern counties. Results Older age at first sex was associated with lower prevalence of partner's concurrency (PR, 95% CI: 0.70, 0.57-0.87), but the participant's age was not associated with partner's concurrency. After adjusting for covariates, ever having experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) or forced sex were most strongly associated with partner's concurrency (PRs, 95% CIs: 1.61, 1.23-2.11; 1.65, 1.20-2.26, respectively). Women in mutually monogamous partnerships were the most likely to receive economic support from their partners; women whose partners had concurrent partnerships did not report more economic benefit than those whose partners were monogamous. Conclusions Associations between history of IPV and forced sex with partner's concurrency suggest that women with these experiences may particularly benefit from interventions to reduce partner's concurrency in addition to support for reducing IPV and other sexual risks. To inform these interventions, further research to understand partnerships characterized by partner's concurrency is warranted. PMID:26267876

  7. Relationship of household food insecurity to health-related quality of life in a large sample of rural and urban women.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Johnson, Cassandra M; Dean, Wesley R

    2011-07-22

    The authors examined the associations of household food insecurity and other characteristics with fair-to-poor general health, poor physical health, and frequent mental distress among 1,367 rural and urban women in Texas. The 2006 Brazos Valley Community Health Assessment provided data on demographic characteristics, economic risk factors, health-related quality of life, household food insecurity, and geographic residence. Multivariable logistic regression models were estimated for the three health-related quality of life measures: fair-to-poor health, poor physical health, and frequent mental distress, adjusting for confounding variables. Having less than 12 years of education, not being employed full-time, and being household food insecure were independently significantly associated with increased odds for all health-related quality of life outcomes. Rural residence and being nonwhite were associated with fair-to-poor general health, but not physical or mental health. Results from the separate urban and rural models indicated that household food insecurity was associated with fair-to-poor general health among rural women, not among urban women. Poverty and being nonwhite were also associated with increased odds of reporting fair-to-poor general health, but were significant only among urban women. These results emphasize the need for health promotion and policy efforts to consider household food access and availability as part of promoting healthful food choices and good physical and mental health among women, especially rural women.

  8. Relationship of Household Food Insecurity to Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) in a Large Sample of Rural and Urban Women

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Cassandra M.; Dean, Wesley R.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the associations of household food insecurity and other characteristics with fair-to-poor general health, poor physical health, and frequent mental distress among 1,367 rural and urban women in Texas. The 2006 Brazos Valley Community Health Assessment provided data on demographic characteristics, economic risk factors, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), household food insecurity, and geographic residence. Multivariable logistic regression models were estimated for the three HRQOL measures: fair-to-poor health, poor physical health, and frequent mental distress, adjusting for confounding variables. Having less than 12 years of education, not employed full-time, and being household food insecure were independently significantly associated with increased odds for all HRQOL outcomes. Rural residence and being nonwhite were associated with fair-to-poor general health, but not physical or mental health. Results from the separate urban and rural models indicated that household food insecurity was associated with fair-to-poor general health among rural women, not among urban women. Poverty and being non-white were also associated with increased odds of reporting fair-to-poor general health, but were significant only among urban women. These results emphasize the need for health promotion and policy efforts to consider household food access and availability as part of promoting healthful food choices and good physical and mental health among women, especially rural women. PMID:21797678

  9. Missed Opportunities to Improve the Health of Postpartum Women: High Rates of Untreated Hypertension in Rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Larson, Elysia; Rabkin, Miriam; Mbaruku, Godfrey M; Mbatia, Redempta; Kruk, Margaret E

    2017-03-01

    Objectives To assess the prevalence of high blood pressure amongst postpartum women in rural Tanzania, and to explore factors associated with hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control. Methods 1849 women in Tanzania's Pwani Region who delivered a child in the prior year participated in the study. We measured blood pressure, administered a structured questionnaire and assessed factors associated with the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension (HTN) using bivariable and multivariable logistic regressions. Findings 26.7% of women had high blood pressure and/or were taking antihypertensive medication. Women were on average 27.5 years old (range 15-54). Nearly all women (99.5%) reported contact with the health system during their pregnancy and delivery, with an average of 5.2 visits for their own care in the past year. Only 23.5% of those with HTN were aware of their diagnosis, 17.4% were taking medication, and only 10.5% had controlled blood pressure. In multivariable analysis, facility delivery, health insurance, and increased distance from a hospital were associated with increased likelihood of HTN awareness; facility delivery and hospital distance were associated with current hypertensive treatment; younger age and increased hospital distance were associated with control of HTN. Conclusion The prevalence of high blood pressure in this postpartum population was high, and despite frequent recent contacts with the health system, awareness, treatment and control of HTN were low. These findings highlight an important missed opportunity to improve women's health during antenatal and postnatal care.

  10. Sustained use of biogas fuel and blood pressure among women in rural Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Neupane, Maniraj; Basnyat, Buddha; Fischer, Rainald; Froeschl, Guenter; Wolbers, Marcel; Rehfuess, Eva A

    2015-01-01

    Background More than two fifths of the world's population cook with solid fuels and are exposed to household air pollution (HAP). As of now, no studies have assessed whether switching to alternative fuels like biogas could impact cardiovascular health among cooks previously exposed to solid fuel use. Methods We conducted a propensity score matched cross-sectional study to explore if the sustained use of biogas fuel for at least ten years impacts blood pressure among adult female cooks of rural Nepal. We recruited one primary cook ≥30 years of age from each biogas (219 cooks) and firewood (300 cooks) using household and measured their systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Household characteristics, kitchen ventilation and 24-h kitchen carbon monoxide were assessed. We matched cooks by age, body mass index and socio-economic status score using propensity scores and investigated the effect of biogas use through multivariate regression models in two age groups, 30–50 years and >50 years to account for any post-menopausal changes. Results We found substantially reduced 24-h kitchen carbon monoxide levels among biogas-using households. After matching and adjustment for smoking, kitchen characteristics, ventilation status and additional fuel use, the use of biogas was associated with 9.8 mmHg lower SBP [95% confidence interval (CI), −20.4 to 0.8] and 6.5 mmHg lower DBP (95% CI, −12.2 to −0.8) compared to firewood users among women >50 years of age. In this age group, biogas use was also associated with 68% reduced odds [Odds ratio 0.32 (95% CI, 0.14 to 0.71)] of developing hypertension. These effects, however, were not identified in younger women aged 30–50 years. Conclusions Sustained use of biogas for cooking may protect against cardiovascular disease by lowering the risk of high blood pressure, especially DBP, among older female cooks. These findings need to be confirmed in longitudinal or experimental studies. PMID:25460655

  11. Women in development: the road toward liberation.

    PubMed

    Rivera, P C

    1979-01-01

    Although women in the Philippines traditionally enjoyed considerable independence and equality, 3 centuries of Spanish colonialism greatly effaced their rights. The importance of the role women can play in development was highlighted at a recent consultation-workshop jointly sponsored by the FAO and the Population Center Foundation. Although 82% of Philippine women are literate, female education is accorded much less importance than that of males, and girls are often forced to discontinue their schooling early to help in housework. Rural Filipino women marry younger than their urban counterparts, and their fertility is correspondingly higher. Only 13% of rural women practice birth control. Participation of Filipino women in community affairs is mostly in social activities, although a few privileged women have gained elective office. The legal status of Filipino women is inferior to that of men in the areas of mixed marriage, choice of residence, parental authority, property rights, right to work, court suits, legal separation, and widow's rights. Labor force participation among women is only 1/2 that of men. As of 1975 only 0.6% of women workers occupied administrative or managerial positions. The National Commission of the Role of Filipino Women was created in 1975 as a coordinating body to promote the advancement of women in all levels of society to enable them to contribute more effectively to the development process. Specific programs carried out by government and private sector groups include extension education for women, basic skills training for income generating projects, community development, and population and family planning projects.

  12. The prevalence of sexually transmitted and other lower reproductive tract infections among rural women in Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yongjun, Tang; Samuelson, Julia; Qingsheng, Dong; Ali, Mohamed Mahmoud; Li, Xie; Yanjian, Meng; Xiaoqing, Cheng; Jun, Lan; Jian, Cheng; Bi, Luo

    2009-09-01

    To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and lower reproductive tract infections (RTI) and determine risk factors for STI among rural women in Sichuan Province, China, a cross-sectional, community-based cluster sample of 2,000 rural, married women were interviewed, examined and clinical specimens collected to assess for six STI and two non-sexually transmitted RTI. The overall prevalence of any STI was 10.9% (95% CI 9.5-12.3); of any STI or RTI was 30.8% (95% CI 28.7-32.8). Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in 6.4% of women, Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 1.7%, Treponema pallidum in 0.5%, human papilloma virus in 0.6%, herpes simplex virus type-2 in 2.0%, Candida albicans in 8.8%, Trichomonas vaginalis in 0.7% and bacterial vaginosis in 15.4%. The reported low risk sexual behavior was corroborated by the prevalence of STIbased on laboratory findings. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis alone and the combined prevalence rates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis were high enough (7.9%) to consider interventions for the control of cervical infections. Health promotion messages regarding safe sexual and health care seeking behavior is important. Routine STI surveillance, including prevalence studies, which provide accurate information for decision-making should be continued as an essential component of good STI control.

  13. Exploration of Work and Health Disparities among Black Women Employed in Poultry Processing in the Rural South

    PubMed Central

    Lipscomb, Hester J.; Argue, Robin; McDonald, Mary Anne; Dement, John M.; Epling, Carol A.; James, Tamara; Wing, Steve; Loomis, Dana

    2005-01-01

    We describe an ongoing collaboration that developed as academic investigators responded to a specific request from community members to document health effects on black women of employment in poultry-processing plants in rural North Carolina. Primary outcomes of interest are upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders and function as well as quality of life. Because of concerns of community women and the history of poor labor relations, we decided to conduct this longitudinal study in a manner that did not require involvement of the employer. To provide more detailed insights into the effects of this type of employment, the epidemiologic analyses are supplemented by ethnographic interviews. The resulting approach requires community collaboration. Community-based staff, as paid members of the research team, manage the local project office, recruit and retain participants, conduct interviews, coordinate physical assessments, and participate in outreach. Other community members assisted in the design of the data collection tools and the recruitment of longitudinal study participants and took part in the ethnographic component of the study. This presentation provides an example of one model through which academic researchers and community members can work together productively under challenging circumstances. Notable accomplishments include the recruitment and retention of a cohort of low-income rural black women, often considered hard to reach in research studies. This community-based project includes a number of elements associated with community-based participatory research. PMID:16330373

  14. Women's education and the timing of marriage and childbearing in the next generation: evidence from rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bates, Lisa M; Maselko, Joanna; Schuler, Sidney Ruth

    2007-06-01

    In traditional settings where early marriage and early childbearing persist, decisions about age at marriage are often made by parents, and mothers-in-law tend to have considerable influence in hastening the initiation of childbearing. This study analyzes data from a 2002 survey in six villages in rural Bangladesh to test the hypothesis that daughters of women with more education marry later and that daughters-in-law of more educated women initiate childbearing at a slower rate. Using Cox proportional hazard models, we find significant associations between the educational level of mothers and the age at marriage of their daughters and between the educational level of mothers-in-law and the timing offirst birth among their daughters-in-law, although the association between the former attenuates when controlling for other variables. We also find that these associations do not appear to be mediated by the senior women's level of empowerment. We conclude that in rural Bangladesh there is a significant relationship between female education in one generation and the timing of marriage and childbearing in the next.

  15. Experiencing Lifetime Domestic Violence: Associations with Mental Health and Stress among Pregnant Women in Rural Bangladesh: The MINIMat Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Frith, Amy Lynn; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Naved, Ruchira Tabassum

    2016-01-01

    Background Experience of domestic violence has negative mental health consequences for women. The association of cumulative and specific forms of domestic violence, particularly emotional violence and controlling behavior, with common mental disorders and stress has rarely been studied in pregnant women. The aim of this study is to evaluate associations of specific and multiple forms of lifetime domestic violence and controlling behavior with distress and cortisol level during pregnancy in rural Bangladeshi women. Methods and findings In this observational sub-study of larger MINIMat trial, 3504 pregnant women were interviewed using a shortened Conflict Tactic Scale about their lifetime experience of domestic violence including physical, sexual, emotional domestic violence and controlling behavior. Women’s levels of emotional distress were assessed using the self-reported questionnaire (SRQ-20) developed by WHO, and levels of morning salivary cortisol were measured in a subsample (n = 1300) of women during week 28–32 of pregnancy. Regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of lifetime physical, sexual, emotional domestic violence and controlling behavior with levels of distress and cortisol during pregnancy. The prevalence of lifetime domestic violence was 57% and emotional distress was 35% in these pregnant women. All forms of domestic violence were associated with higher levels of emotional distress. Women who experienced either emotional violence or controlling behavior had the highest levels of emotional distress. There was a dose-response relationship between cumulative number of the different forms of domestic violence and women’s levels of emotional distress. There was no association between women’s experience of domestic violence and level of morning salivary cortisol. Conclusion Including emotional violence and controlling behavior as major types of violence in future research and health interventions is warranted. Furthermore, the

  16. Prevalence of Underweight, Overweight, and Obesity Among Reproductive-Age Women and Adolescent Girls in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuan; Pan, An; Yang, Ying; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Jihong; Zhang, Ya; Liu, Dujia; Wang, Qiaomei; Shen, Haiping; Zhang, Yiping; Yan, Donghai; Peng, Zuoqi; Hu, Frank B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To provide prevalence and trends of underweight, overweight, and obesity among reproductive-age women and adolescent girls in rural China. Methods. We measured weight and height in 16 742 344 women aged 20 to 49 years and 178 556 girls aged 15 to 19 years from the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project between 2010 and 2014. Results. Among women, the prevalence of underweight was 7.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.7%, 7.9%), and overweight or obesity was 16.5% (95% CI = 16.4%, 16.6%; World Health Organization criteria). Among adolescents, prevalence of underweight was 6.0% (95% CI = 5.7%, 6.2%; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria) and overweight or obesity was 8.3% (95% CI = 7.9% to 8.8%; International Obesity Task Force criteria). According to Chinese criteria, overweight and obesity prevalence was 24.8% (95% CI = 24.7%, 24.9%) for women and 17.2% (95% CI = 16.6%, 17.8%) for adolescents, and underweight prevalence was 2.9% (95% CI = 2.8%, 3.1%) for adolescents. Considerable disparities existed in prevalence and trends within subpopulations (age groups, parity, region, education levels, and socioeconomic status). Conclusions. Our results reveal coexisting underweight and overweight or obesity among rural women and adolescents of reproductive age, which requires public health attention. PMID:27831775

  17. Applying the WHO recommendations on health-sector response to violence against women to assess the Spanish health system. A mixed methods approach.

    PubMed

    Goicolea, Isabel; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Minvielle, Fauhn; Briones-Vozmediano, Erica; Ohman, Ann

    2014-01-01

    This methodological note describes the development and application of a mixed-methods protocol to assess the responsiveness of Spanish health systems to violence against women in Spain, based on the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Five areas for exploration were identified based on the WHO recommendations: policy environment, protocols, training, accountability/monitoring, and prevention/promotion. Two data collection instruments were developed to assess the situation of 17 Spanish regional health systems (RHS) with respect to these areas: 1) a set of indicators to guide a systematic review of secondary sources, and 2) an interview guide to be used with 26 key informants at the regional and national levels. We found differences between RHSs in the five areas assessed. The progress of RHSs on the WHO recommendations was notable at the level of policies, moderate in terms of health service delivery, and very limited in terms of preventive actions. Using a mixed-methods approach was useful for triangulation and complementarity during instrument design, data collection and interpretation.

  18. Attitudes toward HPV Vaccination among Rural American Indian Women and Urban White Women in the Northern Plains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchwald, Dedra; Muller, Clemma; Bell, Maria; Schmidt-Grimminger, Delf

    2013-01-01

    Background: American Indian women in the Northern Plains have a high incidence of cervical cancer. We assessed attitudes on vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) in this population. Method: In partnership with two tribal communities, from 2007 to 2009, we surveyed women 18 to 65 years old attending two reservation clinics ("n" =…

  19. Human papillomavirus DNA positivity and seropositivity in rural Chinese men and women: a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fangfang; Deng, Qiuju; Zhang, Chanyuan; Pan, Yaqi; Liu, Ying; He, Zhonghu; Sun, Min; Liu, Mengfei; Li, Jingjing; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Chaoting; Hang, Dong; Ning, Tao; Guo, Chuanhai; Liang, Yongmei; Xu, Ruiping; Zhang, Lixin; Cai, Hong; Ke, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Data on simultaneous analysis of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA and serology and the correlations within a single general population are limited. Among 1603 men and 2187 women enrolled from rural China, serum antibodies against bacterially derived GST-L1 fusion proteins of HPV were assessed with multiplexed serology and HPV DNA was evaluated with PCR-based sequencing. Few subjects were dually positive to HPV DNA and serum antibodies for any HPV (6.6% of men and 3.1% of women). The proportion of men ever having been infected with any HPV (DNA and/or antibody positive) was higher than that of women (71.0% vs. 65.2%, P < 0.001). Type-specific association was observed for genital HPV infection and HPV seropositivity among women but not among men. A positive correlation between the number of lifetime sexual partners and positivity for oncogenic HPV DNA and/or antibodies was found in men but was absent in women. Among 762 couples, the presence of HPV DNA and/or antibodies in one partner was positively associated with the identical HPV type in the other partner. These findings may reflect a site-specific natural course of HPV infection and further understanding of the epidemiology of HPV. PMID:27211017

  20. Even partial reduction of biomass fuel use may improve the respiratory health of rural women in Central India.

    PubMed

    Sukhsohale, N D; Narlawar, U W; Ughade, S N; Kulkarni, H

    2012-01-01

    Routine use of biomass fuels in cooking adversely affects respiratory health, but whether partial abolition of the biomass use is also detrimental is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 760 women in rural central India: 283 used non-biomass fuels (Group A), 225 biomass and other fuels (Group B), while 252 exclusively used biomass fuels (Group C). Robust multivariate analyses adjusted for age, daily cooking time, cooking experience, marital status, overcrowding and education showed that only Group C, and not Group B, had poor respiratory health. Our results indicate that even partial abolition of biomass use may be beneficial.

  1. Mexican Women in Anahuac and New Spain: Three Study Units. Aztec Roles, Spanish Notary Revelations, Creole Genius.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Doris M.

    This guide contains three Latin American study units for students in junior and community colleges on the topic of Mexican women in Anahuac and New Spain. Objectives are to help the student read history, exercise empathy, think critically, stimulate interest in the study of women, and understand the dignity and fascination of the Mexican heritage.…

  2. Increased calorie intake at a specific mid-morning meal and increased intake of soft drinks are strongly associated with obesity in Mexican rural women.

    PubMed

    Caamaño, María C; Gutierrez, Jessica; García, Olga P; Ronquillo, Dolores; Martinez, Guadalupe; Rosado, Jorge L

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the dietary habits and foods that are associated with obesity in women from a rural area in Mexico. Anthropometry and body fat were measured in 580 women. Participants answered a socioeconomic and a food-frequency questionnaire; a subsample (n = 80) also answered three 24-hour-recall questionnaires. Results showed that obese women consumed more soft drinks and fat than did overweight and normal-weight women. Women who consumed more energy during a mid-morning meal had higher BMI. A strategy to decrease the prevalence of obesity in rural areas could be to encourage limiting the consumption of soft drinks and eliminating or reducing caloric intake at a mid-morning meal.

  3. Biological Status and Dietary Intakes of Iron, Zinc and Vitamin A among Women and Preschool Children in Rural Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Prevel, Yves; Allemand, Pauline; Nikiema, Laetitia; Ayassou, Kossiwavi A.; Ouedraogo, Henri Gautier; Moursi, Mourad; De Moura, Fabiana F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Food-based approaches such as biofortification are meant to sustainably address micronutrient deficiencies in poor settings. Knowing more about micronutrient intakes and deficiencies is a prerequisite to designing and evaluating interventions. Objective The objectives of the study were to assess biological status and dietary intakes of iron, zinc and vitamin A among women and children aged 36–59 months in rural Burkina Faso and to study relationships between intake and status to better inform future food-based interventions. Design A cross-sectional survey was carried out in two rural provinces of Burkina Faso on a random cluster sample of 480 mother-child pairs. Dietary data was obtained by 24-hour recalls repeated on a random sub-selection of 37.5% of subjects to allow calculation of nutrient’s probability of adequacy (PA). Biomarkers were measured on a sub-sample of 180 mother-child pairs. Blood samples were analyzed for hemoglobin, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), C-reactive protein, alpha-1-glycoprotein, serum zinc concentration (SZnC) and retinol. For each micronutrient the relationship between biomarker and dietary intake was investigated by multiple linear regression models accounting for inflammatory biomarkers. Results Mean PA for iron, zinc and vitamin A was 0.49, 0.87 and 0.21 among women and 0.61, 0.95 and 0.33 among children, respectively. Prevalence of anemia, corrected low serum ferritin and high sTfR was 37.6%, 4.0% and 77.5% among women and 72.1%, 1.5% and 87.6% among children, respectively. Prevalence of low SZnC and corrected low serum retinol was 39.4% and 12.0% among women and 63.7% and 24.8% among children, respectively. There was a tendency for a positive relationship between vitamin A intakes and serum retinol among women (β = 0.0003, P = 0.06). Otherwise, no link was found between micronutrients biomarkers and intakes. Conclusion Our study depicted different images of micronutrient deficiencies when

  4. Circulating IGF-1 may mediate improvements in haemoglobin associated with vitamin A status during pregnancy in rural Nepalese women.

    PubMed

    Arguello, Margia A; Schulze, Kerry J; Wu, Lee Sf; Dreyfuss, Michele L; Khatry, Subarna K; Christian, Parul; West, Keith P

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy exacerbates vitamin A (VA) deficiency and anaemia among women in developing countries. Improving circulating haemoglobin (Hb) requires erythrocyte production and availability of iron. Insulin-like growth factor- 1 (IGF-1) functions in erythropoiesis, but its association with VA status and pregnancy-associated anaemia has not been studied. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between serum retinol, IGF-1, and Hb among pregnant women in extant samples collected during a placebo-controlled trial of VA and beta-carotene (BC) supplementation in rural Nepal conducted from 1994 to 1997. Mid-pregnancy serum IGF-1 was measured in serum from n=589 randomly selected women of n=1186 in whom anthropometric, VA (retinol) and iron (Hb, erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin (ZP), and ferritin) status data were available. Associations of IGF-1 with retinol, Hb or anaemia, and iron status were determined using multiple linear and logistic regression. Path analysis was used to explore the role of IGF-1 as a mediator between retinol and Hb, accounting for iron status. A 2.6 g/L increase in IGF-1 was observed per 0.1 mol/L increment in retinol (p<0.0001). Hb increased with each quartile of IGF-1, and odds of anaemia declined 68.8% from the 1st to 4th quartile. Improved iron status indicators explained only 29.1% of the association between IGF-1 and Hb, while IGF-1 explained 25.6% of the association between retinol and Hb. Increasing IGF-1 was likely one mechanism by which retinol improved circulating Hb in pregnant women of rural Nepal, although IGF-1 worked primarily through pathways independent of improved iron status indicators, perhaps by stimulating erythrocyte production.

  5. Birth preparedness and complication readiness among rural women of reproductive age in Abeshige district, Guraghe zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Zepre, Kebebush; Kaba, Mirgissa

    2017-01-01

    Background Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPCR) is a strategy that helps women to consider all available maternal health care services during pregnancy and prepare for potential complications. Federal Ministry of Health in Ethiopia has taken steps to roll out the strategy at community level. Yet, women in rural communities still do not make use of available services to avoid complications in connection to pregnancy and delivery. Objective This study aims to assess the current BPCR practice and determine associated factors among rural women of reproductive age in Abeshige district, Guraghe zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out from February to March 2015. A total of 454 women were randomly selected and interviewed using pretested structured questionnaires, while opinion leaders, health extension workers, and selected women in the community were engaged in in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, using checklists prepared to guide the interviews. Data from different sources were analyzed, triangulated, and interpreted to respond to the objectives. Results Thirty-seven percent of the respondents were found to have prepared for birth and its complications. BPCR was higher among women who lived within a 1-hour walk from a health center (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.78, 36.79) and who were aware of the danger signs of pregnancy (AOR =1.72, 95% CI: 1.78, 2.94) and postpartum complications (AOR =2.32, 95% CI: 1.32, 4.21). A major source of information was found to be health extension workers and one-to-five women networks (AOR =2.81, 95% CI: 1.34, 6.21) and (AOR =2.52, 95% CI: 1.17, 5.54), respectively. Qualitative finding revealed that lack of transportation and concern over cost of services are key barriers to BPCR. Conclusion BPCR in Abeshige was found to be relatively low, calling for more interventions beyond mere awareness. Availing transportation services and

  6. Las Mujeres: Mexican American/Chicana Women. Photographs and Biographies of Seventeen Women from the Spanish Colonial Period to the Present. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruthsdotter, Mary

    This booklet presents the lives of 17 Mexican American women and institutions that have made significant contributions to Mexican society from past to present day culture. The biographies cover the following women and institutions: Eulalia Arrila de Perez, Dona Maria del Carmen Calvillo, Jovita Idar, Maria Hernandez, Alicia Dickerson Montemayor,…

  7. Constructs of power and equity and their association with contraceptive use among men and women in rural Ethiopia and Kenya.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Rob; Bartel, Doris; Rubardt, Marcie

    2012-01-01

    Using samples of reproductive aged men and women from rural Ethiopia and Kenya, this study examines the associations between two scales measuring balances of power and equitable attitudes within relationships and modern contraceptive use. The scales are developed from the Sexual and Reproductive Power Scale (SRPS) and Gender Equitable Male (GEM) scale, which were originally developed to measure relationship power (SRPS) among women and gender equitable attitudes (GEM) among men. With the exception of Ethiopian women, a higher score on the balance of power scale was associated with significantly higher odds of reporting modern contraceptive use. For men and women in both countries, a higher score on the equitable attitudes scale was associated with significantly higher odds of reporting modern contraceptive use. However, only the highest categories of the scales are associated with contraceptive use, suggesting a threshold effect in the relationships between power, equity and contraceptive use. The results presented here demonstrate how elements of the GEM and SRPS scales can be used to create scales measuring balances of power and equitable attitudes within relationships that are associated with self-reporting of modern contraceptive use in two resource-poor settings. However, further work with larger sample sizes is needed to confirm these findings, and to examine the extent to which these scales can be applied to other social and cultural contexts.

  8. Effects of cooking fuel smoke on respiratory symptoms and lung function in semi-rural women in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Mbatchou Ngahane, Bertrand Hugo; Afane Ze, Emmanuel; Chebu, Cyrille; Mapoure, Njankouo Yacouba; Temfack, Elvis; Nganda, Malea; Luma, Namme Henry

    2015-01-01

    Background: Indoor air pollution is a major health problem in the developing world. In sub-Saharan Africa more than 90% of people rely on biomass to meet their domestic energy demands. Pollution from biomass fuel ranks 10th among preventable risk factors contributing to the global burden of diseases. Objectives: The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and the factors associated with reduced lung function in a population of women exposed to cooking fuel smoke. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a semi-rural area in Cameroon. We compared forced respiratory volume between women using wood (n = 145) and women using alternative sources of energy (n = 155) for cooking. Results: Chronic bronchitis was found in 7·6% of the wood smoke group and 0·6% in the alternative fuels group. We observed two cases of airflow obstruction in the wood smoke group. Factors associated with lung function impairment were chronic bronchitis, use of wood as cooking fuel, age, and height. Conclusion: Respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function are more pronounced among women using wood as cooking fuel. Improved stoves technology should be developed to reduce the effects of wood smoke on respiratory health. PMID:25384259

  9. Prevalence of specific herpes simplex virus-2 antibodies and associated factors in women of a rural town of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Clara A; Bedoya, Astrid M; Paris, Sara; Baena, Armando; Gaviria, Angela M; Rojas, Carlos A; Arbelaez, Maria P; Sanchez, Gloria I

    2011-04-01

    There is lack of age-specific seroprevalence surveys and identification of factors associated with herpes simplex virus type-2 seropositivity (HSV-2) in rural populations in Colombia. A random sample of 869 women was interviewed about socio-demographic aspects, sexual and reproductive history. Antibodies to HSV-2 were determined by a specific type immunoenzymatic technique (ELISA). Participants had a mean age of 38±16.1 years, 67% were married, 60% monogamous and 47% reported use of condoms. HSV-2 seroprevalence was 19.1% (95% CI: 16.6-21.9) and it was strongly associated with increasing age (Ptrend<0.001). In the logistic regression analysis, women who reported between two or three lifetime sexual partners (OR=2.4; 95% CI: 1.5-3.7), >31 years of sexual activity with regular or occasional sexual partners (OR=4.3; 95% CI: 1.2-15.7) and not using condoms with regular sexual partners (OR=2.1; 95% CI: 1.4-3.3) were more likely to be HSV-2 seropositive. The overall seroprevalence rate of women of Pueblorrico, Colombia, is lower than that reported in other Latin American countries especially in women>45 years. The difference may be explained by higher prevalence of condom use in this population or lower exposure to herpes infection in male as well as females in the past.

  10. Access to and use of sexual and reproductive health services provided by midwives among rural immigrant women in Spain: midwives’ perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Otero-Garcia, Laura; Goicolea, Isabel; Gea-Sánchez, Montserrat; Sanz-Barbero, Belen

    2013-01-01

    Background There is insufficient information regarding access and participation of immigrant women in Spain in sexual and reproductive health programs. Recent studies show their lower participation rate in gynecological cancer screening programs; however, little is known about the participation in other sexual and reproductive health programs by immigrant women living in rural areas with high population dispersion. Objectives The objective of this study is to explore the perceptions of midwives who provide these services regarding immigrant women's access and participation in sexual and reproductive health programs offered in a rural area. Design A qualitative study was performed, within a larger ethnographic study about rural primary care, with data collection based on in-depth interviews and field notes. Participants were the midwives in primary care serving 13 rural basic health zones (BHZ) of Segovia, a region of Spain with high population dispersion. An interview script was designed to collect information about midwives’ perceptions on immigrant women's access to and use of the healthcare services that they provide. Interviews were recorded and transcribed with participant informed consent. Data were analyzed based on the qualitative content analysis approach and triangulation of results with fieldwork notes. Results Midwives perceive that immigrants in general, and immigrant women in particular, underuse family planning services. This underutilization is associated with cultural differences and gender inequality. They also believe that the number of voluntary pregnancy interruptions among immigrant women is elevated and identify childbearing and childrearing-related tasks and the language barrier as obstacles to immigrant women accessing the available prenatal and postnatal healthcare services. Conclusions Immigrant women's underutilization of midwifery services may be linked to the greater number of unintended pregnancies, pregnancy terminations, and the

  11. An assessment of the understanding of the offer of routine HIV testing among pregnant women in rural Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mugore, L; Engelsmann, B; Ndoro, T; Dabis, F; Perez, F

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the understanding of routine offer of HIV testing among women using antenatal care (ANC) services in a rural African district. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted in Murewa district, Zimbabwe, among women consecutively enrolled during their first ANC visit in 10 health centres offering prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV services including routine offer of HIV testing. Ninety-three (64%) of the 146 respondents had received some form of education on the importance of HIV testing before visiting the health centre on the day of their interview. Almost all respondents (n=139; 95%) felt that the information provided during the group education was sufficient to make a decision on whether or not they should have an HIV test. HIV testing uptake was high with 136 (93%) women being tested for HIV on the day of the interview. Of these, 128 (94%) were aware that they had been tested for HIV when interviewed before the time of receiving results. Fifty percent (n=67) of the women who accepted HIV testing directly after group education as part of their routine ANC blood tests were not aware, however, of the possibility of opting for individual pre-test counseling. The study found that in Zimbabwe, implementation of routine offer of HIV testing allowed women using ANC services to make an informed conscious decision to undertake an HIV test as part of the PMTCT package of services. There is a need to emphasize the availability of further individual pre-test counseling if necessary since a selected subgroup of women may still benefit from it.

  12. Public health agendas addressing violence against rural women - an analysis of local level health services in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Marta Cocco; Lopes, Marta Julia Marques; Soares, Joannie dos Santos Fachinelli

    2015-05-01

    This study analyses health managers' perceptions of local public health agendas addressing violence against rural women in municipalities in the southern part of the State Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil. It consists of an exploratory descriptive study utilizing a qualitative approach. Municipal health managers responsible for planning actions directed at women's health and primary health care were interviewed. The analysis sought to explore elements of programmatic vulnerability related to violence in the interviewees' narratives based on the following dimensions of programmatic vulnerability: expression of commitment, transformation of commitment into action, and planning and coordination. It was found that local health agendas directed at violence against rural women do not exist. Health managers are therefore faced with the challenge of defining lines of action in accordance with the guidelines and principles of the SUS. The repercussions of this situation are expressed in fragile comprehensive services for these women and programmatic vulnerability.

  13. Knowledge about hepatitis B vaccination among women of childbearing age: a cross-sectional study from a rural district of Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Noreen, N; Kumar, R; Shaikh, B T

    2015-04-02

    Pakistan is considered as an intermediate zone of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, with an estimated population prevalence of 2-7%. This study assessed knowledge about HBV and vaccination among women of childbearing age in a rural setting of Punjab province, Pakistan. In 2012 a cross-sectional, community-based survey of 430 women was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire. Less than half of the women (43%) surveyed had correct knowledge about HBV vaccination, and knowledge was especially poor among the low socioeconomic groups. Age, level of education and obstetric history of the respondents were significantly associated with knowledge about HBV and its vaccination. The main sources of information regarding HBV vaccination were lady health workers (53%) and traditional birth attendants (22%). Health promotion and behaviour change campaigns highlighting the importance of hepatitis B vaccine need to be designed to meet the needs of rural areas where women have little exposure to the mass media.

  14. Understanding Women's Awareness and Access to Preconception Health Care in a Rural Population: A Cross Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Lammers, Cristina R; Hulme, Polly A; Wey, Howard; Kerkvliet, Jennifer; Arunachalam, Shivaram P

    2016-10-18

    Despite evidence of the benefits of preconception health care (PCHC), little is known about awareness and access to PCHC for rural, reproductive-aged women. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of PCHC conversations between rural reproductive-age women and health care providers, PCHC interventions received in the past year, and ascertain predictors of PCHC conversations and interventions. Women (n = 868; 18-45 years) completed a questionnaire including reproductive history, health care services utilization, and interest in PCHC. The prevalence of health care providers' PCHC conversations was 53.9 %, and the mean number of interventions reported was 2.6 ± 2.7 (±SD). Significant predictors of PCHC conversation based on adjusted odds ratios from logistic regression were race (Native American 76 % greater than White), health care provider type (non-physician 63 % greater than physician), visits to a health care provider (3+ times 32 % greater than 1-2 times), and pregnancy planning (considering in next 1-5 years 51 % greater than no plans). Significant predictors of PCHC interventions received in the past 12 months based on adjusted risk ratios from negative binomial regression were race (Native American 22 % greater than White), PCHC conversation with a health care provider (yes 52 % lower than no), reporting PCHC as beneficial (yes 32 % greater than don't know), and visits to a health care provider in the past year (3+ times 90 % greater than 1-2 times). Increasing conversations about PCHC between health care providers and their reproductive-aged patients can improve awareness and increase their likelihood of receiving all of the recommended interventions.

  15. Factors Influencing the Use of Biomedical Health Care by Rural Bolivian Anemic Women: Structural Barriers, Reproductive Status, Gender Roles, and Concepts of Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Bedwell, Rebecca M.; Spielvogel, Hilde; Bellido, Diva

    2017-01-01

    The persistently high prevalence of anemia in rural highland Bolivia argues for targeted iron supplementation. We evaluated the cultural, structural and behavioral factors that may facilitate or impede an anemic woman's decision to secure this biomedical treatment from a rural Bolivian health center. Methods Non-pregnant women from a rural town and its surrounding region were tested for anemia. During phase 1 (n = 181), anemic women received a written recommendation for low-cost purchase of iron pills at the nearest health center. They were subsequently interviewed on their actions and experiences. Results Estimated anemia prevalence among these non-pregnant women was 50% higher than the national average. Despite holding conceptualizations of anemia generally aligned with biomedical concepts, only 40% of anemic women attempted to obtain iron supplements from the health center. Town residents were about twice as likely to attempt to purchase pills as outside-town residents. Town women who were concurrently breastfeeding and menstruating, considered anemia most serious for women, and considered family health the shared responsibility of spouses were most likely to decide to purchase iron pills. Age, education, or native language did not negatively influence this health care behavior. Conclusions Securing iron supplements involves individual trade-offs in the allocation of time, cost and effort. Nonetheless, suitably tailored programs can potentially harness local perceptions in the service of reducing anemia. Because of their comparatively high motivation to obtain iron supplements, targeting concurrently breastfeeding and menstruating women could have a positive cascade effect such that these women continue attending to their iron needs once they stop breastfeeding and if they become pregnant again. Because a sense of shared responsibility for family health appears to encourage women to attend to their own health, programs for women could involve their spouses

  16. Malaria-related perceptions and practices of women with children under the age of five years in rural Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Deressa, Wakgari; Ali, Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Background Malaria remains to be the major cause of morbidity and mortality among pregnant women and children in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to investigate the local perceptions, practices and treatment seeking behaviour for malaria among women with children under the age of five years. Methods This community-based study was conducted in 2003 in an area of seasonal malaria transmission in Adami Tulu District, south-central Ethiopia. Total samples of 2087 rural women with children less than five years of age from 18 rural kebeles (the smallest administrative units) were interviewed about their perceptions and practices regarding malaria. In addition, focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted on similar issues to complement the quantitative data. Results Malaria, locally known as busaa, is perceived as the main health problem in the study area. Mosquitoes are perceived to be the main cause of the disease, and other misperceptions were also widespread. The use of prevention measures was very low. Most mothers were familiar with the main signs and symptoms of mild malaria, and some of them indicated high grade fever, convulsions and mental confusion as a manifestation of severe malaria. Very few households (5.6%) possessed one or two nets. More than 60% of the mothers with recent episodes of malaria received initial treatment from non-public health facilities such as community health workers (CHWs) (40%) and private care providers (21%). Less than 40% of the reported malaria cases among women were treated by public health facilities. Conclusion Malaria was perceived as the main health problem among women and children. The use of malaria preventive measures was low. A significant proportion of the respondents received initial malaria treatments from CHWs, private care providers and public health facilities. Concerted effort is needed to scale-up the distribution of insecticide-treated nets and improve the knowledge of the community about the

  17. Perceived Leadership Practices of Rural Superintendents: Men and Women Who Lead.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Mike

    Conventional wisdom holds that there are gender-based differences in the practices of men and women in leadership positions. Stereotypically, men are seen as using a direct "command and control" style of leadership while women are assumed to be more collegial and collaborative. A review of the literature on differences in male and female…

  18. Energy and women's economic empowerment: Rethinking the benefits of improved cookstove use in rural India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaward, James Nicholas

    International development organizations have recently ramped up efforts to promote the use of improved cookstoves (ICS) in developing countries, aiming to reduce the harmful environmental and public health impacts of the burning of biomass for cooking and heating. I hypothesize that ICS use also has additional benefits---economic and social benefits---that can contribute to women's economic empowerment in the developing world. To explore the relationship between ICS use and women's economic empowerment, I use Ordinary Least Squares and Logit models based on data from the India Human Development Survey (IHDS) to analyze differences between women living in households that use ICS and those living in homes that use traditional cookstoves. My regression results reveal that ICS use has a statistically significant and negative effect on the amount of time women and girls spend on fuel collection and a statistically significant and positive effect on the likelihood of women's participation in side businesses, but does not have a statistically significant effect on the likelihood of lost productivity. My analysis shows promise that in addition to health and environmental benefits, fuel-efficient cooking technologies can also have social and economic impacts that are especially beneficial to women. It is my hope that the analysis provided in this paper will be used to further the dialogue about the importance of women's access to modern energy services in the fight to improve women's living standards in the developing world.

  19. Purdah and Changing Patterns of Social Control among Rural Women in Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Shelley; McCarthy, Florence E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes how changes in women's productive activities and in the demand for female wage labor have affected the accoutrements and expression of purdah among Bangladeshi villagers. Argues that the burkha increases the mobility of Muslim women, thereby enhancing their social participation and visibility and maintaining rather than diminishing…

  20. Measurement of Attitudes of Rural Women towards Self-Help Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meena, M. S.; Jain, Dilip; Meena, H. R.

    2008-01-01

    Self-help groups (SHGs) have emerged as an effective mechanism of empowerment and development of women as well as being on efficient mode of promoting group action and technology dissemination. Initiatives were undertaken at the Central Institute of Post-Harvest Engineering and Technology (CIPHET), Ludhiana to facilitate the formation of women's…

  1. Women's Time, Labour-Saving Devices and Rural Development in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Hazel R.; Browne, Angela W.

    1994-01-01

    Introduction of cereal mills in Gambian villages affected the lives of women and their communities in terms of women's access to the technology, the time and energy it saves, its sustainability, and their level of control. The energy saved enabled greater participation in the community, but they were still constrained by illiteracy and poverty.…

  2. Training Women for Rural Employment in Fiji's Changing Economic and Cultural Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Adele M. E.; Waqanivalu, Makario

    1996-01-01

    A young women's employment program in Fiji focused on personal development, self-reliance, and small business development. The responsibilities of women's traditional roles and lack of capital and credit were difficulties encountered, but the human development sessions were most valued by the participants. (SK)

  3. Sexual Behavior and Perceptions of Young Women in a Rural Southwest School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duryea, Elias J.; Mesrian, Parvin; Semark, Larry; West, Carolyn

    1997-01-01

    Risk factors associated with teenage pregnancy were studied among 95 Hispanic, Native American, and White ninth-grade females at a rural New Mexico high school. All respondents, regardless of ethnicity, reported moderate levels of health-compromising behaviors such as alcohol use, poor communication with parents regarding sex, and a false sense of…

  4. Rural Elderly: Impact of Social, Psychological Health and Demographic Experiences on Adjustment in Women and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiden, R.; And Others

    An amended form of the Older American's Status and Needs Assessment Questionnaire assessed the prevalence of adjustment, as measured by the Bradburn Affect Scale, in a random stratified sample of 301 female and 140 male elderly rural residents in Allegany County, New York. The relationship between adjustment and biosocial, demographic, social, and…

  5. Impact of an Asha Intervention on Depressive Symptoms among Rural Women Living with AIDS in India: Comparison of the Asha-Life and Usual Care Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Salem, Benissa E.; Meyer, Visha; Ganguly, Kalyan K.; Sinha, Sanjeev; Ramakrishnan, Padma

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this randomized pilot study is to conduct an intervention with 68 rural women living with AIDS to compare the effectiveness of two different programs on depressive symptoms. The trial was designed to assess the impact of the Asha-Life intervention engaging with an HIV-trained village woman, Asha (Accredited Social Health Activist),…

  6. New Skills for Rural Women. Report of a Training Program for Twelve Malian Community Development Workers (Banjul, The Gambia, June 7-15, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caughman, Susan L.

    In June, 1977, a 2-week tie-dyeing and batik training program was undertaken for 12 Malian community development workers by a newly formed cooperative of urban dyers in Gambia. Need for income-producing activity for women in the Bambara regions of rural Mali led to a decision to promote cloth processing and in 1974 training sessions were held in…

  7. On-the-Spot Course in Maseru, Lesotho on Income-Generating Projects for Rural Women: Framework of Community Development. July 10-30, 1983. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount Carmel International Training Centre for Community Development, Haifa (Israel).

    This report describes a community development course focusing on income-generating projects for rural women. The first section outlines the schedule of activities for each day of the 16-day course. The second section defines course objectives, including purpose and methodology, planning, group dynamics, cooperation, communication, negotiation, and…

  8. The Effectiveness of Videotape Programs as a Communication Tool in the Small-Scale Livestock for Rural Farming Women Project, Honduras.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Dean, Lynn

    This study examines economic development in Third World countries and the use of portable video systems in development projects. The study, conducted in 1985, attempts to measure the level of effectiveness of videotape programs as a communication tool for training rural subsistence women in Honduras in technical aspects of pig-keeping. Classical…

  9. Influencing Self-Reported Health among Rural Low-Income Women through Health Care and Social Service Utilization: A Structural Equation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bice-Wigington, Tiffany; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Using structural equation modeling, this study examined the mesosystemic processes among rural low-income women, and how these processes subsequently influenced self-reported health. Acknowledging the behavioral processes inherent in utilization of health care and formal social support services, this study moved beyond a behavioral focus by…

  10. Female genital schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma haematobium. Clinical and parasitological findings in women in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Kjetland, E F; Poggensee, G; Helling-Giese, G; Richter, J; Sjaastad, A; Chitsulo, L; Kumwenda, N; Gundersen, S G; Krantz, I; Feldmeier, H

    1996-12-30

    A total of 51 women with urinary schistosomiasis haematobium were examined in order to identify diagnostic indicators for female genital schistosomiasis (FGS). Patients were selected at random from the outpatient department of the Mangochi District Hospital, Malawi. The medical histories were recorded according to a pre-designed questionnaire and the women were subjected to a thorough gynaecological examination including colposcopy and photographic documentation of lesions. Microscopy of genital biopsies revealed that 33 of the 51 women had S. haematobium ova in cervix, vagina and/or vulva in addition to the presence of ova in urine. The most sensitive diagnostic procedure was beside microscopic examination of a wet cervix biopsy crushed between two glass slides, which revealed 25 of the 33 genital infections. There was a significant correlation between the size of genital lesions and the number of ova counted per mm2 of crushed tissue. Women with FGS had significantly more tumours in the vulva than women with schistosomiasis limited to the urinary tract. Most of the observed genital pathology could easily be identified by the naked eye, but colposcopic examination yielded valuable additional information like the demonstration of neovascularisation around cervical sandy patches. Few of the symptoms previously regarded as indicators for FGS could be linked to the presence of schistosome ova in genital tissue. Husbands of infertile women with FGS had children with other women significantly more often than husbands of women who only had urinary schistosomiasis. This, together with the finding that the majority of the divorced women had FGS, indicates that the manifestation of this disease may have implications for the marital and sexual life of the affected women.

  11. Prevention of unintended pregnancy and HIV/STIs among Latinos in rural communities: perspectives of health care providers.

    PubMed

    Branch, Meredith; Harvey, S Marie; Zukoski, Ann P; Warren, Jocelyn

    2010-08-01

    Latino women in the United States are disproportionately at risk for unintended pregnancy, HIV, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted nine focus groups with health care practitioners who provide reproductive health care to Latinos in rural areas of the Northwest. From the practitioner perspective, we explored barriers and facilitators to the acquisition and use of contraceptives and to the prevention of HIV/STIs among rural Latinos. Suggestions for improving reproductive health care included Spanish-language resources/materials and convenient contraceptive methods. Findings provide context to the complex issues related to unintended pregnancy and disease prevention among Latinos residing in rural communities.

  12. Livestock/Animal Assets Buffer the Impact of Conflict-Related Traumatic Events on Mental Health Symptoms for Rural Women

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Nancy; Perrin, Nancy A.; Kohli, Anjalee; Remy, Mitima Mpanano

    2014-01-01

    Background In the context of multiple adversities, women are demonstrating resilience in rebuilding their futures, through participation in microfinance programs. In addition to the economic benefits of microfinance, there is evidence to suggest that it is an effective vehicle for improving health. Methods The parent study is a community-based trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a livestock microfinance intervention, Pigs for Peace (PFP), on health and economic outcomes with households in 10 villages in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. The analysis for this manuscript includes only baseline data from female participants enrolled in the ongoing parent study. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine if livestock/animal asset value moderates the relationship between conflict-related traumatic events and current mental health symptoms. Findings The majority of women are 25 years or older, married, have on average 4 children in the home and have never attended school. Nearly 50% of women report having at least one livestock/animal asset at baseline. Over the past 10 years, women report on average more than 4 (M = 4.31, SD 3·64) traumatic events (range 0–18). Women reported symptoms consistent with PTSD with a mean score of ·2.30 (SD = 0·66range 0–4) and depression with a mean score of 1.86 (SD  = 0·49, range 0–3.47). The livestock/animal asset value by conflict-related traumatic events interaction was significant for both the PTSD (p = 0·021) and depression (p = 0·002) symptom models. Interpretation The study provides evidence of the moderating affect of livestock/animal assets on mental health symptoms for women who have experienced conflict. The findings supports evidence about the importance of livestock/animal assets to economics in rural households but expands on previous research by demonstrating the psychosocial effects of these assets on women's health. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT02008708 PMID

  13. Effect of Women's Decision-Making Autonomy on Infant's Birth Weight in Rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Arpana; Kader, Manzur

    2013-01-01

    Background. Low birth weight (LBW), an outcome of maternal undernutrition, is a major public health concern in Bangladesh where the problem is most prominent. Women's decision-making autonomy is likely an important factor influencing maternal and child health outcomes. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of women's decision-making autonomy on infant's birth weight (BW). Methods. The study included data of 2175 enrolled women (14-45 years of age) from the Maternal and Infant Nutritional Intervention in Matlab (MINIMat-study) in Bangladesh. Pearson's chi-square test, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and logistic regression analysis were applied at the collected data. Results. Women with lowest decision-making autonomy were significantly more likely to have a low birth weight (LBW) child, after controlling for maternal age, education (woman's and her husband's), socioeconomic status (SES) (odds ratio (OR) = 1.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0, 1.8). BW was decreased significantly among women with lowest decision making autonomy after adjusting for all confounders. Conclusion. Women's decision-making autonomy has an independent effect on BW and LBW outcome. In addition, there is a need for further exploration to identify sociocultural attributes and gender related determinants of women decision-making autonomy in this study setting.

  14. Risk of sexually transmitted infections among Mayan women in rural Guatemala whose partners are migrant workers.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Janet M; Schaffer, Jessica R; Sac Ixcot, Maria L; Page, Kimberly; Hearst, Norman

    2014-01-01

    HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) are of concern in Mayan districts of Guatemala in which labor migration is common. This study assessed whether the migration status of men is associated with reported STI symptoms among their female primary partners. In a multivariate analysis of survey data taken from a larger Mayan sexual health study, the odds of reporting STI symptoms were twofold higher among women who reported that their partner migrated (OR 2.08, 95 % CI, 1.16-3.71), compared to women whose partners did not. Women from the Mam and Kaqchikel ethnolinguistic groups reported higher rates of STI symptoms after adjustment for their partners' migration status.

  15. Bleeding Disorders in Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Bleeding Disorders in Women Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... a bleeding disorder. What is excessive bleeding in women? Women with excessive bleeding may experience heavy, hard- ...

  16. Validation of obesity based on self-reported data in Spanish women participants in breast cancer screening programmes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Measurement of obesity using self-reported anthropometric data usually involves underestimation of weight and/or overestimation of height. The dual aim of this study was, first, to ascertain and assess the validity of new cut-off points, for both overweight and obesity, using self-reported Body Mass Index furnished by women participants in breast cancer screening programmes, and second, to estimate and validate a predictive model that allows recalculate individual BMI based on self-reported data. Methods The study covered 2927 women enrolled at 7 breast cancer screening centres. At each centre, women were randomly selected in 2 samples, in a ratio of 2:1. The larger sample (n = 1951) was used to compare the values of measured and self-reported weight and height, to ascertain new overweight and obesity cut-off points with self-reported data, using ROC curves, and to estimate a predictive model of real BMI using a regression model. The second sample (n = 976) was used to validate the proposed cut-off points and the predictive model. Results Whereas reported prevalence of obesity was 19.8%, measured prevalence was 28.2%. The sensitivity and specificity of this classification would be maximised if the new cut-off points were 24.30 kg/m2 for overweight and 28.39 kg/m2 for obesity. The probability of classifying women correctly in their real weight categories on the basis of these points was 82.5% in the validation sample. Sensitivity and specificity for determining obesity using the new cut-off point in the validation sample were 90.0% and 92.3% respectively. The predictive model for real BMI included the self-reported BMI, age and educational level (university studies vs lower levels of education). This model succeeded in correctly classifying 90.5% of women according to BMI categories, but its performance was similar to that obtained with the new cut-off points. Conclusions Quantification of self-reported obesity entails a considerable underestimation of

  17. Temporal trends of main reproductive characteristics in ten urban and rural regions of China: the China Kadoorie Biobank study of 300 000 women

    PubMed Central

    Lewington, Sarah; Li, LiMing; Murugasen, Serini; Hong, Lai-san; Yang, Ling; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Collins, Rory; Chen, Junshi; He, Hui; Wu, Ming; He, Tianyou; Ren, Xiaolan; Meng, Jinhuai; Peto, Richard; Chen, Zhengming

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chinese women’s reproductive patterns have changed significantly over the past several decades. However, relatively little is known about the pace and characteristics of these changes either overall or by region and socioeconomic status. Methods: We examined the cross-sectional data from the China Kadoorie Biobank cohort study that recruited 300 000 women born between 1930 and 1974 (mean age: 51 years) from 10 socially diverse urban and rural regions of China. Temporal trends in several self-reported reproductive characteristics, and effect modification of these trends by area and education (as a surrogate for socioeconomic status), were examined. Results: The overall mean age at menarche was 15.4 (standard deviation 1.9) years, but decreased steadily over the 45 birth cohorts from 16.1 to 14.3 years, except for an anomalous increase of ∼1 year for women exposed to the 1958-61 famine in early adolescence. Similarly large changes were seen for other characteristics: mean parity fell (urban: 4.9 to 1.1; rural: 5.9 to 1.4); mean age at first birth increased (urban: 19.0 to 25.9 years; rural: 18.3 to 23.8 years); and birth spacing increased after 1980 to over 5 years. Breastfeeding declined after 1950 in urban and, after 1980, in rural women; and 68% of urban and 48% of rural women experienced a terminated pregnancy. Mean age at menopause increased from 47.9 to 49.3 years. Conclusions There have been striking changes in reproductive factors over time and between areas among these Chinese women. Their effects on major chronic diseases should be investigated. PMID:24639443

  18. Determinants of inter birth interval among married women living in rural pastoral communities of southern Ethiopia: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Though birth interval has beneficial effects on health status of the mother and their children, it is affected by range of factors some of which are rooted in social and cultural norms and the reproductive behaviors of individual women. However, there was limited data showed the determinants of birth intervals in rural pastoral communities of South Ethiopia. Therefore, the study was aimed to assess the determinants of inter birth interval among women’s of child bearing age in Yaballo Woreda, Borena zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Methods A community based unmatched case–control study with multi stage sampling technique was conducted from January to March 2012. Cases were women with two subsequent birth intervals of less than three years and controls were women with two subsequent birth intervals between three and above years. Simple random sampling technique was employed to select six hundred fifty two (326 cases and 326 controls) study subjects. All explanatory variables that were associated with the outcome variable (birth interval) during bivariate analysis were included in the final logistic model. Multivariable backward logistic regression when P values less than or equal to 0.05 and 95% CI were used to determine independent determinants for the outcome of interest. Results The median duration of birth interval was 31 & 40 months among cases and controls respectively. Variables such as number of children (AOR 3.73 95% CI: (1.50, 9.25), use of modern contraceptives (AOR 5.91 95% CI: (4.02, 8.69), mothers’ educational status (AOR 1.89 95% CI: (1.15, 3.37), and sex of the child (AOR 1.72 95% CI: (1.17, 2.52) were significantly associated with birth intervals. Conclusions Concerted efforts to encourage modern contraceptive use, women education, and breastfeeding should be made. PMID:23688144

  19. Immune cells and cardiovascular health in premenopausal women of rural India chronically exposed to biomass smoke during daily household cooking.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Anindita; Bhattacharya, Purba; Lahiri, Twisha; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2012-11-01

    Changes in cells of the immune system are important indicators of systemic response of the body to air pollution. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunological changes in rural women who have been cooking exclusively with biomass for the past 5 years or more and compare the findings with women cooking exclusively with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the associations between indices of indoor air pollution (IAP) and a set of immune assays. Biomass users illustrated marked suppression in the total number of T-helper (CD4+) cells and B (CD19+) cells while appreciable rise was documented in the number of CD8+ T-cytotoxic cells and CD16+CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells. A consistent finding among biomass users was rise in regulatory T (Treg) cells. Among biomass users, peripheral lymphocyte subpopulations, Treg cells, and the number of typical monocytes (CD16-CD64+ cells), antigen presenting types (CD16+CD64- cells) and plasmacytoid cells (CD16-CD64- cells) were found to be significantly altered in those who daily cooked with dung in comparison to wood and crop residue users (p<0.05). Biomass users who cooked in kitchens adjacent to their living areas had significant changes in peripheral lymphocyte subpopulations, typical monocytes (CD16-CD64+) with high phagocytic activity and antigen presenting monocytes (CD16+CD64-) against women who cooked in separate kitchens (p<0.01). This study has shown that women who cooked exclusively with biomass fuel had alterations in immune defense compared with their neighbors who cooked with LPG.

  20. Transactional sex amongst young people in rural northern Tanzania: an ethnography of young women's motivations and negotiation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Material exchange for sex (transactional sex) may be important to sexual relationships and health in certain cultures, yet the motivations for transactional sex, its scale and consequences are still little understood. The aim of this paper is to examine young women's motivations to exchange sex for gifts or money, the way in which they negotiate transactional sex throughout their relationships, and the implications of these negotiations for the HIV epidemic. Method An ethnographic research design was used, with information collected primarily using participant observation and in-depth interviews in a rural community in North Western Tanzania. The qualitative approach was complemented by an innovative assisted self-completion questionnaire. Findings Transactional sex underlay most non-marital relationships and was not, per se, perceived as immoral. However, women's motivations varied, for instance: escaping intense poverty, seeking beauty products or accumulating business capital. There was also strong pressure from peers to engage in transactional sex, in particular to consume like others and avoid ridicule for inadequate remuneration. Macro-level factors shaping transactional sex (e.g. economic, kinship and normative factors) overwhelmingly benefited men, but at a micro-level there were different dimensions of power, stemming from individual attributes and immediate circumstances, some of which benefited women. Young women actively used their sexuality as an economic resource, often entering into relationships primarily for economic gain. Conclusion Transactional sex is likely to increase the risk of HIV by providing a dynamic for partner change, making more affluent, higher risk men more desirable, and creating further barriers to condom use. Behavioural interventions should directly address how embedded transactional sex is in sexual culture. PMID:20429913

  1. Cost Evaluation of Reproductive and Primary Health Care Mobile Service Delivery for Women in Two Rural Districts in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Schnippel, Kathryn; Lince-Deroche, Naomi; van den Handel, Theo; Molefi, Seithati; Bruce, Suann; Firnhaber, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer screening is a critical health service that is often unavailable to women in under-resourced settings. In order to expand access to this and other reproductive and primary health care services, a South African non-governmental organization established a van-based mobile clinic in two rural districts in South Africa. To inform policy and budgeting, we conducted a cost evaluation of this service delivery model. Methods The evaluation was retrospective (October 2012–September 2013 for one district and April–September 2013 for the second district) and conducted from a provider cost perspective. Services evaluated included cervical cancer screening, HIV counselling and testing, syndromic management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), breast exams, provision of condoms, contraceptives, and general health education. Fixed costs, including vehicle purchase and conversion, equipment, operating costs and mobile clinic staffing, were collected from program records and public sector pricing information. The number of women accessing different services was multiplied by ingredients-based variable costs, reflecting the consumables required. All costs are reported in 2013 USD. Results Fixed costs accounted for most of the total annual costs of the mobile clinics (85% and 94% for the two districts); the largest contributor to annual fixed costs was staff salaries. Average costs per patient were driven by the total number of patients seen, at $46.09 and $76.03 for the two districts. Variable costs for Pap smears were higher than for other services provided, and some services, such as breast exams and STI and tuberculosis symptoms screening, had no marginal cost. Conclusions Staffing costs are the largest component of providing mobile health services to rural communities. Yet, in remote areas where patient volumes do not exceed nursing staff capacity, incorporating multiple services within a cervical cancer screening program is an approach to

  2. Participatory action research (PAR): an approach for improving black women's health in rural and remote communities.

    PubMed

    Etowa, Josephine B; Bernard, Wanda Thomas; Oyinsan, Bunmi; Clow, Barbara

    2007-10-01

    Women are among the most disadvantaged members of any community, and they tend to be at greatest risk of illness. Black women are particularly vulnerable and more prone than White women to illnesses associated with social and economic deprivation, including heart disease and diabetes. They utilize preventive health services less often, and when they fall ill, the health of their families and communities typically suffers as well. This article discusses the process of doing innovative participatory action research (PAR) in southwest Nova Scotia Black communities. The effort resulted in the generation of a database, community action, and interdisciplinary analysis of the intersecting inequities that compromise the health and health care of African Canadian women, their families, and their communities. This particular research effort serves as a case study for explicating the key tenets of PAR and the barriers to and contradictions in implementing PAR in a community-academic collaborative research project.

  3. Patterns of Change and Continuity in the Language Attitudes of Several Generations in Two Bilingual Spanish Communities: The Rural Regions of Els Ports and Matarranya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez Martinez, Juan; Blas Arroyo, Jose Luis

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the language attitudes in the adjacent regions of Els Ports (in the province of Castellon, Spain) and Matarranya (in the province of Teruel, Spain) using the matched-guise technique shows that in both areas, Catalan and Spanish coexist today in a diglossic situation in which Catalan has instrumental values that are lower than those…

  4. Adverse mental health outcomes associated with emotional abuse in young rural South African women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jewkes, Rachel; Hoffman, Susie; Dunkle, Kristen L.; Nduna, Mzikazi; Shai, Nwabisa J.

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of data on the prevalence of emotional abuse in youth. The aim of this study was thus to estimate the prevalence of emotional abuse in intimate partnerships among young women in rural South Africa and to measure the association between lifetime experience of emotional abuse (with and without the combined experience of physical and/or sexual abuse) and adverse health outcomes. Between 2002 and 2003, young women from 70 villages were recruited to participate in the cluster randomized controlled trial of an HIV behavioural intervention, Stepping Stones. Data was obtained through the administration of a questionnaire at baseline. Of the 1293 women who had ever been partnered, 189 (14.6%) had experienced only emotional abuse in their lifetimes. Three hundred and sixty-six women (28.3%) experienced emotional abuse with physical and/or sexual abuse in their lifetimes, and one hundred and forty-four women (11.1%) experienced physical and/or sexual abuse without emotional abuse. Hazardous drinking was associated with the experience of physical and/or sexual abuse, with (OR 6.0, 95% CI 1.0 – 36.6) and without emotional abuse (OR 5.8, 95% CI 1.1 – 29.4). Illicit drug use (OR 5.6, 95% CI 2.4 – 12.6), having depressive symptoms (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.2 – 4.2), having psychological distress (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.4 – 2.6), and suicidality (OR 79.0, 95% CI 17.3 – 359.6) was associated with the experience of emotional abuse with physical and/or sexual abuse. Suicidality was also strongly associated with having experienced emotional abuse alone (OR 79.5, 95% CI 16.7 – 377.4). This study showed that emotionally abused young women had a greater risk of suicidality than those experiencing no abuse and that the combined experience of emotional with physical and/or sexual abuse was strongly associated with poor mental health outcomes. PMID:21987516

  5. [Spanish Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases guidelines on tuberculosis in pregnant women and neonates (ii): Prophylaxis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Baquero-Artigao, F; Mellado Peña, M J; del Rosal Rabes, T; Noguera Julián, A; Goncé Mellgren, A; de la Calle Fernández-Miranda, M; Navarro Gómez, M L

    2015-10-01

    In pregnant women who have been exposed to tuberculosis (TB), primary isoniazid prophylaxis is only recommended in cases of immunosuppression, chronic medical conditions or obstetric risk factors, and close and sustained contact with a patient with infectious TB. Isoniazid prophylaxis for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is recommended in women who have close contact with an infectious TB patient or have risk factors for progression to active disease. Otherwise, it should be delayed until at least three weeks after delivery. Treatment of TB disease during pregnancy is the same as for the general adult population. Infants born to mothers with disseminated or extrapulmonary TB in pregnancy, with active TB at delivery, or with postnatal exposure to TB, should undergo a complete diagnostic evaluation. Primary isoniazid prophylaxis for at least 12 weeks is recommended for those with negative diagnostic tests and no evidence of disease. Repeated negative diagnostic tests are mandatory before interrupting prophylaxis. Isoniazid for 9 months is recommended in LTBI. Treatment of neonatal TB disease is similar to that of older children, but should be maintained for at least 9 months. Respiratory isolation is recommended in congenital TB, and in postnatal TB with positive gastric or bronchial aspirate acid-fast smears. Separation of mother and infant is only necessary when the mother has received treatment for less than 2 weeks, is sputum smear-positive, or has drug-resistant TB. Breastfeeding is not contraindicated, and in case of mother-infant separation expressed breast milk feeding is recommended.

  6. Seasonality of energy expenditure during pregnancy and lactation for rural Nepali women.

    PubMed

    Panter-Brick, C

    1993-05-01

    Total energy expenditure (TEE) was estimated for 19 nonpregnant, nonlactating (NPNL) and 24 pregnant (P) or lactating (L) women from 3601 h of minute-by-minute observation and 168 measurements of the energy cost of activities. NPNL women significantly increased subsistence activity and TEE from 9.9 MJ [1.89 x basal metabolic rate (BMR)] in the winter to 10.5 MJ (2.01 x BMR) in the monsoon season. There were differences between NPNL,P, and L women in the winter, but not in the spring or monsoon season when all individuals sustained very heavy physical activity. High TEE values resulted from spending very long hours in tasks that, although appearing physically demanding to the casual observer, were characterized by light or moderate energy cost. The study highlights the importance of seasonal constraints on women's work, which prevent P and L women from significantly curtailing physical activity during the monsoon season, and which effectively limit the scope of behavioral mechanisms for saving energy and reducing TEE.

  7. Physical domestic violence and subsequent contraceptive adoption among women in rural India.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Rob; Jadhav, Apoorva; Hindin, Michelle

    2013-03-01

    This study examines the relationship between male to female physical domestic violence and contraceptive adoption among women in four economically and culturally distinct areas of India. Data from India's 1998-1999 National Family Health Survey-2 and a follow-up survey in 2002-2003 for which the same women in four states were reinterviewed are analyzed. The focus of the analysis is on how baseline exposure to physical domestic violence is associated with the intersurvey adoption of contraception. Women who experience physical violence from their husbands are significantly less likely to adopt contraception in the intersurvey period, although this relationship varies by State. This study builds upon previous work by using an indicator of physical domestic violence exposure that is measured before contraceptive adoption, thus allowing the identification of how exposure to violence shapes the adoption of contraception. The results demonstrate that for women living in Bihar and Jharkhand there is a clear negative relationship between physical domestic violence and a woman's adoption of contraception; this relationship was not found for women in Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. The results point to the need to include domestic violence screening and referral services into family planning services.

  8. Physical Domestic Violence and Subsequent Contraceptive Adoption Among Women in Rural India

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rob; Jadhav, Apoorva; Hindin, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between male to female physical domestic violence and contraceptive adoption among women in four economically and culturally distinct areas of India. Data from India’s 1998–1999 National Family Health Survey–2 and a follow-up survey in 2002–2003 for which the same women in four states were reinterviewed are analyzed. The focus of the analysis is on how baseline exposure to physical domestic violence is associated with the intersurvey adoption of contraception. Women who experience physical violence from their husbands are significantly less likely to adopt contraception in the intersurvey period, although this relationship varies by State. This study builds upon previous work by using an indicator of physical domestic violence exposure that is measured before contraceptive adoption, thus allowing the identification of how exposure to violence shapes the adoption of contraception. The results demonstrate that for women living in Bihar and Jharkhand there is a clear negative relationship between physical domestic violence and a woman’s adoption of contraception; this relationship was not found for women in Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. The results point to the need to include domestic violence screening and referral services into family planning services. PMID:23008052

  9. Moving beyond the mother-child dyad: women's education, child immunization, and the importance of context in rural India.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Sangeeta

    2005-09-01

    The argument that maternal education is critical for child health is commonplace in academic and policy discourse, although significant facets of the relationship remain empirically and theoretically challenged. While individual-level analyses consistently suggest that maternal education enhances child health outcomes, another body of literature argues that the observed causality at the individual-level may, in fact, be spurious. This study contributes to the debate by examining the contextual effects of women's education on children's immunization in rural districts of India. Multilevel analyses of data from the 1994 Human Development Profile Index and the 1991 district-level Indian Census demonstrate that a positive and significant relationship exists between the proportion of literate females in a district and a child's complete immunization status within that district, above and beyond the child's own mother's education as well as district-level socioeconomic development and healthcare amenities. However, results also indicate that the effect of maternal education cannot be downplayed. Thus, increasing women's literacy at the community level, in addition to mother's access to higher education-such as matriculation and beyond-at the individual-level, emerge as effective developmental tools.

  10. Maternal knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy in relation to intention to exclusively breastfeed among pregnant women in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Joan S; Yu, Elaine A; Tirmizi, Noor; Owais, Aatekah; Das, Sumon K; Rahman, Shahed; Faruque, A S G; Schwartz, Benjamin; Stein, Aryeh D

    2015-01-01

    Achieving optimal exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) remains a challenge. Because intention is a precursor of practice, we examined factors associated with EBF intention during pregnancy in two rural sub-districts of Kishoreganj district, Bangladesh. We studied 2,400 pregnant women in their third trimester (26-32 weeks gestation). We assessed knowledge (6 items, scale range 0-6), attitudes (15 items, scale range 15-75) and self-efficacy (6 items, scale range 6-30) by interview using a standardized questionnaire. 83.9 % of pregnant women reported EBF intention. Mean breastfeeding knowledge was 3.5 (SD 1.3), mean attitude was 55.8 (SD 8.1) and mean self-efficacy was 25.6 (SD 3.4). Knowledge was associated with EBF intention (OR 2.47, 95 % CI 1.74, 3.51), attitudes toward EBF (OR 1.68, 95 % CI 1.31, 2.16) and self-efficacy (OR 1.72, 95 % CI 1.23, 2.40) were independently associated with EBF intention in the model in which all three constructs were entered simultaneously. Receipt of breastfeeding counseling during pregnancy and being literate were each associated with EBF knowledge and EBF intention (all p < 0.05). Increasing maternal knowledge, positive attitudes, and self-efficacy regarding EBF were associated with prenatal EBF intention. These results reinforce the importance of appropriate counseling to increase EBF prevalence .

  11. Effects of husbands' migration on mental health and gender role ideology of rural Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, Jared A; Yamawaki, Niwako; Downs, Samuel D

    2009-07-01

    Our purpose for this study was to investigate the roles of migration in rural Mexican migrant-sending communities. Specifically, we examined the effects of changing gender role ideology on the mental health of wives whose spouses migrated to the United States. The sending group scored significantly higher in egalitarian gender role ideology but lower in general mental health than the nonsending group. We found through mediation analysis that the difference in gender role ideology mediated the difference in mental health between the two groups. Results are contrary to some psychological and feminist literature advocating benefits of masculine or androgynous ideology.

  12. Prevalence and predictors of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in a population-based sample of women in rural Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Asiimwe, Stephen; Whalen, Christopher C; Tisch, Daniel J; Tumwesigye, Elioda; Sethi, Ajay K

    2010-01-01

    Summary High-risk genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is aetiologically linked to cervical cancer; however, data on the prevalence and determinants of high-risk HPV infection in Uganda are limited. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey among 18–49-year-old women in rural Southwest Uganda. The primary outcome was presence or absence of high-risk HPV DNA (for genotypes 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 or 68) in the genital secretions as determined by HPV DNA Hybrid Capture 2 assay (Digene Corp, Beltsville, MD, USA). In 314 women who participated, the prevalence of high-risk HPV was 17.2% (54/314; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 13–21). Older women had a lower proportion of high-risk HPV infection; with a 9% decrease in the odds ratio (OR) of high-risk HPV infection per year increase in age (OR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.86, 0.96). The odds of detecting high-risk HPV infection was higher among women who were previously tested positive for HIV (OR = 12.1; 95% CI: 2.8, 52.3). In this population of rural Ugandan women, the prevalence of high-risk cervical HPV infection was high. Information on predictors of high-risk HPV infection and intention to receive a vaccine can guide future immunization initiatives for young sexually active women. PMID:18725551

  13. Women's NutriBusiness Cooperatives in Kenya: An Integrated Strategy for Sustaining Rural Livelihoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maretzki, Audrey N.

    2007-01-01

    With funding provided by the Center for Higher Education of the United States Agency for International Development, The Pennsylvania State University and Tuskegee University collaborated with the University of Nairobi in establishing women's NutriBusiness Cooperatives in the Rift Valley and Central Provinces of Kenya. Between 1992 and 1999, the…

  14. Voices of Women Teachers about Gender Inequalities and Gender-Based Violence in Rural South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia; Bhana, Deevia

    2012-01-01

    Gender-based violence is a reality in many societies and is linked to the spread of HIV and AIDS. There have been numerous studies that have attempted to acquire an understanding of the breadth and depth of the issues around gender-based violence. However, one area that has received scant attention is the voices of women teachers. Thus, in this…

  15. Breast Cancer--Screening Behavior among Rural California American Indian Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Felicia Schanche

    2009-01-01

    A community-based Wellness Circles Program was designed and implemented at 13 sites in California to evaluate a culturally appropriate community-based health care model for American Indian families. Data obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) that was administered to a subset of women demonstrate that American Indian…

  16. The Relationship between Food Insecurity and Obesity in Rural Childbearing Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Christine M.; Strawderman, Myla S.

    2008-01-01

    Context: While food insecurity and obesity have been shown to be positively associated in women, little is known about the direction of the causal relationship between these 2 constructs. Purpose: To clarify the direction of the causal relationship between food insecurity and obesity. Methods: Chi-square and logistic regression analysis of data…

  17. Women's political participation and health: a health capability study in rural India.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Candace H; Darmstadt, Gary L; Kumar, Vishwajeet; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the relationship between women's political participation and health has eluded researchers and cannot be adequately studied using traditional epidemiological or social scientific methodologies. We employed a health capability framework to understand dimensions of health agency to illuminate how local political economies affect health. Exploiting a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a community-based behavior change management intervention in northern India, we conducted a qualitative study with semistructured, in-depth focus groups in both intervention and nonintervention villages. We presented scenarios to each group regarding the limitations and motivations involved in women's political participation and health. Thematic analysis focused on four domains of health agency -- participation, autonomy, self-efficacy, and health systems -- relevant for understanding the relationship between political participation and health. Elder women demonstrated the greatest sense of self-efficacy and as a group cited the largest number of successful health advocacy efforts. Participation in an associated community-based neonatal intervention had varying effects, showing some differences in self-efficacy, but only rare improvements in participation, autonomy, or health system functioning. Better understanding of cultural norms surrounding autonomy, the local infrastructure and health system, and male and female perceptions of political participation and self-efficacy are needed to improve women's health agency. For a community-based participatory health intervention to improve health capability effectively, explicit strategies focused on health agency should be as central as health indicators.

  18. A geographical perspective on access to sexual and reproductive health care for women in rural Africa

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jing; Murray, Alan T.; Agadjanian, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Utilization of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services can significantly impact health outcomes, such as pregnancy and birth, prenatal and neonatal mortality, maternal morbidity and mortality, and vertical transmission of infectious diseases like HIV/AIDS. It has long been recognized that access to SRH services is essential to positive health outcomes, especially in rural areas of developing countries, where long distances as well as poor transportation conditions, can be potential barriers to health care acquisition. Improving accessibility of health services for target populations is therefore critical for specialized healthcare programs. Thus, understanding and evaluation of current access to health care is crucial. Combining spatial information using geographical information system (GIS) with population survey data, this study details a gravity model-based method to measure and evaluate access to SRH services in rural Mozambique, and analyzes potential geographic access to such services, using family planning as an example. Access is found to be a significant factor in reported behavior, superior to traditional distance-based indicators. Spatial disparities in geographic access among different population groups also appear to exist, likely affecting overall program success. PMID:24034952

  19. [Spanish Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases guidelines on tuberculosis in pregnant women and neonates (i): Epidemiology and diagnosis. Congenital tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Baquero-Artigao, F; Mellado Peña, M J; Del Rosal Rabes, T; Noguera Julián, A; Goncé Mellgren, A; de la Calle Fernández-Miranda, M; Navarro Gómez, M L

    2015-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) screening in pregnancy using tuberculin skin test (TST) is recommended in case of symptoms of TB disease, close contact with a patient with infectious TB, or high risk of developing active disease. The new interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) tests are recommended in BCG-vaccinated pregnant women with positive TST and no known risk factors for TB, and in those immunocompromised, with clinical suspicion of TB but negative TST. TB diagnosis is difficult due to the non-specific symptoms, the increased frequency of extrapulmonary disease, the delay in radiological examinations, and the high rate of tuberculin anergy. Neonatal TB can be acquired in utero (congenital TB), or through airborne transmission after delivery (postnatal TB). Congenital TB is extremely rare and does not cause fetal malformations. It may be evident at birth, although it usually presents after the second week of life. In newborns with no family history of TB, the disease should be considered in cases of miliary pneumonia, hepatosplenomegaly with focal lesions, or lymphocytic meningitis with hypoglycorrhachia, especially in those born to immigrants from high TB-burden countries. TST is usually negative, and IGRAs have lower sensitivity than in older children. However, the yield of acid-fast smear and culture is higher, mostly in congenital TB. Molecular diagnosis techniques enable early diagnosis and detection of drug resistance mutations. There is a substantial risk of disseminated disease and death.

  20. Social support during delivery in rural central Ghana: a mixed methods study of women's preferences for and against inclusion of a lay companion in the delivery room.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Amir; Mustafa, Aesha; Emil, Sarah A V; Amekah, Ebenezer; Engmann, Cyril; Adanu, Richard; Moyer, Cheryl A

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to explore pregnant women's attitudes towards the inclusion of a lay companion as a source of social support during labour and delivery in rural central Ghana. Quantitative demographic and pregnancy-related data were collected from 50 pregnant women presenting for antenatal care at a rural district hospital and analysed using STATA/IC 11.1. Qualitative attitudinal questions were collected from the same women through semi-structured interviews; data were analysed using NVivo 9.0. Twenty-nine out of 50 women (58%) preferred to have a lay companion during facility-based labour and delivery, whereas 21 (42%) preferred to deliver alone with the nurses in a facility. Women desiring a companion were younger, had more antenatal care visits, had greater educational attainment and were likely to be experiencing their first delivery. Women varied in the type of companion they prefer (male partner vs female relative). What was expected in terms of social support differed based upon the type of companion. Male companions were expected to provide emotional support and to 'witness her pain'. Female companions were expected to provide emotional support as well as instrumental, informational and appraisal support. Three qualitative themes were identified that run counter to the inclusion of a lay helper: fear of an evil-spirited companion, a companion not being necessary or helpful, and being 'too shy' of a companion. This research challenges the assumption of a unilateral desire for social support during labour and delivery, and suggests that women differ in the type of companion and type of support they prefer during facility deliveries. Future research is needed to determine the direction of the relationship--whether women desire certain types of support and thus choose companions they believe can meet those needs, or whether women desire a certain companion and adjust their expectations accordingly.

  1. The use of PHC clinic-based women's groups for financial empowerment in a rural area.

    PubMed

    Uys, L R; Bhengu, B R; Majumdar, B

    2006-03-01

    The article is based on a four-year project during which Primary Health Care (PHC) nurses worked with women's groups in their areas. The aim of the study was to explore the involvement of PHC nurses in economic empowerment, both in terms of health promotion and in terms of the PHC approach. In particular the objectives were to establish whether nurses could lead economic empowerment groups, whether such groups could establish adequate external links and become financially viable. Eleven groups were used as case studies, and a cross-case analysis was done in terms of the three objectives. It was found that between the women and the nurses, adequate leadership existed for the groups to function well. Very limited external linkages were established, notwithstanding efforts in this regard. Nine out of 11 groups contributed to financial welfare of their members after 18 months, but a range of problems with regard to financial viability are identified.

  2. Effects of social support and spirituality on weight loss for rural African-American women.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sanggon

    2013-01-01

    Obesity continues to be an increasing health problem among African-American women. A 10-week weight-loss intervention program designed to address the problem in these women. Two different interventions (spiritually based and nonspiritually based) were tested, and both utilized a pre-test, posttest design On the basis of theories of social support, it was expected that participation in the intervention would produce a significant reduction in weight. In addition, the spiritual-based weight-loss program was hypothesized to produce greater weight reduction than the standard health (non-spiritual) program. The results demonstrated that the average weight and BMI of all participants in either a spiritually-based or a nonspiritually-based program were lower at the completion of the intervention program. In addition, the average weight and BMI loss for the spiritual group was significantly greater than the average weight and BMI loss for the non-spiritual group.

  3. Association of Living Arrangement Conditions and Socioeconomic Differentials with Anemia Status among Women in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shangfeng; Hossain, Akmal; Fan, Yang; Akter, Mahmuda

    2016-01-01

    In Bangladesh, iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia and remains a significant public health concern. Being a high anemia prevalent country, numerous efforts have been made to confront the issue especially among women and children by both local and international actors. Though the situation has substantially improved in recent years, a staggering number of adult women are currently living with anemia. The etiology of anemia is a multifactorial problem and has been proposed to be associated with various household, societal, economic, cultural factors apart from dietary habits. However, evidence regarding the household arrangements and socioeconomic determinants of anemia is scarce, especially in the context of Bangladesh. To this end, we utilized the 2011 demographic and health survey data to explore the association between anemia status and selected demographic, socioeconomic, and household characteristics. Our result showed significant correlation of anemia with both sociodemographic and household characteristics. Among the sociodemographic variables the following were found to be significantly associated with anemia status: age (p = 0.014; OR = 1.195; 95% CI = 1.036–1.378) and microcredit membership (p = 0.014; OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.037–1.386). Regarding the household arrangements, women utilizing biomass fuel for cooking (p < 0.019; OR = 1.82; 95% CI = 0.981–2.460) were more likely to be anemic. PMID:27517045

  4. Social capital and women's reduced vulnerability to HIV infection in rural Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Gregson, Simon; Mushati, Phyllis; Grusin, Harry; Nhamo, Mercy; Schumacher, Christina; Skovdal, Morten; Nyamukapa, Constance; Campbell, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Social capital—especially through its “network” dimension (high levels of participation in local community groups)—is thought to be an important determinant of health in many contexts. We investigate its effect on HIV prevention, using prospective data from a general population cohort in eastern Zimbabwe spanning a period of extensive behavior change (1998–2003). Almost half of the initially uninfected women interviewed were members of at least one community group. In an analysis of 88 communities, individuals with higher levels of community group participation had lower incidence of new HIV infections and more of them had adopted safer behaviors, although these effects were largely accounted for by differences in socio-demographic composition. Individual women in community groups had lower HIV incidence and more extensive behavior change, even after controlling for confounding factors. Community group membership was not associated with lower HIV incidence in men, possibly refecting a propensity among men to participate in groups that allow them to develop and demonstrate their masculine identities—often at the expense of their health. Support for women's community groups could be an effective HIV prevention strategy in countries with large-scale HIV epidemics.

  5. Stakeholders' views on maternity care shortcomings in rural Ghana: An ethnographic study among women, providers, public, and quasiprivate policy sector actors.

    PubMed

    Ayanore, Martin Amogre; Pavlova, Milena; Biesma, Regien; Groot, Wim

    2017-04-06

    Access to skilled provider and emergency obstetric care is not universal across all districts in Ghana. The lived experiences of 3 stakeholder groups on maternity care shortcomings in 3 rural Ghanaian districts are examined in this study. We applied an ethnographic study approach where field data were collected between March to May 2015 in 3 rural districts of northern Ghana. Data were collected among women with recent births experiences (n = 90), health care providers (n = 16), and policy actors (n = 6). Transcripts were read through to identify similar and divergent stakeholders' views. Significant expressions and experiences of stakeholders on maternity care shortcomings were extracted and evaluated to define key themes. Four themes emerged: social/community factors, payments for health care, facility level factors, and policy level factors. The results show that traditional women's roles divest time for maternity care. Poor transport arrangements, insufficient health workforce, health funding gaps, insurance reimbursements delays, and catastrophic health expenditures on travel and drugs are attested as major barriers across all stakeholder groups in all districts studied. The discussion of the study findings suggests it is important to ascertain the scale of informal payments and their impacts on health access. Investments in health workforce and reliable ambulatory service systems could help address poor referral difficulties in rural areas of the country. Social support for community initiatives that pool funds could provide extra resources and relieve cost access-related challenges for using maternity care in rural settings in Ghana.

  6. Comparative analyses of stressors experienced by rural low-income pregnant women experiencing intimate partner violence and those who are not

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Shreya; Levitch, Alison; Ellis, Kathleen; Ball, Katharine; Everett, Kevin; Geden, Elizabeth; Bullock, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Objective To describe the daily lives of rural pregnant women who smoked during pregnancy, with a focus on their sources of stress and the compounding effects of intimate partner violence (IPV). Design A qualitative study using content analysis of research nurse’s telephone logs from a large smoking cessation randomized controlled trial (N = 695) in which 33% of the sample (n = 227) experienced IPV in the past year. Participants Fifty pregnant women, 25 who had experienced IPV in the past year and 25 who had never experienced IPV, were randomly selected from those who received a nurse-delivered telephone intervention for smoking cessation (n = 345). The mean age of the sample was 22 years, and the majority were White and living in a married-like relationship. Results Women experiencing IPV discussed certain stressors significantly more often than non-abused women. These stressors included finances, lack of social support, legal issues, transportation issues, and abuse by the intimate partner and others. Conclusion Health care providers need to recognize that intimate partner violence creates a stress which can compound the stressors of pregnancy and poverty in rural areas. Offering these women a chance to talk about their lives can help them not only to locate necessary resources, but also to break down the barriers of isolation. PMID:18754988

  7. Cash and in-kind transfers lead to excess weight gain in a population of women with a high prevalence of overweight in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Jef L; Gadsden, Paola; González de Cossío, Teresa; Gertler, Paul

    2013-03-01

    There is a growing concern that food or cash transfer programs may contribute to overweight and obesity in adults. We studied the impact of Mexico's Programa de Apoyo Alimentario (PAL), which provided very poor rural households with cash or in-kind transfers, on women's body weight. A random sample of 208 rural communities in southern Mexico was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: food basket with or without health and nutrition education, cash with education, or control. The impact on women's weight was estimated in a cohort of 3010 women using a difference-in-difference model. We compared the impact between the food basket and cash groups and evaluated whether the impact was modified by women's BMI status at baseline. With respect to the control group, the program increased women's weight in the food basket (550 ± 210 g; P = 0.004) and the cash group (420 ± 230 g; P = 0.032); this was equivalent to 70 and 53% increases in weight gain, respectively, over that observed in the control group in a 23-mo time period. The greatest impact was found in already obese women: 980 ± 290 g in the food basket group (P = 0.001) and 670 ± 320 g in the cash group (P = 0.019). Impact was marginally significant in women with a preprogram BMI between 25 and 30 kg/m2: 490 ± 310 g (P = 0.055) and 540 ± 360 g (P = 0.067), respectively. No program impact was found in women with a BMI <25 kg/m2. Providing households with a considerable amount of unrestricted resources led to excess weight gain in an already overweight population. Research is needed to develop cost-effective behavior change communication strategies to complement cash and in-kind transfer programs such as PAL and to help beneficiaries choose healthy diets that improve the nutritional status of all family members.

  8. Prenatal lipid-based nutrient supplements increase cord leptin concentration in pregnant women from rural Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Huybregts, Lieven; Roberfroid, Dominique; Lanou, Hermann; Meda, Nicolas; Taes, Youri; Valea, Innocent; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Camp, John

    2013-05-01

    In developing countries, prenatal lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) were shown to increase birth size; however, the mechanism of this effect remains unknown. Cord blood hormone concentrations are strongly associated with birth size. Therefore, we hypothesize that LNSs increase birth size through a change in the endocrine regulation of fetal development. We compared the effect of daily prenatal LNSs with multiple micronutrient tablets on cord blood hormone concentrations using a randomized, controlled design including 197 pregnant women from rural Burkina Faso. Insulin-like growth factors (IGF) I and II, their binding proteins IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3, leptin, cortisol, and insulin were quantified in cord sera using immunoassays. LNS was associated with higher cord blood leptin mainly in primigravidae (+57%; P = 0.02) and women from the highest tertile of BMI at study inclusion (+41%; P = 0.02). We did not find any significant LNS effects on other measured cord hormones. The observed increase in cord leptin was associated with a significantly higher birth weight. Cord sera from small-for-gestational age newborns had lower median IGF-I (-9 μg/L; P = 0.003), IGF-II (-79 μg/L; P = 0.003), IGFBP-3 (-0.7 μg/L; P = 0.007), and leptin (-1.0 μg/L; P = 0.016) concentrations but higher median cortisol (+18 μg/L; P = 0.037) concentrations compared with normally grown newborns. Prenatal LNS resulted in increased cord leptin concentrations in primigravidae and mothers with higher BMI at study inclusion. The elevated leptin concentrations could point toward a higher neonatal fat mass.

  9. La Dicha de Los Libros--Children's Books in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schon, Isabel

    2000-01-01

    Reviews a collection of high-quality books in Spanish which can help encourage Spanish-speaking children and adolescents to read. From creative books for the very young to the lives of famous women, to fantasies and animated traditional tales, these recently published books are designed to appeal to Spanish speakers and those wishing to learn…

  10. Factors influencing local food procurement among women of reproductive age in rural eastern and western North Carolina, USA.

    PubMed

    McGuirt, Jared T; Ward, Rachel; Elliott, Nadya Majette; Bullock, Sally Lawrence; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B

    Little is known about the barriers and facilitators to local food procurement among women of reproductive age (WRA). Therefore we conducted qualitative interviews with WRA in rural eastern and western NC (ENC and WNC) to learn of factors related to locally sourced food procurement. In-depth interviews were conducted among low-income White, Black, and Hispanic English-speaking WRA (N=62 (ENC: 37; WNC: 23) (18-44 years)). Independent coders used a consensus codebook to double-code all transcripts. Coders then came together to discuss and resolve coding discrepancies, and identified themes and salient quotes. Cross-cutting themes from both ENC and WNC participants included access to local food sources; acceptance of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program/Electronic Benefit Transfer (SNAP/EBT); freshness of produce; support for local agriculture; and the community aspect of local food sourcing. The in-depth understanding gained from this study could be used to guide tailored policy and intervention efforts aimed at promoting fruit and vegetable consumption among low-income WRA.

  11. Factors influencing local food procurement among women of reproductive age in rural eastern and western North Carolina, USA

    PubMed Central

    McGuirt, Jared T.; Ward, Rachel; Elliott, Nadya Majette; Bullock, Sally Lawrence; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the barriers and facilitators to local food procurement among women of reproductive age (WRA). Therefore we conducted qualitative interviews with WRA in rural eastern and western NC (ENC and WNC) to learn of factors related to locally sourced food procurement. In-depth interviews were conducted among low-income White, Black, and Hispanic English-speaking WRA (N=62 (ENC: 37; WNC: 23) (18–44 years)). Independent coders used a consensus codebook to double-code all transcripts. Coders then came together to discuss and resolve coding discrepancies, and identified themes and salient quotes. Cross-cutting themes from both ENC and WNC participants included access to local food sources; acceptance of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program/Electronic Benefit Transfer (SNAP/EBT); freshness of produce; support for local agriculture; and the community aspect of local food sourcing. The in-depth understanding gained from this study could be used to guide tailored policy and intervention efforts aimed at promoting fruit and vegetable consumption among low-income WRA. PMID:25664198

  12. Nitrogen-nitrate exposure from drinking water and colorectal cancer risk for rural women in Wisconsin, USA.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Jane A; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Gangnon, Ronald E; Hampton, John M; Bersch, Andrew J; Kanarek, Marty S; Newcomb, Polly A

    2008-09-01

    One unintentional result of widespread adoption of nitrogen application to croplands over the past 50 years has been nitrate contamination of drinking water with few studies evaluating the risk of colorectal cancer. In our population-based case-control study of 475 women age 20-74 years with colorectal cancer and 1447 community controls living in rural Wisconsin, drinking water nitrate exposure were interpolated to subjects residences based on measurements which had been taken as part of a separate water quality survey in 1994. Individual level risk factor data was gathered in 1990-1992 and 1999-2001. Logistic regression models estimated the risk of colorectal cancer for the study period, separately and pooled. In the pooled analyses, an overall colorectal cancer risk was not observed for exposure to nitrate-nitrogen in the highest category (> or =10 ppm) compared to the lowest category (<0.5 ppm). However, a 2.9 fold increase risk was observed for proximal colon cancer cases in the highest compared to the lowest category. Statistically significant increased distal colon or rectal cancer risk was not observed. These results suggest that if an association exists with nitrate-nitrogen exposure from residential drinking water consumption, it may be limited to proximal colon cancer.

  13. Child Survival Strategies: Assessment of Knowledge and Practice of Rural Women of Reproductive Age in Cross River State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Ofonime

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Nigeria is one of the five countries that account for about 50% of under-five mortality in the world. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice of child survival strategies among rural community caregivers in Cross River State of Nigeria. Materials and Methods. This descriptive cross-sectional survey used a pretested questionnaire to obtain information from 150 women of reproductive age. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 20. Results. The child survival strategy known to most of the respondents was oral rehydration therapy as indicated by 98% followed by female education by 73.3% and immunization by 67.3%. Only 20% of the respondents had adequate knowledge of frequency of weighing a child while only 32.7% knew that breastfeeding should be continued even if the child had diarrhea. More respondents with nonformal education (83.3%) practiced exclusive breastfeeding of their last children compared to respondents with primary education (77.3%), secondary education (74.2%), and tertiary education (72.2%). Conclusion. Although respondents demonstrated adequate knowledge and practice of most of the strategies, there was evidence of gaps, including myths and misconceptions that could mar efforts towards reducing child morbidity and mortality in the state. PMID:27807452

  14. Reaching Rural Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard van Leer Foundation Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter issue focuses on programming undertaken to address the health and educational needs of rural families in developing and developed nations. After examining the nature of rural families and rural poverty, the newsletter discusses: (1) the Mon Women's Organization in Thailand; (2) The "Contact With Kids" parent education…

  15. Qualitative analysis of human milk produced by women consuming a maize-predominant diet typical of rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villalpando, S; Butte, N F; Flores-Huerta, S; Thotathuchery, M

    1998-01-01

    The milk composition of women on a typical rural Mexican diet was compared with that secreted by American women, consuming a diet typical of affluent countries. Milk concentrations of free fatty acids, cholesterol, total amino acids, and selected key minerals were analyzed at 4 or 6 months postpartum. The total milk fat concentration was lower in the Otomi (22.7 +/- 6.7 mg/g milk) than in the American women (31.3 +/- 5.4 mg/g milk, p = 0.001). Although the absolute concentration did not differ, cholesterol, expressed in terms of total lipid, was higher in the Otomi milk (3.9 +/- 1.1 vs. 3.1 +/- 0.7 mg/g fat, p = 0.005). Saturated medium-chain (C10:0-C14:0) and unsaturated intermediate-chain fatty acids (C16:1 and C18:2) were higher in the Otomi than in the American milk (p < 0.03). The concentrations of C16:0, C18:0, and C18:1 were significantly lower in Otomi than in American milk. The milk concentrations of protein and nonprotein nitrogen were comparable between the two groups. The concentrations of serine, proline, cystine, methionine, and tryptophan were higher in the Otomi than in the American milk (p < 0.05-0.001). The concentrations of valine and isoleucine were significantly lower in the Otomi milk (p = 0.05). Expressed per gram of milk protein, the cystine, methionine, lysine, and tryptophan concentrations were higher, and the glutamine/glutamate, valine, isoleucine, and arginine levels were lower in the Otomi milk. The concentrations of phosphorus and copper were lower in the Otomi than in the American milk at 4 months postpartum (p = 0.05). These differences in milk fatty acid and amino acid patterns and mineral content are unlikely to affect infant growth, but may have other biological consequences yet to be ascertained.

  16. Rural Gambian women's reliance on health workers to deliver sulphadoxine – pyrimethamine as recommended intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Brabin, Loretta; Stokes, Elizabeth; Dumbaya, Isatou; Owens, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Background The use of most anti-malarial medications is restricted during pregnancy, but two doses of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine are recommended after the first trimester as intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp). In The Gambia, only 32% of women receive two doses and very little research has been conducted on women's awareness of drug safety during pregnancy. The objective of this paper was to assess whether rural Gambian women were aware of the importance of the timing of the two-dose IPT dose schedule and its relevance to drug safety. Methods This was a qualitative study in which 41 interviews and 16 focus group discussions with women, adolescents, men and traditional birth attendants were conducted. A generic qualitative approach was used to generate a theory as to why women might not participate in IPTp as recommended. Results Although most women used calendar months to count their stage of pregnancy, these months did not correlate with their concept of foetal development. Foetal growth was described following Islamic tradition as water, clot, piece of meat and human being, although there was little consensus about the order or timing in which these stages occurred. Common signs and conditions of malaria were known. Women were anxious about miscarriage and recognized that some medicines should not be taken in the first trimester, but were urged by men and traditional birth attendants to attend for antenatal care in the first trimester to "start treatment." General knowledge about the purpose of pregnancy medications and when they should be taken was poor among both men and women. One important result was that women relied entirely on health workers to provide safe drugs, at the correct time. Conclusion Women did not have relevant information to judge the safety and appropriate timing of pregnancy drugs, which made them over-reliant on health workers. They should be encouraged to date their own pregnancies in culturally relevant terms and to

  17. Spanish Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Anne; Wilson, Mary Ellen

    1995-01-01

    Provides instructional strategies and materials designed to introduce students to Spanish art. Includes four lesson plans with student objectives, background information, and step-by-step instructional procedures. Also includes four full-page color reproductions of paintings by Murillo, Picasso, El Greco, and de Goya. (CFR)

  18. Reproductive coercion and intimate partner violence among rural women in Côte d'Ivoire: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Falb, Kathryn L; Annan, Jeannie; Kpebo, Denise; Gupta, Jhumka

    2014-12-01

    A growing body of U.S.-based research demonstrates that reproductive coercion is an important consideration regarding the negative health impacts of intimate partner violence (IPV). However, less work on IPV and reproductive coercion has been done in West African settings. Cross-sectional data of 981 women who participated in the baseline survey of a randomized-controlled trial in rural, Côte d'Ivoire in October 2010 were analyzed for specific reports of reproductive coercion. Half (49.8%) of all women reported lifetime physical or sexual IPV, and nearly 1 in 5 (18.6%) reported experiencing reproductive coercion. In the final adjusted analyses, lifetime IPV was associated with a 3.7 increase in odds of reporting reproductive coercion (95% CI: 2.4-5.8) compared to women who did not report such victimization. Study findings underscore the importance of reducing IPV in order to improve reproductive health among women in rural Côte d'Ivoire.

  19. Incidence of and Factors for Self-reported Fragility Fractures Among Middle-aged and Elderly Women in Rural Korea: An 11-Year Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Soon-Ki; Kam, Sin; Chun, Byung-Yeol

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This community-based cohort study was performed to investigate the incidence of and factors related to self-reported fragility fractures among middle-aged and elderly women living in rural Korea. Methods: The osteoporosis cohort recruited 430 women 40 to 69 years old in 1999, and 396 of these women were followed over 11 years. In 1999, questionnaires from all participants assessed general characteristics, medical history, lifestyle, menstrual and reproductive characteristics, and bone mineral density. In 2010, self-reported fractures and the date, site, and cause of these fractures were recorded. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs). Results: Seventy-six participants among 3949.7 person-years experienced fragility fractures during the 11-year follow-up. The incidence of fragility fractures was 1924.2 per 100 000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 1491.6 to 2356.8). In the multivariate model, low body mass index (HR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.13 to 6.24), a parental history of osteoporosis (HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.18 to 3.49), and postmenopausal status (HR, 3.50; 95% CI, 1.05 to 11.67) were significantly related to fragility fracture. Conclusions: Fracture prevention programs are needed among postmenopausal, rural, Korean women with a low body mass index and parental history of osteoporosis Korea. PMID:25274003

  20. The utilization of antenatal care among rural-to-urban migrant women in Shanghai:a hospital-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Improving utilization of antenatal care is a critical strategy for achieving China’s Millennium Development Goal of decreasing the maternal mortality ratio (MMR). While overall utilization has increased recently in China, an urban vs. rural disparity in access remains. Here we aim to assess utilization of antenatal care in rural-to-urban migrant women and identify its risk and protective factors. Methods Migrant women who had been living in Shanghai for more than six months, delivered in one of the two study hospitals between August 2009 and February 2010, and provided written consent were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Results Of 767 women, 90.1% (691) made at least one antenatal care visit, while 49.7% (381) had adequately utilized antenatal care (i.e., made five or more antenatal care visits). Only 19.7% of women visited an antenatal care center during the first trimester (12 weeks). Women between the ages of 25 and 30 and women older than 30 were more likely than younger women to have adequately utilized antenatal care (AOR=2.2 and 1.9, 95%CI=1.4-3.5 and 1.1-3.2, respectively). Women whose husbands held Shanghai residency status (AOR=4.9, 95%CI=2.2-10.9) or who had more than 10 years of education (AOR=1.8, 95%CI=1.2-2.9), previously experienced a miscarriage or abortion (AOR=2.2, 95%CI=1.3-3.8), had higher household income (AOR=1.6, 95%CI=1.0-2.5) were more likely to have adequately utilized antenatal care. Women from high-income households were also more likely to receive antenatal care during the first 12 weeks (AOR=3.5, 95%CI=1.7-5.5). Conclusions Many migrant women in Shanghai did not receive adequate antenatal care and initiated antenatal care later than the optimal first 12 weeks of pregnancy. Poor antenatal care utilization was associated with low socioeconomic status, education, and certain demographic factors. Tailored health education for both migrant women and their husbands should be strengthened to improve maternal

  1. Women's dietary diversity scores and childhood anthropometric measurements as indices of nutrition insecurity along the urban–rural continuum in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Chagomoka, Takemore; Drescher, Axel; Glaser, Rüdiger; Marschner, Bernd; Schlesinger, Johannes; Nyandoro, George

    2016-01-01

    Background Malnutrition is still prevalent worldwide, and its severity, which differs between regions and countries, has led to international organisations proposing its inclusion in the global development framework that will succeed the Millennium Development Goals (post-2015 framework). In Sub-Saharan Africa, malnutrition is particularly severe, among women and children under 5 years. The prevalence of malnutrition has been reported worldwide, differing from region to region and country to country. Nevertheless, little is known about how malnutrition differs between multiple locations along an urban–rural continuum. Objective A survey was carried out in and around Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, between August and September 2014 to map household nutrition insecurity along the urban–rural continuum, using a transect approach to guide the data collection. Design Transects of 70 km long and 2 km wide directed radially from the city centre outwards were laid, and data were collected from randomly selected households along these transects. Women's dietary diversity scores (WDDSs) were calculated from a sample of 179 women of reproductive age (15–49 years) from randomly selected households. Additionally, anthropometric data (height/length and weight) of 133 children under 5 years of age were collected along the same transects for the computation of anthropometric indices. Results We found that relative proportions of the nutrition indices such as stunting, wasting and underweight varied across the urban–rural continuum. Rural households (15%) had the highest relative proportion of WDDS compared with urban households (11%) and periurban households (8%). There was a significant association between children under 5 years’ nutritional status (wasting, stunting and underweight) and spatial location (p=0.023). The level of agricultural activities is a possible indicator of wasting in children aged 6–59 months (p=0.032). Conclusion Childhood undernutrition certainly

  2. Women's work in farming, child feeding practices and nutritional status among under-five children in rural Rukwa, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nordang, Sunniva; Shoo, Tiransia; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Kinabo, Joyce; Wandel, Margareta

    2015-11-28

    Some progress has been achieved in reducing the prevalence of undernutrition among children under 5 years of age in Tanzania. In the Rukwa region (2010), the level of stunted and underweight children was 50·4 and 13·5 %, respectively. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status of children under 5 years of age, feeding practices and risk factors of undernutrition in a rural village in the Rukwa region, as well as to discuss the results in light of a similar study conducted in 1987/1988. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 152 households with children under 5 years of age. Data were obtained from the child's main caretaker and the household head, using a structured questionnaire and a 24 h dietary recall. Children's length/height and weight were measured. The prevalence of stunting and underweight was found to be 63·8 and 33·6 % (Z-score<-2 of WHO 2006 CGS), respectively. Sugar-water was given to 72·3 % of the children on the first day after birth. A thin gruel was introduced after a median of 2 months (25th-75th percentiles; 1-3). The time mothers spent farming was a significant risk factor for stunting (P=0·04). Illness, food shortage and dry-season cultivation were significant risk factors for underweight (P<0·01). Using the NCHS/WHO 1983 growth reference (<75 % of the median), the prevalence of underweight was 25·0 %, similar to that reported in 1987/1988 (26·4 %). In conclusion, the underweight prevalence was found to be at the same level in 2010 as was recorded in 1987/1988. Current child-feeding practices were not in line with WHO recommendations. Women working in farms, food shortage, dry-season cultivation and diseases partly explain the children's poor nutritional status.

  3. Validation of the Mexican-Spanish version of the EORTC QLQ-C30 and BR23 questionnaires to assess health-related quality of life in Mexican women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cerezo, O; Oñate-Ocaña, L F; Arrieta-Joffe, P; González-Lara, F; García-Pasquel, M J; Bargalló-Rocha, E; Vilar-Compte, D

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the Mexican-Spanish version of The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-BR23 questionnaire. The translation procedure followed EORTC guidelines. QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 instruments were completed by Mexican women with breast cancer, attending a teaching referral cancer centre from February 2009 to January 2010. Patients were divided in two groups: (1) Patients with early stage of breast cancer; and (2) Patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). Reliability and validity tests were performed, and validity over time (responsiveness) was conducted in a subset of patients. Two hundred and thirty-four women (mean age, 52.3 years) completed both questionnaires. Convergent and divergent validity was adequate. Cronbach's alpha of all multi-item scales showed values ≥0.7 except for Cognitive and Breast symptoms scales (0.52 and 0.65 respectively). Patients with early stages (n= 77) showed better functional scores and lower symptoms scores than patients with LABC (n= 157). Score means variation after responsiveness analysis demonstrated high sensitivity to change after breast cancer surgery. The Mexican-Spanish version of the EORTC QLQ-BR23 questionnaire is a valid and suitable instrument to estimate HRQL in patients with breast cancer.

  4. Impact of obesity-related genes in Spanish population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective was to investigate the association between BMI and single nucleotide polymorphisms previously identified of obesity-related genes in two Spanish populations. Forty SNPs in 23 obesity-related genes were evaluated in a rural population characterized by a high prevalence of obesity (869 subjects, mean age 46 yr, 62% women, 36% obese) and in an urban population (1425 subjects, mean age 54 yr, 50% women, 19% obese). Genotyping was assessed by using SNPlex and PLINK for the association analysis. Results Polymorphisms of the FTO were significantly associated with BMI, in the rural population (beta 0.87, p-value <0.001). None of the other SNPs showed significant association after Bonferroni correction in the two populations or in the pooled analysis. A weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) was constructed using the risk alleles of the Tag-SNPs with a positive Beta parameter in both populations. From the first to the fifth quintile of the score, the BMI increased 0.45 kg/m2 in Hortega and 2.0 kg/m2 in Pizarra. Overall, the obesity predictive value was low (less than 1%). Conclusion The risk associated with polymorphisms is low and the overall effect on BMI or obesity prediction is minimal. A weighted genetic risk score based on genes mainly acting through central nervous system mechanisms was associated with BMI but it yields minimal clinical prediction for the obesity risk in the general population. PMID:24267414

  5. The knowledge and attitudes of breast self-examination and mammography in a group of women in a rural area in western Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Dündar, Pınar Erbay; Özmen, Dilek; Öztürk, Beyhan; Haspolat, Gökçe; Akyıldız, Filiz; Çoban, Sümeyra; Çakıroğlu, Gamze

    2006-01-01

    Background Breast cancer appears to be a disease of both the developing and developed worlds. Among Turkish women, breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to determine levels of knowledge about breast cancer and to evaluate health beliefs concerning the model that promotes breast self- examination (BSE) and mammography in a group of women aged 20–64 in a rural area of western Turkey. Methods 244 women were recruited by means of cluster sampling in this study. The questionnaire consisted of sociodemographic variables, a risk factors and signs of breast cancer form and the adapted version of Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS). Bivariate correlation analysis, Chi square test, Mann-Whitney U test and logistic regression analysis were performed throughout the data analysis. Results The mean age of the women was 37.7 ± 13.7. 49.2% of women were primary school graduates, 67.6% were married. Although 76.6% of the women in this study reported that they had heard or read about breast cancer, our study revealed that only 56.1% of them had sufficient knowledge of breast cancer, half of whom had acquired the information from health professionals. Level of breast cancer knowledge was the only variable significantly associated with the BSE and mammography practice (p = 0.011, p = 0.007). BSE performers among the study group were more likely to be women who exhibited higher confidence and perceived greater benefits from BSE practice, and those who perceived fewer barriers to BSE performance and possessed knowledge of breast cancer. Conclusion By using the CHBMS constructs for assessment, primary health care providers can more easily understand the beliefs that influence women's BSE and mammography practice. PMID:16504119

  6. Factors associated with forced sex among women accessing health services in rural Haiti: implications for the prevention of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Smith Fawzi, M C; Lambert, W; Singler, J M; Tanagho, Y; Léandre, F; Nevil, P; Bertrand, D; Claude, M S; Bertrand, J; Louissaint, M; Jeannis, L; Mukherjee, J S; Goldie, S; Salazar, J J; Farmer, P E

    2005-02-01

    The goals of the current study were to: (1) estimate the prevalence of forced sex among women accessing services at a women's health clinic in rural Haiti; and (2) examine factors associated with forced sex in this population. Based on data from a case-control study of risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), a cross-sectional analysis to examine factors associated with forced sex was performed. A number of factors related to gender inequality/socioeconomic vulnerability placed women in rural Haiti at higher risk of forced sex. The strongest factors associated with forced sex in multivariate analyses were: age, length of time in a relationship, occupation of the woman's partner, STD-related symptoms, and factors demonstrating economic vulnerability. The findings suggest that prevention efforts must go beyond provision of information and education to the pursuit of broader initiatives at both local and national levels. At the community level, policy-makers should consider advancing economic opportunities for women who are vulnerable to forced sex. Improving access to community-based income-generating activities may begin to address this problem. However, the viability of these local projects depends largely upon Haiti's 'macro-economic' situation. In order to ensure the success of local initiatives, external humanitarian and development assistance to Haiti should be supported. By broadening the definition of "prevention" interventions, we may begin to address the systemic problems that contribute to the occurrence of forced sex and the increasing incidence of HIV infection throughout the world, such as gender inequality and economic vulnerability. Taking into account factors influencing risk at the local level as well as the macro-level will potentially improve our capacity to reduce the risk of forced sex and the spread of STDs, including HIV infection, for millions of women living in poverty worldwide.

  7. Temporal trends of copper-bearing intrauterine device discontinuation: a population-based birth-cohort study of contraceptive use among rural married women in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Tan, Xiaodong; Song, Xiangjing; Zhang, Kaining; Fang, Jing; Peng, Lin; Qi, Wencai; Nie, Zonghui; Li, Ming; Deng, Rui; Yan, Chaofang

    2015-03-01

    Copper-bearing intrauterine device (IUD) insertion for long-term contraceptive use is high in China, but there has been evidence that first-year discontinuation rate of copper-bearing IUD has also increased rapidly in recent years especially among rural married women. To investigate long-term use of copper-bearing IUD, the authors examined the 7-year temporal trends of copper-bearing IUD discontinuation in a population-based birth-cohort study among 720 rural married women in China, from 2004 to 2012. Women requesting contraception were followed-up twice per year after the insertion of IUD. The gross cumulative life table discontinuation rates were calculated for each of the main reasons for discontinuation as well as for all reasons combined. By the end of 7 years, 384 discontinuations were observed. With a stepped-up trend, the gross cumulative life table rate for discontinuation increased from 10.06 (95% confidence interval = 7.86-12.27) per 100 women by the first year to 52.69 (95% confidence interval = 48.94-56.44) per 100 women by the end of 7 years, which increased rapidly in the first 2 years after copper-bearing IUD insertion, flattened out gradually in the following 2 years, then increased again in the last 3 years. Among reported method failure, expulsion and side effects were the main reasons for discontinuation of the copper-bearing IUD but not pregnancy. Personal reasons, such as renewal by personal will had influenced copper-bearing IUD use since the second year and should not be neglected. Based on this study, the temporal trends of copper-bearing IUD discontinuation was in a stepped-up trend in 7 years after insertion. Both reported method failure (expulsion and side effect) and personal reason had effect on the discontinuation of copper-bearing IUD, but pregnancy was no more the most important reason affecting the use of copper-bearing IUD.

  8. Pregnancy-Related Health Information-Seeking Behaviors Among Rural Pregnant Women in India: Validating the Wilson Model in the Indian Context

    PubMed Central

    Das, Ashavaree; Sarkar, Madhurima

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Understanding health information-seeking behaviors and barriers to care and access among pregnant women can potentially moderate the consistent negative associations between poverty, low levels of literacy, and negative maternal and child health outcomes in India. Our seminal study explores health information needs, health information-seeking behaviors, and perceived information support of low-income pregnant women in rural India. Methods: Using the Wilson Model of health information-seeking framework, we designed a culturally tailored guided interview to assess information-seeking behaviors and barriers to information seeking among pregnant women. We used a local informant and health care worker to recruit 14 expectant women for two focus group interviews lasting 45 minutes to an hour each. Thirteen other related individuals including husbands, mothers, mothers-in-law, and health care providers were also recruited by hospital counselors for in-depth interviews regarding their pregnant wives/daughters and daughters-in-law. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed by coding the data into thematic categories. Results: The data were coded manually and emerging themes included pregnancy-related knowledge and misconceptions and personal, societal, and structural barriers, as well as risk perceptions and self-efficacy. Lack of access to health care and pregnancy-related health information led participants to rely heavily on information and misconceptions about pregnancy gleaned from elder women, friends, and mothers-in-law and husbands. Doctors and para-medical staff were only consulted during complications. All women faced personal, societal, and structural level barriers, including feelings of shame and embarrassment, fear of repercussion for discussing their pregnancies with their doctors, and inadequate time with their doctors. Conclusion: Lack of access and adequate health care information were of primary concern to pregnant women and their families

  9. Factors associated with forced sex among women accessing health services in rural Haiti: implications for the prevention of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases☆

    PubMed Central

    Fawzi, M.C. Smith; Lambert, W.; Singler, J.M.; Tanagho, Y.; Léandre, F.; Nevil, P.; Bertrand, D.; Claude, M.S.; Bertrand, J.; Louissaint, M.; Jeannis, L.; Mukherjee, J.S.; Goldie, S.; Salazar, J.J.; Farmer, P.E.

    2012-01-01

    The goals of the current study were to: (1) estimate the prevalence of forced sex among women accessing services at a women’s health clinic in rural Haiti; and (2) examine factors associated with forced sex in this population. Based on data from a case-control study of risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), a cross-sectional analysis to examine factors associated with forced sex was performed. A number of factors related to gender inequality/socioeconomic vulnerability placed women in rural Haiti at higher risk of forced sex. The strongest factors associated with forced sex in multivariate analyses were: age, length of time in a relationship, occupation of the woman’s partner, STD-related symptoms, and factors demonstrating economic vulnerability. The findings suggest that prevention efforts must go beyond provision of information and education to the pursuit of broader initiatives at both local and national levels. At the community level, policy-makers should consider advancing economic opportunities for women who are vulnerable to forced sex. Improving access to community-based income-generating activities may begin to address this problem. However, the viability of these local projects depends largely upon Haiti’s ‘macro-economic’ situation. In order to ensure the success of local initiatives, external humanitarian and development assistance to Haiti should be supported. By broadening the definition of “prevention” interventions, we may begin to address the systemic problems that contribute to the occurrence of forced sex and the increasing incidence of HIV infection throughout the world, such as gender inequality and economic vulnerability. Taking into account factors influencing risk at the local level as well as the macro-level will potentially improve our capacity to reduce the risk of forced sex and the spread of STDs, including HIV infection, for millions of women living in poverty worldwide. PMID:15571887

  10. Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes among Women Practicing Poor Sanitation in Rural India: A Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Padhi, Bijaya K.; Baker, Kelly K.; Dutta, Ambarish; Cumming, Oliver; Freeman, Matthew C.; Satpathy, Radhanatha; Das, Bhabani S.; Panigrahi, Pinaki

    2015-01-01

    Background The importance of maternal sanitation behaviour during pregnancy for birth outcomes remains unclear. Poor sanitation practices can promote infection and induce stress during pregnancy and may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs). We aimed to assess whether poor sanitation practices were associated with increased risk of APOs such as preterm birth and low birth weight in a population-based study in rural India. Methods and Findings A prospective cohort of pregnant women (n = 670) in their first trimester of pregnancy was enrolled and followed until birth. Socio-demographic, clinical, and anthropometric factors, along with access to toilets and sanitation practices, were recorded at enrolment (12th week of gestation). A trained community health volunteer conducted home visits to ensure retention in the study and learn about study outcomes during the course of pregnancy. Unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) and adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals for APOs were estimated by logistic regression models. Of the 667 women who were retained at the end of the study, 58.2% practiced open defecation and 25.7% experienced APOs, including 130 (19.4%) preterm births, 95 (14.2%) births with low birth weight, 11 (1.7%) spontaneous abortions, and six (0.9%) stillbirths. Unadjusted ORs for APOs (OR: 2.53; 95% CI: 1.72–3.71), preterm birth (OR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.54–3.62), and low birth weight (OR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.24–3.23) were found to be significantly associated with open defecation practices. After adjustment for potential confounders such as maternal socio-demographic and clinical factors, open defecation was still significantly associated with increased odds of APOs (AOR: 2.38; 95% CI: 1.49–3.80) and preterm birth (AOR: 2.22; 95% CI: 1.29–3.79) but not low birth weight (AOR: 1.61; 95% CI: 0.94–2.73). The association between APOs and open defecation was independent of poverty and caste. Even though we accounted for several key

  11. An Implication of Health Sector Reform for Disadvantaged Women's Struggle for Birth Control: A Case of Kurdish Rural-Urban Migrant Women in Van, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Him, Miki Suzuki; Hoşgör, Ayşe Gündüz

    2015-09-01

    In this article, we examine how socioeconomically disadvantaged women are affected by health sector reform and family planning policy changes in Turkey through a case study of Kurdish women's struggles for birth control. In Turkey, a family planning program became relatively marginalized in primary health care services as a result of health sector reform as well as a shift of population policy toward a moderately pronatal approach. We argue that an emerging health care system would leave disadvantaged women unable to benefit from contraceptives and would perpetuate reproductive health inequalities between women in the country.

  12. Effect of indoor air pollution during cooking on peak expiratory flow rate and its association with exposure index in rural women.

    PubMed

    Sukhsohale, Neelam D; Narlawar, Uday W; Phatak, Mrunal S; Agrawal, Sanjay B; Ughade, Suresh N

    2013-01-01

    Routine exposure to domestic cooking fuels is an important source of indoor air pollution causing deterioration of lung function. We conducted a community based cross-sectional study in 760 non-smoking rural women involved in household cooking with four types of cooking fuels i.e. Biomass, Kerosene stove, Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) and Mixed (combination of two and more cooking fuels). Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) less than 80% of the predicted was considered as abnormal PEFR. The overall prevalence of abnormal PEFR was found to be 29.1% with greater predominance among biomass fuel users (43.3%) with high risk ratio (1.86) as compared to kerosene (0.63), LPG (0.75) and mixed (0.66) fuel users. However the pair wise comparison of different groups of cooking fuels by Marascuilo procedure reported significant differences within different groups except kerosene--mixed group. The study also demonstrated a negative correlation between observed PEFR and exposure indices in different cooking fuels (r = -0.51). Our results indicate that prolonged exposure to cooking fuels particularly biomass fuels as a source of cooking adversely affects PEFR in nonsmoking rural women.

  13. Seeds of HOPE: a model for addressing social and economic determinants of health in a women's obesity prevention project in two rural communities.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Salli; Campbell, Marci; Doolen, Anne; Rivera, Imana; Negussie, Tezita; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle

    2007-10-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) and income disparity are strong predictors of health, and health promotion interventions that address them are more likely to be meaningful to participants and to sustain positive effects. Seeds of HOPE is an innovative project that is the result of a long-standing collaboration between the University of North Carolina (UNC) Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Prevention Research Center, and communities in rural North Carolina. Initial formative work, including key informant interviews, community surveys, and focus groups, strengthened our understanding of the link between hope and health and the importance of addressing social and economic issues as part of our health promotion interventions. A Seeds of HOPE strategic plan was developed using a community-based participatory process and led to the idea to start Threads of HOPE, an enterprise that will serve as a business laboratory where women will produce and market a unique product and also learn business skills. Threads of HOPE will be a health-enhancing business and will serve as a training program for a new cadre of women entrepreneurs in two rural communities.

  14. Impact of biogas digesters on wood utilisation and self-reported back pain for women living on rural Kenyan smallholder dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Dohoo, Carolyn; VanLeeuwen, John; Read Guernsey, Judith; Critchley, Kim; Gibson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Women living on rural Kenyan dairy farms spend significant amounts of time collecting wood for cooking. Biogas digesters, which generate biogas for cooking from the anaerobic decomposition of livestock manure, are an alternative fuel source. The objective of this study was to quantify the quality of life and health benefits of installing biogas digesters on rural Kenyan dairy farms with respect to wood utilisation. Women from 62 farms (31 biogas farms and 31 referent farms) participated in interviews to determine reliance on wood and the impact of biogas digesters on this reliance. Self-reported back pain, time spent collecting wood and money spent on wood were significantly lower (p < 0.01) for the biogas group, compared to referent farms. Multivariable linear regression showed that wood consumption increased by 2 lbs/day for each additional family member living on a farm. For an average family of three people, the addition of one cow was associated with increased wood consumption by 1.0 lb/day on biogas farms but by 4.4 lbs/day on referent farms (significant interaction variable - likely due to additional hot water for cleaning milk collection equipment). Biogas digesters represent a potentially important technology that can reduce reliance on wood fuel and improve health for Kenyan dairy farmers.

  15. Targeted interventions of ultra-poor women in rural Rangpur, Bangladesh: do they make a difference to appropriate cooking practices, food habits and sanitation?

    PubMed

    Yeasmin, Lubna; Akter, Shamima; Shahidul Islam, A M; Mizanur Rahman, Md; Akashi, Hidechika; Jesmin, Subrina

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to assess whether teaching good cooking practices, food habits and sanitation to ultra-poor rural women in four rural communities of Rangpur district, Bangladesh, with a high density of extremely poor households, would improve the overall health of the community. The sample size was 200 respondents combined from the target and control areas. In the target area, twelve in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions were undertaken for knowledge dissemination. Descriptive and mixed-model analyses were performed. The results show that washing hands with soap was 1.35 times more likely in the target than the control group (p<0.01). Further, after intervention, there was a significant improvement in hand-washing behaviour: before cutting vegetables, preparing food, feeding a child and eating, and after defecating and cleaning a baby (p<0.05). Also, the target group was more likely to moderately and briefly boil their vegetables and were 19% less likely to use maximum heat when cooking vegetables than the control group (p<0.01). Improved knowledge and skills training of ultra-poor women reduces the loss of nutrients during food preparation and increases their hygiene through hand-washing in every-day life.

  16. Perceived discrimination and smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women working as restaurant/hotel workers and sex workers in China

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sanghyuk S.; Wan, Xia; Wang, Qian; Raymond, H. Fisher; Liu, Huilin; Ding, Ding; Yang, Gonghuan; Novotny, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Smoking may be a coping mechanism for psychosocial stress caused by discrimination. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of rural-to-urban migrant women working as restaurant/hotel workers (RHWs) and those working as sex workers (FSWs) in 10 Chinese cities to investigate whether perceived discrimination is associated with smoking. We interviewed RHWs at medical examination clinics and FSWs at entertainment venues. Modified Poisson regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios. Results Of the 1696 RHWs and 532 FSWs enrolled, 155 (9.1%) and 63 (11.8%) reported perceived discrimination, respectively. Perceived discrimination was independently associated with ever tried smoking (prevalence ratio [PR], 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31–2.23) and current smoking (PR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.32–4.79) among RHWs and ever tried smoking (PR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.16–1.61) and current smoking (PR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.28–2.06) among FSWs. Discussion Perceived discrimination is associated with higher prevalence of smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women in China. PMID:22389186

  17. HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and behaviors among rural married migrant women in Shandong Province, China: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Song, Yapei; Kang, Dianmin; Wang, Guoyong; Wei, Chongyi; Tao, Xiaorun; Huang, Tao; Qian, Yuesheng; Zhu, Tiwen; Yang, Shan; Yu, Shaoqi; Wang, Hong; Ma, Wei

    2015-02-01

    Migrant women in China are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. This study described HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and behaviors among married migrant women in Shandong province in comparison to non-migrant local women and identified factors associated with HIV testing history and extramarital sex among married migrant women. A probability-based sample of 1,076 migrant and 1,195 local women were included in the analyses. Compared to local women, married migrant women had lower levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge and were more likely to have had premarital sex, extramarital sex, history of sexually transmitted diseases, and drug use. Less than a quarter of migrant women used condoms consistently in extramarital sex. Only 31.0 % of married migrant women had ever tested for HIV, and the rate of premarital HIV testing was very low. Multivariable analysis showed that married migrant women with a history of extramarital sex were more likely to be from Yunnan province, be living in Yantai city, be in their first marriage, have lower family income, have poor relationship with spouses, use drug, have a history of sexually transmitted diseases, and have lower social support. Our findings provide further evidence that married migrant women are at higher risk for HIV infection and that targeted interventions need to be developed for this population.

  18. Rural Australian Women's Legal Help Seeking for Intimate Partner Violence: Women Intimate Partner Violence Victim Survivors' Perceptions of Criminal Justice Support Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragusa, Angela T.

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a widespread, ongoing, and complex global social problem, whose victims continue to be largely women. Women often prefer to rely on friends and family for IPV help, yet when informal support is unavailable they remain hesitant to contact formal services, particularly legal support for many reasons. This study…

  19. Spanish Literacy Investigation Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Jacqueline; Quinones, Anisia

    The Spanish Literacy Investigation Project was implemented to identify adult Spanish literacy programs throughout the country, to explore the availability of relevant Spanish literacy teaching methods, to determine relevant elements between Spanish literacy and English as a Second Language (ESL), and to describe a model for incorporating a Spanish…

  20. Stroke prevalence among the Spanish elderly: an analysis based on screening surveys

    PubMed Central

    Boix, Raquel; del Barrio, José Luis; Saz, Pedro; Reñé, Ramón; Manubens, José María; Lobo, Antonio; Gascón, Jordi; de Arce, Ana; Díaz-Guzmán, Jaime; Bergareche, Alberto; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús

    2006-01-01

    Background This study sought to describe stroke prevalence in Spanish elderly populations and compare it against that of other European countries. Methods We identified screening surveys -both published and unpublished- in Spanish populations, which fulfilled specific quality requirements and targeted prevalence of stroke in populations aged 70 years and over. Surveys covering seven geographically different populations with prevalence years in the period 1991–2002 were selected, and the respective authors were then asked to provide descriptions of the methodology and raw age-specific data by completing a questionnaire. In addition, five reported screening surveys in European populations furnished useful data for comparison purposes. Prevalence data were combined, using direct adjustment and logistic regression. Results The overall study population, resident in central and north-eastern Spain, totalled 10,647 persons and yielded 715 cases. Age-adjusted prevalences, using the European standard population, were 7.3% for men, 5.6% for women, and 6.4% for both sexes. Prevalence was significantly lower in women, OR 0.79 95% CI 0.68–0.93, increased with age, particularly among women, and displayed a threefold spatial variation with statistically significant differences. Prevalences were highest, 8.7%, in suburban, and lowest, 3.8%, in rural populations. Compared to pooled Spanish populations, statistically significant differences were seen in eight Italian populations, OR 1.39 95%CI (1.18–1.64), and in Kungsholmen, Sweden, OR 0.40 95%CI (0.27–0.58). Conclusion Prevalence in central and north-eastern Spain is higher in males and in suburban areas, and displays a threefold geographic variation, with women constituting the majority of elderly stroke sufferers. Compared to reported European data, stroke prevalence in Spain can be said to be medium and presents similar age- and sex-specific traits. PMID:17042941

  1. The Impact of Rurality and Disadvantage on the Diagnostic Interval for Breast Cancer in a Large Population-Based Study of 3202 Women in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Youl, Philippa H.; Aitken, Joanne F.; Turrell, Gavin; Chambers, Suzanne K.; Dunn, Jeffrey; Pyke, Christopher; Baade, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Delays in diagnosing breast cancer (BC) can lead to poorer outcomes. We investigated factors related to the diagnostic interval in a population-based cohort of 3202 women diagnosed with BC in Queensland, Australia. Interviews ascertained method of detection and dates of medical/procedural appointments, and clinical information was obtained from medical records. Time intervals were calculated from self-recognition of symptoms (symptom-detected) or mammogram (screen-detected) to diagnosis (diagnostic interval (DI)). The cohort included 1560 women with symptom-detected and 1642 with screen-detected BC. Symptom-detected women had higher odds of DI of >60 days if they were Indigenous (OR = 3.12, 95% CI = 1.40, 6.98); lived in outer regional (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.09, 2.06) or remote locations (OR = 2.46, 95% CI = 1.39, 4.38); or presented with a “non-lump” symptom (OR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.43, 2.36). For screen-detected BC, women who were Indigenous (OR = 2.36, 95% CI = 1.03, 5.80); lived in remote locations (OR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.24, 4.44); or disadvantaged areas (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.17, 2.43) and attended a public screening facility (OR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.40, 3.17) had higher odds of DI > 30 days. Our study indicates a disadvantage in terms of DI for rural, disadvantaged and Indigenous women. Difficulties in accessing primary care and diagnostic services are evident. There is a need to identify and implement an efficient and effective model of care to minimize avoidable longer diagnostic intervals. PMID:27869758

  2. Changes in sputum cytology, airway inflammation and oxidative stress due to chronic inhalation of biomass smoke during cooking in premenopausal rural Indian women.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Anindita; Roychoudhury, Sanghita; Chowdhury, Saswati; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2013-06-01

    To perform sputum analysis for verification of pulmonary changes in premenopausal rural Indian women chronically exposed to biomass smoke during cooking.Three consecutive morning sputum samples were collected from 196 women (median age 34 years) cooking with biomass and 149 age-matched control women cooking with cleaner fuel liquefied petroleum gas. Smears made on slides were stained with Papanicolaou and Perl's Prussian blue. Airway oxidative stress was estimated as reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation (by flow cytometry) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) level (by spectrophotometry) in sputum cells. Airway inflammation was measured as sputum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, -8 and tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α). Particulate matter of diameter less than 10 (PM10) was measured using laser photometer while benzene exposure was monitored by measuring trans, trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) in urine by HPLC-UV. Compared with control, sputum of biomass users contained more neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, alveolar macrophages, and showed presence of ciliocytophthoria, Charcot-Leyden crystals, Curschmann's spiral. ROS generation was increased by 2-fold while SOD was depleted by 31% in biomass users. They also had higher sputum levels of IL-6, -8 and TNF-α. Levels of PM10 and t,t-MA were 2.9- and 5.8-times higher in biomass-using women. PM10 and t,t-MA levels were positively associated with cellular changes in the sputum, markers of airway inflammation, and oxidative stress. Cooking with biomass alters sputum cytology, and increases airway inflammation and oxidative stress that might result in further amplification of the tissue damaging cascade in women chronically exposed to biomass smoke.

  3. I [image omitted] Spanish: K-8 Attitudes toward Learning Spanish with Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Villada, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates children's attitudes and technology use for learning Spanish, and examines the type of technology-enhanced learning activities they enjoy. A survey with two versions was developed to gather attitudes and opinions of 2,220 children in grades K-2 and 3-8 in eight small rural school districts in the Midwest of the United…

  4. The appropriateness of core group interventions using presumptive periodic treatment among rural Zimbabwean women who exchange sex for gifts or money.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Frances M; Hargrove, John W; Langhaug, Lisa F; Jaffar, Shabbar; Mhuriyengwe, Lovemore; Swarthout, Todd D; Peeling, Rosanna; Latif, Ahmed; Bassett, Mary T; Brown, David W G; Mabey, David; Hayes, Richard J; Wilson, David

    2005-02-01

    To map the characteristics of rural based sex workers in Zimbabwe with regard to demographics, mobility, behavior, HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence, to explore the appropriateness and feasibility of presumptive periodic treatment (PPT) for bacterial STIs as an HIV prevention intervention among these women, and to compare tolerability of 2 PPT regimens (1 g of azithromycin and 2 g of metronidazole+/-500 mg of ciprofloxacin). Five commercial farms and 2 mines in Mashonaland West, Zimbabwe. Three hundred sixty-three sex workers were recruited and completed a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Each participant had blood tested for antibody to HIV, herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), and syphilis; urine tested for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG); and a vaginal swab tested for Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). Women were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of 1 of 2 PPT regimens and then followed to assess rates of side effects and reinfection. The overall prevalence of antibody to HIV was 55.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 50.6-60.9) and that of HSV-2 was 80.8% (95% CI: 76.7-84.9). The prevalence of CT and NG was low (CT=1.7%, 95% CI: 0.3-3.0); (NG=1.9%, 95% CI: 0.5-3.4), with a much higher prevalence of TV (TV=19.3%, 95% CI: 15.2-23.4). Prevalence of CT, NG, and TV was appreciably reduced 1 month after PPT but rose to pretreatment levels at the 2- and 3-month visits. The rate of moderate or severe side effects after PPT was low, but it was higher in the women who received ciprofloxacin in addition to azithromycin and metronidazole (P=0.007). It was feasible to access women who reported exchanging money or gifts for sex in rural communities, although many of these women engaged in sex work only infrequently. The prevalence of bacterial STIs was low, suggesting that PPT may not be an appropriate intervention in this setting. Rapid reinfection after PPT suggests that this needs to be given at monthly

  5. “It’s not easy to acknowledge that I’m ill”: a qualitative investigation into the health seeking behavior of rural Palestinian women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This qualitative study sets to fill a gap in knowledge by exploring the health seeking behaviour of rural women living in the occupied Palestinian territories (oPt). The existing literature on the oPt has so far focused on unravelling the country’s epidemiological and health system profile, but has largely neglected the assessment of factors shaping people’s decisions on health care use. Methods Based on a conceptual framework rooted in the Anderson behavioural model, we conducted 30 semi-structured interviews with purposely selected women and seven key informant interviews in three purposely selected villages in Ramallah district. Results Our findings indicate that women delay seeking professional care, use self-prescribed medications and home treatment, and do not use preventive and educational health services. Their health seeking behaviour is the result of the interplay of several factors: their gendered socio-cultural role; their health beliefs; financial affordability and geographical accessibility; their perceptions of the quality of care; and their perceived health needs. Conclusions Findings are discussed in the light of their policy implications, suggesting that adequate health policy planning ought to take into considerations socio-cultural dimensions beyond those directly pertinent to the health care system. PMID:23705933

  6. Indoor air pollution from biomass burning activates Akt in airway cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes: a study among premenopausal women in rural India.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Nandan K; Roy, Amrita; Mukherjee, Bidisha; Das, Debangshu; Ray, Manas R

    2010-12-01

    Biomass burning is a major source of indoor air pollution in rural India. The authors investigated in this study whether cumulative exposures to biomass smoke cause activation of the serine/threonine kinase Akt in airway cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). For this, the authors enrolled 87 premenopausal (median age 34 years), nonsmoking women who used to cook with biomass (wood, dung, crop wastes) and 85 age-matched control women who cooked with cleaner fuel liquefied petroleum gas. Immunocytochemical and immunoblotting assays revealed significantly higher levels of phosphorylated forms of Akt protein (p-Akt(ser473) and p-Akt(thr308)) in PBL, airway epithelial cells, alveolar macrophages, and neutrophils in sputum of biomass-using women than control. Akt activation in biomass users was associated with marked rise in generation of reactive oxygen species and concomitant depletion of superoxide dismutase. Measurement of particulate matter having a diameter of less than 10 and 2.5 µm in indoor air by real-time aerosol monitor showed 2 to 4 times more particulate pollution in biomass-using households, and Akt activation was positively associated with particulate pollution after controlling potential confounders. The findings suggest that chronic exposure to biomass smoke activates Akt, possibly via generation of oxidative stress.

  7. Association of common mental disorder symptoms with health and healthcare factors among women in rural western India: results of a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, Nisha; Byatt, Nancy; Prabhakaran, Anusha; Moore Simas, Tiffany A; Vankar, Jagdish; O'Keefe, Eileen; Allison, Jeroan; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Information about common mental disorders (CMD) is needed to guide policy and clinical interventions in low-income and middle-income countries. This study's purpose was to characterise the association of CMD symptoms with 3 inter-related health and healthcare factors among women from rural western India based on a representative, cross-sectional survey. Setting Surveys were conducted in the waiting area of various outpatient clinics at a tertiary care hospital and in 16 rural villages in the Anand district of Gujarat, India. Participants 700 Gujarati-speaking women between the ages of 18–45 years who resided in the Anand district of Gujarat, India, were recruited in a quasi-randomised manner. Primary and secondary outcomes measures CMD symptoms, ascertained using WHO's Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20), were associated with self-reported (1) number of healthcare visits in the prior year; (2) health status and (3) portion of yearly income expended on healthcare. Results Data from 658 participants were used in this analysis; 19 surveys were excluded due to incompleteness, 18 surveys were excluded because the participants were visiting hospitalised patients and 5 surveys were classified as outliers. Overall, 155 (22·8%) participants screened positive for CMD symptoms (SRQ-20 score ≥8) with most (81.9%) not previously diagnosed despite contact with healthcare provider in the prior year. On adjusted analyses, screening positive for CMD symptoms was associated with worse category in self-reported health status (cumulative OR=9.39; 95% CI 5·97 to 14·76), higher portion of household income expended on healthcare (cumulative OR=2·31; 95% CL 1·52 to 3.52) and increased healthcare visits in the prior year (incidence rate ratio=1·24; 95% CI 1·07 to 1·44). Conclusions The high prevalence of potential CMD among women in rural India that is unrecognised and associated with adverse health and financial indicators highlights the individual and public

  8. Comparing Farmer-to-Farmer Video with Workshops to Train Rural Women in Improved Rice Parboiling in Central Benin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zossou, Esperance; Van Mele, Paul; Vodouhe, Simplice D.; Wanvoeke, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with the comparison of the conventional training based on two day community workshops and farmer-to-farmer video used as methodologies for the dissemination of improved rice parboiling process in Benin. From November 2007 to May 2008, we interviewed 160 women and 17 women groups who had been exposed to both, one or other of the…

  9. Rural Women in Local Agrofood Production: Between Entrepreneurial Initiatives and Family Strategies. A Case Study in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthopoulou, Theodosia

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have seen a relative flourishing in the Greek countryside of small women's businesses engaged in the production of local traditional agrofood products for an emerging consumer demand for foods of specific quality. In the present article the central research question may be summarized as: "to what extent do these women perceive…

  10. Correlation between subsequent lengths of postpartum amenorrhoea in a prospective study of breast-feeding women in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ford, K

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between subsequent lengths of lactational amenorrhoea for individual women in a prospective study of breast-feeding women in Bangladesh was studied. The data indicate that previous length of amenorrhoea has significant predictive value for the subsequent length of amenorrhoea. Information on previous experience with lactational amenorrhoea should be therefore incorporated into guidelines for the introduction of family planning during lactation.

  11. Effect of autogenic relaxation on depression among menopausal women in rural areas of Thiruvallur District (Tamil Nadu).

    PubMed

    Sujithra, S

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted among 60 menopausal women, 30 each in experimental and control group who met inclusion criteria. The menopausal women were identified in both the groups and level of depression was assessed using Cornell Dysthmia rating scale. Simple random sampling technique by lottery method was used for selecting the sample. Autogenic relaxation was practiced by the menopausal women for four weeks. The findings revealed that in experimental group, after intervention of autogenic relaxation on depression among menopausal women, 23 (76.7%) had mild depression. There was a statistically significant effectiveness in experimental group at the level of p < 0.05. There was a statistically significant association between the effectiveness of autogenic relaxation on depression among menopausal women in the post-experimental group with the type of family at the level of p < 0.05.

  12. Preparation of Literacy Materials for Women in Rural Areas: Final Report of a Regional Workshop on the Preparation of Literacy Follow-Up Materials in Asia and the Pacific (7th, Kathmandu, Nepal, October 17-26, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asian Cultural Centre for UNESCO, Tokyo (Japan).

    The main objective of the seventh regional workshop was to provide training experience to participants from Unesco member states in the development of instructional neo-literate materials and the expansion of participation in literacy activities to the needs of the rural people, particularly women. The final report begins with an account of the…

  13. Investigating the association between prepregnancy body mass index and adverse pregnancy outcomes: a large cohort study of 536 098 Chinese pregnant women in rural China

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yi; Zhang, Shikun; Wang, Qiaomei; Shen, Haiping; Zhang, Yiping; Li, Yuanyuan; Yan, Donghai; Sun, Lizhou

    2016-01-01

    adverse pregnancy outcomes. Most notably, underweight prepregnant women appeared to be at a greater risk of developing adverse pregnancy outcomes in China's rural areas. PMID:27439613

  14. Prevalence of Hypertension and Associated Risk Factors among Rural Bapedi Women in Sekhukhune Area, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Koma, Mabaile Pauline; Lebelo, Sogolo Lucky

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated the prevalence of hypertension and identified risk factors in the Bapedi women of Sekhukhune area. Fifty (50) women diagnosed with hypertension and receiving treatment from local clinics were recruited. Questionnaires and focus group discussions were used. Most participants were at the average age of 50.50 ± 7.93 years and weight of 81.17 ± 9.96 kg. Blood pressure measurements recorded were systolic blood pressure (SBP) 163 ± 22.41 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 91 ± 5.41 mmHg. An insignificant number of participants had smoking or drinking habits (0% and 2%, respectively). The largest group of women (46%) had primary level of education, 14% completed junior secondary education, 6% completed matric, and 2% had basic education. All women consumed cereal; a large number of women (50%) consumed oils and fats; 44% flesh meats; 30% fruits and vegetables; 26% tubers and roots; 22% organ meats; 10% fish, 10% eggs, and 8% milk. Results showed a high prevalence of hypertension in the Bapedi women in the Sekhukhune area. Changes in diet and lifestyle could significantly improve the health of most women in the area.

  15. High prevalence of curable sexually transmitted infections among pregnant women in a rural county hospital in Kilifi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Wahome, Elizabeth; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Cools, Piet; Crucitti, Tania; Sanders, Eduard J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Women attending antenatal care (ANC) in resource-limited countries are frequently screened for syphilis and HIV, but rarely for other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We assessed the prevalence of curable STIs, defined as infection with either Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Trichomonas vaginalis, from July to September 2015. Methods In a cross-sectional study, women attending ANC at the Kilifi County Hospital, Kenya, had a urine sample tested for C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae by GeneXpert® and a vaginal swab for T. vaginalis by culture. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was defined as a Nugent score of 7–10 of the Gram stain of a vaginal smear in combination with self-reported vaginal discharge. Genital ulcers were observed during collection of vaginal swabs. All women responded to questions on socio-demographics and sexual health and clinical symptoms of STIs. Predictors for curable STIs were assessed in multivariable logistic regression. Results A total of 42/202 (20.8%, 95% confidence interval (CI):15.4–27.0) women had a curable STI. The prevalence was 14.9% for C. trachomatis (95% CI:10.2–20.5), 1.0% for N. gonorrhoeae (95% CI: 0.1–3.5), 7.4% for T. vaginalis (95% CI:4.2–12.0), 19.3% for BV (95% CI: 14.1–25.4) and 2.5% for genital ulcers (95% CI: 0.8–5.7). Predictors for infection with curable STIs included women with a genital ulcer (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 35.0, 95% CI: 2.7–461.6) compared to women without a genital ulcer, women who used water for cleaning after visiting the toilet compared to those who used toilet paper or other solid means (AOR = 4.1, 95% CI:1.5–11.3), women who reported having sexual debut ≤ 17 years compared to women having sexual debut ≥18 years (AOR = 2.7, 95% CI:1.1–6.6), and BV-positive women (AOR = 2.7, 95% CI:1.1–6.6) compared to BV-negative women. Conclusion One in five women attending ANC had a curable STI. These infections were associated with genital ulcers, hygiene

  16. Qualification of Staff, Organization of Services, and Management of Pregnant Women in Rural Settings: The Case of Diema and Kayes Districts (Mali)

    PubMed Central

    Dogba, Maman; Fournier, Pierre; Berthe-Cisse, Safoura

    2012-01-01

    In Mali, a poor sub-Saharan country, maternity referral systems were implemented to combat the still-high rates of maternal mortality. This qualitative study was aimed at understanding the relationships between the qualification of staff in community health centres, the organization of services, and the management of pregnant women in the maternity referral system in Kayes, a rural region of Mali. Physicians who managed CHCs actively or passively modified work organization, the level of technology, their obstetric skills, and staffing. They also created a competitive environment and developed relationships of trust with patients and with the district health centre. These findings are helpful in orienting decision-making for better personnel management. PMID:22619728

  17. Perceptions of Women Living with AIDS in Rural India Related to the Engagement of HIV-Trained Accredited Social Health Activists for Care and Support

    PubMed Central

    NYAMATHI, ADELINE M.; WILLIAM, RAVI RAJ; GANGULY, KALYAN K.; SINHA, SANJEEV; HERAVIAN, ANISA; ALBARRÁN, CYNTHIA R.; THOMAS, ALEXANDRA; GREENGOLD, BARBARA; EKSTRAND, MARIA; RAMAKRISHNA, PADMA; RAO, PANTANGI RAMA

    2011-01-01

    A community-based participatory research study was conducted using focus groups with 39 women living with AIDS (WLA) in the rural setting of Andhra Pradesh, India. In addition, three nurses, two physicians, and five reproductive health accredited social health activists (ASHAs) took part in focus groups. The WLA offered insight into the benefits of HIV-trained ASHAs including emotional support, assistance with travel to health care providers and antiretroviral therapy medication adherence. Health care providers also identified benefits of using HIV-trained ASHAs and suggested modalities for how to train these individuals. These findings will contribute to the design of a future program of care involving HIV-trained ASHAs. PMID:21331322

  18. A Study on Gender Preference and Awareness Regarding Prenatal Sex Determination among Antenatal Women in a Rural Area of Darjeeling District, West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Archak

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Sex ratio is one of the major indicators to find the gender preferences in the community. Change in sex ratio reflects underlying socioeconomic, cultural patterns of a society. Aim The present study was conducted with the aim to find out the knowledge of antenatal women regarding the prenatal sex determination and the Pre Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PNDT) Act in a rural area along with assessing the gender preference in family among the study population. Materials and Methods A community based, descriptive, cross-sectional study was undertaken in the villages of Matigara Block of Darjeeling district of West Bengal, which serves as a field practice area of North Bengal Medical College & Hospital for two months. A total of 116 pregnant women were included and a pre designed pre tested questionnaire was used to collect the socio demographic details. The data were analysed by SPSS 20.0 software for proportions with chi-square tests. Results Knowledge of sex determination and the PNDT Act were found to be 44.82% and 18.10% among antenatal women. Knowledge regarding assessment of gender preference showed 52.58% expect a boy in this pregnancy. It was found that the determinants for gender preference were caste, sex of the last pregnancy and current gender composition. It was found that the determinants for knowledge of sex determination are age of the mother and the gravida of the mother. It was also found that the factor for the knowledge regarding the PNDT Act is age of the mother. These associations are statistically significant. Conclusion This situation calls for a strategy which includes community based awareness campaigns, women employment, education, and empowerment and by ensuring effective implementation of PNDT Act by the government so that families find it difficult to undertake sex determination. PMID:28384893

  19. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and HIV Risk Behaviors Among Rural American Indian/Alaska Native Women

    PubMed Central

    Kaysen, Debra; Belcourt, Annie; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Zhou, Chuan; Smartlowit-Briggs, Lucy; Whitefoot, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), binge drinking, and HIV sexual risk behavior by examining number of unprotected sex acts and number of sexual partners in the past 6 months among 129 sexually active American Indian women. A total of 51 (39.5%) young women met PTSD criteria. Among women who met the PTSD criteria, binge drinking was associated with a 35% increased rate of unprotected sex (IRR 1.35, p < .05), and there was a stronger association between increased binge drinking and risk of more sexual partners (IRR 1.21, p < .001) than among women who did not meet PTSD criteria (IRR 1.08, p < .01) with a difference of 13% (p < .05). HIV intervention and prevention interventions in this population likely would benefit from the inclusion of efforts to reduce binge drinking and increase treatment of PTSD symptoms. PMID:26425863

  20. Women of California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Harry

    This publication points out the achievements of women who contributed to the development and history of California from the 16th century, when the Spanish Conquistadores moved westward into the San Francisco Bay area, to the gold rush of 1848, and during the following period when women helped stabilize society on the rugged frontier. Women not…

  1. HIV/AIDS stigma and refusal of HIV testing among pregnant women in rural Kenya: results from the MAMAS Study.

    PubMed

    Turan, Janet M; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Onono, Maricianah; Holzemer, William L; Miller, Suellen; Cohen, Craig R

    2011-08-01

    HIV/AIDS stigma is a common thread in the narratives of pregnant women affected by HIV/AIDS globally and may be associated with refusal of HIV testing. We conducted a cross-sectional study of women attending antenatal clinics in Kenya (N = 1525). Women completed an interview with measures of HIV/AIDS stigma and subsequently information on their acceptance of HIV testing was obtained from medical records. Associations of stigma measures with HIV testing refusal were examined using multivariate logistic regression. Rates of anticipated HIV/AIDS stigma were high-32% anticipated break-up of their relationship, and 45% anticipated losing their friends. Women who anticipated male partner stigma were more than twice as likely to refuse HIV testing, after adjusting for other individual-level predictors (OR = 2.10, 95% CI: 1.15-3.85). This study demonstrated quantitatively that anticipations of HIV/AIDS stigma can be barriers to acceptance of HIV testing by pregnant women and highlights the need to develop interventions that address pregnant women's fears of HIV/AIDS stigma and violence from male partners.

  2. Gender and Rural Employment: A View from Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballara, Marcela

    2007-01-01

    The paper focuses on women employment in rural areas and its impacts in food security. The presentation includes data on rural women employment and its different labour strategies: temporary work, non agriculture rural employment and permanent rural employment. Poverty alleviation and its impact on families as well as implications in the economic…

  3. For Spanish Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivas, Yolanda

    1979-01-01

    Reviews eight children's books written in Spanish and one written in both Spanish and English. One is a book of riddles; the others deal with the topics of animals, minerals, plants and flowers, Indians, and pirates. (GT)

  4. Magnitude and determinants of malnutrition among pregnant women in eastern Ethiopia: evidence from rural, community-based setting.

    PubMed

    Kedir, Haji; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu

    2016-01-01

    Maternal malnutrition is a worldwide public health problem affecting a high proportion of pregnant women. This study aimed to determine the magnitude and determinants of malnutrition among pregnant women in eastern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1731 pregnant women selected by a cluster random sampling method. Data on maternal anthropometry and other factors were gathered by trained data collectors. Mid-upper arm circumference < 22 cm defined malnutrition. Mixed-effect, multilevel logistic regression was used to control clustering effect. On average, 19.06% of subjects were malnourished, while 23.3% study participants were underweight (body mass index < 19.8 kg m(-2)). In the final adjusted analysis, the risk of malnutrition was more than twofold higher in pregnant women with low (adjusted odds ratio = 2.47, 95% confidence interval = 1.41-4.34) and medium (adjusted odds ratio = 2.74, 95% confidence interval = 1.40-5.35) autonomy of household decision-making than those who had high level of autonomy in household decision-making. Husband illiteracy and not owning livestock were associated with increased risk of malnutrition. Women in the second and third trimester had a 66% and nearly twofold increased risk of malnutrition compared with their counterparts in the first trimester, respectively. Women who improved their eating habits had a 53% lower risk of malnutrition than those who did not. The risk of malnutrition was 39% lower in respondents who received prenatal dietary advice than in those who did not. Malnutrition affects at least one of every five pregnant women studied, calling for priority attention. Interventions that improve maternal involvement in household decision-making autonomy and provision of prenatal dietary advice are recommended.

  5. Obesity and obesity-associated cardiometabolic risk factors in indigenous Nenets women from the rural Nenets Autonomous Area and Russian women from Arkhangelsk city

    PubMed Central

    Petrenya, Natalia; Brustad, Magritt; Dobrodeeva, Liliya; Bichkaeva, Fatima; Lutfalieva, Gulnara; Cooper, Marie; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity and obesity-related conditions varies by population groups. Indigenous women of the circumpolar north are believed to be at high risk of obesity. Objective We studied, first the obesity prevalence in indigenous Arctic women, Nenets, compared to urban Russian women. Second, the association between obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors in the combined group of Nenets and Russian women. Third, ethnic differences in the association between obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors. Design Cross-sectional study performed in 2008–2009. Subjects: 93 Nenets women, aged 19–77 (the indigenous village, the Nenets Autonomous Area) and 132 Russian women, aged 21–72 (Arkhangelsk city). Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI)≥30 kg/m2, waist circumference (WC)≥88 cm and or waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)≥0.85%. We assessed associations between obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors by linear and logistic regression models that included covariates of ethnicity, age, smoking and physical activity. We also tested for interaction between obesity measurements and ethnicity. Results Prevalence of obesity estimated through BMI, WC and WHR were 42.5, 45.3 and 41.9% in Nenets and 34.4, 46.4 and 29.5% in Russians, respectively, with no differences found. BMI, WC and WHR associated positively with triglycerides, fasting insulin and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance index. In addition, BMI and WC correlated negatively with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and positively with systolic blood pressure and apolipoprotein B/apoliporotein A–I ratio. WC explained significant variation in fasting glucose (FG) level. BMI predicted type 2 diabetes history. FG level associated strongly with ethnicity and was found to be higher in Russians. Conclusions We found no differences in prevalence of obesity between Nenets and Russian females. Obesity was associated with cardiometabolic risk factors independently of ethnicity in the

  6. Acceptability of a Virtual Patient Educator for Hispanic Women.

    PubMed

    Wells, Kristen J; Vàzquez-Otero, Coralia; Bredice, Marissa; Meade, Cathy D; Chaet, Alexis; Rivera, Maria I; Arroyo, Gloria; Proctor, Sara K; Barnes, Laura E

    2015-01-01

    There are few Spanish language interactive, technology-driven health education programs. Objectives of this feasibility study were to (a) learn more about computer and technology usage among Hispanic women living in a rural community and (b) evaluate acceptability of the concept of using an embodied conversational agent (ECA) computer application among this population. A survey about computer usage history and interest in computers was administered to a convenience sample of 26 women. A sample video prototype of a hospital discharge ECA was administered followed by questions to gauge opinion about the ECA. Data indicate women exhibited both a high level of computer experience and enthusiasm for the ECA. Feedback from community is essential to ensure equity in state of the art dissemination of health information.

  7. Adult Psychotic Symptoms, Their Associated Risk Factors and Changes in Prevalence in Men and Women Over a Decade in a Poor Rural District of Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Rachel; Othieno, Caleb; Ongeri, Linnet; Ogutu, Bernards; Sifuna, Peter; Kingora, James; Kiima, David; Ongecha, Michael; Omollo, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    There have been no repeat surveys of psychotic symptoms in Kenya or indeed subSaharan Africa. A mental health epidemiological survey was therefore conducted in a demographic surveillance site of a Kenyan household population in 2013 to test the hypothesis that the prevalence of psychotic symptoms would be similar to that found in an earlier sample drawn from the same sample frame in 2004, using the same overall methodology and instruments. This 2013 study found that the prevalence of one or more psychotic symptoms was 13.9% with one or more symptoms and 3.8% with two or more symptoms, while the 2004 study had found that the prevalence of single psychotic symptoms in rural Kenya was 8% of the adult population, but only 0.6% had two symptoms and none had three or more psychotic symptoms. This change was accounted for by a striking increase in psychotic symptoms in women (17.8% in 2013 compared with 6.9% in 2004, p < 0.001), whereas there was no significant change in men (10.6% in 2013 compared with 9.4% in 2004, p = 0.582). Potential reasons for this increase in rate of psychotic symptoms in women are explored. PMID:25996885

  8. Caregiver- vs infant-oriented feeding: a model of infant-feeding strategies among special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children participants in rural east Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Katherine F; Habibi, Mona; Anderson, Kirsten; Spence, Marsha

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this project was to collect data from focus-group participants to inform the future development of region-specific educational strategies to modify infant-feeding practices that may predispose children to obesity. Infant-feeding perceptions and practices were collected from participants of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, through recorded focus groups, in two East Tennessee counties. Focus groups replaced the participants' required, prescheduled nutrition-education classes for participants with infants younger than 6 months of age. Twenty-nine focus groups were convened and recorded, reaching a total of 109 participants. Results of this series of focus groups indicate that the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children population in rural East Tennessee was similar to populations elsewhere in terms of early solid-food introduction, frequent switching of formula, and sources of and valuation of infant-feeding advice. However, this population seemed to be different in the magnitude at which they introduce infant cereal early (primarily as an addition to the bottle). For this reason, interventions designed to reduce inappropriate infant-feeding behaviors in this population should focus on early introduction of solid food (especially infant cereal) first. In addition to these findings, a model of infant-feeding strategy development based on caregiver-orientation (framed within parenting styles) is presented and discussed.

  9. A community-based cluster randomized controlled trial of "directly observed home-based daily iron therapy" in lowering prevalence of anemia in rural women and adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Sahul; Bharti, Bhavneet; Naseem, Shano; Attri, Savita Verma

    2015-03-01

    In a community-based cluster randomized controlled trial, we randomly assigned clusters of anemic women and adolescent girls to either "directly observed home-based daily iron therapy" (DOHBIT; n = 524 in 16 villages) or unsupervised self-treatment at home (n = 535 in 16 villages) for a period of 90 days. Those in the DOHBIT group, when compared with those in the unsupervised self-treatment group, had significantly lower relative risk (RR) of anemia (16.8% vs 35.3%, RR = 0.47 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.33-0.65]; P < .0001), higher hemoglobin (Hb) rise of ≥2 g/dL (70.2% vs 42.2%, RR = 1.56 [95% CI = 1.31-1.87]; P <.0001), and nonsignificant trend for lower side effects (3.5% vs 6.7%, RR = 0.49 [95% CI = 0.22-1.08; P < .08) on intention-to-treat analyses. On linear mixed model analysis, the subjects in the intervention group demonstrated higher mean Hb levels (13.01 vs 12.32 g/dL; P < .0001) and higher adherence to iron therapy (93% vs 60%; P < .0001). DOHBIT is effective in lowering the prevalence of anemia in rural women and adolescent girls.

  10. Transnational Spanish Language Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavillan, Eva; And Others

    The Transnational Spanish Language Project curriculum is a set of instructional materials designed to enhance intercultural business communication between North American and Spanish American cultures. The curriculum covers three areas: office procedures; banking; and import/export business. Lessons, all in Spanish, are intended for…

  11. Secondary School Languages: Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This curriculum guide outlines three programs for secondary school Spanish instruction, each program covering grades 9, 10, and 11 in British Columbian schools. Each outline specifies basic texts, supplementary readings, and teaching aids. In addition, a very basic outline of a beginner's Spanish 11 is offered, and a Spanish 12 literature course…

  12. Economic Resources and HIV Preventive Behaviors Among School-Enrolled Young Women in Rural South Africa (HPTN 068).

    PubMed

    Jennings, Larissa; Pettifor, Audrey; Hamilton, Erica; Ritchwood, Tiarney D; Xavier Gómez-Olivé, F; MacPhail, Catherine; Hughes, James; Selin, Amanda; Kahn, Kathleen

    2017-03-01

    Individual economic resources may have greater influence on school-enrolled young women's sexual decision-making than household wealth measures. However, few studies have investigated the effects of personal income, employment, and other financial assets on young women's sexual behaviors. Using baseline data from the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 068 study, we examined the association of ever having sex and adopting sexually-protective practices with individual-level economic resources among school-enrolled women, aged 13-20 years (n = 2533). Age-adjusted results showed that among all women employment was associated with ever having sex (OR 1.56, 95 % CI 1.28-1.90). Among sexually-experienced women, paid work was associated with changes in partner selection practices (OR 2.38, 95 % CI 1.58-3.58) and periodic sexual abstinence to avoid HIV (OR 1.71, 95 % CI 1.07-2.75). Having money to spend on oneself was associated with reducing the number of sexual partners (OR 1.94, 95 % CI 1.08-3.46), discussing HIV testing (OR 2.15, 95 % CI 1.13-4.06), and discussing condom use (OR 1.99, 95 % CI 1.04-3.80). Having a bank account was associated with condom use (OR 1.49, 95 % CI 1.01-2.19). Economic hardship was positively associated with ever having sex, but not with sexually-protective behaviors. Maximizing women's individual economic resources may complement future prevention initiatives.

  13. Vitamin B-12 supplementation of rural Mexican women changes biochemical vitamin B-12 status indicators but does not affect hematology or a bone turnover marker.

    PubMed

    Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Anaya-Loyola, Miriam A; Vergara-Castañeda, Haydé; Rosado, Jorge L; Keyes, William R; Newman, John W; Miller, Joshua W; Allen, Lindsay H

    2012-10-01

    A high prevalence of low serum vitamin B-12 concentrations has been reported in studies and surveys in Latin America including Mexico, but the functional consequences are unknown. This randomized controlled trial assessed the response to a high-dose vitamin B-12 supplementation of women in rural Querétaro, Mexico. Participants aged 20-59 y were stratified at baseline to deficient, marginal, and adequate status groups (serum vitamin B-12, 75-148, 149-220, and >220 pmol/L, respectively), and each group was randomized to vitamin B-12 treatment (single dose of 1 mg i.m. then 500 μg/d orally for 3 mo, n = 70) or placebo (n = 62). Measures at baseline and 3 mo included: complete blood count, serum vitamin B-12, holotranscobalamin (holoTC), folate, ferritin, C-reactive protein (CRP), bone alkaline phosphatase, and methylmalonic acid (MMA) and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy). At baseline, 11% of the women were vitamin B-12 deficient and 22% had marginal status. HoloTC was low (<35 pmol/L) in 23% and correlated with serum vitamin B-12 (r = 0.7; P < 0.001). Elevated MMA (>271 nmol/L) and tHcy (>12 μmol/L) occurred in 21 and 31%, respectively, and correlated with serum vitamin B-12 (r = -0.28, P < 0.0007 and r = -0.20, P < 0.01, respectively). Supplementation increased serum vitamin B-12 and holoTC and lowered MMA and tHcy, normalizing all values except for elevated tHcy in 21% of the women. Supplementation did not affect hematology or bone-specific alkaline phosphatase. Vitamin B-12 supplementation normalized biochemical indicators of vitamin B-12 status in the treatment group but did not affect the functional outcomes measured.

  14. Sociocultural influences on infant feeding decisions among HIV-infected women in rural Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Thairu, Lucy N; Pelto, Gretel H; Rollins, Nigel C; Bland, Ruth M; Ntshangase, Ncamisile

    2005-01-01

    The promotion of exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, followed by rapid transition to alternative food sources may be an important public health approach to the reduction of mother-to-child transmission of HIV through breastmilk. The basic ethical principle of 'informed choice' requires that HIV positive women are provided with adequate information about their options. However, information is only one factor that affects their decisions. The objective of this ethnographic study was to identify sociocultural influences on infant feeding decisions in the context of a large cohort study designed to assess the impact of a breastfeeding counselling and support strategy to promote exclusive breastfeeding on postnatal transmission of HIV in African women. Following an initial period of exploratory interviewing, ethnographic techniques were used to interview 22 HIV positive women about their views on infant feeding and health. Interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed and analysed with a text analysis program. Five themes of influences on feeding decisions emerged: (1) social stigma of HIV infection; (2) maternal age and family influences on feeding practices; (3) economic circumstances; (4) beliefs about HIV transmission through breastmilk; and (5) beliefs about the quality of breastmilk compared to formula. The study highlights the role of cultural, social, economic and psychological factors that affect HIV positive women's infant feeding decisions and behaviour.

  15. Serum FRAP Levels and Pre-eclampsia among Pregnant Women in a Rural Community of Northern India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anant; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar; Prakash, Shyam; Kalaivani, Mani; Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Rai, Sanjay Kumar; Misra, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is a balance between the oxidative and the anti-oxidative forces in human body. Some studies document decreased level of anti-oxidant in pre-eclampsia while other studies showed normal level of anti-oxidant in pre-eclampsia and the evidence is equivocal. Aim The aim of the present study was to assess enzymatic anti-oxidant activities in pre-eclamptic women and compare it with normotensive pregnant women with period of gestation between 28 to 36 weeks. Materials and Methods A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted (from November 2012-December 2013) at the Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site which was managed by Centre for Community Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. All registered pregnant women with period of gestation between 28 weeks – 36 weeks were eligible for inclusion in the study. All eligible pregnant women were contacted through home visit. A total of 217 pregnant women were enrolled out of which 209 blood samples were collected from pregnant women. About three ml of blood from antecubital vein was drawn without use of tourniquet, under aseptic conditions. It was later analysed for the serum anti-oxidative measures {Malanoaldehyde, Vitamin C, Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) levels}. Data were entered on Epi-Info version 3.5.4. Data management and analysis was carried out in Stata 11. The means were compared using t-test and p-value stated. Categorical data was analysed using chi-square test. Logistic regression was used and adjusted p-value was stated. Results A total of 217 pregnant women were eligible for the study and all were enrolled. Out of the 217 blood samples collected, eight samples accidently got destroyed. A total of 28 out of remaining 209 pregnant women (13.4%) had pre-eclampsia. Mean age (SD) was 22.4 (2.3) years, mean height (SD) was 156.6 (6.9) cm, mean weight (SD) was 65.1 (9.7) kg in pre-eclampsia group. In pre-eclampsia group mean

  16. Investing in People: The Human Capital Needs of Rural America. Rural Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Lionel J., Ed.; Mulkey, David, Ed.

    This book provides an overview of existing human resource conditions in rural America; examines key economic, social, and technological forces shaping the future viability of rural areas; describes human capital issues for rural women and minority groups; and outlines strategies to strengthen rural human capital resources. Chapters are: (1)…

  17. Gender norms and economic empowerment intervention to reduce intimate partner violence against women in rural Côte d’Ivoire: a randomized controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gender-based violence against women, including intimate partner violence (IPV), is a pervasive health and human rights concern. However, relatively little intervention research has been conducted on how to reduce IPV in settings impacted by conflict. The current study reports on the evaluation of the incremental impact of adding “gender dialogue groups” to an economic empowerment group savings program on levels of IPV. This study took place in north and northwestern rural Côte d’Ivoire. Methods Between 2010 and 2012, we conducted a two-armed, non-blinded randomized-controlled trial (RCT) comparing group savings only (control) to “gender dialogue groups” added to group savings (treatment). The gender dialogue group consisted of eight sessions that targeted women and their male partner. Eligible Ivorian women (18+ years, no prior experience with group savings) were invited to participate. 934 out of 981 (95.2%) partnered women completed baseline and endline data collection. The primary trial outcome measure was an overall measure of past-year physical and/or sexual IPV. Past year physical IPV, sexual IPV, and economic abuse were also separately assessed, as were attitudes towards justification of wife beating and a woman’s ability to refuse sex with her husband. Results Intent to treat analyses revealed that compared to groups savings alone, the addition of gender dialogue groups resulted in a slightly lower odds of reporting past year physical and/or sexual IPV (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.58, 1.47; not statistically significant). Reductions in reporting of physical IPV and sexual IPV were also observed (not statistically significant). Women in the treatment group were significantly less likely to report economic abuse than control group counterparts (OR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.60, p < .0001). Acceptance of wife beating was significantly reduced among the treatment group (β = -0.97; 95% CI: -1.67, -0.28, p = 0.006), while attitudes

  18. The Needs of the Spanish Speaking Mujer [Woman] in Woman-Manpower Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto-Gomez, Anna

    Although the Spanish Speaking woman is usually considered to be outside the labor market, 36 percent of the 52 percent Spanish Speaking women were in the labor force in March 1972. These women suffer economic-sexist discrimination due to ascription of work according to sex and race by a racial-sexual hierarchy existing within the traditional…

  19. Shifting norms: pregnant women's perspectives on skilled birth attendance and facility-based delivery in rural Ghana.

    PubMed

    Crissman, Halley P; Engmann, Cyril E; Adanu, Richard M; Nimako, Doris; Crespo, Keesha; Moyer, Cheryl A

    2013-03-01

    Skilled birth attendance (SBA) and healthcare facility (HCF) delivery are effective means of reducing maternal mortality. However, their uptake remains low in many low-income countries. The present study utilized semi-structured interviews with 85 pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in Akwatia, Ghana (May-July 2010) to better understand the barriers to SBA and HCF delivery through the underrepresented perspective of pregnant women. Interview transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Participants described community support for and uptake of HCF delivery as increasing and becoming normalized, but barriers remain: (1) maltreatment by midwives; (2) cost associated with HCF delivery despite waived facility fees; (3) the need for a support person for HCF delivery; (4) difficulties in transportation; and (5) precipitous labor. Given the importance of community in Ghanaian health care decision-making, increasing community support for HCF delivery suggests progress toward increasing uptake of SBA and HCF delivery, however important actionable barriers remain.

  20. Spanish in the United States: Linguistic Contact and Diversity. Studies in Anthropological Linguistics, 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roca, Ana, Ed.; Lipski, John M., Ed.

    This edited volume focuses on the linguistic aspects of the Spanish used in the United States today. The earliest studies in this field concentrated on rural Mexican-American Spanish in the Southwest. The parameters of the field have been extended in response to changing urban and demographic realities, and to paradigm shifts in linguistics…