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Sample records for rural spanish women

  1. Rural Prairie Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Kari

    "Rural Prairie Women" contains the work of two task forces: the Rural Social Work Task Force which looked at the forces active in North Dakota rural areas and the Rural Women Task Force which examined the position of women within those same rural communities. The relationship between the land, small towns, and sparse population is explored, as is…

  2. Role of educational level in the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and health-related quality of life (HRQL) among rural Spanish women

    PubMed Central

    García-Mendizábal, María José; Carrasco, José Miguel; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Aragonés, Nuria; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Pollán, Marina

    2009-01-01

    Background The impact of obesity on health-related quality of life (HRQL) has been little explored in rural areas. The goal of this study is to ascertain the association between obesity and HRQL among Spanish women living in a rural area, and the influence of their educational level. Methods Cross-sectional study with personal interview of 1298 women (aged 18 to 60) randomly selected from the electoral rolls of 14 towns in Galicia, a region in the north-west of Spain. HRQL was assessed using the SF-36 questionnaire. The association between body mass index (BMI) and suboptimal scores in the different HRQL dimensions was summarised using odds ratios (ORs), obtained from multivariate logistic regression models. Separate analyses were conducted for women who had finished their education younger than 16 years old and women with secondary education to assess differences in the relationship between BMI and HRQL according to educational level. Results Among women with primary or lower education, obesity was associated with a higher prevalence of suboptimal values in the following dimensions: Physical functioning (OR: 1.97; 95%CI: 1.22–3.18); Role-physical (OR: 1.81; 95%CI: 1.04–3.14); General health (OR: 1.76; 95%CI: 1.10–2.81); and Role-emotional (OR: 2.52; 95%CI: 1.27–5.03). In women with higher education, physical functioning was the only dimension associated with obesity (OR: 2.02: 95%CI 0.83–4.97). Conclusion The impact of obesity on women's HRQL is greater among those with a lower educational level. This group registered higher prevalence of obesity and poorer self-perceived health. PMID:19405963

  3. Deaf Lives: Nineteenth-Century Spanish Deaf Girls and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plann, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This article is about the lives of nineteenth-century Spanish deaf girls and women. The research presented is contained in a larger work, a book titled "Portraits from the Spanish National Deaf-Mute School," to be published by Gallaudet University Press. These "portraits" are in fact biographical essays on nineteenth-century deaf people and their…

  4. 34. View of the Women's lounge (Spanish room) looking northwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. View of the Women's lounge (Spanish room) looking northwest. A Mural by Merlin Hardy depicts a "Spanish dance theme in a 19th century setting." (removed 1997) - Fort Ord, Soldiers' Club, California State Highway 1 near Eighth Street, Seaside, Monterey County, CA

  5. Women's Fear of Crime: A Rural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Jo; Panelli, Ruth; Kraack, Anna

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines women's experience of fear of crime in rural areas. It argues that much existing research on issues of gender, fear and safety have focused on urban areas and that as a result we know relatively little about women's experience of fear in a rural context. As well as arguing that we need to redress the balance and respond to the…

  6. Meeting the Needs of Rural Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alston, Margaret

    This paper examines the gender order that operates in rural areas of Australia, ensuring that women are accorded secondary status, that their contributions are discounted, and that their concerns are trivialized. Women are disadvantaged by patriarchal gender relations that dominate rural society and that are reinforced by ideologies of family and…

  7. Rural Women's Vocational Training for National Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Lily

    Although women are a crucial element in national rural development, their role continues to be neglected in plans and programs for change--especially in Third World countries. In addition to the burden faced by rural people generally in developing countries, women carry a double burden because of their low social status, high illiteracy rate, lack…

  8. Incidental Education (for Women) in Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Valmai

    The Country Women's Association (CWA) is a nationwide Australian group that started in the 1920s in response to isolated women's need to socialize. The group's activities have expanded greatly over time. It distributes essential food and clothing to needy rural families, and its extensive involvement in incidental education for women includes…

  9. A Spanish Language Narrative Simulation to Prevent Horseback Riding Head Injury among Rural Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrowsmith, Heather E.; Cole, Henry P.; Mazur, Joan M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: A Spanish language version of an exercise about adolescent horseback riders' exposure to traumatic brain injuries was integrated into the Spanish curriculum in a rural Kentucky high school. Design: An exploratory case study design with two groups of students. Setting and Method: Thirty-eight students, enrolled in intermediate Spanish IV…

  10. Spanish validation of the HIV dementia scale in women.

    PubMed

    Wojna, V; Skolasky, R L; McArthur, J C; Maldonado, E; Hechavarria, R; Mayo, R; Selnes, O; Ginebra, T; de la Torre, T; Garcia, H; Kraiselburd, E; Melendez-Guerrero, L M; Zorrilla, C D; Nath, A

    2007-12-01

    HIV infection is increasing in minority groups, particularly in African American and Hispanic women. Although the incidence of HIV dementia has decreased since the advent of highly active antiretroviral treatment, prevalence of neurocognitive complications has increased as patients are now living longer. This study's purpose was to determine the psychometric properties of the Spanish-language HIV Dementia Scale (HDS) in a group of HIV-infected women. We recruited 96 women: 60 HIV-seropositive and 36 HIV-seronegative. Modification of the HDS into a Spanish-language version consisted of translating the instructions, substituting four words in Spanish (gato, media, azul, piña), increasing 1 second in the psychomotor speed because the Spanish alphabet has more letters than the English alphabet, and not offering clues for memory recall. Cognitive impairment (CI) was defined according to the modified American Academy of Neurology HIV-dementia criteria including an asymptomatic CI group. Statistical analysis consisted of analysis of variance to determine group differences and receiver operator characteristics (ROC) to determine the optimal cutoff point for the screening of CI. HDS-Spanish total score and subscores for psychomotor speed and memory recall showed significant differences between HIV-seronegative and women with HIV-dementia (p < 0.001) and between HIV-seropositive women with normal cognition and those with HIV-dementia (p < 0.001). The optimal cutoff point of 13 or less had performance characteristics of 87% sensitivity and 46% specificity for HIV-associated CI (50.0% positive predictive value, 85.0% negative predictive value). The HDS-Spanish translation offers a useful screening tool with value for the identification of Hispanic women at risk of developing HIV-associated symptomatic neurocognitive disturbances. PMID:18154490

  11. Lives of rural women after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Patricia; Arthur, Heather M; Rideout, Elizabeth

    2005-03-01

    This study examines the influences of rurality on the lives of women post-myocardial infarction (MI). Using a critical ethnographic approach, the researchers analyze in-depth interviews with 12 women from southwestern Ontario, Canada, for the ways in which their experiences were related to social, political, and cultural forces associated with rurality. Data analysis revealed 4 themes: reticence, characterized by a tendency to minimize worry and accept one's life post-MI; referral games, or the challenges associated with accessing tertiary care; resourcefulness in managing one's recovery; and relationships, with rural health professionals and institutions being highly valued. The findings have relevance for nurses in both rural and urban settings who care for women post-MI and form a basis for supporting and building culturally specific post-MI care.

  12. Reaching Rural Women: Case Studies and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colle, Royal D.; Fernandez de Colle, Susana

    Although not often considered in the past by planners because their economic contributions are not performed for money, rural women are contributors to the development of their countries. The urgency of reaching women with important information to break the cycle of poverty is now being recognized by the major development agencies. While there are…

  13. Empowering Women in Agricultural Education for Sustainable Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugbomeh, George M. M.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the concepts of agricultural education, women empowerment, and sustainable rural development. Suggests that, because women make up more than half of Nigeria's population, their empowerment would assist the efforts for sustainable rural development. (Contains 48 references.) (JOW)

  14. Women, population and development: rural women's passage to empowerment.

    PubMed

    Villareal, F L

    1995-12-01

    This article describes the Women's Population and Development (WPD) program among rural women in 35 poor counties in 10 provinces in China in 1988. The provinces included Xinjiang, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Guizhou, Hubei, and Anhui, which are mostly located in the arid northwest or pastoral northeast China. The study area is inclined to have harsh agro-ecological conditions and environmental degradation. Women's income ranges from RMB 350 to 650 Yuan. About 35% were literate. 40-50% of the rural agricultural labor force and about 60% of all farm labor were women. Out migration of men was increasing. This WPD program was supported by the Ministry of Foreign Technical and Economic Cooperation, the UNFPA, and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization. The program aim is to use alternative family planning strategies, alleviate poverty, and improve rural women's status. Initial discussions revealed different goals among rural women and county leaders. Women wanted direct access and control over resources. County leaders desired increased productivity among a selected number of small scale enterprises. The project stipulated that 80% of funding was to be allocated as credit for rural women, that a revolving fund would give women direct access and control of resources, and that women would be recognized for their dual roles. Partnerships were formed between women's voluntary groups and project management. Prospective members of women's self-help groups received a 60-70 hour workshop. This workshop helped to identity the root causes of low status and feasible approaches to improving the status and to developed program activities. Counties were gradually included during 1990-93. This program evaluation pertains to analysis of 1994-95 data among 1300 respondents at four points in time. Impact indicators include 18 measures. The most important measure is that women gained control over their own lives and a partnership with husbands. The program

  15. Women, population and development: rural women's passage to empowerment.

    PubMed

    Villareal, F L

    1995-12-01

    This article describes the Women's Population and Development (WPD) program among rural women in 35 poor counties in 10 provinces in China in 1988. The provinces included Xinjiang, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Guizhou, Hubei, and Anhui, which are mostly located in the arid northwest or pastoral northeast China. The study area is inclined to have harsh agro-ecological conditions and environmental degradation. Women's income ranges from RMB 350 to 650 Yuan. About 35% were literate. 40-50% of the rural agricultural labor force and about 60% of all farm labor were women. Out migration of men was increasing. This WPD program was supported by the Ministry of Foreign Technical and Economic Cooperation, the UNFPA, and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization. The program aim is to use alternative family planning strategies, alleviate poverty, and improve rural women's status. Initial discussions revealed different goals among rural women and county leaders. Women wanted direct access and control over resources. County leaders desired increased productivity among a selected number of small scale enterprises. The project stipulated that 80% of funding was to be allocated as credit for rural women, that a revolving fund would give women direct access and control of resources, and that women would be recognized for their dual roles. Partnerships were formed between women's voluntary groups and project management. Prospective members of women's self-help groups received a 60-70 hour workshop. This workshop helped to identity the root causes of low status and feasible approaches to improving the status and to developed program activities. Counties were gradually included during 1990-93. This program evaluation pertains to analysis of 1994-95 data among 1300 respondents at four points in time. Impact indicators include 18 measures. The most important measure is that women gained control over their own lives and a partnership with husbands. The program

  16. Rural Women and Osteoporosis: Awareness and Educational Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Hollie L.; Laya, Mary; DeWitt, Dawn E.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Little is known about rural women's knowledge about osteoporosis. Purpose: To explore what women from high-prevalence rural communities know about osteoporosis and to assess their learning preferences. Methods: We surveyed 437 women in rural Washington and Oregon. Findings: The response rate was 93% (N = 406). The mean age of respondents…

  17. How the Budget Cuts Undercut Rural Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Jane

    This study describes the status of 34 million rural women and analyzes how they and their families will be directly affected by cuts in the 1983 federal budget in the areas of legal services, vocational education, domestic violence intervention, energy assistance and alternative energy development, public housing, unemployment compensation, social…

  18. Women's health promotion in the rural church: a Canadian perspective.

    PubMed

    Plunkett, Robyn; Leipert, Beverly D

    2013-09-01

    The rural church may be an effective health resource for rural Canadian women who have compromised access to health resources. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relevance of the Christian church and faith community nurses in promoting the health of rural Canadian women in the evolving rural context. The findings from an extensive literature search reveal that religion and spirituality often influence the health beliefs, behaviors, and decisions of rural Canadian women. The church and faith community nurses may therefore be a significant health resource for rural Canadian women, although this phenomenon has been significantly understudied.

  19. Rural Women's Transitions to Motherhood: Understanding Social Support in a Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Weaver, Addie; Schommer, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Social support protects women from various negative consequences, yet we have little understanding of how rural women acquire and utilize social support. Using interviews of 24 women in a North Dakota community, this research sought to understand how rural women were supported as new mothers. One, familial women and partners were vital supports to…

  20. Rural women and power in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Lee, M B; Hezekiah, J; Watters, D

    1995-01-01

    Perceptions of power in women living in rural villages in Pakistan were explored. The Lee-Hezekiah Power Perception Scale was developed by the authors to measure women's perception of their power. The instrument was administered in interviews conducted by a group of Lady Health Visitors who were participating in a project funded by the Canadian International Development Agency. Sixty-nine women ranging in age from 20 to 65 were interviewed. One-way analysis of variance revealed that the oldest group perceived themselves to have more power than the youngest group perceived themselves to have. Stepwise multiple regression indicated that the number of male children a woman had was predictive of the amount of power she perceived herself to have. The results are discussed in relation to existing literature on women and power in developing countries. Implications for further research on women's perceptions of power and health are discussed.

  1. How poor are women in rural India?

    PubMed

    Rajuladevi, A K

    1992-07-01

    The assessment of poor women in India as dependent and exploited regardless of poverty focused strategies is reflected in this review of relevant literature. The scholarly approaches to the problems of poor women involve redirection and expansion of resources to women (increase bank credit) through policy and institutional changes, and involve improving women's welfare through changes in class and gender hierarchies; both pertain to restructuring power groups. A little ascribed to belief is that the organization of women's numbers will empower women; the constraints are stated. There is also some argument over whether to design women-specific programs or integrate women into existing programs; some examples are given of successes and difficulties. The regionalization of poverty in eastern and central India is discussed. The growth of the poor has been among the landless, wage-dependent households. 9.6% of households (7.5 million) are headed by women. Women work fewer hours and at lower wage scales and have fewer employment opportunities. Lower earnings are coupled with differentials in demand for female and male labor in agriculture and a crowded labor market. There is a concentration of women in less visible, nonmonetary subsistence production and domestic work. Women are undercounted in employment studies. Women predominate in agricultural activity. Women's status is influenced by economic status, caste, and ethnic background. Domestic work increases status for women and households. The poorer households have greater labor force participation, particularly as wage laborers rather than unpaid family workers. Regional factors affecting rural household strategies are factors affecting the economy (topography, rainfall, climate) and the degree of development, plus sociocultural variables (kinship and religious beliefs which affect the social domain of women), and the degree of dependence on hired vs. family labor. There are sharp contrasts in the value and survival

  2. Canadian Rural Girls and Women: Preparing for the Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varpalotai, Aniko

    Over the past century, rural girls and women have increasingly taken on leadership roles in response to rural community development concerns and farm crises threatening the very existence of family farms and surrounding communities. This paper provides a brief historical overview of the status of women in rural Canada, and then describes the…

  3. Measuring rural women's work and class position.

    PubMed

    Deere, C D; León de Leal, M

    1979-01-01

    On the basis of experience gained in researching the economic roles of rural women in a national level study in Colombia and in a regional level study in Peru, some of the methodological problems of measuring rural women's economic participation by sample survey are considered. The specific objective of the sample surveys was to quantify the existing sexual division of labor among the peasant population. The rural household was the unit of analysis, and the focus of measurement was the division of labor by sex in such activities as daily maintenance, household production, and income-generating activitives pursued outside the household. The focus of the survey questionnaire is on the sexual division of labor, but it necessarily must be related to another series of socioeconomic or cultural variables for analysis. The selection of these variables needs to be derived from the hypotheses guiding the study, yet much attention must be given to narrowing the range of inquiry. The time constraint on the length of the questionnaire requires that certain choices be made in terms of the complementary variables to be included. The most important problem in the design of a representative sample survey is the selection of the population to be sampled. The choice of population needs to be compatible with the theoretical framework. Since the interest was to measure the sexual division of labor in terms of class formation, the sample had to be representative of the different class strata in the rural areas. The measurement of access to means of production ideally should be quantitative and qualitative. The choice of the population to be sampled is also constrained by the available data base, a particular problem in rural areas.

  4. Polygyny and Women's Health in Rural Mali

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Riley M; Vala-Haynes, Emily; Valeggia, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Women's social networks and social power are increasingly seen as important factors modulating their health in sub-Saharan Africa. Polygyny, a common marital structure in many societies, mediates important intra-household relationships by requiring both competition and cooperation among co-wives. Using mixed methods, semi-structured questionnaires were administered to 298 women aged 15 to 84 living in the Kolondiéba region of rural Mali in 1999, and supplemented by detailed interviews with 40 women. Three categories of outcome were explored: illness experience, therapeutic itinerary, and social support received. Quantitative data were analyzed using regression analysis and qualitative data using a grounded theory approach. In quantitative analyses, controlling for age and household wealth index, senior wives were less likely to be escorted to a healer by their husbands during illness than were junior wives or monogamous women. Polygynous women were also less likely to obtain a treatment for which there was a monetary fee. Fewer than one third of polygynous women reported the assistance of a co-wife during illness in any given task. In qualitative analyses, women further related varied mechanisms through which polygyny impacted their health trajectories. These ranged from strongly supportive relationships, to jealousy because of unequal health or fertility, bias in emotional and material support provided by husbands, and accusations of wrong-doing and witchcraft. This study highlights the need for more prospective mixed methods analyses to further clarify the impact of polygyny on women's health-related experiences and behaviors in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:23480408

  5. Polygyny and women's health in rural Mali.

    PubMed

    Bove, R M; Vala-Haynes, Emily; Valeggia, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Women's social networks and social power are increasingly seen as important factors modulating their health in sub-Saharan Africa. Polygyny, a common marital structure in many societies, mediates important intra-household relationships by requiring both competition and co-operation among co-wives. Using mixed methods, semi-structured questionnaires were administered to 298 women aged 15-84 living in the Kolondiéba region of rural Mali in 1999, and supplemented by detailed interviews with 40 women. Three categories of outcome were explored: illness experience, therapeutic itinerary and social support received. Quantitative data were analysed using regression analysis and qualitative data using a grounded theory approach. In quantitative analyses, controlling for age and household wealth index, senior wives were less likely to be escorted to a healer by their husbands during illness than were junior wives or monogamous women. Polygynous women were also less likely to obtain a treatment for which there was a monetary fee. Fewer than one-third of polygynous women reported the assistance of a co-wife during illness in any given task. In qualitative analyses, women further related varied mechanisms through which polygyny impacted their health trajectories. These ranged from strongly supportive relationships, to jealousy because of unequal health or fertility, bias in emotional and material support provided by husbands, and accusations of wrong-doing and witchcraft. This study highlights the need for more prospective mixed methods analyses to further clarify the impact of polygyny on women's health-related experiences and behaviours in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:23480408

  6. Smoking in Rural and Underserved Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Handley, Marilyn Cooper; Avery, Daniel M

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the persistent problem of smoking, especially as it relates to the rural and underserved population. The negative effects of smoking and disparities in health that occur as a result are highlighted. The article reviews the general state of smoking in the United States and discusses health-related issues and concerns of individuals who continue to smoke. The report explores individuals' rationale for smoking, barriers to cessation, and general knowledge related to the outcomes of smoking during pregnancy. The conclusions highlight the need for providers to provide information and interventions to reduce the smoking rates of pregnant women.

  7. Smoking in Rural and Underserved Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Handley, Marilyn Cooper; Avery, Daniel M

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the persistent problem of smoking, especially as it relates to the rural and underserved population. The negative effects of smoking and disparities in health that occur as a result are highlighted. The article reviews the general state of smoking in the United States and discusses health-related issues and concerns of individuals who continue to smoke. The report explores individuals' rationale for smoking, barriers to cessation, and general knowledge related to the outcomes of smoking during pregnancy. The conclusions highlight the need for providers to provide information and interventions to reduce the smoking rates of pregnant women. PMID:26333611

  8. Rural Women Teachers in the United States. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyman, Andrea

    This presentation examines the history of women teachers in the rural United States. The earliest classrooms in America were a male environment modeled after European schools. But in the mid-19th century, the Civil War and westward expansion depleted the number of male teachers and brought rural women teachers to the helm of American education.…

  9. Grandmothers, Mothers, and Daughters: Intergenerational Attitude Transference among Rural Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vezina, Jacqueline Pauli

    To determine whether social forces have changed the attitudes of rural women or whether the cohesiveness of the rural family unit produces such strong attitudinal transference that attitudes do not change, researchers studied the attitudes of three generations of women in Dawes County, Nebraska. The study was distinctive because it covered more…

  10. THE MOVEMENT OF SPANISH YOUTH FROM RURAL TO URBAN SETTINGS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BARRETT, DONALD N.; SAMORA, JULIAN

    THE ANALYSIS DEALS WITH--DEMOGRAPHIC, HISTORICAL, AND CULTURAL BACKGROUND FACTORS, AND THE HOUSING, FAMILY LIFE, AND EDUCATIONAL AND ECONOMIC PARTICIPATION OF SPANISH SURNAME, NON-PUERTO RICAN PEOPLE IN FIVE SOUTHWESTERN STATES. CONCLUSIONS ARE BASED ON AN EXAMINATION OF EXISTING LITERATURE, A SURVEY OF EXPERT OPINION, FIELD CHECKS OF SELECTED…

  11. Southern Seven Women's Initiative for Cardiovascular Health: Lessons Learned in Community Health Outreach with Rural Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Kristine; Khare, Manorama M.; Huber, Rachel; Moehring, Patricia A.; Koch, Abby; Geller, Stacie E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women in the United States. Rural women have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease due to both behavioral and environmental factors. Models of prevention that are tailored to community needs and build on existing resources are essential for effective outreach to rural women.…

  12. Evolutionary Approach of Virtual Communities of Practice: A Reflection within a Network of Spanish Rural Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frossard, Frédérique; Trifonova, Anna; Barajas Frutos, Mario

    The isolation of rural communities creates special necessities for teachers and students in rural schools. The present article describes "Rural Virtual School", a Virtual Community of Practice (VCoP) in which Spanish teachers of rural schools share learning resources and teaching methodologies through social software applications. The article arrives to an evolutionary model, in which the use of the social software tools evolves together with the needs and the activities of the VCoP through the different stages of its lifetime. Currently, the community has reached a high level of maturity and, in order to keep its momentum, the members intentionally use appropriate technologies specially designed to enhance rich innovative educational approaches, through which they collaboratively generate creative practices.

  13. Uptake of Free HPV Vaccination among Young Women: A Comparison of Rural versus Urban Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; Casey, Baretta R.; Vanderpool, Robin; Collins, Tom; Moore, Gregory R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To contrast rates of initial HPV vaccine uptake, offered at no cost, between a rural clinic, a rural community college, and an urban college clinic and to identify rural versus urban differences in uptake of free booster doses. Methods: Young rural women attending rural clinics (n = 246), young women attending a rural community college (n…

  14. Rural women with chronic illness: computer use and skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Weinert, Clarann; Hill, Wade G

    2005-01-01

    Chronically ill rural women must manage complex illness without easy access to health care resources including support and health information. The Women to Women project is a technology-based program with an overarching aim to assist rural women in the day-to-day management of their illnesses. An important aspect of the Women to Women program is teaching the women how to use the Internet to meet their support and informational needs. The purposes of this article are to examine changes in 1) the level of computer skills, 2) degree of comfort in using the computer, and 3) knowledge of Internet functions for the participants in the Women to Women computer-based intervention. Results of the initial analysis of data from 63 women (intervention group n = 29, control group n = 34) indicate that women participating in the intervention reported greater computer skills and computer comfort and greater knowledge of specific aspects of Internet use than women in the control group. These findings were further strengthened considering that intervention and control group differentials were sustained 8 months after the end of the women's participation in the computer intervention. With the attainment of computer and Internet skills, it is expected that these rural women will have a sustained ability to access quality Internet information that will allow them to better manage and adapt to their chronic illnesses. PMID:16165009

  15. Rural women in Africa and technological change: some issues.

    PubMed

    Date-bah, E; Stevens, Y

    1981-01-01

    The attempt is made in this discussion to highlight some of the important sociological and technical issues relating to rural women in Africa and technological change which appear to have been underplayed, misconceived or overlooked in the past. Attention is directed to the rural woman as a member of the family unit, the image of the rural man, rural women as a diversified group, community and national governmental commitment to rural technology innovations, the use of already existing traditional groups and institutions to effect rural technological change, and design specifications and shortcomings of equipment and tools (manufacturing costs, exploitation of locally available energy resources, the simplicity of the devices), and infrastructural and marketing problems. Numberous projects aimed at improving the lot of women in the rural areas have focused only on women, rather than the woman as a member of an extended as well as a nuclear family unit. Consequently, they have failed, for rural women do not exist or operate in isolation. It is difficult to believe the overall image in much of the literature that the husbands of rural women show no sympathy or regard for their wives. In the effort to attract investment to improve upon the position of rural women, reality should not be distorted with this one-sided view. Men should be involved in the technology planned for rural women, and the technological change should be planned and implemented in such a way that it results in an improvement in the relationship between the rural couple and generally between members of the rural family and between males and females in the village. Another problem is overgeneralization, and it must be recognized that considerable differentiation exists between rural women themselves. The importance of community, governmental and political commitment to rural technology innovations in order to ensure their success is neglected in the literature. The government and polictical leadership

  16. Reaching rural African American women difficult. Researcher discusses chief issues.

    PubMed

    2005-06-01

    Poverty and inequality are among the major challenges faced by the rural African American women at risk for HIV infection, and they increase this population's potential for becoming infected, an expert says.

  17. Marriage and Suicide among Chinese Rural Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jie

    2010-01-01

    Suicides by young females in rural China contribute substantially to the high rate of suicide and the total number of suicides in China. Given the traditional familial structure that remains largely intact in rural China, this research focuses on whether being married is a risk or protective factor for suicide by young women. I examined 168 rural…

  18. Empowering Rural Women through Mobile Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagarajan, P.; Jiji, G. Wiselin

    2010-01-01

    This paper is intended as a gender issue to the rural finance practitioners. It highlights the questions that need to be asked and addressed to the gender mainstream. It will also be useful to gender experts to wish to increase their understanding on specific gender issues in rural finance through mobile services. It focuses on rural microfinance…

  19. Health Disparities between Rural and Urban Women in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Tjaden, Kim

    2015-10-01

    With much discussion about health disparities in Minnesota in recent years, there has been growing awareness about the inequities between rich and poor and between majority and minority groups. Attention also needs to be paid to the disparities between women who live in rural areas and those who live in urban parts of the state. Rural women are poorer, older and less likely to have adequate health insurance than their urban counterparts, which can compromise their health status. They also fare worse on a number of health indicators and face barriers to adequate health care that can exacerbate disparities. This article describes the root causes of health disparities between women living in rural and urban parts of the state and explores strategies to mitigate them that include increasing the rural physician workforce, improving access to primary and specialty care through telehealth services, and expanding health insurance options.

  20. [Social capital in rural areas: adaptation to Spanish and factor validation of a scale].

    PubMed

    Fernández Niño, Julián Alfredo; Pinzón Flórez, Carlos Eduardo; Moreno Montoya, José; Cepeda Gil, Magda Cristiana; Idrovo Velandia, Alvaro Javier

    2014-07-01

    Social capital is considered a structural determinant of social development and wellbeing. Its cognitive component assesses the degree of confidence of the population in their systems for social organization, as well as community interactions to coordinate social responses to social problems. There are few available scales for measuring this construct. This work presents the adaptation to Spanish and psychometric validation of a scale for measuring social capital in a rural setting. The Wang Social Cognitive Scale was also adapted to Spanish. 1200 questionnaires were applied to adults in 12 villages of the municipality of Tierra Alta, (Colombia) recruited by random sampling. Factor analysis of the scale was performed based on a polychoric correlation matrix. Exploratory factor analysis suggests the existence of two principal factors distributed as follows: 7 items for factor 1, trust (eigenvalue 3.23) and 2 items, for factor 2, distrust (eigenvalue 1.40). As observed by Wang, Q9 and Q10 could be ambiguous questions which do not contribute enough to either of the factors. The first factor validation to Spanish language of the Wang Social Capital Scale is presented in the social context of rural Colombia.

  1. [Social capital in rural areas: adaptation to Spanish and factor validation of a scale].

    PubMed

    Fernández Niño, Julián Alfredo; Pinzón Flórez, Carlos Eduardo; Moreno Montoya, José; Cepeda Gil, Magda Cristiana; Idrovo Velandia, Alvaro Javier

    2014-07-01

    Social capital is considered a structural determinant of social development and wellbeing. Its cognitive component assesses the degree of confidence of the population in their systems for social organization, as well as community interactions to coordinate social responses to social problems. There are few available scales for measuring this construct. This work presents the adaptation to Spanish and psychometric validation of a scale for measuring social capital in a rural setting. The Wang Social Cognitive Scale was also adapted to Spanish. 1200 questionnaires were applied to adults in 12 villages of the municipality of Tierra Alta, (Colombia) recruited by random sampling. Factor analysis of the scale was performed based on a polychoric correlation matrix. Exploratory factor analysis suggests the existence of two principal factors distributed as follows: 7 items for factor 1, trust (eigenvalue 3.23) and 2 items, for factor 2, distrust (eigenvalue 1.40). As observed by Wang, Q9 and Q10 could be ambiguous questions which do not contribute enough to either of the factors. The first factor validation to Spanish language of the Wang Social Capital Scale is presented in the social context of rural Colombia. PMID:25014299

  2. Women In Rural China--Work Patterns and Fertility Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salaff, Janet

    The great institutional changes in Chinese agriculture over the past 25 years have altered the position of women in the economy and family, one consequence of which has been the emergence of female role models who delay marriage and bear small families. This paper discusses the fertility goals of the rural activist women as one type of response to…

  3. Educational Policies and Priorities for Rural Women in Southern Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutanyatta, J. N. S.

    Despite their significant role in African economies, women are still the victims of poverty, illiteracy, discrimination, and powerlessness. Most African countries are classified as "low" on the Human Development Index and exhibit a relationship between per capita gross domestic product and the adult literacy rate. Rural women appear to be the most…

  4. Understanding Contexts of Family Violence in Rural, Farming Communities: Implications for Rural Women's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendt, Sarah; Hornosty, Jennie

    2010-01-01

    Research on family violence in rural communities in Australia and Canada has shown that women's experience of family violence is shaped by social and cultural factors. Concern for economic security and inheritance for children, closeness and belonging, and values of family unity and traditional gender roles are factors in rural communities that…

  5. RESPIRATORY HEALTH OF RURAL AND FARM WOMEN IN THE KEOKUK COUNTY RURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    RESPIRATORY HEALTH OF RURAL AND FARM WOMEN IN THE KEOKUK COUNTY RURAL HEALTH STUDY
    Allison L. Naleway*, Nancy L. Sprince?, Erik R. Svendsen?, Ann M. Stromquist?, James A. Merchant?
    *Marshfield Medical Research and Education Foundation, Marshfield, WI; ?University of Iowa Co...

  6. Psychosocial Work Characteristics Predict Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Health Functioning in Rural Women: The Wisconsin Rural Women's Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikani, Vatsal; Reding, Douglas; Gunderson, Paul; McCarty, Catherine A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between psychosocial work characteristics and health functioning and cardiovascular disease risk factors among rural women of central Wisconsin and compare psychosocial work characteristics between farm and nonfarm women. Methods: Stratified sampling was used to select a…

  7. Rurality, mobility, identity: women's use of complementary and alternative medicine in rural Australia.

    PubMed

    Meurk, Carla; Broom, Alex; Adams, Jon; Sibbritt, David

    2013-03-01

    This article explores why women in rural and remote areas of Australia use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) at higher rates than their counterparts in urban areas. Drawing on qualitative interviews with 60 women 60-65 years of age, currently living in rural Australia, we explore the possibility that CAM use in rural areas may be embedded in processes of spatialised identity-building and the health-creating practices of mobile, ex-urban, individuals who drive this process. We problematise previous explanations which suggest CAM use in rural areas is principally derived from a lack of biomedical service provision and enhanced community ties showing instead how and why identity and mobility are useful additional variables for understanding CAM use in rural areas.

  8. Easing the burden of rural women: a 16-hour workday.

    PubMed

    Fagley, R M

    1976-01-01

    Women are the 2nd-class citizens of the developing countries, especially in the rural areas. Not until the status of women is upgraded in these areas will the struggle for better nutrition, for smaller families, and for general social development be successful. The reasons why women have been neglected so far are discussed. Women in developing countries suffer from a lack of power. They can be helped by women in affluent societies. Information on the status of women in various Asian, African, and Latin American countries was solicited and is presented. Obstacles to improvement in the condition of women include: 1) continual childbearing 2) traditional values, 3) social pressures, and 4) the machismo philosophy. Recommendations are made for ways in which to aid the situation of women in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Some beginning efforts in this direction are mentioned.

  9. Collecting data on women's employment in rural Java.

    PubMed

    Peluso, N L

    1979-01-01

    A research study was conducted to determine the economic roles of rural women in Java, Indonesia, who work outside the agricultural sector. The study was designed to create a system of job classification for small trade and industry which would distinguish among women's economic activities. The research consisted of 3 phases: 1) 8 case studies which included time observations of the women's days; 2) a household survey, selected according to the woman's primary occupation; and 3) a market survey among women traders of various commodities. The focus of the data collection was family roles and relationships and women's occupations. This collection of information is important because development and the introduction of technology in rural Indonesia is changing the fields of employment traditionally dominated by women. A summary of 1 of the case studies is presented. The data showed trends in occupational choice according to the life-cycle stage of the woman's family. It is hoped that these findings can be used in regional development planning geared to using the labor of rural women. PMID:538790

  10. Effects of rural-urban return migration on women's family planning and reproductive health attitudes and behavior in rural China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiajian; Liu, Hongyan; Xie, Zhenming

    2010-03-01

    This study examines the effects of rural-urban return migration on women's family planning and reproductive health attitudes and behavior in the sending areas of rural China. Based on data from a survey of rural women aged 16-40 in Sichuan and Anhui Provinces in 2000, our study finds that migrant women returning from cities to the countryside, especially those who have been living in a large city, are more likely than nonmigrant women to adopt positive family planning and reproductive health attitudes and behavior in their rural communities of origin. We find, moreover, that living in a rural community where the prevalence of such return migrant women is higher is positively associated with new fertility and gender attitudes and with knowledge of self-controllable contraceptives. The findings of significant rural-urban return-migration effects have important policy implications for shaping family planning and reproductive health attitudes and behaviors in rural China.

  11. The Assessment of Intimate Partner Violence in Spanish Women: The Index of Spouse Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plazaola-Castano, Juncal; Ruiz-Perez, Isabel; Escriba-Aguir, Vicenta; Montero-Pinar, Isabel; Vives-Cases, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to analyze the internal consistency and construct validity of the Spanish version of the Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA) in a representative sample of 8,995 women attending general practice in Spain in 2006-2007. The factor structure analysis shows that the ISA measures four intimate partner violence (IPV) dimensions: emotional, physical, and…

  12. Women's property rights and gendered policies: implications for women's long-term welfare in rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Peterman, Amber

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates effects of community-level women's property and inheritance rights on women's economic outcomes using a 13 year longitudinal panel from rural Tanzania. In the preferred model specification, inverse probability weighting is applied to a woman-level fixed effects model to control for individual-level time invariant heterogeneity and attrition. Results indicate that changes in women's property and inheritance rights are significantly associated with women's employment outside the home, self-employment and earnings. Results are not limited to sub-groups of marginalised women. Findings indicate lack of gender equity in sub-Saharan Africa may inhibit economic development for women and society as a whole.

  13. Discovering Their Needs: Southern Rural Women of East India.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Anderson, Kaye; Lee, Holly; Pinnock, Jessi; Sybrandt, Anne; White, Alissa

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative, descriptive, phenomenological study explored how southern, rural women in India (N = 14) view health, how they learned about health, and what health education they desired. Health education classes were offered, based on participants' responses. Recommendations are offered for a best practice model that could potentially enhance the efforts of non-Indian nurses desiring to assist impoverished women and families in India. PMID:27610917

  14. Deaths from injuries and induced abortion among rural Bangladeshi women.

    PubMed

    Fauveau, V; Blanchet, T

    1989-01-01

    Information about injuries and violence as causes of death of women is scarce and often incomplete, and particularly so regarding women in the rural areas of South Asia. This report provides detailed specific information collected in Matlab, a sub-district of rural Bangladesh. Of 1139 women (aged 15-44 yr) who died there during the 11-yr period from 1976 to 1986, 207 (18%) were victims of unintentional injuries or violence. In this study, unintentional injuries include domestic and traffic accidents, drowning and snake-bites, while violent deaths are defined as due to intentional injury and include homicide, suicide and lethal complications of induced abortion. Injuries and violence accounted for 31% of all deaths among women aged 15-19 yr. This proportion dropped significantly with age to 10% among women aged 35-44 yr. Unmarried women suffered a higher proportion of such deaths (36%) than married women (15%). Violent deaths during pregnancy and complications of induced abortion among young unmarried women deserve special attention. In the male-dominated society under study, suicide and homicide are observed to be two frequent consequences of illegitimate pregnancy. Although this study suffers from the absence of data on non-fatal injuries and attempted violence, it may serve as a basis for recommending preventive measures.

  15. Rural Women: An Annotated Bibliography 1976-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Becky

    Aimed at a broad audience, the annotated bibliography provides general information regarding rural women in the United States from 1976 to 1979. It contains citations for 113 articles, books, bibliographies, papers, and monographs. Citations are organized alphabetically by author or title in seven categories: agriculture; Appalachia and the South;…

  16. New Directions for Rural Women: A Workshop Leader's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronan, Marian

    A field tested workshop program to prepare rural women for education and job opportunities is described in this comprehensive manual for workshop leaders. An introductory chapter states program goals and philosophy and covers planning and implementing the workshops; topics include staff selection, publicity and recruiting, materials, workshop size…

  17. Born Factories: Women's Labor in Carpet Workshops in Rural Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berik, Gunseli

    1989-01-01

    Reports a study carried out in 10 villages in Central and Western Turkey. Finds that due to the extended family social structure in rural Turkey, women who work in carpet workshops do not have autonomy. Contends that carpet workshops actually perpetuate female gender subordination. (GG)

  18. Functional Impacts of Adult Literacy Programme on Rural Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbah, Blessing Akaraka

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the functional impacts of adult literacy programme among rural women participants in Ishielu Local Government Area (LGA) of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. The population of the study was made up of 115 adult instructors and 2,408 adult learners giving a total of 2,623. The sample…

  19. Context of Career Decisions: Women Reared in a Rural Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeulen, Mary E.; Minor, Carole W.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the influences on the career decisions of women who grew up in a rural community and graduated in the upper 10% of their high school classes (N=40). Gender-role beliefs were the most pervasive influences found. Other factors were information, meeting others' expectations, barriers, sense of empowerment, conditions at work, and…

  20. Successful Rural Water Supply Projects and the Concerns of Women. Women in Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roark, Paula

    As the traditional water carriers and water managers, third world women are crucial to the success of rural water supply projects whose short term goal is increased water quality and quantity and whose long term goal is improved family health. Change depends on the utilization of local learning systems of the society and women are most often the…

  1. The Role of Internet Use and Parental Mediation on Cyberbullying Victimization among Spanish Children from Rural Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Raúl; Serna, Cristina; Martínez, Verónica; Ruiz-Oliva, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Cyberbullying victimization research on individual and familial correlates is scarce in Spain. By building upon previous studies, this research examines the role of Internet usage and parental mediation in online victimization. Spanish children from rural public schools (10-12 years; n?=?1068) completed a self-report questionnaire which measured…

  2. Health seeking behavior among pregnant women in rural Haiti.

    PubMed

    White, Kari; Small, Maria; Frederic, Rikerdy; Joseph, Gabriel; Bateau, Reginald; Kershaw, Trace

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to further knowledge of health care seeking behavior among pregnant women in rural Haiti. Eighty-two pregnant women were interviewed to assess care seeking behaviors during pregnancy, satisfaction with services, reliance on social networks, and management of pregnancy-related illness. Twenty-five percent reported not seeking care in the formal health sector for a pregnancy-related illness; 32% delayed seeking care. Women relied primarily on their husbands and mothers for health care advice during pregnancy and times of illness, and coped with illness by lying down. Strategies for improving awareness and health care access are discussed. PMID:17060181

  3. Rural Women Veterans' Use and Perception of Mental Health Services.

    PubMed

    Ingelse, Kathy; Messecar, Deborah

    2016-04-01

    While the total number of veterans in the U.S. is decreasing overall, the number of women veterans is significantly increasing. There are numerous barriers which keep women veterans from accessing mental health care. One barrier which can impact receiving care is living in a rural area. Veterans in rural areas have access to fewer mental health services than do urban residing veterans, and women veterans in general have less access to mental health care than do their male colleagues. Little is known about rural women veterans and their mental health service needs. Women, who have served in the military, have unique problems related to their service compared to their male colleagues including higher rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and military sexual trauma (MST). This qualitative study investigated use of and barriers to receiving mental health care for rural women veterans. In-depth interviews were conducted with ten women veterans who have reported experiencing problems with either MST, PTSD, or combat trauma. All ten women had utilized mental health services during active-duty military service, and post service, in Veterans Administration (VA) community based-outpatient clinics. Several recurring themes in the women's experience were identified. For all of the women interviewed, a sentinel precipitating event led to seeking mental health services. These precipitating events included episodes of chronic sexual harassment and ridicule, traumatic sexual assaults, and difficult combat experiences. Efforts to report mistreatment were unsuccessful or met with punishment. All the women interviewed reported that they would not have sought services without the help of a supportive peer who encouraged seeking care. Barriers to seeking care included feeling like they were not really a combat veteran (in spite of serving in a combat unit in Iraq); feeling stigmatized by providers and other military personnel, being treated as crazy; and a lack of interest

  4. Rural Women Veterans' Use and Perception of Mental Health Services.

    PubMed

    Ingelse, Kathy; Messecar, Deborah

    2016-04-01

    While the total number of veterans in the U.S. is decreasing overall, the number of women veterans is significantly increasing. There are numerous barriers which keep women veterans from accessing mental health care. One barrier which can impact receiving care is living in a rural area. Veterans in rural areas have access to fewer mental health services than do urban residing veterans, and women veterans in general have less access to mental health care than do their male colleagues. Little is known about rural women veterans and their mental health service needs. Women, who have served in the military, have unique problems related to their service compared to their male colleagues including higher rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and military sexual trauma (MST). This qualitative study investigated use of and barriers to receiving mental health care for rural women veterans. In-depth interviews were conducted with ten women veterans who have reported experiencing problems with either MST, PTSD, or combat trauma. All ten women had utilized mental health services during active-duty military service, and post service, in Veterans Administration (VA) community based-outpatient clinics. Several recurring themes in the women's experience were identified. For all of the women interviewed, a sentinel precipitating event led to seeking mental health services. These precipitating events included episodes of chronic sexual harassment and ridicule, traumatic sexual assaults, and difficult combat experiences. Efforts to report mistreatment were unsuccessful or met with punishment. All the women interviewed reported that they would not have sought services without the help of a supportive peer who encouraged seeking care. Barriers to seeking care included feeling like they were not really a combat veteran (in spite of serving in a combat unit in Iraq); feeling stigmatized by providers and other military personnel, being treated as crazy; and a lack of interest

  5. Women's status and infant mortality in rural Colombia.

    PubMed

    Florez, C E; Hogan, D P

    1990-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of maternal demographic characteristics and social and economic statuses on infant mortality in rural Colombia. Demographic characteristics include the age of the mother, parity and length of preceding interbirth interval, and sex of infant. Measures of women's status at the time of birth include education, wage labor and occupation, economic stratum, place of residence, and whether the mother is living with a husband. The life history data for the study (involving 4,928 births) were collected in 1986 from a representative sample of two cohorts of women resident in rural central Colombia. Overall differentials in infant mortality by measures of women's status are small and are in good part associated with the differing reproductive behaviors of the women and variations in breastfeeding practices. The sharp declines in infant mortality recorded in rural Colombia in recent years appear less related to improved status of women than to reductions in fertility that enhance infant survivorship and to public health interventions shared by all segments of the population.

  6. Women's status and infant mortality in rural Colombia.

    PubMed

    Florez, C E; Hogan, D P

    1990-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of maternal demographic characteristics and social and economic statuses on infant mortality in rural Colombia. Demographic characteristics include the age of the mother, parity and length of preceding interbirth interval, and sex of infant. Measures of women's status at the time of birth include education, wage labor and occupation, economic stratum, place of residence, and whether the mother is living with a husband. The life history data for the study (involving 4,928 births) were collected in 1986 from a representative sample of two cohorts of women resident in rural central Colombia. Overall differentials in infant mortality by measures of women's status are small and are in good part associated with the differing reproductive behaviors of the women and variations in breastfeeding practices. The sharp declines in infant mortality recorded in rural Colombia in recent years appear less related to improved status of women than to reductions in fertility that enhance infant survivorship and to public health interventions shared by all segments of the population. PMID:2093232

  7. The reality of resistance: the experiences of rural parturient women.

    PubMed

    Kornelsen, Jude; Grzybowski, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    The closure of many local maternity services has given rise to contemporary realities of care for many rural parturient women in Canada, which, in turn, determines their experience of birth. To date, we do not have an understanding of the realities influencing the birthing experiences of rural parturient women. This qualitative investigation explored these issues with women from four rural British Columbian communities through semistructured interviews and focus groups. Women in this study articulated four realities that influenced the nature of their experience of birth, including geographic realities, the availability of local health service resources, and the influence of parity and financial implications of leaving the community to give birth. When these realities were incongruent with participants' needs in birth, participants developed strategies of resistance to mitigate the dissonance. Strategies included trying to time the birth at the referral hospital by undergoing an elective induction and seasonal timing of pregnancies to minimize the risk of winter travel. Some women showed up at the local hospital in an advanced stage of labor to avoid transfer to a referral center, or in some instances, had an unassisted homebirth.

  8. Empirical calibration of a roadside hazardousness index for Spanish two-lane rural roads.

    PubMed

    Pardillo-Mayora, José M; Domínguez-Lira, Carlos A; Jurado-Piña, Rafael

    2010-11-01

    Crash records and roadside data from Spanish two-lane rural roads were analyzed to study the effect of roadside configuration on safety. Four indicators were used to characterize the main roadside features that have an influence on the consequences of roadway departures: roadside slope, non-traversable obstacles distance from the roadway edge, safety barrier installation, and alignment. Based on the analysis of the effect of roadside configuration on the frequency and severity of run-off-road injury crashes, a categorical roadside hazardousness scale was defined. Cluster analysis was applied to group the combinations of the four indicators into categories with homogeneous effects on run-off-road injury crashes frequency and severity. As a result a 5-level Roadside Hazardousness Index (RHI) was defined. RHI can be used as reference to normalize the collection of roadside safety related information. The index can also be used as variable for inclusion of roadside condition information in multivariate crash prediction models.

  9. Risk Factors for Smoking in Rural Women

    PubMed Central

    Salsberry, Pamela J.; Ferketich, Amy K.; Ahijevych, Karen L.; Hood, Nancy E.; Paskett, Electra D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background This study examined the association between social, demographic, and psychologic factors and smoking status among Appalachian Ohio women. A secondary aim examined whether specific factors could be identified and segmented for future tailored treatment of tobacco dependence. Methods A cross-sectional survey (n=570) obtained information about social, demographic, and psychologic factors and smoking. Logistic regression described associations between these characteristics and smoking status. Chi-square automatic interaction detection (CHAID) analyses identified subgroups at risk for smoking. Results Fifty-two percent never smoked, with 20.5% and 27.5% categorized as former and current smokers, respectively. Women with low adult socioeconomic position (SEP) were more likely to smoke (odds ratio [OR] 3.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.74-5.34) compared to high SEP women. Other factors associated with current smoking included age 31–50 (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.22-4.33), age 18–30 (OR 3.29, 95% CI 1.72-5.34), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) score≥16 (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.31-3.05), and first pregnancy at age<20 (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.14-2.66). The prevalence of smoking was 50% among those with four or more risk factors compared to 10% for those reporting no risk factors. CHAID analyses identified low adult SEP and depressive symptoms as the combination of risk factors most strongly associated with smoking; 49.3% of women in this subgroup currently smoked. Conclusions Low SEP in adulthood, maternal circumstances, and depressive symptoms are associated with current smoking. Tailored cessation interventions that address these risk factors should be developed and further evaluated in an attempt to reduce disparities in smoking prevalence among this vulnerable group of women. PMID:22360694

  10. Dietary and Health Profiles of Spanish Women in Preconception, Pregnancy and Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Cuervo, Marta; Sayon-Orea, Carmen; Santiago, Susana; Martínez, Jose Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The nutritional status and lifestyle of women in preconception, pregnancy and lactation determine maternal, fetal and child health. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate dietary patterns and lifestyles according the perinatal physiological status in a large sample of Spanish women. Community pharmacists that were previously trained to collect the data recruited 13,845 women. General information, anthropometric measurements, physical activity, unhealthy habits and dietary data were assessed using a validated questionnaire. Mean values and percentages were used as descriptive statistics. The t-test, ANOVA or chi-squared test were used to compare groups. A score that included dietary and behavioral characteristics was generated to compare lifestyles in the three physiological situations. The analysis revealed that diet quality should be improved in the three stages, but in a different manner. While women seeking a pregnancy only met dairy recommendations, those who were pregnant only fulfilled fresh fruits servings and lactating women only covered protein group requirements. In all cases, the consumption allowances of sausages, buns and pastries were exceeded. Food patterns and unhealthy behaviors of Spanish women in preconception, pregnancy and lactation should be improved, particularly in preconception. This information might be useful in order to implement educational programs for each population group. PMID:25333199

  11. Smoking and drinking habits before and during pregnancy in Spanish women.

    PubMed Central

    Bolumar, F; Rebagliato, M; Hernandez-Aguado, I; Florey, C D

    1994-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To investigate possible changes in smoking and drinking habits during pregnancy and to elucidate the sociodemographic factors associated with these changes in Spanish women. DESIGN--A cross-sectional survey. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING--A total of 1004 pregnant women of between 12 and 18 weeks of gestation who were attending the antenatal clinic of the main regional hospital of Valencia (Spain) during 1989 were studied. All participants completed the study and only one eligible woman refused to participate when approached. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Information was obtained by structured questionnaire (Euromac questionnaire), which included items on age, educational level, marital status, occupation, parity, previous and present smoking habits, and previous and present alcohol consumption. Women were asked about the consumption of cigarettes and alcohol for a typical week before they knew they were pregnant, and details of current consumption were obtained for the week before the interview. The number of drinks taken per week was later converted to the amount of absolute alcohol (in g). Sixty per cent of the women smoked and 72% drank alcohol before pregnancy. Forty eight per cent of smokers stopped smoking and 37% of drinkers stopped drinking alcohol during pregnancy. No sociodemographic factor showed an independent association with either smoking or drinking cessation. Only the number of cigarettes and the amount of alcohol consumed before pregnancy were identified as significant independent predictors for stopping. CONCLUSIONS--Pregnant Spanish women seemed to stop smoking at about three times the rate found in Spanish women in the reproductive years. The sociodemographic variables usually associated with stopping smoking could not account for the high rate of quitting in these Spanish women, a rate higher than that in women from other developed countries. The high prevalence of smoking before pregnancy might explain not only the high rate of

  12. Gender equality and well-being of rural women.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, N

    1996-01-01

    Social, cultural, and religious attitudes have led to the development of discriminatory laws and/or practices which prevent women from participating as equal members of society. Rural women in poor households therefore have enormous workloads and responsibilities with little to no control over resources and decision making. The ability of poor women to provide for their families is significantly affected by such limited and declining resources. The author presents cases from Krishna Rakshit Chak and Kalsigeriya villages to describe how gender-equality affects poverty and well-being, and the related policy implications. The author acknowledges that government organizations support programs to improve poor women's accessibility to credit, land, water, and technology. She stresses, however, that considerable investment and clean implementation are crucial to social sector activities such as health care, child care, family planning, and literacy.

  13. Women's rights, domestic violence, and recourse seeking in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Bates, Lisa M; Islam, Farzana

    2008-03-01

    This article seeks to deepen understanding of the reasons that abused women in a resource-poor rural setting seek recourse so seldom and with so little success. Data from in-depth interviews and group discussions are used to explore the range of responses to domestic violence and to examine barriers to recourse seeking. Findings illustrate how the combination of poverty and gender inequality, inequities in the legal framework, and patriarchal attitudes and corruption in both formal and informal institutions at the local level discourage abused women from seeking recourse and decrease the likelihood of a favorable outcome when they do.

  14. Violence against Women with Chronic Maternal Disabilities in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Lauren S.; Chowdhury, Sadia; Khan, Rasheda; Bilkis, Sayeda; Koblinsky, Marge

    2012-01-01

    This study explored violence against women with chronic maternal disabilities in rural Bangladesh. During November 2006–July 2008, in-depth interviews were conducted with 17 rural Bangladeshi women suffering from uterine prolapse, stress incontinence, or fistula. Results of interviews showed that exposure to emotional abuse was almost universal, and most women were sexually abused. The common triggers for violence were the inability of the woman to perform household chores and to satisfy her husband's sexual demands. Misconceptions relating to the causes of these disabilities and the inability of the affected women to fulfill gender role expectations fostered stigma. Emotional and sexual violence increased their vulnerability, highlighting the lack of life options outside marriage and silencing most of them into accepting the violence. Initiatives need to be developed to address misperceptions regarding the causes of such disabilities and, in the long-term, create economic opportunities for reducing the dependence of women on marriage and men and transform the society to overcome rigid gender norms. PMID:22838160

  15. Thyroid hormones according to gestational age in pregnant Spanish women

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Thyroid function changes during pregnancy and maternal thyroid dysfunction have been associated with adverse outcomes. Our aim was to evaluate thyroid hormones levels in pregnant women resident in Aragon, Spain. Findings Samples for 1198 pregnant women with no apparent thyroid disorders were analyzed, using paramagnetic microparticle and chemiluminescent detection technologies, in order to determine levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab), and thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-Ab). Of the women in our sample, 85.22% had normal values for TPO-Ab and Tg-Ab and 14.77% had results revealing the presence of autoimmune diseases of the thyroid. The thyroid hormone reference values obtained according to gestational age (in brackets) were as follows: for free T3, values were 3.38 ± 0.52 pg/mL (<11 weeks), 3.45 ± 0.54 pg/mL (11-20 weeks), 3.32 ± 0.43 pg/mL (21-30 weeks), 3.21 ± 0.53 pg/mL (31-36 weeks), and 3.23 ± 0.41 pg/mL (>36 weeks); for free T4, values were 1.10 ± 0.14 ng/dL (<10 weeks), 1.04 ± 0.14 ng/dL (11-20 weeks), 0.93 ± 0.12 ng/dL (21-30 weeks), 0.90 ± 0.13 ng/dL (31-36 weeks), and 0.80 ± 0.21 ng/dL (>36 weeks); and for TSH, values were (μIU/mL): 1.12 ± 0.69 (<10 weeks), 1.05 ± 0.67 (11-20 weeks), 1.19 ± 0.60 (21-30 weeks), 1.38 ± 0.76 (31-36 weeks), and 1.46 ± 0.72 (>36 weeks). Conclusion Pregnant women with normal antibody values according to gestational age had values for FT4 and TSH, but not for FT3, that differed to a statistically significant degree. The values we describe can be used as reference values for the Aragon region of Spain. PMID:19939287

  16. Women's perception of partner violence in a rural Igbo community.

    PubMed

    Ilika, Amobi Linus

    2005-12-01

    Partner violence is a serious public health problem affecting mostly women. This qualitative study assessed the perceptions of rural Igbo women of Nigeria of intimate partner violence. Information was elicited using in-depth interviews and focus group discussion. Women of childbearing age were selected from the various women age grades in Ozubulu, Anambra State, Nigeria. Findings revealed that the women generally condone and are complacent with intimate partner violence, perceiving it as cultural and religious norms. The women felt that reprimands, beating and forced sex affecting their physical, mental and reproductive wellbeing are normal in marriage. They did not support reporting such cases to the police or divorcing the man, they would rather prefer reporting to family members. They felt that exiting the marriage would not gain the support of family members. They also expressed fear for the uncertainty in re-marrying, means of livelihood after re-marriage, social stigmatisation, and concern for their children. Socio-cultural norms and structures favour partner violence in Anambra State of Nigeria. There is a need for advocacy and concerted action that will involve the educational, health, civil and religious sectors of the society to evolve sustainable structures that will empower women and provide support to enable victims to react appropriately to violence.

  17. Empowered women from rural areas of Bolivia promote community development.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Roxana; Olmedo, Catón; Fernández, Luis

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: The United States Agency for Development in Bolivia (USAID/Bolivia) created in 2002 PROSALUD- Partners for Development Project (PfD) with the aim of improving the population's well-being. The project used three components: small grant scheme, technical assistance and database system management. Through the small grants scheme, the PfD supported a Community Participation Strategy (CPS) project over a three year period. The project involved the rural areas of six Bolivian departments and suburban areas of three Bolivian cities. The main objective was to increase health service utilization with a particular emphasis on empowerment of women, strengthening of local organizations and increasing the demand for health services. Women from both the urban and rural areas, and from different indigenous groups, were trained in project management, health promotion, reproductive health and family planning, advocacy and community participation. Participatory methodologies have allowed empowering women in decision making and capacity building throughout the entire project process. The experience shows that it is important to work with formally established grass-root community organizations and strengthen leadership within them. Additionally, the sub-projects demonstrated that interventions are more successful when promoters speak and write native languages, women are more motivated and empowered, projects are designed to be responsive to daily necessities identified by the communities and health services are culturally suitable. A preliminary evaluation, in both quantitative and qualitative terms, shows an overall improvement in health knowledge and practice, and utilization of health services.

  18. Women Managing/Managing Women: The Marginalization of Female Leadership in Rural School Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Examines 21 female administrators' accounts of their experience in a rural Nova Scotia school district. Presents preliminary findings of these women's own responses, resistances, and initiatives while attempting to legitimize and implement their preferred leadership styles, which stressed relationships, instructional leadership, communication, and…

  19. Women's Status and Violence against Young Married Women in Rural Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies conducted around the world consistently show the existence of violence against women. Despite the increasing number of studies being conducted on violence against young married women elsewhere, this subject has received little attention from researchers and policy makers in Nepal. This paper assesses the prevalence of violence among young married women in rural Nepal. Specifically, it examines [factors related to] women's status in order to better understand the risk of violence. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009 among 1,296 young married women aged 15-24 years in four major ethnic groups. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine the association between selected risk factors and violence. Results More than half the women (51.9%) reported having experienced some form of violence in their lifetime. One-fourth (25.3%) reported physical violence and nearly half (46.2%) reported sexual violence. Likewise, one-third (35.8%) of women reported experiencing some form of violence in the past 12 months. No or little inter-spousal communication and low autonomy of women significantly increases the odds of experiencing violence among married women. Conclusions The violence against women is quite common among young married women in rural Nepal. Although the Domestic Violence and Punishment Act 2066 has been enacted, equal attention needs to be given to increasing women's autonomy and activities that encourage inter-spousal communication. Furthermore, more research is required in Nepal that examines dynamics of violence perpetrated by husbands. PMID:21612603

  20. Determinants of Black women's health in rural and remote communities.

    PubMed

    Etowa, Josephine; Wiens, Juliana; Bernard, Wanda Thomas; Clow, Barbara

    2007-09-01

    The On the Margins project investigated health status, health-care delivery, and use of health services among African-Canadian women residing in rural and remote regions of the province of Nova Scotia. A participatory action research approach provided a framework for the study. Triangulation of data-collection methods--interviews, focus groups, and questionnaires--formed the basis of data generation. A total of 237 in-depth one-on-one interviews were conducted and coded verbatim. Atlas-ti data-management software was used to facilitate coding and analysis. Six themes emerged from the data: Black women's multiple roles, perceptions of health, experiences with the health-care system, factors affecting health, strategies for managing health, and envisioning solutions. The authors focus on 1 of these themes, factors affecting Black women's health, and discuss 3 subthemes: race and racism, poverty and unemployment, and access to health care.

  1. Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale in women.

    PubMed

    Gelabert, Estel; García-Esteve, Lluïsa; Martín-Santos, Rocío; Gutiérrez, Fernando; Torres, Anna; Subirà, Susana

    2011-02-01

    This instrumental study was designed to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS). The total sample was made up of 582 female college students, with a mean age of 21.68 (SD= 4.45). The results of confirmatory factor analysis identified the six-factor solution proposed by the original authors as the best factor structure, with acceptable fit indices. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was .93 for the FMPS total score and ranged from .74 to .91 for the subscales. Test-retest reliability suggested a good temporal stability of the FMPS total score [ICC= .89 (95% CI= .80-.94)] and its subscales. Results showed moderate to high associations between the Spanish version of the FMPS and other measures of perfectionism. The Spanish version of FMPS has shown satisfactory psychometric properties to be used in women. Future research should replicate these findings in broader samples, in clinical populations, and use longitudinal designs to determine whether perfectionism is a risk factor for psychopathology in women. PMID:21266154

  2. Secure Cloud-Based Solutions for Different eHealth Services in Spanish Rural Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The combination of eHealth applications and/or services with cloud technology provides health care staff—with sufficient mobility and accessibility for them—to be able to transparently check any data they may need without having to worry about its physical location. Objective The main aim of this paper is to put forward secure cloud-based solutions for a range of eHealth services such as electronic health records (EHRs), telecardiology, teleconsultation, and telediagnosis. Methods The scenario chosen for introducing the services is a set of four rural health centers located within the same Spanish region. iCanCloud software was used to perform simulations in the proposed scenario. We chose online traffic and the cost per unit in terms of time as the parameters for choosing the secure solution on the most optimum cloud for each service. Results We suggest that load balancers always be fitted for all solutions in communication together with several Internet service providers and that smartcards be used to maintain identity to an appropriate extent. The solutions offered via private cloud for EHRs, teleconsultation, and telediagnosis services require a volume of online traffic calculated at being able to reach 2 Gbps per consultation. This may entail an average cost of €500/month. Conclusions The security solutions put forward for each eHealth service constitute an attempt to centralize all information on the cloud, thus offering greater accessibility to medical information in the case of EHRs alongside more reliable diagnoses and treatment for telecardiology, telediagnosis, and teleconsultation services. Therefore, better health care for the rural patient can be obtained at a reasonable cost. PMID:26215155

  3. Violence Against Rural Older Women: Promoting Community Awareness and Action

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Karen A.; Brossoie, Nancy; McPherson, Marya C.; Pulsifer, Mary Beth; Brown, Patricia N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To identify opportunities and challenges in promoting community support for rural older women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). Methods Using community-based participatory research principles, we engaged in an academic-community partnership to analyze the research literature, estimate IPV incidence and prevalence, ascertain professional and older IPV victim perspectives through focus groups and interviews, and develop a collaborative community response plan. This study took place from 2008 to 2010 in the U.S. Results IPV in late life is underreported by victims and often unrecognized by the academic and service community. Professionals, while agreeable to collaborating to support older IPV victims, sought coordination and leadership from domestic violence agencies. Older victims stressed the need for improved professional sensitivity to their unique needs and more service options. Conclusions The insights generated during this project produced a framework on which rural communities can build to address the hidden and growing problem of late life IPV. PMID:23521727

  4. The status of women in rural India: a village study.

    PubMed

    Vlassoff, C

    1982-01-01

    This paper examines the status of rural Indian women and how their status has been affected by progressive legislation designed to remove previous inequalities. A socio-demographic survey of women and adolescent girls was conducted in a Maharashtrian village of 2100 people in 1975-76. The village economy was based on subsistence agriculture with 94% of females and 84% of males engaged in farming. Data were collected by means of participant observation and questionnaire interviews. Overall levels of education were low, with only 5% of females and 15% of males having any high school education. Over 50% of females had received no education, 28% of males. Inequalities between males and females persisted throughout all age groups but were less obvious at younger ages. 97% of women felt that boys should attend school beyond the primary level, 75% said that girls should. Many adolescent girls said they would like to continue their education but admitted that they would soon marry and advanced education was unnecessary. 62% of women favored modern medicine but 57% still felt that smallpox was a punishment from the gods; fewer educated women than illiterate women answered this way. Average age of marriage was 14.1 years; 69% of the women felt that girls should be married by age 16, but 70% believed that boys should not marry until age 18 so that they can complete their studies. 62% of women who had discussed family size with their husbands also approved of eating together and 55% felt that joint discussion was preferable. Only 25% felt that large families meant greater happiness and on the average 3.4 children (2 sons, 1.4 daughters) were preferred; over 75% said that they would exceed their ideal family size if they had borne only daughters. The local family planning program was approved by 90% of the women and use has increased from 13-43% from 1966-76. Low caste was related to low levels of education for women, but there is little difference in the number of children

  5. Impact of an energy education software on rural women

    SciTech Connect

    George, R.; Yadla, V.L.; Zohruailiani, M.

    1999-07-01

    Renewable energy cooking technologies (RECTs) like solar cookers, biogas units and improved cookstoves are promoted by Government of India to combat fuel wood scarcity and ensure a cleaner environment. The value of an energy education software (EES) to generate awareness about cooking energy scarcity and to achieve scientific empowerment of potential end users of RECTs, needs no emphasis. An attempt was made to assess the impact of an EES that consisted of flip charts--visuals with minimum text on rural women. The major objective of the research endeavor was to measure the difference in the selected attributes, namely, attitude towards biomass generation and biomass conservation (BG-BC), cooking management practices (CMP) and knowledge level (KL) of rural women due to exposure to EES. A descriptive research design coupled with a before and after experimental design was adopted for the study. A sample of rural women from Nani Sherkhi village were exposed to EES through a series of three training sessions with pre and post sessions for group discussions. Data on the selected attributes were gathered in the pre and post training periods using descriptive rating scales with reliability coefficients of 0.80, 0.81 and 0.74 respectively. The computed t values showed significant differences at 0.01 level in the pre and post exposure mean scores on attitude, cooking management practice and knowledge scale. The t values revealed that the gain in score in each of the attributes due to exposure to EES were significant. Further, utility of EES, policy implications and strategies for popularizing it as an aid to reach sustainable development are also discussed in brief in the paper.

  6. What do popular Spanish women's magazines say about caesarean section? A 21-year survey

    PubMed Central

    Torloni, MR; Campos Mansilla, B; Merialdi, M; Betrán, AP

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Caesarean section (CS) rates are increasing worldwide and maternal request is cited as one of the main reasons for this trend. Women's preferences for route of delivery are influenced by popular media, including magazines. We assessed the information on CS presented in Spanish women's magazines. Design Systematic review. Setting Women's magazines printed from 1989 to 2009 with the largest national distribution. Sample Articles with any information on CS. Methods Articles were selected, read and abstracted in duplicate. Sources of information, scientific accuracy, comprehensiveness and women's testimonials were objectively extracted using a content analysis form designed for this study. Main outcome measures Accuracy, comprehensiveness and sources of information. Results Most (67%) of the 1223 selected articles presented exclusively personal opinion/birth stories, 12% reported the potential benefits of CS, 26% mentioned the short-term and 10% mentioned the long-term maternal risks, and 6% highlighted the perinatal risks of CS. The most frequent short-term risks were the increased time for maternal recovery (n = 86), frustration/feelings of failure (n = 83) and increased post-surgical pain (n = 71). The most frequently cited long-term risks were uterine rupture (n = 57) and the need for another CS in any subsequent pregnancy (n = 42). Less than 5% of the selected articles reported that CS could increase the risks of infection (n = 53), haemorrhage (n = 31) or placenta praevia/accreta in future pregnancies (n = 6). The sources of information were not reported by 68% of the articles. Conclusions The portrayal of CS in Spanish women's magazines is not sufficiently comprehensive and does not provide adequate important information to help the readership to understand the real benefits and risks of this route of delivery. PMID:24467797

  7. An Experimental Project on Energy Education for Rural Women, Primary School Children and Teachers Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathak, Yogini; Mankodi, Hina

    One of the University of Baroda's (India) Rural/Tribal Block Placement Program's major aims during the year 1988-89 was to develop energy consciousness in women, primary school children and teachers. An experimental project was designed for a rural Indian village. The objectives were to obtain information on rural energy resources; assess the role…

  8. Social capital and hypertension in rural Haitian women.

    PubMed

    Malino, Cris; Kershaw, Trace; Angley, Meaghan; Frederic, Rikerdy; Small, Maria

    2014-12-01

    Hypertension is a major global public health risk and significant precursor to cardiovascular disease, stroke, diabetes and maternal mortality. A possible strategy to reduce chronic disease in resource-poor areas is social intervention. Research into the possible relationship of social determinants and disease is needed to determine appropriate social interventions. This study aims to determine the association between social capital and hypertension in rural Haitian women. From June to August 2005, 306 women, ages 18-49, who attended one of Hôpital Albert Schweitzer's five rural dispensaries as patients or accompanying patients, were interviewed. Individual interviews on social capital, demographics and anthropometrics were conducted. SAS statistical package was used to analyze the data. Groups/networks, personal empowerment, collective action/cooperation and trust components significantly decreased the likelihood of hypertension in multivariate analysis. In an additive model, the ranked index of social capital indicated that each social capital component score above the conceptual midpoint showed a 41 % reduction in the likelihood of hypertension. The findings suggest that interventions aimed to increase components of social capital may significantly lower hypertension. PMID:24057989

  9. Evaluation of the psychometric measures for the Postpartum Depression Screening Scale-Spanish Version for Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Lara, Ma Asunción; Navarrete, Laura; Navarro, Claudia; Le, Huynh-Nhu

    2013-10-01

    This study assessed the reliability, validity, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the Spanish Postpartum Depression Screening Scale (PDSS-Spanish Version) for Mexican women. The scale was administered at 6 weeks (T1; n = 149) and between 4 and 6 months postpartum (T2; n = 156). Women also completed the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II) and the mood module of the Standardized Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). At both time points, the internal consistency value of the PDSS-Spanish Version was α = .96. Concurrent validity was adequate, compared with the BDI-II (T1: r = .75; T2: r = .74, ps < .01) and the SCID (T1: r = .43; T2: r = .36, ps < .01). Based on receiver operator characteristic curves, cutoff scores on the PDSS-Spanish Version of 60 for depressive symptoms (BDI-II as gold standard) and 80 for major depression (SCID) showed high sensitivity (>88.9%) but low specificity (60.9% to 70.6%). More parsimonious values are obtained at a cutoff of 77 for subsyndromal depression and 95 for major depression. The choice for using different cutoff scores may depend on the purpose of using the instrument. Overall, the psychometric properties for the PDSS-Spanish Version in Mexican women are similar to the ones obtained in Hispanic women in the United States.

  10. The Impact of Education on Rural Women's Participation in Political and Economic Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishaw, Alemayehu

    2014-01-01

    This study endeavored to investigate the impact of education on rural women's participation in political and economic activities. Six hundred rural women and 12 gender Activists were selected for this study from three Zones of Amhara Region, Ethiopia using multi-stage random sampling technique and purposeful sampling techniques respectively.…

  11. Community Partnerships, Food Pantries, and an Evidence-Based Intervention to Increase Mammography among Rural Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bencivenga, Marcyann; DeRubis, Susan; Leach, Patricia; Lotito, Lisa; Shoemaker, Charles; Lengerich, Eugene J.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Multiple national agencies and organizations recommend that women age 40 years and older have an annual screening mammogram. Women who are poor, less educated, lack a usual source of care, and reside in rural Appalachia are less likely to have had a recent mammogram. Purpose: To increase use of mammography among a rural Appalachian…

  12. Depression and Poverty among Rural Women: A Relationship of Social Causation or Social Selection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Leigh A.; Braun, Bonnie; Charnigo, Richard; Havens, Jennifer R.; Wright, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Context and Purpose: Depression among rural women is a major public health concern. The purpose of this study was to test the competing theories of social causation and social selection to assess the relationship between depression and economic status for a sample of rural, low-income women in the United States. Methods: Structural equation…

  13. Using New Methods to Determine Continuing Education Needs of Rural Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeanne

    The focus group assessment technique was used to conduct an assessment of continuing education needs of rural women living in or near the Moberly Junior College district. (This technique uses small group interaction to identify responses to a set of questions.) Nine to ten rural women participated in each of two meetings. When a focus group was…

  14. Post-Secondary Education and Rural Women Enrolled in Liberal Arts Undergraduate Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois, Monique; Kirby, Dale

    2012-01-01

    The significance of post-secondary education is investigated for rural Newfoundland women enrolled in undergraduate liberal arts degree programs. Data collection for this research involved comprehensive, detailed semi-structured biographical interviews with rural women studying liberal arts disciplines during the 2006-2007 academic year at…

  15. Racial Differences in HPV Knowledge, HPV Vaccine Acceptability, and Related Beliefs among Rural, Southern Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Joan R.; Brewer, Noel T.; Fazekas, Karah I.; Mitchell, Cicely E.; Smith, Jennifer S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Because cervical cancer mortality in the United States is twice as high among black women as white women and higher in rural areas, providing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to rural black adolescents is a high priority. Purpose: To identify racial differences in knowledge and attitudes about HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine…

  16. Menstrual socialization, beliefs, and attitudes concerning menstruation in rural and urban Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Marvan, Maria Luisa; Trujillo, Paulina

    2010-01-01

    Women living in rural and urban areas of Mexico answered a questionnaire about what they were told at home about menstruation before their menarche (first menstruation), and answered the Beliefs About and Attitudes Toward Menstruation Questionnaire. Around half of both urban and rural women were told that they were going to experience negative perimenstrual changes. There were fewer urban than rural women who were advised to do or not to do certain activities while menstruating. Menstrual socialization affected the beliefs and attitudes concerning menstruation held by women as adults. These findings are discussed in light of the sociocultural background of the participants.

  17. Communication Between Physicians And Spanish-Speaking Latin American Women With Pelvic Floor Disorders: A Cycle Of Misunderstanding?

    PubMed Central

    Sevilla, Claudia; Wieslander, Cecilia K.; Alas, Alexandriah N.; Dunivan, Gena C.; Khan, Aqsa A.; Maliski RN, Sally L.; Rogers, Rebecca G.; Anger, Jennifer T.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effect of the initial visit with a specialist on disease understanding among Spanish-speaking women with pelvic floor disorders. Methods Spanish-speaking women with referrals suggestive of urinary incontinence (UI) and/or pelvic organ prolapse (POP) were recruited from public urogynecology clinics. Patients participated in a health literacy assessment and interview before and after their physician encounter. All interviews were analyzed using Grounded Theory qualitative methods. Results Twenty-seven women with POP (N=6), UI (N=11), and POP/UI (N=10) were enrolled in this study. The mean age was 55.5 years and the majority of women had marginal levels of health literacy. From our qualitative analysis, three concepts emerged. First, was that patients had poor understanding of their diagnosis before and after the encounter regardless of how extensive the physician’s explanation or level of Spanish-proficiency. Secondly, patients were overwhelmed with the amount of information given to them. Lastly, patients ultimately put their trust in the physician, relying on them for treatment recommendations. Conclusions Our findings emphasize the difficulty Spanish-speaking women with low health literacy have in understanding information regarding pelvic floor disorders. In this specific population, the physician has a major role in influencing patients’ treatment decisions and helping them overcome fears they may have about their condition. PMID:23442506

  18. Women and family poultry production in rural Africa.

    PubMed

    Gueye, E H

    2000-02-01

    Poultry production has existed for many generations in Africa, and almost every village household keeps chickens. The rural family poultry (RFP) are generally raised in free-range and/or backyard systems, which are traditional extensive husbandry systems. The development of an intensive poultry production has been the goal of the African government over the years. Despite efforts aiming for such goal, RFP is still very important in African countries that are both poor and net importers of food. It is a valuable asset because it can contribute significantly in alleviating poverty, securing food supply, and promoting gender equality. In view of this, interventions to improve RFP production systems should take into account the sociocultural issues, specifically gender-based aspects. It is noted that such interventions might, in addition to food security and poverty alleviation, also serve to promote gender equality. RFP development programs should be more women-friendly in order to facilitate women's participation, as RFP production in the region is generally a woman's business. Moreover, efforts to empower village women has to be envisaged cautiously as there is a serious risk of men taking over once the poultry sector becomes more profitable. PMID:12295964

  19. Attitude of rural women towards contraceptive and its use.

    PubMed

    Jain, S; Singh, J V; Bhatnagar, M; Garg, S K; Chopra, H; Bajpai, S K

    1999-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the attitudes of rural women towards contraceptive use. 500 participants (each having a child under 2 years of age) were randomly selected from 50 villages. Information was collected through questionnaires. Results revealed that most of the mothers (78.8%) had knowledge of one or more modern methods of contraception. Knowledge levels were highest for condoms (55.6%), followed closely by sterilization methods (55.4%). Knowledge of oral pills and IUDs was found among 36.6% and 33.2% of the participants, respectively. As to current usage, condoms were the most commonly used method (10.8%), followed by IUDs (5.4%), oral pills (4.4%), and sterilization (3.6%). Obstacles to their adoption of contraceptive methods were hesitation (59.6%), nonavailability of a service provider (43.2%), fear of side effects (36.6%), and customs, disbelief, or external pressure (22%). This study revealed that the status of women in Indian villages, as reflected with their problems in adopting contraceptive methods, was quite low . Thus, the Indian government is encouraged to strengthen delivery services for contraceptive methods and to make women more aware of the realities of contraceptive use.

  20. Women and family poultry production in rural Africa.

    PubMed

    Gueye, E H

    2000-02-01

    Poultry production has existed for many generations in Africa, and almost every village household keeps chickens. The rural family poultry (RFP) are generally raised in free-range and/or backyard systems, which are traditional extensive husbandry systems. The development of an intensive poultry production has been the goal of the African government over the years. Despite efforts aiming for such goal, RFP is still very important in African countries that are both poor and net importers of food. It is a valuable asset because it can contribute significantly in alleviating poverty, securing food supply, and promoting gender equality. In view of this, interventions to improve RFP production systems should take into account the sociocultural issues, specifically gender-based aspects. It is noted that such interventions might, in addition to food security and poverty alleviation, also serve to promote gender equality. RFP development programs should be more women-friendly in order to facilitate women's participation, as RFP production in the region is generally a woman's business. Moreover, efforts to empower village women has to be envisaged cautiously as there is a serious risk of men taking over once the poultry sector becomes more profitable.

  1. PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF THE RURAL SPANISH AMERICAN VILLAGE OF NORTHERN NEW MEXICO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1963

    THIS SPEECH WAS DELIVERED TO THE NEW MEXICO CONFERENCE FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND WAS CONCERNED WITH THE PROBLEMS FACING SPANISH AMERICAN VILLAGE SETTLEMENTS IN NORTHERN NEW MEXICO. IT WAS STATED THAT THE FUNDAMENTAL REASONS FOR THE DECLINE OF THE SPANISH AMERICAN FARM VILLAGE INVOLVE THE PROCESS OF ACCULTURATION AND SOCIOECONOMIC ADJUSTMENT IN A…

  2. Women of Spanish Origin in the United States, 1976. La Mujer de Origen Hispano en los Estados Unidos, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Women's Bureau.

    The report presents data on selected social, economic, and demographic characteristics of women of Spanish origin in the United States. Derived from the population reports of the U.S. Census Bureau and the March 1973 Manpower Report of the President, the statistical data pertain to age, residence, marital status, heads of families and households,…

  3. Examining the Factor Structure and Discriminant Validity of the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) Among Spanish Postpartum Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguado, Jaume; Campbell, Alistair; Ascaso, Carlos; Navarro, Purificacion; Garcia-Esteve, Lluisa; Luciano, Juan V.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors tested alternative factor models of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) in a sample of Spanish postpartum women, using confirmatory factor analysis. The authors report the results of modeling three different methods for scoring the GHQ-12 using estimation methods recommended for categorical and binary data.…

  4. Spanish consensus on sexual health in men and women over 50.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Borrego, Rafael; Molero, Francisca; Castaño, Rosario; Castelo-Branco, Camil; Honrado, Manel; Jurado, Ana Rosa; Laforet, Encarna; Prieto, Rafael; Cabello, Francisco; Larrazabal, Miren; Sánchez, Froilán; Florido, Jesús; Mendoza, Nicolas

    2014-06-01

    Sexual health has been defined as "the state of physical, emotional and social wellbeing related to sexuality. However, there are medical, psychological and social reasons that complicate full sexual health that are frequently not attended to sufficiently. The objective of this guide will be to analyze the factors that impact the sexual health of men and women over 50 and to provide recommendations for the most appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic measures for this age group. A panel of experts from various Spanish scientific societies related to sexual health (Spanish Menopause Society, SMS; Asociación Española de Andrología, Medicina Sexual y Reproductiva, ASESA; Federación Española de Sociedades de Sexología, FESS; and Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria SEMERGEN) met to reach a consensus on these issues and to decide the optimal timing and methods based on the best evidence available.

  5. Mental health service use: is there a difference between rural and non-rural women in service uptake?

    PubMed

    Dolja-Gore, Xenia; Loxton, Deborah J; D'Este, Catherine A; Byles, Julie E

    2014-06-01

    This study examines differences in uptake of the Medicare items rolled out in 2006 under the 'Better Access Scheme' (BAS) between rural and non-rural Australian women. It compares differences in women's uptake of the BAS services by area of residence (ARIA+) across time using the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health (ALSWH) survey data linked to Medicare data. Women aged 28-33 years at the time the BAS was introduced that responded to the self-reported question on depression/anxiety and consented to linkage of their survey data with Medicare data (n=4,316). Participants were grouped by ARIA+ according to BAS use, diagnoses of anxiety/depression but no BAS use and other eligible women. Across all areas, women born 1973-1978 with a self-reported diagnosis of depression/anxiety or having treatment under the BAS had a significantly lower mean mental health score compared to other women. Significantly more women living in non-rural areas had used at least one service provided under the BAS initiative compared to women in outer regional, inner regional or remotes areas (21% versus 18% versus 13% versus 7%, respectively), and across all areas, 12% of women reported having a diagnosis of depression/anxiety but not been treated under the BAS. While there is a gradual uptake of the new BAS services, a large percentage of women who have a diagnosis of depression/anxiety have not been treated under the BAS. The data suggest that women in urban areas have been better able to take up the services compared to non-urban women. PMID:25039842

  6. Analysis of Body Composition and Food Habits of Spanish Celiac Women

    PubMed Central

    Churruca, Itziar; Miranda, Jonatan; Lasa, Arrate; Bustamante, María Á.; Larretxi, Idoia; Simon, Edurne

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was both to analyze composition of Spanish celiac women and to study the food habits and gluten-free diet of these celiac patients, in order to determine whether they achieve a balanced and healthy diet as well as to highlight nutritional qualitative and/or quantitative differences. 54 adult celiac women (34 ± 13 years) took part in the six-month study. Height, weight and body composition were measured. An analysis of energy consumption and of the macronutrient distribution of their diet was carried out. Their fulfillment of micronutrient intake recommendations was verified. Participants showed a Body Mass Index of 21.6 ± 2.4 kg/m2. Energy Intake was slightly lower than the Dietary Reference Intakes. Excessive protein apart from over-consumption of fat was observed. More than three quarters of participants consumed meat in excess. Carbohydrate consumption along with that of fiber was below recommended levels. Vitamin D, iron, and iodine had a low percentage of recommendation compliance. In general, participants followed the recommendations of dairy products and fruit intake whereas vegetable consumption was not enough for the vast majority. We conclude that although the diet of celiac women does not differ much from the diet of general population, some considerations, such as reducing fat and protein consumption and increasing fiber intake, must be taken into account. PMID:26184289

  7. Education for Rural Development - A Portfolio of Studies. Volume 2: Education for Disadvantaged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naik, Chitra; And Others

    The volume contains two studies from India and Thailand on the education of women, and rural women especially, who are deprived or disadvantaged. The Indian study, "Education of Girls and Women in Deprived Groups," presents a viewpoint on deprivation in society in general, and India specifically. The concomitant of deprivation is defined as the…

  8. They Didn't Tell Me Anything": Women's Literacies and Resistance in Rural Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Susan V.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing from ethnographic case studies, this article considers issues of women's access to education by exploring the literacy experiences of four women in rural Mexico. Ironically, as physical access to education in this area has increased, women's literacy experiences have become more complex, rather than more libratory. Formal literacy, as it…

  9. Rural Women with HIV and AIDS: Perceptions of Service Accessibility, Psychosocial, and Mental Health Counseling Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Jennifer

    2002-01-01

    Study examines rural women with HIV and AIDS and the staff members who work with them. Results revealed (a) barriers to these women regarding the accessibility of services, including mental health counseling; (b) a need to empower these women to be proactive in their health care; and (c) a stronger social support system and sense of hope in women…

  10. Four Generations of Women's Educational Experience in a Rural Chinese Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Haigen; Placier, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Our study sought to understand changes in gender inequality in education across four generations of rural Chinese women's educational experiences in a small community in southern China. The 24 interviews and numerous informal conversations with 12 women showed that gender-based favouritism for men and against women undergirded family expectations,…

  11. Determinants of health and nutritional status of rural Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Ene-Obong, H N; Enugu, G I; Uwaegbute, A C

    2001-12-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effects of socioeconomic and cultural factors on the health and nutritional status of 300 women of childbearing age in two rural farming communities in Enugu State, Nigeria. The women were engaged in farming, trading, and teaching. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using both qualitative and quantitative data-collection methods. The study involved focus-group discussions (FGDs), interviews using a questionnaire, measurement of food/nutrient intake, assessment of activity patterns, anthropometry, and observations of clinical signs of malnutrition. The better-educated women had higher incomes than those with little or no education. Poor education was mainly attributed to lack of monetary support by parents (34%), marriage while in school (27%), and sex discrimination (21%). The teachers had significantly (p < 0.05) better health status, health and nutrition knowledge, food habits, nutrient intake, and self-concept, and adhered less to detrimental cultural practices. However, none of the women met their iron, riboflavin and niacin requirements. More cases of chronic energy deficiency were observed among the farmers (16%) and traders (13%) than among the teachers (5%). Generally, the women worked long hours with reported working hours (6-7 hours) being lower than the observed working hours (11 hours) for the traders and teachers. Income had a significant (p < 0.05) positive correlation with all nutritional variables, except vitamin C, age-at-marriage (r = 0.719), and nutrition knowledge (r = 0.601). Age-at-marriage had a positive correlation with body mass index (BMI) and all nutritional variables but was significant (p < 0.05) for protein (r = 0.362), calcium (r = 0.358), iron (r = 0.362), riboflavin (r = 0.364), and vitamin C (r = 0.476). Workload was negatively correlated with protein intake (r = 0.346; p < 0.05). Meal frequencies for more than 70% of the farmers and petty traders and 42% of the teachers were dependent

  12. "Sometimes I Am Spanish and Sometimes Not": A Study of the Identity and Integration of Spanish Muslim Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibai, Salam Adlbi

    2010-01-01

    This article reports part of a wider investigation which is still being developed and analyzes in depth the lives of female university students who are both Spanish and Muslim. The first part of this research was published in the "Revista Espanola de Educacion Comparada," where the results of the study in Madrid are presented. Here, the second…

  13. Spanish- and English-Speaking Pregnant Women's Views on cfDNA and Other Prenatal Screening: Practical and Ethical Reflections.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Erin; Allyse, Megan A; Michie, Marsha

    2016-10-01

    The rapid clinical implementation of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) screening, a non-invasive method of prenatal genetic screening, has outpaced research on its social and ethical implications. This study is the first to compare the ethical and practical views of Spanish- and English-speaking pregnant women in the United States about cfDNA screening. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with diverse Spanish- and English-speaking women who had received prenatal care at a large academic medical center. Of the 24 interviewees, ten were Latinas who were interviewed in Spanish; English-language interviews were conducted with seven non-Hispanic Asian and seven non-Hispanic White women. Participants held positive opinions concerning the accuracy of cfDNA screening and often noted that it would enhance preparedness. Participants also expressed concerns about the possibility of inaccurate results and the potentially negative effects of cfDNA screening on the experience of pregnancy. Differences emerged between Spanish and English speakers in their portrayals of their relationships with prenatal health care providers, the extent to which they questioned providers' advice, their ethical concerns, and their informational needs. We emphasize the importance of customizing prenatal test counseling to the needs of the individual patient, providing educationally appropriate counseling and literature, and mitigating potential language barriers. PMID:26739840

  14. Spanish- and English-Speaking Pregnant Women's Views on cfDNA and Other Prenatal Screening: Practical and Ethical Reflections.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Erin; Allyse, Megan A; Michie, Marsha

    2016-10-01

    The rapid clinical implementation of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) screening, a non-invasive method of prenatal genetic screening, has outpaced research on its social and ethical implications. This study is the first to compare the ethical and practical views of Spanish- and English-speaking pregnant women in the United States about cfDNA screening. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with diverse Spanish- and English-speaking women who had received prenatal care at a large academic medical center. Of the 24 interviewees, ten were Latinas who were interviewed in Spanish; English-language interviews were conducted with seven non-Hispanic Asian and seven non-Hispanic White women. Participants held positive opinions concerning the accuracy of cfDNA screening and often noted that it would enhance preparedness. Participants also expressed concerns about the possibility of inaccurate results and the potentially negative effects of cfDNA screening on the experience of pregnancy. Differences emerged between Spanish and English speakers in their portrayals of their relationships with prenatal health care providers, the extent to which they questioned providers' advice, their ethical concerns, and their informational needs. We emphasize the importance of customizing prenatal test counseling to the needs of the individual patient, providing educationally appropriate counseling and literature, and mitigating potential language barriers.

  15. Depression and Rural Environment are Associated With Poor Oral Health Among Pregnant Women in Northern Appalachia.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Daniel W; Hayes, Sarah E; Randall, Cameron L; Polk, Deborah E; Neiswanger, Kathy; Shaffer, John R; Weyant, Robert J; Foxman, Betsy; Kao, Elizabeth; Crout, Richard J; Chapman, Stella; Brown, Linda J; Maurer, Jennifer L; Marazita, Mary L

    2016-01-01

    Both oral health problems and depression among pregnant women contribute to maternal-infant health outcomes. Little is known, however, about the potential effects of clinically significant depression on the oral health status of pregnant women. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of clinically significant depression and rural- or urban-dwelling status on oral health outcomes among pregnant women. Pregnant women (N = 685) in rural (i.e., West Virginia) and urban (i.e., Pittsburgh, PA) areas of northern Appalachia were assessed by calibrated examiners regarding gingivitis, oral hygiene, and DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled teeth), completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) and provided demographics. Participants were categorized based on clinically significant depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 16) and rural/urban domicile. Women with depression and those living in rural areas had worse oral health on all three indices than their non-depressed and urban counterparts. Depression, particularly among women in rural areas, affects certain oral health indices and represents a modifiable target for intervention. Moreover, treatments designed specifically for rural populations may be of particular utility. Women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant may benefit from regular depression screenings from their dental and medical health care providers.

  16. Perceptions of family planning among rural Kenyan women.

    PubMed

    Dow, T E; Werner, L H

    1983-02-01

    In this paper, 1981 survey data on the perceptions of family planning, and the family planning program of a sample of 1339 rural Kenyan women are examined. In spite of reasonable levels of family planning knowledge and approval, as well as generally favorable perceptions of family planning program goals, little contraceptive use was observed. High levels of desired fertility (average woman desired 8.00 children, male: 8.66 children) and the success of current noncontraceptive spacing practices were noted as possible explanations. Concern over the safety, availability, and cost of contraceptives was also noted as a contributory factor. The sample found that socioeconomic level correlated positively with approval especially in levels of work and education. Of all the women with any knowledge of family planning, only 30.1% had ever used any method and only 50% of the methods last used were efficient. Only 16.5% of the women who had knowledge of modern methods used them. Other factors in the low usage rates are distance from family planning clinics and lack of contact with any such facilities, their personnel, methods, or clients. In the absence of significant contraceptive practice, total fertility is determined largely by lactation practices. Considering the average number of children desired (8) and that breast feeding lasts for about 20 months, there is little need for modern contraception to achieve the ideal family size. The paper goes on to examine breast feeding duration and corresponding intervals between births to determine total actual fertility; actual levels do not exceed desired fertility levels and for many women actually fall short of desired fertility. Average birth interval was 34.9 months; total fertility level was 6.9 with observed breastfeeding intervals. This analysis shows that in Kenya, until the supply of children exceeds the demand, desired birth intervals are not achieved by current noncontraceptive practices, such as breast feeding, and the

  17. Making the Invisible Visible: A Responsive Evaluation Study of ESL and Spanish Language Services for Immigrants in a Small Rural County in Indiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawan, Faridah; Thomalla, Therese Groff

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a responsive evaluation study of ESL services and Spanish language services for immigrants in a rural county in Indiana. An ESL specialist led the evaluation of language services in the county from the perspectives of language providers and recipients. The responsive evaluation--a form of action research that uses…

  18. The intellectual legacy of Mary Neth's work on farm women and rural communities.

    PubMed

    Osterud, Grey

    2009-01-01

    Mary Neth's 1995 book, "Preserving the Family Farm: Women, Community, and the Foundations of Agribusiness in the Midwest, 1900-1940," made a major contribution to the analysis of the connections between gender and the political economy that shaped farm women's lives and fueled farmers' resistance to the transformation of rural life wrought by agribusiness. Focusing on the processes of negotiation between women and men in farming families and rural communities, Neth illuminated the relationship between women's work and their power. Tracing the dense networks that connected farm families, she also showed how cooperation in work generated and sustained radical farm movements.

  19. Traditional Values/Contemporary Pressures: The Conflicting Needs of America's Rural Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Faith

    Rural American women number well over 25 million and represent all socio-economic and ethnic classifications, yet they share a conservative orientation towards sex roles and appropriate life styles, characteristic social and geographic isolation, and the dilemma of how to manage the traditional demands of rural culture and the contemporary…

  20. Policy Implications for Using ICTs for Empowerment of Rural Women in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwapong, Olivia Adwoa Tiwaah Frimpong

    2008-01-01

    Using rural household survey data collected from 1000 female household heads selected from all the ten administrative regions in Ghana, this paper explored the policy implications for using ICTs for empowerment of rural women. A contingent valuation (CV) method was used to quantitatively estimate the influence of selected socio-economic factors on…

  1. Coverage of Cervical Cancer Screening in Catalonia for the Period 2008–2011 among Immigrants and Spanish-Born Women

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Salés, Vanesa; Roura, Esther; Ibañez, Raquel; Peris, Mercè; Bosch, F. Xavier; de Sanjosé, Sílvia

    2013-01-01

    Background: Female immigration in Catalonia, Spain, increased dramatically in the last 10 years. The Public Health system in the Region, provides a free of charge opportunistic cervical cancer screening. Aim: This study examines cervical cancer screening coverage and prevalence of cytology abnormalities in Catalonia by immigration status. Methods: The study analyzes the cytologies registered among women aged 25–65 that have been attended at the Primary Health Centers (PHC) for any reason (n = 1,242,230) during 2008–2011. Coverage was estimated from Governmental data base Information System Primary Care (SISAP) that includes 77% of PHC. The database is anonymous, and includes information on age, country of birth, diagnostic center, and cytology results. Results: During the period 2008–2011, 642,643 smears were performed in a total of 506,189 women over 14 years, of whom 18.3% were immigrants. Cytology coverage was higher among immigrant women compared to Spanish born (51.2 and 39% respectively). Immigrant women also had a higher prevalence of abnormal Paps compared to the Spanish population, 4.5 and 2.9% respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Immigrant women in Catalonia had a high access to the Public Health Services and to cervical cancer screening facilities. The higher prevalence of abnormal cytologies in immigrant women compared to native women indicates the relevance to prioritize cervical cancer screening activities on a regular base in new comers. PMID:24392348

  2. Women and Rural School Reform: California, 1900-1940.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Kathleen

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that rural school reform in California between 1900 and 1940 was motivated by many of the same concerns that underlay the national movement to reform rural education. Describes the growth of state control over classroom teachers. (CFR)

  3. Blood pressure trends and hypertension among rural and urban Jat women of Haryana, India.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Maninder

    2012-03-01

    Hypertension is an important public health problem and the major causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among aged and elderly population in India. The present study is an attempt to assess age related trends of blood pressure and prevalence of hypertension in rural and urban women as well as correlation of blood pressure with obesity indicators (WC, BMI, and WHR). Data for present cross-sectional study were collected by purposive sampling method from six hundred Jat women (300 rural and 300 urban), aged 40 to 70 years. Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was employed to find the relationship between blood pressure and obesity indicators. The results revealed an age associated increase in mean values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in rural and urban women. Urban women showed significantly higher overall mean value of systolic (mm of Hg) (133.93 vs. 130.79, p < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (mm of Hg) (84.34 vs. 82.81, p < 0.01) and pulse rate (81.72 +/- 6.27 vs. 80.94 +/- 9.06, p > 0.05) as compared to rural women. The overall prevalence of hypertension was found to be 9% in rural and 26.66% in urban women as per JNC VII criteria. Increased prominence of hypertension among urban Jat women may be attributed to their modern lifestyle having more stress, less manual work and faulty dietary habits. There was a very low awareness of hypertension in the rural subjects (37%) than their urban (72%) counterparts. Rural and urban women revealed a positive and significant association of systolic blood pressure with body mass index, whereas only urban women displayed positive correlation of waist circumference with systolic (r = 0.183**) and diastolic (r = 0.151**) blood pressure.

  4. Strengthening resources for midlife and older rural women who experience intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Lori E; Macquarrie, Colleen; Begley, Lorraine; Gill, Carmen; Leblanc, Kristal D

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about midlife and older women who experience intimate partner violence living in rural places and their resource needs. Guided by a strengths perspective, we provided insights into resources that midlife and older women use, or would like to use, in their journey in leaving an abusive partner. Eight women who had left an abusive partner participated in a face-to-face interview. They drew on a wide variety of paid and unpaid resources, while each woman had a unique set of resources that contributed to her being able to make such a significant life transition. It is clear that we need to have a variety of formal and informal resources available to older women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) in rural places, and new forms of resources need to be developed. Our results also indicate that increased efforts are needed in improving both public and professional education regarding older rural women and IPV. PMID:26798951

  5. Strengthening resources for midlife and older rural women who experience intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Lori E; Macquarrie, Colleen; Begley, Lorraine; Gill, Carmen; Leblanc, Kristal D

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about midlife and older women who experience intimate partner violence living in rural places and their resource needs. Guided by a strengths perspective, we provided insights into resources that midlife and older women use, or would like to use, in their journey in leaving an abusive partner. Eight women who had left an abusive partner participated in a face-to-face interview. They drew on a wide variety of paid and unpaid resources, while each woman had a unique set of resources that contributed to her being able to make such a significant life transition. It is clear that we need to have a variety of formal and informal resources available to older women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) in rural places, and new forms of resources need to be developed. Our results also indicate that increased efforts are needed in improving both public and professional education regarding older rural women and IPV.

  6. Rurality and Self-Reported Health in Women with a History of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Rafat; Loxton, Deborah; Khan, Asad

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate differences in self-reported health among Australian women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV) in relation to rurality of residence. Methods Data were drawn from six survey waves of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health 1973–78 birth cohort. Self-reported general and mental health scores derived from the SF-36 scale were compared for women with a history of IPV living in metropolitan, regional and rural areas. Multivariable generalised estimating equations were constructed adjusting for income hardship, number of children, education, social support, age and marital status. Results Women with a history of IPV living in regional and rural areas had no significant differences in self-reported general health scores compared to their metropolitan counterparts. Rural women affected by IPV had slightly better self-reported mental health than equivalent women living in metropolitan or regional areas. The socio-demographic factors with the strongest association with self-reported health were income, education, social support, and number of children. Conclusions Women in regional and rural areas were no more disadvantaged, in terms of self-reported general health or mental health, than IPV affected women living in major cities in Australia. PMID:27622559

  7. Perceptions of Midwest rural women related to their physical activity and eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Jane; Schmer, Carol; Ward-Smith, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    The study aim was to describe the perceptions of 65 Midwestern rural women related to healthy eating, physical activity, and weight management. A semistructured interview guide was used to elicit data. Theory of planned behavior constructs were used to categorize the data into 4 predominant themes related to healthy lifestyle behaviors, (a) knowledge and attitudes, (b) rural cultural influences, (c) facilitators, and (d) barriers. Analyses revealed that facilitators and barriers consisted of social and environmental factors, and personal life situations. Results suggest key elements for developing and implementing effective physical activity and weight management interventions for Midwestern rural women.

  8. Perceptions of Midwest rural women related to their physical activity and eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Jane; Schmer, Carol; Ward-Smith, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    The study aim was to describe the perceptions of 65 Midwestern rural women related to healthy eating, physical activity, and weight management. A semistructured interview guide was used to elicit data. Theory of planned behavior constructs were used to categorize the data into 4 predominant themes related to healthy lifestyle behaviors, (a) knowledge and attitudes, (b) rural cultural influences, (c) facilitators, and (d) barriers. Analyses revealed that facilitators and barriers consisted of social and environmental factors, and personal life situations. Results suggest key elements for developing and implementing effective physical activity and weight management interventions for Midwestern rural women. PMID:23659220

  9. La Exploracion Del Contexto Social y Sus Efectos en el Programa de Espanol en Mexico Rural. (Exploring the Social Context Affecting a Pre-School Spanish Program in Rural Mexico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finegold, Lynda

    A major stumbling block for the implementation of Mexico's Global Development Plan has been the country's large rural population of Indians. One government strategy to integrate this sector into the mainstream of society has been to teach Spanish, the official language, as a second language, while at the same time fostering ethnic pride. The…

  10. A Comparative Study on Knowledge about Reproductive Health among Urban and Rural Women of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Monoarul; Hossain, Sharmin; Rumana Ahmed, Kazi; Sultana, Taslima; Chowdhury, Hasina Akhter; Akter, Jesmin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the level of knowledge on reproductive health among urban and rural women of selected area of Bangladesh. Materials and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken among 200 women selected purposively from different rural and urban areas of Bangladesh. Data were collected using a semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire by face to face interview. Knowledge level was analyzed according to poor, moderate and good knowledge by pre-defined knowledge scoring. Results: Mean age of the respondents was 26 years and majority (66%) of them was housewives. Most of them (61%) had completed their primary level education. Around three-fourth of them belongs to lower-middle income group. Overall level of reproductive health knowledge was more evident among urban reproductive aged women than rural counterparts (p < 0.001). Moreover, significant knowledge gap was found regarding family planning (p = 0.005), care during pregnancy (p < 0.001), safe motherhood (p = 0.002), newborn care (p = 0.009) and birth spacing (p <0.001) between urban and rural women. Family members were the major source of information in both groups. Conclusion: A wide knowledge gap was found between Bangladeshi urban and rural respondents regarding their reproductive behaviors. Government and concerned organizations should promote and strengthen various health education programs to focus on reproductive health, especially among reproductive aged women in rural area. PMID:25904966

  11. Impact of Asha intervention on stigma among rural Indian women with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Ekstrand, Maria; Salem, Benissa E; Sinha, Sanjeev; Ganguly, Kalyan K; Leake, Barbara

    2013-08-01

    Rural women living with HIV/AIDS (WLA) in India face multifarious challenges which affect access to antiretroviral regimens and management of HIV/AIDS. The purpose of this pilot study, using cluster randomization, is to compare the effectiveness of the Asha-Life (AL) intervention, delivered by HIV-trained village women, Asha (Accredited Social Health Activists), with a usual care group on reduction of internalized stigma and avoidant coping among 68 WLA in rural India over a 6-month period. The findings demonstrated that participation in the AL intervention was associated with significant reductions in internalized stigma and the use of avoidant coping strategies at follow-up. The findings of our study are promising in terms of the role rural village women (Asha) may play in reducing internalized stigma and avoidant coping in the lives of rural WLA in India.

  12. Rural-Urban Migration and Working-Class Consciousness: A Spanish Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, John R.

    1978-01-01

    Results indicate that rural-urban migration seems to be a source of increasing class consciousness in Spain's industrial workforce in two ways, neither of which supports a mass society interpretation of working-class politics in that country. (Author)

  13. Using Community Radio in a Rural Women's Post-Literacy Programme in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagaoka, Chizuko; Karki, Manohar

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the literacy and post-literacy needs of rural women in Nepal, describes a pilot study in using community radio to supplement a classroom-based post-literacy programme for these women, analyses the findings of this intervention and considers the implications for similar programmes in other settings.

  14. Using Mobile Phones to Promote Lifelong Learning among Rural Women in Southern India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balasubramanian, K.; Thamizoli, P.; Umar, Abdurrahman; Kanwar, Asha

    2010-01-01

    This article is an attempt to study the role of mobile phones in the non-formal and informal context among rural women from resource poor communities. In particular, it focuses on the women's control over the mobile phone as a learning tool through the domestication of technologies. The distance learning, gender dimensions, and use of technologies…

  15. A Tangled Weave: Tracing Outcomes of Education in Rural Women's Lives in North India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghose, Malini; Mullick, Disha

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on the findings of a research study which traced 56 rural women learners 15 years after they had participated in an empowerment and education programme in North India. It attempts to understand, from the perspectives of women from marginalised communities, the ways in which participating in the programme had been empowering for…

  16. Strength Training Improves Body Image and Physical Activity Behaviors among Midlife and Older Rural Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seguin, Rebecca A.; Eldridge, Galen; Lynch, Wesley; Paul, Lynn C.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of strength training on body image is understudied. The Strong Women Program, a 10-week, twice weekly strength-training program, was provided by Extension agents to 341 older rural women (62 ± 12 years); changes in body image and other psychosocial variables were evaluated. Paired-sample t-test analyses were conducted to assess mean…

  17. Strategies Pregnant Rural Women Employ to Deal with Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F. C.; Sharps, Phyllis W.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored strategies from the Intimate Partner Violence Strategy Index (IPVSI) that a sub-set of 20 rural, low-income, abused women of a larger, multi-site, mixed-method study employed to deal with Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) during the perinatal period. We conducted 32 in-depth interviews with women who were pregnant (N = 12) and/or…

  18. The Environment, Attitudes and Activities of Rural Women: A Case Study of Jhok Sayal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Seemin Anwar

    Conducted in the Punjab in Jhok Sayal, a predominantly Muslim village, this narrative study described: the environment and living conditions of women in this rural village (comprised mainly of tenants and landless labourers); the attitudes of the women toward education, marriage, family planning, and skills; and the woman's daily and annual…

  19. Vocational Training for Liushou Women in Rural China: Development by Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shan, Hongxia; Liu, Zhiwen; Li, Ling

    2015-01-01

    As industrialisation and urbanisation aggressively take hold in China, all possible labour pools are being tapped to meet the market demands. Liushou women, or women who stay behind in rural areas as their spouses join the massive migrant workforce, are one such labour pool. Vocational training has been adopted by the Chinese state as a…

  20. Changes in age at marriage of women in rural north India.

    PubMed

    Singh, M

    1992-01-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in age at marriage for women in a rural area of north India. Age at marriage rose from under 12 years before 1930 to about 19 years in 1988, mainly as a result of socioeconomic development and advances in education of women.

  1. Unfolding Possibilities through a Decolonizing Project: Indigenous Knowledges and Rural Japanese Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayuzumi, Kimine

    2009-01-01

    Rural Japanese women have been overlooked or misrepresented in the academic and nationalist discourses on Japanese women. Using an anti-colonial feminist framework, I advocate that centering discussions on Indigenous knowledges will help fill this gap based on the belief that Indigenous-knowledge framework is a tool to show the agency of the…

  2. Characteristics of spirituality in the lives of women in a rural Appalachian community.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, M A

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to add to nursing's knowledge base relative to spirituality by exploring how women in rural Appalachia experience and describe spirituality in their daily lives. Data was gathered through participant observation in a small rural community in West Virginia, including in-depth interviews of five women from the community. Characteristics of spirituality included belief in God or Greater Source, prayer/meditation, and a sense of relationship or connectedness with others, nature and oneself. The dominant theme which emerged relative to these relationships was that of self-reliance or inner strength. Spirituality for these women relates to the whole of life and is relational.

  3. Pregnancy and Intimate Partner Violence: How do Rural, Low-Income Women Cope?

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F.; Anderson, Kim M.; Danis, Fran S.; Sharps, Phyllis W.

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted thirty-two in-depth interviews with 20 rural, low-income, women residing in the United States, who were pregnant (n =12) or three months postpartum (n =8) and had experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Using purposive sampling and the grounded theory method, the authors generated a conceptual model of coping. The urge to protect the unborn baby was the primary influence for participants’ decisions about separating from or permanently leaving an abusive relationship. Implications include universal screening for IPV in child-bearing women, inquiry into maternal identity development during pregnancy, and improved resource access for rural, low-income women. PMID:21834721

  4. [Status of women and rural-urban migration in Benin: from decision to integration].

    PubMed

    Assogba, L N

    1992-01-01

    Factors affecting the decision to migrate among women in countries around the Gulf of Benin are examined. Using data for Togo, the author notes that "rural-urban migration can be a component of women's status. Women are now better educated, even in rural Africa, and better integrated into the modern way of life, and it is likely that they will be more and more engaged in rural to urban migration in the...future. But...they need to be better skilled and/or have financial capital. Therefore, instead of implementing policies to avoid migration, policy makers must develop comprehensive strategies taking this migration dimension into account, in order to improve women's status." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA)

  5. Going the distance--experiences of women with gynaecological cancer residing in rural remote north Queensland.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Adele E; Usher, Kim

    2008-08-01

    Women who are diagnosed with gynaecological cancer face a difficult journey. For women residing in areas geographically removed from major health providers the journey can be much more difficult. While they 'make do' and 'struggle on', their lived experiences can provide valuable insight into the complex issues surrounding a cancer diagnosis in rural areas. This study aimed to understand their experiences through the women's stories and sought to identify the major themes impacting on these stories. This qualitative phenomenological study undertook interviews with seven women with gynaecological cancer who reside in rural and remote north Queensland. Analysis of the data collected revealed three themes: seeking answers at a distance; sharing information within a small community; and experiences of navigating the health system. The results show the inherent difficulties in accessing support in rural areas and the difficulties associated with travelling considerable distances to undergo treatment.

  6. Depression, alcohol abuse, and generational differences in Mazahua women in a rural Mexican village.

    PubMed

    Nance, Douglas C

    2004-01-01

    This first study of depression and alcohol abuse in indigenous women in Mexico focuses on Mazahua women in a rural village. Women between the ages of 15 and 55 were interviewed using the Beck Depression Inventory, an Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse survey, and a socioeconomic survey. Unexpected results showed that although alcohol abuse was absent, these women experience depression a generation earlier than the international and national averages for women, with an overall incidence about twice as great. Depression was associated with spouse's emigration, infidelity, or alcoholism. Sharp intergenerational differences were found in identity and socioeconomic status. PMID:15371136

  7. Intra-European Return Migration and Rural Development: Lessons from the Spanish Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Robert E.

    1978-01-01

    During 1976, 133 former migrants representing 96 migrating units were interviewed. Through participant observation, various social contexts (villages, towns, and cities) were studied in terms of return migration. Emphasis centered on the rural context and specifically dealth with return destinations, investment behavior, problems of social…

  8. Language, Identity and Educational Success: An Ethnographic Study of Spanish-Speaking Children in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wortham, Stanton

    An ethnographic study examined the role of language, discrimination, and aspirations in the school success of Latino students in a small rural town. The town, located about 1,000 miles from Mexico and about 200 miles from any sizeable Latino community, contains about 200 Latinos. Almost all are Mexicans or Mexican Americans and have come to work…

  9. Access to Money and Relation to Women's Use of Family Planning Methods Among Young Married Women in Rural India.

    PubMed

    Reed, Elizabeth; Donta, Balaiah; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusudana; Nair, Saritha; Silverman, Jay; Jadhav, Arun; Palaye, Prajakta; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita

    2016-06-01

    Objectives The social positioning (i.e. social status and autonomy) of women in the household facilitates women's access to and decision-making power related to family planning (FP). Women's access to spending money, which may be an indicator of greater social positioning in the household, may also be greater among women who engage in income generating activities for their families, regardless of women's status in the household. However, in both scenarios, access to money may independently afford greater opportunity to obtain family planning services among women. This study seeks to assess whether access to money is associated with FP outcomes independently of women's social positioning in their households. Methods Using survey data from married couples in rural Maharashtra, India (n = 855), crude and adjusted regression was used to assess women's access to their own spending money in relation to past 3 month use of condoms and other forms of contraceptives (pills, injectables, intrauterine device). Results Access to money (59 %) was associated with condom and other contraceptive use (AORs ranged 1.5-1.8). These findings remained significant after adjusting for women's FP decision-making power in the household and mobility to seek FP services. Conclusion While preliminary, findings suggest that access to money may increase women's ability to obtain FP methods, even in contexts where social norms to support women's power in FP decision-making may not be readily adopted. PMID:26971270

  10. Access to Money and Relation to Women's Use of Family Planning Methods Among Young Married Women in Rural India.

    PubMed

    Reed, Elizabeth; Donta, Balaiah; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusudana; Nair, Saritha; Silverman, Jay; Jadhav, Arun; Palaye, Prajakta; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita

    2016-06-01

    Objectives The social positioning (i.e. social status and autonomy) of women in the household facilitates women's access to and decision-making power related to family planning (FP). Women's access to spending money, which may be an indicator of greater social positioning in the household, may also be greater among women who engage in income generating activities for their families, regardless of women's status in the household. However, in both scenarios, access to money may independently afford greater opportunity to obtain family planning services among women. This study seeks to assess whether access to money is associated with FP outcomes independently of women's social positioning in their households. Methods Using survey data from married couples in rural Maharashtra, India (n = 855), crude and adjusted regression was used to assess women's access to their own spending money in relation to past 3 month use of condoms and other forms of contraceptives (pills, injectables, intrauterine device). Results Access to money (59 %) was associated with condom and other contraceptive use (AORs ranged 1.5-1.8). These findings remained significant after adjusting for women's FP decision-making power in the household and mobility to seek FP services. Conclusion While preliminary, findings suggest that access to money may increase women's ability to obtain FP methods, even in contexts where social norms to support women's power in FP decision-making may not be readily adopted.

  11. Spanish version of the Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire: psychometric properties in a sample of women with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Pilar Martínez, M; Miró, Elena; Sánchez, Ana I; Lami, María J; Prados, Germán; Ávila, Daniela

    2015-01-08

    Excessive attention to pain is a common psychological characteristic among people who suffer from chronic pain. The Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire (PVAQ) is an internationally accepted tool to assess this feature, although there is no validated version of this measure for Spanish people with fibromyalgia. Since this pain syndrome mainly affects women, the aim of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the PVAQ in Spanish women with fibromyalgia. A group of 242 women diagnosed with fibromyalgia aged between 20 and 66 years participated in the study. The goodness of fit of several structures of the PVAQ reported in previous studies was compared via confirmatory factor analysis. A two-factor solution (active vigilance and passive awareness) of the 9-item shortened version (PVAQ-9) was identified as the most appropriate (RMSEA = .08, NNFI = .96, CFI = .97, GFI = .87). It showed good reliability (internal consistency α = .82), convergent validity and divergent validity (p < .01). The optimal cutoff point for identifying fibromyalgia women with worse daily functioning was a score of 24.5, with a sensitivity of .71 and a specificity of .75. The relevance of vigilance to pain for clinical research in fibromyalgia is discussed.

  12. "Women's autonomy and pregnancy care in rural India: a contextual analysis".

    PubMed

    Mistry, Ritesh; Galal, Osman; Lu, Michael

    2009-09-01

    Studies in low-income countries have shown that women's autonomy (i.e. the freedom of women to exercise their judgment in order to act for their own interests) influences a number of reproductive and child health outcomes, including the use of pregnancy care services. However, studies have not examined the full spectrum of pregnancy care services needed for safe motherhood and have not accounted for community context. This study analyzed data on women and their villages from the cross-sectional population-based National Family Health Survey-2 (1998-1999) of rural India to investigate whether women's autonomy (measured in the 3 dimensions of decision-making autonomy, permission to go out, and financial autonomy) was associated with the use of adequate prenatal, delivery and postnatal care. The findings indicate women's autonomy was associated with greater use of pregnancy care services, particularly prenatal and postnatal care. The effect of women's autonomy on pregnancy care use varied according to the region of India examined (North, East and South) such that it was most consistently associated with pregnancy care use in south India, which also had the highest level of self-reported women's autonomy. The results regarding village level factors suggest that public investment in rural economic development, primary health care access, social cohesion and basic infrastructure such as electrification and paved roads were associated with pregnancy care use. Improvements in women's autonomy and these village factors may improve healthier child bearing in rural India.

  13. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in rural Durango, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Torres-Castorena, A; Liesenfeld, O; García-López, C R; Estrada-Martínez, S; Sifuentes-Alvarez, A; Marsal-Hernández, J F; Esquivel-Cruz, R; Sandoval-Herrera, F; Castañeda, J A; Dubey, J P

    2009-04-01

    The epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in rural Mexico is largely unknown. The seroepidemiology of T. gondii infection in 439 pregnant women from 9 communities in rural Durango State, Mexico was investigated. Using commercial enzyme-linked immunoassays, sera were tested for T. gondii IgG, IgM, and avidity antibodies. Prevalences of T. gondii IgG antibodies in the communities varied from 0% to 20%. Overall, 36 (8.2%) of the 439 women had IgG T. gondii antibodies. Ten (2.3%) women had also T. gondii IgM antibodies; IgG avidity was high in all IgM-positive women, suggesting chronic infection. None of the women, however, had delivered a known T. gondii-infected child. The seroprevalence was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in women from low socio-economic conditions (14%) than in those with higher socio-economic status (6.6%). Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii infection was associated with soil floors at home (adjusted OR = 2.89; 95% CI: 1.12-7.49). This is the first epidemiological study of T. gondii infection in pregnant women in rural Mexico.

  14. Feet and fabrication: footbinding and early twentieth-century rural women's labor in Shaanxi.

    PubMed

    Bossen, Laurel; Xurui, Wang; Brown, Melissa J; Gates, Hill

    2011-01-01

    The early twentieth-century transformations of rural Chinese women’s work have received relatively little direct attention. By contrast, the former custom of footbinding continues to fascinate and is often used to illustrate or contest theories about Chinese women’s status. Arguing that for rural women at least, footbinding needs to be understood in relation to rural economic conditions, the authors focus on changes in textile production and in footbinding in two counties in Shaanxi province. Drawing on historical sources and their own interview data from rural women who grew up in this period, the authors find evidence that transformations in textile production undercut the custom of footbinding and contributed to its rapid demise. PMID:21966702

  15. Rural and indigenous women speak out on the impact of globalization.

    PubMed

    Kelkar, G

    1998-01-01

    This article describes approach papers, proposed strategies, and closing agreements among those attending the May 1998 Asian Pacific Forum on Women, Law, and Development (APWLD) among rural, indigenous women (IW). IW spoke of their experiences with globalization. The aim was to examine the effects of deregulation and privatization, liberalization, and global market and foreign monopoly capital on rural, IW in Asia. The expected outcome was an advocacy directive for APWLD in the forthcoming APEC and People's Summit in November 1998. Approach papers included F. N. Burnad's paper on the "Impact of Globalization on Rural Women" and V. Tauli-Corpuz's paper on "Globalization and its Impacts on Indigenous Women: The Philippine Experience." These papers emphasized the multiple roles of women, their increasing resourcefulness which leads to their enslavement, links between globalization and continuing colonization by transnationals and international institutions, access to ancestral resources, and promotion of export led production that threatens food security. Suggested strategies were to mobilize opposition to globalization and greater control over traditional resources and knowledge by IW. Several important questions were raised about nation states, dominant cultures, human rights violations, technology, and the close link between militarization and globalization. Participants agreed to mobilize for effectively resisting and eliminating unjust and unequal systems that exploit and oppress rural, poor, and indigenous people, especially women.

  16. Barriers to receiving substance abuse treatment among rural pregnant women in Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Afton; Shannon, Lisa

    2012-12-01

    Research presenting outcomes for women who enter substance abuse treatment during pregnancy consistently shows benefits. While treatment has nearly universal benefits, there are many barriers to seeking substance abuse treatment for pregnant women. The purpose of this study is to explore barriers for rural pregnant women seeking substance abuse treatment. There were three eligibility criteria for study participation: (1) aged 18 and older, (2) pregnant, and (3) undergoing short-term inpatient detoxification at the University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center. Eighty-five rural women (N = 85) were included in the analysis. Substance use history and previous treatment were assessed with measures adapted from the Addiction Severity Index. Treatment barriers were measured with three qualitative questions and were coded into four overarching categories: availability, accessibility, affordability, and acceptability barriers. This sample had an extensive substance use history. Almost all participants had used alcohol (98%), marijuana (98%), illicit opiates (99%), and cigarettes (97%). On average, participants reported about two barriers to receiving treatment (Mean = 1.8; SD = 1.3), with over 80% of the sample reporting having experienced any barrier to treatment. The majority experienced acceptability (51%) and accessibility (49%) barriers. Twenty-six percent (26%) of the sample reported availability barriers. A smaller percentage of participants reported affordability barriers (13%). Rural pregnant women seeking substance abuse treatment face many obstacles to receiving needed treatment. More studies on barriers to substance abuse treatment among rural pregnant women are needed. Identifying these barriers can help in improving treatment access and services.

  17. Characteristics associated with breastfeeding behaviors among urban versus rural women enrolled in the Kansas WIC program.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Lisette T; Twumasi-Ankrah, Philip; Redmond, Michelle L; Ablah, Elizabeth; Hines, Robert B; Johnston, Judy; Collins, Tracie C

    2015-04-01

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) is a public nutritional assistance program for low-income women and their children up to age five. This study provides insight into maternal characteristics associated with breastfeeding among urban versus rural women. A secondary analysis was conducted using the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System dataset of women enrolled in the Kansas WIC program in 2011. Geographic residency status was obtained through application of the Census tract-based rural-urban commuting area codes. Descriptive variables included maternal demographics, health, and lifestyle behaviors. A multivariable binary logistic regression was used to obtain adjusted odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals. The outcome variable was initiation of breastfeeding. A P value of ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. The total sample size was 17,067 women. Statistically significant differences regarding socio-demographics, program participation, and health behaviors for urban and rural WIC participants were observed. About 74 % of all WIC mothers initiated breastfeeding. Urban women who were Hispanic, aged 18-19, high school graduates, household income >$10,000/year, and started early prenatal care were more likely to breastfeed. Urban and rural women who were non-Hispanic black with some high school education were less likely to breastfeed. Increased breastfeeding initiation rates are the result of a collaborative effort between WIC and community organizations. Availability of prenatal services to rural women is critical in the success of breastfeeding promotion. Findings help inform WIC program administrators and assist in enhancing breastfeeding services to the Kansas WIC population.

  18. Genetic Analysis of High Bone Mass Cases from the BARCOS Cohort of Spanish Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Urreizti, Roser; Civit, Sergi; Cols, Neus; García-Giralt, Natàlia; Yoskovitz, Guy; Aranguren, Alvaro; Malouf, Jorge; Di Gregorio, Silvana; Río, Luís Del; Güerri, Roberto; Nogués, Xavier; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Grinberg, Daniel; Balcells, Susana

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the study were to establish the prevalence of high bone mass (HBM) in a cohort of Spanish postmenopausal women (BARCOS) and to assess the contribution of LRP5 and DKK1 mutations and of common bone mineral density (BMD) variants to a HBM phenotype. Furthermore, we describe the expression of several osteoblast-specific and Wnt-pathway genes in primary osteoblasts from two HBM cases. A 0.6% of individuals (10/1600) displayed Z-scores in the HBM range (sum Z-score >4). While no mutation in the relevant exons of LRP5 was detected, a rare missense change in DKK1 was found (p.Y74F), which cosegregated with the phenotype in a small pedigree. Fifty-five BMD SNPs from Estrada et al. [NatGenet 44:491-501,2012] were genotyped in the HBM cases to obtain risk scores for each individual. In this small group of samples, Z-scores were found inversely related to risk scores, suggestive of a polygenic etiology. There was a single exception, which may be explained by a rare penetrant genetic variant, counterbalancing the additive effect of the risk alleles. The expression analysis in primary osteoblasts from two HBM cases and five controls suggested that IL6R, DLX3, TWIST1 and PPARG are negatively related to Z-score. One HBM case presented with high levels of RUNX2, while the other displayed very low SOX6. In conclusion, we provide evidence of lack of LRP5 mutations and of a putative HBM-causing mutation in DKK1. Additionally, we present SNP genotyping and expression results that suggest additive effects of several genes for HBM. PMID:24736728

  19. Calorie intake, olive oil consumption and mammographic density among Spanish women

    PubMed Central

    García-Arenzana, Nicolás; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva María; Lope, Virginia; Moreo, Pilar; Vidal, Carmen; Laso-Pablos, Soledad; Ascunce, Nieves; Casanova-Gómez, Francisco; Sánchez-Contador, Carmen; Santamariña, Carmen; Aragonés, Nuria; Gómez, Beatriz Pérez; Vioque, Jesús; Pollán, Marina

    2014-01-01

    High mammographic density (MD) is one of the main risk factors for development of breast cancer. To date, however, relatively few studies have evaluated the association between MD and diet. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the association between MD (measured using Boyd's semiquantitative scale with five categories: <10%, 10–25%, 25–50%, 50–75% and >75%) and diet (measured using a food frequency questionnaire validated in a Spanish population) among 3,548 peri- and postmenopausal women drawn from seven breast cancer screening programs in Spain. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression models, adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), energy intake and protein consumption as well as other confounders, showed an association between greater calorie intake and greater MD [odds ratio (OR) = 1.23; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10-1.38, for every increase of 500 cal/day], yet high consumption of olive oil was nevertheless found to reduce the prevalence of high MD (OR = 0.86;95% CI = 0.76-0.96, for every increase of 22 g/day in olive oil consumption); and, while greater intake of whole milk was likewise associated with higher MD (OR = 1.10; 95%CI 1.00-1.20, for every increase of 200 g/day), higher consumption of protein (OR = 0.89; 95% CI 0.80-1.00, for every increase of 30 g/day) and white meat (p for trend 0.041) was found to be inversely associated with MD. Our study, the largest to date to assess the association between diet and MD, suggests that MD is associated with modifiable dietary factors, such as calorie intake and olive oil consumption. These foods could thus modulate the prevalence of high MD, and important risk marker for breast cancer. PMID:24254818

  20. Genetic analysis of high bone mass cases from the BARCOS cohort of Spanish postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Sarrión, Patricia; Mellibovsky, Leonardo; Urreizti, Roser; Civit, Sergi; Cols, Neus; García-Giralt, Natàlia; Yoskovitz, Guy; Aranguren, Alvaro; Malouf, Jorge; Di Gregorio, Silvana; Río, Luís Del; Güerri, Roberto; Nogués, Xavier; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Grinberg, Daniel; Balcells, Susana

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the study were to establish the prevalence of high bone mass (HBM) in a cohort of Spanish postmenopausal women (BARCOS) and to assess the contribution of LRP5 and DKK1 mutations and of common bone mineral density (BMD) variants to a HBM phenotype. Furthermore, we describe the expression of several osteoblast-specific and Wnt-pathway genes in primary osteoblasts from two HBM cases. A 0.6% of individuals (10/1600) displayed Z-scores in the HBM range (sum Z-score >4). While no mutation in the relevant exons of LRP5 was detected, a rare missense change in DKK1 was found (p.Y74F), which cosegregated with the phenotype in a small pedigree. Fifty-five BMD SNPs from Estrada et al. [NatGenet 44:491-501,2012] were genotyped in the HBM cases to obtain risk scores for each individual. In this small group of samples, Z-scores were found inversely related to risk scores, suggestive of a polygenic etiology. There was a single exception, which may be explained by a rare penetrant genetic variant, counterbalancing the additive effect of the risk alleles. The expression analysis in primary osteoblasts from two HBM cases and five controls suggested that IL6R, DLX3, TWIST1 and PPARG are negatively related to Z-score. One HBM case presented with high levels of RUNX2, while the other displayed very low SOX6. In conclusion, we provide evidence of lack of LRP5 mutations and of a putative HBM-causing mutation in DKK1. Additionally, we present SNP genotyping and expression results that suggest additive effects of several genes for HBM.

  1. Free Women's Contributions to Working-Class Women's Sexual Education during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giner, Elisenda; Ruiz, Laura; Serrano, Mª Ángeles; Valls, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Women's sexuality, and the ways they experience it, has been a major topic in feminist theories and movements throughout history. For the more than 20,000 working-class women who participated in the Free Women movement in Spain (the libertarian women's movement, which started in 1936), women's sexuality was also a key topic in…

  2. Smoking among Young Rural to Urban Migrant Women in China: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xia; Shin, Sanghyuk S.; Wang, Qian; Raymond, H. Fisher; Liu, Huilin; Ding, Ding; Yang, Gonghuan; Novotny, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Rural-to-urban migrant women may be vulnerable to smoking initiation as they are newly exposed to risk factors in the urban environment. We sought to identify correlates of smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women in China. Methods/Principal Findings A cross-sectional survey of rural-to-urban migrant women working in restaurants and hotels (RHW) and those working as commercial sex workers (CSW) was conducted in ten provincial capital cities in China. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to identify correlates of smoking. We enrolled 2229 rural-to-urban migrant women (1697 RHWs aged 18–24 years and 532 CSWs aged 18–30 years). Of these, 18.4% RHWs and 58.3% CSWs reported ever tried smoking and 3.2% RHWs and 41.9% CSWs reported current smoking. Participants who first tried smoking after moving to the city were more likely to be current smokers compared to participants who first tried smoking before moving to the city (25.3% vs. 13.8% among RHWs, p = 0.02; 83.6% vs. 58.6% among CSWs, p = <0.01). Adjusting for other factors, “tried female cigarette brands” had the strongest association with current smoking (OR 5.69, 95%CI 3.44 to 9.41) among participants who had ever tried smoking. Conclusions/Significance Exposure to female cigarette brands may increase the susceptibility to smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women. Smoke-free policies and increased taxes may be effective in preventing rural-to-urban migrant women from smoking initiation. PMID:21829683

  3. Post-Partum Depression, Personality, and Cognitive-Emotional Factors: A Longitudinal Study on Spanish Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Peñacoba-Puente, Cecilia; Marín-Morales, Dolores; Carmona-Monge, Francisco Javier; Velasco Furlong, Lilian

    2016-01-01

    In this study, our purpose was to examine whether personality and cognitive factors could be related to post-partum depression (PPD), mediated by anxiety, in Spanish women. Women were evaluated for personality and cognitive factors after the first trimester, for anxiety in the third trimester, and for PPD 4 months after childbirth. A structural equation model revealed that personality and cognitive factors were associated with anxiety and PPD as predictors. Neuroticism and extroversion proved to be the most relevant factors. Conscientiousness was associated with pregnancy anxiety. Pregnancy anxiety appeared as an independent predictor of PPD. The model presented here includes personality and cognitive and emotional factors as predictors of PPD. Comprehensive care for pregnant women should contemplate assessment and intervention on all these aspects. Special focus should be on cognitive factors and emotional regulation strategies, so as to minimize the risk of later development of emotional disorders during puerperal phases. PMID:26170151

  4. Post-Partum Depression, Personality, and Cognitive-Emotional Factors: A Longitudinal Study on Spanish Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Peñacoba-Puente, Cecilia; Marín-Morales, Dolores; Carmona-Monge, Francisco Javier; Velasco Furlong, Lilian

    2016-01-01

    In this study, our purpose was to examine whether personality and cognitive factors could be related to post-partum depression (PPD), mediated by anxiety, in Spanish women. Women were evaluated for personality and cognitive factors after the first trimester, for anxiety in the third trimester, and for PPD 4 months after childbirth. A structural equation model revealed that personality and cognitive factors were associated with anxiety and PPD as predictors. Neuroticism and extroversion proved to be the most relevant factors. Conscientiousness was associated with pregnancy anxiety. Pregnancy anxiety appeared as an independent predictor of PPD. The model presented here includes personality and cognitive and emotional factors as predictors of PPD. Comprehensive care for pregnant women should contemplate assessment and intervention on all these aspects. Special focus should be on cognitive factors and emotional regulation strategies, so as to minimize the risk of later development of emotional disorders during puerperal phases.

  5. Intimate relationship status variations in violence against women: urban, suburban, and rural differences.

    PubMed

    Rennison, Callie Marie; DeKeseredy, Walter S; Dragiewicz, Molly

    2013-11-01

    Woman abuse varies across intimate relationship categories (e.g., marriage, divorce, separation). However, it is unclear whether relationship status variations in violence against women differ across urban, suburban, and rural areas. We test the hypothesis that rural females, regardless of their intimate partner relationship status, are at higher risk of intimate violence than their urban and suburban counterparts. Results indicate that marital status is an important aspect of the relationship between intimate victimization and geographic area and that rural divorced and separated females are victimized at rates exceeding their urban counterparts.

  6. Strength Training Improves Body Image and Physical Activity Behaviors Among Midlife and Older Rural Women

    PubMed Central

    Seguin, Rebecca A.; Eldridge, Galen; Lynch, Wesley; Paul, Lynn C.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of strength training on body image is understudied. The Strong Women Program, a 10-week, twice weekly strength-training program, was provided by Extension agents to 341 older rural women (62±12 years); changes in body image and other psychosocial variables were evaluated. Paired-sample t-test analyses were conducted to assess mean differences pre- to post-program. Strength training was associated with significant improvements in several dimensions of body image, health-related quality of life, and physical activity behaviors, satisfaction, and comfort among rural aging women—an often underserved population that stands to benefit considerably from similar programs. PMID:25767297

  7. Age-Associated Perceptions of Physical Activity Facilitators and Barriers Among Women in Rural Southernmost Illinois

    PubMed Central

    Carnahan, Leslie R.; Peacock, Nadine R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Women living in rural areas in the United States experience disproportionately high rates of diseases such as obesity and heart disease and are less likely than women living in urban areas to meet daily physical activity (PA) recommendations. The purpose of our research was to understand age-specific perceptions of barriers and facilitators to rural women engaging in PA and to identify strategies to promote PA among these women. Methods As part of a community health assessment to learn about women’s health issues, 110 adult women participated in 14 focus groups. The women were divided into 4 age groups, and focus groups were held in various community settings. We used qualitative analysis methods to explore themes in the women’s narratives, including themes related to PA knowledge, PA behavior, and access to PA facilities. Results Participants described multiple and often conflicting individual, social, and environmental barriers and facilitators to PA. Several barriers and facilitators were shared across age groups (eg, competing priorities and inadequate knowledge about PA’s role in disease prevention and disease management). Other barriers (eg, illness and injury) and facilitators (eg, PA as a social opportunity) differed by age group. Conclusion Rural women in southernmost Illinois have often contradictory barriers and facilitators to PA, and those barriers and facilitators are different at different points in a woman’s life. Our findings suggest the need for multilevel, multisector approaches to promote PA. Additionally, this research supports the need for tailored PA promotion programs for rural women to address the barriers these women face across their lifespan. PMID:27685431

  8. The Prevalence of Distress and Depression among Women in Rural Sichuan Province

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Peiyuan; Caine, Eric D.; Hou, Fengsu; Cerulli, Catherine; Wittink, Marsha N.; Li, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background In this paper, we report findings regarding the prevalence of expressed distress and depressive conditions among women living in a rural region of Sichuan Province. As well, we know of no data among women in rural China that examine whether “depression,” as categorically defined in classifications such as the DSM, adequately captures the expressed distress and symptomatic complaints of women in rural China. Methods A multistage sampling method was employed to recruit the target population. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to measure distress symptoms, and MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was employed to determine the prevalence of diagnosable depression and other disorders. Results Among 1898 rural women, 12.4% (236) scored ≥16 on the CES-D, indicative of distress, and a subset of 7.7% (146) had scores ≥21, highly suggestive of a clinically significant disorder. We found that 49.8% women with ≥16 CES-D score were identified as showing features consistent with a current major depressive episode (MDE) vs. 1.9% in a sample of randomly selected women with <16 CES-D score. Among respondents, 30 of 84 (35.7%) scoring 16–20 and 83 of 143 (58.0%) scoring ≥21 reported symptoms consistent with MDE. 25.1% of women with a positive CES-D score did not describe symptoms consistent with any DSM-IV disorder. Conclusions We found a higher portion of women reporting significant distress than previously described. Among them, there was a clear gradient, such that 41.7% of women with moderate distress did not have a psychiatric diagnosis, and even among those with more severe symptoms, 15.4% did not manifest a DSM-specific psychiatric condition. PMID:27526182

  9. An examination of sexual strategies used by urban Southern and rural Midwestern university women.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter B; Kontos, Anthony P; Tanigoshi, Holly; Struckman-Johnson, Cindy

    2005-11-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to determine whether women's use of persuasion, non-physical coercion, and physical force strategies to obtain sex from a man varied between U.S. women from an urban Southern and rural Midwestern university and (b) to determine if sexual behavior history and early courtship behavior affected the use of these strategies (or not using any strategy). Women from the Midwest and the South did not differ in their use of sexual strategies. There were, however other variables that accounted for differences in women's use of sexual strategies. Women who used persuasion strategies had fewer lifetime sexual partners than women who used any other strategy. Women who used physical force strategies reported a lower age at first intercourse and more early courtship behaviors than all others. Overall, the results indicated that sexual strategies are related to sexual behavior history and early courtship behaviors rather than cultural setting or demographics. PMID:19827238

  10. Stepped-Care, Community Clinic Interventions to Promote Mammography Use among Low-Income Rural African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Delia Smith; Greene, Paul; Pulley, LeaVonne; Kratt, Polly; Gore, Stacy; Weiss, Heidi; Siegfried, Nicole

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have investigated community clinic-based interventions to promote mammography screening among rural African American women. This study randomized older low-income rural African American women who had not participated in screening in the previous 2 years to a theory-based, personalized letter or usual care; no group differences in…

  11. Colorectal Cancer Screening Practices Among Men and Women in Rural and Nonrural Areas of the United States, 1999

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Thompson, Trevor D.

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that men and women in rural areas are less likely than those in urban areas to receive routine cancer screening. Methods: We examined the colorectal cancer screening practices of men (n = 23,565) and women (n = 37,847) aged >50 years living in rural areas and other areas of the United States using data from the 1999…

  12. Are Rural Women Powerless When it Comes to HIV & AIDS Risk? Implications for Adult Education Programmes in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiggundu, Edith; Castle, Jane

    2007-01-01

    There is an urgent need for fresh approaches to HIV & AIDS education for adults and youth in South Africa, particularly for those marginalised by society, such as rural black women. In this article we explore the factors which affect awareness, condom use and HIV & AIDS risk among a group of women who attend classes in a rural Adult Education…

  13. "I'm Just Glad My Three Jobs Could Be during the Day": Women and Work in a Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Barbara D.; Brosi, Whitney A.; Damiano-Teixeira, Karla M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to better understand the experience of wage-earning women in the context of rural economic restructuring. An ecological and life course theoretical framework was used. Nine community leaders and 17 wage-earning women residing in a rural northern Michigan county participated in semistructured interviews,…

  14. Context and the Gendered Status of Teachers: Women's Empowerment through Leadership of Non-Formal Schooling in Rural Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperandio, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Empowering women to control and change their lives continues to be an important goal for many nations. This article examines the empowering effects of being selected and trained to lead rural schools in Bangladesh, using survey and interview data from 152 village women working with the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee education programme.…

  15. Pragmatic prevention, permanent solution: Women's experiences with hysterectomy in rural India.

    PubMed

    Desai, Sapna

    2016-02-01

    Hysterectomy appears to be on the rise amongst low-income, rural women in India as routine treatment for gynaecological ailments. This paper explores the individual, household, socio-economic and health system factors that influenced women's decisions to undergo hysterectomy in rural Gujarat, with a focus on women's perspectives. Interviews were conducted with 35 rural, low-income women who had undergone hysterectomy, local gynaecologists and other key informants, alongside observation of daily life and health-related activities. Inductive, open coding was conducted within a framework analysis to identify thematic influences on the decision to undergo hysterectomy. Women underwent hysterectomy at an average age of 36, as treatment for typically severe gynaecological ailments. I argue that women, faced with embedded social inequality in the form of gender biases, lack of labour security and a maternal-centric health system, demonstrated pragmatic agency in their decision to remove the uterus. When they experienced gynaecological ailments, most sought two to three opinions and negotiated financial and logistical concerns. The health system offered few non-invasive services for non-maternal health issues. Moreover, women and health care providers believed there is limited utility of the uterus beyond childbearing. Women's responsibilities as caretakers, workers and producers drove them to seek permanent solutions that would secure their long-term work and health security. Thus, hysterectomy emerged as a normalised treatment for gynaecological ailments, particularly for low-income women with limited resources or awareness of potential side effects. In this setting, hysterectomy reflects the power structures and social inequalities in which women negotiated medical treatment--and the need to reverse a culture of permanent solutions for low-income women.

  16. Pragmatic prevention, permanent solution: Women's experiences with hysterectomy in rural India.

    PubMed

    Desai, Sapna

    2016-02-01

    Hysterectomy appears to be on the rise amongst low-income, rural women in India as routine treatment for gynaecological ailments. This paper explores the individual, household, socio-economic and health system factors that influenced women's decisions to undergo hysterectomy in rural Gujarat, with a focus on women's perspectives. Interviews were conducted with 35 rural, low-income women who had undergone hysterectomy, local gynaecologists and other key informants, alongside observation of daily life and health-related activities. Inductive, open coding was conducted within a framework analysis to identify thematic influences on the decision to undergo hysterectomy. Women underwent hysterectomy at an average age of 36, as treatment for typically severe gynaecological ailments. I argue that women, faced with embedded social inequality in the form of gender biases, lack of labour security and a maternal-centric health system, demonstrated pragmatic agency in their decision to remove the uterus. When they experienced gynaecological ailments, most sought two to three opinions and negotiated financial and logistical concerns. The health system offered few non-invasive services for non-maternal health issues. Moreover, women and health care providers believed there is limited utility of the uterus beyond childbearing. Women's responsibilities as caretakers, workers and producers drove them to seek permanent solutions that would secure their long-term work and health security. Thus, hysterectomy emerged as a normalised treatment for gynaecological ailments, particularly for low-income women with limited resources or awareness of potential side effects. In this setting, hysterectomy reflects the power structures and social inequalities in which women negotiated medical treatment--and the need to reverse a culture of permanent solutions for low-income women. PMID:26773294

  17. [Changes in the weight of women from rural and urban areas in normal pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Mejía-Rodríguez, O; Alvarez-Aguilar, C; Velazco Orellana, R

    2000-08-01

    Ethnographic, nutrition and genetic differences are known that determine diverse clinical outcomes all over the world and to enhanced according to geographic location. In the State of Michoacan, Mexico, the 50.7% of the population lives a rural lifestyle and the 20% are women in reproductive age with a birth rate of 37.8 x 1000 inhabitants per year, which is significant to asses weight gain behavior during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the Gestational Weight Gain Pattern (GWGP) in the east rural area in the State of Michoacan, and comparing this with women in the urban area of Morelia city. The research was performed during six months, in which 68 women with normal pregnancy were enrolled and controlled throughout their pregnancy in the rural clinics and who received attention for labor and delivery in a hospital. The inclusion criteria was: a first consultation before the 14 weeks of gestation. Pregnancy and delivery attention was granted according with the Mexican Official Norm (Norma Official Mexicana). The results indicated that the pregnancy weight gain assessed every three months and globally were significantly different in both populations in the second and third trimesters except in the first trimester, and it was significantly higher for the urban population, p > .05. The women age at the pregnancy, the school education, the number of prenatal consultations were less in the native women, the parity was significantly higher in the rural area, p > .05. There were no differences in the Body Mass Index (BMI).

  18. Lack of association of vitamin D receptor BsmI gene polymorphism with bone mineral density in Spanish postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Velasco, Francisco J.; Vera, Vicente; Lavado-Garcia, Jesus M.; Fernandez, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a polygenic disorder that is determined by the effects of several genes, each with relatively modest effects on bone mass. The aim of this study was to determine whether the vitamin D receptor single nucleotide polymorphism BsmI is associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in Spanish postmenopausal women. A total of 210 unrelated healthy postmenopausal women aged 60 ± 8 years were genotyped using TaqMan® SNP Genotyping Assays. Lumbar and femoral BMD were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Daily calcium and vitamin D intake were determined by a food questionnaire. No differences were found in the femoral neck, trochanter, Ward’s Triangle, L2, L3, L4, L2-L4, or between the femoral neck and total hip BMD after further adjustment for potential confounding factors (P > 0.05) (age, BMI, years since menopause and daily calcium intake). The BsmI polymorphism in the VDR gene was not associated with BMD in Spanish postmenopausal women. PMID:26157644

  19. Women in natural resource collection: Experience from rural Jharkhand in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Bhola Nath; De, Utpal Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Women living in rural areas are closely associated with the natural environment. Poor families are mostly dependent on natural resources for their survival activities viz. grazing of cattle, collection of water for drinking and cooking purposes and collection of fuel wood. In the poor families due to the compulsion of earning, adult males mostly go for outside activities and sometimes female members of the family also join them. The aforementioned natural resource collection activities are considered to be inferior, less remunerative and hence suitable for the women or young kids to perform. Thus, they are found to be more close to the nature than men and this very close relationship makes them perfect managers of the eco-system in their vicinity. The life of rural women is so much intertwined with the environment that they can't even think of her survival without it. However, there might be significant inter-household differences in the distribution of such activities between male and female members of the families, depending upon their socio-economic characteristics, cultural and religious beliefs and attitude towards women and children. The involvement of women in such activities is also found to be more in the tribal dominated societies. This paper tried to examine the extent to which women in rural Jharkhand are involved in such natural resource collection and management activities. Also, we tried to unearth various economic and cultural reasons and their impact on the involvement of women in such activities across various social and economic groups. The analysis of primary data collected from the rural areas of tribal dominated Jharkhand reveals that income, occupation and status of the families have significant inverse link with the involvement of women and also of girl children at the cost of their educational prospects. Religious and cultural beliefs also enter in the determination of extent of involvement of women and children in the rural society. It is

  20. Reproductive Tract Infections in Rural Vietnam, Women's Knowledge, and Health-Seeking Behavior: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Anna; Lan, Pham Thi; Marrone, Gaetano; Phuc, Ho Dang; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    We interviewed 1,805 women in a rural setting in Vietnam with the aim of investigating women's knowledge regarding reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and their health-seeking behavior. We found that women's overall knowledge was poor. Furthermore, only one-third of the symptomatic women sought health care. RTIs affect millions of women globally each year. Most vulnerable are women in low- and middle-income countries where poverty and gender inequities affect their access to health care services. Findings from our study can be used in similar rural settings worldwide to understand and manage the widespread problem of RTIs.

  1. Responsiveness to HIV education and VCT services among Kenyan rural women: a community-based survey.

    PubMed

    Karau, Paul Bundi; Winnie, Mueni Saumu; Geoffrey, Muriira; Mwenda, Mukuthuria

    2010-09-01

    Uptake of VCT and other HIV prevention strategies among rural African women is affected by various socio-cultural and economic factors which need elucidation. Our aim was to establish the responsiveness to HIV education among rural women attending three dispensaries in Kenya. This study was designed to assess gender and psycho-social factors that influence HIV dynamics in rural Kenya. This was a cross-sectional questionnaire based study of 1347 women, conducted in October 2009. Socio-economic status as well as knowledge on methods of HIV transmission was assessed. Testing status, knowledge on existing VCT services and willingness to share HIV information with their children was assessed. Majority of the women have heard about VCT services, but significantly few of them have been tested. Those with secondary school education and above are more knowledgeable on methods of HIV transmission, while those with inadequate education are more likely to cite shaking hands, sharing utensils, mosquito bites and hugging as means of transmission (p = 0.001). 90% of educated women are willing to share HIV information with their children, compared to 40% of uneducated women. Marital status is seen to positively influence testing status, but has no significant effect on dissemination of information to children. We conclude that despite the aggressive HIV education and proliferation of VCT services in Kenya, women are not heeding the call to get tested. Education has a positive impact on dissemination of HIV information. Focus needs to shift into increasing acceptability of testing by women in rural Kenya. PMID:21495609

  2. Smoking Behaviors Among Urban and Rural Pregnant Women Enrolled in the Kansas WIC Program.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Lisette T; Dong, Frank; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Redmond, Michelle L; Collins, Tracie C

    2015-10-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is associated with poor birth outcomes. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is a public nutritional assistance program for low-income pregnant women and their children up to age five. This study examined differences in smoking behavior among women enrolled in the Kansas WIC program. A secondary analysis was conducted using the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System dataset of enrolled women between 2005 and 2011. Geographic residency status was obtained through application of the Census tract-based rural-urban commuting area codes. Chi square tests of association were used to assess differences. Multi-variable binary logistic regression was used to assess maternal characteristics and smoking 3 months prior to pregnancy. Total sample size averaged 21,650 women for years 2005 through 2011. Low-income, rural pregnant women smoked at significantly higher rates before, during, and after pregnancy. High smoking rates have remained unchanged since 2008. The following characteristics were associated with reduced odds of smoking 3 months prior to pregnancy: being 17 years old or younger, Hispanic, a high school graduate, urban location, normal body mass index, no live births prior to current pregnancy, and using multi-vitamins. Results from this study indicate that the WIC population in rural areas may have different needs regarding smoking cessation programming than the urban WIC population. Findings help inform WIC program administrators and assist in enhancing current smoking cessation services to the Kansas WIC population.

  3. Smoking Behaviors Among Urban and Rural Pregnant Women Enrolled in the Kansas WIC Program.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Lisette T; Dong, Frank; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Redmond, Michelle L; Collins, Tracie C

    2015-10-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is associated with poor birth outcomes. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is a public nutritional assistance program for low-income pregnant women and their children up to age five. This study examined differences in smoking behavior among women enrolled in the Kansas WIC program. A secondary analysis was conducted using the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System dataset of enrolled women between 2005 and 2011. Geographic residency status was obtained through application of the Census tract-based rural-urban commuting area codes. Chi square tests of association were used to assess differences. Multi-variable binary logistic regression was used to assess maternal characteristics and smoking 3 months prior to pregnancy. Total sample size averaged 21,650 women for years 2005 through 2011. Low-income, rural pregnant women smoked at significantly higher rates before, during, and after pregnancy. High smoking rates have remained unchanged since 2008. The following characteristics were associated with reduced odds of smoking 3 months prior to pregnancy: being 17 years old or younger, Hispanic, a high school graduate, urban location, normal body mass index, no live births prior to current pregnancy, and using multi-vitamins. Results from this study indicate that the WIC population in rural areas may have different needs regarding smoking cessation programming than the urban WIC population. Findings help inform WIC program administrators and assist in enhancing current smoking cessation services to the Kansas WIC population. PMID:25925718

  4. Urban and rural comparison of vitamin D status in Pakistani pregnant women and neonates.

    PubMed

    Anwar, S; Iqbal, M P; Azam, I; Habib, A; Bhutta, S; Soofi, S B; Bhutta, Z A

    2016-01-01

    We undertook a cross-sectional study in rural Jehlum and urban Karachi to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Pakistani pregnant women and neonates and to assess any association of serum 25(OH) vitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration with vitamin D binding protein (Gc) genotypes. Altogether, 390 women and 266 neonates were recruited from urban and rural sites, respectively. Serum 25(OH)D was measured by an immunoassay, while Gc genotypes were identified using polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism or PCR-RFLP. One-way analysis of variance or ANOVA and linear regression were used for statistical analysis. In urban Karachi, 99.5% of women and 97.3% of neonates were vitamin D deficient (< 50 nmol/L), while 89% of women and 82% of neonates were deficient in rural Jehlum. Gc genotypes were not associated with serum 25(OH)D concentrations in both women and their neonates. We conclude that vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in Pakistani women and their neonates, and Gc genotypes are not associated with serum 25(OH)D concentrations.

  5. Rural Women Proprietorship Project. Research and Development Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazard Community Coll., KY.

    A project was created to provide individualized and technical training specially designed for women who desired to become small business owners. Recruitment of eastern Kentucky women in the Hazard Community College five-county service area was done through direct mailing; posting of flyers; and newspaper, radio, and television publicity. In…

  6. [Rural women's use of indoor air pollutants in Alexandria Governorate: relationship with sociodemographic characteristics and illness].

    PubMed

    El Asaal, Amal El Sayed

    2008-01-01

    This study determined the relationship between women's use of indoor air pollutants and sociodemographic variables and illness. Data were collected by observation and interview of 240 rural women in Alexandria Governorate. The use of chemical and microbial indoor air pollutants was high in 87.5% and 67.5% of the women respectively. Also, 27.5% of the women had chronic headache, 25.5% respiratory diseases and 16.3% eye diseases. There was a significant positive relationship between women's level of use and number of sons, type of family and number of family members; there was a significant negative relationship with women's education and their son's education. There were significant positive relationships between illness and overuse of insecticides, garbage burning in front of the house and having an unclean house.

  7. Privatisation of health services and the reproductive health of rural Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Joan; Jing, Fang

    2002-11-01

    China's rural health care system has undergone major changes since the early 1980s, when the country began privatising rural health services. Following fiscal devolution, the rural primary health service was transformed into a fee-for-service system, dependent on the availability of local resources. This article reports some of the results of a study undertaken in 1994-96 to examine the impact of privatization on financing, provision and use of reproductive health services by women in two rural counties in Yunnan Province, China. The most common self-reported symptoms of reproductive morbidity were abnormal vaginal discharge and vaginal tears during home delivery, which went mostly untreated. Hospital-based delivery and use of antenatal care was very low, adversely affected by costs and perceived low quality. Service quality was affected by low investment in training, maintenance and supervision of workers. Most of the burden for maternal and child health care fell on local health workers, yet resources for these services had declined from 1985 to 1995. Only support for family planning services, which were funded and provided separately, had increased. Rural women's reproductive health needs were inadequately attended to by rural health services following reforms. Our data has helped to increase attention to those needs within planned reform efforts. PMID:12557647

  8. [The role of national rural organization and agricultural extension services in relation to women].

    PubMed

    Martius Von Harder, G

    1985-01-01

    Rural extension services are designed to provide rural dwellers with information needed to further technical or social development and to solve problems. Extension agents should be fully aware of their responsibility for the advice they provide. The number of rural and agricultural development and extension agencies has multiplied greatly in the past 2 decades. Agricultural extension is the principal component of most rural development strategies. Training given to men is usually economic, while that for women is devoted to household and social functioning. Programs for women usually lag general development programs. Training of women is usually not included in agricultural extension programs, especially in countries practicing segregation of the sexes. Agricultural extension programs are generally limited to cultivation techniques and neglect transformation and storage of crops and seed preparation for increased production. Measures that could improve productivity of women's agriculture-related work are expected to be delivered through the intermediacy of their husbands, but the husbands may not appreciate the import of such messages if they are not familiar with their wives' work. Agricultural training should consider all stages of production, should be delivered to the individuals actually performing the tasks, and should be ecologically appropriate. The overall objective of agricultural extension is to increase production, but most programs do not specify who is to use the surplus or to benefit from it. The rural population or the urban population may be the prime beneficiary, or cash crops may be produced for export. Although increased production should benefit the rural population through a better food supply, in reality most extension programs are devoted to cash crops for export and are less than fully successful because of problems of crop distribution and marketing and other shortcomings. Where men and women perform the same agricultural work, it should

  9. Creating Opportunities: Good Practice in Small Business Training for Australian Rural Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Lyn; Daws, Leonie; Wood, Leanne

    2002-01-01

    To overcome barriers to participation in small business training faced by rural Australian women, training needs and delivery issues were identified and a good practice matrix was developed with the following components: marketing, content, delivery, support, impact, and innovation. Underlying principles included unique needs, diversity, use of…

  10. The Economic Contributions of Women in a Rural Western Navajo Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Scott C.; McDonald, Mark B.

    1982-01-01

    Examines and enumerates economic changes that have occurred in the traditional rural Navajo community of Shonto. While women's net income contributions to Shonto's economy has declined, their position has seen only a slight erosion; their activities (sheep and goat husbandry, agriculture, arts and crafts) are still considered necessary and…

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Women Superintendents in Rural and Urban Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, Linda Hampton; Grady, Marilyn L.

    This paper reports on the leadership qualities of rural and urban women superintendents. Telephone interviews with 51 randomly selected female superintendents in 29 states examined perceived sources of job satisfaction, the benefits accrued on the job, sense of self-fulfillment in the workplace, and personal strengths. The most frequent responses…

  12. Post-Primary Education and Capabilities: Insights from Young Women in Rural Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Shelley K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents findings from the third stage of a longitudinal, qualitative study involving nine female participants from a class cohort in a secondary school in rural Uganda. Since 2004-05, this study has tracked the progress of these young women's lives, and the present aspect of the study explores the ways in which they have found that…

  13. Utilization of Mammography Services among Elderly Rural and Urban African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agho, Augustine O; Mosley, Barbara W; Rivers, Patrick A; Parker, Shandowyn

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study was a two-year educational intervention and research project aimed at increasing the awareness of breast cancer and the utilization of Clinical Breast Examination (CBE) services and Self-Breast Examination (SBE) among elderly rural and urban African American women who are Medicare beneficiaries. Design: The study was…

  14. The Learning Projects of Rural Third Age Women: Enriching a Valuable Community Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lear, Glenna

    2011-01-01

    As a third age PhD candidate with a passion for learning, I wanted to explore the learning of other rural third age women who live on the Lower Eyre Peninsula (LEP) of South Australia. This reflects the methodological stance of heuristic inquiry, which requires the researcher to have a passionate interest in the phenomena under investigation, and…

  15. Rural Adult Education and the Health Transformation of Pastoral Women of Northern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usman, Lantana M.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, politics of education in Nigeria have shifted from urban to rural literacy, which led to the development of programmes such as the nomadic women's adult education programme. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the programme's implementation strategies, and the extent to which the health educational…

  16. Humanities Education as a Pathway for Women in Regional and Rural Australia: Clemente Ballarat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervasoni, Ann; Smith, Jeremy; Howard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides insight into the experience of Clemente humanities education for six regional and rural Australian women living around Ballarat. Each took part in an audio-taped semi-structured interview which explored the impact that university study had on their lives. Their responses suggest that Clemente Ballarat was life-giving. The…

  17. A Community Health Advisor Program to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk among Rural African-American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, C. E.; Littleton, M. A.; Greene, P. G.; Pulley, L.; Brownstein, J. N.; Sanderson, B. K.; Stalker, V. G.; Matson-Koffman, D.; Struempler, B.; Raczynski, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The Uniontown, Alabama Community Health Project trained and facilitated Community Health Advisors (CHAs) in conducting a theory-based intervention designed to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among rural African-American women. The multiphased project included formative evaluation and community organization, CHA recruitment and…

  18. Determinants of Rural Women's Health: A Qualitative Study in Southwest Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leipert, Beverly D.; George, Julie A.

    2008-01-01

    Context: The influences of gender and geography are increasingly being acknowledged as central to a comprehensive understanding of health. Since little research on rural women's health has been conducted, an in-depth qualitative approach is necessary to gain a better initial understanding of this population. Purpose: To explore the determinants of…

  19. HPV Vaccine Acceptance in a Clinic-Based Sample of Women in the Rural South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Heather M.; Sharpe, Patricia A.; McCree, Donna H.; Wright, Marcie S.; Davis, Jennifer; Hutto, Brent E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a very common sexually transmitted infection linked to cervical disease. Vaccines for some types of HPV were in development at the time of the study. Purpose: The study examined HPV vaccine acceptability among underserved women in a rural region of the southeastern U.S. with high rates of cervical cancer…

  20. ‘Elastic band strategy’: women's lived experiences of coping with domestic violence in rural Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Hayati, Elli Nur; Eriksson, Malin; Hakimi, Mohammad; Högberg, Ulf; Emmelin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Background Experiencing domestic violence is considered a chronic and stressful life event. A theoretical framework of coping strategies can be used to understand how women deal with domestic violence. Traditional values strongly influenced by religious teachings that interpret men as the leaders of women play an important role in the lives of Javanese women, where women are obliged to obey their husbands. Little is known about how sociocultural and psychosocial contexts influence the ways in which women cope with domestic violence. Objective Our study aimed to deepen our understanding of how rural Javanese women cope with domestic violence. Our objective was to explore how the sociocultural context influences coping dynamics of women survivors of domestic violence in rural Purworejo. Design A phenomenological approach was used to transform lived experiences into textual expressions of the coping dynamics of women survivors of domestic violence. Results Experiencing chronic violence ruined the women's personal lives because of the associated physical, mental, psychosocial, and financial impairments. These chronic stressors led women to access external and internal resources to form coping strategies. Both external and internal factors prompted conflicting impulses to seek support, that is, to escape versus remain in the relationship. This strong tension led to a coping strategy that implied a long-term process of moving between actively opposing the violence and surrendering or tolerating the situation, resembling an elastic band that stretches in and out. Conclusions Women survivors in Purworejo face a lack of institutional support and tend to have traditional beliefs that hamper their potential to stop the abuse. Although the women in this study were educated and economically independent, they still had difficulty mobilizing internal and external support to end the abuse, partly due to internalized gender norms. PMID:23336615

  1. Women's health in a rural setting in societal transition in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Berhane, Y; Gossaye, Y; Emmelin, M; Hogberg, U

    2001-12-01

    There are reports indicating a worsening of women's health in transitional rural societies in sub-Saharan Africa in relation to autonomy, workload, illiteracy, nutrition and disease prevalence. Although these problems are rampant, proper documentation is lacking. The objective of this study was to reflect the health situation of women in rural Ethiopia. Furthermore, the study attempts to address the socio-demographic and cultural factors that have potential influence on the health of women in the context of a low-income setting. A combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods was utilised. In-depth interviews and a cross-sectional survey of randomly selected women were the main methods employed. The Butajira Rural Health Program demographic surveillance database provided the sampling frame. Heavy workload, lack of access to health services, poverty, traditional practices, poor social status and decision-making power, and lack of access to education were among the highly prevalent socio-cultural factors that potentially affect the health of women in Butajira. Though the majority of the women use traditional healers younger women show more tendency to use health services. No improvement of women's status was perceived by the younger generation compared to the older generation. Female genital mutilation is universal with a strong motivation to its maintenance. Nail polish has replaced the rite of nail-extraction before marriage in the younger generation. As the factors influencing the health of women are multiple and complex a holistic approach should be adopted with emphasis on improving access to health care and education, enhancing social status, and mechanisms to alleviate poverty. PMID:11710427

  2. Genotypic distribution of common variants of endosomal toll like receptors in healthy Spanish women. A comparative study with other populations.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Robles, Elena; Yebra-Bango, Miguel; Mellor-Pita, Susana; Tutor-Ureta, Pablo; Vargas, Juan A; Citores, Maria J

    2016-03-01

    Genetic variants of endosomal toll like receptors (TLR) have been associated with many infectious, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, but few studies have been reported in the Spanish population. The aim of this study was to describe the allelic and genotypic distributions of some common nucleotide substitutions of endosomal TLRs in healthy Spanish women and to compare them with those already published in other population groups. Nine substitutions were analysed in 150 DNA samples from 150 Spanish, non-related healthy females: TLR3 rs3775291 and rs5743305; TLR7 rs179008 and rs5743781; TLR8 rs3764880 and TLR9 rs187084, rs5743836, rs352139 and rs352140. Genotyping was carried out by real time PCR and melting curve analysis in a LightCycler 480. A systematic review was performed in order to compare the genotypic distributions in our cohort with those previously published in other population groups. The comparative study was performed with the two tailed Fisher's test or the Yates continuity correction for the Chi-square test when appropriate. No homozygotes for rs5743781 in TLR7 were found, and rs352139 and rs352140 of TLR9 were in strong linkage disequilibrium. Genotype distributions in endosomal TLR are similar to other Spanish series previously reported. As expected, most differences were found when comparing our distributions with Asiatics, but differences were also found with other Caucasian populations. Since there are significant variations in genotypic distributions of TLRs in both interracial groups and within the same ethnic group, to carry out studies of disease susceptibility in more restricted groups is mandatory.

  3. Discovering the Barriers to Rural Women in STEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreft Pearce, Jennifer; McCaslin, Sara; Morgan, Leann

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates the attitudes women and girls from the East Texas region have towards engineering and physics. We use an online survey and interviews to determine what influences women to choose their career paths. Surprisingly, we find that women have more positive attitudes about physics and engineering than their male counterparts. For the group of students interviewed, self assessment of ability, lack of role models, and confusion about work/life balance issues were some of the determining factors in their choice not to pursue a career in a STEM field.

  4. A Pilot Test of the Everyday Stressors Index–Spanish Version in a Sample of Hispanic Women Attending Prenatal Care

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, María L.; Ashford, Kristin; Linares, Ana M.; Hall, Lynne A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Prenatal and postpartum psychosocial stress are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Hispanic women experience higher levels of stress during pregnancy. This pilot study assessed the psychometric characteristics of the Everyday Stressors Index-Spanish (ESI-S) version. Methods Secondary analysis in a convenience sample, n = 51 women. Results The ESI-S showed adequate internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = .86). Two factors accounted for 40% of the item variance. The greatest sources of stress were “having too many responsibilities” and “not enough money for basics”. Higher levels of stressors were associated with older age, living without a partner, and working part or full time. The ESI-S was positively correlated with measures of perinatal depression. Conclusions Findings support the reliability and validity of the newly translated ESI-S. PMID:26673774

  5. Cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccine acceptability among rural and urban women in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Melissa S; Skrastins, Emily; Fitzpatrick, Ryan; Jindal, Priya; Oneko, Olola; Yeates, Karen; Booth, Christopher M; Carpenter, Jennifer; Aronson, Kristan J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine cervical cancer screening coverage and the knowledge, attitudes and barriers toward screening tests among women in rural and urban areas of Tanzania, as well as explore how they view the acceptability of the HPV vaccine and potential barriers to vaccination. Setting A cross-sectional study using interview-administered questionnaires was conducted using multistage random sampling within urban and rural areas in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania. Participants Women aged 18–55 were asked to participate in the survey. The overall response rate was 97.5%, with a final sample of 303 rural and 272 urban dwelling women. Primary and secondary outcome measures Descriptive and simple test statistics were used to compare across rural and urban strata. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs. Results Most women (82%) reported they had heard of cervical cancer, while self-reported cervical cancer screening among women was very low (6%). In urban areas, factors associated with screening were: older age (OR=4.14, 95% CI 1.86 to 9.24 for ages 40–49, and OR=8.38, 95% CI 2.10 to 33.4 for >50 years), having health insurance (OR=4.15, 95% CI 1.52 to 11.4), and having knowledge about cervical cancer (OR=5.81, 95% CI 1.58 to 21.4). In contrast, among women residing in rural areas, only condom use (OR=6.44, 95% CI 1.12 to 37.1) was associated with screening. Women from both rural and urban areas had low vaccine-related knowledge; however, most indicated they would be highly accepting if it were readily available (93%). Conclusions The current proportion of women screened for cervical cancer is very low in Kilimanjaro Region, and our study has identified several modifiable factors that could be addressed to increase screening rates. Although best implemented concurrently, the availability of prophylactic vaccination for girls may provide an effective means of prevention if they are unable to access screening in the future. PMID

  6. [A correlation study on homocysteine metabolism in pregnant women and neural tube defects in urban and rural areas].

    PubMed

    Zhan, S; Hu, Y; Li, L

    1997-07-01

    Serum levels of homocysteine, folic acid and vitamin B12 in pregnant women in urban and rural areas were compared to study the relationship between homocysteine metabolism and neural tube defects. Four hundred and eleven serum specimens were sampled randomly from a serum bank for women with early pregnancy in Beijing area, 195 from urban and 216 from rural. Their levels of homocysteine were determined by high performance liquid chromatography combined with electrochemical methods, and those of folic acid and vitamin B12 by radioimmunoassay. Results showed that level of homocysteine was significantly higher in rural pregnant women than that in urban, with 9.31 mumol/L and 5.73 mumol/L, respectively, level of vitamin B12 was lower in rural than that in urban women, with 210.09 pmol/L and 233.35 pmol/L, respectively, and level of folic acid was higher in rural than that in urban women, but no significant difference in deficiency of folic acid between rural and urban was found. The average ratio of folic acid to homocysteine and that of vitamin B12 to homocysteine were higher in rural than those in urban women. It suggests that abnormal metabolism of homocysteine usually correlates with high incidence of neural tube defects in rural area. PMID:9812582

  7. Urban - rural disparities in antenatal care utilization: a study of two cohorts of pregnant women in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of antenatal care (ANC) varies between countries and in different settings within each country. Most previous studies of ANC in Vietnam have been cross-sectional, and conducted in rural areas before the year 2000. This study aims to compare the pattern and the adequacy of ANC used in rural and urban Vietnam following two cohorts of pregnant women. Methods A comparative study with two cohorts comprising totally 2132 pregnant women were followed in two health and demographic surveillance sites, one rural and one urban in Hanoi province, Vietnam. The women were quarterly interviewed using a structured questionnaire until delivery. The primary information obtained was the number and the content of ANC visits. Results Almost all women reported some use of ANC. The average number of visits was much lower in the rural setting (4.4) than in the urban (7.7). In the rural area, 77.2% of women had at least three visits and 69.1% attended ANC during the first trimester. The corresponding percentages for the urban women were 97.2% and 97.2%. Only 20.3% of the rural women compared to 81.1% of the urban women received all core ANC services. As a result, the adequate use of ANC was 5.2 times in the urban than in the rural setting (78.3% compared to 15.2%). Nearly all women received ultrasound examination during pregnancy with a mean value of 6.0 scans per woman in the urban area and 3.5 in the rural. Most rural women used ANC at commune health centres and private clinics while urban women mainly visited public hospitals. Expenditure related to ANC utilization for the urban women was 7.1 times that for the urban women. Conclusion The women in the rural area attended ANC later, had fewer visits and received much fewer services than urban women. The large disparity in ANC adequacy between the two settings suggests special attention for the ANC programme in rural areas focusing on its content. Revision and enforcement of the national guidelines to improve the

  8. Inequality of the use of skilled birth assistance among rural women in Bangladesh: facts and factors.

    PubMed

    Kamal, S M Mostafa; Hassan, Che Hashim; Kabir, M A

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the inequality of the use of skilled delivery assistance by the rural women of Bangladesh using the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey data. Simple cross-tabulation and univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were employed in the study. Overall, 56.1% of the women received at least one antenatal care visit, whereas only 13.2% births were assisted by skilled personnel. Findings revealed apparent inequality in using skilled delivery assistance by socioeconomic strata. Birth order, women's education, religion, wealth index, region and antenatal care are important determinants of seeking skilled assistance. To ensure safe motherhood initiative, government should pay special attention to reduce inequality in seeking skilled delivery assistance. A strong focus on community-based and regional interventions is important in order to increase the utilization of safe maternal health care services in rural Bangladesh.

  9. Rural Zulu women's knowledge of and attitudes towards medical male circumcision

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Andrew; Ogbonnaya, Harbor

    2015-01-01

    Background Medical male circumcision (MMC) is a key strategy in the South African HIV infection prevention package. Women may have a potentially powerful role in supporting such a strategy. Circumcision is not a traditional part of Zulu society, and Zulu women may have limited knowledge and ambivalent or negative attitudes towards MMC. Aim This study employs quantitative data to expand insight into rural Zulu women's knowledge of and attitudes towards MMC, and is important as women could potentially yield a powerful positive or negative influence over the decisions of their partners and sons. Setting A hospital-based antenatal clinic in rural KwaZulu-Natal. Methods Participants were 590 pregnant, mostly isiZulu-speaking women. Data on their knowledge of and attitude towards MMC were collected using a questionnaire and were analysed descriptively. Results The majority of the women supported MMC; however, knowledge of the potential benefits was generally poor. Most would encourage their partners and sons to undergo MMC. The preferred place for the procedure was a hospital. Conclusion Zulu participants supported MMC and would support their partners and children being circumcised. Knowledge around potential benefits was worryingly poor, and further research into disseminating information is essential. The findings highlight the need for an expanded campaign of health education for women, and innovative means are suggested to enhance information accessibility. Reasons for preferring that MMC be carried out in hospital need to be explored further. PMID:26245595

  10. Dietary behaviour, food and nutrient intake of pregnant women in a rural community in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Huybregts, Lieven Fernand; Roberfroid, Dominique Albert; Kolsteren, Patrick Wilfried; Van Camp, John Hendrik

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess potential changes in dietary habits during pregnancy in a rural community in Houndé district, Burkina Faso. In-depth interviews were performed on a random sample of 37 pregnant women in order to analyse specific perceptions and attitudes regarding food consumption during pregnancy. In addition to this, an interactive 24-h recall survey was used to compare the food intake of 218 pregnant and 176 non-pregnant women. The majority of interviewees reported dietary restrictions during pregnancy but no consistent pattern of avoided food types was found. Most of the mentioned 'forbidden' foods were in related to physical discomfort during gestation. Interviewees also admitted to ignoring culturally determined food prohibitions/prescriptions. No differences were observed in food intake, food choice and nutrient intake between the group of pregnant and non-pregnant women. During the third trimester of gestation women did not show any major differences in food and nutrient intake compared with women from the first/second trimester. The mean nutrient intakes were found to be insufficient compared with the recommended daily allowances, especially for pregnant women. In conclusion, pregnant women in this rural area of Burkina Faso do not seem to restrict their diet significantly during pregnancy. The additional nutritional requirements of pregnancy are not accounted for in their dietary practises.

  11. Dietary behaviour, food and nutrient intake of pregnant women in a rural community in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Huybregts, Lieven Fernand; Roberfroid, Dominique Albert; Kolsteren, Patrick Wilfried; Van Camp, John Hendrik

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess potential changes in dietary habits during pregnancy in a rural community in Houndé district, Burkina Faso. In-depth interviews were performed on a random sample of 37 pregnant women in order to analyse specific perceptions and attitudes regarding food consumption during pregnancy. In addition to this, an interactive 24-h recall survey was used to compare the food intake of 218 pregnant and 176 non-pregnant women. The majority of interviewees reported dietary restrictions during pregnancy but no consistent pattern of avoided food types was found. Most of the mentioned 'forbidden' foods were in related to physical discomfort during gestation. Interviewees also admitted to ignoring culturally determined food prohibitions/prescriptions. No differences were observed in food intake, food choice and nutrient intake between the group of pregnant and non-pregnant women. During the third trimester of gestation women did not show any major differences in food and nutrient intake compared with women from the first/second trimester. The mean nutrient intakes were found to be insufficient compared with the recommended daily allowances, especially for pregnant women. In conclusion, pregnant women in this rural area of Burkina Faso do not seem to restrict their diet significantly during pregnancy. The additional nutritional requirements of pregnancy are not accounted for in their dietary practises. PMID:20572925

  12. Evaluation of an educational program on cervical cancer for rural women in Mangalore, Southern India.

    PubMed

    Mary, Bright; D'Sa, Juliana Linnette

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer in women worldwide. One way by which the incidence of this malignant disease can be minimized is by imparting knowledge through health education. This study aimed at developing an educational package on cervical cancer (EPCC) and determining its effectiveness in terms of significant increase in knowledge of rural women regarding cervical cancer. A one group pre-test, post-test design was adopted. Thirty rural women were selected using a convenient sampling method. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and a structured knowledge questionnaire developed by the researchers. The EPCC was designed for a duration of one hour and 10 minutes. The structured knowledge questionnaire was first administered as the pre-test, following which knowledge on cervical cancer was imparted using the EPCC. On the 8th day, the post-test was administered. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean post-test knowledge score of the women regarding cervical cancer was significantly higher than that of their mean pre-test score, indicating that the EPCC was effective in improving the knowledge of rural women on cervical cancer. The association between pre-test knowledge scores and selected demo-graphic variables were computed using chi-square test showed that pre-test knowledge score of the women regarding cervical cancer was independent of all the socio-demographic variables. It was concluded that the EPCC is effective in improving the knowledge of women, regarding cervical cancer. Since the prevalence of cervical cancer is high, there is an immediate need to educate women on prevention of cervical cancer. PMID:25169495

  13. Freedom, Imagination and Grace: The Life Stories of Rural Women Art Educators from the Foothills of North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingler, Sylvia Adams

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the narratives of four rural art educators of the Foothills of Western North Carolina. These women are the first art educators in this area in public education. They are often viewed as the invisible women in art who support community arts, much like the "invisible women in art history." From the view of the dominant…

  14. Literacy/Numeracy and Vocational Training among Rural Women in Nigeria for a Good Livelihood and Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuks, Okeke Ben

    2004-01-01

    Women play a very vital role in national development. The role relates to a complete range of socio-economic activities. Rural women are not only users of basic services, bearers and socialisers of children and keepers of the home, they also represent a product potential, which is not being fully tapped. Records have shown that women form more…

  15. Fallen uterus: social suffering, bodily vigor, and social support among women in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Smith-Oka, Vania

    2014-03-01

    This article focuses on rural indigenous Mexican women's experiences with uterine prolapse, particularly the illness's expression of social suffering. Drawing on ethnographic research conducted during 2004-2005 and 2007 in a Nahua village in the state of Veracruz, the article analyzes the multifactorial nature of women's social suffering. Results show that the roots of uterine displacement for the women lie in lack of social relations and in perceptions of bodily vigor. Additionally, inequality present in the women's interactions with mainstream Mexico brings into focus the larger structural factors that shape their reproductive health. The implications of research on the effect of social support on women's embodiment of social suffering can extend beyond one illness, linking it to broader issues shaping the health of marginalized populations.

  16. Rural women, development, and telecommunications: a pilot programme in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, H

    1999-07-01

    This article focuses on the impact of a telecenter program in Bamshela, South Africa, on women in the local community. The Government's telecenter initiative was conceived with an awareness of gender issues and the need to promote women's needs and rights in mind. However, as the center moves into its second year, many opportunities for the it to have a meaningful impact on the community from the start have already been lost. It has not generated enough income to keep prices at an affordable rate. Research has shown that many Bamshela women are using the telecenter as a phoneshop. Lack of knowledge, skills, and education among women is an obstacle to their use of computers at the center; however, center managers believe that rural women will become familiar with electronic methods of communication and may come to use these services. The telecenter has a long way to go before it can replace face-to-face communication and bring prestige to the community.

  17. Sexual Aggression against Women by Men Acquaintances: Attitudes and Experiences among Spanish University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipsma, Eric; Isabel, Jose-Antonio Carrobles; Cerrato, Ignacio Montorio; Everaerd, Walter

    2000-01-01

    Assessed Spanish college students' attitudes about forced sex and actual experiences with male-against-female sexual aggression. Students analyzed a date rape story discussed their coercive sexual activities and help-seeking behaviors. Acceptance of forced sex significantly related to sex, age, and experience with sexual aggression. Only 39…

  18. Assessing face validity of a physical activity questionnaire for Spanish-speaking women in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: A review of the literature produced no rigorously tested and validated Spanish-language physical activity survey or evaluation tools for use by USDA’s food assistance and education programs. The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate the face validity of a visually enha...

  19. Development of safety performance functions for Spanish two-lane rural highways on flat terrain.

    PubMed

    Garach, Laura; de Oña, Juan; López, Griselda; Baena, Leticia

    2016-10-01

    Over decades safety performance functions (SPF) have been developed as a tool for traffic safety in order to estimate the number of crashes in a specific road section. Despite the steady progression of methodological innovations in the crash analysis field, many fundamental issues have not been completely addressed. For instance: Is it better to use parsimonious or fully specified models? How should the goodness-of-fit of the models be assessed? Is it better to use a general model for the entire sample or specific models based on sample stratifications? This paper investigates the above issues by means of several SPFs developed using negative binomial regression models for two-lane rural highways in Spain. The models were based on crash data gathered over a 5-year period, using a broad number of explanatory variables related to exposure, geometry, design consistency and roadside features. Results show that the principle of parsimony could be too restrictive and that it provided simplistic models. Most previous studies apply conventional measurements (i.e., R(2), BIC, AIC, etc.) to assess the goodness-of-fit of models. Seldom do studies apply cumulative residual (CURE) analysis as a tool for model evaluation. This paper shows that CURE plots are essential tools for calibrating SPF, while also providing information for possible sample stratification. Previous authors suggest that sample segmentation increases the model accuracy. The results presented here confirm that finding, and show that the number of significant variables in the final models increases with sample stratification. This paper point out that fully models based on sample segmentation and on CURE may provide more useful insights about traffic crashes than general parsimonious models when developing SPF.

  20. "Remnants of feudalism"? Women's health and their utilization of health services in rural China.

    PubMed

    Anson, O; Haanappel, F W

    1999-01-01

    Almost five decades ago, the Chinese Communist Party wished to abolish all "remnants of feudalism," including the patriarchal social order. Just one year after the revolution, the Marriage Law endorsed women's rights within the family, but no operative measures were taken to enforce it. Some of the economic reforms since independence even strengthened patrilocality and, possibly, patriarchal values. The purpose of this study was to explore the degree to which patrilocality served to maintain the traditional patriarchal stratification among women in the household by exploring women's health patterns and utilization of health services. Data were collected from 3859 women residing in rural Hebei, and variation in health and help seeking of six categories of relation to household head--mothers, wives, daughters, daughters-in-law, family heads, and other relatives--were explored. Utilization of health services is not dependent on women's position in the household, but primarily on per-capita income. Health patterns seem to indicate that mothers of the head of the household still have a considerable power to define their roles and share of household work. Women head of family, most of whom are married, appear to be under strain, which could be a result of their culturally "deviant" position. We conclude that old patriarchal values are intertwined with values of equality in current rural China.

  1. Status Attainment Through Marriage: The Experience of Rural Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Philip N.

    The literature suggested that marriage provides alternative occupational achievement for women who opt by choice or by circumstance to attain socioeconomic position through their husbands' occupations, and that an advantageous social contact setting is crucial for access to promising mates so that a woman's personal attributes can be beneficial…

  2. Prevalence of Anemia and Correlated Factors in the Reproductive Age Women in Rural Areas of Tabas

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghian, Majid; Lesanpezeshki, Mohammad; Ahmadnezhad, Elham

    2013-01-01

    Objective To find out the prevalence and relationship of anemia in reproductive age women in rural area of Tabas, center of Iran. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional problem, affecting about 41.8% of pregnant and 30.2% of non-pregnant women worldwide. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on the random sample of 382 reproductive age women in rural areas of Tabas in March 2010. Independent sample t-test, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression were applied for the data analysis. Results The obtained data revealed a total response rate of 13.8% for prevalence of anemia, while 14.5% and 5.9% belonged to non-pregnant and pregnant participants, respectively. Low socioeconomic status (odds ratio 3.35) and high parity index (odds ratio 2.31) were associated with higher prevalence of anemia. Conclusion Although this study was conducted in a rural area of Tabas, where their average incomes were lower than average income of major cities in Iran, the prevalence of anemia was lower than the rate reported in previous studies carried out in other locations of Iran, even in high risk (pregnant women) groups. PMID:24971116

  3. A tangled weave: Tracing outcomes of education in rural women's lives in North India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghose, Malini; Mullick, Disha

    2015-06-01

    This paper is based on the findings of a research study which traced 56 rural women learners 15 years after they had participated in an empowerment and education programme in North India. It attempts to understand, from the perspectives of women from marginalised communities, the ways in which participating in the programme had been empowering for them, or not. While most of the women were indeed able to transform several areas in their lives, this study illustrates that empowering outcomes cannot be assumed or articulated in categorical terms and that bringing about change requires the negotiation of power at various levels. The women's narratives stand in contrast to the prevalent discourses around women's literacy and empowerment, which highlight the importance of literacy only in terms of its positive impact on attaining development goals. Despite the vigorously discussed de-politicisation of the concept of empowerment, the authors show in this paper that empowerment, when informed by a critical feminist understanding, continues to provide a useful framework to analyse women's experiences related to education, as a process enabling women to understand and negotiate structures of power - which are neither static nor wholly dominating - and to find spaces to exercise agency. There are few longitudinal studies which trace the long-term impact of educational programmes on adult women, and most studies are in the nature of impact assessments of programmes. Through this paper the authors argue for the need to analyse the complexities around the relationship between women's education and empowerment.

  4. Reproducibility of data-driven dietary patterns in two groups of adult Spanish women from different studies.

    PubMed

    Castelló, Adela; Lope, Virginia; Vioque, Jesús; Santamariña, Carmen; Pedraz-Pingarrón, Carmen; Abad, Soledad; Ederra, Maria; Salas-Trejo, Dolores; Vidal, Carmen; Sánchez-Contador, Carmen; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the reproducibility of data-driven dietary patterns in different samples extracted from similar populations. Dietary patterns were extracted by applying principal component analyses to the dietary information collected from a sample of 3550 women recruited from seven screening centres belonging to the Spanish breast cancer (BC) screening network (Determinants of Mammographic Density in Spain (DDM-Spain) study). The resulting patterns were compared with three dietary patterns obtained from a previous Spanish case-control study on female BC (Epidemiological study of the Spanish group for breast cancer research (GEICAM: grupo Español de investigación en cáncer de mama)) using the dietary intake data of 973 healthy participants. The level of agreement between patterns was determined using both the congruence coefficient (CC) between the pattern loadings (considering patterns with a CC≥0·85 as fairly similar) and the linear correlation between patterns scores (considering as fairly similar those patterns with a statistically significant correlation). The conclusions reached with both methods were compared. This is the first study exploring the reproducibility of data-driven patterns from two studies and the first using the CC to determine pattern similarity. We were able to reproduce the EpiGEICAM Western pattern in the DDM-Spain sample (CC=0·90). However, the reproducibility of the Prudent (CC=0·76) and Mediterranean (CC=0·77) patterns was not as good. The linear correlation between pattern scores was statistically significant in all cases, highlighting its arbitrariness for determining pattern similarity. We conclude that the reproducibility of widely prevalent dietary patterns is better than the reproducibility of more population-specific patterns. More methodological studies are needed to establish an objective measurement and threshold to determine pattern similarity.

  5. Reproducibility of data-driven dietary patterns in two groups of adult Spanish women from different studies.

    PubMed

    Castelló, Adela; Lope, Virginia; Vioque, Jesús; Santamariña, Carmen; Pedraz-Pingarrón, Carmen; Abad, Soledad; Ederra, Maria; Salas-Trejo, Dolores; Vidal, Carmen; Sánchez-Contador, Carmen; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the reproducibility of data-driven dietary patterns in different samples extracted from similar populations. Dietary patterns were extracted by applying principal component analyses to the dietary information collected from a sample of 3550 women recruited from seven screening centres belonging to the Spanish breast cancer (BC) screening network (Determinants of Mammographic Density in Spain (DDM-Spain) study). The resulting patterns were compared with three dietary patterns obtained from a previous Spanish case-control study on female BC (Epidemiological study of the Spanish group for breast cancer research (GEICAM: grupo Español de investigación en cáncer de mama)) using the dietary intake data of 973 healthy participants. The level of agreement between patterns was determined using both the congruence coefficient (CC) between the pattern loadings (considering patterns with a CC≥0·85 as fairly similar) and the linear correlation between patterns scores (considering as fairly similar those patterns with a statistically significant correlation). The conclusions reached with both methods were compared. This is the first study exploring the reproducibility of data-driven patterns from two studies and the first using the CC to determine pattern similarity. We were able to reproduce the EpiGEICAM Western pattern in the DDM-Spain sample (CC=0·90). However, the reproducibility of the Prudent (CC=0·76) and Mediterranean (CC=0·77) patterns was not as good. The linear correlation between pattern scores was statistically significant in all cases, highlighting its arbitrariness for determining pattern similarity. We conclude that the reproducibility of widely prevalent dietary patterns is better than the reproducibility of more population-specific patterns. More methodological studies are needed to establish an objective measurement and threshold to determine pattern similarity. PMID:27374250

  6. Distress, coping, and social support among rural women recently diagnosed with primary breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Koopman, C; Angell, K; Turner-Cobb, J M; Kreshka, M A; Donnelly, P; McCoy, R; Turkseven, A; Graddy, K; Giese-Davis, J; Spiegel, D

    2001-01-01

    This study examined distress, coping, and group support among a sample of rural women who had been recently diagnosed with breast cancer. We recruited 100 women who had been diagnosed with primary breast cancer at one of two time points in their medical treatment: either within a window up to 3 months after their diagnosis of breast cancer, or within 6 months after completing medical treatment for breast cancer. Their mean age was 58.6 years (SD = 11.6), and 90% were of white/European American ethnicity. Women completed a battery of demographic and psychosocial measures prior to being randomized into a psychoeducational intervention study, and then again 3 months later at a follow-up assessment. The focus of this article is on the women's self-reported psychosocial status at baseline. Many of the women experienced considerable traumatic stress regarding their breast cancer. However, this distress was not reflected in a standard measure of mood disturbance that is frequently used in intervention research (the Profile of Mood States). The average woman considered her diagnosis of breast cancer to be among the four most stressful life events that she had ever experienced. Also, women on average reported a high level of helplessness/hopelessness in coping with their cancer. On average, women felt that they "often" (but not "very often") received instrumental assistance, emotional support, and informational support. Women varied considerably in which kind of social group provided them with the most support, with as many reporting that they found the greatest support in spiritual/church groups or within their family units as with breast or general cancer groups. These results suggest that among these rural women with breast cancer, distress with the diagnosis of breast cancer must be carefully assessed, as women who are highly distressed about their breast cancer may not report general mood disturbance. Furthermore, the kinds of groups that rural women with breast cancer

  7. Factors that promote success in women enrolled in STEM disciplines in rural North Carolina community colleges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kincaid, Shannon D.

    Women have historically been underrepresented in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM fields). The underrepresentation of women in STEM may be attributable to a variety of factors. These may include different choices men and women typically make in response to incentives in STEM education. For example, STEM career paths may be less accommodating to people who are less resilient. Another factor may be that there are relatively few female STEM role models. Perhaps strong gender stereotypes discourage women from pursuing STEM education and STEM jobs. The factors that contribute to success and the barriers that impeded success must be identified before any steps can be taken to improve the educational outcomes for women in STEM disciplines. Consequently, relatively little is known about the role of resilience in academically successful adult women in rural community colleges enrolled in STEM disciplines and the mechanisms that underlie the performance deficits that occur as a result of stereotype threat effect. This mixed method study addressed those knowledge gaps by determining: (1) if high resilience is positively correlated to high grade point average for women enrolled in STEM disciplines in rural community colleges in North Carolina, and (2) if stereotype threat effect is a risk factor for these women. Quantitative data were collected by using "The Resilience Scale" (Wagnild & Young, 1987) and through examination of grade point average of students from Datatel data management software. Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured focus group interviews. Findings from this study indicate high resilience is positively correlated to high grade point average for women enrolled in STEM disciplines in rural community colleges in North Carolina, and stereotype threat effect was a risk factor for low-scoring women (i.e. those women who reported resilience scores less than 121 and grade point averages lower than 2.70) and was not a

  8. Urinary iodine concentrations of pregnant women in rural Bangladesh: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Rydbeck, Filip; Bottai, Matteo; Tofail, Fahmida; Persson, Lars-Åke; Kippler, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is an essential dietary element required for normal fetal growth and development. We aimed to explore intraindividual and interindividual variations in iodine intake in pregnant women and whether non-dietary factors might influence the intake. Iodine intake was assessed in 271 women, residing in Matlab, rural Bangladesh, by measuring their urinary iodine concentration (UIC) at gestational week (GW) 8, 14, 19, and 30 with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The women's UIC increased significantly during pregnancy (median 241 (GW8) and 300 μg/l (GW30)). About 6% of the women had insufficient iodine intake (UIC<150 μg/l) and 10% had excessive iodine intake (UIC≥500 μg/l) at all of their four sampling occasions. The women's UIC were dependent on their education, socio-economic status, and BMI, as well as the season of sampling and iodine concentrations in drinking water. Supplementation with a multi-micronutrient capsule, including 150 μg potassium iodine, increased the UIC in women with the lowest UIC (10th percentile) at GW30 but decreased the UIC in women with the highest UIC (90th percentile) at GW30. In conclusion, median UIC throughout pregnancy indicated adequate intake of iodine among pregnant women in Matlab, but, notably, consistently insufficient and excessive intake was also prevalent. PMID:24220214

  9. Drug use, hepatitis C, and service availability: Perspectives of incarcerated rural women

    PubMed Central

    Staton-Tindall, Michele; Webster, J. Matthew; Oser, Carrie B.; Havens, Jennifer R.; Leukefeld, Carl G.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined drug use, hepatitis C, and service availability and use among a high-risk sample of rural women serving time in jails. Data was collected from female offenders (n=22) who participated in four focus groups in three rural jail facilities located in Appalachia. Findings indicated that drug misuse is prevalent in this impoverished area of the country, and that the primary route of administration of drug use is injection. Findings also indicate that injection drug use is also commonly associated with contracting hepatitis C (HCV), which is also perceived to be prevalent in the area. Despite knowledge associated with HCV risks, women in this sample were seemingly apathetic about the increasing spread of HCV in the area and unconcerned about the long-term consequences of the course of the infection. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:25950907

  10. In Search of Self: A Qualitative Study of the Life-Career Development of Rural Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Blythe

    2004-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to the life-career development of rural adolescents. The aim of this project is to explore the hopes, beliefs, and fears of eight young women and aspects of their rural environment that act to constrain or enhance their options. Participants constructed life-space maps, possible selves, and photographic displays…

  11. Comparative Haematological Screening of Urban and Rural Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Lagos and Its Environs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abidoye, R. O.; Olukoya, A. A.

    1993-01-01

    Compared blood screening data for 200 urban and rural pregnant women in Nigeria. Found that rural subjects had a greater incidence of moderate anemia than did urban subjects, and corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations fell with increased gestational age. No relationship was found between hemoglobin counts and nutrition habits. (HTH)

  12. Forging partnerships between rural women with chronic conditions and their health care providers.

    PubMed

    Cudney, Shirley; Weinert, Clarann; Kinion, Elizabeth

    2011-03-01

    Successful adaptation to chronic illness is enhanced by active client-health care provider partnerships. The purposes of this article are to (a) examine the health care partnership needs of western rural women with chronic illness who participated in a computer-based support and education project, (b) describe how the role of the women in the partnership can be maximized by the use of a personal health record and improving health literacy, and (c) discuss ways health care providers can enhance their role in the partnership by careful listening and creating environments conducive to forging productive client-provider partnerships.

  13. Comparison of abuse experiences of rural and urban African American women during perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F C; Richardson, Jeanita W; Kimeto, Pamela; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Sharps, Phyllis W

    2015-07-01

    A subsample of 12 African American women (6 urban and 6 rural) were selected from a larger longitudinal, randomized control trial, Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation (DOVE-R01 900903 National Institute of Nursing Research [NINR]/National Institutes of Health [NIH]). All African American women were chosen to control for any racial- and/or race-related cultural differences that may exist among women across geographical areas. The experiences of abuse during the perinatal period are drawn from in-depth interviews conducted at five points in time during pregnancy and the post-partum period. The analysis describes three major themes that highlight the similarities and differences among rural and urban women. The main themes found were (1) types of abuse, (2) location of abuse, and (3) response to abuse. In addition, two sub-themes (a) defiance and compliance and (b) role of children were also identified. Implications for universal screening for women of reproductive age, safer gun laws, and the need for further research are discussed. PMID:25315478

  14. NGO-promoted microcredit programs and women's empowerment in rural Bangladesh: quantitative and qualitative evidence.

    PubMed

    Amin, R; Becker, S; Bayes, A

    1998-01-01

    Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in rural Bangladesh are reaching out to poor women with collateral-free credit programs aimed at both alleviating poverty and increasing women's status. The present study investigated the hypothesis that participation in credit-related activities by NGO credit members leads to greater empowerment of credit members compared to nonmembers. The sample was comprised of 1164 loanees and 1200 nonloanees from the five NGO areas in Bangladesh and of 1200 nonloanees from non-program areas of rural Bangladesh with no significant NGO presence. NGO credit members had significantly higher scores on all three indices of female empowerment: inter-spouse consultation, autonomy, and authority. Moreover, nonmembers within NGO program areas had higher autonomy and authority scores than nonmembers within the comparison areas. Even after background variables were controlled in the multivariate analysis, NGO credit membership and residence in an NGO program area remained significantly and positively associated with both the autonomy and authority indices. Other variables that exerted a significant positive effect on women's empowerment were concrete or corrugated buildings, area of residence outside the southern or eastern regions, nonagricultural occupation, respondent's education, and age. In focus group discussions, NGO credit loanees reported that the program made them more confident, assertive, intelligent, self-reliant, and aware of their rights. NGO credit programs that target poor women are likely to produce substantial improvements in women's social and economic status, without the long delays associated with education or employment opportunities in the formal sector.

  15. Comparison of Abuse Experiences of Rural and Urban African American Women During Perinatal Period

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F. C.; Richardson, Jeanita W.; Kimeto, Pamela; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Sharps, Phyllis W.

    2015-01-01

    A subsample of 12 African American women (6 urban and 6 rural) were selected from a larger longitudinal, randomized control trial, Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation (DOVE-R01 900903 National Institute of Nursing Research [NINR]/National Institutes of Health [NIH]). All African American women were chosen to control for any racial- and/or race-related cultural differences that may exist among women across geographical areas. The experiences of abuse during the perinatal period are drawn from in-depth interviews conducted at five points in time during pregnancy and the post-partum period. The analysis describes three major themes that highlight the similarities and differences among rural and urban women. The main themes found were (1) types of abuse, (2) location of abuse, and (3) response to abuse. In addition, two sub-themes (a) defiance and compliance and (b) role of children were also identified. Implications for universal screening for women of reproductive age, safer gun laws, and the need for further research are discussed. PMID:25315478

  16. Community-Based Mental Health Intervention for Underprivileged Women in Rural India: An Experiential Report

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Kiran; Vanguri, Prameela; Premchander, Smita

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To share experiences from a project that integrates a mental health intervention within a developmental framework of microcredit activity for economically underprivileged women in rural India. Method. The mental health intervention had two components: group counseling and stress management. The former comprised of ventilation and reassurance and the latter strengthening of coping skills and a relaxation technique. Focus group discussions were used to understand women's perception of how microcredit economic activity and the mental health intervention had affected their lives. Results. Women in the mental health intervention group reported reduction in psychological distress and bodily aches and pains. Majority (86%) reported that the quality of their sleep had improved with regular practice of relaxation and that sharing their problems in the group had helped them to unburden. The social support extended by the members to each other, made them feel that they were not alone and could face any life situation. Conclusion. The study provided qualitative evidence that adding the mental health intervention to the ongoing economic activity had made a positive difference in the lives of the women. Addressing mental health concerns along with livelihood initiatives can help to enhance both economic and social capital in rural poor women. PMID:22295190

  17. Transgressive women don't deserve protection: young men's narratives of sexual violence against women in rural Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Kelly-Hanku, A; Aeno, H; Wilson, L; Eves, R; Mek, A; Nake Trumb, R; Whittaker, M; Fitzgerald, L; Kaldor, J M; Vallely, A

    2016-11-01

    Sexual violence against women and girls is commonplace in Papua New Guinea (PNG). While the experiences of women are rightly given central place in institutional responses to sexual violence, the men who perpetrate violence are often overlooked, an oversight that undermines the effectiveness of prevention efforts. This paper draws on interviews conducted with young men as part of a qualitative longitudinal study of masculinity and male sexuality in a rural highland area of PNG. It explores one aspect of male sexuality: men's narratives of sexual violence. Most striking from the data is that the collective enactment of sexual violence against women and girls is reported as an everyday and accepted practice amongst young men. However, not all women and girls were described as equally at risk, with those who transgress gender roles and roles inscribed and reinforced by patriarchal structures, at greater risk. To address this situation, efforts to reduce sexual violence against women and girls require an increased focus on male-centred intervention to critically engage with the forms of patriarchal authority that give license to sexual violence. Understanding the perceptions and experiences of men as perpetrators of sexual violence is a critical first step in the process of changing normative perceptions of gender, a task crucial to reducing sexual violence in countries such as PNG.

  18. Last menstrual period provides the best estimate of gestation length for women in rural Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Lynnette M; Haas, Jere D; Grajéda, Ruben; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2006-07-01

    The accurate estimation of gestational age in field studies in rural areas of developing countries continues to present difficulties for researchers. Our objective was to determine the best method for gestational age estimation in rural Guatemala. Women of childbearing age from four communities in rural Guatemala were invited to participate in a longitudinal study. Gestational age at birth was determined by an early second trimester measure of biparietal diameter, last menstrual period (LMP), the Capurro neonatal examination and symphysis-fundus height (SFH) for 171 women-infant pairs. Regression modelling was used to determine which method provided the best estimate of gestational age using ultrasound as the reference. Gestational age estimated by LMP was within +/-14 days of the ultrasound estimate for 94% of the sample. LMP-estimated gestational age explained 46% of the variance in gestational age estimated by ultrasound whereas the neonatal examination explained only 20%. The results of this study suggest that, when trained field personnel assist women to recall their date of LMP, this date provides the best estimate of gestational age. SFH measured during the second trimester may provide a reasonable alternative when LMP is unavailable. PMID:16879501

  19. Leadership Characteristics and Training Needs of Women and Men in Charge of Spanish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sánchez-Moreno, Marita; López-Yáñez, Julián; Altopiedi, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the results obtained by two consecutive enquiries into the leadership styles and training needs of women and men leading higher education organisations. It compares the findings of the first stage of two studies, based on ad hoc questionnaires responded to by 136 women and 129 men. Results showed only subtle differences…

  20. Promoting folic acid to Spanish-speaking Hispanic women: evaluating existing campaigns to guide new development.

    PubMed

    Mackert, Michael; Kahlor, Leeann; Silva, Kristi; Padilla, Yolanda

    2010-06-01

    Hispanic women are 1.5-3 times as likely as non-Hispanic white women to have a child affected by neural tube defects. This disparity exists in spite of varied interventions designed to address the problem. The purpose of this research was to investigate Hispanic women's knowledge of folic acid, perceptions of existing education campaigns, and provide guidance for future promotion efforts. Three focus groups with Hispanic mothers (N = 18) were conducted to garner insights on these issues. Results suggested that these women understood the benefits of folic acid, did not see major cultural barriers to consuming folic acid-rich foods, and did not perceive insurmountable challenges to consuming a multivitamin with folic acid. For many women, an initial pregnancy served as their initial cue to action, suggesting a need for the continued development of education strategies that communicate the benefits of folic acid supplementation prior to pregnancy. Such strategies may necessitate targeting younger audiences, including teenagers.

  1. Clinical Trial of Tailored Activity and Eating Newsletters with Older Rural Women

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Susan Noble; Pullen, Carol H.; Boeckner, Linda; Hageman, Patricia A.; Hertzog, Melody; Oberdorfer, Maureen K.; Rutledge, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Unhealthy diet and lack of physical activity increase rural midlife and older women’s risk for chronic diseases and premature death, and they are behind urban residents in meeting Healthy People 2010 objectives. Objectives To compare a tailored intervention based on the Health Promotion Model (HPM) and a generic intervention to increase physical activity and healthy eating among rural women. Methods In a randomized by site community-based controlled clinical trial, Wellness for Women, 225 women aged 50 to 69 years were recruited in two similar rural areas. Over 12 months, women received by mail either 18 generic newsletters or 18 newsletters computer-tailored on HPM behavior-specific cognitions (benefits, barriers, self-efficacy, and interpersonal support), activity, and eating. Outcomes at 6 and 12 months included behavioral markers and biomarkers of physical activity and eating. Data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA and χ2 tests (α < .05). Results Both groups significantly increased stretching and strengthening exercise and fruit and vegetable servings and decreased % calories from fat, while only the tailored group increased ≥ moderate intensity activity and decreased % calories from saturated fat from baseline to 6 months. Both groups increased stretching and strengthening exercise, while only the tailored group increased ≥ moderate activity and fruit and vegetable servings and decreased % calories from fat from baseline to 12 months. Both groups had several changes in biomarkers over the study. A higher proportion of women receiving tailored newsletters met Healthy People 2010 criteria for ≥ moderate activity, fruit and vegetable servings, and % calories from fat at 12 months. Discussion Mailed computer-tailored and generic print newsletters facilitated the adoption of change in both activity and eating over 6 months. Tailored newsletters were more efficacious in facilitating change over 12 months. PMID:19289928

  2. Gender and Women Development Initiatives in Bangladesh: A Study of Rural Mother Center.

    PubMed

    Karim, K M Rabiul; Emmelin, Maria; Lindberg, Line; Wamala, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Women-focused development initiatives have become a controversial issue connected with women's health and welfare. Previous studies indicated that development initiatives might increase women's workload, family conflict, and marital violence. This study explored the gendered characteristics of a development initiative Rural Mother Center in Bangladesh. Data incorporated policy document and interviews of social workers working with the mother centers in two northwest subdistricts. The qualitative content analysis of data emerged a general theme of expanding women's responsibility while maintaining male privilege explaining gendered design and practice of the development initiative. The theme was supported by two gendered categories related to the design: (a) essentializing women's participation; (b) maintaining traditional gender, and four categories related to the practice; (c) inadequate gender knowledge and skills; (d) reinforcing traditional gender; (e) using women for improving office performance; and (f) upholding male privilege. The study suggests that though women-focused development initiatives need to be embraced with gender-redistributive policies, the social workers should be trained for attaining gender-transformative motivation and competencies. PMID:27149647

  3. Diffusion of the culture of contraception: program effects on young women in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Mita, R; Simmons, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes a process of diffusion of family planning information, ideas, and technology among an unanticipated audience of young, unmarried women in rural Bangladesh. The data are derived from a focus-group study conducted in 1987-88 in the Maternal Child Health and Family Planning Project in Matlab, Bangladesh. A discussion with a staff member revealed her vivid memory of the arrival of the community-based family planning worker in her village 10 years earlier, before she was married. Based on this research lead, four focus-group sessions were held with newly married young women, and a set of questions about young women were incorporated into the sessions with other community women. The discussions showed that many young, unmarried women learn about family planning from an early age from the community-based family planning worker, from female relatives, peers, and the media. The findings of this exploratory study suggest that greater attention be paid to the contraceptive needs of young women and that continued research be conducted with this population of women. PMID:7785063

  4. Gender and Women Development Initiatives in Bangladesh: A Study of Rural Mother Center.

    PubMed

    Karim, K M Rabiul; Emmelin, Maria; Lindberg, Line; Wamala, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Women-focused development initiatives have become a controversial issue connected with women's health and welfare. Previous studies indicated that development initiatives might increase women's workload, family conflict, and marital violence. This study explored the gendered characteristics of a development initiative Rural Mother Center in Bangladesh. Data incorporated policy document and interviews of social workers working with the mother centers in two northwest subdistricts. The qualitative content analysis of data emerged a general theme of expanding women's responsibility while maintaining male privilege explaining gendered design and practice of the development initiative. The theme was supported by two gendered categories related to the design: (a) essentializing women's participation; (b) maintaining traditional gender, and four categories related to the practice; (c) inadequate gender knowledge and skills; (d) reinforcing traditional gender; (e) using women for improving office performance; and (f) upholding male privilege. The study suggests that though women-focused development initiatives need to be embraced with gender-redistributive policies, the social workers should be trained for attaining gender-transformative motivation and competencies.

  5. Unrecognized sexually transmitted infections in rural South African women: a hidden epidemic.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, D.; Abdool Karim, S. S.; Harrison, A.; Lurie, M.; Colvin, M.; Connolly, C.; Sturm, A. W.

    1999-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are of major public health concern in developing countries, not least because they facilitate transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The present article presents estimates of the prevalence, on any given day, of STIs among women in rural South Africa and the proportion who are asymptomatic, symptomatic but not seeking care, and symptomatic and seeking care. The following data sources from Hlabisa district were used: clinical surveillance for STI syndromes treated in health facilities, microbiological studies among women attending antenatal and family planning clinics, and a community survey. Population census provided denominator data. Adequacy of drug treatment was determined through quality of care surveys. Of 55,974 women aged 15-49 years, a total of 13,943 (24.9%) were infected on any given day with at least one of Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, or Treponema pallidum. Of the women investigated, 6697 (48%) were asymptomatic, 6994 (50%) were symptomatic but not seeking care, 238 (1.7%) were symptomatic and would seek care, and 14 (0.3%) were seeking care on that day. Only 9 of the 14 women (65%) were adequately treated. STIs remained untreated because either women were asymptomatic or the symptoms were not recognized and acted upon. Improved case management alone is therefore unlikely to have a major public health impact. Improving partner treatment and women's awareness of symptoms is essential, while the potential of mass STI treatment needs to be explored. PMID:10063657

  6. Why are rural Indian women so thin? Findings from a village in Maharashtra

    PubMed Central

    Chorghade, GP; Barker, M; Kanade, S; Fall, CHD

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify social, behavioural and cultural factors that explain the thinness of young women relative to their men in rural Maharashtra, India. Design: Twelve focus group discussions were conducted to explore the villagers' understanding of why women in their area might be thinner than men. Setting: Pabal village and surrounding hamlets, in the Pune district of Maharashtra, India. Subjects: Samples of young mothers and fathers, grandmothers and grandfathers were selected from families in the village with children below 10 years of age. Results: Four factors were identified that the villagers felt contributed to the disparity in thinness. First, marriage isolated girls from their own families and villages, and brought the expectation of early motherhood. Young brides were often unable to relax and eat adequately. Second, marriage increased the workload of young women. They were expected to do the heaviest household chores as well as farm work in this predominantly agricultural community. Third, women had no financial autonomy or freedom of movement, and were therefore denied access to supplementary food sources available to men. Fourth, young women felt responsible for their household's health and success. They were encouraged to fast regularly to ensure this. Despite feeling responsible, young women had no control over factors that might affect the household's well being. This made them anxious and worried a great deal of the time. Conclusions: Interventions to improve the nutritional status of young women in this region need to recognise the roles and responsibilities taken up by young brides. PMID:16480528

  7. Partner age-disparity and HIV incidence risk for older women in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Harling, Guy; Newell, Marie-Louise; Tanser, Frank; Bärnighausen, Till

    2014-01-01

    While sexual partner age disparity is frequently considered as a potential risk factor for HIV amongst young women in Africa, no research has addressed this question amongst older women. Our aim was thus to determine whether sex partner age disparity was associated with subsequent HIV acquisition in women aged over 30. Methods To achieve this aim we conducted a quantitative analysis of a population-based, open cohort of women in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (n=1,737) using Cox proportional hazards models. Results As partner age rose, HIV acquisition risk fell significantly: compared to a same-aged partner, a five-year older partner was associated with a one-third reduction (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.63, 95%CI: 0.52–0.76) and a ten-year older partner with a one-half reduction (HR: 0.48, 95%CI: 0.35–0.67). This result was neither confounded nor effect-modified by women’s age or socio-demographic factors. Conclusions These findings suggest that existing HIV risk-reduction campaigns warning young women about partnering with older men may be inappropriate for older women. HIV prevention strategies interventions specifically tailored to older women are needed. PMID:25670473

  8. Diffusion of the culture of contraception: program effects on young women in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Mita, R; Simmons, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes a process of diffusion of family planning information, ideas, and technology among an unanticipated audience of young, unmarried women in rural Bangladesh. The data are derived from a focus-group study conducted in 1987-88 in the Maternal Child Health and Family Planning Project in Matlab, Bangladesh. A discussion with a staff member revealed her vivid memory of the arrival of the community-based family planning worker in her village 10 years earlier, before she was married. Based on this research lead, four focus-group sessions were held with newly married young women, and a set of questions about young women were incorporated into the sessions with other community women. The discussions showed that many young, unmarried women learn about family planning from an early age from the community-based family planning worker, from female relatives, peers, and the media. The findings of this exploratory study suggest that greater attention be paid to the contraceptive needs of young women and that continued research be conducted with this population of women.

  9. Factors associated with pregnant women's anticipations and experiences of HIV-related stigma in rural Kenya.

    PubMed

    Cuca, Yvette P; Onono, Maricianah; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Turan, Janet M

    2012-01-01

    Pregnant women who fear or experience HIV-related stigma may not get care for their own health or medications to reduce perinatal transmission of HIV. This study examined factors associated with anticipating and experiencing HIV-related stigma among 1777 pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics in rural Kenya. Women were interviewed at baseline, offered HIV testing and care, and a sub-set was re-interviewed at 4-8 weeks postpartum. Women who were older, had less education, whose husbands had other wives, and who perceived community discrimination against people with HIV had significantly greater adjusted odds of anticipating HIV stigma. Over half of the HIV-positive women interviewed postpartum reported having experienced stigma, much of which was self-stigma. Women experiencing minor depression, and those whose family knew of their HIV status had significantly greater adjusted odds of experiencing stigma. Lack of women's empowerment, as well as depression, may be important risk factors for HIV-related stigma and discrimination. PMID:22799618

  10. Prevalence of joint pain is higher among women in rural Japan than urban Japanese-American women in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Aoyagi, K.; Ross, P.; Huang, C.; Wasnich, R.; Hayashi, T.; Takemoto, T.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Environmental factors such as farming contribute to the frequency of joint symptoms. The purpose of this study is to explore the possible role of environment (lifestyle), by comparing the prevalence of joint pain between Japanese in a rural farming district in Japan and in urban Hawaii.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS—Current or previous pain at specific joints was surveyed among 222 women in rural Japan and 638 Japanese women in urban Hawaii aged 60-79. The age adjusted prevalence was compared using logistic regression.
RESULTS—The prevalence of pain at one or more joints was approximately 70% in Japan and 50% in Hawaii. The prevalence of knee pain in Japan ranged from 36% at ages 60-69 years to 53% at 70-79 years (mean 41%), whereas knee pain affected only 20% of women in Hawaii in both age groups. The odds ratio (and 95% CI) was 3.2 (2.1, 4.8) for knee pain, and 4.0 (2.2, 7.4) for mid-back pain in Japan, compared with Hawaii. Pain was also significantly more common in Japan at the shoulder, elbow, and ankle, but not at other joints. Women in Japan were shorter and weighed less than in Hawaii. Adjustment for body mass index increased the odds ratios to 4.4 (2.9, 6.8) for knee, and 4.5 (2.4, 8.5) for mid-back pain.
CONCLUSION—Although the potential influence of cultural factors or other sources of bias cannot be ruled out, the large differences in the prevalence of pain at specific joints suggest that environmental factors are probably responsible, because both populations are of similar genetic stock.

 PMID:10225818

  11. Online prevention of postpartum depression for Spanish- and English-speaking pregnant women: A pilot randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, Alinne Z.; Wickham, Robert E.; Muñoz, Ricardo F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Postpartum depression (PPD) is a maternal mental health problem that affects women from all regions of the world. Unfortunately, even in developed countries, half of the cases go undetected and, consequently, untreated. Individuals from low and middle income countries trend toward underutilization of mental health services, partly due to the limited number of available psychological resources. The primary aims of this pilot randomized controlled trial were to adapt to the Internet the Mothers and Babies Course/Curso Mamás y Bebés, a prevention of PPD intervention, to describe the characteristics of the pregnant women who engaged in the intervention site, and to obtain preliminary data on the efficacy of the Internet intervention to reduce the risk of PPD. Methods Pregnant women, 18 years or older who were interested in using the site for themselves were recruited and randomly assigned to a fully-automated self-help Internet intervention or to an information-only control condition. Randomized participants were invited to complete monthly depression assessments up to six months postpartum. To examine the prevention effects of the Internet intervention, pregnant women who did not meet current criteria for a major depressive episode, who engaged with the study website, and who provided depression data during the postpartum follow-up period were included in the study analyses. Results Participants were 111 predominantly Spanish-speaking (82.9%) and Latino/Hispanic (71.3%) pregnant women residing in 23 countries worldwide. The effect of the prevention intervention condition failed to reach significance at the a priori alpha-level. However, the observed coefficient trended in the hypothesized direction (b = −0.514, χ2 (1) = 3.43, p = .061; HR = 0.598). The benefits of receiving the e-MB Internet intervention was greater for pregnant women reporting high (vs. low) levels of prenatal depression symptoms (b = −0.605, χ2 (1) = 5.20, p =.023). Conclusions

  12. Family Planning Practice Among Rural Reproductive-Age Married Women in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Jirapongsuwan, Ann; Latt, Kyaw Thu; Siri, Sukhontha; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai

    2016-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken to investigate family planning (FP) practices and associated factors among reproductive-age married women. Data were collected by interviewing the 300 married women living in a rural area of Myanmar. The questionnaire had reliability coefficients ranging from .8 to .9. Results indicated that 73.3% of women performed FP, and contraceptive injection was the most common method. Significant associations were found with age 21 to 35 years (adjusted odds ratio [adj OR] = 3.748, 95% CI = 2.179-6.445), adequacy of income (adj OR = 2.520, 95% CI = 1.477-4.290), good attitude toward FP (adj OR = 0.386, 95% CI = 0.228-0.656), good support from health care providers (adj OR = 0.129, 95% CI = 0.054-0.313), good support from family (adj OR = 0.304, 95% CI = 0.163-0.565), good support from friends (adj OR = 0.344, 95% CI = 0.193-0.613), and FP practice. It is recommended that designing FP programs with peers and family involvement could increase the practice of FP among rural Myanmar women. PMID:27122625

  13. Web-based Treatment for Rural Women with Alcohol Problems: Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol abuse among women in rural areas is a concern, particularly since treatment is not readily accessible, and women are highly susceptible to the ill affects of alcohol misuse. The Internet may offer a treatment delivery alternative for women who cannot easily take part in gender-focused programs that are located in urban centers. The purpose of this randomized study was to evaluate a 90-day web-based treatment program for women in rural areas of Missouri with problem drinking habits. The online treatment program consisted of reference and decision-making modules, synchronous and asynchronous communication features, and the option to interact privately with the researcher. Preliminary findings relating to participant demographics, website use, and satisfaction are reported in this article. The enrolled participants (n = 46) averaged 50 (SD = 11) years of age, were relatively well educated and, to a large extent, financially secure. Based on their website usage, participants appeared to prefer reading communiqués over actively posting messages to the asynchronous bulletin board. In general, participants indicated satisfaction with the program, and 83% noted that they would recommend it to a friend. PMID:19901570

  14. Web Based Treatment of Alcohol Problems Among Rural Women: Results of a Randomized Pilot Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah; Madsen, Richard

    2008-01-01

    It is estimated that six million women in the United States misuse alcohol. Of that number, many live in rural areas and face numerous barriers to treatment. The world wide web has the potential to overcome these barriers. In light of emergent findings supporting the effectiveness of online alcohol treatment services for women, a randomized pilot study was conducted to evaluate a web based self-guided alcohol treatment program. Eligible women were randomized to standard care or an online treatment program. Web based treatment components included gender-specific reference modules and decision-making modules, an asynchronous bulletin board, and a synchronous chat feature. The average age of the participants (N = 44) was 50 (SD = 11), and their baseline AUDIT score was 18 (SD = 6), with 8 being the cutoff for problem drinking. At 3-month follow-up, both treatment groups decreased their drinking, however, there were no significant differences between them. PMID:18823000

  15. The influence of power on HIV risk among pregnant women in rural Haiti.

    PubMed

    Kershaw, Trace S; Small, Maria; Joseph, Gabriel; Theodore, Melanie; Bateau, Reginald; Frederic, Rikerdy

    2006-05-01

    Given that condom use is not directly under a woman's control, the sexual division of power may play an important role in sexual behavior among pregnant women. We assessed the influence of factors related to the theory of gender and power (e.g., relationship power, abuse history, and sexual communication) on sexual behavior (e.g., two or more partners in the year prior to pregnancy, condom use, condom-use intentions, and STI diagnosis) among 196 pregnant women recruited from five community dispensaries in rural Haiti. Results showed that gender and power factors significantly related to sexual behavior. Gender and power factors were most significant for condom use and intention to use condoms, accounting for 18 and 25% of the variance above and beyond HIV knowledge and demographic covariates, respectively. These results suggest the need to create prevention interventions that restore power imbalances, provide support for women suffering abuse, and strengthen communication skills.

  16. Spirituality and health: perceptions of older women in a rural senior high rise.

    PubMed

    Knestrick, Joyce; Lohri-Posey, Brenda

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the essence of spirituality and health in older women living in a rural senior high-rise apartment building. The researchers used a phenomenological research design and interviewed 10 women 65 years of age and older. Data analysis using Colaizzi's (1978) method for analysis revealed three themes-health is functional and provides a sense of wholeness; the relationship with God or a higher power is a personal one; and death is a part of life. The three themes create an essential structure, which influences the way the participants live. These findings provide information for nurses on the spiritual needs of older women and how the experiences of living in a high rise affect spirituality and health. PMID:16262090

  17. Protective Parenting, Relationship Power Equity, and Condom Use Among Rural African American Emerging Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Steven M.; Simons, Leslie G.; Chen, Yifu; Burwell, Stephanie; Brody, Gene H.

    2012-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections disproportionately affect African Americans, particularly young women. The influence of a set of interrelated protective parenting processes—instrumental and emotional support, sexual risk communication, and encouragement of goals for employment or education—on emerging adult women was examined. Parenting was hypothesized to affect consistent condom use through its association with women’s reports of power equity in their intimate relationships. Hypotheses were tested with 135 sexually active women 18 to 21 years of age living in rural southern communities. Structural equation modeling indicated that (a) parenting processes predicted women’s self-reported relationship power equity and consistent condom use, and (b) relationship power equity predicted consistent condom use. Limited support emerged for a mediational role of relationship power equity in explaining the influence of parenting on consistent condom use. Parental involvement and young women’s establishment of personal control in their intimate relationships are important goals for sexual risk reduction programs. PMID:23729949

  18. Mapping Rural Women's Perspectives on Nonformal Education Experiences. APS Conceptual Mapping Project Research Report. Occasional Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Zebun N.

    A study explored how rural women in the village of Srefultoli, Bangladesh describe, from their own point of view, their experiences with nonformal education (NFE). Feminist research has shown that existing NFE programs in developing countries give women traditional knowledge of family planning, nutrition, and health care, but they do not deal with…

  19. Poverty and Gender Perspective in Productive Projects for Rural Women in Mexico: Impact Evaluation of a Pilot Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urquieta-Salomon, Jose E.; Tepichin-Valle, Ana Maria; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of a pilot study that promoted productive and capacity-building activities among deprived rural women of Mexico. The evaluation design is observational; 1,278 women are interviewed, and the comparison group is estimated by propensity score matching. The results show a positive impact on the…

  20. Identifying Structural Changes from Within: Emancipatory Narratives Exploring Community Constraints to Women's Education and Empowerment in Rural India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baily, Supriya

    2015-01-01

    Using a critical theory framework, the article explores emancipatory narratives obtained through a case study of women in rural India. In-depth interviews, focus group conversations, observations, and document analysis highlight the complexity of the subsequent set of challenges facing women as it relates to both the education and empowerment for…

  1. How Multiple Roles Influence Adult College Women's Online Student Experiences in a Rural Community College Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetzel, Lisa C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how adult college women attending rural community colleges experience being an online student. A study of this nature was warranted as enrollment in online courses continues to increase (Allen & Seaman, 2010) and as women are more likely to enroll in online courses (Kramarae, 2001; van…

  2. Association between Education and Domestic Violence among Women Being Offered an HIV Test in Urban and Rural Areas in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abuya, Benta A.; Onsomu, Elijah O.; Moore, DaKysha; Piper, Crystal N.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between education and domestic violence among women being offered an HIV test in urban and rural areas in Kenya. A sample selection of women who experienced physical (n = 4,308), sexual (n = 4,309), and emotional violence (n = 4,312) aged 15 to 49 allowed for the estimation of the…

  3. The Experience of HIV/AIDS among Rural Women in the Northwestern United States: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mphande-Finn, Joyce T.; Sommers-Flanagan, John

    2007-01-01

    The unique experience of HIV/AIDS among rural women in the United States was explored using qualitative interviews with 7 women who are HIV positive. Based on these interviews, eight themes emerged. These included (a) daily powerful emotions, (b) emotional and physical abandonment, (c) romantic betrayal, (d) medical treatment issues, (e) loss and…

  4. Seroepidemiology of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Pregnant Women in Rural Durango, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme

    2013-01-01

    The seroepidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in pregnant women in Durango, Mexico is largely unknown. The prevalence of anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies was examined in 343 pregnant women living in rural areas in 7 municipalities in Durango State, Mexico, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). A correlation of H. pylori seropositivity with socio-demographic, obstetric and behavioral characteristics of pregnant women was also assessed. In total, 179 (52.2%) of the 343 pregnant women (mean age, 24.2 ± 5.9 years) had H. pylori IgG antibodies, 75 (41.9%) of whom had H. pylori IgG antibody levels higher than 100 U/mL. The seroprevalence of H. pylori infection varied from 33.3% to 65% among municipalities. In contrast, the seroprevalence was comparable among women regardless their age, educational level, occupation, socioeconomic status, animal contacts, foreign travel, eating habits, contact with soil, crowding, sanitary conditions at home and educational level of the head of their families. Multivariant analysis of socio-demographic and behavioral variables showed that H. pylori seropositivity was associated with municipality (OR=1.12; 95% CI: 1.01–1.24; P=0.02). Of the obstetric characteristics, the seroprevalence of H. pylori infection increased significantly with the number of pregnancies and deliveries but not with the number of cesarean sections or miscarriages. Rural pregnant women in Durango had a lower seroprevalence of H. pylori infection than those from populations in developing countries. Results support a variability of H. pylori seroprevalence within a region. Further research at a municipal level might help to understand the epidemiology of H. pylori infection. PMID:24711758

  5. Hut lung: a domestically acquired pneumoconiosis of mixed aetiology in rural women.

    PubMed Central

    Grobbelaar, J P; Bateman, E D

    1991-01-01

    A form of pneumoconiosis in rural African women termed "Transkei silicosis" has been thought to be due to silica particles inhaled while they are hand grinding maize between rocks. Twenty five women were studied who were considered to have this condition according to the following criteria: rural domicile, radiographic and lung biopsy evidence of pneumoconiosis, no exposure to mining or industry and no evidence of active tuberculosis. They were assessed for radiological, pathological, physiological and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid features. Potential aetiological factors were assessed by determining levels of exposure to respirable quartz and non-quartz containing dusts and smoke in rural dwellings during maize grinding and cooking. Most of the women were symptomless. Radiological findings ranged from a miliary pattern to extensive fibrosis resembling progressive massive fibrosis. Histological features included simple "anthracosis" in 12, anthracosis with macules in six, and mixed dust fibrosis in seven. Cell numbers and their proportions in lavage fluid were normal. More than 60% of macrophages were heavily laden with inorganic inclusions. Respirable quartz concentrations and calculated cumulative time weighted exposures were below those recommended for industry during grinding with sandstone (100% quartz) and they were even lower during grinding with dolerite containing no quartz despite the presence of an appreciable amount of quartz in the ground maize. Total respirable dust and smoke concentrations were greater than the recommended safe levels. Three women had no exposure to maize grinding. It is concluded that the inhalation of non-quartz containing dust and smoke from biomass fuelled fires is more important in the aetiology of this condition than exposure to quartz dust. The term "hut lung" may be more appropriate. Images PMID:2068688

  6. Transactional sex among young women in rural South Africa: prevalence, mediators and association with HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Meghna; Heise, Lori; Pettifor, Audrey; Silverwood, Richard J; Selin, Amanda; MacPhail, Catherine; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Kahn, Kathleen; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Hughes, James P; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Watts, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Young adolescent women in sub-Saharan Africa are three to four times more likely to be HIV-positive than boys or men. One of the relationship dynamics that is likely to be associated with young women's increased vulnerability to HIV is transactional sex. There are a range of HIV-related risk behaviours that may drive this vulnerability. However, to date, limited epidemiological data exist on the role of transactional sex in increasing HIV acquisition, especially among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. Our paper presents data on the prevalence of self-reported engagement in transactional sex and explores whether transactional sex is associated with increased risk of HIV infection among a cohort of young, rural, sexually active South African women. We also explore whether this relationship is mediated through certain HIV-related risk behaviours. Methods We analyzed baseline data from a phase III trial of conditional cash transfers for HIV prevention of 693 sexually active, school-going young women aged 13–20 years in rural South Africa. We examined the association between young women's engagement in transactional sex and HIV infection. Transactional sex is defined as a non-commercial, non-marital sexual relationship whereby sex is exchanged for money and/or gifts. We explored whether this relationship is mediated by certain HIV-related risk behaviours. We used logistic and multinomial regression and report unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios with 95% CI. Results Overall, 14% (n=97) of sexually active young women reported engaging in transactional sex. Engagement in transactional sex was associated with an increased risk of being HIV-positive (aOR: 2.5, CI: 95% 1.19–5.25, p=0.01). The effect size of this association remained nearly unchanged when adjusted for certain other dimensions of HIV risk that might help explain the underlying pathways for this relationship. Conclusions This study provides quantitative support demonstrating that transactional

  7. Between affiliation and autonomy: navigating pathways of women's empowerment and gender justice in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Kabeer, Naila

    2011-01-01

    Inasmuch as women's subordinate status is a product of the patriarchal structures of constraint that prevail in specific contexts, pathways of women's empowerment are likely to be "path dependent." They will be shaped by women's struggles to act on the constraints that prevail in their societies, as much by what they seek to defend as by what they seek to change. The universal value that many feminists claim for individual autonomy may not therefore have the same purchase in all contexts. This article examines processes of empowerment as they play out in the lives of women associated with social mobilization organizations in the specific context of rural Bangladesh. It draws on their narratives to explore the collective strategies through which these organizations sought to empower the women and how they in turn drew on their newly established "communities of practice" to navigate their own pathways to wider social change. It concludes that while the value attached to social affiliations by the women in the study is clearly a product of the societies in which they have grown up, it may be no more context-specific than the apparently universal value attached to individual autonomy by many feminists. PMID:21898946

  8. The silent HIV epidemic among pregnant women within rural Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Yahya-Malima, Khadija I; Olsen, Bjørg E; Matee, Mecky I; Fylkesnes, Knut

    2006-01-01

    Background Many national antenatal clinics (ANC) based HIV surveillance systems in sub-Saharan Africa have limited coverage of remote rural sites, a weakness that compromises adequate estimation, monitoring and development of effective preventive and care programmes. To address this void in rural Manyara and Singida within Northern Tanzania, we conducted antenatal clinic-based sentinel surveillance. Methods We consecutively enrolled 1377 counselled and consenting pregnant women attending ANC clinics for the first time during the current pregnancy. The study was conducted in six antenatal clinics, within three divisions of rural Manyara and Singida regions in 2003/2004. Interviews were conducted and blood samples for routine purposes were collected and tested for anti-HIV IgG antibody anonymously, using Bionor HIV-1 & 2 assay ®. Results Among enrolees, 94% (1296/1377) participated fully. The overall prevalence of HIV was 2.0% (95%CI: 1.34–2.97). The highest HIV prevalence was among women aged between 15–19 years in both rural and remote rural populations. The odds of HIV infection was 4.3 (95%CI: 1.42–12.77) times among women reporting more than one lifetime sexual partners compared with those with one partner. HIV infection was associated with history of genital sores or foul smelling discharge, OR 6.8 (95%CI: 2.78–16.66) and age at first pregnancy (2.5 times higher likelihood of infection if before the age of 18 years versus at a later age). Conclusion Including rural remote sites, as part of the national ANC routine surveillance, is crucial in order to discover imminent silent epidemics such as the one described in this paper. Scaling up HIV prevention efforts is mandatory to prevent the imminent escalation of the HIV epidemic highly associated with a history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), multiple sexual partners and pregnancies at a younger age. Ignorance of relevant knowledge and low utilisation of condoms underscores the urgency for large

  9. Food, eating and body image in the lives of low socioeconomic status rural Mexican women living in Queretaro State, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Kimoto, Riko; Ronquillo, Dolores; Caamaño, Maria C; Martinez, Guadalupe; Schubert, Lisa; Rosado, Jorge L; Garcia, Olga; Long, Kurt Z

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative research using semi-structured interviews and key informant interviews were used to explore how women from low socioeconomic rural households in Queretaro State, Mexico perceived and reacted to their obesogenic environment. Reduced availability of healthy food options and household financial constraints along with reduced agency of women in this setting were factors that limited women's ability to access and consume diets consistent with the promotion of good health. The cultural values that emphasised obesity as a desirable state for women and the women's social networks that promoted these values were also identified as playing a role in reinforcing certain behaviours. Public health advocates wanting to design interventions in such settings need to be sensitive to the cultural as well as the environmental context described for rural Mexican women.

  10. Food, eating and body image in the lives of low socioeconomic status rural Mexican women living in Queretaro State, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Kimoto, Riko; Ronquillo, Dolores; Caamaño, Maria C; Martinez, Guadalupe; Schubert, Lisa; Rosado, Jorge L; Garcia, Olga; Long, Kurt Z

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative research using semi-structured interviews and key informant interviews were used to explore how women from low socioeconomic rural households in Queretaro State, Mexico perceived and reacted to their obesogenic environment. Reduced availability of healthy food options and household financial constraints along with reduced agency of women in this setting were factors that limited women's ability to access and consume diets consistent with the promotion of good health. The cultural values that emphasised obesity as a desirable state for women and the women's social networks that promoted these values were also identified as playing a role in reinforcing certain behaviours. Public health advocates wanting to design interventions in such settings need to be sensitive to the cultural as well as the environmental context described for rural Mexican women. PMID:24216027

  11. Acceptability of Hypothetical Microbicides among Women in Sex Establishments in Rural Areas in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Liao, Su-Su; Weeks, Margaret R.; Jiang, Jing-Mei; Abbott, Maryann; Zhou, Yue-Jiao; He, Bin; Liu, Wei; Mosack, Katie E.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives and Goal The objectives of this study were to measure the potential acceptability of a hypothetical microbicide among women in sex establishments in rural areas of Southern China, and demographic, behavioral and social context factors likely to affect microbicide acceptability. Study Design This was a cross-sectional survey, using a quota sampling, among 300 women from sex establishments in three rural towns. An interviewer-administered standardized questionnaire was used to measure the acceptability score of hypothetical microbicides’ characteristics, as well as sexual relationships and behaviors, and other contextual factors. Results Findings showed a generally positive response to microbicides, indicated by an acceptability index score of 2.89 (SD, 0.56, scale of 1–4) in the overall sample. Multivariate analysis shows the acceptability score varied significantly by study sites, type of sex-work establishments, marital status, sex partner type, vaginal product experience, locus of control by partners and locus of control by chance. Conclusions Microbicides may be acceptable among sex workers in rural settings in China; however, contextual factors should be carefully considered in education and promotion of microbicides in the future. PMID:17767093

  12. Women Living with HIV in Rural Areas. Implementing a Response using the HIV and AIDS Risk Assessment and Reduction Model

    PubMed Central

    Bandali, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The global fight against HIV is progressing; however, women living in rural areas particularly in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) continue to face the devastating consequences of HIV and AIDS. Lack of knowledge and geographical barriers to HIV services are compounded by gender norms often limiting the negotiation of safe sexual practices among women living in rural areas. This paper discusses findings from a qualitative study conducted in rural areas of Mozambique examining factors that influenced women to engage in HIV risk-reduction practices. The findings from this study led to the emergence of an HIV and AIDS risk assessment and reduction (HARAR) model, which is described in detail. The model helps in understanding gender-related factors influencing men and women to engage in risk-reduction practices, which can be used as a framework in other settings to design more nuanced and contextual policies and programs. PMID:25089093

  13. Prevalence and Determinants of Metabolic Syndrome among Women in Chinese Rural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guangfei; Yang, Zili; Liu, Ming; Mi, Yaoping; Liu, Weisheng; Wang, Hongjun; Qian, Derong

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Metabolic syndrome (MS) is prevalent in recent years but few data is reported in the rural areas in China. The aim of this study was to examine MS prevalence and its risk factors among women in rural China. Methods and Results The Nantong Metabolic Syndrome Study (NMSS), a population based cross-sectional study, was conducted during 2007–2008 in Nantong, China. In person interviews, blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 13,505 female participants aged 18–74 years. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF), the US Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program, the Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII) and modified ATPIII for Asian population has determined three criteria of MS. These criteria for MS were used and compared in this study. The prevalence of MS was 22.0%, 16.9% and 23.3% according to IDF, ATPIII and ATPIII-modified criteria, respectively. Levels of agreement of these criteria for MS were above 0.75. We found that vigorous-intensity of occupational physical activity was associated with a low prevalence of MS with OR of 0.76 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63–0.91). Rice wine drinkers (alcohol >12.8 g/day) had about 34% low risks of developing MS with OR of 0.66 (95% CI: 0.48–0.91), compared with non-drinkers. Odds ratio of MS was 1.81 (95% CI: 1.15–2.84) in women who smoked more than 20 pack-years, compared to non-smokers. Odds ratio of MS was 1.56 (95% CI: 1.25–1.95) in women who had familial history of diseases, including hypertension, diabetes and stroke, compared to women without familial history of those diseases. Conclusion MS is highly prevalent among women in rural China. Both physical activity and rice wine consumption play a protective role, while family history and smoking are risk factors in MS development. Educational programs should be established for promoting healthy lifestyles and appropriate interventions in rural China. PMID:22590636

  14. An exploratory study of mental health and HIV risk behavior among drug-using rural women in jail

    PubMed Central

    Staton-Tindall, Michele; Harp, Kathi LH; Minieri, Alexandra; Oser, Carrie; Webster, J. Matthew; Havens, Jennifer; Leukefeld, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Objective Rural women, particularly those involved in the criminal justice system, are at risk for HIV due to the increasing prevalence of injection drug use, as well as limited services. Research on HIV risk correlates, including drug use and mental health, has primarily focused on urban women incarcerated in prisons. The purpose of this exploratory study is to examine dual HIV risk behavior by three different mental health problems (depression, anxiety, and PTSD) among drug-using women in rural jails. Methods This study involved random selection, screening, and face-to-face interviews with 136 women from rural jails in one Appalachian state. Analyses focused on the relationship between mental health and HIV risk among this sample of drug-using women. Findings Nearly 80% of women self-reported symptoms of depression, and more than 60% endorsed symptoms consistent with anxiety and PTSD symptoms. Mental health was significantly correlated with severity of certain types of drug use, as well as risky sexual activity. In addition, for women experiencing anxiety and PTSD, injection drug use moderated the relationship between mental health and risky sexual activity. Implications Based on these rates of drug use, mental health problems, and the emergence of injection drug use in rural Appalachia, the need to explore the relationships between these issues among vulnerable and understudied populations, such as rural women, is critical. Due to service limitations in rural communities, criminal justice venues such as jails provide opportune settings for screening, assessment, and intervention for drug use, mental health, and HIV education and prevention. PMID:25799305

  15. Challenges experienced by rural women in India living with AIDS and implications for the delivery of HIV/AIDS care.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline M; Sinha, Sanjeev; Ganguly, Kalyan K; William, Ravi Raj; Heravian, Anisa; Ramakrishnan, Padma; Greengold, Barbara; Ekstrand, Maria; Rao, Pantangi Venkata Rama

    2011-04-01

    Researchers explored the barriers to AIDS care for rural women living with AIDS, and they investigated alternative delivery models to increase the women's adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Community-based participatory research focus groups were conducted by the researchers with a convenience sample of 39 women living with AIDS from a primary health center (PHC) near Chennai, India, and with nurses, physicians, and Accredited Social Health Activists (Ashas), who are lay health care workers. The most prevalent barriers expressed by the women were sickness-related, psychological, financial issues with childcare, and distance, or transportation to the site. Women living with AIDS reviewed Ashas favorably.

  16. Application of a gender-based approach to conducting a community health assessment for rural women in Southern Illinois.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Kristine; Khare, Manorama M; Wright, Cherie; Hasler, Allison; Kerch, Sarah; Moehring, Patricia; Geller, Stacie

    2015-08-01

    Rural populations in the United States experience unique challenges in health and health care. The health of rural women, in particular, is influenced by their knowledge, work and family commitments, as well as environmental barriers in their communities. In rural southern Illinois, the seven southernmost counties form a region that experiences high rates of cancer and other chronic diseases. To identify, understand, and prioritize the health needs of women living in these seven counties, a comprehensive gender-based community health assessment was conducted with the goal of developing a plan to improve women's health in the region. A gender-analysis framework was adapted, and key stakeholder interviews and focus groups with community women were conducted and analyzed to identify factors affecting ill health. The gender-based analysis revealed that women play a critical role in the health of their families and their communities, and these roles can influence their personal health. The gender-based analysis also identified several gender-specific barriers and facilitators that affect women's health and their ability to engage in healthy behaviors. These results have important implications for the development of programs and policies to improve health among rural women. PMID:25534314

  17. Application of a gender-based approach to conducting a community health assessment for rural women in Southern Illinois.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Kristine; Khare, Manorama M; Wright, Cherie; Hasler, Allison; Kerch, Sarah; Moehring, Patricia; Geller, Stacie

    2015-08-01

    Rural populations in the United States experience unique challenges in health and health care. The health of rural women, in particular, is influenced by their knowledge, work and family commitments, as well as environmental barriers in their communities. In rural southern Illinois, the seven southernmost counties form a region that experiences high rates of cancer and other chronic diseases. To identify, understand, and prioritize the health needs of women living in these seven counties, a comprehensive gender-based community health assessment was conducted with the goal of developing a plan to improve women's health in the region. A gender-analysis framework was adapted, and key stakeholder interviews and focus groups with community women were conducted and analyzed to identify factors affecting ill health. The gender-based analysis revealed that women play a critical role in the health of their families and their communities, and these roles can influence their personal health. The gender-based analysis also identified several gender-specific barriers and facilitators that affect women's health and their ability to engage in healthy behaviors. These results have important implications for the development of programs and policies to improve health among rural women.

  18. Rural Ugandan women and the technological race to the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Tumwine, I W

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses the needs in developing countries for simple and inexpensive technological devices to improve communications and transportation and to reduce time and energy spent on housework. Manufacturers in the developed world continue to export expensive technological products that ignore the lack of access to electricity among a large consumer population. Individuals and organizations can help developing country women by engaging in conversations with their counterparts and determining the nature and extent of assistance that is needed. Products, such as old computers, spare parts, and computer books, can be donated to organizations, such as the YWCA, which provide training to girls and women. Industry can produce and market technologically appropriate implements and appliances. Individuals and women's groups can lobby industrialists and manufacturers for initiatives that improve living conditions for millions in developing countries. Groups can mobilize financial resources for local and international projects. Partnerships can be formed between cities, local universities, nonprofit organizations, individual school classes, or individuals. Governments need to ensure that the educational system is producing skilled workers and to modify imported technologies for local development. In the race to the 21st century, there is a need for deliberate social action to make technology accessible to women, men, and children in remote rural communities in developing countries. The gain for women in developing countries would be substantially reduced time and energy expended in daily chores. In developing countries, most of the agricultural and domestic work is carried out by women. These women are not even at the starting gate, while women in developed countries are way ahead in the race for modernization and technological development.

  19. A qualitative exploration of engagement among rural women entering substance user treatment.

    PubMed

    Godlaski, Theodore M; Butler, Lynn; Heron, Missy; Debord, Sherry; Cauvin, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    A semistructured interview was administered to a purposive sample of 12 rural women early in substance misuser treatment in a gender specific, intensive outpatient treatment program from March 2001 through March 2003. The interview used open-ended questions about the women's state of mind before entering treatment, the experiences that helped them feel more comfortable with treatment, the experiences that caused them some discomfort in treatment, and any changes they would recommend to the program content or process in an attempt to gain understanding about factors that might facilitate a subjective comfort and engagement with the treatment experience. In approaching treatment, the women almost uniformly expressed a mixture of anxiety about the requirements of treatment and cynicism about its effectiveness. Although aware of the content and structure of the treatment program, the women focused on interpersonal experiences as the critical factors in their level of comfort once in treatment. The most frequently mentioned factors adding to comfort with the treatment experience were the welcoming, accepting, and non-judgmental attitudes of the staff; having their perceptions of their problems taken seriously by the treatment staff; being with other women who shared much of their experiences; and a respectful and generally positive attitude on the part of both the staff and the patients. The only factor that consistently caused some of the women discomfort in treatment was a difficulty in trusting that some of the other women in treatment would keep the matters discussed in group sessions confidential. The women were not completely satisfied with the program content and structure, but this seemed of very little importance to them in relation to their experience of comfort with their treatment experience.

  20. The life experience and status of Chinese rural women from observation of three age groups.

    PubMed

    Dai, K

    1991-03-01

    Interview data gathered during 2 surveys in Anhui and Shejiang Provinces in 1986 and 1987 are used to depict changes in the social status and life situation of rural women in China in 3 age groups, 18-36, 37-55, and 56 and over. For the younger women, marriage increasingly is a result of discussion with parents, not arrangement, but 3rd-party introductions are increasing. They are active in household and township enterprises and aspire to more education and economic independence. The middle-aged group experienced war and revolution and now work nonstop under the responsibility system of household production, aspiring to university education for sons and enterprise work for daughters. The older women, while supported by their sons, live a frugal existence. In general, preference for sons is still prevalent and deep-seated. At the same time, the bride price and costs of marriage are increasing and of widespread concern. Rural socioeconomic growth is required before Confucian traditions are overcome. PMID:12179888

  1. [The Incidence of Biomedical Advances in Women. Some Reflections on the Spanish Legislation].

    PubMed

    Díaz de Terán, Maricruz

    2015-01-01

    This article will examine how and to what extent advances in biomedical sciences have played a role in transforming the status of women. It will highlight the positive aspects of these transformations but it will also examine the issues which are currently debated and which, in my opinion, require calm and considered reflection. PMID:26378603

  2. Reproductive tract infections in rural women from the highlands, jungle, and coastal regions of Peru.

    PubMed Central

    García, Patricia J.; Chavez, Susana; Feringa, Barbara; Chiappe, Marina; Li, Weili; Jansen, Kathrin U.; Cárcamo, César; Holmes, King K.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define the prevalences and manifestations of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) in rural Peruvian women. METHODS: During 1997-98, we visited 18 rural districts in coastal, highlands, and jungle regions of Peru. We administered standardized questionnaires and pelvic examinations to members of women's community-based organizations; and collected vaginal fluid for pH, amine odour, Gram stain, microscopy, and culture for Trichomonas vaginalis; cervical specimens for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae; human papilloma virus (HPV) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, and blood for syphilis serology. FINDINGS: The 754 participants averaged 36.9 years of age and 1.7 sex partners ever; 77% reported symptoms indicative of RTIs; 51% and 26% reported their symptoms spontaneously or only with specific questioning, respectively. Symptoms reported spontaneously included abnormal vaginal discharge (29.3% and 22.9%, respectively). One or more RTIs, found in 70.4% of participants, included bacterial vaginosis (43.7%), trichomoniasis (16.5%), vulvovaginal candidiasis (4.5%), chlamydial infection (6.8%), gonorrhoea (1.2%), syphilis seropositivity (1.7%), cervical HPV infection (4.9%), and genital warts or ulcers (2.8%). Of 715 adequate Pap smears, 7 revealed cancer, 4 high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (SIL) and 15 low-grade SIL. Clinical algorithms had very low sensitivity and predictive values for cervical infection, but over half the women with symptoms of malodorous vaginal discharge, signs of abnormal vaginal discharge, or both, had bacterial vaginosis or trichomoniasis. CONCLUSION: Overall, 77% of women had symptoms indicative of RTIs, and 70% had objective evidence of one or more RTIs. Women with selected symptoms and signs of vaginal infection could benefit from standard metronidazole therapy. PMID:15508193

  3. Child-to-Mother, a Strategy Based on Children as Vectors of Taking Science and Technology to Rural Women. [and] Realities of Rural Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathak, Yogini

    The first brief paper advocates the position that school-attending older children be used to teach health, hygiene, nutrition, and crafts to adult women and to conduct neighborhood-based literacy classes in rural communities in India. It is argued that the number of 10- to 14-year-old adolescents available for such a project would be above 60…

  4. Facilitating HIV status disclosure for pregnant women and partners in rural Kenya: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Women’s ability to safely disclose their HIV-positive status to male partners is essential for uptake and continued use of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services. However, little is known about the acceptability of potential approaches for facilitating partner disclosure. To lay the groundwork for developing an intervention, we conducted formative qualitative research to elicit feedback on three approaches for safe HIV disclosure for pregnant women and male partners in rural Kenya. Methods This qualitative acceptability research included in-depth interviews with HIV-infected pregnant women (n = 20) and male partners of HIV-infected women (n = 20) as well as two focus groups with service providers (n = 16). The participants were recruited at health care facilities in two communities in rural Nyanza Province, Kenya, during the period June to November 2011. Data were managed in NVivo 9 and analyzed using a framework approach, drawing on grounded theory. Results We found that facilitating HIV disclosure is acceptable in this context, but that individual participants have varying expectations depending on their personal situation. Many participants displayed a strong preference for couples HIV counseling and testing (CHCT) with mutual disclosure facilitated by a trained health worker. Home-based approaches and programs in which pregnant women are asked to bring their partners to the healthcare facility were equally favored. Participants felt that home-based CHCT would be acceptable for this rural setting, but special attention must be paid to how this service is introduced in the community, training of the health workers who will conduct the home visits, and confidentiality. Conclusion Pregnant couples should be given different options for assistance with HIV disclosure. Home-based CHCT could serve as an acceptable method to assist women and men with safe disclosure of HIV status. These findings can inform the design and

  5. [Rural women. Public health workshop of the Centro de Investigaciones en Psicologia Social].

    PubMed

    Juarez Bartola, M; Garcia Ventura, H; De Jesus Leon, M J

    1993-04-01

    Mexico's peasant sector is undergoing great change as a result of the insertion of capitalist relations into areas that were previously remote. The traditional peasant subsistence economy has been displaced, and peasants have been forced to adopt a series of new strategies for survival, entailing proletarianization or selling of labor. Women in the community of San Nicolas Zoyapetlayoca, in the municipio of Tepeaca, have lived in a situation of poverty and precariousness for some time. Most of the population historically depended on the neighboring haciendas for their livelihood. Women and children also worked there, mistreated and without social protection. The lands that were distributed after the Revolution are insufficient to support the community, and most families must look elsewhere for employment. Incomes are insufficient to cover all the necessities of education, health, nutrition, and other aspects of life. Most women are educated no farther than the primary level. They spend most of their time preparing food, carrying water, washing clothes, caring for their children, and in other domestic chores. Some women work for wages as laborers, factory workers, or domestics. Rural women are disadvantaged by poor working conditions, insufficient education, low levels of health and nutrition, limited participation in social and political life, poor housing and lack of services, and frequently by their own attitudes of traditionalism or fatalism.

  6. Morbidity and nutrition status of rural drug-naïve Kenyan women living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Charlotte G; Nyandiko, Winstone; Siika, Abraham; Drorbaugh, Natalie; Samari, Goleen; Ettyang, Grace; Ernst, Judith A

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes morbidity in a group of HIV-positive drug-naïve rural women in western Kenya. A total of 226 drug-naïve HIV-positive women were evaluated for baseline morbidity, immune function, and anthropometry before a food-based nutrition intervention. Kenyan nurses visited women in their homes and conducted semi-structured interviews regarding symptoms and physical signs experienced at the time of the visit and during the previous week and physical inspection. Blood and urine samples were examined for determination of immune function (CD4, CD8, and total lymphocyte counts), anaemia, malaria, and pregnancy status. Intradermal skin testing with tuberculin (PPD), candida, and tetanus toxoid antigens was also performed to evaluate cell-mediated immunity. Anthropometry was measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Seventy-six per cent of the women reported being sick on the day of the interview or within the previous week. Illnesses considered serious were reported by 13.7% of women. The most frequent morbidity episodes reported were upper respiratory tract infections (13.3%), suspected malaria (5.85%), skeletal pain (4.87%), and stomach pain (4.42%). The most common morbidity signs on physical inspection were respiratory symptoms, most commonly rhinorrhea and coughing. Confirmed malaria and severe diarrhea were significantly associated with a higher BMI. PMID:27681152

  7. Smoking Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors Among Rural- to-Urban Migrant Women in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Karen; Ma, Shaojun; Qin, Dingxin; Xin, Guo; Xia, Wan; Novotny, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    Background China has the largest population of cigarette smokers worldwide; surveys suggest rising prevalence among young women. Migratory lifestyles may confer increased susceptibility. Objectives we aimed to understand how migration relates to smoking among young women. Methods we implemented a cross-sectional behavioral survey of rural-to-urban Chinese women (n = 206) working in restaurants and commercial sex venues, assessing smoking attitudes, behaviors, and health-risk knowledge. Results rates of ever smoking and current smoking among restaurant workers were high compared with the rates in general population surveys (16.1% and 6.5%, respectively); rates were much higher among sex workers (54.9% and 33.3%, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed education to be protective, whereas exposure to female-branded cigarettes was a risk for ever smoking. Conclusions Chinese migrant women appear to be smoking at higher rates than nonmigrant women. Priorities for future research include representative studies in multiple cities examining reasons for uptake and stimuli to quit. PMID:19443881

  8. What is a good life? Selecting capabilities to assess women's quality of life in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Greco, Giulia; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Mkandawire, Bryan; Mills, Anne

    2015-04-01

    There is growing interest in using Sen's Capability Approach to assess quality of life and to evaluate social policies. This paper describes the formative stages of developing a quality of life measure: the selection of the relevant capabilities. This measure is intended to provide a more comprehensive outcome measure for the evaluation of complex interventions such as Maimwana womens' groups, a community based participatory intervention to improve maternal health in rural Malawi. Fifteen focus group discussions with 129 women were conducted to explore relevant concepts of quality of life in rural Malawi. Data collection started in October 2009. Findings were elicited based on framework analysis. The findings portray a complex and highly nuanced perception that women in rural Malawi have of their life and wellbeing. Quality of life was described using a variety of dimensions that are highly interconnected. Quality of life emerges to be not only shaped by the realisation of basic material needs such as being sufficiently nourished and adequately sheltered, but is also highly dependent on complex feelings, relations and social norms. The full exposition of wellbeing with its domains was organised into a framework constituting six different spheres of wellbeing: physical strength, inner wellbeing, household wellbeing, community relations, economic security and happiness. Despite the list being developed in a specific context and for a specific group of people, the similarities with lists developed in other contexts, with different methods and for different purposes, are considerable. This suggests that there are a number of core aspects of wellbeing considered a minimum requirement for a life of human dignity, that should be included in any attempt to assess quality of life and human development across populations. PMID:25687242

  9. What is a good life? Selecting capabilities to assess women's quality of life in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Greco, Giulia; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Mkandawire, Bryan; Mills, Anne

    2015-04-01

    There is growing interest in using Sen's Capability Approach to assess quality of life and to evaluate social policies. This paper describes the formative stages of developing a quality of life measure: the selection of the relevant capabilities. This measure is intended to provide a more comprehensive outcome measure for the evaluation of complex interventions such as Maimwana womens' groups, a community based participatory intervention to improve maternal health in rural Malawi. Fifteen focus group discussions with 129 women were conducted to explore relevant concepts of quality of life in rural Malawi. Data collection started in October 2009. Findings were elicited based on framework analysis. The findings portray a complex and highly nuanced perception that women in rural Malawi have of their life and wellbeing. Quality of life was described using a variety of dimensions that are highly interconnected. Quality of life emerges to be not only shaped by the realisation of basic material needs such as being sufficiently nourished and adequately sheltered, but is also highly dependent on complex feelings, relations and social norms. The full exposition of wellbeing with its domains was organised into a framework constituting six different spheres of wellbeing: physical strength, inner wellbeing, household wellbeing, community relations, economic security and happiness. Despite the list being developed in a specific context and for a specific group of people, the similarities with lists developed in other contexts, with different methods and for different purposes, are considerable. This suggests that there are a number of core aspects of wellbeing considered a minimum requirement for a life of human dignity, that should be included in any attempt to assess quality of life and human development across populations.

  10. Effects of sun exposure on 25(OH) vitamin D concentration in urban and rural women in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nurbazlin, Musa; Chee, Winnie Siew Swee; Rokiah, Pendek; Tan, Alexander Tong Boon; Chew, Yee Yean; Nusaibah, Abd Rahman Siti; Chan, Siew Pheng

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet B sunlight exposure is a primary source of vitamin D. There have been reports of low vitamin D status amongst the Malaysian population despite it being a tropical country. This study was conducted to determine the influence of sun exposure on 25(OH)D concentrations in urban and rural women in Malaysia and factors predicting 25(OH)D concentrations. Women aged above 45 years were recruited from urban (n=107) and rural areas (n=293). Subjects were interviewed regarding their outdoor activities and usual outdoor attire over the previous week. 25(OH)D concentrations were analyzed using the vitamin D3 (25-OH) electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Median (Q1-Q3) age of the participants was 57 (53-61) years old. Median (Q1-Q3) 25(OH)D concentration of rural women was significantly higher [69.5 (59.0-79.1) nmol/L] compared to urban women [31.9 (26.1- 45.5) nmol/L] (p<0.001). Rural women spent more time in the sun compared to urban women (7.83 (3.67-14.7) vs 2.92 (1.17-4.92) hours, p<0.001), although the fraction of body surface area (BSA) exposed to sunlight was significantly higher in the urban group [0.21 (0.21-0.43) vs 0.12 (0.07-0.17), p<0.001]. The calculated sun index (hours of sun exposure per week × fraction of BSA) was significantly higher in rural [0.89 (0.42-1.83)] compared to urban women [0.72 (0.26-1.28)], p=0.018. In the stepwise linear regression, rural dwelling increased the serum 25(OH)D by 31.74 nmol/L and 25(OH)D concentrations increased by 1.93 nmol/L for every unit increment in sun index. Urban women in Malaysia had significantly lower vitamin D status compared to rural women. Rural dwelling and sun index were key factors influencing vitamin D status in Malaysian women.

  11. Ethics of care and HIV: a case for rural women in India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Chhanda

    2006-05-01

    Recent literature shows that ethics of care can be used as a theoretical basis to add a new, important dimension to social issues. This paper argues for a similar extension of the theoretical support from ethics of care to an area in bioethics. Specifically, it contends that a justification based ethics of care can be constructed to argue for a moral obligation to give some priority in the HIV-related initiatives to one of most vulnerable groups; namely, the rural women in India. In an epidemic situation this care-based approach has certain advantages as a moral justification over the usual traditional approaches. PMID:16594972

  12. ASHA-Life Intervention Perspectives Voiced by Rural Indian Women Living With AIDS.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Ekstrand, Maria; Srivastava, Neha; Carpenter, Catherine L; Salem, Benissa E; Al-Harrasi, Shawana; Ramakrishnan, Padma; Sinha, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    In this focus group study, we explored the experiences of 16 rural women living with AIDS (WLA) who participated in the Asha-Life (AL) intervention to gain an understanding of the environmental, psychosocial, and cultural impact of the AL on their lives. Four themes emerged among AL participants: (a) the importance of tangible support, (b) need for social support, (c) ongoing challenges to accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART), and (d) perspectives on future programs. Our research findings support the development of future programs targeting mother-child dyads which emphasize nutritional knowledge, while reducing barriers to receiving ART, and physical, emotional, and financial support. PMID:26147930

  13. ASHA-Life Intervention Perspectives Voiced by Rural Indian Women Living With AIDS.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Ekstrand, Maria; Srivastava, Neha; Carpenter, Catherine L; Salem, Benissa E; Al-Harrasi, Shawana; Ramakrishnan, Padma; Sinha, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    In this focus group study, we explored the experiences of 16 rural women living with AIDS (WLA) who participated in the Asha-Life (AL) intervention to gain an understanding of the environmental, psychosocial, and cultural impact of the AL on their lives. Four themes emerged among AL participants: (a) the importance of tangible support, (b) need for social support, (c) ongoing challenges to accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART), and (d) perspectives on future programs. Our research findings support the development of future programs targeting mother-child dyads which emphasize nutritional knowledge, while reducing barriers to receiving ART, and physical, emotional, and financial support.

  14. Levels of DDT residues in human milk of Venezuelan women from various rural populations.

    PubMed

    Brunetto, R; León, A; Burguera, J L; Burguera, M

    1996-07-30

    The levels of DDT residues were studied in 145 breast milk samples 25 days postpartum from women living in various rural populations where DDT has been used in farming activities and to interrupt malaria transmission. All participants showed quantifiable milk levels of DDT residues in the range from 5.1 to 68.3 micrograms/l and their levels significantly increased (P < 0.05) with maternal age. The determination of DDT residues (as DDE) in human milk was performed after a saponification process by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Confirmatory analysis was achieved using high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detection.

  15. When status hurts: dimensions of women's status and domestic abuse in rural Northern India.

    PubMed

    Mogford, Elizabeth

    2011-07-01

    This study is a multiple logistic regression analysis of the relationship between dimensions of women's status and domestic abuse in rural Uttar Pradesh, India, using the 1998-1999 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2). Findings indicate that the effects of a woman's status on her likelihood of experiencing abuse depend on the social realm within which status operates. Specifically, more "public" dimensions of status are associated with a greater probability of abuse, while "domestic" dimensions are protective. The findings are interpreted in terms of transitioning gender norms in Uttar Pradesh and provide clarity to the literature on the complex relationship between status and abuse. PMID:21705360

  16. ASHA-Life Intervention Perspectives Voiced By Rural Indian Women Living with AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Ekstrand, Maria; Srivastava, Neha; Carpenter, Catherine L.; Salem, Benissa E.; Al-Harassi, Shawana; Ramakrishnan, Padma; Sinha, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    In this focus group study, we explored the experiences of 16 rural women living with AIDS (WLA) who participated in the Asha-Life (AL) intervention to gain an understanding of the environmental, psychosocial and cultural impact of the AL on their lives. Four themes emerged among AL participants: a) The Importance of Tangible Support, b) Need for Social Support, c) Ongoing Challenges to Accessing Antiretroviral Therapy (ART), and d) Perspectives on Future Programs. Our research findings support the development of future programs targeting mother-child dyads which emphasize nutritional knowledge, while reducing barriers to receiving ART, and physical, emotional, and financial support. PMID:26147930

  17. Women's participation in rural credit programmes in Bangladesh and their demand for formal health care: is there a positive impact?

    PubMed

    Nanda, P

    1999-08-01

    Within the overall aim of poverty alleviation, development efforts have included credit and self-employment programmes. In Bangladesh, the major beneficiaries of such group-based credit programmes are rural women who use the loans to initiate small informal income-generating activities. This paper explores the benefits of women's participation in credit programmes on their own health seeking. Using data from a sample of 1798 households from rural Bangladesh, conducted in 1991-1992 through repeated random sampling of 87 districts covered by Grameen Bank, Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) and Bangladesh Rural Development Board (BRDB), this paper addresses the question: does women's participation in credit programmes significantly affect their use of formal health care? A non-unitary household preference model is suggested to test the hypothesis that women's empowerment through participation in these programmes results in greater control of resources for their own demand for formal health care. The analysis controls for endogeneity due to self-selection and other unobserved village level factors through the use of a weighted two stage instrumental variable approach with village level fixed effects. The findings indicate a positive impact of women's participation in credit programmes on their demand for formal health care. The policy simulations on the results of this study highlight the importance of credit programmes as a health intervention in addition to being a mechanism for women's economic empowerment.

  18. HIV incidence among non-pregnant women living in selected rural, semi-rural and urban areas in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ramjee, Gita; Wand, Handan; Whitaker, Claire; McCormack, Sheena; Padian, Nancy; Kelly, Cliff; Nunn, Andrew

    2012-10-01

    The province of KwaZulu-Natal has the highest prevalence of HIV in South Africa, particularly among young women. In order to more closely examine the HIV prevalence and incidence in non-pregnant women from rural, semi-rural and urban areas, data from 5,753 women screened for enrolment into three HIV prevention studies were combined and analysed. The prevalence of HIV infection was 43% at screening. HIV incidence among the 2,523 enrolled HIV-negative women was determined every quarter, and sexual behaviour and socio-demographic data were collected as per respective protocols. During follow-up, 211 women seroconverted (6.6/100 women years). Multivariate analysis found that seroconversion rates were highest among women who were ≤24 years old, single and not cohabiting, and who had incident sexually transmitted infections. The epidemic in KwaZulu-Natal calls for targeted HIV prevention interventions among those at highest risk of acquiring or transmitting infection. PMID:21947836

  19. Men's role in women's antenatal health status: evidence from rural Rajshahi, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mosiur; Islam, Mohammad Touhidul; Mostofa, Md Golam; Reza, Md Shahin

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to extend notions of men's role in women's antenatal care (ANC) status in rural Rajshahi, Bangladesh. The analyses were based on response of 480 men aged 15 to 54 years, living with at least 1 child younger than 3 years. Only 27% men accompanied their wives for ANC. Men's perception of actual roles for ANC services was low: 63% approved of women undergoing checkups; 33% discussed their wives' pregnancy with health professionals. Only 18% scored highly on the overall index of knowledge. From multivariate analysis, it was found that the number of men accompanying their wives for ANC was higher among those respondents who were married for the first time in the age-group 25 to 34 years and aged 35 years or more, had their last child at age-group 20 to 24 years or 25 to 34 years, had completed primary or secondary and higher education, and had mass media facilities.

  20. Dietary Intake and Food Habits of Pregnant Women Residing in Urban and Rural Areas of Deyang City, Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Haoyue; Stiller, Caroline K.; Scherbaum, Veronika; Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Wang, Qi; Hormann, Elizabeth; Bellows, Anne C.

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies and imbalanced dietary intake tend to occur during the reproductive period among women in China. In accordance with traditional Chinese culture, pregnant women are commonly advised to follow a specific set of dietary precautions. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake data and identify risk factors for nutritional inadequacy in pregnant women from urban and rural areas of Deyang region, Sichuan province of China. Cross-sectional sampling was applied in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics (randomly selected) in Deyang region. Between July and October 2010, a total of 203 pregnant women in the third trimester, aged 19–42 years, were recruited on the basis of informed consent during antenatal clinic sessions. Semi-structured interviews on background information and 24-h dietary recalls were conducted. On the basis of self-reported height and pre-pregnancy weight, 68.7% of the women had a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) within the normal range (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25), 26.3% were found to be underweight with a BMI <18.5 (20.8% in urban vs. 35.6% in rural areas), while only 5.1% were overweight with a BMI ≥30. In view of acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs) the women’s overall dietary energy originated excessively from fat (39%), was low in carbohydrates (49.6%), and reached the lower limits for protein (12.1%). Compared to rural areas, women living in urban areas had significantly higher reference nutrient intake (RNI) fulfillment levels for energy (106.1% vs. 93.4%), fat (146.6% vs. 119.7%), protein (86.9% vs. 71.6%), vitamin A (94.3% vs. 65.2%), Zn (70.9% vs. 61.8%), Fe (56.3% vs. 48%), Ca (55.1% vs. 41%) and riboflavin (74.7% vs. 60%). The likelihood of pregnant women following traditional food recommendations, such as avoiding rabbit meat, beef and lamb, was higher in rural (80%) than in urban (65.1%) areas. In conclusion, culturally sensitive nutrition education sessions are necessary for both

  1. Enhanced care by community health workers in improving treatment adherence to antidepressant medication in rural women with major depression

    PubMed Central

    Pradeep, Johnson; Isaacs, Anton; Shanbag, Deepthi; Selvan, Sumithra; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Depression remains largely undiagnosed in women residing in rural India and consequently many do not seek help. Moreover, among those who are diagnosed, many do not complete treatment due to high rates of attrition. This study was aimed to compare the effectiveness of enhanced care with usual care in improving treatment seeking and adherence to antidepressant medication in women with depression living in rural India. Methods: Six villages from rural Bangalore were randomized to either community health worker supported enhanced care or usual care. A total of 260 adult depressed women formed the final participants for the analysis. The outcome measures were number of women who sought and completed treatment, number of clinic visits, duration of treatment with antidepressant, changes in severity of depression (HDRS) and changes in quality of life [WHO-QOL (Brev) scale]. Results: A significantly greater number of women from the treatment intervention (TI) group completed the treatment and were on treatment for a longer duration compared to the treatment as usual (TAU) group. However, there were no significant differences in the severity of depression or quality of life between the TI and the TAU groups or between treatment completers and treatment dropouts at six months. Interpretation & conclusions: Enhanced care provided by the trained community health workers to rural women with major depression living in the community resulted in greater number of women seeking help and adhering to treatment with antidepressants. However, despite enhanced care a significant number of rural women diagnosed with depression either did not seek help or discontinued treatment prematurely. These findings have significant public health implications, as untreated depression is associated with considerable disability. PMID:24718398

  2. Factors Related to Intention to Undergo Female Sterilization Among Married Women in Rural Kathmandu, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Nanthamongkolchai, Sutham; Pitikultang, Supachai

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sterilization is most widely used fertility regulation method in Nepal. However, prevalence of uptake of female sterilization in central hilly region is less than the national average. The objective of the study was to explore the number and factors related to intention of married women to undergo female sterilization in rural Kathmandu which lies within central hilly region. Materials and Methods: This is a community based cross-sectional survey research conducted in rural area of Kathmandu valley. Two hundred and forty currently married women with at least one child of any age were interviewed using a structured pre-tested questionnaire. Results: More than four-fifth of the respondents intended to undergo sterilization. Almost two-third of them wanted to limit their family size by taking this option. More than one-third of women not-intending to undergo sterilization feared weakness after sterilization. Age of the respondents, duration of marriage, and number of living children were significantly associated with intention to undergo sterilization. 15-24 years age group were six times more likely to have the intention for sterilization (OR 6.79, CI 2.28-20.19) compared to age 35 years and above group. Mothers with less than 3 living children are about three times more likely to have the intention to undergo sterilization (OR 2.87, CI 1.3-6.33) compared to women with more than 2 living children. Women married for 6 to 10 years were three times more likely to have the intention (OR 3.0, CI 1.09-8.27). However, gender of the living children was not associated with intention to undergo sterilization. Conclusion: There were significant numbers of women intending to undergo sterilization. Age of the mother, number of living children and the duration of marriage were found to be significantly influencing the intention to undergo sterilization. However, as intention refers to future plan, the respondents’ intention may change over time. The national family

  3. Misreporting of dietary intake affects estimated nutrient intakes in low-income Spanish-speaking women.

    PubMed

    Banna, Jinan C; Fialkowski, Marie K; Townsend, Marilyn S

    2015-07-01

    Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on nutrient intake estimates in a sample of Mexican-American women in northern California in 2008. Nutrient intakes are compared with Dietary Reference Intake recommendations, and intakes of Mexican-American women in a national survey are presented as a reference. Eighty-two women provided three 24-hour recalls. Reported energy intakes were classified as biologically plausible or implausible using the reported energy intakes to total energy expenditure cutoff of <0.76 or >1.24, with low-active physical activity levels used to estimate total energy expenditure. Differences in the means of nutrient intakes between implausible (n=36) and plausible (n=46) reporters of energy intake were examined by bivariate linear regression. Estimated energy, protein, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and vitamin E intakes were significantly higher in plausible reporters than implausible. There was a significant difference between the proportions of plausible vs implausible reporters meeting recommendations for several nutrients, with a larger proportion of plausible reporters meeting recommendations. Further research related to misreporting in Hispanic populations is warranted to explore the causes and effects of misreporting in studies measuring dietary intake, as well as actions to be taken to prevent or account for this issue.

  4. Case–control study of risk factors for infectious mastitis in Spanish breastfeeding women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify potential predisposing factors associated with human infectious mastitis. Methods We conducted a case–control study among breastfeeding women, with 368 cases (women with mastitis) and 148 controls. Data were collected by a questionnaire designed to obtain retrospective information about several factors related to medical history of mother and infant, different aspects of pregnancy, delivery and postpartum, and breastfeeding practices that could be involved in mastitis. Bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression model were used to examine the relationship between mastitis and these factors. Results The variables significantly- and independently-associated with mastitis were cracked nipples (P < 0.0001), oral antibiotics during breastfeeding (P < 0.0001), breast pumps (P < 0.0001), topical antifungal medication during breastfeeding (P = 0.0009), mastitis in previous lactations (P = 0.0014), breast milk coming in later than 24 h postpartum (P = 0.0016), history of mastitis in the family (P = 0.0028), mother-infant separation longer than 24 h (P = 0.0027), cream on nipples (P = 0.0228) and throat infection (P = 0.0224). Conclusions Valuable factors related to an increased risk of infectious mastitis have been identified. This knowledge will allow practitioners to provide appropriate management advice about modifiable risk factors, such as the use of pumps or inappropriate medication. They also could identify before delivery those women at an increased risk of developing mastitis, such as those having a familial history of mastitis, and thus develop strategies to prevent this condition. PMID:24902596

  5. Misreporting of Dietary Intake Affects Estimated Nutrient Intakes in Low-Income Spanish-Speaking Women

    PubMed Central

    Banna, Jinan C.; Fialkowski, Marie K.; Townsend, Marilyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on nutrient intake estimates in a sample of Mexican-American women in northern California in 2008. Nutrient intakes are compared with Dietary Reference Intake recommendations, and intakes of Mexican-American women in a national survey are presented as a reference. Eighty-two women provided three 24-hour recalls. Reported energy intakes were classified as biologically plausible or implausible using the reported energy intakes to total energy expenditure cutoff of <0.76 or >1.24, with low-active physical activity levels used to estimate total energy expenditure. Differences in the means of nutrient intakes between implausible (n=36) and plausible (n=46) reporters of energy intake were examined by bivariate linear regression. Estimated energy, protein, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and vitamin E intakes were significantly higher in plausible reporters than implausible. There was a significant difference between the proportions of plausible vs implausible reporters meeting recommendations for several nutrients, with a larger proportion of plausible reporters meeting recommendations. Further research related to misreporting in Hispanic populations is warranted to explore the causes and effects of misreporting in studies measuring dietary intake, as well as actions to be taken to prevent or account for this issue. PMID:25132121

  6. Sexual relationship power and malnutrition among HIV-positive women in rural Uganda.

    PubMed

    Siedner, Mark J; Tsai, Alexander C; Dworkin, Shari; Mukiibi, Nozmo F B; Emenyonu, Nneka I; Hunt, Peter W; Haberer, Jessica E; Martin, Jeffrey N; Bangsberg, David R; Weiser, Sheri D

    2012-08-01

    Inequality within partner relationships is associated with HIV acquisition and gender violence, but little is known about more pervasive effects on women's health. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of associations between sexual relationship power and nutritional status among women in Uganda. Participants completed questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. We assessed sexual relationship power using the Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS). We performed logistic regression to test for associations between sexual relationship power and poor nutritional status including body mass index, body fat percentage, and mid-upper arm circumference. Women with higher sexual relationship power scores had decreased odds of low body mass index (OR 0.29, p = 0.01), low body fat percentage (OR 0.54, p = 0.04), and low mid-upper arm circumference (OR 0.22, p = 0.01). These relationships persisted in multivariable models adjusted for potential confounders. Targeted interventions to improve intimate partner relationship equality should be explored to improve health status among women living with HIV in rural Africa.

  7. The prevalence and determinants of sexual violence against young married women by husbands in rural Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sexual violence within marriage is a public health and human rights issue; yet it remains a much neglected research area, especially in Nepal. This paper represents one of the first attempts to quantify the extent of sexual violence and its determinants among young married women in Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1,296 married women aged 15–24 years in four major ethnic groups in rural Nepal. The survey data were used to estimate the prevalence and identify determinants of sexual violence. The relative importance of different correlates of sexual violence in the past 12 months at the individual, household and community levels were examined by using a multi-level multivariate statistical approach. Results Of the young women surveyed 46% had experienced sexual violence at some point and 31% had experienced sexual violence in the past 12 months. Women’s autonomy was found to be particularly protective against sexual violence both at the individual and community level. Women’s educational level was not found to be protective, while the educational level of the husband was found to be highly protective. Conclusions The high prevalence of sexual violence against young women by husbands found in this study is a matter for serious concern and underscores the need for a comprehensive response by policymakers. PMID:22695085

  8. Perceived exercise barriers and their associations with regular exercise across three age groups of rural women in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing-Juin; Lin, Huey-Shyan; Lee, Bih-O; Chen, Ching-Huey

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to explore the differences in perceived exercise barriers across three age groups of Taiwanese rural women (30-50, 51-70, and >70 years old) and to examine the associations between perceived exercise barriers and regular exercise behavior. A total of 227 women completed the Self-Reported Exercise Behavior and the Perceived Exercise Barrier Scale. Women older than 70 reported higher physical and psychological barriers and lower administrative barriers than did the younger group. Women who did not exercise regularly tended to have a higher perception of exercise barriers.

  9. Factors influencing the utilization of postpartum visits among rural women in China.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yuan-xi; Xiong, Ju-yang; Tian, Miao-miao; Yuan, Fang; Feng, Zhan-chun

    2014-12-01

    Postpartum visits (PPVs) are still underutilized in rural China, and identification of factors that influence PPV use is important in ensuring the utilization of maternal health services and for wellbeing of women. A cross-section study was undertaken to collect related data from 347 rural women interviewed six weeks or more after delivery, and an ANOVA was performed to find whether there were significant differences in the number of PPVs among different rural areas in China. According to Andersen's socio-behavioral model of health service use, factors were divided into equitable and inequitable ones. Chi-squared test, univariate and multiple analyses were used to determine the equity of PPV use by identifying factors that were most strongly associated with the use of a PPV. The results showed that 20.2% of the respondents (n=70) did not receive any PPVs, and 62.5% (n=173) of those who had PPVs (n=277) did not receive standard PPVs (referring to at least 3 visits). There was no significant difference among different rural areas in terms of the number of PPVs (F=1.514, P=0.211). Multiple regression analyses revealed that enabling factors such as compensation for delivery expense [OR (95% CI)=2.825 (1.331, 5.995)], village type [OR (95% CI)=1.802 (1.021, 3.182)] and service quality [OR (95% CI)=1.847 (1.074, 3.176)] were strongly associated with PPV use. Both enabling factors such as home visits [OR (95% CI)=1.855 (1.085, 3.174)], service quality [OR (95% CI)=1.993 (1.155, 3.439)] and need factors such as low birth weight [OR (95% CI)=4.424 (1.482, 13.203)] were significantly associated with standard PPV use. Our results suggested that the equitable access to PPVs has been considerably improved in rural areas in China. The associations between inequitable factors and PPV use warrant further exploration, and policies aimed at improving quality and patterns of service supply are needed in order to ensure a full equitable access to maternal health services.

  10. A Community Health Advisor Program to reduce cardiovascular risk among rural African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Cornell, C. E.; Littleton, M. A.; Greene, P. G.; Pulley, L.; Brownstein, J. N.; Sanderson, B. K.; Stalker, V. G.; Matson-Koffman, D.; Struempler, B.; Raczynski, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The Uniontown, Alabama Community Health Project trained and facilitated Community Health Advisors (CHAs) in conducting a theory-based intervention designed to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among rural African-American women. The multiphased project included formative evaluation and community organization, CHA recruitment and training, community intervention and maintenance. Formative data collected to develop the training, intervention and evaluation methods and materials indicated the need for programs to increase knowledge, skills and resources for changing behaviors that increase the risk of CVD. CHAs worked in partnership with staff to develop, implement, evaluate and maintain strategies to reduce risk for CVD in women and to influence city officials, business owners and community coalitions to facilitate project activities. Process data documented sustained increases in social capital and community capacity to address health-related issues, as well as improvements in the community’s physical infrastructure. This project is unique in that it documents that a comprehensive CHA-based intervention for CVD can facilitate wide-reaching changes in capacity to address health issues in a rural community that include improvements in community infrastructure and are sustained beyond the scope of the originally funded intervention. PMID:19047648

  11. A Community Health Advisor Program to reduce cardiovascular risk among rural African-American women.

    PubMed

    Cornell, C E; Littleton, M A; Greene, P G; Pulley, L; Brownstein, J N; Sanderson, B K; Stalker, V G; Matson-Koffman, D; Struempler, B; Raczynski, J M

    2009-08-01

    The Uniontown, Alabama Community Health Project trained and facilitated Community Health Advisors (CHAs) in conducting a theory-based intervention designed to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among rural African-American women. The multiphased project included formative evaluation and community organization, CHA recruitment and training, community intervention and maintenance. Formative data collected to develop the training, intervention and evaluation methods and materials indicated the need for programs to increase knowledge, skills and resources for changing behaviors that increase the risk of CVD. CHAs worked in partnership with staff to develop, implement, evaluate and maintain strategies to reduce risk for CVD in women and to influence city officials, business owners and community coalitions to facilitate project activities. Process data documented sustained increases in social capital and community capacity to address health-related issues, as well as improvements in the community's physical infrastructure. This project is unique in that it documents that a comprehensive CHA-based intervention for CVD can facilitate wide-reaching changes in capacity to address health issues in a rural community that include improvements in community infrastructure and are sustained beyond the scope of the originally funded intervention. PMID:19047648

  12. Perceived discrimination and smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women in China.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sanghyuk S; Wan, Xia; Wang, Qian; Raymond, H Fisher; Liu, Huilin; Ding, Ding; Yang, Gonghuan; Novotny, Thomas E

    2013-02-01

    Smoking may be a coping mechanism for psychosocial stress caused by discrimination. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of rural-to-urban migrant women working as restaurant/hotel workers (RHWs) and those working as sex workers (FSWs) in 10 Chinese cities to investigate whether perceived discrimination is associated with smoking. We interviewed RHWs at medical examination clinics and FSWs at entertainment venues. Modified Poisson regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios. Of the 1,696 RHWs and 532 FSWs enrolled, 155 (9.1%) and 63 (11.8%) reported perceived discrimination, respectively. Perceived discrimination was independently associated with ever tried smoking (prevalence ratio [PR], 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-2.23) and current smoking (PR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.32-4.79) among RHWs and ever tried smoking (PR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.16-1.61) and current smoking (PR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.28-2.06) among FSWs. Perceived discrimination is associated with higher prevalence of smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women in China. PMID:22389186

  13. Utility of Microbiological Profile of Symptomatic Vaginal Discharge in Rural Women of Reproductive Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jaya; Gupta, Sweta

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Symptomatic vaginal discharge is the most frequent symptom in women of reproductive age group. Owing to social stigma majority of affected women hesitate to seek medical consultation. Therefore the actual incidence of vaginal discharge is much more than what is reported. The aim of the study is to determine the microbiological profile of symptomatic vaginal discharge in rural area and its utility in the management of genital tract infection. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive type of observational study, conducted in sexually active women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) attending the OPD/IPD of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department of National Institute of Medical Sciences, Shobhanagar, Jaipur (Rajasthan), over a period of 18 months from June 2012 to December 2013. Hundred sexually active non pregnant women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) were included in the study. After taking consent general physical examination along with pelvic examination was performed. Two high vaginal swabs and blood sample were collected for various tests. Hanging drop preparation was immediately made. This was followed by gram staining and culture. Chlamydia trachomatis IgM antibody was detected by ELISA method. Results: Out of 100 women with symptomatic vaginal discharge, specific diagnosis was obtained in 89% of cases whereas no specific aetiology was found in 11% cases. Mean age was 32.60 years. Fifty-three percent patient had Bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis was found in 14% cases, 16% had Chlamydia trachomatis infection while Trichomonas vaginalis infection was detected in 6% cases. Homogenous discharge was most prevalent (52%), followed by mucopurulant discharge in 23% of women. Conclusion: Patient with symptomatic vaginal discharge need to be actively managed with appropriate antimicrobial agents. Judicious management may be helpful in prevention of HIV, HPV, CIN and post infection sequelae. PMID:25954668

  14. Effects of Woodsmoke Exposure on Airway Inflammation in Rural Guatemalan Women

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Chandreyi; Diaz, Anaite; Pope, Daniel; Smith, Kirk R.; Smith-Sivertsen, Tone; Bruce, Nigel; Solomon, Colin; McCracken, John; Balmes, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Background More than two-fifths of the world’s population uses solid fuels, mostly biomass, for cooking. The resulting biomass smoke exposure is a major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among women in developing countries. Objective To assess whether lower woodsmoke exposure from use of a stove with a chimney, compared to open fires, is associated with lower markers of airway inflammation in young women. Design We carried out a cross-sectional analysis on a sub-cohort of participants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial in rural Guatemala, RESPIRE. Participants We recruited 45 indigenous women at the end of the 18-month trial; 19 women who had been using the chimney stove for 18–24 months and 26 women still using open fires. Measurements We obtained spirometry and induced sputum for cell counts, gene expression of IL-8, TNF-α, MMP-9 and 12, and protein concentrations of IL-8, myeloperoxidase and fibronectin. Exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) and 48-hr personal CO tubes were measured to assess smoke exposure. Results MMP-9 gene expression was significantly lower in women using chimney stoves. Higher exhaled CO concentrations were significantly associated with higher gene expression of IL-8, TNF-α, and MMP-9. Higher 48-hr personal CO concentrations were associated with higher gene expression of IL-8, TNF- α, MMP-9 and MMP-12; reaching statistical significance for MMP-9 and MMP-12. Conclusions Compared to using an open wood fire for cooking, use of a chimney stove was associated with lower gene expression of MMP-9, a potential mediator of airway remodeling. Among all participants, indoor biomass smoke exposure was associated with higher gene expression of multiple mediators of airway inflammation and remodeling; these mechanisms may explain some of the observed association between prolonged biomass smoke exposure and COPD. PMID:24625755

  15. Women's perceptions of antenatal, delivery, and postpartum services in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mahiti, Gladys Reuben; Mkoka, Dickson Ally; Kiwara, Angwara Dennis; Mbekenga, Columba Kokusiima; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Goicolea, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal health care provision remains a major challenge in developing countries. There is agreement that the provision of quality clinical services is essential if high rates of maternal death are to be reduced. However, despite efforts to improve access to these services, a high number of women in Tanzania do not access them. The aim of this study is to explore women's views about the maternal health services (pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum period) that they received at health facilities in order to identify gaps in service provision that may lead to low-quality maternal care and increased risks associated with maternal morbidity and mortality in rural Tanzania. Design We gathered qualitative data from 15 focus group discussions with women attending a health facility after child birth and transcribed it verbatim. Qualitative content analysis was used for analysis. Results ‘Three categories emerged that reflected women's perceptions of maternal health care services: “mothers perceive that maternal health services are beneficial,” “barriers to accessing maternal health services” such as availability and use of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and the long distances between some villages, and “ambivalence regarding the quality of maternal health services” reflecting that women had both positive and negative perceptions in relation to quality of health care services offered’. Conclusions Mothers perceived that maternal health care services are beneficial during pregnancy and delivery, but their awareness of postpartum complications and the role of medical services during that stage were poor. The study revealed an ambivalence regarding the perceived quality of health care services offered, partly due to shortages of material resources. Barriers to accessing maternal health care services, such as the cost of transport and the use of TBAs, were also shown. These findings call for improvement on the services provided. Improvements

  16. Obesity and Physical Function in Rural Women who enroll in a Lifestyle Modification Intervention for Reducing Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Hageman, Patricia A.; Pullen, Carol H.; Dizona, Paul; Schmidt, Kristin; Boeckner, Linda S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Rural women have high prevalence of obesity and prehypertension. Obesity, if associated with poor physical function, may have implications for applying activity guidelines for women volunteering for lifestyle modification. This study examined associations of body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat with measures of 1-mile walk time, post-walk perceived exertion, and 10-repetition chair stands in rural women ages 40-69. Methods Cross-sectional baseline data were collected using standardized methods from 289 rural women with prehypertension who volunteered for a lifestyle clinical trial for reducing blood pressure. ANOVAs and linear regression were used for analysis. Results With exception of the chair stands measure across categories of BMI, group differences were noted in all measures across categories of BMI and percent body fat, with women in the two highest categories demonstrating the poorest performance. These two body composition measures were significant predictors for 1-mile walk-time and 10-repetition chair stands, after controlling for confounding variables. Conclusions Poorer scores were observed in performance-based measures in women with higher BMI and percent body fat, though mean scores were above thresholds for functional limitation. Physical performance needs to be assessed and addressed by physical therapists when providing lifestyle interventions for overweight and obese women. PMID:25741228

  17. Alienation in Rural Women: A Longitudinal Cross-Lagged Analysis of its Association with Community and Family Involvement, Socioeconomic Status, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poresky, Robert H.; Atilano, Raymond B.

    1982-01-01

    58 rural Kansas women were interviewed when their children were three, six, or nine years old, and again two years later. Maternal alienation appeared to be primarily affected by socioeconomic status, community involvement, and maternal education. The validity of anomia as a social measure of rural women was also examined. (Author/SK)

  18. The harmony of family and the silence of women: sexual attitudes and practices among rural married women in northern Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Ha, Vu Song

    2008-06-01

    Women in Viet Nam have long had to face various sexual and reproductive health problems, ranging from abortion to reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and sexual coercion. These issues have increasingly been addressed by scholars in the fields of public health and social sciences through sexual and reproductive health research and in other ways. Despite this, there remains a lack of in-depth information on attitudes and practices regarding sex and sexuality of Vietnamese women today. This paper in part responds to the knowledge gap by reporting on findings from qualitative research on sexual attitudes and practices among rural married women in a Northern rural community, measured against the broader social and cultural context. Twenty-five women in total were interviewed; and two focus group discussions were conducted. The findings show that women generally believe that men are (or should be) the initiators in sexual relations. Many women feel reluctant to refuse sex to their husbands or communicate openly about sex and sexuality. However, this paper also demonstrates that women are not totally passive in sexual relations. Women in this study used a range of strategies to negotiate their sexual life, and sometimes 'silence' is used as a form of agency in order to maintain harmony and happiness within the family. PMID:18446561

  19. Postnatal care utilization and local understandings of contagion among HIV-infected and uninfected women in rural, southern Zambia.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Emma; Moss, William J; Winch, Peter J; Thuma, Philip; van Dijk, Janneke H; Mullany, Luke C

    2016-08-01

    Postnatal care is essential for ensuring the optimal health of newborns and necessary for the prevention of maternal-to-child human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission as well as the early diagnosis and treatment of HIV-infected infants. However, coverage of postnatal care is low in many rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa. We examined women's experiences of accessing formal postnatal care for their HIV-exposed newborns, comparing reports of HIV-infected and uninfected women in an HIV-endemic area of rural southern Zambia. We conducted 24 qualitative in-depth interviews with recently delivered women in a rural region of southern Zambia, including 8 with women who were willing to disclose their HIV infection status and answer additional questions. Data were transcribed, coded and analyzed using thematic analysis techniques. HIV-infected women identified more disincentives and reported more negative experiences accessing postnatal care than HIV-uninfected women. A local notion of contagion holds that healthy infants may become sick with chibele, a fatal, febrile illness, if exposed to another infant who is taking "strong medicine", such as antiretroviral drugs. Thus, HIV-uninfected women expressed objections to sharing clinics with women and infants who were presumed to be under treatment. Additionally, women reported receiving better treatment from staff at HIV clinics compared to general pediatric clinics. Due to these tensions, HIV-infected women were less likely to visit a clinic for newborn care if the clinic or waiting area was a common space used by HIV-uninfected women and their children. When integrating programs for HIV with maternal and child health care, these nuanced tensions between groups of patients must be recognized and resolved.

  20. The Quality of Life During and After Menopause Among Rural Women

    PubMed Central

    G K, Poomalar; Arounassalame, Bupathy

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The overall health and well-being of middle-aged women has become a major public health concern around the world. More than 80% of the women experience physical or psychological symptoms in the years when they approach menopause, with various distresses and disturbances in their lives, leading to a decrease in the quality of life. The aim of our study was to assess the quality of life and the impact of hormonal changes in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women and to correlate the prevalence of the symptoms with their duration since menopause. Material and Methods: A cross- sectional study was done at Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College and Hospital, Puducherry, from January 2012 to April 2012. Five hundred women who were in the age group of 40-65 years, who came from rural areas to our hospital, were included in the study. The women who were receiving hormonal treatment and those who refused to participate in the study were excluded. The data such as the socio-demographic information and the menstruation status, which were based on the reported length of time since the last menstrual period and the experience of the symptoms, as were tested in the Menopause Specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) questionnaire, were collected from each patient. The women who were included in the study were divided into three groups as the menopause transition, early postmenopausal and the late postmenopausal groups. All the data which were gathered were analyzed by using SAS 9.2. The Chi square test and the relative risk and the confidence interval calculations were applied to compare the frequencies of the symptoms among the women with different menopausal statuses. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Mean menopausal age in the study group was 45 years. The most common symptom within study subjects were low back ache (79%) and muscle-joint pain (77.2%). The least frequent symptoms were increase in facial hair (15%) and

  1. [Plasma clearance of ethanol and its excretion in the milk of rural women who consume pulque].

    PubMed

    Argote-Espinosa, R M; Flores-Huerta, S; Hernández-Montes, H; Villalpando-Hernández, S

    1992-01-01

    Women from rural areas of the central plateau of Mexico drink during pregnancy and lactation a mild alcoholic beverage called pulque as a galactogogue. Ethanol present in milk could have a harmful effect on growth and development of breast-fed children. The purpose of this study was to quantify the ethanol consumed as pulque by eleven lactating rural women as well as its clearance rate in blood and milk. Mothers were separated in two groups depending upon the ethanol ingested in a single dose of pulque 0.21 +/- 0.08 g/kg of body weight (group A) and 0.44 +/- 0.11 g/kg (group B). Maximal concentration of ethanol was reached in milk at 60 minutes and almost equaled that in plasma. Both groups showed a similar clearance pattern regardless of the volume of pulque ingested. Clearance rates between groups were different: ethanol concentration in milk at 60 min were 8.4 +/- 3.0 mg/dL for group A and 26.2 +/- 7.0 mg/dL for group B. Two hours later ethanol levels were 3.6 +/- 3.4 mg/dL and 23.3 +/- 9.4 mg/dL respectively. Clearance rates were slower in mothers showing the highest concentration of ethanol in milk. The present data demonstrate that there is no differential elimination of ethanol in maternal blood and milk following ingestion of a moderate amount of pulque during lactation. The amount of ethanol received by infants through milk is relatively low and therefore it is unlikely to have harmful effects on them. Pulque consumption adds about 350 kcal/day to the customary dietary intake of these lactating women.

  2. Reproductive health in Bali, Indonesia: findings from a needs assessment survey among rural women.

    PubMed

    Patten, J; Susanti, I; Sehati, Y; Kartini, I

    1998-01-01

    The reproductive health needs of rural women in Bali, Indonesia, were investigated through a survey conducted in 1995 in three of Bali's eight districts and focus group discussions with 23 nurse-midwives who serve the target population. Mean age at marriage was 21.0 years and mean age at first intercourse was 20.9 years. 85.1% of the 295 survey respondents were using a modern contraceptive method, primarily the IUD and Depo-Provera. Only 10.6% of respondents had ever used a condom. Of the 163 women who had ever experienced an adverse reproductive health symptom (e.g., vaginal discharge), 69 (42.3%) did not seek help from a medical provider. Among those who sought medical attention, 55 (58.5%) went to the community health center, 47 (50%) saw a private practice nurse, and 25 (26.6%) consulted a private practice doctor. 73.1% of respondents were satisfied with women's health services available in their area and 94.5% of ever-users of contraception were satisfied with family planning services. However, women indicated a need for more information on AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). 52.2% of women had never received any information about AIDS and 69% had not been counseled about STDs. The nurse-midwives reported they had never received special training in STDs and HIV/AIDS and did not feel equipped to respond to patients presenting with symptoms or questions. The strong health-seeking behavior and basic satisfaction with health care services documented in this study provide a good basis for strengthening reproductive health care programs in Bali.

  3. Peak expiratory flow rates among women exposed to different cooking fuels in rural India.

    PubMed

    Neelam, Sukhsohale D; Uday, Narlawar W; Sushama, Thakre S; Suresh, Ughade N

    2013-09-01

    Plant or animal based material burned for cooking or heating (biofuels) can cause indoor air pollution. We studied the effect of exposure to biofuel and other types of fuel smoke on peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR) among rural Indian women. We conducted a community based cross-sectional study of 760 non-smoking women who cooked using one of four types of fuel: biofuel, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or a combination of two or more fuels. A PEFR <80% of predicted was considered abnormal. An abnormal PEFR was seen in 43.3% of women using biofuels, 20.5% of those using kerosene, 23.4% of those using LPG and 21.4% of those using mixed fuel. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed among those using mixed fuel, age [OR: - 2.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32 - 3.28, p = 0.00], height (OR: -1.06, 95% CI: 1.00 - 1.12, p = 0.02) and exposure index (estimated hours spent cooking daily multiplied by the years cooked) (OR: -2.74, 95% CI: 1.68 - 4.47, p = 0.00) were significant predictors of abnormal PEFR. Among women using biofuels and LPG, only exposure index was found to be a significant predictor of abnormal PEFR (p<0.05). No significant association was found between abnormal PEFR and exposure index among women who used only kerosene for fuel (p>0.05). Using mixed fuel was found to be more likely to cause an abnormal PEFR.

  4. Indoor Air Pollution and Blood Pressure in Adult Women Living in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    Schauer, James J.; Ezzati, Majid; Lu, Lin; Cheng, Chun; Patz, Jonathan A.; Bautista, Leonelo E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Almost half of the world’s population uses coal and biomass fuels for domestic energy. Limited evidence suggests that exposure to air pollutants from indoor biomass combustion may be associated with elevated blood pressure (BP). Objective: Our aim was to assess the relationship between air pollution exposure from indoor biomass combustion and BP in women in rural China. Methods: We measured 24-hr personal integrated gravimetric exposure to fine particles < 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) in the winter and summer among 280 women ≥ 25 years of age living in rural households using biomass fuels in Yunnan, China. We investigated the association between PM2.5 exposure and SBP and DBP using mixed-effects models with random intercepts to account for correlation among repeated measures. Results: Personal average 24-hr exposure to PM2.5 ranged from 22 to 634 µg/m3 in winter and from 9 to 492 µg/m3 in summer. A 1-log-µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 exposure was associated with 2.2 mm Hg higher SBP [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.8 to 3.7; p = 0.003] and 0.5 mm Hg higher DBP (95% CI, –0.4 to 1.3; p = 0.31) among all women; estimated effects varied by age group. Among women > 50 years of age, a 1-log-µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 exposure was associated with 4.1 mm Hg higher SBP (95% CI, 1.5 to 6.6; p = 0.002) and 1.8 mm Hg higher DBP (95% CI, 0.4 to 3.2; p = 0.01). PM2.5 exposure was positively associated with SBP among younger women, but the association was not statistically significant. Conclusion: PM2.5 exposure from biomass combustion may be a risk factor for elevated BP and hence for cardiovascular events. Our findings should be corroborated in longitudinal studies. PMID:21724522

  5. Baseline Demographic, Anthropometric, Psychosocial, and Behavioral Characteristics of Rural, Southern Women in Early Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Jessica L; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M; Goodman, Melissa H; Olender, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    Objectives Beginning life in a healthy uterine environment is essential for future well-being, particularly as it relates to chronic disease risk. Baseline (early pregnancy) demographic, anthropometric (height and weight), psychosocial (depression and perceived stress), and behavioral (diet and exercise) characteristics of rural, Southern, pregnant women enrolled in a maternal, infant, and early childhood home visiting program are described. Methods Participants included 82 women early in their second trimester of pregnancy and residing in three Lower Mississippi Delta counties in the United States. Baseline data were collected through direct measurement and surveys. Results Participants were primarily African American (96 %), young (mean age = 23 years), single (93 %), and received Medicaid (92 %). Mean gestational age was 18 weeks, 67 % of participants were overweight or obese before becoming pregnant, and 16 % tested positive for major depression. Participants were sedentary (mean minutes of moderate intensity physical activity/week = 30), had low diet quality (mean Healthy Eating Index-2010 total score = 43 points), with only 38, 4, and 7 % meeting recommendations for saturated fat, fiber, and sodium intakes, respectively. Conclusions for Practice In the Lower Mississippi Delta, there is a need for interventions that are designed to help women achieve optimal GWG by improving their diet quality and increasing the amount of physical activity performed during pregnancy. Researchers also should consider addressing barriers to changing health behaviors during pregnancy that may be unique to this region of the United States.

  6. Effect of a computer-based intervention on social support for chronically ill rural women.

    PubMed

    Hill, Wade; Schillo, Leah; Weinert, Clarann

    2004-01-01

    Social support is a key factor in illness management. Despite the positive effects of support groups, there are barriers to participation by rural dwellers in face-to-face groups. To address these barriers, a computer-based support group intervention, the Women to Women Project, was designed to provide peer support and health information through a computer-based intervention. Data from three groups (intervention, information, comparison) of woman who participated in the program were analyzed. The pattern of improvement in social support was in the anticipated direction, but not significant in the main analysis. Exploratory analysis was conducted on a vulnerable subsample of women reporting low social support and high psychosocial distress. Results suggest that improvement in social support, based on the intervention, was greater for the vulnerable subsample as compared with the sample as a whole. An effective and efficient means of providing social support and facilitating the mobilization of this support is through self-help groups; this study demonstrates that virtual support groups can increase perceived social support.

  7. Women's labor, fertility, and the introduction of modern technology in a rural Maya village.

    PubMed

    Kramer, K L; Mcmillan, G P

    1999-01-01

    The introduction of mechanized technology into a rural Maya agricultural community in the mid 1970s markedly increased the technology with which maize could be ground and water collected, which in turn introduced a possible savings in the time spent working. This study investigated the response of female fertility to the introduction of this labor-saving technology. Using two proximate determinants of female fertility, the association between the advent of modern technology and changes in the age at which women give birth to their first child and the length of mothers' birth intervals was examined. Analyses showed that women begin their reproductive careers at a younger age after the laborsaving technology was introduced. Estimate of the median age at first birth from the distribution function dropped from 21.2 years before the introduction to 19.5 years after the introduction of the technology. In addition, modeling results show that the probability of a woman giving birth to her first child doubles for any age after the introduction of laborsaving technology. However, changes in birth intervals are less conclusive since the differences of smoothed probability distributions are not significant. Moreover, findings indicate that women who initiate reproduction at a younger age can potentially have longer reproductive careers and larger families. PMID:12295624

  8. Unemployment and stillbirth risk among foreign-born and Spanish pregnant women in Spain, 2007-2010: a multilevel analysis study.

    PubMed

    Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Franco, Manuel; Gelaye, Bizu; Schomaker, Michael; Garitano, Ignacio Gutierrez; D'Este, Catherine; Williams, Michelle A

    2013-12-01

    We describe stillbirth and unemployment rates by autonomous region in Spain and analyse whether women who gave birth in regions with high unemployment rates were more likely to have a stillborn. We designed a multilevel population-based observational study of births from 2007 to 2010. We defined stillbirth as the outcome, individual maternal socioeconomic and pregnancy-related characteristics as covariates, and maternal autonomous region of residence as the contextual covariate. We used mixed-logistic regression models to account for differences across regions. In total, 1,920,235 singleton births and 5,560 stillbirths were included in the study. Women residing in autonomous regions with the highest rates of unemployment had a two-times-greater chance of delivering a stillborn (adjusted OR 2.60; 95 % CI 2.08-3.21). The region where women resided explained 14 % of the total individual differences in the risk of delivering a stillborn. The odds of stillbirth were 1.82 (95 % CI 1.62-2.05) times higher for African-born women than for Spanish-born women and 1.90 (95 % CI 1.68-2.15) times higher for women with low educational attainment than for women with higher education. In conclusion, regional disparities in stillbirth rates in Spain in the period 2007-2010 were mainly associated with mothers who had low levels of education, were African-born, and lived in regions with higher unemployment.

  9. Calming the Spirit and Ensuring Super-Vivencia: Rural Mexican Women-Centred Teaching and Learning Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvan, Ruth Trinidad

    2010-01-01

    The changing social, cultural and economic conditions of transmigrant communities in rural Mexico require that women who stay behind, while their loved ones travel back and forth to the USA, create social relations that ensure their survival. From over five years of ethnographic research, this article explores the healing potential of…

  10. A Rural Perspective on Perinatal Depression: Prevalence, Correlates, and Implications for Help-Seeking among Low-Income Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Sarah Kye; Proctor, Enola K.

    2009-01-01

    Context/Purpose: To examine a low-income sample of women in the rural Midwest (N = 1,086) who were screened for perinatal depression through the outreach and education activities within a Healthy Start Initiative project. Specifically, we describe the frequency and severity of depressive symptoms, explore social and demographic correlates of…

  11. Meeting the Challenge of Health Literacy in Rural Uganda: The Critical Role of Women and Local Modes of Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendrick, Maureen; Mutonyi, Harriet

    2007-01-01

    This article seeks to better understand the relation between local and traditional modes of communication and health literacy within the context of a rural West Nile community in Northern Uganda. Drawing on social semiotics (multimodality) and Bakhtin's notion of the carnival, the focus is on a group of women participating in a grassroots literacy…

  12. African American Women Coping with the Lived Experiences of Limited Mental Healthcare Access in Rural North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesane, Everick S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of lived experiences among African American women with limited mental healthcare access in rural North Carolina. The research examined how those lived experiences-due to limited transportation, low socioeconomic status, and limited healthcare access-further exacerbate emotional challenges among African American…

  13. Factors Influencing Rural Women Cassava Processors' Intention to Participate in an Agricultural Extension Education Program. Summary of Research 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojomo, Christian O.; McCaslin, N. L.

    A study examined factors influencing female cassava processors' intentions regarding participation in an extension education program on cassava processing in rural Nigeria. Interviews were conducted with 224 women who were purposely selected from areas of zone 3 of Ondo State, Nigeria, which has large concentrations of cassava processors.…

  14. The Impact of Training on the Conflict Resolution Ability of Rural Women in the Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogonor, B. O.

    2003-01-01

    Surveys of 332 rural Nigerian women before and after training in conflict resolution revealed that it significantly increased their willingness to use the critical core skills of co-creative conflict resolution. Participants appeared highly committed to and proficient in the use of the process. (SK)

  15. Women's Experiences of Principalship in Two South African High Schools in Multiply Deprived Rural Areas: A Life History Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on data collected from a wider, longitudinal life history study conducted in South Africa between 2010 and 2014. The study focussed specifically on the personal and professional pathways to principalship of a sample of women leaders of co-educational high schools in South Africa, in both rural and peri-urban provinces: a role…

  16. Adverse Mental Health Outcomes Associated with Emotional Abuse in Young Rural South African Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jina, Ruxana; Jewkes, Rachel; Hoffman, Susie; Dunkle, Kristen L.; Nduna, Mzikazi; Shai, Nwabisa J.

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of data on the prevalence of emotional abuse in youth. The aim of this study was thus to estimate the prevalence of emotional abuse in intimate partnerships among young women in rural South Africa and to measure the association between lifetime experience of emotional abuse (with and without the combined experience of physical…

  17. Testing the Feasibility of a Culturally Tailored Breast Cancer Screening Intervention with Native Hawaiian Women in Rural Churches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ka'opua, Lana Sue I.; Park, Soon H.; Ward, Margaret E.; Braun, Kathryn L.

    2011-01-01

    The authors report on the feasibility of delivering a church-based breast cancer screening intervention tailored on the cultural strengths of rural-dwelling Hawaiians. Native Hawaiian women are burdened by disproportionately high mortality from breast cancer, which is attributed to low participation in routine mammography. Mammography is proven to…

  18. Rural Caregivers for a Family Member With Dementia: Models of Burden and Distress Differ for Women and Men.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Norma J; Morgan, Debra G; Karunanayake, Chandima P; Wickenhauser, Joseph P; Cammer, Allison; Minish, Duane; O'Connell, Megan E; Hayduk, Leslie A

    2016-02-01

    Forecasts of increasing prevalence of dementia in rural settings, coupled with reliance on family caregiver support, indicate that a greater understanding of caregiver distress in these contexts is necessary. The purpose of this study was to examine family caregiver burden and severity of distress on the day that a family member was diagnosed with dementia at a memory clinic that serves a rural population. Participants in this retrospective study were 231 primary family caregivers of a rural community-dwelling person with dementia. On the diagnostic day, women reported more burden and severity of distress than men and spouses reported more severity of distress than adult children. A structural equation model was not supported for the entire sample, but was supported for women caregivers only (n = 161). Caregiver distress related to dementia-specific behaviors explained both global distress and burden. Patients' functional decline was related to caregiver burden.

  19. Reproductive Health of Women in Rural Areas of East Azerbaijan – Iran, before and after Implementation of rural Family Physician Program: an Ecologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Mahasti; Jabbari Birami, Hossein; Moradi, Siavash

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Implementation of rural family physician program in Iran in 2005 has been evaluated and shown that this program has been led to some improvements in health indicators. In this study, some reproductive health (RH) indicators were compared before and after implementation of this program in rural areas of East Azerbaijan, Iran. Methods: In this ecologic- time trend study, the data of 191075 births of rural women of East Azerbaijan from 2001 to 2010 was extracted from vital horoscope (ZIJ) and used for calculation of 20 important RH indicators. The paired t-test and correlation analysis wear used for data analysis. Results: Some indicators such as adolescent marriage rate, adolescent birth and over 35 year olds birth rate were increased after rural family physician program implementation in 2005. Also stillbirth rate and unsafe delivery were decreased during this period. There was a significant correlation between increasing adolescent birth rate and increasing low birth weight deliveries (r= 0.911, P= 0.031) and also between increasing over 35 year olds birth rate and increasing neonatal mortality rate in term of prematurity and congenital malformations (r= 0.912, P= 0.031) after program implementation. Conclusion: Perinatal care and safe delivery even for pregnancies outside the typical child-bearing ages are promoting after implementation of rural family physician program in East Azerbaijan. Also decreasing unsafe delivery and stillbirth rate can be considered as achievements of running this program in this province. PMID:26744731

  20. Improving the roles of rural women in health and environmental issues.

    PubMed

    Metwally, Ammal M; Ibrahim, Nihad A; Saad, Amal; Abu el-Ela, Manal H

    2006-04-01

    Safe water supply, sanitation facilities and safe environments are the priorities of the communities in the villages of Upper Egypt. However, personal hygienic behaviors need improvement for substantial promotion of family health. This cannot be met without the full participation of women in their various roles in their communities. Accordingly, 375 females belonging to rural villages of Egypt (VHVs) volunteered to have a role in health and sanitation aspects and disseminate hygienic messages to their communities. The objective of this study was to assess and upgrade the levels of awareness, attitude and practice of VHVs towards environmental sanitation, sanitary housing, personal hygiene, safe water, food safety, sanitary sewage and refuse disposals. Implementation of environmental health education courses resulted in significant improvement of VHVs' awareness, attitude and practice towards the majority of the environmental topics that were addressed. Similar extensive courses are recommended for the promotion of environmental sanitation in other communities.

  1. Sexually transmitted pathogens in pregnant women in a rural South African community.

    PubMed Central

    O'Farrell, N; Hoosen, A A; Kharsany, A B; van den Ende, J

    1989-01-01

    One hundred and ninety three consecutive pregnant women attending peripheral antenatal clinics attached to Ngwelezana Hospital, Empangeni, Kwa-Zulu, were examined for evidence of sexually transmitted pathogens. The following incidences were found: Trichomonas vaginalis 49.2% (95), Candida spp 38.3% (74), Chlamydia trachomatis 11.4% (22), Gardnerella vaginalis 6.2% (12), Neisseria gonorrhoeae 5.7% (11), positive syphilis serology results 11.9% (23), hepatitis B surface antigen 4.1% (eight). No woman had antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Dyskaryotic smears were found in 20 (10.4%). Human papillomavirus (HPV) was detected cytologically in 11 (5.7%). The range of sexually transmitted pathogens found in this rural community was similar to that found in urban groups studied in South Africa. PMID:2807289

  2. Expanding women's rural medical work in early modern Brittany: the Daughters of the Holy Spirit.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Tim

    2012-07-01

    During the eighteenth century, orders of nursing sisters took on an expanded role in the rural areas of Brittany. This article explores the impact of religious change on the medical activities of these women. While limits were placed on the medical practice of unlicensed individuals, areas of new opportunity for nuns as charitable practitioners were created by devout nobles throughout the eighteenth century. These nuns provided comprehensive care for the sick poor on their patrons' estates, acting not only as nurses, but also in lieu of physicians, surgeons, and apothecaries. This article argues that the medical knowledge and expertise of these sisters from the nursing orders were highly valued by the elites of early modern Brittany.

  3. Prevalence and psychological correlates of postnatal depression in rural Taiwanese women.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Ying; Creedy, Debra K; Gamble, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive longitudinal cohort study investigated the prevalence and psychological risk factors for depression in new mothers living in Pingtung County, southern Taiwan. Expectant mothers (n = 236) were recruited through antenatal clinics, and 162 participants were followed up at 6 weeks postpartum. The estimated prevalence of probable depression (at a cut-off score ≧ 13 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) was 17.3% before birth and 24.1% after birth. Several risk factors for postnatal depression were identified, including maternal self-esteem, antenatal depression, and psychiatric morbidity. The regression of intention on predictive variables yielded an adjusted R(2) of.70. The findings can help clinical nurses effectively recognize and implement risk mitigation plans for the health benefits of rural childbearing women. PMID:25148390

  4. Expanding Women's Rural Medical Work in Early Modern Brittany: The Daughters of the Holy Spirit

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Tim

    2012-01-01

    During the eighteenth century, orders of nursing sisters took on an expanded role in the rural areas of Brittany. This article explores the impact of religious change on the medical activities of these women. While limits were placed on the medical practice of unlicensed individuals, areas of new opportunity for nuns as charitable practitioners were created by devout nobles throughout the eighteenth century. These nuns provided comprehensive care for the sick poor on their patrons' estates, acting not only as nurses, but also in lieu of physicians, surgeons, and apothecaries. This article argues that the medical knowledge and expertise of these sisters from the nursing orders were highly valued by the elites of early modern Brittany. PMID:21724643

  5. Source apportionment of air pollution exposures of rural Chinese women cooking with biomass fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Baumgartner, Jill; Zhang, Yuanxun; Wang, Yuqin; Schauer, James J.

    2015-03-01

    Particulate matter (PM) from different sources may differentially affect human health. Few studies have assessed the main sources of personal exposure to PM and their contributions among residents of developing countries, where pollution sources differ from those in higher-income settings. 116 daily (24-h) personal PM2.5 exposure samples were collected among 81 women cooking with biomass fuels in two villages in rural Yunnan, China. The PM samples were analyzed for mass and chemical composition, including water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), black carbon (BC), and molecular markers. We found black carbon, n-alkanes and levoglucosan dominated the most abundant fractions of the total measured species and average personal PM2.5 exposure was higher in winter than that in summer in both villages. The composition data were then analyzed using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model to identify the main PM emission sources contributing to women's exposures and to assess their spatial (between villages) and seasonal variation in our study setting. The 6-factor solution provided reasonably stable profiles and was selected for further analysis. Our results show that rural Chinese women cooking with biomass fuels are exposed to a variety of sources. The identified factors include wood combustion (41.1%), a cooking source (35.6%), a mobile source (12.6%), plant waxes (6.7%), pyrolysis combustion (3.0%), and secondary organic aerosols (SOA; 1.0%). The mean source contributions of the mobile source, cooking source, and wood combustion factor to PM2.5 exposure were significantly different between women living in the two study villages, whereas the mean SOA, wood combustion, and plant waxes factors differed seasonally. There was no relationship between source contributions and questionnaire-based measurements of source-specific exposures, implying that the impacts of source contributions on exposure are affected by complex spatial, temporal and behavioral patterns

  6. Systemic inflammatory changes and increased oxidative stress in rural Indian women cooking with biomass fuels.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Anindita; Ray, Manas Ranjan; Banerjee, Anirban

    2012-06-15

    The study was undertaken to investigate whether regular cooking with biomass aggravates systemic inflammation and oxidative stress that might result in increase in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rural Indian women compared to cooking with a cleaner fuel like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). A total of 635 women (median age 36 years) who cooked with biomass and 452 age-matched control women who cooked with LPG were enrolled. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured by ELISA. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by leukocytes was measured by flow cytometry, and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase (SOD) was measured by spectrophotometry. Hypertension was diagnosed following the Seventh Report of the Joint Committee. Tachycardia was determined as pulse rate >100 beats per minute. Particulate matter of diameter less than 10 and 2.5 μm (PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅, respectively) in cooking areas was measured using real-time aerosol monitor. Compared with control, biomass users had more particulate pollution in indoor air, their serum contained significantly elevated levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and CRP, and ROS generation was increased by 37% while SOD was depleted by 41.5%, greater prevalence of hypertension and tachycardia compared to their LPG-using neighbors. PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ levels were positively associated with markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and hypertension. Inflammatory markers correlated with raised blood pressure. Cooking with biomass exacerbates systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, hypertension and tachycardia in poor women cooking with biomass fuel and hence, predisposes them to increased risk of CVD development compared to the controls. Systemic inflammation and oxidative stress may be the mechanistic factors involved in the development of CVD.

  7. Breast milk expression among formally employed women in urban and rural Malaysia: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many women are unable to practice exclusive breastfeeding because they are separated from their infants while working. Expressing their breast milk helps them to continue breastfeeding. This study explores the perception and experiences related to the feasibility, acceptability and safety of breast milk expression among formally employed women in Kelantan, Malaysia. Methods A qualitative method using in-depth interviews was conducted from December 2008 to December 2009 among Malay women from urban and rural areas. A snowball sampling method was used to recruit the informants, and the interviews, which were facilitated by an interview guide, were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was conducted, with construction of codes and themes from each interview. Results Analysis of the interviews with 20 informants identified three themes related to breast milk expression. The themes were as follows: (i) lack of feasibility of expressing breast milk, (ii) negative feelings about expressing breast milk, and (iii) doubts about the safety and hygiene of expressed breast milk. The informants who did not practice exclusive breastfeeding believed that expressing their breast milk was not feasible, commonly because they felt there were not enough facilities for them. They also had negative feelings such as embarrassment. The safety and hygiene of the expressed breast milk was also their main concern. Conclusion More practical and focused education, as well as provision of facilities, is needed for women to effectively and safely express and store their breast milk. The issue of inadequate milk production should be emphasized, especially by encouraging them to express their breast milk as a way to improve milk production. PMID:22929649

  8. Relationship between Pesticide Metabolites, Cytokine Patterns, and Asthma-Related Outcomes in Rural Women Workers

    PubMed Central

    Mwanga, Hussein H.; Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel; Singh, Tanusha S.; Channa, Kalavati; Jeebhay, Mohamed F.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between exposure to organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid (PYR) pesticides with serum cytokine patterns and asthma-related outcomes among rural women workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted among rural women (n = 211), including those working and living on farms and nearby town dwellers. Pesticide exposure was assessed using urinary metabolite concentrations of OP and PYR pesticides. Health outcome assessment was ascertained through the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) questionnaire, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), and serum cytokines associated with asthma. The prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma was 11%, adult-onset asthma 9%, and current asthma 6%. In this population, the proportion of T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokines (interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13) detectable in subjects was between 18% and 40%, while the proportion of non-Th2 cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, and interferon gamma) was between 35% and 71%. Most Th2 and non-Th2 cytokines were positively associated with either OP or PYR metabolites. Non-Th2 cytokines showed much stronger associations with OP metabolites (Dimethyl phosphate OR = 4.23; 95% CI: 1.54–11.65) than Th2 cytokines (Dimethyl phosphate OR = 1.69; 95% CI: 0.83–3.46). This study suggests that exposure to most OP and some PYR pesticides may be associated with asthma-related cytokines, with non-Th2 cytokines demonstrating consistently stronger relationships. PMID:27690066

  9. A Community-Supported Clinic-Based Program for Prevention of Violence against Pregnant Women in Rural Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Turan, Janet M.; Hatcher, Abigail M.; Odero, Merab; Onono, Maricianah; Kodero, Jannes; Romito, Patrizia; Mangone, Emily; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Pregnant women are especially vulnerable to adverse outcomes related to HIV infection and gender-based violence (GBV). We aimed at developing a program for prevention and mitigation of the effects of GBV among pregnant women at an antenatal clinic in rural Kenya. Methods. Based on formative research with pregnant women, male partners, and service providers, we developed a GBV program including comprehensive clinic training, risk assessments in the clinic, referrals supported by community volunteers, and community mobilization. To evaluate the program, we analyzed data from risk assessment forms and conducted focus groups (n = 2 groups) and in-depth interviews (n = 25) with healthcare workers and community members. Results. A total of 134 pregnant women were assessed during a 5-month period: 49 (37%) reported violence and of those 53% accepted referrals to local support resources. Qualitative findings suggested that the program was acceptable and feasible, as it aided pregnant women in accessing GBV services and raised awareness of GBV. Community collaboration was crucial in this low-resource setting. Conclusion. Integrating GBV programs into rural antenatal clinics has potential to contribute to both primary and secondary GBV prevention. Following further evaluation, this model may be deemed applicable for rural communities in Kenya and elsewhere in East Africa. PMID:23738056

  10. A Community-Supported Clinic-Based Program for Prevention of Violence against Pregnant Women in Rural Kenya.

    PubMed

    Turan, Janet M; Hatcher, Abigail M; Odero, Merab; Onono, Maricianah; Kodero, Jannes; Romito, Patrizia; Mangone, Emily; Bukusi, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Pregnant women are especially vulnerable to adverse outcomes related to HIV infection and gender-based violence (GBV). We aimed at developing a program for prevention and mitigation of the effects of GBV among pregnant women at an antenatal clinic in rural Kenya. Methods. Based on formative research with pregnant women, male partners, and service providers, we developed a GBV program including comprehensive clinic training, risk assessments in the clinic, referrals supported by community volunteers, and community mobilization. To evaluate the program, we analyzed data from risk assessment forms and conducted focus groups (n = 2 groups) and in-depth interviews (n = 25) with healthcare workers and community members. Results. A total of 134 pregnant women were assessed during a 5-month period: 49 (37%) reported violence and of those 53% accepted referrals to local support resources. Qualitative findings suggested that the program was acceptable and feasible, as it aided pregnant women in accessing GBV services and raised awareness of GBV. Community collaboration was crucial in this low-resource setting. Conclusion. Integrating GBV programs into rural antenatal clinics has potential to contribute to both primary and secondary GBV prevention. Following further evaluation, this model may be deemed applicable for rural communities in Kenya and elsewhere in East Africa. PMID:23738056

  11. Labor management and mode of delivery among migrant and Spanish women: does the variability reflect differences in obstetric decisions according to ethnic origin?

    PubMed

    Bernis, Cristina; Varea, Carlos; Bogin, Barry; González-González, Antonio

    2013-07-01

    Based on previous findings showing both better birth outcomes in migrant than in Spanish women and different rates of medical intervention according to mother's origin, we hypothesize that mode of delivery decisions to solve similar problems differ according to ethnic origin. Ethnic differences for maternal characteristics, medical intervention, and mode of delivery were evaluated in 16,589 births from a Maternity Hospital in Madrid (Spain). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of mother's ethnic origin on the mode of delivery, adjusting for mother's age, parity, gestational age, birth weight, and epidural anesthesia. Compared with the Spanish mothers, the risk of having a Caesarean section is significantly higher in Latin Americans and significantly lower for the Chinese. Both low birth weight and macrosomic deliveries are at higher risk for Caesarean section. The interventionist system characterizing Spain is being extended to all ethnic groups and, at the same time, different medical interventions are applied to similar problems depending on women's ethnic origin. Obstetric interventions might be contributing to the increasing trend of low birth weight and late preterm/early full term deliveries (37-38 weeks) observed in Spain. Behavioral and cultural values of the women and of the health care providers may contribute to systematic differences in labor management and mode of delivery.

  12. Menopausal symptoms of postmenopausal women in a rural community of Delhi, India: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Akanksha; Pradhan, Shishir Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is very little data on the consequence of menopause on women in South East Asia region, especially from rural India. Importance is always given to reproductive health from menarche to menopause. Menopausal health demands priority in Indian scenario due to rising population of postmenopausal women. Objectives: The aim was to determine the mean age at attaining menopause and the prevalence of various self-reported menopausal symptoms complained by postmenopausal women (40-54 years). Furthermore, to determine the prevalence of anxiety and depression among postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural area of New Delhi among 252 postmenopausal women from October 2011 to March 2013. A pretested, self-designed, semi structured, interview based, oral questionnaire was used. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences software Version 21.0 (SPSS) was used for analyses. Results: The mean age at attaining menopause was 46.24 (Standard Deviation = 3.38) years. Only 4 (1.6%) postmenopausal women had premature menopause. A total of 225 (89.3%) postmenopausal women experienced at least one or more menopausal symptom(s). The most common complaints of postmenopausal women were sleep disturbances (62.7%), muscle or joint pain (59.1%), hot flushes (46.4%) and night sweats (45.6%). A total of 32.1% (n=81) postmenopausal women suffered from depression and 21.0% (n=53) postmenopausal women suffered from anxiety. Conclusion: It is necessary to critically introspect health needs of postmenopausal women and specific components can be incorporated in the national health programs. PMID:24970983

  13. Women's autonomy and experience of physical violence within marriage in rural India: evidence from a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Sabarwal, Shagun; Santhya, K G; Jejeebhoy, Shireen J

    2014-01-01

    Evidence regarding the relationship between married women's autonomy and risk of marital violence remains mixed. Moreover, studies examining the contribution of specific aspects of women's autonomy in influencing the risk of marital violence using measures of autonomy that incorporate its dynamic nature are rare. We investigated the relationship between women's autonomy and their experience of marital violence in rural India using prospective data. We used data on 4,904 rural women drawn from two linked studies: the NFHS-2, conducted during 1998-1999 and a follow-up study for a subgroup of women carried out during 2002-2003. Three dimensions of autonomy were used: financial autonomy, freedom of movement, and household decision-making. Marital violence was measured as experience of physical violence in the year prior to the follow-up survey. Findings indicate the protective effects of financial autonomy and freedom of movement in reducing the risk of marital violence in the overall model. Furthermore, region-wise analysis revealed that in the more gender equitable settings of south India, financial autonomy exerted a protective influence on risk of marital violence. However, in the more gender-stratified settings of north India, none of the dimensions of autonomy were found to have any protective effect on women's risk of marital violence. Results argue for an increased focus on strategies aimed at improving women's financial status through livelihood skill-building opportunities, development of a strong savings orientation, and asset-building options.

  14. The Oportunidades Conditional Cash Transfer Program: Effects on Pregnancy and Contraceptive Use among Young Rural Women in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Darney, Blair G.; Weaver, Marcia R.; Sosa-Rubi, Sandra G.; Walker, Dilys; Servan-Mori, Edson; Prager, Sarah; Gakidou, Emmanuela

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT Oportunidades is a large conditional cash transfer program in Mexico. It is important to examine whether the program has any direct effect on pregnancy experience and contraceptive use among young rural women, apart from those through education. METHODS Data from the 1992, 2006 and 2009 waves of a nationally representative, population-based survey were used to describe trends in pregnancy experience, contraceptive use and education among rural adolescent (15–19) and young adult (20–24) women in Mexico. To examine differences in pregnancy experience and current modern contraceptive use among young women, multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted among matched 2006 samples of women with and without exposure to Oportunidades, predicted probabilities were calculated and indirect effects were estimated. RESULTS Over the three survey waves, the proportion of adolescent and young adult women reporting ever being pregnant stayed flat (33–36%) and contraceptive use increased steadily (from 13% in 1992 to 19% in 2009). Educational attainment rose dramatically: The proportion of women with a secondary education increased from 28% in 1992 to 46% in 2009. In multivariable analyses, exposure to Oportunidades was not associated with pregnancy experience among adolescents. Educational attainment, marital status, pregnancy experience and access to health insurance—but not exposure to Oportunidades—were positively associated with current modern contraceptive use among adolescent and young adult women. CONCLUSION Through its effect on education, Oportunidades indirectly influences fertility among adolescents. It is important for Mexico to focus on strategies to increase contraceptive use among young rural nulliparous women, regardless of whether they are enrolled in Oportunidades. PMID:24393726

  15. Family support for women's health-seeking behavior: a qualitative study in rural southern Egypt (Upper Egypt).

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Ayumi; Higuchi, Michiyo; Labeeb, Shokria Adly; Mohamed, Asmaa Ghareds; Chiang, Chifa; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2014-02-01

    This qualitative study investigated the influence of family support on women's health-seeking behavior in rural southern Egypt (Upper Egypt). We carried out separate focus group discussions (FGDs) with 3 groups (6 women with children under 5 years old, 6 men, and 4 elderly women, respectively) in a village in Assiut Governorate, an underprivileged region in Upper Egypt. The FGDs aimed to identify how different types of family support affected women's health-seeking behavior in areas including maternal health and common illnesses of women and children. Our results showed that maternal health issues were often discussed by husbands and wives, while mothers-in-law had little apparent influence. We also found that women could access support resources more easily than expected through their extended families. Our study showed that husbands had an important role in encouraging women's health in the family, while the effect of mothers-in-law on women's health-seeking behavior was not substantial. The study indicated that women received considerable support from co-resident family members, their natal family, and their neighbors, which helped women in seeking health services.

  16. Family support for women's health-seeking behavior: a qualitative study in rural southern Egypt (Upper Egypt).

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Ayumi; Higuchi, Michiyo; Labeeb, Shokria Adly; Mohamed, Asmaa Ghareds; Chiang, Chifa; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2014-02-01

    This qualitative study investigated the influence of family support on women's health-seeking behavior in rural southern Egypt (Upper Egypt). We carried out separate focus group discussions (FGDs) with 3 groups (6 women with children under 5 years old, 6 men, and 4 elderly women, respectively) in a village in Assiut Governorate, an underprivileged region in Upper Egypt. The FGDs aimed to identify how different types of family support affected women's health-seeking behavior in areas including maternal health and common illnesses of women and children. Our results showed that maternal health issues were often discussed by husbands and wives, while mothers-in-law had little apparent influence. We also found that women could access support resources more easily than expected through their extended families. Our study showed that husbands had an important role in encouraging women's health in the family, while the effect of mothers-in-law on women's health-seeking behavior was not substantial. The study indicated that women received considerable support from co-resident family members, their natal family, and their neighbors, which helped women in seeking health services. PMID:25129988

  17. Perceived Health System Causes of Obstetric Fistula from Accounts of Affected Women in Rural Tanzania: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Mselle, Lilian T; Kohi, Thecla W

    2015-03-01

    Obstetric fistula is still a major problem in low income countries. While its main cause is untreated obstructed labour, misconceptions about it still persist. This study aimed at exploring and describing perceived health system causes of obstetric fistula from women affected by it in rural Tanzania. This exploratory qualitative study included twenty-eight women affected by obstetric fistula. Semi structured interviews and focus group discussions were held and thematic analysis used to analyse perceived health system causes of obstetric fistula from women's account. Perceived health system causes of obstetric fistula fundamentally reflected the poor quality of obstetric care women received at health care facilities relating to staff unaccountability, late referral, and torture by nurses. The women's perception emphasizes the importance of improving the quality of obstetric care provided by health care providers in health care facilities. PMID:26103702

  18. Mexican American women in a rural area and barriers to their ability to enact protective behaviors against breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hubbell, Anne P

    2006-01-01

    Mexican American women in rural areas have less chance of surviving breast cancer than women in other ethnic populations (Boughton, 2000; Herman, 1996). This research sought to determine why such women do or do not enact behaviors to help them protect themselves from breast cancer. The extended parallel process model (Witte, 1994) provided a guiding theoretical basis for understanding perceptions, and 48 women, in discussion groups and surveys, were asked about self-exams, physician exams, and mammograms. Findings demonstrated that the women had high perceived self-efficacy and susceptibility regarding breast cancer but did not perceive it as severe (i.e., that it could cause death). These perceptions were positively and negatively related to behaviors that protect against breast cancer. Also, several barriers, such as lack of transportation, lack of access to health care, and lack of knowledge regarding breast self-exams, were found.

  19. The calcium and phosphorus intakes of rural Gambian women during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Prentice, A; Laskey, M A; Shaw, J; Hudson, G J; Day, K C; Jarjou, L M; Dibba, B; Paul, A A

    1993-05-01

    The Ca and P intakes of 148 pregnant and lactating women in a rural village in The Gambia, West Africa, have been estimated by direct weighing of food on a total of 4188 d. The Ca and P contents of local foods were determined by analysis of raw ingredients, snack foods and prepared dishes. Information about the contribution of mineral-rich seasonings was obtained. Efforts were made to discover unusual sources of Ca that might not be perceived as food by subject or observer. The main contributors to daily Ca intake were shown to be leaves, fish, cereals, groundnuts and local salt. Cow's milk accounted for only 5% of Ca intake. Unusual sources of Ca were discovered, namely baobab (Adansonia digitata) fruit and selected earths, but these were consumed infrequently and their contributions to Ca intakes were small. Cereals and groundnuts were the main sources of P. Ca and P intakes (mg/d) were shown to average 404 (SD 110) and 887 (SD 219) respectively. Seasonal changes in the availability of leaves, cereals and groundnuts resulted in variations in Ca and P intakes. The rainy season was associated with increased Ca intakes (by 16%) but decreased P consumption (by 15%). No difference was observed in Ca intake between pregnant and lactating women but P intake in lactation was 11% higher than that in pregnancy during the post-harvest season. The implications of these low Ca intakes require investigation. PMID:8329362

  20. Dietary Calcium Intake, Vitamin D Status, and Bone Health in Postmenopausal Women in Rural Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ellahi, Basma; Bano, Qudsia; Bangash, Sonia Ali; Mitra, Soma R.; Zaman, Mukhtiar

    2011-01-01

    The high prevalence of osteoporosis in Pakistan is of public-health concern. However, there is a paucity of information regarding nutrition and bone density in rural communities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dietary and lifestyle factors that impact bone health in Nahaqi. Data were collected from 140 postmenopausal women using an interviewer-administered 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire. Bone mineral density was estimated using the quantitative ultrasound index (QUI). Serum 25(OH)D was measured in fasting blood samples. The QUI scores revealed that 42% and 29% of the women had T-scores, indicative of osteopaenia and osteoporosis respectively. The mean calcium intake was 346 mg/d, which is less than 50% of the recommended daily intake. The QUI correlated with 25(OH)D after controlling for age (p=0.021, r=0.41, r2=0.168). Vitamin D deficiency and low intake of dietary calcium are two key factors contributing to poor bone health in this population. PMID:22106752

  1. Increasing Antenatal Care and HIV Testing among Rural Pregnant Women with Conditional Cash Transfers to Self-Help Groups: An Evaluation Study in Rural Mysore, India.

    PubMed

    Madhivanan, Purnima; NiranjanKumar, Bhavana; Shaheen, Reshma; Jaykrishna, Poornima; Ravi, Kavitha; Gowda, Savitha; Srinivas, Vijaya; Arun, Anjali; Krupp, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Background. We describe a one-year evaluation study comparing SCIL intervention of mobile provision of integrated ANC/ HIV testing with an enhanced (SCIL+) intervention of community mobilization strategy providing conditional cash transfers (CCT) to women's SHG for identifying and accompanying pregnant women to mobile clinics. Methods. Twenty pairs of villages matched on population, socioeconomic status, access to medical facilities, and distance from Mysore city were divided between SCIL and SCIL+ interventions. The primary study outcome was the proportion of total pregnancies in these villages who received ANC and HIV testing. Results. Between April 2011 and March 2012, 552 pregnant women participated in SCIL or SCIL+ interventions. Among women who were pregnant at the time of intervention delivery, 181 of 418 (43.3%) women pregnant at the time of intervention delivery received ANC in the SCIL arm, while 371 of 512 (72.5%) received ANC in the SCIL+ arm (P < 0.001); 175 (97%) in the SCIL and 366 (98.6%) in the SCIL+ arm consented to HIV testing (P < 0.001). HIV prevalence of 0.6% was detected among SCIL clinic, and 0.9% among attending SCIL+ clinic attendees. Conclusion. Provision of CCT to women's microeconomic SHG appears to significantly increase uptake of ANC/HIV testing services in rural Mysore villages.

  2. Migration and rural women in China: a look at the gendered impact of large-scale migration.

    PubMed

    Davin, D

    1996-01-01

    This preliminary study explored the impact on women of economic migration from rural to urban areas in China. Data were obtained from the 1990 census. The study focused on economic migration, which accounted for 29% of the reasons for moving. In some provinces such as Guangdong, economic reasons account for almost 60% of in-migrants. Interprovincial migration is primarily economic, followed by marriage, which varies widely by province. Migrants tend to assume occupations that are assigned by gender. Male migrants tend to outnumber female migrants, and women are left to farm. Where migration is gender balanced, the sex ratio in the sending area may be stable, but gender division within individual households is upset. Children may be tended by grandparents in rural areas, when their parents find work in cities. Migrants in urban areas do not have the same rights as permanent urban household registrants and cannot send their children to school or use free or low cost health care. Migrants keep in close contact with home villages. Urban migrants without permanent household registration status face the loss of welfare benefits in urban areas as well as the high cost of purchase of a permanent residence permit, social discrimination, stigma from mass media portrayals, and poor housing. Most rural-urban migration is circular. Female return migrants bring back cash remittances and new family roles and status. Rural migrants are exposed to new urban experiences that are retold in rural areas and that may pose difficulties in readjustment to the hardships of rural life. Urban fertility is delayed and lower than that of rural fertility.

  3. Baseline Demographic, Anthropometric, Psychosocial, and Behavioral Characteristics of Rural, Southern Women in Early Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Jessica L; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M; Goodman, Melissa H; Olender, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    Objectives Beginning life in a healthy uterine environment is essential for future well-being, particularly as it relates to chronic disease risk. Baseline (early pregnancy) demographic, anthropometric (height and weight), psychosocial (depression and perceived stress), and behavioral (diet and exercise) characteristics of rural, Southern, pregnant women enrolled in a maternal, infant, and early childhood home visiting program are described. Methods Participants included 82 women early in their second trimester of pregnancy and residing in three Lower Mississippi Delta counties in the United States. Baseline data were collected through direct measurement and surveys. Results Participants were primarily African American (96 %), young (mean age = 23 years), single (93 %), and received Medicaid (92 %). Mean gestational age was 18 weeks, 67 % of participants were overweight or obese before becoming pregnant, and 16 % tested positive for major depression. Participants were sedentary (mean minutes of moderate intensity physical activity/week = 30), had low diet quality (mean Healthy Eating Index-2010 total score = 43 points), with only 38, 4, and 7 % meeting recommendations for saturated fat, fiber, and sodium intakes, respectively. Conclusions for Practice In the Lower Mississippi Delta, there is a need for interventions that are designed to help women achieve optimal GWG by improving their diet quality and increasing the amount of physical activity performed during pregnancy. Researchers also should consider addressing barriers to changing health behaviors during pregnancy that may be unique to this region of the United States. PMID:27146396

  4. Systemic inflammatory changes and increased oxidative stress in rural Indian women cooking with biomass fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Anindita; Ray, Manas Ranjan; Banerjee, Anirban

    2012-06-15

    The study was undertaken to investigate whether regular cooking with biomass aggravates systemic inflammation and oxidative stress that might result in increase in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rural Indian women compared to cooking with a cleaner fuel like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). A total of 635 women (median age 36 years) who cooked with biomass and 452 age-matched control women who cooked with LPG were enrolled. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured by ELISA. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by leukocytes was measured by flow cytometry, and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase (SOD) was measured by spectrophotometry. Hypertension was diagnosed following the Seventh Report of the Joint Committee. Tachycardia was determined as pulse rate > 100 beats per minute. Particulate matter of diameter less than 10 and 2.5 μm (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}, respectively) in cooking areas was measured using real-time aerosol monitor. Compared with control, biomass users had more particulate pollution in indoor air, their serum contained significantly elevated levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and CRP, and ROS generation was increased by 37% while SOD was depleted by 41.5%, greater prevalence of hypertension and tachycardia compared to their LPG-using neighbors. PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} levels were positively associated with markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and hypertension. Inflammatory markers correlated with raised blood pressure. Cooking with biomass exacerbates systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, hypertension and tachycardia in poor women cooking with biomass fuel and hence, predisposes them to increased risk of CVD development compared to the controls. Systemic inflammation and oxidative stress may be the mechanistic factors involved in the development of CVD. -- Highlights: ► Effect of chronic biomass smoke exposure on

  5. Community health education for rural women: analysis of a training programme.

    PubMed

    Kaithathara, S

    1982-01-01

    A regional community health program established in South Orissa, India, is described. It was found that women are the best health workers and educators in rural areas since cultural beliefs are more deeply rooted among them, they look after the sick in the family, they can enter every house where men cannot, and the risk of malpractice and misuse of training is less with women. A cultural obstacle was that sickness among these people is considered a curse of the spirit of their ancestors. The 1st phase of the program is a live-in experience in which the trainees come together for training classes. The causes and treatment of nutritional deficiency diseases, especially malnutrition, early blindness, and anemia are discussed. Posters, charts, and tape recordings proved to keep their attention, as did analogies taken from their daily experience, and communication through song and dance. At the end of 3 weeks the women have to take a test and are then taken back to their villages by the staff of each health center. They have been found to communicate well with their own people, understood the difficulty of changing local beliefs, and did not need formal educational environments in order to communicate. The 2nd phase, after 3-4 months of work experience, is a training course providing them with a chance to share their experiences and gain a deeper understanding of society, teaching about the causes, effects, and treatment of common diseases, with emphasis put on health education, especially food preparation and diet. Also taught were basics of market values, social customs, and causes of poverty. The women again returned to their villages to conduct more in-depth health education. After 4 months, the women return for the 3rd phase in which they were taught home nursing and first aid, discussed social injustices, finances, and other topics. When they returned to their villages they were able to provide the people with medical, family, and personal help. Some went on to

  6. Seroprevalence of syphilis amongst pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in a rural hospital in north west Ethiopia.

    PubMed Central

    Azeze, B; Fantahun, M; Kidan, K G; Haile, T

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the seroprevalence of syphilis in pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics in a rural hospital in Ethiopia and describe their characteristics so that timely and effective care can be offered. SUBJECTS--Pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics at a rural hospital. METHODS--A cross sectional study was conducted at a rural hospital in north west Ethiopia in September 1994. Data were collected on socio demographic characteristics and past history of sexually transmitted diseases of antenatal care attenders from the records of the hospital. Sera from these pregnant women were examined for syphilis using the VDRL test. VDRL positivity was cross tabulated with socio demographic variables and past history of sexually transmitted diseases. RESULTS--Two hundred and seventy pregnant women were included in the study. Median age of the respondents was 25.2 years. A substantial majority were orthodox Christians (97.4%) and married (92.6%). Town dwellers constituted 58.2% of the antenatal care attenders. Only 4.7% of the women started attending antenatal care clinics during the first trimester. Thirty seven women (13.7%) were found to be VDRL positive. Past history of sexually transmitted diseases was significantly associated with VDRL positivity (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS--High VDRL positivity rate is observed in this study. Certain risk factors may be responsible for current and past episodes of sexually transmitted diseases. There is a need for improvement of antenatal care activities at different levels of health care. Appropriate strategies should be devised for prevention and control of sexually transmitted diseases in women of reproductive age groups and the general population. PMID:8566970

  7. Social context and drivers of intimate partner violence in rural Kenya: Implications for the health of pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Hatcher, Abigail M.; Romito, Patrizia; Odero, Merab; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Onono, Maricianah; Turan, Janet M.

    2013-01-01

    More than half of rural Kenyan women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) in their lifetime. Beyond physical consequences, IPV indirectly worsens maternal health because pregnant women avoid antenatal care or HIV testing when they fear violent reprisal from partners. To develop an intervention to mitigate violence towards pregnant women, we conducted qualitative research in rural Kenya. Through eight focus group discussions, four with pregnant women (n=29), four with male partners (n=32), and in-depth interviews with service providers (n=20), we explored the social context of IPV using an ecological model. We found that women experienced physical and sexual IPV, but also economic violence like forced exile from the marital home or losing material support. Relationship triggers of IPV included perceived sexual infidelity or transgressing gender norms. Women described hiding antenatal HIV testing from partners, as testing was perceived as a sign of infidelity. Extended families were sometimes supportive, but often encouraged silence to protect the family image. The broader community viewed IPV as an intractable, common issue, which seemed to normalise its use. These results resonate with global IPV research showing that factors beyond the individual – gender roles in intimate partnerships, family dynamics, and community norms – shape high rates of violence. PMID:23387300

  8. ‘My husband would not help me, so I was driving over there’: older rural women experiencing breast cancer with a non-supportive intimate partner

    PubMed Central

    Sawin, EM

    2011-01-01

    Introduction This article describes the experiences of older rural women diagnosed with breast cancer while in a non-supportive, and sometimes abusive, intimate relationship. Breast cancer is primarily a disease of older women, and in the USA, a higher percentage of rural women are more than 65 years of age compared with other geographical areas. Many women identify their intimate partner as an important source of support during cancer diagnosis and recovery, but little is known about how women deal with breast cancer while in a relationship self-described as difficult. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of nine rural women from community settings in western Virginia and West Virginia. Participants ranged in age from 55 to 84 years at the time of interview (mean 69 years). Age at diagnosis ranged from 53 to 71 years (mean 59.2). Relationship length ranged from 1 to 55 years (mean 28.5). Time between interview and diagnosis ranged from 1 to 31 years (mean 9.8). All were in heterosexual relationships. Breast cancer stage ranged from I to III. Data were analyzed using hermeneutic phenomenological analysis. Results Several themes emerged related to the experience of breast cancer with a non-supportive intimate partner in a rural setting. The themes were: driving, gossip, rural location as therapeutic, and community support. Conclusions Older rural women operating without the support of their intimate partner present to oncology treatment with unique challenges, particularly related to distance, financial stress, and sometimes heightened relationship stress. Rural women also reported rural strengths that aided them in their recovery. These findings indicate a need for complete assessments of social network and quality of intimate partner support in the rural oncology care setting. PMID:21142399

  9. A qualitative study of exercise in older African American and white women in rural South Carolina: perceptions, barriers, and motivations.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Sara; Oberrecht, Larissa; Bopp, Melissa; Kammermann, Sandra K; McElmurray, Charles T

    2005-01-01

    Six focus groups were conducted with underactive African American (n = 16) and white (n = 23) women aged 50 years and older, residing in a nonmetropolitan county in South Carolina, to examine perceptions, barriers, and motivators related to exercise. Transcripts were coded and codes were entered into NUD*IST to assist with organizing and reporting themes. Participants could not reach consensus on the frequency, intensity, and duration of exercise needed for older women, and emphasized that PA recommendations should consider age, health, and physical abilities. While benefits and barriers to exercise were similar to those found in other groups, the risk of "overdoing it," being "too old," and environmental barriers specific to rurality were unique. Exercise enablers were also similar to those found in other groups, but rural women discussed the role that the church played in supporting exercise. Other enablers included transportation, free facilities, and age-appropriate programs. Results indicate the need to tailor recommendations and advice to older women, and to consider the rural context in which they live.

  10. Psychosocial and perceived environmental correlates of physical activity in rural and older african american and white women.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Sara; Bopp, Melissa; Oberrecht, Larissa; Kammermann, Sandra K; McElmurray, Charles T

    2003-11-01

    African American and rural older women are among the least active segments of the population. This study, guided by social cognitive theory, examined the correlates of physical activity (PA) in 102 rural older women (41% African American; 70.6 +/- 9.2 years). In bivariate associations, education, marital status, self-efficacy, greater pros than cons, perceived stress, social support, and perceived neighborhood safety were positively associated with PA; age, depressive symptoms, perceived sidewalks, health care provider discussion of PA, and perceived traffic were negatively associated with PA. In a hierarchical regression analysis, the sociodemographic (R(2) = 23%), psychological (IR(2) = 9%), social (IR(2) = 6%), and perceived physical environmental (IR(2) = 9%) sets of variables were significant (p <.05) predictors of PA (model R(2) = 47%). In response to open-ended questions, most women cited individual and social factors as PA barriers and motivators; falls, injuries, and heart attacks were identified most often as risks. These findings support the importance of multilevel influences on PA in older rural women and are useful for informing PA interventions.

  11. Influence of Diet, Menstruation and Genetic Factors on Iron Status: A Cross-Sectional Study in Spanish Women of Childbearing Age

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Rojo, Ruth; Toxqui, Laura; López-Parra, Ana M.; Baeza-Richer, Carlos; Pérez-Granados, Ana M.; Arroyo-Pardo, Eduardo; Vaquero, M. Pilar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the combined influence of diet, menstruation and genetic factors on iron status in Spanish menstruating women (n = 142). Dietary intake was assessed by a 72-h detailed dietary report and menstrual blood loss by a questionnaire, to determine a Menstrual Blood Loss Coefficient (MBLC). Five selected SNPs were genotyped: rs3811647, rs1799852 (Tf gene); rs1375515 (CACNA2D3 gene); and rs1800562 and rs1799945 (HFE gene, mutations C282Y and H63D, respectively). Iron biomarkers were determined and cluster analysis was performed. Differences among clusters in dietary intake, menstrual blood loss parameters and genotype frequencies distribution were studied. A categorical regression was performed to identify factors associated with cluster belonging. Three clusters were identified: women with poor iron status close to developing iron deficiency anemia (Cluster 1, n = 26); women with mild iron deficiency (Cluster 2, n = 59) and women with normal iron status (Cluster 3, n = 57). Three independent factors, red meat consumption, MBLC and mutation C282Y, were included in the model that better explained cluster belonging (R2 = 0.142, p < 0.001). In conclusion, the combination of high red meat consumption, low menstrual blood loss and the HFE C282Y mutation may protect from iron deficiency in women of childbearing age. These findings could be useful to implement adequate strategies to prevent iron deficiency anemia. PMID:24663082

  12. Disparities in Prevalence of Cardiometablic Risk Factors in Rural, Urban-Poor, and Urban-Middle Class Women in India

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Indu; Gupta, Rajeev; Misra, Anoop; Sharma, Krishna Kumar; Agrawal, Aachu; Vikram, Naval K.; Sharma, Vinita; Shrivastava, Usha; Pandey, Ravindra M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Urbanization is an important determinant of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. To determine location-based differences in CVD risk factors in India we performed studies among women in rural, urban-poor and urban middle-class locations. Methods Population-based cross-sectional studies in rural, urban-poor, and urban-middle class women (35–70y) were performed at multiple sites. We evaluated 6853 women (rural 2616, 5 sites; urban-poor 2008, 4 sites; urban middle-class 2229, 11 sites) for socioeconomic, lifestyle, anthropometric and biochemical risk factors. Descriptive statistics are reported. Results Mean levels of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR), systolic BP, fasting glucose and cholesterol in rural, urban-poor and urban-middle class women showed significantly increasing trends (ANOVAtrend, p <0.001). Age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes and risk factors among rural, urban-poor and urban-middle class women, respectively was, diabetes (2.2, 9.3, 17.7%), overweight BMI ≥25 kg/m2 (22.5, 45.6, 57.4%), waist >80 cm (28.3, 63.4, 61.9%), waist >90 cm (8.4, 31.4, 38.2%), waist hip ratio (WHR) >0.8 (60.4, 90.7, 88.5), WHR>0.9 (13.0, 44.3, 56.1%), hypertension (31.6, 48.2, 59.0%) and hypercholesterolemia (13.5, 27.7, 37.4%) (Mantel Haenszel X2 ptrend <0.01). Inverse trend was observed for tobacco use (41.6, 19.6, 9.4%). There was significant association of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes with overweight and obesity (adjusted R2 0.89–0.99). Conclusions There are significant location based differences in cardiometabolic risk factors in India. The urban-middle class women have the highest risk compared to urban-poor and rural. PMID:26881429

  13. Association between education and domestic violence among women being offered an HIV test in urban and rural areas in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Abuya, Benta A; Onsomu, Elijah O; Moore, DaKysha; Piper, Crystal N

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between education and domestic violence among women being offered an HIV test in urban and rural areas in Kenya. A sample selection of women who experienced physical (n = 4,308), sexual (n = 4,309), and emotional violence (n = 4,312) aged 15 to 49 allowed for the estimation of the association between education and domestic violence with further analysis stratified by urban and rural residence. The main outcome of interest was a three-factor (physical, sexual, and emotional) measure for violence with the main predictor being education. Nearly half of all domestic violence, physical (46%), sexual (45%), and emotional (45%) occurred among women aged 15 to 29. After adjusting for confounding variables, women who resided in urban areas and had a postprimary/vocational/secondary and college/university education were 26% (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: [0.64, 0.86]), p < .001 and 22% (OR = 0.78, 95% CI: [0.66, 0.92]), p < .01 less likely to have experienced physical violence compared to those who had a primary education respectively. This was 17% (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: [0.73, 0.94]), p < .01 and 17% (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: [0.72, 0.96]), p < .05 less likely among women who resided in rural areas. A surprising finding was that women residing in rural areas with less than a primary education were 35% less likely to have experienced sexual violence (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: [0.43, 0.99]), p < .01 compared to those who had a primary education. These findings suggest that physical, sexual, and emotional violence were prevalent in Kenya among married and formerly married women. This study indicates that more research is needed to understand factors for HIV/AIDS among Kenyan women who have specifically tested positive for HIV or identified as AIDS-positive and the implications for women's health.

  14. Poverty, Food Insufficiency and HIV Infection and Sexual Behaviour among Young Rural Zimbabwean Women

    PubMed Central

    Pascoe, Sophie J. S.; Langhaug, Lisa F.; Mavhu, Webster; Hargreaves, James; Jaffar, Shabbar; Hayes, Richard; Cowan, Frances M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite a recent decline, Zimbabwe still has the fifth highest adult HIV prevalence in the world at 14.7%; 56% of the population are currently living in extreme poverty. Design Cross-sectional population-based survey of 18–22 year olds, conducted in 30 communities in south-eastern Zimbabwe in 2007. Objective To examine whether the risk of HIV infection among young rural Zimbabwean women is associated with socio-economic position and whether different socio-economic domains, including food sufficiency, might be associated with HIV risk in different ways. Methods Eligible participants completed a structured questionnaire and provided a finger-prick blood sample tested for antibodies to HIV and HSV-2. The relationship between poverty and HIV was explored for three socio-economic domains: ability to afford essential items; asset wealth; food sufficiency. Analyses were performed to examine whether these domains were associated with HIV infection or risk factors for infection among young women, and to explore which factors might mediate the relationship between poverty and HIV. Results 2593 eligible females participated in the survey and were included in the analyses. Overall HIV prevalence among these young females was 7.7% (95% CI: 6.7–8.7); HSV-2 prevalence was 11.2% (95% CI: 9.9–12.4). Lower socio-economic position was associated with lower educational attainment, earlier marriage, increased risk of depression and anxiety disorders and increased reporting of higher risk sexual behaviours such as earlier sexual debut, more and older sexual partners and transactional sex. Young women reporting insufficient food were at increased risk of HIV infection and HSV-2. Conclusions This study provides evidence from Zimbabwe that among young poor women, economic need and food insufficiency are associated with the adoption of unsafe behaviours. Targeted structural interventions that aim to tackle social and economic constraints including insufficient food should

  15. An exploration of rural and urban Kenyan women's knowledge and attitudes regarding breast cancer and breast cancer early detection measures.

    PubMed

    Muthoni, Ann; Miller, Ann Neville

    2010-09-01

    Many women in Kenya with breast cancer symptoms do not seek medical attention until their cancer is very advanced, leading to high mortality rates and a heavy cancer burden on the nation. In this study we employed eight focus groups with low- and middle-income rural and urban Kenyan women to explore their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors concerning breast cancer and its early detection measures. Topics for discussion were derived from the components of the Health Belief Model (HBM). Findings revealed a huge divide between urban middle-income women and all other groups with respect to knowledge of breast cancer and early detection measures. In addition, women viewed breast cancer as a highly severe disease. Perceived benefits of early detection measures centered around preparing themselves for what was assumed to be inevitable death. PMID:20677038

  16. Evaluation of the living with hope program for rural women caregivers of persons with advanced cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hope has been identified as a key psychosocial resource among family caregivers to manage and deal with the caregiver experience. The Living with Hope Program is a self-administered intervention that consists of watching an international award winning Living with Hope film and participating in a two week hope activity (“Stories of the Present”). The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the Living with Hope Program on self-efficacy [General Self-Efficacy Scale], loss and grief [Non-Death Revised Grief Experience Inventory], hope [Herth Hope Index] and quality of life [Short-Form 12 version 2 (SF-12v2)] in rural women caring for persons with advanced cancer and to model potential mechanisms through which changes occurred. Methods A time-series embedded mixed method design was used, with quantitative baseline outcome measures repeated at day 7, day 14, and 3, 6 and 12 months. Qualitative data from the hope activity informed the quantitative data. Thirty-six participants agreed to participate with 22 completing all data collection. General estimating equations were used to analyze the data. Results Herth Hope Index scores (p=0.05) had increased significantly from baseline at day 7. General Self Efficacy Scale scores were significantly higher than baseline at all data time points. To determine the mechanisms of the Living with Hope Program through which changes occurred, results of the data analysis suggested that as General Self Efficacy Scale scores increased (p<0.001) and Non-death Revised Grief Experience Inventory scores decreased (p=0.01) Herth Hope Index scores increased. In addition as Herth Hope Index scores increased (p<0.001) and Non-death Revised Grief Experience Inventory scores decreased (p=0.01), SF-12v2 mental health summary scores increased. Qualitative data suggested that through the hope activity (Stories of the Present) the participants were able to find positives and hope in their experience. Conclusions The Living with

  17. Ethnic differences in breast cancer prevention information-seeking among rural women: will provider mobile messages work?

    PubMed

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Wilson, Susan

    2014-09-01

    Although growing research supports cancer survivor information-seeking, little is known about breast cancer prevention information-seeking among women. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in breast cancer risk factor knowledge, information sources, and desired mobile messages among Hispanic and non-Hispanic rural women. Women were recruited to complete a survey at an imaging center during a mammography screening visit. A total of 156 women (mean age = 61, SD = 12.07) completed the survey. Breast cancer risk factor knowledge was significantly higher for non-Hispanic women compared to Hispanic women (p = .035). Television, magazines, and Internet were the most frequent information sources. Providers were the most frequent interpersonal information source. Nearly 87 % used cell phones and 47 % used texting. Hispanic women were more likely to desire breast cancer prevention cell voice messages (p < .001) and text messages (p = .001) compared to non-Hispanic women. No significant differences were found for text appointment reminders by ethnicity. Health educators and clinicians must promote mobile messages for Hispanics and non-Hispanics for mammography adherence, breast cancer prevention education, and best practices to manage screening appointments.

  18. [Nutritional status and dietary diversity in nomadic and sedentary rural women on the southeast bank of Lake Chad].

    PubMed

    Bechir, M; Schelling, E; Moto, D D; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J

    2011-12-01

    Malnutrition and undernourishment are widespread in the Sahelian region of Africa. The purpose of this study was to assess nutritional status and associated risk factors among nomadic and sedentary rural women on the southeast bank of Lake Chad. It was a repeated cross-sectional study based on semi-structured interviews and anthropometric measurements. A total of 734 women including 398 nomads and 336 sedentaries were randomly selected. Only non-pregnant women were included for calculation of the body mass index. Results showed a higher prevalence of malnutrition among nomadic women than sedentary women during the dry season: 48% (95% CI: 42-53) versus 16.2% (95% CI: 12-20). Obesity was observed in 4% (95% CI: 2.4-7) of sedentary women versus 0% of nomadic women. These rates were similar during the wet season. Malnutrition rates differed significantly (p<0.01) between the two groups within each season but not between seasons within each group. The average household dietary diversity score (HDDS) determined on a scale of 12 was low in both nomadic and sedentary women: 4.5 (95% CI: 4.4-4.6) and 5.1 (95% CI: 5.0-5.3) respectively. Malnutrition was significantly correlated with HDDS, number of children and ethnic group.

  19. The convergence of HIV/AIDS and customary tenure on women's access to land in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Tschirhart, Naomi; Kabanga, Lucky; Nichols, Sue

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the convergence of HIV/AIDS and the social processes through which women access customary land in rural Malawi. Data were collected from focus group discussions with women in patrilineal and matrilineal communities. Women's land tenure is primarily determined through kinship group membership, customary inheritance practices and location of residence. In patrilineal communities, land is inherited through the male lineage and women access land through relationships with male members who are the rightful heirs. Conversely in matrilineal matrilocal communities, women as daughters directly inherit the land. This research found that in patrilineal communities, HIV/AIDS, gendered inequalities embedded in customary inheritance practices and resource shortages combine to affect women's access to land. HIV/AIDS may cause the termination of a woman's relationship with the access individual due to stigma or the individual's death. Termination of such relationships increases tenure insecurity for women accessing land in a community where they do not have inheritance rights. In contrast to the patrilineal patrilocal experience, research on matrilineal matrilocal communities demonstrates that where women are the inheritors of the land and have robust land tenure rights, they are not at risk of losing their access to land due to HIV/AIDS.

  20. Some Factors Influencing Effective Utilization of Drinking Water Facilities: Women, Income, and Health in Rural North Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendie, S. B.

    1996-01-01

    In the examination of the implementation of rural drinking water facilities, not enough attention has been paid to analyzing the socioeconomic and political relationships that affect the effective utilization of the facilities, particularly as these relate to women in rural society. This paper suggests that much of the difficulty in instituting the utilization of safe water supply sources has to do with the rather low economic status of women—the main water collectors. Poverty consigns women to long periods of work in activities or jobs that bring little reward. This makes it difficult to effectively digest the messages delivered by program staff and limits the extent of usage of the safe water facilities.

  1. What Explains Divorced Women's Poorer Health? The Mediating Role of Health Insurance and Access to Health Care in a Rural Iowan Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavelle, Bridget; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Wickrama, K. A. S.

    2012-01-01

    Economic restructuring in rural areas in recent decades has been accompanied by rising marital instability. To examine the implications of the increase in divorce for the health of rural women, we examine how marital status predicts adequacy of health insurance coverage and health care access, and whether these factors help to account for the…

  2. Negotiating Peril: The Lived Experience of Rural, Low-Income Women Exposed to IPV During Pregnancy and Postpartum.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Camille; Schminkey, Donna; Milburn, Juliane; Kastello, Jennifer; Bullock, Linda; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Sharps, Phyllis

    2016-07-01

    This qualitative study of 10 rural women examines their lived experience of intimate partner violence during pregnancy and the first 2 postpartum years. In-depth interviews occurred during pregnancy and 4 times postpartum. A Heideggerian approach revealed "negotiating peril" as the overarching theme; sub-themes were unstable environment, adaptive calibration, primacy of motherhood, and numb acceptance. Some incremental shifts in severity of abusive situations were observed. Results elucidate the ambivalence with which these women view institutions that are designed to help them. Findings highlight factors that may explain why interventions designed to help often do not appear efficacious in facilitating complete termination of an abusive situation. PMID:26612275

  3. Negotiating Peril: The Lived Experience of Rural, Low-Income Women Exposed to IPV During Pregnancy and Postpartum.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Camille; Schminkey, Donna; Milburn, Juliane; Kastello, Jennifer; Bullock, Linda; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Sharps, Phyllis

    2016-07-01

    This qualitative study of 10 rural women examines their lived experience of intimate partner violence during pregnancy and the first 2 postpartum years. In-depth interviews occurred during pregnancy and 4 times postpartum. A Heideggerian approach revealed "negotiating peril" as the overarching theme; sub-themes were unstable environment, adaptive calibration, primacy of motherhood, and numb acceptance. Some incremental shifts in severity of abusive situations were observed. Results elucidate the ambivalence with which these women view institutions that are designed to help them. Findings highlight factors that may explain why interventions designed to help often do not appear efficacious in facilitating complete termination of an abusive situation.

  4. What Rural Women Want the Public Health Community to Know About Access to Healthful Food: A Qualitative Study, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Kristine; Peacock, Nadine R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Living in a rural food desert has been linked to poor dietary habits. Understanding community perspectives about available resources and feasible solutions may inform strategies to improve food access in rural food deserts. The objective of our study was to identify resources and solutions to the food access problems of women in rural, southernmost Illinois. Methods Fourteen focus groups with women (n = 110 participants) in 4 age groups were conducted in a 7-county region as part of a community assessment focused on women’s health. We used content analysis with inductive and deductive approaches to explore food access barriers and facilitators. Results Similar to participants in previous studies, participants in our study reported insufficient local food sources, which they believe contributed to poor dietary habits, high food prices, and the need to travel for healthful food. Participants identified existing local activities and resources that help to increase access, such as home and community gardens, food pantries, and public transportation, as well as local solutions, such as improving nutrition education and public transportation options. Conclusion Multilevel and collaborative strategies and policies are needed to address food access barriers in rural communities. At the individual level, education may help residents navigate geographic and economic barriers. Community solutions include collaborative strategies to increase availability of healthful foods through traditional and nontraditional food sources. Policy change is needed to promote local agriculture and distribution of privately grown food. Understanding needs and strengths in rural communities will ensure responsive and effective strategies to improve the rural food environment. PMID:27126555

  5. The influence of partnership on contraceptive use among HIV-infected women accessing antiretroviral therapy in rural Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Nieves, Christina I.; Kaida, Angela; Seage, George R.; Kabakyenga, Jerome; Muyindike, Winnie; Boum, Yap; Mocello, A. Rain; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Hunt, Peter W.; Haberer, Jessica E.; Bangsberg, David R.; Matthews, Lynn T

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine individual and dyadic factors associated with effective contraceptive use among HIV-infected women accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART) in rural Uganda. Study Design HIV-infected women enrolled in the Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes cohort completed questionnaires (detailing socio-behavioral characteristics, sexual and reproductive history, contraceptive use, fertility desires), and phlebotomy (October 2011–March 2013). We describe prevalence of effective contraceptive use (i.e., consistent condom use, and/or oral contraceptives, injectable hormonal contraception, intrauterine device, female sterilization) in the previous six months among sexually active, non-pregnant women (18–40 years). We assessed covariates of contraceptive use using multivariable logistic regression. Results 362 women (median values: age 30 years, CD4 count 397 cells/mm3, 4.0 years since ART initiation) were included. Among 284 sexually active women, 50% did not desire a(nother) child and 51% had a sero-concordant partner. 45% (n=127) reported effective contraceptive use of whom, 57% (n=72) used condoms, 42% (n=53) injectables, 12% (n=15) oral contraceptives, and 11% (n=14) other effective methods. Dual contraception was reported by 6% (n=8). Only ‘partnership fertility desire’ was independently associated with contraceptive use; women who reported neither partner desired a child had significantly increased odds of contraceptive use (aOR: 2.40, 95% CI: 1.07–5.35) compared with women in partnerships where at least one partner desired a child. Conclusions Less than half of sexually active HIV-infected women accessing ART used effective contraception, of which 44% (n=56) relied exclusively on male condoms, highlighting a continued need to expand access to a wider range of longer acting female-controlled contraceptive methods. Association with partnership fertility desire underscores the need to include men in reproductive health programming. PMID:25983013

  6. Utility of a mHealth App for Self-Management and Education of Cardiac Diseases in Spanish Urban and Rural Areas.

    PubMed

    de Garibay, Valentín González; Fernández, Miguel A; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; López-Coronado, Miguel

    2016-08-01

    Analyze the utility of a mobile health app named HeartKeeper in several groups of population and obtain conclusions to be applied to other similar apps. A questionnaire has been designed to evaluate the usage and utility of the HeartKeeper app. The questionnaire information was collected by collaborating cardiologists from 32 patients before and after they used the app. Patients were randomly selected with established quotas within interest groups, so that men and women, patients older or younger than 60 years old and patients living in urban or rural areas were equally represented. Using the appropriate statistical techniques we see that the HeartKeeper app was useful for patients as they qualify with 70 points (out of 100) the overall opinion of the app, it helps them remember more easily taking their pills with a mean improvement of 20.94 points (p < 0.001) and they perceive a global improvement of their health (8.28 points, p < 0.001). We also observe that these improvements do not depend, in general, on the area (urban or rural) where the patient comes from or on their sex. Although older patients needed more help to use the app and used it slightly less frequently, the improvements on several measures considered, such as remembering taking pills, breathing problems or trouble developing activities, depend significantly (p < 0.05) on age with older patients reporting higher improvements than younger ones. The results obtained with the sample of patients considered in this research prove the utility of the HeartKeeper app. This utility is similar in urban and rural areas and for patients of both sexes and, to some extent, depends on the age of the patient with older patients reporting slightly lower frequency of use but higher health improvements than younger ones. PMID:27329050

  7. Utility of a mHealth App for Self-Management and Education of Cardiac Diseases in Spanish Urban and Rural Areas.

    PubMed

    de Garibay, Valentín González; Fernández, Miguel A; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; López-Coronado, Miguel

    2016-08-01

    Analyze the utility of a mobile health app named HeartKeeper in several groups of population and obtain conclusions to be applied to other similar apps. A questionnaire has been designed to evaluate the usage and utility of the HeartKeeper app. The questionnaire information was collected by collaborating cardiologists from 32 patients before and after they used the app. Patients were randomly selected with established quotas within interest groups, so that men and women, patients older or younger than 60 years old and patients living in urban or rural areas were equally represented. Using the appropriate statistical techniques we see that the HeartKeeper app was useful for patients as they qualify with 70 points (out of 100) the overall opinion of the app, it helps them remember more easily taking their pills with a mean improvement of 20.94 points (p < 0.001) and they perceive a global improvement of their health (8.28 points, p < 0.001). We also observe that these improvements do not depend, in general, on the area (urban or rural) where the patient comes from or on their sex. Although older patients needed more help to use the app and used it slightly less frequently, the improvements on several measures considered, such as remembering taking pills, breathing problems or trouble developing activities, depend significantly (p < 0.05) on age with older patients reporting higher improvements than younger ones. The results obtained with the sample of patients considered in this research prove the utility of the HeartKeeper app. This utility is similar in urban and rural areas and for patients of both sexes and, to some extent, depends on the age of the patient with older patients reporting slightly lower frequency of use but higher health improvements than younger ones.

  8. Comparison of Socio-Demographic Characteristics of a Computer Based Breastfeeding Educational Intervention Among Rural Hispanic Women.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Ashish; Amadi, Chioma; Meza, Jane; Aguirre, Trina; Wilhelm, Sue

    2015-10-01

    Examine association between socio-demographic characteristics and breastfeeding knowledge, self-efficacy and breastfeeding attrition prediction among rural Hispanic women. 46 rural Hispanic women, aged 18-38 years were enrolled from Regional West Medical Center, Scottsbluff, Nebraska. Intervention (n = 23) and attention control groups (n = 23) received bi-lingual breastfeeding education using touch screen computer and printed educational material. Participants were enrolled during last 6 weeks of pregnancy. Follow up assessments were at days 3 and 7, weeks 2 and 6, and months 3 and 6 postpartum. More than half of participants were single and had 10-12 years of education. Less than half of them had ever breastfed their children. No differences in knowledge, self-efficacy and intent to breastfeed scores were seen between two groups. Significant positive association was seen between self-efficacy and intent to breastfeed. Self-efficacy is an important predictor of intent to breastfeed among rural Hispanic women.

  9. Reaching rural women: breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors and interest in Internet, cell phone, and text use.

    PubMed

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Wilson, Susan; Vilchis, Hugo

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors among rural women, the prevalence of Internet, cell, and text use, and interest to receive breast cancer prevention information cell and text messages. While growing literature for breast cancer information sources supports the use of the Internet, little is known about breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors among rural women and mobile technology. Using a cross-sectional study design, data were collected using a survey. McGuire's Input-Ouput Model was used as the framework. Self-reported data were obtained from a convenience sample of 157 women with a mean age of 60 (SD = 12.12) at a rural New Mexico imaging center. Common interpersonal information sources were doctors, nurses, and friends and common channel information sources were television, magazines, and Internet. Overall, 87% used cell phones, 20% had an interest to receive cell phone breast cancer prevention messages, 47% used text messaging, 36% had an interest to receive text breast cancer prevention messages, and 37% had an interest to receive mammogram reminder text messages. Bivariate analysis revealed significant differences between age, income, and race/ethnicity and use of cell phones or text messaging. There were no differences between age and receiving text messages or text mammogram reminders. Assessment of health information seeking behaviors is important for community health educators to target populations for program development. Future research may identify additional socio-cultural differences.

  10. Responses to and Resources for Intimate Partner Violence: Qualitative Findings from Women, Men, and Service Providers in Rural Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Odero, Merab; Hatcher, Abigail M; Bryant, Chenoia; Onono, Maricianah; Romito, Patrizia; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Turan, Janet M.

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is reported by one in five women globally, but the prevalence is much higher in East Africa. Though some formal and informal resources do exist for women experiencing IPV, data suggest that disclosure, help seeking, and subsequent utilization of these resources are often hindered by socio-cultural, economic, and institutional factors. This paper explores actions taken by victims, available support services, and barriers to utilization of available IPV resources by pregnant women in rural Nyanza, Kenya. Qualitative data were collected through 9 focus group discussions and 20 in-depth interviews with pregnant women, partners or male relatives of pregnant women, and service providers. Data were managed in NVivo 8 using a descriptive analytical approach that harnessed thematic content coding and in-depth grounded analysis. We found that while formal resources for IPV were scarce, women utilized many informal resources (family, pastors, local leaders) as well as the health facility. In rare occasions, women escalated their response to formal services (police, judiciary). The community was sometimes responsive to women experiencing IPV, but often viewed it as a “normal” part of local culture. Further barriers to women accessing services included logistical challenges and providers who were under-trained or uncommitted to responding to IPV appropriately. Moreover, the very sanctions meant to address violence (such as fines or jail) were often inhibiting for women who depended on their partners for financial resources. The results suggest that future IPV interventions should address community views around IPV and build upon locally available resources – including the health clinic - to address violence among women of child-bearing age. PMID:24255067

  11. Responses to and resources for intimate partner violence: qualitative findings from women, men, and service providers in rural Kenya.

    PubMed

    Odero, Merab; Hatcher, Abigail M; Bryant, Chenoia; Onono, Maricianah; Romito, Patrizia; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Turan, Janet M

    2014-03-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is reported by one in three women globally, but the prevalence is much higher in East Africa. Though some formal and informal resources do exist for women experiencing IPV, data suggest that disclosure, help seeking, and subsequent utilization of these resources are often hindered by sociocultural, economic, and institutional factors. This article explores actions taken by victims, available support services, and barriers to the utilization of available IPV resources by pregnant women in rural Nyanza, Kenya. Qualitative data were collected through nine focus group discussions and 20 in-depth interviews with pregnant women, partners or male relatives of pregnant women, and service providers. Data were managed in NVivo 8 using a descriptive analytical approach that harnessed thematic content coding and in-depth grounded analysis. We found that while formal resources for IPV were scarce, women utilized many informal resources (family, pastors, local leaders) as well as the health facility. In rare occasions, women escalated their response to formal services (police, judiciary). The community was sometimes responsive to women experiencing IPV but often viewed it as a "normal" part of local culture. Further barriers to women accessing services included logistical challenges and providers who were undertrained or uncommitted to responding to IPV appropriately. Moreover, the very sanctions meant to address violence (such as fines or jail) were often inhibiting for women who depended on their partners for financial resources. The results suggest that future IPV interventions should address community views around IPV and build upon locally available resources-including the health clinic-to address violence among women of childbearing age.

  12. Child care hygiene practices of women migrating from rural to urban areas of bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Begum, Housne Ara; Moneesha, Shanta Shyamolee; Sayem, Amir Mohammad

    2013-07-01

    Children's hygiene is very important for better health but there is a paucity of studies in this area. This questionnaire study examined the child care hygiene practices of mothers of young children. A total of 354 women from slum areas of Dhaka city, Bangladesh, who migrated from rural to urban areas were selected for this study. The mean score on hygiene practice was 6.21 of 10 items (SD = 2.113). Low (score = 3) and high hygiene practice (score = 7-10) were practiced by 12.4% and 45.8% of participants, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that independent variables explained 39.9% of variance in hygiene practices. Eight variables have significant effect: participant's education (0.108; P < .05), time spent since marriage to first birth (0.030; P < .05), number of children (-0.105; P < .05), number of antenatal visits (0.319; P < .001), microcredit status (0.214; P < .001), breastfeeding (0.224; P < .001), husband's monthly income (0.146; P < .001), and household economic status (-0.0114; P < .05). The overall hygiene practice indicates the necessity of awareness building initiatives.

  13. Epidemiological Investigation and Risk Factors for Cervical Lesions: Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women in Rural Areas of Henan Province China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingwei; Xie, Wenyan; Wang, Feng; Li, Rong Hong; Cui, Lina; Wang, Huifen; Fu, Xiuhong; Song, Jiayu

    2016-01-01

    Background This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence of cervical lesions and evaluate risk factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) among women taking part in cervical cancer screening in rural areas of Henan province, China. Material/Methods Cervical cancer screening using the ThinPrep cytologic test (TCT) and gynecologic exam was conducted on 1315 women age 20–68 years in rural areas of Henan province, China. Colposcopy and biopsies were carried out for histopathologic diagnosis when indicated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to evaluate risk factors associated with cervical lesions. Results Among 1315 women screened, CIN prevalence detected by histopathology was 1.22% (0.38% of CIN 1, 0.76% of CIN 2, and 0.08% of CIN 3). Cervical cancer prevalence was 2.66%. Multivariate analysis confirmed risk factors for cervical lesions included older age (the 21–40 age group vs. the 41–66 age group, OR=0.13, 95% CI: 0.03~0.57), postmenopause (OR=0.11, 95% CI: 0.03~0.45), cervical inflammation (OR=0.06, 95% CI: 0.01~0.31), and smoking (OR=6.78, 95% CI: 1.20~38.23). Conclusions Older age (41–66 years), presence of HPV infection, postmenopause, cervical inflammation, and smoking are strong risk factors for cervical lesions among women in rural areas of Henan province, China. Particular efforts should be made to provide cervical cancer screening for these women. PMID:27249229

  14. SOLID FUEL USE IS A MAJOR RISK FACTOR FOR ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROMES AMONG RURAL WOMEN: A MATCHED CASE CONTROL STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Fatmi, Z.; Coggon, D.; Kazi, A.; Naeem, I.; Azam, I.; Kadir, M.M.; Sathiakumar, N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Almost half of the world’s population uses solid fuel for cooking, exposing women to high levels of particulate pollution in indoor air. We assessed the risk of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) among rural women, according to their use of solid fuel. Study design Matched case control study. Methods Data were collected at a public tertiary care hospital in a rural district of Pakistan. Seventy-three women with ACS were compared with controls, individually matched for sex and age (±5years), who were admitted to hospital for other reasons. Fuels used for cooking and exposures to potentially confounding variables were ascertained through a questionnaire administered at interview and measurement of height and weight. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results After adjustment for potential confounding factors, current use of solid fuel was strongly associated with ACS ( OR 4.8, 95% CI: 1.5 to 14.8), and risk was lowest in women who had last used solid fuel more than 15 years earlier. The population attributable fraction for ACS in relation to current use of solid fuel was 49.0% (95% CI: 41.3% - 57.4%). Conclusions These findings support the hypothesis that indoor air pollution from use of solid fuel is an important cause of ACS. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of case-control studies in rural populations of women to address this question, and is an encouragement to larger and statistically more powerful investigations. PMID:24342134

  15. Knowledge of malaria prevention among pregnant women and female caregivers of under-five children in rural southwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adebayo, Ayodeji M.; Cadmus, Eniola O.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The morbidity and mortality from malaria are still unacceptably high in the developing countries, especially among the vulnerable groups like pregnant women and under-five children, despite all control efforts. The knowledge about the preventive measures of malaria is an important preceding factor for the acceptance and use of malaria preventive measures like Insecticide Treated Nets (ITN) by community members. Therefore, this study assessed the knowledge of malaria prevention among caregivers of under-five children and pregnant women in a rural community in Southwest Nigeria. Methodology. This is part of a larger malaria prevention study in rural Southwest Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant women and caregivers of under-five children in Igbo-Ora, a rural town in Southwest Nigeria using a semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Information was obtained on knowledge of malaria prevention, and overall composite scores were computed for knowledge of malaria prevention and ITN use. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Associations between variables were tested using a Chi-square with the level of statistical significance set at 5%. Results. Of the 631 respondents, 84.9% were caregivers of under-five children and 67.7% were married. Mean age was 27.7 ± 6.3 years with 53.4% aged between 20 and 29 years. Majority (91.1%) had at least primary school education and 60.2% were traders. Overall, 57.7% had poor knowledge of malaria prevention. A good proportion (83.5%) were aware of the use of ITN for malaria prevention while 30.6% had poor knowledge of its use. Respondents who were younger (<30 years), had at least primary education and earn <10,000/per month had significantly poor knowledge of ITN use in malaria prevention. Majority (60.0%) respondents had poor attitude regarding use of ITNs. Conclusion. This study showed that the knowledge of malaria prevention is still low among under

  16. Knowledge of malaria prevention among pregnant women and female caregivers of under-five children in rural southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adebayo, Ayodeji M; Akinyemi, Oluwaseun O; Cadmus, Eniola O

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The morbidity and mortality from malaria are still unacceptably high in the developing countries, especially among the vulnerable groups like pregnant women and under-five children, despite all control efforts. The knowledge about the preventive measures of malaria is an important preceding factor for the acceptance and use of malaria preventive measures like Insecticide Treated Nets (ITN) by community members. Therefore, this study assessed the knowledge of malaria prevention among caregivers of under-five children and pregnant women in a rural community in Southwest Nigeria. Methodology. This is part of a larger malaria prevention study in rural Southwest Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant women and caregivers of under-five children in Igbo-Ora, a rural town in Southwest Nigeria using a semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Information was obtained on knowledge of malaria prevention, and overall composite scores were computed for knowledge of malaria prevention and ITN use. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Associations between variables were tested using a Chi-square with the level of statistical significance set at 5%. Results. Of the 631 respondents, 84.9% were caregivers of under-five children and 67.7% were married. Mean age was 27.7 ± 6.3 years with 53.4% aged between 20 and 29 years. Majority (91.1%) had at least primary school education and 60.2% were traders. Overall, 57.7% had poor knowledge of malaria prevention. A good proportion (83.5%) were aware of the use of ITN for malaria prevention while 30.6% had poor knowledge of its use. Respondents who were younger (<30 years), had at least primary education and earn <10,000/per month had significantly poor knowledge of ITN use in malaria prevention. Majority (60.0%) respondents had poor attitude regarding use of ITNs. Conclusion. This study showed that the knowledge of malaria prevention is still low among under

  17. 'We do the impossible': women overcoming barriers to cervical cancer screening in rural Honduras--a positive deviance analysis.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Jenna J; Barrington, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for women in Honduras, and sexual behaviour and low screening uptake are two major factors contributing to high rates of morbidity and mortality. A qualitative study was conducted to investigate barriers that prevent rural Honduran women from engaging in screening and ways that women overcome those barriers. This study examined examples of positive deviance, or individuals engaging in the uncommon but beneficial practise of screening. Amor por sí misma (self-love), and social support were identified as two constructs women employed to overcome barriers to screening. Participants defined self-love as the act of displaying care and concern for oneself and one's health and suggested that it compels women to participate in screening. Social support was defined as receiving tangible aid and advice from others that facilitated women's screening participation. Findings suggest that the concept of self-love could be used in future screening promotion efforts and that integrating social support would also be beneficial. Engaging men in sexual and reproductive health programming is suggested in order to ensure male partners offer social support for screening and to challenge the cultural, gender and sexual norms that place women at higher risk for cervical cancer.

  18. OBSTACLES TO FAMILY PLANNING USE AMONG RURAL WOMEN IN ATIAK HEALTH CENTER IV, AMURU DISTRICT, NORTHERN UGANDA

    PubMed Central

    Ouma, S.; Turyasima, M.; Acca, H.; Nabbale, F.; Obita, K. O.; Rama, M.; Adong, C. C.; Openy, A.; Beatrice, M. O.; Odongo-Aginya, E. I.; Awor, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Uganda’s rapid population growth (3.2%) since 1948 has placed more demands on health sector and lowered living standard of Ugandans resulting into 49% of people living in acute poverty especially in post conflict Northern Uganda. The population rise was due to low use of contraceptive methods (21% in rural areas and 43% in urban areas) and coupled with high unmet need for family planning (41%). This indicated poor access to reproductive health services. Effective use of family planning could reduce the rapid population growth. Objective To determine obstacles to family planning use among rural women in Northern Uganda. Design A descriptive cross-sectional analytical study. Setting Atiak Health Centre IV, Amuru District, rural Northern Uganda. Subjects Four hundred and twenty four females of reproductive ages were selected from both Inpatient and Outpatient Departments of Atiak Health Centre IV. Results There was high level of awareness 418 (98.6%), positive attitude 333 (78.6%) and fair level of utilisation 230 (54.2%) of family planning. However, significant obstacles to family planning usage included; long distance to Health facility, unavailability of preferred contraceptive methods, absenteeism of family planning providers, high cost of managing side effects, desire for big family size, children dying less than five years old, husbands forbidding women from using family planning and lack of community leaders’ involvement in family planning programme. Conclusions In spites of the high level of awareness, positive attitude, and free family planning services, there were obstacles that hindered family planning usage among these rural women. However, taking services close to people, reducing number of children dying before their fifth birthday, educating men about family planning, making sure family planning providers and methods are available, reducing cost of managing side effects and involving community leaders will improve utilisation of family

  19. Rural Australian women's legal help seeking for intimate partner violence: women intimate partner violence victim survivors' perceptions of criminal justice support services.

    PubMed

    Ragusa, Angela T

    2013-03-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a widespread, ongoing, and complex global social problem, whose victims continue to be largely women. Women often prefer to rely on friends and family for IPV help, yet when informal support is unavailable they remain hesitant to contact formal services, particularly legal support for many reasons. This study applies a sociological lens by framing the IPV and legal help-seeking experiences of rural Australian women gained from 36 in-depth face-to-face interviews as socially contextualized interactions. Findings reveal police and court responses reflect broader social inequalities and rurality exacerbates concerns such as anonymity and lack of service. Cultural differences and power imbalances between survivors and formal support providers are manifested to inform future research seeking to improve survivors' willingness to engage and satisfaction with formal services. Finally, the important role police and the criminal justice system play in de-stigmatizing IPV and legitimating its unacceptability is argued a crucial, yet unrecognized, key to social change.

  20. Applying the WHO recommendations on health-sector response to violence against women to assess the Spanish health system. A mixed methods approach.

    PubMed

    Goicolea, Isabel; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Minvielle, Fauhn; Briones-Vozmediano, Erica; Ohman, Ann

    2014-01-01

    This methodological note describes the development and application of a mixed-methods protocol to assess the responsiveness of Spanish health systems to violence against women in Spain, based on the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Five areas for exploration were identified based on the WHO recommendations: policy environment, protocols, training, accountability/monitoring, and prevention/promotion. Two data collection instruments were developed to assess the situation of 17 Spanish regional health systems (RHS) with respect to these areas: 1) a set of indicators to guide a systematic review of secondary sources, and 2) an interview guide to be used with 26 key informants at the regional and national levels. We found differences between RHSs in the five areas assessed. The progress of RHSs on the WHO recommendations was notable at the level of policies, moderate in terms of health service delivery, and very limited in terms of preventive actions. Using a mixed-methods approach was useful for triangulation and complementarity during instrument design, data collection and interpretation.

  1. Money isn't everything: rural physicians identify other factors that facilitate providing prenatal care for low-income women.

    PubMed Central

    Machala, M; Miner, M W

    1994-01-01

    The problem of physicians dropping the practice of obstetrics is becoming more serious each year in the United States. Those who remain in practice are increasingly reluctant to serve women who receive Medicaid assistance. Previous research has tended to focus on low reimbursement and liability as barriers that physicians perceive to providing prenatal care to low-income clients. In a 1992 survey in rural Idaho, however, physicians who have been serving these clients for at least 4 years rated other factors equally or more important in treating low-income women. These other factors, discussed in this paper, have to do with the administrative and psychosocial support coordinated by public health nurses for their internal clients, the physicians, as well as for their external clients, pregnant women. PMID:8190869

  2. Determinants of preference of source of injectable contraceptives among rural women in Uganda: a case study of Depo-Provera.

    PubMed

    Nakayiza, Olivia; Wamala, Robert; Kwagala, Betty

    2014-09-01

    Understanding preference of source of contraceptive commodities is essential in enhancing the delivery of family planning services. This paper identifies the determinants of preferred source of Depo-Provera among rural women in Uganda. The analysis is based on data sourced from a Save the Children and Family Health International study involving 642 women who were introduced to the contraceptive three years prior to the evaluation. Data were analyzed at univariate, bivariate and multivariate levels. Private sources were the most preferred of Depo-Provera as compared to public sources. Preference for private sources was more likely among older women (p < 0.05), those who had never experienced stock-outs of Depo-Provera (p < 0.01), and those who had obtained their last injectable from private sources (p < 0.01). These findings support the strategy of community-based distribution of contraceptives in enhancing access and utilization of family planning services in Uganda.

  3. The Effect of Brief Interventions on the Drinking Behaviour of Pregnant Women in a High-Risk Rural South African Community: A Cluster Randomised Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marais, Sandra; Jordaan, Esme; Viljoen, Dennis; Olivier, Leana; de Waal, Johanna; Poole, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of a series of brief interventions (BIs) on anti-natal alcohol consumption of women from a disadvantaged and high-risk background attending state health clinics in a rural district, Western Cape Province, South Africa. A pragmatic cluster randomised trial design was followed. All pregnant women,…

  4. Characteristics of African American Women and their Partners with Perceived Concurrent Partnerships in Four Rural Counties in the Southeastern US

    PubMed Central

    Ludema, Christina; Doherty, Irene A.; White, Becky L.; Simpson, Cathy; Villar-Loubet, Olga; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; O'Daniels, Christine M.; Adimora, Adaora A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Among African American women from four rural Southeastern counties, partner's concurrency was associated with intimate partner violence, and forced sex, but not economic benefit. Background To the individual with concurrent partners, it is thought that having concurrent partnerships confers no greater risk of acquiring HIV than having multiple consecutive partnerships. However, an individual whose partner has concurrent partnerships (partner's concurrency) is at increased risk of incident HIV infection. We sought to better understand relationships characterized by partner's concurrency among African American women. Methods A total of 1,013 African American women participated in a cross-sectional survey from four rural Southeastern counties. Results Older age at first sex was associated with lower prevalence of partner's concurrency (PR, 95% CI: 0.70, 0.57-0.87), but the participant's age was not associated with partner's concurrency. After adjusting for covariates, ever having experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) or forced sex were most strongly associated with partner's concurrency (PRs, 95% CIs: 1.61, 1.23-2.11; 1.65, 1.20-2.26, respectively). Women in mutually monogamous partnerships were the most likely to receive economic support from their partners; women whose partners had concurrent partnerships did not report more economic benefit than those whose partners were monogamous. Conclusions Associations between history of IPV and forced sex with partner's concurrency suggest that women with these experiences may particularly benefit from interventions to reduce partner's concurrency in addition to support for reducing IPV and other sexual risks. To inform these interventions, further research to understand partnerships characterized by partner's concurrency is warranted. PMID:26267876

  5. Marital Age Disparity Among Orphaned Young Women and Their Husbands: A Mixed Methods Study in Rural Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Iritani, Bonita J; Luseno, Winnie; Hartman, Shane; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Hallfors, Denise Dion

    2016-10-01

    Our study reports the results from a mixed method study comparing age-similar (AS) marriages of orphaned young women to age disparate (AD) marriages, defined as spousal age difference of 5 or more years. Research in Zimbabwe and sub-Saharan Africa suggests that AD sexual relationships between older men and young women increase the risk for HIV but few studies have examined this association among married couples or explored why young women marry much older men. In this study, a total of 35 orphaned young women aged 17-26 years in rural Zimbabwe participated in semi-structured interviews during 2012-2013. Twenty-four were in AD marriages and 11 AS. All had participated in a 5-year HIV prevention trial, during which they had married and dropped out of school. We examined two research questions: were AD wives more likely than AS to cite economic considerations as a reason to marry, and were AD marriages associated with different health and economic outcomes compared to AS? Our results showed that the reasons the women married were essentially the same among the two groups; economic considerations for marriage were uncommon. Nevertheless, AD wives generally fared somewhat better than AS wives on economic and well-being measures. HIV prevalence was similar; however, the AD group accounted for all five cases of herpes simplex virus-2. Findings suggest the complexity of sexual and reproductive health in rural Africa, where AD marriages are common and accepted. The challenge for primary prevention is to develop strategies to mitigate the risk of sexually transmitted infections, as well as the potential abuse of young women, within the appropriate cultural context. PMID:27614653

  6. Women in development: the road toward liberation.

    PubMed

    Rivera, P C

    1979-01-01

    Although women in the Philippines traditionally enjoyed considerable independence and equality, 3 centuries of Spanish colonialism greatly effaced their rights. The importance of the role women can play in development was highlighted at a recent consultation-workshop jointly sponsored by the FAO and the Population Center Foundation. Although 82% of Philippine women are literate, female education is accorded much less importance than that of males, and girls are often forced to discontinue their schooling early to help in housework. Rural Filipino women marry younger than their urban counterparts, and their fertility is correspondingly higher. Only 13% of rural women practice birth control. Participation of Filipino women in community affairs is mostly in social activities, although a few privileged women have gained elective office. The legal status of Filipino women is inferior to that of men in the areas of mixed marriage, choice of residence, parental authority, property rights, right to work, court suits, legal separation, and widow's rights. Labor force participation among women is only 1/2 that of men. As of 1975 only 0.6% of women workers occupied administrative or managerial positions. The National Commission of the Role of Filipino Women was created in 1975 as a coordinating body to promote the advancement of women in all levels of society to enable them to contribute more effectively to the development process. Specific programs carried out by government and private sector groups include extension education for women, basic skills training for income generating projects, community development, and population and family planning projects.

  7. Sustained use of biogas fuel and blood pressure among women in rural Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Neupane, Maniraj; Basnyat, Buddha; Fischer, Rainald; Froeschl, Guenter; Wolbers, Marcel; Rehfuess, Eva A

    2015-01-01

    Background More than two fifths of the world's population cook with solid fuels and are exposed to household air pollution (HAP). As of now, no studies have assessed whether switching to alternative fuels like biogas could impact cardiovascular health among cooks previously exposed to solid fuel use. Methods We conducted a propensity score matched cross-sectional study to explore if the sustained use of biogas fuel for at least ten years impacts blood pressure among adult female cooks of rural Nepal. We recruited one primary cook ≥30 years of age from each biogas (219 cooks) and firewood (300 cooks) using household and measured their systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Household characteristics, kitchen ventilation and 24-h kitchen carbon monoxide were assessed. We matched cooks by age, body mass index and socio-economic status score using propensity scores and investigated the effect of biogas use through multivariate regression models in two age groups, 30–50 years and >50 years to account for any post-menopausal changes. Results We found substantially reduced 24-h kitchen carbon monoxide levels among biogas-using households. After matching and adjustment for smoking, kitchen characteristics, ventilation status and additional fuel use, the use of biogas was associated with 9.8 mmHg lower SBP [95% confidence interval (CI), −20.4 to 0.8] and 6.5 mmHg lower DBP (95% CI, −12.2 to −0.8) compared to firewood users among women >50 years of age. In this age group, biogas use was also associated with 68% reduced odds [Odds ratio 0.32 (95% CI, 0.14 to 0.71)] of developing hypertension. These effects, however, were not identified in younger women aged 30–50 years. Conclusions Sustained use of biogas for cooking may protect against cardiovascular disease by lowering the risk of high blood pressure, especially DBP, among older female cooks. These findings need to be confirmed in longitudinal or experimental studies. PMID:25460655

  8. Mexican Women in Anahuac and New Spain: Three Study Units. Aztec Roles, Spanish Notary Revelations, Creole Genius.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Doris M.

    This guide contains three Latin American study units for students in junior and community colleges on the topic of Mexican women in Anahuac and New Spain. Objectives are to help the student read history, exercise empathy, think critically, stimulate interest in the study of women, and understand the dignity and fascination of the Mexican heritage.…

  9. Experiences and Status of Chinese Rural Women: Differences among Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slimmer, Virginia M.; Kejing, Dai

    In Old China, working women had no rights in such matters as politics, economy, culture, society, and family life. Women were governed by the Chinese feudal society tradition. When "new" China was founded in 1949, working women made up the 7.5 percent of the total work force. By 1983, the number of working women had increased to 36.5 percent. In…

  10. Familial Power and Women's Contradictory Responses to Attitudinal Questions About Intimate Partner Violence in Rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kimi N; Yount, Kathryn M; Schuler, Sidney Ruth

    2015-10-01

    Research is lacking on how power processes can influence women's reporting of their attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. Structural elements of textual data were investigated as potential evidence of latent power. Overall, the majority of the women switched their response at least once throughout the interview, and the context of these contradictory responses provide evidence that women's reporting of attitudes about IPV against women may be understood as arising in part from latent power processes. New methodological tools are needed to better understand women's personal attitudes about IPV against women.

  11. Health care and family support systems of functionally impaired rural elderly men and women in Terengganu, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tracy, M B; Tracy, P D

    1993-01-01

    This article examines the health and social support systems of a small survey sample of rural, low-income, functionally impaired elderly persons in the state of Terengganu, Malaysia. Increases in the number and proportion of the elderly are a growing concern, especially in rural areas where there are indications that traditional care givers (daughters) for the elderly are migrating to urban areas. The out-migration patterns in this survey, however, were less than expected. In general, the needs of the respondents are being met by multiple in-kind assistance from adult children, spouses, relatives, friends and neighbors bolstered by free government health care and cash assistance programs. The survey does raise serious concerns regarding the utilization of health care facilities by women, the negative impact of detrimental myths about aging, and the need for more visiting nurses and mobile clinics. PMID:24389755

  12. Decreased Anemia Prevalence Among Women and Children in Rural Baja California, Mexico: A 6-Year Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Moor, Molly A; Fraga, Miguel A; Garfein, Richard S; Harbertson, Judith; Rodriguez-Lainz, Alfonso; Rashidi, Hooman H; Elder, John P; Brodine, Stephanie K

    2016-08-01

    Anemia is a public health problem in Mexico. This study sought to determine the prevalence and correlates of anemia among women and children residing in a rural farming region of Baja California, Mexico. An existing partnership between universities, non-governmental organizations, and an underserved Mexican community was utilized to perform cross-sectional data collection in 2004-2005 (Wave 1) and in 2011-2012 (Wave 2) among women (15-49 years) and their children (6-59 months). All participants completed a survey and underwent anemia testing. Blood smears were obtained to identify etiology. Nutrition education interventions and clinical health evaluations were offered between waves. Participants included 201 women and 99 children in Wave 1, and 146 women and 77 children in Wave 2. Prevalence of anemia significantly decreased from 42.3 to 23.3 % between Waves 1 and 2 in women (p < 0.001), from 46.5 to 30.2 % in children 24-59 months (p = 0.066), and from 71.4 to 45.8 % in children 6-23 months (p = 0.061). Among women in Wave 1, consumption of iron absorption enhancing foods (green vegetables and fruits high in vitamin C) was protective against anemia (p = 0.043). Women in Wave 2 who ate ≥4 servings of green, leafy vegetables per week were less likely to be anemic (p = 0.034). Microscopic examination of blood smears revealed microcytic, hypochromic red blood cells in 90 % of anemic children and 68.8 % of anemic women, consistent with iron deficiency anemia.

  13. Testing the Feasibility of a Culturally Tailored Breast Cancer Screening Intervention with Native Hawaiian Women in Rural Churches

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soon H.; Ward, Margaret E.; Braun, Kathryn L.

    2010-01-01

    Native Hawaiian women are burdened by disproportionately high mortality from breast cancer, which is attributed to low participation in routine mammography. Mammography is proven to be an effective means for detecting disease at its earliest stages when treatments are most likely to be successful. Culturally-tailored screening programs may increase participation and Hawaiian initiatives call for screening innovations that integrate Hawaiian cultural strengths, including those related to spirituality and the extended family system. Before full-scale testing of tailored interventions, it is important to conduct feasibility studies that gauge community receptiveness to the proposed intervention and research methods. We report on the feasibility of delivering a church-based, breast cancer screening intervention tailored on the cultural strengths of rural-dwelling Hawaiians. Results establish the attractiveness and potential effectiveness of the intervention. Recruitment exceeded targets and retention rates were comparable to those of other randomized behavioral trials, confirming the value of reaching rural Hawaiian women through churches. Women appreciated the integrative approach of Hawaiian and faith-based values and positive outcomes are suggested. This article may be relevant to social workers interested in culturally-responsive, community-based interventions, as well to researchers conducting pilot studies and controlled trials of interventions adapted from evidence-based programs. PMID:21446609

  14. Exploration of Work and Health Disparities among Black Women Employed in Poultry Processing in the Rural South

    PubMed Central

    Lipscomb, Hester J.; Argue, Robin; McDonald, Mary Anne; Dement, John M.; Epling, Carol A.; James, Tamara; Wing, Steve; Loomis, Dana

    2005-01-01

    We describe an ongoing collaboration that developed as academic investigators responded to a specific request from community members to document health effects on black women of employment in poultry-processing plants in rural North Carolina. Primary outcomes of interest are upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders and function as well as quality of life. Because of concerns of community women and the history of poor labor relations, we decided to conduct this longitudinal study in a manner that did not require involvement of the employer. To provide more detailed insights into the effects of this type of employment, the epidemiologic analyses are supplemented by ethnographic interviews. The resulting approach requires community collaboration. Community-based staff, as paid members of the research team, manage the local project office, recruit and retain participants, conduct interviews, coordinate physical assessments, and participate in outreach. Other community members assisted in the design of the data collection tools and the recruitment of longitudinal study participants and took part in the ethnographic component of the study. This presentation provides an example of one model through which academic researchers and community members can work together productively under challenging circumstances. Notable accomplishments include the recruitment and retention of a cohort of low-income rural black women, often considered hard to reach in research studies. This community-based project includes a number of elements associated with community-based participatory research. PMID:16330373

  15. The relationship between lung function and indoor air pollution among rural women in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Umoh, Victor Aniedi; Peters, Etete

    2014-01-01

    Background: Burning of biomass is widely used by the rural poor for energy generation. Long term exposure to biomass smoke is believed to affect lung function and cause respiratory symptoms. Materials and Methods: Women with long term occupational exposure to burning firewood were recruited from a rural fishing community in Nigeria. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on symptoms of chronic bronchitis and spirometery was performed to measure lung function. Data obtained from the subjects was compared with that from healthy controls. Results: Six hundred and eighty six women were recruited for this study made up of 342 subjects and 346 controls. Sixty eight (19.9%) of the subjects had chronic bronchitis compared with eight (2.3%) of the controls (χ2 = 54.0, P < 0.001). The subjects had lower values for the lung function as well as the percentage predicted values (P < 0.05). Fish smoking and chronic bronchitis were significantly associated with predicted lung volumes. Conclusion: Chronic exposure to biomass smoke is associated with chronic bronchitis and reduced lung functions in women engaged in fish smoking. PMID:24778471

  16. Treatment differences between urban and rural women with hormone receptor-positive early-stage breast cancer based on 21-gene assay recurrence score results

    PubMed Central

    Andreason, Molly; Zhang, Chong; Onitilo, Adedayo A; Engel, Jessica; Ledesma, Wendy M; Ridolfi, Kimberly; Kim, KyungMann; Charlson, John C; Wisinski, Kari B; Tevaarwerk, Amye J

    2015-01-01

    Background Women who live in rural and urban settings have different outcomes for breast cancer. A 21-gene assay predicts 10-year distant recurrence risk and potential benefit of chemotherapy for women with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer. Objective To assess differences in scores and cancer therapies received by rural versus urban residence. Methods We conducted a multi-institutional retrospective chart review of breast cancer patients diagnosed 2005-2010 with score results. Comparisons by rural versus urban residence (determined by rural-urban commuting area (RUCA) codes derived from zip codes) were made using the Fisher exact test for discrete data such as recurrence score results (<18 vs >18; score range, 0-100, with lower results correlated with less risk of distant recurrence), stage, and receptor status. The Wilcoxon rank sum test was used for continuous data (score results 0-100 and age.) All tests were at a 2-sided significance level of .05. Results 504 patients had RUCA codes (92% white, 62% postmenopausal). For rural (n = 135) compared with urban (n = 369) patients, the median scores were 16 and 18, respectively, P = .18. Most of the patients received endocrine therapy, 123 of 135 (91%) rural, compared with 339 of 369 (92%) urban (P = .19). For scores 18-30, 20 of 56 (36%) rural patients, compared with 82 of 159 (52%) urban patients received chemotherapy (P = .03). Limitations Limitations include lack of randomization to receipt of the assay. Conclusions Recurrence score results did not significantly differ between women based on residence, although women living in a rural area received significantly less chemotherapy for scores >18. This suggests that for HR-positive breast cancer, discrepancies between rural and urban residence are driven by treatment factors rather than differences in biology. Funding Genomic Health Inc PMID:26029936

  17. Attitudes toward HPV Vaccination among Rural American Indian Women and Urban White Women in the Northern Plains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchwald, Dedra; Muller, Clemma; Bell, Maria; Schmidt-Grimminger, Delf

    2013-01-01

    Background: American Indian women in the Northern Plains have a high incidence of cervical cancer. We assessed attitudes on vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) in this population. Method: In partnership with two tribal communities, from 2007 to 2009, we surveyed women 18 to 65 years old attending two reservation clinics ("n" =…

  18. Las Mujeres: Mexican American/Chicana Women. Photographs and Biographies of Seventeen Women from the Spanish Colonial Period to the Present. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruthsdotter, Mary

    This booklet presents the lives of 17 Mexican American women and institutions that have made significant contributions to Mexican society from past to present day culture. The biographies cover the following women and institutions: Eulalia Arrila de Perez, Dona Maria del Carmen Calvillo, Jovita Idar, Maria Hernandez, Alicia Dickerson Montemayor,…

  19. Overweight and obesity among low-income women in rural West Virginia and urban Los Angeles County.

    PubMed

    Robles, Brenda; Frost, Stephanie; Moore, Lucas; Harris, Carole V; Bradlyn, Andrew S; Kuo, Tony

    2014-10-01

    We described the prevalence of overweight and obesity among low-income women in rural West Virginia (WV) and urban Los Angeles County (LA County). Both communities participated in the national Communities Putting Prevention to Work program during 2010-2012. In each community, we completed health assessments on adult women recruited from public-sector clinics serving low-income populations. All participants answered survey questions regarding socio-demographics and diets. In both jurisdictions, we assessed obesity using objectively measured height and weight (calculated BMI). As part of each community case study, we performed multivariable regression analyses to describe the relationships between overweight and obesity and selected covariates (e.g., dietary behaviors). Overweight and obesity were prevalent among low-income women from WV (73%, combined) and LA County (67%, combined). In both communities, race and ethnicity appeared to predict the two conditions; however, the associations were not robust. In LA County, for example, African American and Hispanic women were 1.4 times (95% CI=1.12, 1.81) more likely than white women to be overweight and obese. Collectively, these subpopulation health data served as an important guide for further planning of obesity prevention efforts in both communities. These efforts became a part of the subsequent Community Transformation Grants portfolio.

  20. A Survey Experiment of Women’s Attitudes about Intimate Partner Violence against Women in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Yount, Kathryn M.; Halim, Nafisa; Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Head, Sara

    2013-01-01

    According to the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in poorer countries, 50% of women of reproductive age report that wife hitting or beating is justified. Such high rates may result from structural pressures to adopt such views or to report the perceived socially desirable response. In a survey experiment of 496 ever-married women 18 – 49 years in rural Bangladesh, we compared responses to attitudinal questions that (1) replicated the 2007 Bangladesh DHS wording and portrayed the wife as transgressive for unstated reasons with elaborations depicting her as (2) involuntarily and (3) willfully transgressive. The probabilities of justifying wife hitting or beating were consistently low for unintended transgressions (0.01–0.08). Willful transgressions yielded higher probabilities (0.40–0.70), which resembled those based on the DHS wording (0.38–0.57). Cognitive interviews illustrated that village women held diverse views, which were attributed to social change. Also, ambiguity in the DHS questions may have led some women to interpret them according to perceived gender norms and to give the socially desirable response of justified. Results inform modifications to these DHS questions and identify women for ideational-change interventions. PMID:22956416

  1. Human papillomavirus DNA positivity and seropositivity in rural Chinese men and women: a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fangfang; Deng, Qiuju; Zhang, Chanyuan; Pan, Yaqi; Liu, Ying; He, Zhonghu; Sun, Min; Liu, Mengfei; Li, Jingjing; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Chaoting; Hang, Dong; Ning, Tao; Guo, Chuanhai; Liang, Yongmei; Xu, Ruiping; Zhang, Lixin; Cai, Hong; Ke, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Data on simultaneous analysis of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA and serology and the correlations within a single general population are limited. Among 1603 men and 2187 women enrolled from rural China, serum antibodies against bacterially derived GST-L1 fusion proteins of HPV were assessed with multiplexed serology and HPV DNA was evaluated with PCR-based sequencing. Few subjects were dually positive to HPV DNA and serum antibodies for any HPV (6.6% of men and 3.1% of women). The proportion of men ever having been infected with any HPV (DNA and/or antibody positive) was higher than that of women (71.0% vs. 65.2%, P < 0.001). Type-specific association was observed for genital HPV infection and HPV seropositivity among women but not among men. A positive correlation between the number of lifetime sexual partners and positivity for oncogenic HPV DNA and/or antibodies was found in men but was absent in women. Among 762 couples, the presence of HPV DNA and/or antibodies in one partner was positively associated with the identical HPV type in the other partner. These findings may reflect a site-specific natural course of HPV infection and further understanding of the epidemiology of HPV. PMID:27211017

  2. An investigation into the level of empowerment of rural women in the Zululand district of KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bhengu, B R

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the outcome of the empowerment of rural women in relation to gender issues, power, and communication within the Zululand District of KwaZulu-Natal in SouthAfrica after implementation of a four-year Primary Health Care project in partnership with the Provincial Department of Health, and two Schools of Nursing at the University of KwaZulu-Natal and McMaster University in Canada. This project is based on substantial evidence which reveals that rural women are being neglected to the extent that these women have missed out on opportunities for development. The reasons for this disempowerment of women, particularly rural women, are thought to be due to the feminisation of poverty, as well as female submission, educational deprivation, privacy of domestic violence, exploitation, domination by men and cultural oppression (patriarchy). A qualitative research approach was used. Focus group discussion was utilised as the data collection technique, and this was also applied during the collection of baseline data. An interview guide covered issues of concern in the communities and households, including what the women would, or had done about these, how they engaged in decision-making in their families, how they handled situations when there was a difference of opinion, and their awareness of, and ability to claim their rights, including control of their lives. The data was collected from six clinics, from groups of six to ten women in the predominantly rural Zululand District of KwaZulu-Natal. The project has revealed improvement in the women's realisation of their rights, albeit limited, in communication, self-confidence, and reliance, including partnerships between Primary Health Care Nurses and women's groups. The formation of women's groups facilitated community development and participation in their own health, socio-economic and emotional development. The project suggests that such groups be encouraged and allowed to network for

  3. Biological Status and Dietary Intakes of Iron, Zinc and Vitamin A among Women and Preschool Children in Rural Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Prevel, Yves; Allemand, Pauline; Nikiema, Laetitia; Ayassou, Kossiwavi A.; Ouedraogo, Henri Gautier; Moursi, Mourad; De Moura, Fabiana F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Food-based approaches such as biofortification are meant to sustainably address micronutrient deficiencies in poor settings. Knowing more about micronutrient intakes and deficiencies is a prerequisite to designing and evaluating interventions. Objective The objectives of the study were to assess biological status and dietary intakes of iron, zinc and vitamin A among women and children aged 36–59 months in rural Burkina Faso and to study relationships between intake and status to better inform future food-based interventions. Design A cross-sectional survey was carried out in two rural provinces of Burkina Faso on a random cluster sample of 480 mother-child pairs. Dietary data was obtained by 24-hour recalls repeated on a random sub-selection of 37.5% of subjects to allow calculation of nutrient’s probability of adequacy (PA). Biomarkers were measured on a sub-sample of 180 mother-child pairs. Blood samples were analyzed for hemoglobin, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), C-reactive protein, alpha-1-glycoprotein, serum zinc concentration (SZnC) and retinol. For each micronutrient the relationship between biomarker and dietary intake was investigated by multiple linear regression models accounting for inflammatory biomarkers. Results Mean PA for iron, zinc and vitamin A was 0.49, 0.87 and 0.21 among women and 0.61, 0.95 and 0.33 among children, respectively. Prevalence of anemia, corrected low serum ferritin and high sTfR was 37.6%, 4.0% and 77.5% among women and 72.1%, 1.5% and 87.6% among children, respectively. Prevalence of low SZnC and corrected low serum retinol was 39.4% and 12.0% among women and 63.7% and 24.8% among children, respectively. There was a tendency for a positive relationship between vitamin A intakes and serum retinol among women (β = 0.0003, P = 0.06). Otherwise, no link was found between micronutrients biomarkers and intakes. Conclusion Our study depicted different images of micronutrient deficiencies when

  4. Women's Midlife Transition Experience as a Function of Marital Status, Education, and Urban-Rural Residence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comfort, Helen Courtney

    Midlife transition is a potentially problematic time for all women, but especially for those who are unmarried, relatively less well-educated, and who do not reside in urban areas. Some studies suggest that unmarried women have more difficulty in identity formation and acceptance of their role by society. Married women whose children are nearly…

  5. Hyperuricemia is independently associated with left ventricular hypertrophy in post-menopausal women but not in pre-menopausal women in rural Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shasha; Yang, Hongmei; Guo, Xiaofan; Zheng, Liqiang; Sun, Yingxian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to estimate the relationship between hyperuricemia and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and to investigate whether menopause was associated with the relationship between hyperuricemia and LVH. This survey was conducted from July 2012 to August 2013. A total of 6029 women (3508, 58.2% were post-menopause) from the rural Northeast China were randomly selected and examined. LVH was defined using the 2007 Guidelines for the Management of Arterial Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Age, body mass index, glucose, estimated glomerular filtration rate and lipid level were significantly correlated with serum uric acid level. LVH showed a gradual increase in accordance with the serum uric acid level in entire study population (<4.0 mg/dL, 11.4%; 4 to <5 mg/dL, 14.9%; 5 to <6 mg/dL, 18.9%; ≥6 mg/dL, 27.4%; p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that hyperuricemia was a significantly independent risk factor for LVH in post-menopausal women [OR (95% CI): 1.367 (1.026, 1.821)], but not in pre-menopausal women [OR (95% CI): 1.290 (0.669, 2.486)]. These findings suggested that hyperuricemia can be used as a risk marker of LVH in a female population and, in particular, as an independent risk factor in post-menopausal women but not in pre-menopausal women.

  6. Constructs of power and equity and their association with contraceptive use among men and women in rural Ethiopia and Kenya.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Rob; Bartel, Doris; Rubardt, Marcie

    2012-01-01

    Using samples of reproductive aged men and women from rural Ethiopia and Kenya, this study examines the associations between two scales measuring balances of power and equitable attitudes within relationships and modern contraceptive use. The scales are developed from the Sexual and Reproductive Power Scale (SRPS) and Gender Equitable Male (GEM) scale, which were originally developed to measure relationship power (SRPS) among women and gender equitable attitudes (GEM) among men. With the exception of Ethiopian women, a higher score on the balance of power scale was associated with significantly higher odds of reporting modern contraceptive use. For men and women in both countries, a higher score on the equitable attitudes scale was associated with significantly higher odds of reporting modern contraceptive use. However, only the highest categories of the scales are associated with contraceptive use, suggesting a threshold effect in the relationships between power, equity and contraceptive use. The results presented here demonstrate how elements of the GEM and SRPS scales can be used to create scales measuring balances of power and equitable attitudes within relationships that are associated with self-reporting of modern contraceptive use in two resource-poor settings. However, further work with larger sample sizes is needed to confirm these findings, and to examine the extent to which these scales can be applied to other social and cultural contexts.

  7. Effects of cooking fuel smoke on respiratory symptoms and lung function in semi-rural women in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Mbatchou Ngahane, Bertrand Hugo; Afane Ze, Emmanuel; Chebu, Cyrille; Mapoure, Njankouo Yacouba; Temfack, Elvis; Nganda, Malea; Luma, Namme Henry

    2015-01-01

    Background: Indoor air pollution is a major health problem in the developing world. In sub-Saharan Africa more than 90% of people rely on biomass to meet their domestic energy demands. Pollution from biomass fuel ranks 10th among preventable risk factors contributing to the global burden of diseases. Objectives: The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and the factors associated with reduced lung function in a population of women exposed to cooking fuel smoke. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a semi-rural area in Cameroon. We compared forced respiratory volume between women using wood (n = 145) and women using alternative sources of energy (n = 155) for cooking. Results: Chronic bronchitis was found in 7·6% of the wood smoke group and 0·6% in the alternative fuels group. We observed two cases of airflow obstruction in the wood smoke group. Factors associated with lung function impairment were chronic bronchitis, use of wood as cooking fuel, age, and height. Conclusion: Respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function are more pronounced among women using wood as cooking fuel. Improved stoves technology should be developed to reduce the effects of wood smoke on respiratory health. PMID:25384259

  8. Husband-wife communication and status of women as a determinant of contraceptive use in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Kabir, M; Moslehuddin, M; Howlader, A A

    1988-03-01

    The study provides the socioeconomic status of women and factors which affect their choice of contraception using data collected from 423 working women in the Savan Upazila, Bangladesh. 72% of the sample included women under 30 years old, and 53% of the sample and attended primary school and were equal to their husbands educationally. 46.1% were employed in the garment industry, 13.8% in construction, 14/45% in services, and 17% in farm or hand craft activities. 80% lived in rural areas and did not own land. 600% were from a nuclear family. The average husband's income was Taka 1501. 18% had an affiliation with some organization. 42% were using contraceptives, and 58% discussed use of family planning (FP). 66% shared decision making with their husbands about their children's education and marriage. Logistic analysis is used to determine the probability of contraceptive use on the following independent variables: age, wife's education, membership in a society, contract with FP workers, participation in income-generating activities, visit of FP workers, visit of health workers, family type, husband's education and monthly income, and ownership of electricity. The results indicate that women working outside the house have improved their status in the family and the community, and this more equal status and the presence of good husband and wife communication are intervening variables through which economic and demographic factors effect fertility. Contract with FP workers was very closely related to use of contraceptives.

  9. Prevalence of domestic violence and associated factors among married women in a semi-rural area of western Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Gokler, Mehmet Enes; Arslantas, Didem; Unsal, Alaettin

    2014-01-01

    Objective : To determine the prevalence of domestic violence and associated factors among married women in a semi-rural area of western Turkey. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted between March 1 and April 29, 2011 on married women aged 15-49 years. Exposure to at least one of these types of violence at least one time within the past one year was regarded as the presence of domestic violence. Chi-square test and Logistic Regression analysis was used for statistical analysis. Results: Prevalence of domestic violence against women was found to be 39.0%. About 38,4% and 26.8% of women reported verbal and psychological violence respectively. The risk factors found for the domestic violence included youngest age group, an educational level of secondary/high school for men, form of the first marriage, number of children, alcohol and gambling habits of the husband. Conclusion: Our study found higher prevalence of domestic violence than expected. Verbal violence is also a significant problem particularly in terms of its consequences. It was concluded that further informative studies are needed on domestic violence to find out the causative factors to chalk out preventive strategies. PMID:25225532

  10. Knowledge, attitude and practice related to infant feeding among women in rural Papua New Guinea: a descriptive, mixed method study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the well-recognized effectiveness of exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of an infant life for reducing infant mortality, adherence to this practice is not widespread in the developing world. Although several studies on infant nutrition practices have been conducted in urban settings of Papua New Guinea (PNG), there is only scant information on infant feeding practices in rural settings. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate knowledge, attitude and practice associated with exclusive breastfeeding in various locations in rural PNG. Methods A mixed method study using interviews based on a semi-structured questionnaire (n = 140) and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) was conducted among mothers in rural PNG between August and September 2012. Participants were selected using convenience sampling. Included in the study were both primiparous and multiparous mothers with a child below the age of two years. Content analysis was used for qualitative data and descriptive statistics were used for quantitative data. Results Whereas most women indicated breastfeeding as a better way to feed babies, knowledge of the reasons for its superiority over infant formula was generally poor. Only 17% of mothers practiced exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months postpartum. Our study showed that the size of the gap between exclusive breastfeeding practice and global recommendations was striking. Taking into account the low educational profile of the participants, the disparity may be explained by the fact that most of the mothers in this study had no formal education on infant feeding. Conclusions This study showed a lack of understanding of the importance of and poor adherence to exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months postpartum among rural mothers. As exclusive breastfeeding promotion has been proved to be one of most effective ways to improve infant survival, more attention should be given to it, especially targeting the large

  11. Access to and use of sexual and reproductive health services provided by midwives among rural immigrant women in Spain: midwives’ perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Otero-Garcia, Laura; Goicolea, Isabel; Gea-Sánchez, Montserrat; Sanz-Barbero, Belen

    2013-01-01

    Background There is insufficient information regarding access and participation of immigrant women in Spain in sexual and reproductive health programs. Recent studies show their lower participation rate in gynecological cancer screening programs; however, little is known about the participation in other sexual and reproductive health programs by immigrant women living in rural areas with high population dispersion. Objectives The objective of this study is to explore the perceptions of midwives who provide these services regarding immigrant women's access and participation in sexual and reproductive health programs offered in a rural area. Design A qualitative study was performed, within a larger ethnographic study about rural primary care, with data collection based on in-depth interviews and field notes. Participants were the midwives in primary care serving 13 rural basic health zones (BHZ) of Segovia, a region of Spain with high population dispersion. An interview script was designed to collect information about midwives’ perceptions on immigrant women's access to and use of the healthcare services that they provide. Interviews were recorded and transcribed with participant informed consent. Data were analyzed based on the qualitative content analysis approach and triangulation of results with fieldwork notes. Results Midwives perceive that immigrants in general, and immigrant women in particular, underuse family planning services. This underutilization is associated with cultural differences and gender inequality. They also believe that the number of voluntary pregnancy interruptions among immigrant women is elevated and identify childbearing and childrearing-related tasks and the language barrier as obstacles to immigrant women accessing the available prenatal and postnatal healthcare services. Conclusions Immigrant women's underutilization of midwifery services may be linked to the greater number of unintended pregnancies, pregnancy terminations, and the

  12. A comparative study of factors influencing decisions on desired family size among married men and women in Bokkos, a rural local government area in Plateau state.

    PubMed

    Kahansim, Makshwar L; Hadejia, Idris S; Sambo, Mohammed N

    2013-03-01

    The total fertility rate of Nigerian women has remained high at 5.7. This is even higher for women in rural areas. Men and women in rural areas desire more children than those in urban areas. This study was aimed at describing and comparing the factors that influence family size decisions among men and women in Bokkos, a rural Local Government Area in Plateau state, Nigeria. A cross sectional descriptive comparative study was used. Data was collected using structured interviewer administered questionnaires. Seventy two percent of women and 83.6% of men who desire to have 1-4 children had at least a secondary school education. Close to seventy percent of both men and women would have fewer children if they are certain of their survival to adulthood. Over 50% of the respondents believe that the husbands should have the final say on family size decisions. Preference for male children influences decisions on family size among men and women in the study population.

  13. Knowledge about hepatitis B vaccination among women of childbearing age: a cross-sectional study from a rural district of Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Noreen, N; Kumar, R; Shaikh, B T

    2015-02-01

    Pakistan is considered as an intermediate zone of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, with an estimated population prevalence of 2-7%. This study assessed knowledge about HBV and vaccination among women of childbearing age in a rural setting of Punjab province, Pakistan. In 2012 a cross-sectional, community-based survey of 430 women was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire. Less than half of the women (43%) surveyed had correct knowledge about HBV vaccination, and knowledge was especially poor among the low socioeconomic groups. Age, level of education and obstetric history of the respondents were significantly associated with knowledge about HBV and its vaccination. The main sources of information regarding HBV vaccination were lady health workers (53%) and traditional birth attendants (22%). Health promotion and behaviour change campaigns highlighting the importance of hepatitis B vaccine need to be designed to meet the needs of rural areas where women have little exposure to the mass media. PMID:25876824

  14. Impact of an Asha intervention on depressive symptoms among rural women living with AIDS in India: comparison of the Asha-Life and Usual Care program.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Salem, Benissa E; Meyer, Visha; Ganguly, Kalyan K; Sinha, Sanjeev; Ramakrishnan, Padma

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this randomized pilot study is to conduct an intervention with 68 rural women living with AIDS to compare the effectiveness of two different programs on depressive symptoms. The trial was designed to assess the impact of the Asha-Life intervention engaging with an HIV-trained village woman, Asha (Accredited Social Health Activist), to participate in the care of women living with AIDS (WLA), along with other health care providers compared to a Usual Care group. Two high prevalence HIV/AIDS villages in rural Andhra Pradesh, which were demographically alike and served by distinct Public Health Centers, were selected randomly from a total of 16 villages. The findings of this study demonstrated that the Asha-Life participants significantly reduced their depressive symptom scores compared to the Usual Care participants. Moreover, women living with AIDS who demonstrated higher depressive symptom scores at baseline had greater reduction in their depressive symptoms than women with lower scores.

  15. Sociodemographic drivers of multiple sexual partnerships among women in three rural districts of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Exavery, Amon; Kanté, Almamy Malick; Tani, Kassimu; Hingora, Ahmed; Phillips, James F

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examines prevalence and correlates of multiple sexual partnerships (MSP) among women aged 15+ years in Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga districts of Tanzania. Materials and methods Data were collected in a cross-sectional household survey in Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga districts in Tanzania in 2011. From the survey, a total of 2,643 sexually active women ages 15+ years were selected for this analysis. While the chi-square test was used for testing association between MSP and each of the independent variables, logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Results Number of sexual partners reported ranged from 1 to 7, with 7.8% of the women reporting multiple sexual partners (2+) in the past year. MSP was more likely among both ever married women (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.40–10.49) and single women (AOR =6.13, 95% CI 2.45–15.34) than currently married women. There was an interaction between marital status and education, whereby MSP was 85% less likely among single women with secondary or higher education compared to married women with no education (AOR =0.15, 95% CI 0.03–0.61). Furthermore, women aged 40+ years were 56% less likely compared to the youngest women (<20 years) to report MSP (AOR =0.44, 95% CI 0.24–0.80). The odds of MSP among Muslim women was 1.56 times as high as that for Christians women (AOR =1.56, 95% CI 1.11–2.21). Ndengereko women were 67% less likely to report MSP compared to Pogoro women (AOR =0.33, 95% CI 0.18–0.59). Conclusion Eight percent of the women aged 15+ in Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga districts of Tanzania are engaged in MSP. Encouraging achievement of formal education, especially at secondary level or beyond, may be a viable strategy toward partner reduction among unmarried women. Age, religion, and ethnicity are also important dimensions for partner reduction efforts. PMID:25914557

  16. Validation of obesity based on self-reported data in Spanish women participants in breast cancer screening programmes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Measurement of obesity using self-reported anthropometric data usually involves underestimation of weight and/or overestimation of height. The dual aim of this study was, first, to ascertain and assess the validity of new cut-off points, for both overweight and obesity, using self-reported Body Mass Index furnished by women participants in breast cancer screening programmes, and second, to estimate and validate a predictive model that allows recalculate individual BMI based on self-reported data. Methods The study covered 2927 women enrolled at 7 breast cancer screening centres. At each centre, women were randomly selected in 2 samples, in a ratio of 2:1. The larger sample (n = 1951) was used to compare the values of measured and self-reported weight and height, to ascertain new overweight and obesity cut-off points with self-reported data, using ROC curves, and to estimate a predictive model of real BMI using a regression model. The second sample (n = 976) was used to validate the proposed cut-off points and the predictive model. Results Whereas reported prevalence of obesity was 19.8%, measured prevalence was 28.2%. The sensitivity and specificity of this classification would be maximised if the new cut-off points were 24.30 kg/m2 for overweight and 28.39 kg/m2 for obesity. The probability of classifying women correctly in their real weight categories on the basis of these points was 82.5% in the validation sample. Sensitivity and specificity for determining obesity using the new cut-off point in the validation sample were 90.0% and 92.3% respectively. The predictive model for real BMI included the self-reported BMI, age and educational level (university studies vs lower levels of education). This model succeeded in correctly classifying 90.5% of women according to BMI categories, but its performance was similar to that obtained with the new cut-off points. Conclusions Quantification of self-reported obesity entails a considerable underestimation of

  17. [Factors related to birth weight: a comparison of related factors between newborns of Spanish and Colombian immigrant women in Spain].

    PubMed

    Restrepo-Mesa, Sandra Lucía; Estrada-Restrepo, Alejandro; González-Zapata, Laura Inés; Agudelo-Suarez, Andrés A; Ronda-Pérez, Elena

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study is to establish differentials in birth weight (BW) and related factors, in term newborns (NB) of Spanish (SP) and Colombian (CO) immigrant mothers living in Spain, between 2001-2005. Data on the NB population of SP and CO mothers was retrieved from the National Statistical Bulletin of Birth in Spain. We analysed the association with BW (Low birth weight -LBW- insufficient weight -IW- macrosomia), by the nationality of the mother; taking into account variables such as the intergenesic interval, maternal age, number of live children, maternal occupation and sex of NB. The analysis was based on frequencies and the estimation of simple and adjusted odds ratios (OR) by means of logistic regression with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). A higher prevalence of LBW was found in SP mothers (3.4%) than in their CO counterparts (2.1%). In SP mothers a higher risk of LBW (aOR 1.89, 950% CI 1.65- 2.16) and IW (aOR 1.49, 95% CI 1.51- 1.57) was observed. In CO mothers a higher percentage of macrosomia was found (8.0%). Also, a higher percentage of LBW was observed in female new borns (SP4.1%; CO 2.7%) as well as IW (PI (SP 25.6%; CO 19.6%) (p < 0.001). Mothers aged > 40 years and having 4 or more children were associated with LBW in both nationalities. As a conclusion, NB of Colombian mothers presented a lower prevalence of LBW and IW, which could be explained by the healthy migrant effect.

  18. Uptake of Cervical Cancer Screening and Associated Factors among Women in Rural Uganda: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ndejjo, Rawlance; Mukama, Trasias; Musabyimana, Angele; Musoke, David

    2016-01-01

    Background In developing countries, inadequate access to effective screening for cervical cancer often contributes to the high morbidity and mortality caused by the disease. The largest burden of this falls mostly on underserved populations in rural areas, where health care access is characterized by transport challenges, ill equipped health facilities, and lack of information access. This study assessed uptake of cervical cancer screening and associated factors among women in rural Uganda. Methods This descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in Bugiri and Mayuge districts in eastern Uganda and utilised quantitative data collection methods. Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire on cervical cancer screening among females aged between 25 and 49 years who had spent six or more months in the area. Data were entered in Epidata 3.02 and analysed in STATA 12.0 statistical software. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results Of the 900 women, only 43 (4.8%) had ever been screened for cervical cancer. Among respondents who were screened, 21 (48.8%) did so because they had been requested by a health worker, 17 (39.5%) had certain signs and symptoms they associated with cervical cancer while 16 (37.2%) did it voluntarily to know their status. Barriers to cervical cancer screening were negative individual perceptions 553 (64.5%) and health facility related challenges 142 (16.6%). Other respondents said they were not aware of the screening service 416 (48.5%). The independent predictors of cervical cancer screening were: being recommended by a health worker [AOR = 87.85, p<0.001], knowing where screening services were offered [AOR = 6.24, p = 0.004], and knowing someone who had ever been screened [AOR = 9.48, p = 0.001]. Conclusion The prevalence of cervical cancer screening is very low in rural Uganda. Interventions to increase uptake of cervical cancer screening should be implemented so as to improve access to the

  19. Determinants of Poverty among Rural and Urban Women Who Live Alone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesinger, Doris P.; Cautley, Eleanor

    Using data from the 1980 Census Public Use Microdata Sample, this paper examines characteristics of women who live alone and incidence of poverty in this group. Results show there are two distinct subgroups among women who live alone: the elderly, most of whom are widowed; and the young, many of whom are single or divorced. For both groups, about…

  20. Measurement of Attitudes of Rural Women towards Self-Help Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meena, M. S.; Jain, Dilip; Meena, H. R.

    2008-01-01

    Self-help groups (SHGs) have emerged as an effective mechanism of empowerment and development of women as well as being on efficient mode of promoting group action and technology dissemination. Initiatives were undertaken at the Central Institute of Post-Harvest Engineering and Technology (CIPHET), Ludhiana to facilitate the formation of women's…

  1. Women's Time, Labour-Saving Devices and Rural Development in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Hazel R.; Browne, Angela W.

    1994-01-01

    Introduction of cereal mills in Gambian villages affected the lives of women and their communities in terms of women's access to the technology, the time and energy it saves, its sustainability, and their level of control. The energy saved enabled greater participation in the community, but they were still constrained by illiteracy and poverty.…

  2. Energy and women's economic empowerment: Rethinking the benefits of improved cookstove use in rural India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaward, James Nicholas

    International development organizations have recently ramped up efforts to promote the use of improved cookstoves (ICS) in developing countries, aiming to reduce the harmful environmental and public health impacts of the burning of biomass for cooking and heating. I hypothesize that ICS use also has additional benefits---economic and social benefits---that can contribute to women's economic empowerment in the developing world. To explore the relationship between ICS use and women's economic empowerment, I use Ordinary Least Squares and Logit models based on data from the India Human Development Survey (IHDS) to analyze differences between women living in households that use ICS and those living in homes that use traditional cookstoves. My regression results reveal that ICS use has a statistically significant and negative effect on the amount of time women and girls spend on fuel collection and a statistically significant and positive effect on the likelihood of women's participation in side businesses, but does not have a statistically significant effect on the likelihood of lost productivity. My analysis shows promise that in addition to health and environmental benefits, fuel-efficient cooking technologies can also have social and economic impacts that are especially beneficial to women. It is my hope that the analysis provided in this paper will be used to further the dialogue about the importance of women's access to modern energy services in the fight to improve women's living standards in the developing world.

  3. Perceived Leadership Practices of Rural Superintendents: Men and Women Who Lead.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Mike

    Conventional wisdom holds that there are gender-based differences in the practices of men and women in leadership positions. Stereotypically, men are seen as using a direct "command and control" style of leadership while women are assumed to be more collegial and collaborative. A review of the literature on differences in male and female…

  4. Training Women for Rural Employment in Fiji's Changing Economic and Cultural Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Adele M. E.; Waqanivalu, Makario

    1996-01-01

    A young women's employment program in Fiji focused on personal development, self-reliance, and small business development. The responsibilities of women's traditional roles and lack of capital and credit were difficulties encountered, but the human development sessions were most valued by the participants. (SK)

  5. Getting To Know the Internet in Rural Appalachia: Women's Ways of Knowing and Cultural Stereotypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Felicia

    1997-01-01

    A college English teacher describes a communications course in which Appalachian students, primarily women, learned basic Internet skills. Compares stereotypes of Appalachian people and women as ignorant or incompetent, and suggests ways that teachers can overcome stereotypical expectations and address the sources of student reluctance and fear of…

  6. Anemia in Cambodia: a cross-sectional study of anemia, socioeconomic status and other associated risk factors in rural women.

    PubMed

    Charles, Christopher V; Dewey, Cate E; Hall, Ann; Hak, Chantharith; Channary, Son; Summerlee, Alastair J S

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency and associated anemia are severe public health problems, which are prevalent in the developing world. We conducted a cross-sectional survey, comprised of written interview questions and laboratory analysis of blood biomarkers, in Kandal Province, Cambodia. The objective of this study is to examine possible factors that are associated with anemia in rural Cambodia. Data on socioeconomic status, water source/treatment practices, and meat consumption was also collected. Of the 297 women surveyed, 51.2% were anemic. Of those women found to be anemic, iron deficiency was implicated in 9.7% of cases (SF <15 ng/L), with an additional 18.5% reported to be borderline iron deficient (serum ferritin=15-30 ng/L). Meat consumption was very low, with nearly one-half of the women consuming meat one time per month or less. This study highlights the multi-faceted etiology of anemia in Cambodia and emphasizes the need for comprehensive nutrition surveying in order to better inform prevention and treatment programming and policy development.

  7. In search of attachment: a qualitative study of chronically ill women transitioning between family physicians in rural Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most Canadians receive basic health services from a family physician and these physicians are particularly critical in the management of chronic disease. Canada, however, has an endemic shortage of family physicians. Physician shortages and turnover are particularly acute in rural regions, leaving their residents at risk of needing to transition between family physicians. The knowledge base about how patients manage transitioning in a climate of scarcity remains nascent. The purpose of this study is to explore the experience of transitioning for chronically ill, rurally situated Canadian women to provide insight into if and how the system supports transitioning patients and to identify opportunities for enhancing that support. Methods Chronically ill women managing rheumatic diseases residing in two rural counties in the province of Ontario were recruited to participate in face-to-face, semi-structured interviews. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically to identify emergent themes associated with the transitioning experience. Results Seventeen women participated in this study. Ten had experienced transitioning and four with long-standing family physicians anticipated doing so soon. The remaining three expressed concerns about transitioning. Thematic analysis revealed the presence of a transitioning trajectory with three phases. The detachment phase focused on activities related to the termination of a physician-patient relationship, including haphazard notification tactics and the absence of referrals to replacement physicians. For those unable to immediately find a new doctor, there was a phase of unattachment during which patients had to improvise ways to receive care from alternative providers or walk-in clinics. The final phase, attachment, was characterized by acceptance into the practice of a new family physician. Conclusions Participants often found transitioning challenging, largely due to perceived gaps in support from the health care

  8. Recent abuse from in-laws and associations with adverse experiences during the crisis among rural Ivorian women: extended families as part of the ecological model.

    PubMed

    Falb, Kathryn L; Annan, Jeannie; Hossain, Mazeda; Topolska, Monika; Kpebo, Denise; Gupta, Jhumka

    2013-01-01

    Violence against women in the aftermath of conflict represents a growing area of concern. However, little is known about violence perpetrated by a woman's in-laws and how these experiences may be related to adverse experiences during a crisis. Therefore, guided by the ecological model, the objectives of the following analysis were to (1) document adverse experiences during the crisis among rural Ivorian women and (2) investigate the association between such experiences and abuse perpetrated by partners' extended families, among a sample of women residing in rural Côte d'Ivoire. Utilising data from a baseline survey conducted in 2010, we generated descriptive statistics and used generalised estimating equations to assess the relationships of interest. Women whose family was victimised during the crisis had 1.7 times the odds of reporting past-year in-law abuse compared to those women whose families did not experience such adversity (95% CI: 1.1-2.4), and women who experienced a personal form of adversity had twice the odds of reporting past-year in-law abuse compared to women who did not report victimisation (95% CI: 1.2-3.2). Being forced to flee was not statistically associated with in-law abuse. Findings underscore the importance of addressing in-law abuse in order to promote women's health in post-conflict settings. PMID:23826969

  9. Rural Elderly: Impact of Social, Psychological Health and Demographic Experiences on Adjustment in Women and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiden, R.; And Others

    An amended form of the Older American's Status and Needs Assessment Questionnaire assessed the prevalence of adjustment, as measured by the Bradburn Affect Scale, in a random stratified sample of 301 female and 140 male elderly rural residents in Allegany County, New York. The relationship between adjustment and biosocial, demographic, social, and…

  10. Influencing Self-Reported Health among Rural Low-Income Women through Health Care and Social Service Utilization: A Structural Equation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bice-Wigington, Tiffany; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Using structural equation modeling, this study examined the mesosystemic processes among rural low-income women, and how these processes subsequently influenced self-reported health. Acknowledging the behavioral processes inherent in utilization of health care and formal social support services, this study moved beyond a behavioral focus by…

  11. Impact of an Asha Intervention on Depressive Symptoms among Rural Women Living with AIDS in India: Comparison of the Asha-Life and Usual Care Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Salem, Benissa E.; Meyer, Visha; Ganguly, Kalyan K.; Sinha, Sanjeev; Ramakrishnan, Padma

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this randomized pilot study is to conduct an intervention with 68 rural women living with AIDS to compare the effectiveness of two different programs on depressive symptoms. The trial was designed to assess the impact of the Asha-Life intervention engaging with an HIV-trained village woman, Asha (Accredited Social Health Activist),…

  12. The Effectiveness of Videotape Programs as a Communication Tool in the Small-Scale Livestock for Rural Farming Women Project, Honduras.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Dean, Lynn

    This study examines economic development in Third World countries and the use of portable video systems in development projects. The study, conducted in 1985, attempts to measure the level of effectiveness of videotape programs as a communication tool for training rural subsistence women in Honduras in technical aspects of pig-keeping. Classical…

  13. On-the-Spot Course in Maseru, Lesotho on Income-Generating Projects for Rural Women: Framework of Community Development. July 10-30, 1983. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount Carmel International Training Centre for Community Development, Haifa (Israel).

    This report describes a community development course focusing on income-generating projects for rural women. The first section outlines the schedule of activities for each day of the 16-day course. The second section defines course objectives, including purpose and methodology, planning, group dynamics, cooperation, communication, negotiation, and…

  14. Patterns of Change and Continuity in the Language Attitudes of Several Generations in Two Bilingual Spanish Communities: The Rural Regions of Els Ports and Matarranya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez Martinez, Juan; Blas Arroyo, Jose Luis

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the language attitudes in the adjacent regions of Els Ports (in the province of Castellon, Spain) and Matarranya (in the province of Teruel, Spain) using the matched-guise technique shows that in both areas, Catalan and Spanish coexist today in a diglossic situation in which Catalan has instrumental values that are lower than those…

  15. [Spanish Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases guidelines on tuberculosis in pregnant women and neonates (ii): Prophylaxis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Baquero-Artigao, F; Mellado Peña, M J; del Rosal Rabes, T; Noguera Julián, A; Goncé Mellgren, A; de la Calle Fernández-Miranda, M; Navarro Gómez, M L

    2015-10-01

    In pregnant women who have been exposed to tuberculosis (TB), primary isoniazid prophylaxis is only recommended in cases of immunosuppression, chronic medical conditions or obstetric risk factors, and close and sustained contact with a patient with infectious TB. Isoniazid prophylaxis for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is recommended in women who have close contact with an infectious TB patient or have risk factors for progression to active disease. Otherwise, it should be delayed until at least three weeks after delivery. Treatment of TB disease during pregnancy is the same as for the general adult population. Infants born to mothers with disseminated or extrapulmonary TB in pregnancy, with active TB at delivery, or with postnatal exposure to TB, should undergo a complete diagnostic evaluation. Primary isoniazid prophylaxis for at least 12 weeks is recommended for those with negative diagnostic tests and no evidence of disease. Repeated negative diagnostic tests are mandatory before interrupting prophylaxis. Isoniazid for 9 months is recommended in LTBI. Treatment of neonatal TB disease is similar to that of older children, but should be maintained for at least 9 months. Respiratory isolation is recommended in congenital TB, and in postnatal TB with positive gastric or bronchial aspirate acid-fast smears. Separation of mother and infant is only necessary when the mother has received treatment for less than 2 weeks, is sputum smear-positive, or has drug-resistant TB. Breastfeeding is not contraindicated, and in case of mother-infant separation expressed breast milk feeding is recommended.

  16. [Spanish Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases guidelines on tuberculosis in pregnant women and neonates (ii): Prophylaxis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Baquero-Artigao, F; Mellado Peña, M J; del Rosal Rabes, T; Noguera Julián, A; Goncé Mellgren, A; de la Calle Fernández-Miranda, M; Navarro Gómez, M L

    2015-10-01

    In pregnant women who have been exposed to tuberculosis (TB), primary isoniazid prophylaxis is only recommended in cases of immunosuppression, chronic medical conditions or obstetric risk factors, and close and sustained contact with a patient with infectious TB. Isoniazid prophylaxis for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is recommended in women who have close contact with an infectious TB patient or have risk factors for progression to active disease. Otherwise, it should be delayed until at least three weeks after delivery. Treatment of TB disease during pregnancy is the same as for the general adult population. Infants born to mothers with disseminated or extrapulmonary TB in pregnancy, with active TB at delivery, or with postnatal exposure to TB, should undergo a complete diagnostic evaluation. Primary isoniazid prophylaxis for at least 12 weeks is recommended for those with negative diagnostic tests and no evidence of disease. Repeated negative diagnostic tests are mandatory before interrupting prophylaxis. Isoniazid for 9 months is recommended in LTBI. Treatment of neonatal TB disease is similar to that of older children, but should be maintained for at least 9 months. Respiratory isolation is recommended in congenital TB, and in postnatal TB with positive gastric or bronchial aspirate acid-fast smears. Separation of mother and infant is only necessary when the mother has received treatment for less than 2 weeks, is sputum smear-positive, or has drug-resistant TB. Breastfeeding is not contraindicated, and in case of mother-infant separation expressed breast milk feeding is recommended. PMID:25754314

  17. Hepatitis B surface antigen prevalence among 12 393 rural women of childbearing age in Hainan Province, China: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is highly endemic in China and it threats human health seriously. The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence among women of childbearing age plays an important role in mother to child transmission of HBV, as 30% ~50% of chronic carriers can be attributed to maternal-infantile transmission. However, there are few studies which have reported on the prevalence of HBsAg among women of childbearing age in China. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of HBsAg and its associated risk factors among rural women of childbearing age in Hainan, which is the highest hepatitis B virus endemic province in China. Methods A cross-sectional, population-based study, which included 12393 rural women aged 15 ~ 49 years, enrolled by a multistage stratified cluster sampling, was carried out in Hainan province, China, from November 2007 to December 2008. Blood samples were obtained from each study participant, and screened for HBsAg. Results The overall HBsAg prevalence of childbearing age women was 9.51%. Risk factors for HBsAg positivity among rural women were: lower education level (OR=1.206), lower family monthly income (OR=1.233), having an HBsAg-positive family member (OR=1.300), without an immunization history (OR=1.243), tattooing (OR=1.190), body piercing (OR=1.293), vaginoscopy history (OR=1.103) and history of induced abortion (OR=1.142). Conclusions There is a high HBsAg seroprevalence rate among rural women of childbearing age in Hainan province. Hence, it is necessary to take preventive measures to reduce the seroprevalence of HBsAg and to control its associated risk factors. PMID:23332007

  18. Livestock/Animal Assets Buffer the Impact of Conflict-Related Traumatic Events on Mental Health Symptoms for Rural Women

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Nancy; Perrin, Nancy A.; Kohli, Anjalee; Remy, Mitima Mpanano

    2014-01-01

    Background In the context of multiple adversities, women are demonstrating resilience in rebuilding their futures, through participation in microfinance programs. In addition to the economic benefits of microfinance, there is evidence to suggest that it is an effective vehicle for improving health. Methods The parent study is a community-based trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a livestock microfinance intervention, Pigs for Peace (PFP), on health and economic outcomes with households in 10 villages in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. The analysis for this manuscript includes only baseline data from female participants enrolled in the ongoing parent study. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine if livestock/animal asset value moderates the relationship between conflict-related traumatic events and current mental health symptoms. Findings The majority of women are 25 years or older, married, have on average 4 children in the home and have never attended school. Nearly 50% of women report having at least one livestock/animal asset at baseline. Over the past 10 years, women report on average more than 4 (M = 4.31, SD 3·64) traumatic events (range 0–18). Women reported symptoms consistent with PTSD with a mean score of ·2.30 (SD = 0·66range 0–4) and depression with a mean score of 1.86 (SD  = 0·49, range 0–3.47). The livestock/animal asset value by conflict-related traumatic events interaction was significant for both the PTSD (p = 0·021) and depression (p = 0·002) symptom models. Interpretation The study provides evidence of the moderating affect of livestock/animal assets on mental health symptoms for women who have experienced conflict. The findings supports evidence about the importance of livestock/animal assets to economics in rural households but expands on previous research by demonstrating the psychosocial effects of these assets on women's health. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT02008708 PMID

  19. Determinants of inter birth interval among married women living in rural pastoral communities of southern Ethiopia: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Though birth interval has beneficial effects on health status of the mother and their children, it is affected by range of factors some of which are rooted in social and cultural norms and the reproductive behaviors of individual women. However, there was limited data showed the determinants of birth intervals in rural pastoral communities of South Ethiopia. Therefore, the study was aimed to assess the determinants of inter birth interval among women’s of child bearing age in Yaballo Woreda, Borena zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Methods A community based unmatched case–control study with multi stage sampling technique was conducted from January to March 2012. Cases were women with two subsequent birth intervals of less than three years and controls were women with two subsequent birth intervals between three and above years. Simple random sampling technique was employed to select six hundred fifty two (326 cases and 326 controls) study subjects. All explanatory variables that were associated with the outcome variable (birth interval) during bivariate analysis were included in the final logistic model. Multivariable backward logistic regression when P values less than or equal to 0.05 and 95% CI were used to determine independent determinants for the outcome of interest. Results The median duration of birth interval was 31 & 40 months among cases and controls respectively. Variables such as number of children (AOR 3.73 95% CI: (1.50, 9.25), use of modern contraceptives (AOR 5.91 95% CI: (4.02, 8.69), mothers’ educational status (AOR 1.89 95% CI: (1.15, 3.37), and sex of the child (AOR 1.72 95% CI: (1.17, 2.52) were significantly associated with birth intervals. Conclusions Concerted efforts to encourage modern contraceptive use, women education, and breastfeeding should be made. PMID:23688144

  20. Transactional sex amongst young people in rural northern Tanzania: an ethnography of young women's motivations and negotiation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Material exchange for sex (transactional sex) may be important to sexual relationships and health in certain cultures, yet the motivations for transactional sex, its scale and consequences are still little understood. The aim of this paper is to examine young women's motivations to exchange sex for gifts or money, the way in which they negotiate transactional sex throughout their relationships, and the implications of these negotiations for the HIV epidemic. Method An ethnographic research design was used, with information collected primarily using participant observation and in-depth interviews in a rural community in North Western Tanzania. The qualitative approach was complemented by an innovative assisted self-completion questionnaire. Findings Transactional sex underlay most non-marital relationships and was not, per se, perceived as immoral. However, women's motivations varied, for instance: escaping intense poverty, seeking beauty products or accumulating business capital. There was also strong pressure from peers to engage in transactional sex, in particular to consume like others and avoid ridicule for inadequate remuneration. Macro-level factors shaping transactional sex (e.g. economic, kinship and normative factors) overwhelmingly benefited men, but at a micro-level there were different dimensions of power, stemming from individual attributes and immediate circumstances, some of which benefited women. Young women actively used their sexuality as an economic resource, often entering into relationships primarily for economic gain. Conclusion Transactional sex is likely to increase the risk of HIV by providing a dynamic for partner change, making more affluent, higher risk men more desirable, and creating further barriers to condom use. Behavioural interventions should directly address how embedded transactional sex is in sexual culture. PMID:20429913

  1. Immune cells and cardiovascular health in premenopausal women of rural India chronically exposed to biomass smoke during daily household cooking.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Anindita; Bhattacharya, Purba; Lahiri, Twisha; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2012-11-01

    Changes in cells of the immune system are important indicators of systemic response of the body to air pollution. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunological changes in rural women who have been cooking exclusively with biomass for the past 5 years or more and compare the findings with women cooking exclusively with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the associations between indices of indoor air pollution (IAP) and a set of immune assays. Biomass users illustrated marked suppression in the total number of T-helper (CD4+) cells and B (CD19+) cells while appreciable rise was documented in the number of CD8+ T-cytotoxic cells and CD16+CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells. A consistent finding among biomass users was rise in regulatory T (Treg) cells. Among biomass users, peripheral lymphocyte subpopulations, Treg cells, and the number of typical monocytes (CD16-CD64+ cells), antigen presenting types (CD16+CD64- cells) and plasmacytoid cells (CD16-CD64- cells) were found to be significantly altered in those who daily cooked with dung in comparison to wood and crop residue users (p<0.05). Biomass users who cooked in kitchens adjacent to their living areas had significant changes in peripheral lymphocyte subpopulations, typical monocytes (CD16-CD64+) with high phagocytic activity and antigen presenting monocytes (CD16+CD64-) against women who cooked in separate kitchens (p<0.01). This study has shown that women who cooked exclusively with biomass fuel had alterations in immune defense compared with their neighbors who cooked with LPG. PMID:23010103

  2. Immune cells and cardiovascular health in premenopausal women of rural India chronically exposed to biomass smoke during daily household cooking.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Anindita; Bhattacharya, Purba; Lahiri, Twisha; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2012-11-01

    Changes in cells of the immune system are important indicators of systemic response of the body to air pollution. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunological changes in rural women who have been cooking exclusively with biomass for the past 5 years or more and compare the findings with women cooking exclusively with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the associations between indices of indoor air pollution (IAP) and a set of immune assays. Biomass users illustrated marked suppression in the total number of T-helper (CD4+) cells and B (CD19+) cells while appreciable rise was documented in the number of CD8+ T-cytotoxic cells and CD16+CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells. A consistent finding among biomass users was rise in regulatory T (Treg) cells. Among biomass users, peripheral lymphocyte subpopulations, Treg cells, and the number of typical monocytes (CD16-CD64+ cells), antigen presenting types (CD16+CD64- cells) and plasmacytoid cells (CD16-CD64- cells) were found to be significantly altered in those who daily cooked with dung in comparison to wood and crop residue users (p<0.05). Biomass users who cooked in kitchens adjacent to their living areas had significant changes in peripheral lymphocyte subpopulations, typical monocytes (CD16-CD64+) with high phagocytic activity and antigen presenting monocytes (CD16+CD64-) against women who cooked in separate kitchens (p<0.01). This study has shown that women who cooked exclusively with biomass fuel had alterations in immune defense compared with their neighbors who cooked with LPG.

  3. Culture as a barrier to rural women's entrepreneurship: experience from Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Chitsike, C

    2000-03-01

    This article identifies the important issues addressed by programs and projects that are aimed at promoting women's equality through entrepreneurship and suggests several actions for future focus of gender programs and training. Culture was seen as a barrier to the self-confident and autonomous economic activities of women in Zimbabwe. Likewise, structural barriers such as lack of marketable skills, time and ability to travel, land and assets, education, and position as primary family providers all compounded to the problem of entrepreneurship among women. Establishment of policy approaches for women like vocational skills training augmented by training in business skills and marketing, however, are insufficient since it failed to discuss and transfer behavioral skills necessary to make one an entrepreneur. To conclude, programs must be designed to empower personal skills and self-awareness, as well as address the constraints to entrepreneurship, and macroeconomic policy change. PMID:12349641

  4. Problem of mortality in women of reproductive age in rural area of Haryana.

    PubMed

    Lal, S; Satpathy, S; Khanna, P; Vashisht, B M; Punia, M S; Kumar, S

    1995-01-01

    To learn the extent of mortality among women of reproductive age, data was analyzed on causes of death, as reported by anganwadi workers and heads of households, for all maternal deaths in 1992 in Haryana, India. The community was comprised of 300,907 persons and 58,961 women (19.6%) of reproductive age. 9894 live births were recorded, which is higher than the national average. 219 women died in 1992 from maternal and nonmaternal causes (3.7 per 1000 women). In the study blocks (Rohtak, Chiri, and Kathure) the range of mortality was from 3.4 to 4.1 per 1000. 78.5% (172 deaths) were considered nonmaternal deaths. Mortality was 20.9% among mothers 15-20 years old, 25.6% among mothers 20-25 years old, and 18.6% among mothers 25-30 years old. 65.1% of women died at home. 58.1% sought medical care prior to death. 1.2% of deaths were certified. 36.7% of deaths were to literate women, and the remaining 63.3% were illiterate. Causes of nonmaternal death included accidents, respiratory disorders, poisoning, and digestive disorders. Slightly over 20% of accidental deaths were due to burns and suicide. 21.46% (47 deaths) were maternal deaths (475 per 100,000 live births). Maternal mortality ranged from 46 to 488 in the 3 blocks. Rohtak had the highest maternal mortality. Maternal mortality was highest among women 30-44 years old (996 per 100,000), followed by women 15-20 years old (575 per 100,000). 21.3% died during labor and delivery, and 68% died during the postpartum period. 57.4% died at home, and 25.5% died at the Medical College Hospital. 61.7% used prenatal services. 36.2% did not seek medical care prior to their death. 55.3% of deliveries were by trained birth attendants. 25.5% died with their first births. 51.0% of women with a birth interval under 3 years died. Maternal mortality was distributed by cause as follows: postpartum hemorrhage (17.0%), puerperal sepsis (17.0%), anemia (12.8%), preeclampsia and eclampsia (14.9%), obstructed labor (6.4%), hemorrhage

  5. [Spanish Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases guidelines on tuberculosis in pregnant women and neonates (i): Epidemiology and diagnosis. Congenital tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Baquero-Artigao, F; Mellado Peña, M J; Del Rosal Rabes, T; Noguera Julián, A; Goncé Mellgren, A; de la Calle Fernández-Miranda, M; Navarro Gómez, M L

    2015-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) screening in pregnancy using tuberculin skin test (TST) is recommended in case of symptoms of TB disease, close contact with a patient with infectious TB, or high risk of developing active disease. The new interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) tests are recommended in BCG-vaccinated pregnant women with positive TST and no known risk factors for TB, and in those immunocompromised, with clinical suspicion of TB but negative TST. TB diagnosis is difficult due to the non-specific symptoms, the increased frequency of extrapulmonary disease, the delay in radiological examinations, and the high rate of tuberculin anergy. Neonatal TB can be acquired in utero (congenital TB), or through airborne transmission after delivery (postnatal TB). Congenital TB is extremely rare and does not cause fetal malformations. It may be evident at birth, although it usually presents after the second week of life. In newborns with no family history of TB, the disease should be considered in cases of miliary pneumonia, hepatosplenomegaly with focal lesions, or lymphocytic meningitis with hypoglycorrhachia, especially in those born to immigrants from high TB-burden countries. TST is usually negative, and IGRAs have lower sensitivity than in older children. However, the yield of acid-fast smear and culture is higher, mostly in congenital TB. Molecular diagnosis techniques enable early diagnosis and detection of drug resistance mutations. There is a substantial risk of disseminated disease and death. PMID:25754313

  6. Evaluating the satisfaction of immigrant women from a rural community regarding family functioning and health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Su-Ying; Sun, Wen-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Transnational marriages in Taiwan are largely mediated by marriage brokers. The present study was conducted to evaluate the satisfaction of immigrant women with their family function and health-related quality of life in a rural township in southern Taiwan. Data were collected from January 1, 2006 to November 31, 2006, and 157 immigrants agreed to participate in the study, with a 79.3% response rate. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The interviewers also collected information on the immigrants' and husbands' demographics, self-reported mental conditions, family function using a Family APGAR questionnaire (Adaptability, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve), and health-related quality of life. Marriage arranged through a marriage broker and having emotional distress were factors that were strongly associated with lower Family APGAR scores. Based on multiple regression models, higher Family APGAR scores were more positively related to vitality and mental health scales. Self-reported mental conditions, including feeling economic distress, emotional distress, loneliness, and having sleep problems, were negatively associated with most scales of the health-related quality of life. Female migrants' mental health was significantly related to their health-related quality of life. These findings suggest that migrant women must be educated regarding the importance of mental health by physicians and hygiene authorities in Taiwan.

  7. Understanding the Breast Cancer Experience of Survivors: a Qualitative Study of African American Women in Rural Eastern North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Torres, Essie; Dixon, Crystal; Richman, Alice R

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to gain an in-depth understanding of African American breast cancer survivors' experiences, barriers and facilitators in accessing breast cancer treatment, and challenges in adherence to follow-up care. We conducted seven focus groups with 32 African American women with breast cancer in three rural counties in eastern North Carolina during August-November 2013. Surveys were also utilized to gather basic demographic and breast health history information. Thematic analysis was performed using the immersion crystallization approach. Several common areas of life affected by breast cancer included faith and support networks, psychosocial well-being, and quality of care issues. Faith in God was an important coping mechanism essential to all women in the study and a critical facilitator in survivorship. Support networks consisted of family, church-family, friends, and co-workers. The concept of fear included the discovery of breast cancer and fear of death, negative side effects of treatment, and social stigma of having breast cancer. Factors that influenced provider-patient relationship were age of provider, perceived lack of empathy, and providers leaving during treatment. Participants also expressed their lack of knowledge regarding a number of the side effects they were experiencing during and after their treatment. Results of this study contribute to the assessment of potential coping mechanisms used by African American breast cancer survivors (i.e., spirituality, positive attitudes, and support networks) that can potentially be effective and have a positive impact on the adjustment of life for survivors.

  8. Evaluating the satisfaction of immigrant women from a rural community regarding family functioning and health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Su-Ying; Sun, Wen-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Transnational marriages in Taiwan are largely mediated by marriage brokers. The present study was conducted to evaluate the satisfaction of immigrant women with their family function and health-related quality of life in a rural township in southern Taiwan. Data were collected from January 1, 2006 to November 31, 2006, and 157 immigrants agreed to participate in the study, with a 79.3% response rate. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The interviewers also collected information on the immigrants' and husbands' demographics, self-reported mental conditions, family function using a Family APGAR questionnaire (Adaptability, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve), and health-related quality of life. Marriage arranged through a marriage broker and having emotional distress were factors that were strongly associated with lower Family APGAR scores. Based on multiple regression models, higher Family APGAR scores were more positively related to vitality and mental health scales. Self-reported mental conditions, including feeling economic distress, emotional distress, loneliness, and having sleep problems, were negatively associated with most scales of the health-related quality of life. Female migrants' mental health was significantly related to their health-related quality of life. These findings suggest that migrant women must be educated regarding the importance of mental health by physicians and hygiene authorities in Taiwan. PMID:23517512

  9. Women's empowerment in rural China: the impact of community health workers.

    PubMed

    Levi, Amy; Factor, Dawn; Deutsch, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Surmang Foundation's Clinic is located in Qinghai Province, Yushu Prefecture, Xiao Surmang Township, China. It is a remote, 97 percent ethnic Tibetan, mountainous region with little access to organized health care services. Surmang Foundation, a US 501(c)3 charity, has organized a cadre of local women to provide community-based care and education to women, resulting in a notable reduction in maternal mortality based on the report of community members. A festival organized to celebrate the accomplishments of the community health workers provided an opportunity for the women to demonstrate how their roles benefit themselves and their community. Both health care services and support for community empowerment are provided through the community health worker model. PMID:23399011

  10. Understanding the mechanisms through which women's group community participatory intervention improved maternal health outcomes in rural Malawi: was the use of contraceptives the pathway?

    PubMed Central

    Zamawe, Collins O. F.; Mandiwa, Chrispin

    2016-01-01

    Background Women's group intervention is a community based initiative through which rural women form groups, meet regularly to discuss maternal health issues affecting them, and come up with locally available solutions. This intervention has been associated with reduced maternal and neonatal mortality in limited resource settings. Nevertheless, the mechanisms through which women's groups influence maternal health outcomes are uncertain. Because contraception reduces the risk of maternal mortality and women's groups also tackled this issue, we speculated that contraceptive use might be the pathway. Consequently, this study investigated whether participation in women's groups was associated with contraceptive use in Malawi. Design We examined the use of contraceptives between women who participated in women's groups and those who did not through a community-based cross-sectional study in Mchinji, Malawi. The study involved 3,435 women of reproductive age (15–49 years) who were recruited using a multistage sampling approach. Members (treated) and non-members (control) of women's groups were matched on observed covariates using propensity scores and the counterfactual for the treated individuals was estimated. Results Crude analysis revealed that women's groups improved uptake of contraceptives by 26% (odds ratio (OR)=1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.03–1.56; p=0.024). However, using the matched data, uptake of contraceptives was almost the same among members and non-members of women's groups. More precisely, the likelihood of using contraceptives was not significantly different between the members and non-members of women's groups (OR=1.00; 95% CI=0.81–1.24; p=0.991). Conclusions There is insufficient evidence of an association between participation in women's groups and contraceptive use among rural Malawian women. The implication is that contraception was not the mechanism through which women's groups contributed to reduced maternal mortality in Malawi

  11. La Dicha de Los Libros--Children's Books in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schon, Isabel

    2000-01-01

    Reviews a collection of high-quality books in Spanish which can help encourage Spanish-speaking children and adolescents to read. From creative books for the very young to the lives of famous women, to fantasies and animated traditional tales, these recently published books are designed to appeal to Spanish speakers and those wishing to learn…

  12. How valid is the tallquist method in screening pregnant women with anemia in poor rural settings of southwestern Nigeria?

    PubMed Central

    Wasiu Olalekan, Adebimpe; Olufemi Emmanuel, Akanni

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis of anemia is challenging in resource-poor settings due to inadequate laboratory resources. This study assessed the validity of the Tallquist haemoglobinometer in assessing anemia among pregnant women in Osogbo, Southwestern Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross - sectional study, in which 200 pregnant women of reproductive age were selected using multistage sapling method. A checklist was used to collect socio-demographic data and the results of the screening test. Blood collection and analysis were carried out using standardized referenced methods. Results: Mean±SD age of the respondents was 28.9+3.9 yrs.; and 62 (62.6%) had up to primary level education. When Tallquist and Haematocrit methods were compared, there was 68.4%, 83.5% and 100% likelihood of Tallquist method (TM) diagnosing severe, moderate and mild anemia, respectively. The validity indices of the TM versus Haematocrit method as the gold standard revealed the sensitivity of 97.9%, specificity of 92.1%, positive predictive value of 92.4%, and negative predictive value of 97.9% and diagnostic accuracy of 95.0%. When compared to the Haemoglobin Cyanide method, the Tallquist method showed a calculated sensitivity of 96.6%, specificity of 87.4%, positive predictive value of 86.0%, and negative predictive value of 97.0% and diagnostic accuracy of 91.5%. Conclusion: The TM is a valid tool in screening anemia among pregnant women in resource- poor settings and rural primary health care centers in Southwestern Nigeria; therefore, its use should be encouraged, particularly to assess mild to moderate anemia. PMID:27493933

  13. The use of antenatal and postnatal care: perspectives and experiences of women and health care providers in rural southern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mrisho, Mwifadhi; Obrist, Brigit; Schellenberg, Joanna Armstrong; Haws, Rachel A; Mushi, Adiel K; Mshinda, Hassan; Tanner, Marcel; Schellenberg, David

    2009-01-01

    Background Although antenatal care coverage in Tanzania is high, worrying gaps exist in terms of its quality and ability to prevent, diagnose or treat complications. Moreover, much less is known about the utilisation of postnatal care, by which we mean the care of mother and baby that begins one hour after the delivery until six weeks after childbirth. We describe the perspectives and experiences of women and health care providers on the use of antenatal and postnatal services. Methods From March 2007 to January 2008, we conducted in-depth interviews with health care providers and village based informants in 8 villages of Lindi Rural and Tandahimba districts in southern Tanzania. Eight focus group discussions were also conducted with women who had babies younger than one year and pregnant women. The discussion guide included information about timing of antenatal and postnatal services, perceptions of the rationale and importance of antenatal and postnatal care, barriers to utilisation and suggestions for improvement. Results Women were generally positive about both antenatal and postnatal care. Among common reasons mentioned for late initiation of antenatal care was to avoid having to make several visits to the clinic. Other concerns included fear of encountering wild animals on the way to the clinic as well as lack of money. Fear of caesarean section was reported as a factor hindering intrapartum care-seeking from hospitals. Despite the perceived benefits of postnatal care for children, there was a total lack of postnatal care for the mothers. Shortages of staff, equipment and supplies were common complaints in the community. Conclusion Efforts to improve antenatal and postnatal care should focus on addressing geographical and economic access while striving to make services more culturally sensitive. Antenatal and postnatal care can offer important opportunities for linking the health system and the community by encouraging women to deliver with a skilled

  14. Celebremos La Salud: A Community-Based Intervention For Hispanic And Non-Hispanic White Women Living In A Rural Area

    PubMed Central

    Tejeda, Silvia; Thompson, Beti; Coronado, Gloria D.; Heagerty, Patrick J.; Martin, Diane P.

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation for Celebremos La Salud, a community randomized trial of Hispanic cancer prevention found no differences in mammography screening rates between intervention and control communities. The goal of the present study was to determine reasons for the intervention’s lack of effectiveness. In the first aim, we assessed reach of the intervention. In the second, we assessed which intervention activities were associated with mammography use. In the third, we examined whether factors related to health care access, education level, or age modified the effect of the intervention. Data were used from a post-intervention survey of 20 rural communities in Washington State. Hispanic (N= 202) and non-Hispanic White (N= 389) women, over age 40 formed the sample. Reporting having awareness of or having participated in intervention activities was positively associated with Hispanic ethnicity and intervention group and negatively associated with lack of health insurance and having a lower education level. Only one intervention activity was associated with screening use. Having participated in presentations at organizations was positively associated with having had a mammogram in the previous two years for Hispanic women. No individual level modifiers influenced the intervention’s effectiveness. Heavily targeting the intervention to Hispanic women and not reaching as many White women may have contributed to the lack of intervention effect. Increasing mammography screening rates among women living in a rural area may require improved access to health care and reaching women with lower education levels and lack of health insurance. PMID:18821000

  15. Women's political participation and health: a health capability study in rural India.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Candace H; Darmstadt, Gary L; Kumar, Vishwajeet; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the relationship between women's political participation and health has eluded researchers and cannot be adequately studied using traditional epidemiological or social scientific methodologies. We employed a health capability framework to understand dimensions of health agency to illuminate how local political economies affect health. Exploiting a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a community-based behavior change management intervention in northern India, we conducted a qualitative study with semistructured, in-depth focus groups in both intervention and nonintervention villages. We presented scenarios to each group regarding the limitations and motivations involved in women's political participation and health. Thematic analysis focused on four domains of health agency -- participation, autonomy, self-efficacy, and health systems -- relevant for understanding the relationship between political participation and health. Elder women demonstrated the greatest sense of self-efficacy and as a group cited the largest number of successful health advocacy efforts. Participation in an associated community-based neonatal intervention had varying effects, showing some differences in self-efficacy, but only rare improvements in participation, autonomy, or health system functioning. Better understanding of cultural norms surrounding autonomy, the local infrastructure and health system, and male and female perceptions of political participation and self-efficacy are needed to improve women's health agency. For a community-based participatory health intervention to improve health capability effectively, explicit strategies focused on health agency should be as central as health indicators.

  16. HIV knowledge, disclosure and sexual risk among pregnant women and their partners in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Shikwane, Molatelo Elisa; Villar-Loubet, Olga M.; Weiss, Stephen M.; Peltzer, Karl; Jones, Deborah L.

    2014-01-01

    Partner involvement has been deemed fundamental for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, although it remains difficult to achieve. This study aimed to explore the attitudes and behaviours of pregnant women and their partners who participated in a behavioural risk reduction intervention in six community health centres in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. Qualitative methods only were used in this study. Women and their partners took part in four gender-concordant groups that addressed HIV, PMTCT, disclosure of HIV status and safer sex practices. The results indicate that men value and understand the importance of being involved in women's reproductive health, although some components of the PMTCT programme such as condom use were still met with some resistance. Participants demonstrated high levels of HIV- and sexually transmitted infection-related knowledge. Men lacked knowledge about PMTCT but were interested in acquiring information so that they could support their partners. All groups highlighted the emotional and physical benefits of disclosing one's HIV status. The involvement of men in antenatal care has the potential to prevent women from becoming infected with HIV both during pregnancy and post-partum when they are more vulnerable to infection and have a high risk of transmission to the infant. There is a need for interventions that focus on both increasing male involvement and promoting condom use during pregnancy. PMID:24405286

  17. The Relationship between Food Insecurity and Obesity in Rural Childbearing Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Christine M.; Strawderman, Myla S.

    2008-01-01

    Context: While food insecurity and obesity have been shown to be positively associated in women, little is known about the direction of the causal relationship between these 2 constructs. Purpose: To clarify the direction of the causal relationship between food insecurity and obesity. Methods: Chi-square and logistic regression analysis of data…

  18. Voices of Women Teachers about Gender Inequalities and Gender-Based Violence in Rural South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia; Bhana, Deevia

    2012-01-01

    Gender-based violence is a reality in many societies and is linked to the spread of HIV and AIDS. There have been numerous studies that have attempted to acquire an understanding of the breadth and depth of the issues around gender-based violence. However, one area that has received scant attention is the voices of women teachers. Thus, in this…

  19. Women's NutriBusiness Cooperatives in Kenya: An Integrated Strategy for Sustaining Rural Livelihoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maretzki, Audrey N.

    2007-01-01

    With funding provided by the Center for Higher Education of the United States Agency for International Development, The Pennsylvania State University and Tuskegee University collaborated with the University of Nairobi in establishing women's NutriBusiness Cooperatives in the Rift Valley and Central Provinces of Kenya. Between 1992 and 1999, the…

  20. Breast Cancer--Screening Behavior among Rural California American Indian Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Felicia Schanche

    2009-01-01

    A community-based Wellness Circles Program was designed and implemented at 13 sites in California to evaluate a culturally appropriate community-based health care model for American Indian families. Data obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) that was administered to a subset of women demonstrate that American Indian…

  1. The cross-sectional relationship between dietary calcium intake and metabolic syndrome among men and women aged 40 or older in rural areas of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Song Kyoung; Lee, Young-Hoon; Shin, Dong Hoon; Shin, Min-Ho; Chun, Byung-Yeol; Choi, Bo Youl

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Studies conducted in Western populations have suggested that dietary calcium may protect against metabolic abnormalities, but there is little evidence of this effect in Asians, who have relatively low calcium intake. We evaluated the cross-sectional relationship between dietary calcium and metabolic syndrome among Korean men and women aged 40 years and over. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 6,375 subjects aged 40 years and over and were recruited between January 2005 and February 2010 from the baseline study of the Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study in Rural Communities (MRCohort). A food frequency questionnaire was used to collect dietary information. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the modified criteria published in the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel. RESULTS Calcium intake was related inversely to metabolic syndrome in women (P-value = 0.0091), but not in men (P = 0.1842). Among metabolic components, high waist circumference (WC) (P = 0.0426) and high blood glucose (P = 0.0027) in women and hypertriglyceridemia (P = 0.0017) in men were inversely correlated with calcium intake. Excluding those who used calcium or multinutrient supplements did not attenuate the relationship between dietary calcium and metabolic abnormalities. CONCLUSION Dietary calcium intake from foods may be inversely related to metabolic syndrome, WC, and blood glucose among women in rural areas of Korea. PMID:26060546

  2. A geographical perspective on access to sexual and reproductive health care for women in rural Africa.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jing; Murray, Alan T; Agadjanian, Victor

    2013-11-01

    Utilization of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services can significantly impact health outcomes, such as pregnancy and birth, prenatal and neonatal mortality, maternal morbidity and mortality, and vertical transmission of infectious diseases like HIV/AIDS. It has long been recognized that access to SRH services is essential to positive health outcomes, especially in rural areas of developing countries, where long distances as well as poor transportation conditions, can be potential barriers to health care acquisition. Improving accessibility of health services for target populations is therefore critical for specialized healthcare programs. Thus, understanding and evaluation of current access to health care is crucial. Combining spatial information using geographical information system (GIS) with population survey data, this study details a gravity model-based method to measure and evaluate access to SRH services in rural Mozambique, and analyzes potential geographic access to such services, using family planning as an example. Access is found to be a significant factor in reported behavior, superior to traditional distance-based indicators. Spatial disparities in geographic access among different population groups also appear to exist, likely affecting overall program success.

  3. A geographical perspective on access to sexual and reproductive health care for women in rural Africa

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jing; Murray, Alan T.; Agadjanian, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Utilization of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services can significantly impact health outcomes, such as pregnancy and birth, prenatal and neonatal mortality, maternal morbidity and mortality, and vertical transmission of infectious diseases like HIV/AIDS. It has long been recognized that access to SRH services is essential to positive health outcomes, especially in rural areas of developing countries, where long distances as well as poor transportation conditions, can be potential barriers to health care acquisition. Improving accessibility of health services for target populations is therefore critical for specialized healthcare programs. Thus, understanding and evaluation of current access to health care is crucial. Combining spatial information using geographical information system (GIS) with population survey data, this study details a gravity model-based method to measure and evaluate access to SRH services in rural Mozambique, and analyzes potential geographic access to such services, using family planning as an example. Access is found to be a significant factor in reported behavior, superior to traditional distance-based indicators. Spatial disparities in geographic access among different population groups also appear to exist, likely affecting overall program success. PMID:24034952

  4. Social support during delivery in rural central Ghana: a mixed methods study of women's preferences for and against inclusion of a lay companion in the delivery room.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Amir; Mustafa, Aesha; Emil, Sarah A V; Amekah, Ebenezer; Engmann, Cyril; Adanu, Richard; Moyer, Cheryl A

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to explore pregnant women's attitudes towards the inclusion of a lay companion as a source of social support during labour and delivery in rural central Ghana. Quantitative demographic and pregnancy-related data were collected from 50 pregnant women presenting for antenatal care at a rural district hospital and analysed using STATA/IC 11.1. Qualitative attitudinal questions were collected from the same women through semi-structured interviews; data were analysed using NVivo 9.0. Twenty-nine out of 50 women (58%) preferred to have a lay companion during facility-based labour and delivery, whereas 21 (42%) preferred to deliver alone with the nurses in a facility. Women desiring a companion were younger, had more antenatal care visits, had greater educational attainment and were likely to be experiencing their first delivery. Women varied in the type of companion they prefer (male partner vs female relative). What was expected in terms of social support differed based upon the type of companion. Male companions were expected to provide emotional support and to 'witness her pain'. Female companions were expected to provide emotional support as well as instrumental, informational and appraisal support. Three qualitative themes were identified that run counter to the inclusion of a lay helper: fear of an evil-spirited companion, a companion not being necessary or helpful, and being 'too shy' of a companion. This research challenges the assumption of a unilateral desire for social support during labour and delivery, and suggests that women differ in the type of companion and type of support they prefer during facility deliveries. Future research is needed to determine the direction of the relationship--whether women desire certain types of support and thus choose companions they believe can meet those needs, or whether women desire a certain companion and adjust their expectations accordingly.

  5. Knowledge of obstetric danger signs and birth preparedness practices among women in rural Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Improving knowledge of obstetric danger signs and promoting birth preparedness practices are strategies aimed at enhancing utilization of skilled care in low-income countries. The aim of the study was to explore the association between knowledge of obstetric danger signs and birth preparedness among recently delivered women in south-western Uganda. Methods The study included 764 recently delivered women from 112 villages in Mbarara district. Community survey methods were used and 764 recently delivered women from 112 villages in Mbarara district were included in study. Interviewer administered questionnaire were used to collect data. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore the relationship between knowledge of key danger signs and birth preparedness. Results Fifty two percent of women knew at least one key danger sign during pregnancy, 72% during delivery and 72% during postpartum. Only 19% had knowledge of 3 or more key danger signs during the three periods. Of the four birth preparedness practices; 91% had saved money, 71% had bought birth materials, 61% identified a health professional and 61% identified means of transport. Overall 35% of the respondents were birth prepared. The relationship between knowledge of at least one key danger sign during pregnancy or during postpartum and birth preparedness showed statistical significance which persisted after adjusting for probable confounders (OR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2-2.6) and (OR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2-3.0) respectively. Young age and high levels of education had synergistic effect on the relationship between knowledge and birth preparedness. The associations between knowledge of at least one key danger sign during childbirth or knowledge that prolonged labour was a key danger sign and birth preparedness were not statistically significant. Conclusions The prevalence of recently delivered women who had knowledge of key danger signs or those who were birth prepared was very low. Since the majority of

  6. The use of PHC clinic-based women's groups for financial empowerment in a rural area.

    PubMed

    Uys, L R; Bhengu, B R; Majumdar, B

    2006-03-01

    The article is based on a four-year project during which Primary Health Care (PHC) nurses worked with women's groups in their areas. The aim of the study was to explore the involvement of PHC nurses in economic empowerment, both in terms of health promotion and in terms of the PHC approach. In particular the objectives were to establish whether nurses could lead economic empowerment groups, whether such groups could establish adequate external links and become financially viable. Eleven groups were used as case studies, and a cross-case analysis was done in terms of the three objectives. It was found that between the women and the nurses, adequate leadership existed for the groups to function well. Very limited external linkages were established, notwithstanding efforts in this regard. Nine out of 11 groups contributed to financial welfare of their members after 18 months, but a range of problems with regard to financial viability are identified.

  7. Association of Living Arrangement Conditions and Socioeconomic Differentials with Anemia Status among Women in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shangfeng; Hossain, Akmal; Fan, Yang; Akter, Mahmuda

    2016-01-01

    In Bangladesh, iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia and remains a significant public health concern. Being a high anemia prevalent country, numerous efforts have been made to confront the issue especially among women and children by both local and international actors. Though the situation has substantially improved in recent years, a staggering number of adult women are currently living with anemia. The etiology of anemia is a multifactorial problem and has been proposed to be associated with various household, societal, economic, cultural factors apart from dietary habits. However, evidence regarding the household arrangements and socioeconomic determinants of anemia is scarce, especially in the context of Bangladesh. To this end, we utilized the 2011 demographic and health survey data to explore the association between anemia status and selected demographic, socioeconomic, and household characteristics. Our result showed significant correlation of anemia with both sociodemographic and household characteristics. Among the sociodemographic variables the following were found to be significantly associated with anemia status: age (p = 0.014; OR = 1.195; 95% CI = 1.036–1.378) and microcredit membership (p = 0.014; OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.037–1.386). Regarding the household arrangements, women utilizing biomass fuel for cooking (p < 0.019; OR = 1.82; 95% CI = 0.981–2.460) were more likely to be anemic. PMID:27517045

  8. First trimester depression scores predict development of gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant rural Appalachian women.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Chelsea; McCook, Judy G; Bailey, Beth A

    2016-01-01

    Gestational diabetes (GDM) occurs in up to 9% of pregnancies. Perinatal depression affects up to 20% of women during pregnancy, and can extend into the postpartum period. A number of studies have linked depression and diabetes, however, whether this applies to GDM or which might come first is less understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential relationship between depression identified in the first trimester of pregnancy and the subsequent development of GDM. Women without pre-existing Type I/II diabetes (n = 1021) were evaluated for depression during the first trimester of pregnancy, and medical records were reviewed to identify a positive history of diabetes. Women identified as depressed during the first trimester were more likely to have GDM compared to those not depressed. After controlling for demographic factors and weight-related variables level of depression in the first trimester still predicted later GDM development. Depression identified in early pregnancy may predict increased risk of subsequent GDM development. Due to the numerous maternal, fetal and neonatal complications associated with GDM, early recognition is essential to promote the best possible outcomes for mother and infant. Recognizing depression as a possible risk factor for GDM development could lead to earlier screening and preventative measures.

  9. Health literacy, health communication challenges, and cancer screening among rural native Hawaiian and Filipino women.

    PubMed

    Sentell, Tetine; Dela Cruz, May Rose; Heo, Hyun-Hee; Braun, Kathryn L

    2013-06-01

    Native Hawaiians and Filipinos are disproportionately impacted by cancer and are less likely to participate in cancer screening than whites. Limited information exists about health information pathways and health communication challenges as they relate to cancer screening in these groups. Six focus groups (n=77) of Native Hawaiian and Filipino women age 40+years were conducted to investigate these research gaps. Participants noted many health information challenges. Challenges were both practical and interpersonal and included both written and oral health communication. Practical challenges included "big" words, complexity of terms, and lack of plain English. Interpersonal issues included doctors rushing, doctors not assessing comprehension, and doctors treating respondents as patients not people. Women noted that they would often not ask questions even when they knew they did not understand because they did not want the provider to think negatively of them. Overarching themes to improve cancer communication gaps included: (1) the importance of family and community in health information dissemination, (2) the key role women play in interpreting health information for others, (3) the importance of personal experience and relationships to the salience of health information, and (4) the desire for local cultural relevance in health communication. Findings are discussed in light of the 2010 National Action Plan for Health Literacy. PMID:23536194

  10. Health literacy, health communication challenges, and cancer screening among rural Native Hawaiian and Filipino Women

    PubMed Central

    Sentell, Tetine; Cruz, May Rose Dela; Heo, Hyun Hee; Braun, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Native Hawaiians and Filipinos are disproportionately impacted by cancer, and are less likely to participate in cancer screening than whites. Limited information exists about health information pathways and health communication challenges as they relate to cancer screening in these groups. Six focus groups (n=77) of Native Hawaiian and Filipino women age 40+ years were conducted to investigate these research gaps. Participants noted many health information challenges. Challenges were both practical and interpersonal and included both written and oral health communication. Practical challenges included “big” words, complexity of terms, and lack of plain English. Interpersonal issues included doctors rushing, doctors not assessing comprehension, and doctors treating respondents as patients not people. Women noted that they would often not ask questions even when they knew they did not understand because they did not want the provider to think negatively of them. Overarching themes to improve cancer communication gaps included: (1) the importance of family and community in health information dissemination; (2) the key role women play in interpreting health information for others; (3) the importance of personal experience and relationships to the salience of health information; and (4) the desire for local cultural relevance in health communication. Findings are discussed in light of the 2010 National Action Plan for Health Literacy. PMID:23536194

  11. Association of Living Arrangement Conditions and Socioeconomic Differentials with Anemia Status among Women in Rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bishwajit, Ghose; Yaya, Sanni; Tang, Shangfeng; Hossain, Akmal; Fan, Yang; Akter, Mahmuda; Feng, Zhanchun

    2016-01-01

    In Bangladesh, iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia and remains a significant public health concern. Being a high anemia prevalent country, numerous efforts have been made to confront the issue especially among women and children by both local and international actors. Though the situation has substantially improved in recent years, a staggering number of adult women are currently living with anemia. The etiology of anemia is a multifactorial problem and has been proposed to be associated with various household, societal, economic, cultural factors apart from dietary habits. However, evidence regarding the household arrangements and socioeconomic determinants of anemia is scarce, especially in the context of Bangladesh. To this end, we utilized the 2011 demographic and health survey data to explore the association between anemia status and selected demographic, socioeconomic, and household characteristics. Our result showed significant correlation of anemia with both sociodemographic and household characteristics. Among the sociodemographic variables the following were found to be significantly associated with anemia status: age (p = 0.014; OR = 1.195; 95% CI = 1.036-1.378) and microcredit membership (p = 0.014; OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.037-1.386). Regarding the household arrangements, women utilizing biomass fuel for cooking (p < 0.019; OR = 1.82; 95% CI = 0.981-2.460) were more likely to be anemic. PMID:27517045

  12. Social capital and women's reduced vulnerability to HIV infection in rural Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Gregson, Simon; Mushati, Phyllis; Grusin, Harry; Nhamo, Mercy; Schumacher, Christina; Skovdal, Morten; Nyamukapa, Constance; Campbell, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Social capital—especially through its “network” dimension (high levels of participation in local community groups)—is thought to be an important determinant of health in many contexts. We investigate its effect on HIV prevention, using prospective data from a general population cohort in eastern Zimbabwe spanning a period of extensive behavior change (1998–2003). Almost half of the initially uninfected women interviewed were members of at least one community group. In an analysis of 88 communities, individuals with higher levels of community group participation had lower incidence of new HIV infections and more of them had adopted safer behaviors, although these effects were largely accounted for by differences in socio-demographic composition. Individual women in community groups had lower HIV incidence and more extensive behavior change, even after controlling for confounding factors. Community group membership was not associated with lower HIV incidence in men, possibly refecting a propensity among men to participate in groups that allow them to develop and demonstrate their masculine identities—often at the expense of their health. Support for women's community groups could be an effective HIV prevention strategy in countries with large-scale HIV epidemics. PMID:22066129

  13. NGO-promoted women's credit program, immunization coverage, and child mortality in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Amin, R; Li, Y

    1997-01-01

    A growing number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are adopting the collateral-free credit programs by anchoring them with their social development programs aimed at improved program effectiveness and sustainability. Drawing upon a sample of 3,564 targeted poor households covered by five small NGOs in rural Bangladesh, this study finds that the NGO credit-members as well as those who reside in the NGO program area are higher adopters of child immunization than those in the non-program area. Similarly, the study found that infant and child mortality is lower among the NGO credit members than among the non-members and that under five-year deaths of children progressively decline with the increase in the doses of vaccines. Implications of these findings are discussed in the study.

  14. Spanish, Si!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cage, Mary Crystal

    1994-01-01

    College language departments report that, although enrollments in Spanish and some Pacific Rim languages are growing rapidly, declines are seen in French and German, traditionally popular, and in many less commonly taught languages. Students are motivated by practical considerations: many find their employment potential is increased by language…

  15. Comparative analyses of stressors experienced by rural low-income pregnant women experiencing intimate partner violence and those who are not

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Shreya; Levitch, Alison; Ellis, Kathleen; Ball, Katharine; Everett, Kevin; Geden, Elizabeth; Bullock, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Objective To describe the daily lives of rural pregnant women who smoked during pregnancy, with a focus on their sources of stress and the compounding effects of intimate partner violence (IPV). Design A qualitative study using content analysis of research nurse’s telephone logs from a large smoking cessation randomized controlled trial (N = 695) in which 33% of the sample (n = 227) experienced IPV in the past year. Participants Fifty pregnant women, 25 who had experienced IPV in the past year and 25 who had never experienced IPV, were randomly selected from those who received a nurse-delivered telephone intervention for smoking cessation (n = 345). The mean age of the sample was 22 years, and the majority were White and living in a married-like relationship. Results Women experiencing IPV discussed certain stressors significantly more often than non-abused women. These stressors included finances, lack of social support, legal issues, transportation issues, and abuse by the intimate partner and others. Conclusion Health care providers need to recognize that intimate partner violence creates a stress which can compound the stressors of pregnancy and poverty in rural areas. Offering these women a chance to talk about their lives can help them not only to locate necessary resources, but also to break down the barriers of isolation. PMID:18754988

  16. Opportunity cost: the impact of contextual risk factors on the cardiovascular health of low-income rural southern African American women.

    PubMed

    Appel, Susan J; Giger, Joyce Newman; Davidhizar, Ruth Elaine

    2005-01-01

    Low-income rural southern African American women experience a high prevalence of morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) as well as other related cardiovascular (CV) diseases. Few models have taken into account the full impact of the contextual influences encountered on a daily basis by these women, and the effect of these influences on their CV health status. There are clearly demarcated examples of existing health disparities that occur in various ethnic/racial, underserved, and vulnerable populations. Yet, to date, there is no conceptual model that offers a plausible explanation as to why health disparities exist. Consequently, there is a lack of guidance as to where interventions should be focused for effective CV risk reduction. Because African American women continue to die at a disproportionately higher rate, and at earlier ages than do Caucasian women, it is imperative that new theoretical models capable of driving empirically based interventions be developed, tested, and implemented. One possible choice is the conceptual model proposed in this article. The model is based on the interrelationships between contextual risk factors, rational choice theory (RCT), and opportunity cost. Conceivably, this model may serve as a foundation to ground conceptual thought and drive theory-based interventions to reduce the health disparities in the CV health of low-income rural southern African American women. A model is presented in an attempt to provide guidance for advanced practice nurses who must struggle with addressing the critical need to reduce ethnic and race-associated CV health disparities. PMID:16141776

  17. Cash and in-kind transfers lead to excess weight gain in a population of women with a high prevalence of overweight in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Jef L; Gadsden, Paola; González de Cossío, Teresa; Gertler, Paul

    2013-03-01

    There is a growing concern that food or cash transfer programs may contribute to overweight and obesity in adults. We studied the impact of Mexico's Programa de Apoyo Alimentario (PAL), which provided very poor rural households with cash or in-kind transfers, on women's body weight. A random sample of 208 rural communities in southern Mexico was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: food basket with or without health and nutrition education, cash with education, or control. The impact on women's weight was estimated in a cohort of 3010 women using a difference-in-difference model. We compared the impact between the food basket and cash groups and evaluated whether the impact was modified by women's BMI status at baseline. With respect to the control group, the program increased women's weight in the food basket (550 ± 210 g; P = 0.004) and the cash group (420 ± 230 g; P = 0.032); this was equivalent to 70 and 53% increases in weight gain, respectively, over that observed in the control group in a 23-mo time period. The greatest impact was found in already obese women: 980 ± 290 g in the food basket group (P = 0.001) and 670 ± 320 g in the cash group (P = 0.019). Impact was marginally significant in women with a preprogram BMI between 25 and 30 kg/m2: 490 ± 310 g (P = 0.055) and 540 ± 360 g (P = 0.067), respectively. No program impact was found in women with a BMI <25 kg/m2. Providing households with a considerable amount of unrestricted resources led to excess weight gain in an already overweight population. Research is needed to develop cost-effective behavior change communication strategies to complement cash and in-kind transfer programs such as PAL and to help beneficiaries choose healthy diets that improve the nutritional status of all family members.

  18. Women's experiences and views about costs of seeking malaria chemoprevention and other antenatal services: a qualitative study from two districts in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Tanzanian government recommends women who attend antenatal care (ANC) clinics to accept receiving intermittent preventive treatment against malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) and vouchers for insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) at subsidized prices. Little emphasis has been paid to investigate the ability of pregnant women to access and effectively utilize these services. Objectives To describe the experience and perceptions of pregnant women about costs and cost barriers for accessing ANC services with emphasis on IPTp in rural Tanzania. Methods Qualitative data were collected in the districts of Mufindi in Iringa Region and Mkuranga in Coast Region through 1) focus group discussions (FGDs) with pregnant women and mothers to infants and 2) exit-interviews with pregnant women identified at ANC clinics. Data were analyzed manually using qualitative content analysis methodology. Findings FGD participants and interview respondents identified the following key limiting factors for women's use of ANC services: 1) costs in terms of money and time associated with accessing ANC clinics, 2) the presence of more or less official user-fees for some services within the ANC package, and 3) service providers' application of fines, penalties and blame when failing to adhere to service schedules. Interestingly, the time associated with travelling long distances to ANC clinics and ITN retailers and with waiting for services at clinic-level was a major factor of discouragement in the health seeking behaviour of pregnant women because it seriously affected their domestic responsibilities. Conclusion A variety of resource-related factors were shown to affect the health seeking behaviour of pregnant women in rural Tanzania. Thus, accessibility to ANC services was hampered by direct and indirect costs, travel distances and waiting time. Strengthening of user-fee exemption practices and bringing services closer to the users, for example by promoting community-directed control of

  19. Preventing Weight Gain in Women in Rural Communities: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lombard, Catherine; Harrison, Cheryce; Kozica, Samantha; Zoungas, Sophia; Ranasinha, Sanjeeva; Teede, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions in both developed and developing countries. Even modest weight gain increases the risk for chronic illness, yet evidence-based interventions to prevent weight gain are rare. This trial will determine if a simple low-intensity intervention can prevent weight gain in women compared to general health information. Methods and Findings We conducted a 1-yr pragmatic, cluster randomised controlled trial in 41 Australian towns (clusters) randomised using a computer-generated randomisation list for intervention (n = 21) or control (n = 20). Women aged 18 to 50 yr were recruited from the general population to receive a 1-yr self-management lifestyle intervention (HeLP-her) consisting of one group session, monthly SMS text messages, one phone coaching session, and a program manual, or to a control group receiving one general women’s health education session. From October 2012 to April 2014 we studied 649 women, mean age 39.6 yr (+/− SD 6.7) and BMI of 28.8 kg/m2 (+/− SD 6.9) with the primary outcome weight change between groups at 1 yr. The mean change in the control was +0.44 kg (95% CI −0.09 to 0.97) and in the intervention group −0.48kg (95% CI −0.99 to 0.03) with an unadjusted between group difference of −0.92 kg (95% CI −1.67 to −0.16) or −0.87 kg (95% CI −1.62 to −0.13) adjusted for baseline values and clustering. Secondary outcomes included improved diet quality and greater self-management behaviours. The intervention appeared to be equally efficacious across all age, BMI, income, and education subgroups. Loss to follow-up included 23.8% in the intervention group and 21.8% in the control group and was within the anticipated range. Limitations include lack of sensitive tools to measure the small changes to energy intake and physical activity. Those who gained weight may have been less inclined to return for 1 yr weight measures. Conclusions A low intensity lifestyle program can prevent the

  20. Understanding the Breast Cancer Experience of Survivors: a Qualitative Study of African American Women in Rural Eastern North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Torres, Essie; Dixon, Crystal; Richman, Alice R

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to gain an in-depth understanding of African American breast cancer survivors' experiences, barriers and facilitators in accessing breast cancer treatment, and challenges in adherence to follow-up care. We conducted seven focus groups with 32 African American women with breast cancer in three rural counties in eastern North Carolina during August-November 2013. Surveys were also utilized to gather basic demographic and breast health history information. Thematic analysis was performed using the immersion crystallization approach. Several common areas of life affected by breast cancer included faith and support networks, psychosocial well-being, and quality of care issues. Faith in God was an important coping mechanism essential to all women in the study and a critical facilitator in survivorship. Support networks consisted of family, church-family, friends, and co-workers. The concept of fear included the discovery of breast cancer and fear of death, negative side effects of treatment, and social stigma of having breast cancer. Factors that influenced provider-patient relationship were age of provider, perceived lack of empathy, and providers leaving during treatment. Participants also expressed their lack of knowledge regarding a number of the side effects they were experiencing during and after their treatment. Results of this study contribute to the assessment of potential coping mechanisms used by African American breast cancer survivors (i.e., spirituality, positive attitudes, and support networks) that can potentially be effective and have a positive impact on the adjustment of life for survivors. PMID:25877467