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Sample records for rural travel

  1. Travelers' diarrhea among American Peace Corps volunteers in rural Thailand.

    PubMed

    Echeverria, P; Blacklow, N R; Sanford, L B; Cukor, G G

    1981-06-01

    Diarrheal disease was studied prospectively in 35 Peace Corps volunteers during their first five weeks in rural Thailand. Twenty (57%) developed the syndrome of travelers' diarrhea. Recognized bacterial enteric pathogens were isolated from stools during 47% of 39 episodes of travelers' diarrhea. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli was isolated during 26% and Shigella during 13% of the episodes. Of the 20 volunteers, 50% had bacteriologic and/or serologic evidence of infection with enterotoxigenic E. coli. Sixty-one percent of isolates of enterotoxigenic E. coli and 92% of isolates of Shigella were resistant to doxycycline. Other enteric pathogens, including Campylobacter jejuni/coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella, rotavirus, Norwalk agent, and Entamoeba histolytica, were associated with episodes of travelers' diarrhea. Aeromonas hydrophila, isolated from 31% of 39 episodes of travelers' diarrhea, was of unknown pathogenic importance. Thus, episodes of travelers' diarrhea in Thailand were associated with a variety of organisms, among which antibiotic-resistant bacterial enteropathogens were common.

  2. Illness severity and propensity to travel along the urban-rural continuum.

    PubMed

    Basu, Jayasree; Mobley, Lee R

    2007-06-01

    In this paper, we examine whether the relationship between severity of illness and the propensity to travel greater distance relative to the norm (defined by peers in one's county of residence) is uniform across the urban-rural continuum of geography or over time. We focus on the elderly in New York State who have been admitted to hospital for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs), admissions which are presumed to be representative of usual travel patterns. The two periods of time examined span the implementation of the Balanced Budget Act (BBA) of 1997, which established the Medicare Rural Hospital Flexibility Program, a major national initiative to strengthen rural health care with the development of rural Critical Access Hospitals (CAHs). As the number of NY rural hospitals certified as CAH increased with the expanded funding from the BBA, one might expect to see increased distance traveled by more severely ill rural elderly, as their CAHs referred them to their affiliated support hospitals. The logistic regression estimates support this expectation, highlighting an asymmetrical relationship between relative distance and severity across patients in rural and urban areas. Despite a general decline in average propensity to travel further than the norm across the landscape, severity had a larger impact on travel propensity in rural areas, which increased over time.

  3. Rural Roots, Rural Routes: Discourses of Rural Self and Travelling Other in Debates about the Future of Appleby New Fair, 1945-1969

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, S. L.

    2004-01-01

    The notion that Gypsies, in an idealised form, have a place in the rural idyll has been sufficiently influential within Geography that it currently features in our undergraduate texts concerned with the meaning of place. The position of real Gypsy-Travellers in the countryside is of course more complex, and this paper seeks to move the debate…

  4. Travel time to maternity care and its effect on utilization in rural Ghana: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Masters, Samuel H; Burstein, Roy; Amofah, George; Abaogye, Patrick; Kumar, Santosh; Hanlon, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Rates of neonatal and maternal mortality are high in Ghana. In-facility delivery and other maternal services could reduce this burden, yet utilization rates of key maternal services are relatively low, especially in rural areas. We tested a theoretical implication that travel time negatively affects the use of in-facility delivery and other maternal services. Empirically, we used geospatial techniques to estimate travel times between populations and health facilities. To account for uncertainty in Ghana Demographic and Health Survey cluster locations, we adopted a novel approach of treating the location selection as an imputation problem. We estimated a multilevel random-intercept logistic regression model. For rural households, we found that travel time had a significant effect on the likelihood of in-facility delivery and antenatal care visits, holding constant education, wealth, maternal age, facility capacity, female autonomy, and the season of birth. In contrast, a facility's capacity to provide sophisticated maternity care had no detectable effect on utilization. As the Ghanaian health network expands, our results suggest that increasing the availability of basic obstetric services and improving transport infrastructure may be important interventions.

  5. Association of increased travel distance to dialysis units with the risk of anemia in rural chronic hemodialysis elderly.

    PubMed

    Chao, Chia-Ter; Lai, Chun-Fu; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Huang, Sheng-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Geographic remoteness has been found to influence health-related outcomes negatively. As reported in the literature, rural dialysis patients have a higher risk of mortality with increasing travel distance to dialysis units. However, few studies have focused on the impact of travel distances on the development of dialysis complications. We utilized a prospectively collected chronic hemodialysis patient cohort from a rural regional hospital for analysis. Data on demographics, comorbidities, and serum laboratory results were obtained. Correlation analyses between travel distance to dialysis units and dialysis complications were conducted, and significantly correlated parameters were entered into multivariate logistic regression models to determine their exact associations. A total of 46 rural chronic hemodialysis patients were enrolled, with an average age higher than others in the literature. Significant correlation was found between travel distance and serum hemoglobin levels (R(2) = -0.34, P value = 0.029). Multivariate logistic regression found that every 1 km increase in travel distance was associated with an increased risk of anemia (hemoglobin <9 g/dL) (odds ratio 1.46; P value = 0.01). Sensitivity analyses further showed that the associated risk was partially attenuated by serum albumin (odds ratio 1.83; P value = 0.07) and ferritin (odds ratio 1.39; P value = 0.08) levels. This is the first study to demonstrate the association between increased travel distance to dialysis units and the risk of anemia in chronic dialysis patients, especially elderly. Malnutrition, inflammation, and atherosclerosis syndrome could be partially responsible for the observed association. Further research is required to confirm our findings.

  6. The impact of a museum travelling exhibition on middle school teachers and students from rural, low-income homes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badger, James; Harker, Richard J. W.

    2016-06-01

    Schools may be places of learning, but a great deal of learning occurs outside of school. A growing body of literature investigates how school field trips allow rural students to make real-life connections with their school curriculum. This paper contributes to that area of research by describing how students from five middle schools in the United States responded to a travelling museum exhibition hosted at a non-museum site. The authors explore the impact of the exhibition on students from poor, rural backgrounds, discussing how it helped them to engage with themes such as freedom of expression, democracy, citizenship and Holocaust education. The results show that, by connecting curricular content with real-life situations, field trips such as this have the potential to change not only students' understanding of the curriculum, but also their teachers' estimation of their abilities.

  7. The Road Less Traveled: Atypical Doctoral Preparation of Leaders in Rural Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, Ned; Crittenden, Laura; Davis, Melvin; Stumpf, Dan

    2003-01-01

    Discusses an atypical doctoral degree program in Community College Leadership at Mississippi State University, which takes an interdisciplinary approach to educating future rural community college administrators. Program characteristics include: (1) instruction and research driven by priorities established by rural community colleges; (2) a degree…

  8. The utility of rural and underserved designations in geospatial assessments of distance traveled to healthcare services: implications for public health research and practice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Dickerson, Justin B; Wendel, Monica L; Ahn, Sangnam; Pulczinski, Jairus C; Drake, Kelly N; Ory, Marcia G

    2013-01-01

    Health disparities research in rural populations is based on several common taxonomies identified by geography and population density. However, little is known about the implications of different rurality definitions on public health outcomes. To help illuminate the meaning of different rural designations often used in research, service delivery, or policy reports, this study will (1) review the different definitions of rurality and their purposes; (2) identify the overlap of various rural designations in an eight-county Brazos Valley region in Central Texas; (3) describe participant characteristic profiles based on distances traveled to obtain healthcare services; and (4) examine common profile characteristics associated with each designation. Data were analyzed from a random sample from 1,958 Texas adults participating in a community assessment. K-means cluster analysis was used to identify natural groupings of individuals based on distance traveled to obtain three healthcare services: medical care, dental care, and prescription medication pick-up. Significant variation in cluster representation and resident characteristics was observed by rural designation. Given widely used taxonomies for designating areas as rural (or provider shortage) in health-related research, this study highlights differences that could influence research results and subsequent program and policy development based on rural designation.

  9. The Economic Importance of Air Travel in High-Amenity Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasker, Ray; Gude, Patricia H.; Gude, Justin A.; van den Noort, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    The western United States offers a case study on the importance of access to large population centers and their markets, via road and air travel, for economic development. The vast distances between towns and cities in the American West can be a detriment to business, yet they also serve to attract technology and knowledge-based workers seeking to…

  10. People living with HIV travel farther to access healthcare: a population-based geographic analysis from rural Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Akullian, Adam N; Mukose, Aggrey; Levine, Gillian A; Babigumira, Joseph B

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The availability of specialized HIV services is limited in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa where the need is the greatest. Where HIV services are available, people living with HIV (PLHIV) must overcome large geographic, economic and social barriers to access healthcare. The objective of this study was to understand the unique barriers PLHIV face when accessing healthcare compared with those not living with HIV in a rural area of sub-Saharan Africa with limited availability of healthcare infrastructure. Methods We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of 447 heads of household on Bugala Island, Uganda. Multiple linear regression models were used to compare travel time, cost and distance to access healthcare, and log binomial models were used to test for associations between HIV status and access to nearby health services. Results PLHIV travelled an additional 1.9 km (95% CI (0.6, 3.2 km), p=0.004) to access healthcare compared with those not living with HIV, and they were 56% less likely to access healthcare at the nearest health facility to their residence, so long as that facility lacked antiretroviral therapy (ART) services (aRR=0.44, 95% CI (0.24 to 0.83), p=0.011). We found no evidence that PLHIV travelled further for care if the nearest facility supplies ART services (aRR=0.95, 95% CI (0.86 to 1.05), p=0.328). Among those who reported uptake of care at one of two facilities on the island that provides ART (81% of PLHIV and 68% of HIV-negative individuals), PLHIV tended to seek care at a higher tiered facility that provides ART, even when this facility was not their closest facility (30% of PLHIV travelled further than the closest ART facility compared with 16% of HIV-negative individuals), and travelled an additional 2.2 km (p=0.001) to access that facility, relative to HIV-negative individuals (aRR=1.91, 95% CI (1.00 to 3.65), p=0.05). Among PLHIV, residential distance was associated with access to facilities providing ART (RR=0

  11. Understanding the 'four directions of travel': qualitative research into the factors affecting recruitment and retention of doctors in rural Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Motivation and retention of health workers, particularly in rural areas, is a question of considerable interest to policy-makers internationally. Many countries, including Vietnam, are debating the right mix of interventions to motivate doctors in particular to work in remote areas. The objective of this study was to understand the dynamics of the health labour market in Vietnam, and what might encourage doctors to accept posts and remain in-post in rural areas. Methods This study forms part of a labour market survey which was conducted in Vietnam in November 2009 to February 2010. The study had three stages. This article describes the findings of the first stage - the qualitative research and literature review, which fed into the design of a structured survey (second stage) and contingent valuation (third stage). For the qualitative research, three tools were used - key informant interviews at national and provincial level (6 respondents); in-depth interviews of doctors at district and commune levels (11 respondents); and focus group discussions with medical students (15 participants). Results The study reports on the perception of the problem by national level stakeholders; the motivation for joining the profession by doctors; their views on the different factors affecting their willingness to work in rural areas (including different income streams, working conditions, workload, equipment, support and supervision, relationships with colleagues, career development, training, and living conditions). It presents findings on their overall satisfaction, their ranking of different attributes, and willingness to accept different kinds of work. Finally, it discusses recent and possible policy interventions to address the distribution problem. Conclusions Four typical 'directions of travel' are identified for Vietnamese doctors - from lower to higher levels of the system, from rural to urban areas, from preventive to curative health and from public to private

  12. Inpatient child mortality by travel time to hospital in a rural area of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Manongi, Rachel; Mtei, Frank; Mtove, George; Nadjm, Behzad; Muro, Florida; Alegana, Victor; Noor, Abdisalan M.; Todd, Jim; Reyburn, Hugh

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the association, if any, between child mortality and distance to the nearest hospital. METHODS The study was based on data from a 1-year study of the cause of illness in febrile paediatric admissions to a district hospital in north-east Tanzania. All villages in the catchment population were geolocated, and travel times were estimated from availability of local transport. Using bands of travel time to hospital, we compared admission rates, inpatient case fatality rates and child mortality rates in the catchment population using inpatient deaths as the numerator. RESULTS Three thousand hundred and eleven children under the age of 5 years were included of whom 4.6% died; 2307 were admitted from <3 h away of whom 3.4% died and 804 were admitted from ≥3 h away of whom 8.0% died. The admission rate declined from 125/1000 catchment population at <3 h away to 25/1000 at ≥3 h away, and the corresponding hospital deaths/catchment population were 4.3/1000 and 2.0/1000, respectively. Children admitted from more than 3 h away were more likely to be male, had a longer pre-admission duration of illness and a shorter time between admission and death. Assuming uniform mortality in the catchment population, the predicted number of deaths not benefiting from hospital admission prior to death increased by 21.4% per hour of travel time to hospital. If the same admission and death rates that were found at <3 h from the hospital applied to the whole catchment population and if hospital care conferred a 30% survival benefit compared to home care, then 10.3% of childhood deaths due to febrile illness in the catchment population would have been averted. CONCLUSIONS The mortality impact of poor access to hospital care in areas of high paediatric mortality is likely to be substantial although uncertainty over the mortality benefit of inpatient care is the largest constraint in making an accurate estimate. PMID:24661618

  13. Travelers' Health: Pregnant Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disabilities Pregnant Travelers Diane F. Morof, I. Dale Carroll INTRODUCTION Pregnancy is an altered state of health ... Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Oct;114(4):954–5. Carroll ID, Williams DC. Pre-travel vaccination and medical ...

  14. The Impact of a Museum Travelling Exhibition on Middle School Teachers and Students from Rural, Low-Income Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badger, James; Harker, Richard J. W.

    2016-01-01

    Schools may be places of learning, but a great deal of learning occurs outside of school. A growing body of literature investigates how school field trips allow rural students to make real-life connections with their school curriculum. This paper contributes to that area of research by describing how students from five middle schools in the United…

  15. The Road Less Travelled: Tracing the Path of First-Generation Students from Rural Areas to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodsdon, Michelle Caron

    2012-01-01

    Narrative inquiry was used to trace the educational journeys of 11 first-generation university students from rural areas of Colorado in an effort to identify the experiences, beliefs, and people that impacted their decision to attend a 4-year institution. Students were asked to convey their experiences growing up within the contexts of their…

  16. Have computers, will travel: providing on-site library instruction in rural health facilities using a portable computer lab.

    PubMed

    Neilson, Christine J

    2010-01-01

    The Saskatchewan Health Information Resources Partnership (SHIRP) provides library instruction to Saskatchewan's health care practitioners and students on placement in health care facilities as part of its mission to provide province-wide access to evidence-based health library resources. A portable computer lab was assembled in 2007 to provide hands-on training in rural health facilities that do not have computer labs of their own. Aside from some minor inconveniences, the introduction and operation of the portable lab has gone smoothly. The lab has been well received by SHIRP patrons and continues to be an essential part of SHIRP outreach.

  17. Traveling with breathing problems

    MedlinePlus

    Oxygen - travel; Collaped lung - travel; Chest surgery - travel; COPD - travel; Chronic obstructive airways disease - travel; Chronic obstructive lung disease - travel; Chronic bronchitis - travel; ...

  18. Connected Traveler

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Alex

    2015-11-01

    The Connected Traveler project is a multi-disciplinary undertaking that seeks to validate potential for transformative transportation system energy savings by incentivizing efficient traveler behavior. This poster outlines various aspects of the Connected Traveler project, including market opportunity, understanding traveler behavior and decision-making, automation and connectivity, and a projected timeline for Connected Traveler's key milestones.

  19. Travelers' Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... Minute Travel Long-Term Travel Mass Gatherings Medical Tourism Mental Health Motion Sickness Natural Disasters Pregnant Travelers Road Safety Senior Citizens Sex Tourism STDs Sun Exposure Swimming and Diving Study Abroad ...

  20. [Travelers' vaccines].

    PubMed

    Ouchi, Kazunobu

    2011-09-01

    The number of Japanese oversea travelers has gradually increased year by year, however they usually pay less attention to the poor physical condition at the voyage place. Many oversea travelers caught vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. The Vaccine Guideline for Oversea Travelers 2010 published by Japanese Society of Travel Health will be helpful for spreading the knowledge of travelers' vaccine and vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. Many travelers' vaccines have not licensed in Japan. I hope these travelers' vaccines, such as typhoid vaccine, meningococcal vaccine, cholera vaccine and so on will be licensed in the near future.

  1. Travel Patterns in China

    PubMed Central

    Garske, Tini; Yu, Hongjie; Peng, Zhibin; Ye, Min; Zhou, Hang; Cheng, Xiaowen; Wu, Jiabing; Ferguson, Neil

    2011-01-01

    The spread of infectious disease epidemics is mediated by human travel. Yet human mobility patterns vary substantially between countries and regions. Quantifying the frequency of travel and length of journeys in well-defined population is therefore critical for predicting the likely speed and pattern of spread of emerging infectious diseases, such as a new influenza pandemic. Here we present the results of a large population survey undertaken in 2007 in two areas of China: Shenzhen city in Guangdong province, and Huangshan city in Anhui province. In each area, 10,000 randomly selected individuals were interviewed, and data on regular and occasional journeys collected. Travel behaviour was examined as a function of age, sex, economic status and home location. Women and children were generally found to travel shorter distances than men. Travel patterns in the economically developed Shenzhen region are shown to resemble those in developed and economically advanced middle income countries with a significant fraction of the population commuting over distances in excess of 50 km. Conversely, in the less developed rural region of Anhui, travel was much more local, with very few journeys over 30 km. Travel patterns in both populations were well-fitted by a gravity model with a lognormal kernel function. The results provide the first quantitative information on human travel patterns in modern China, and suggest that a pandemic emerging in a less developed area of rural China might spread geographically sufficiently slowly for containment to be feasible, while spatial spread in the more economically developed areas might be expected to be much more rapid, making containment more difficult. PMID:21311745

  2. Travel medicine

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To define the practice of travel medicine, provide the basics of a comprehensive pretravel consultation for international travelers, and assist in identifying patients who might require referral to travel medicine professionals. Sources of information Guidelines and recommendations on travel medicine and travel-related illnesses by national and international travel health authorities were reviewed. MEDLINE and EMBASE searches for related literature were also performed. Main message Travel medicine is a highly dynamic specialty that focuses on pretravel preventive care. A comprehensive risk assessment for each individual traveler is essential in order to accurately evaluate traveler-, itinerary-, and destination-specific risks, and to advise on the most appropriate risk management interventions to promote health and prevent adverse health outcomes during travel. Vaccinations might also be required and should be personalized according to the individual traveler’s immunization history, travel itinerary, and the amount of time available before departure. Conclusion A traveler’s health and safety depends on a practitioner’s level of expertise in providing pretravel counseling and vaccinations, if required. Those who advise travelers are encouraged to be aware of the extent of this responsibility and to refer all high-risk travelers to travel medicine professionals whenever possible. PMID:25500599

  3. Connected Traveler

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    The Connected Traveler framework seeks to boost the energy efficiency of personal travel and the overall transportation system by maximizing the accuracy of predicted traveler behavior in response to real-time feedback and incentives. It is anticipated that this approach will establish a feedback loop that 'learns' traveler preferences and customizes incentives to meet or exceed energy efficiency targets by empowering individual travelers with information needed to make energy-efficient choices and reducing the complexity required to validate transportation system energy savings. This handout provides an overview of NREL's Connected Traveler project, including graphics, milestones, and contact information.

  4. Traveller's diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Al-Abri, Seif S; Beeching, Nick J; Nye, Fred J

    2005-06-01

    Traveller's diarrhoea affects over 50% of travellers to some destinations and can disrupt holidays and business trips. This review examines the main causes and epidemiology of the syndrome, which is associated with poor public health infrastructure and hygiene practices, particularly in warmer climates. Although travellers may be given common sense advice on avoidance of high-risk foods and other measures to prevent traveller's diarrhoea, adherence to such advice is sometimes difficult and the evidence for its effectiveness is contradictory. However, non-antimicrobial means for prevention of traveller's diarrhoea are favoured in most settings. A simple stepwise approach to the management of traveller's diarrhoea includes single doses or 3-day courses of antimicrobials, often self administered. The antibiotics of choice are currently fluoroquinolones or azithromycin, with an emerging role for rifaximin. In the long term, there will be greater benefit and effect on the health of local inhabitants and travellers from improving public health and hygiene standards at tourist destinations.

  5. Travelers' thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Raymond V; Hudson, Martin F

    2014-02-01

    The suggestion that venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with air travel has for several decades been the subject of both "media hype" and extensive debate in the medical literature. As emotion and anecdote is often a feature in this debate, it is therefore necessary to separate evidence from anecdote. "Travelers' thrombosis" is a more appropriate term because the evidence suggests that any form of travel involving immobility lasting more than 4 h can predispose to thrombosis. There is no unique factor in the air travel cabin environment that has been shown to have any effect on the coagulation cascade. Prevention of thrombosis in any form of travel, including air travel, requires being aware of the issue and making an adequate risk assessment together with appropriate prophylactic measures.

  6. [Traveller's diarrhoea].

    PubMed

    Vila, Jordi; Oliveira, Ines; Zboromyrska, Yuliya; Gascon, Joaquim

    2016-11-01

    Traveller's diarrhoea (TD) is acquired primarily through ingestion of food and drinks contaminated with pathogens that cause diarrhoea. They can be bacteria, protozoa, helminths, and viruses. Globally, the most common causes of TD are two pathotypes of Escherichia coli (enterotoxigenic and enteroaggregative) and Campylobacter, although there are significant variations by geographic area visited. Most TD occurs in individuals traveling to low-middle income countries. The type of travel, length of stay, traveller's age, and the presence of certain underlying conditions are important risk factors to consider for the acquisition of TD. While TD is usually a mild and self-limiting disease, half of travellers with TD experience some limitation of activities during their trip, while up to 10% will experience persistent diarrhoea or other complications. The purpose of this article is to provide an updated microbiological, epidemiological, and clinical profile of traveller's diarrhoea, including known risk factors, as well as to make recommendations on the prevention and treatment of TD.

  7. Major variations in malaria exposure of travellers in rural areas: an entomological cohort study in western Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Orlandi-Pradines, Eve; Rogier, Christophe; Koffi, Bernard; Jarjaval, Fanny; Bell, Melissa; Machault, Vanessa; Pons, Christophe; Girod, Romain; Boutin, Jean-Paul; Pagès, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    Background Malaria remains a major threat, to both travellers and military personnel deployed to endemic areas. The recommendations for travellers given by the World Health Organization is based on the incidence of malaria in an area and do not take the degree of exposure into account. The aim of this article is to evaluate the exposure of travellers by entomologic methods, which are the commonly used measures of the intensity of malaria transmission. Methods From February 2004 to June 2004, five groups of 30 military personnel were stationed in up to 10 sites in western Côte d'Ivoire, from one week to several months. Adult mosquitoes were collected by human landing catches at each site during the five months and the level of exposure to malaria transmission of each group was estimated. Results The level of transmission varied from one site to another one from less than one to approximately more than 100 infective bites per month. In the majority of sites, at least two anopheline species were involved in transmission. The cumulative EIR over the study period varied according to the groups from 29 infected bites per person/per mission to 324. Conclusion The level of malaria transmission and malaria risk varies widely (varying by a factor of eleven) between groups of travellers travelling in the same region and at the same time. Physicians involved in travel medicine or supporting expatriated populations or refugees should consider this heterogeneity and emphasize the importance of combining appropriate measures, such as chemoprophylaxis and protective measures against mosquitoes. PMID:19638219

  8. Travelling diabetics.

    PubMed

    Chełmińska, Katarzyna; Jaremin, Bogdan

    2002-01-01

    During the past several decades, the number of both business and tourist travels has greatly increased. Among them are persons suffering from chronic diseases, including diabetics for whom travels pose the additional health-hazard. Irrespective of better education, self-control and constantly improving quality of specialistic equipment available, diabetics still are the group of patients requiring particular attention. In the case of travelling diabetics, problems may occur concerning the transport and storage of insulin, as well as control of glycaemia, all caused by irregularity of meals, variable diet, physical activity, stress, kinetosis (sea voyages), and the change of time zones. The travel may as well evoke ailments caused by the change of climate and concomitant diseases such as traveller's diarrhoea, malaria, etc. Apart from avoiding glycaemia fluctuations, important for retaining health of diabetics is the prevention of other diseases and carrying the necessary drugs.

  9. [Travel medicine].

    PubMed

    Schubert, S; Grimm, M

    2009-07-01

    Travel medicine deals with travellers' diseases. The target group is therefore distinct from tropical medicine. It has gained in significance due to the increase in tourism and professional work abroad in the last 50 years. Dangerous and widespread diseases in tropical countries, in particular tropical malaria, have come into focus in industrialized countries because of their appearance in travellers. Travel medicine deals not only with infectious or transmittable diseases, but also with the ability of patients with chronic diseases to travel, the medical aspects of flying, as well as the health hazards of professional work or high-risk sports abroad. The risk of disease as a result of travelling can be minimized by advice and prophylactic measures, such as vaccinations and drug prophylaxis against malaria, if indicated. On return, medical symptoms should be investigated promptly to ensure early detection of life-threatening disease courses, particularly tropical malaria, as well as to prevent the occurrence of small-scale epidemics. A small number of diseases can also emerge after several years, such as benign types of malaria, amoebic liver abscess and visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar). Aids also belongs to these diseases. Therefore, in this era of HIV pandemic travellers concerned should be made aware of the risks.

  10. The challenge of global water access monitoring: evaluating straight-line distance versus self-reported travel time among rural households in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jeff C; Russel, Kory C; Davis, Jennifer

    2014-03-01

    Support is growing for the incorporation of fetching time and/or distance considerations in the definition of access to improved water supply used for global monitoring. Current efforts typically rely on self-reported distance and/or travel time data that have been shown to be unreliable. To date, however, there has been no head-to-head comparison of such indicators with other possible distance/time metrics. This study provides such a comparison. We examine the association between both straight-line distance and self-reported one-way travel time with measured route distances to water sources for 1,103 households in Nampula province, Mozambique. We find straight-line, or Euclidean, distance to be a good proxy for route distance (R(2) = 0.98), while self-reported travel time is a poor proxy (R(2) = 0.12). We also apply a variety of time- and distance-based indicators proposed in the literature to our sample data, finding that the share of households classified as having versus lacking access would differ by more than 70 percentage points depending on the particular indicator employed. This work highlights the importance of the ongoing debate regarding valid, reliable, and feasible strategies for monitoring progress in the provision of improved water supply services.

  11. TRAVEL FORECASTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, L. E.

    1994-01-01

    Business travel planning within an organization is often a time-consuming task. Travel Forecaster is a menu-driven, easy-to-use program which plans, forecasts cost, and tracks actual vs. planned cost for business-related travel of a division or branch of an organization and compiles this information into a database to aid the travel planner. The program's ability to handle multiple trip entries makes it a valuable time-saving device. Travel Forecaster takes full advantage of relational data base properties so that information that remains constant, such as per diem rates and airline fares (which are unique for each city), needs entering only once. A typical entry would include selection with the mouse of the traveler's name and destination city from pop-up lists, and typed entries for number of travel days and purpose of the trip. Multiple persons can be selected from the pop-up lists and multiple trips are accommodated by entering the number of days by each appropriate month on the entry form. An estimated travel cost is not required of the user as it is calculated by a Fourth Dimension formula. With this information, the program can produce output of trips by month with subtotal and total cost for either organization or sub-entity of an organization; or produce outputs of trips by month with subtotal and total cost for international-only travel. It will also provide monthly and cumulative formats of planned vs. actual outputs in data or graph form. Travel Forecaster users can do custom queries to search and sort information in the database, and it can create custom reports with the user-friendly report generator. Travel Forecaster 1.1 is a database program for use with Fourth Dimension Runtime 2.1.1. It requires a Macintosh Plus running System 6.0.3 or later, 2Mb of RAM and a hard disk. The standard distribution medium for this package is one 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. Travel Forecaster was developed in 1991. Macintosh is a registered trademark of

  12. Travelers' Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines. Medicines. Advice. Do you have questions about Zika virus ? Destinations Who are you? Traveler Clinician Where are ... including: Alert Level 2, Practice Enhanced Precautions Updated Zika Virus in Argentina March 31, 2017 New Malaria in ...

  13. Travelers' Health: Cruise Ship Travel

    MedlinePlus

    ... mosquito bites and vectorborne infections: Use an effective insect repellent (see Chapter 2, Protection against Mosquitoes, Ticks, & ... on risk. Discuss food and water precautions and insect bite prevention. Older travelers, especially those with a ...

  14. Travelers' diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Barrett-Connor, E

    1973-03-01

    On the average, one-fourth of North Americans visiting developing countries experience a self-limited diarrheal illness that interferes with holiday or business activities. Recent work suggests that these episodes are caused by a small inoculum of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli which are common in the country visited and rare in the country of origin. Neither antimicrobial treatment nor anti-diarrheal agents have proven benefit once the illness has begun. Despite its frequent use, iodochlorhydroxyquin has not been shown in double blind studies to be effective as a preventive agent, and may be dangerous. The status of furazolidone for prevention of tourist diarrhea is questionable. Both neomycin sulfate and phythalylsulfathiazole have demonstrated efficacy as chemoprophylactics in Mexico. However, their use should be restricted to limited types of travel and travelers. General admonitions concerning avoidance of certain ingestibles are recommended; despite questionable value in preventing travelers' diarrhea such precautions may prevent more serious gastrointestinal illness.

  15. Reconciliation of Travel Advances and Travel Liquidations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    AD-A236 677 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California DTIC ELECTE JN12 1981’ THESIS RECONCILIATION OF TRAVEL ADVANCES AND TRAVEL LIQUIDATIONS by...Classification) RECONCILIATION OF TRAVEL ADVANCES AND TRAVEL LIQUIDATIONS 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Conzales. Dnmingo 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b TIME COVERED 14 DATE OF...TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block numoer) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Travel orders, Travel advance, Travel liquida- tion

  16. Traveler's Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... probably safe to eat or drink the following:Soft drinks that are carbonated (such as cola).Hot drinks, ... for Staying HealthyInternational travel has its share of health and safety challenges. Talk to your doctor about the area ...

  17. Traveling Apples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland Unified School District, Rowland Heights, CA.

    Teacher-developed materials for a basic computer literacy and utilization program for elementary students in grades 3-6 are included in this 4-part packet, which was originally prepared for use with or without the Apple IIe "traveling" microcomputers shared by 15 Rowland Unified School District elementary schools. Implementation…

  18. Granted travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Geological Society of America (GSA)is accepting applications for the 30th International Geological Congress (IGC) Travel Grant Program. The 1996 congress will be held in Beijing, China, August 4-14. The program was formed at the end of the 28th IGC, held in Washington, D.C. in July 1989. The fund is to be used to support the attendance of young geoscientists to future IGCs until the United States again hosts an IGC. Travel grants consist of economy air-fare to China. To be eligible, an applicant must be a resident or citizen of the United States; must have been born after August 31, 1956; and must have an abstract included in the program of the 30th IGC. Official application forms are available from the grants administrator, GSA Headquarters, 3300 Penrose Place, P.O. Box 9140, Boulder, CO 80301.

  19. [Immunocompromised travelers].

    PubMed

    Delmont, J; Igo-Kemenes, A; Peyron, F; Ruiz, J M; Moreau, J; Bourgeade, A

    1997-01-01

    More and more immunocompromised people travel abroad especially in tropical countries where infectious risks are high. Before leaving, these subjects must consult their general practitioner who will determine their fitness in function of type of immunodeficiency, travel destination, availability of medical care at the destination, and possibility of medical evacuation. Counseling should also be provided concerning the precautions necessary to avoid the hazards of exposure to fecal material, venereal disease, insect bites, and sun. Antimalarial drug prophylaxis is the same as for uncompromised subjects. Advising immunocompromised subjects about vaccinations is difficult since there is no consensus on the subject. Administration of inert vaccines is usually recommended but their effectiveness is often diminished and harmful effects have been observed in HIV-infected subjects. Administration of live vaccines is always contraindicated in severely immunocompromised subjects but some live vaccines can be used in moderately immunocompromised subjects. The guidelines for vaccination differ depending on the underlying cause of immunodeficiency: congenital defects, cancer, hemopathy, treatment with immunosuppressors or corticosteroids (transplant patients and patients with systemic disease), HIV-infection, or spleen dysfunction. If there is a high risk of contracting a disease for which vaccination is contraindicated, drug prophylaxis or administration of immunoglobulins can be an alternative. If not, travel should either be postponed or the destination should be changed.

  20. Travel during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Travel During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Travel During Pregnancy ... Pregnancy FAQ055, February 2016 PDF Format Travel During Pregnancy Pregnancy When is the best time to travel ...

  1. Travel Medical Kit.

    PubMed

    Terry, Anne C; Haulman, N Jean

    2016-03-01

    "The traveler's medical kit is an essential tool for both the novice and expert traveler. It is designed to treat travel-related illness and injury and to ensure preexisting medical conditions are managed appropriately. Travelers are at increased risk for common gastrointestinal issues during travel. Respiratory illnesses make up approximately 8% of the ailments present in returned international travelers. Approximately 12% of travelers experience a travel-related skin condition. First aid treatment for minor injuries is essential to all travel medical kits. The complexity ranges from a small, simple case for the urban traveler to a larger, extensive case for wilderness travel."

  2. Advice to travelers living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Sax, P; Turk, B

    1996-07-01

    HIV-positive persons should make a medical precaution visit to an intended vacation site several weeks or months prior to traveling. This will ensure that proper medical intervention care will be available. Before departing, pack necessary medications and doctors' contact information. Determine insurance coverage limitations. During travel, eat well-cooked foods, drink bottled water and avoid ice cubes, use insect repellents to protect against insect-borne diseases, avoid rural areas far from hospitals, and bring diarrhea medication.

  3. Plains Traveler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    10 April 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dust devil traveling across a plain west-southwest of Schiaparelli Crater, in far eastern Sinus Meridiani. The dust devil is casting a shadow toward the northeast, just south (below) of an egg-shaped crater.

    Location near: 6.4oS, 349.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  4. The Travelling Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murabona Oduori, Susan

    2015-08-01

    The telescope has been around for more than 400 years, and through good use of it scientists have made many astonishing discoveries and begun to understand our place in the universe. Most people, however, have never looked through one. Yet it is a great tool for cool science and observation especially in a continent and country with beautifully dark skies. The Travelling Telescope project aims to invite people outside under the stars to learn about those curious lights in the sky.The Travelling Telescope aims to promote science learning to a wide range of Kenyan schools in various locations exchanging knowledge about the sky through direct observations of celestial bodies using state of the art telescopes. In addition to direct observing we also teach science using various hands-on activities and astronomy software, ideal for explaining concepts which are hard to understand, and for a better grasp of the sights visible through the telescope. We are dedicated to promoting science using astronomy especially in schools, targeting children from as young as 3 years to the youth, teachers, their parents and members of the public. Our presentation focuses on the OAD funded project in rural coastal Kenya.

  5. Travelers' Health: Giardiasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  6. Childhood and Travel Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espey, David

    If children are not present in most travel literature--precisely because the genre has most typically been the domain of solitary male travelers who are escaping domestic obligation, routine, the familiar, and the family--they nevertheless are an integral part of the genre. The traveler is in many ways a child, an innocent abroad. Traveler writers…

  7. Travel-related illness.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Carol C

    2013-06-01

    Travel abroad for business and pleasure should be safe and meaningful for the traveler. To assure that safe experience, certain processes should be considered before travel. A thorough pretravel health assessment will offer patients and health care providers valuable information for anticipatory guidance before travel. The destination-based risk assessment will help determine the risks involved in travel to specific locations and guide in the development of contingency plans for all travelers, especially those with chronic conditions. Diseases are more prevalent overseas, and immunizations and vaccinations are all important considerations for persons traveling abroad.

  8. Rabies in travelers.

    PubMed

    Gautret, Philippe; Parola, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    Most cases of rabies in travelers are associated with dog bites and occur in adults who are commonly migrants. The incidence of injuries to travelers caused by potentially rabid animals is approximately 0.4 % per month of stay. Dogs account for 51 % of cases, but nonhuman primates are the leading animals responsible for injuries in travelers returning from Southeast Asia. Travel to Southeast Asia, India and North Africa, young age, and traveling for tourism are risk factors for potential exposure. More than 70 % of travelers are not immunized prior to departing and do not receive adequate care when injured. The intradermal vaccination route has been proven economical, safe and immunogenic in travelers. The immunity provided by the three-dose series is long-lasting and should be considered an investment for future travel. Abbreviated schedules may be used for last-minute travelers.

  9. International travel and vaccinations.

    PubMed Central

    Rizvon, M K; Qazi, S; Ward, L A

    1999-01-01

    With the increase in global travel, no disease is beyond the reach of any population. Traveling patients should be advised to follow food and water precautions and encouraged to receive the recommended immunizations. Travel medicine plays a vital role not only in limiting the morbidity of travel-related illnesses but also in limiting the spread of diseases. This article addresses the common issues related to travel, reviews the care of the immunocompromised traveler, and updates the available vaccinations and prophylactic regimens available to limit sickness abroad. PMID:10063396

  10. Zika Travel Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... GeoSentinel Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Zika Travel Information Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Language: ... Map of Areas with Risk of Zika Zika Travel Notices Zika Virus in Cape Verde Zika Virus ...

  11. Zika Travel Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners GeoSentinel Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Zika Travel Information Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... website . World Map of Areas with Risk of Zika Zika Travel Notices Zika Virus in Cape Verde ...

  12. Travelers' Health: Meningococcal Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children Fish Poisoning in Travelers Food and Water Getting Health ... Suppl 2: B26–36. Rosenstein NE, Perkins BA, Stephens DS, Popovic T, Hughes JM. Meningococcal disease. N ...

  13. Travel and Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... medical records with you while traveling. High Altitudes, Exotic Spots Traveling to higher altitudes shouldn’t necessarily ... The bigger concern, Gandy said, is that an exotic place may have less access to good medical ...

  14. Minimizing travel claims cost with minimal-spanning tree model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamalluddin, Mohd Helmi; Jaafar, Mohd Azrul; Amran, Mohd Iskandar; Ainul, Mohd Sharizal; Hamid, Aqmar; Mansor, Zafirah Mohd; Nopiah, Zulkifli Mohd

    2014-06-01

    Travel demand necessitates a big expenditure in spending, as has been proven by the National Audit Department (NAD). Every year the auditing process is carried out throughout the country involving official travel claims. This study focuses on the use of the Spanning Tree model to determine the shortest path to minimize the cost of the NAD's official travel claims. The objective is to study the possibility of running a network based in the Kluang District Health Office to eight Rural Clinics in Johor state using the Spanning Tree model applications for optimizing travelling distances and make recommendations to the senior management of the Audit Department to analyze travelling details before an audit is conducted. Result of this study reveals that there were claims of savings of up to 47.4% of the original claims, over the course of the travel distance.

  15. Intercity Travel Data Search.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Intercity Travel Data Search is an annotated bibliography on U.S. domestic intercity passenger travel by the four major modes of air, auto, bus and...socioeconomic, attitudinal and trip behavior characteristics of intercity travelers , and (3) demand models for predicting point-to-point intercity... travel . The bibliography totals 422 items, almost all published after 1964. Approximately 100 of these are in the first two subject areas and the

  16. Traveling and Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Traveling and Asthma KidsHealth > For Kids > Traveling and Asthma A A A What's in this ... t have to get in the way of travel fun. Let's find out how to be prepared ...

  17. Travel Agent Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    Written for college entry-level travel agent training courses, this course outline can also be used for inservice training programs offered by travel agencies. The outline provides information on the work of a travel agent and gives clear statements on what learners must be able to do by the end of their training. Material is divided into eight…

  18. The Jet Travel Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    Airplane travelers are dismayed by the long lines and seemingly chaotic activities that precede boarding a full airplane. Surely, the one who can solve this problem is going to make many travelers happy. This article describes the Jet Travel Challenge, an activity that challenges students to create some alternatives to this now frustrating…

  19. Rural Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of food programs are available for rural seniors? Rural older adults may benefit from a range ... guide, What are some food assistance programs for seniors, such as home meal deliveries, in rural communities? ...

  20. Preparing the traveller.

    PubMed

    Spira, Alan M

    2003-04-19

    The four steps for giving travellers the foundation for healthy journeys are to assess their health, analyse their itineraries, select vaccines, and provide education about prevention and self-treatment of travel-related diseases. This process takes time. Since there is a risk of information overload, travellers should leave the clinic with some written advice for reinforcement. The order of these steps can be tailored to what best suits the travel clinic, but vaccinating early in the process allows monitoring for adverse reactions. Face-to-face discussion is vital for explaining the use and side-effects of medications. Those who provide a travel medicine service should be seeing many travellers and should seek specialist training. In 2003, the International Society of Travel Medicine introduced a certificate of knowledge examination in travel medicine. We cannot make travellers bullet-proof but it is possible to make them bullet-resistant. The pre-travel visit should minimise health risks specific to the journey, give travellers the capability to handle most minor medical problems, and allow them to identify when to seek local care during the trip or on return.

  1. Travel/Travelers and Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can Be Acquired During Travel* Contaminated Food and Water More Common giardiasis cryptosporidiosis cyclosporiasis Less Common amebiasis ... Page last updated: July 28, 2016 Content source: Global Health - Division of Parasitic Diseases Email Recommend Tweet ...

  2. A week in the life of a travel clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Blair, D C

    1997-01-01

    International travel has increased enormously in recent years. With the greater movement of people have come increased encounters with a wide variety of diseases: malaria, dengue, cholera, typhoid fever, Ebola virus, and many more. The need for greater scope, consistency, and knowledgeability in pretravel health care to meet these challenges has been met by the emergence of the discipline of travel medicine. Travelers are well advised to become informed of the risks they face and to take steps to minimize those risks. After reviewing a traveler's medical history and a detailed itinerary, a travel medicine practitioner can offer expert advice on behavioral modifications, immunizations, and chemoprophylaxis regimens which will increase the traveler's margin of safety. The issues most frequently addressed in a travel clinic include treatment of traveler's diarrhea, malaria chemoprophylaxis, and immunizations, for hepatitis A, typhoid fever, tetanus/diphtheria, influenza, pneumococcus, hepatitis B, polio, meningococcus, measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, and rabies. Pretravel consultation must consider the age and underlying health problems of the traveler, the nature of the trip (wilderness, jungle, rural, urban, resort, or cruise), the duration of travel, and the latest available information on the site in terms of disease outbreaks, terrorism, and natural calamities. PMID:9336667

  3. A week in the life of a travel clinic.

    PubMed

    Blair, D C

    1997-10-01

    International travel has increased enormously in recent years. With the greater movement of people have come increased encounters with a wide variety of diseases: malaria, dengue, cholera, typhoid fever, Ebola virus, and many more. The need for greater scope, consistency, and knowledgeability in pretravel health care to meet these challenges has been met by the emergence of the discipline of travel medicine. Travelers are well advised to become informed of the risks they face and to take steps to minimize those risks. After reviewing a traveler's medical history and a detailed itinerary, a travel medicine practitioner can offer expert advice on behavioral modifications, immunizations, and chemoprophylaxis regimens which will increase the traveler's margin of safety. The issues most frequently addressed in a travel clinic include treatment of traveler's diarrhea, malaria chemoprophylaxis, and immunizations, for hepatitis A, typhoid fever, tetanus/diphtheria, influenza, pneumococcus, hepatitis B, polio, meningococcus, measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, and rabies. Pretravel consultation must consider the age and underlying health problems of the traveler, the nature of the trip (wilderness, jungle, rural, urban, resort, or cruise), the duration of travel, and the latest available information on the site in terms of disease outbreaks, terrorism, and natural calamities.

  4. Dengue vaccines for travelers.

    PubMed

    Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Deen, Jacqueline L

    2008-07-01

    Dengue is an arthropod-borne infection caused by a flavivirus and spread by the Aedes mosquitoes. Many of the countries where dengue is endemic are popular tourist destinations and the disease is an increasingly important problem encountered by international travelers. Personal protection against the day-feeding dengue vectors is problematic, indicating the urgent need for a dengue vaccine. This review discusses the challenges of vaccine development, current vaccine strategies and the prospects for the availability of a vaccine for travelers in the future. Cost-effectiveness studies will need to take into account many factors, including the attack rate of dengue in travelers, the proportion of travelers who will need hospitalization, the cost of altered travel itineraries, the cost of the vaccine, duration of travel, destination and season. To be licensed as a travelers' vaccine, vaccine trials must address safety, immunogenicity, duration of protection, schedules and boosters in adults (in particular in immunologically naive adults), trials that may differ from those conducted in endemic countries. Vaccine schedules with long intervals would be a major obstacle to the uptake of the vaccine by travelers. Enhanced reactogenicity or interference with immunization must be effectively excluded for travelers with prior or concurrent vaccination against other flaviviruses, such as yellow fever or Japanese encephalitis. Licensing dengue as a travelers' vaccine poses unique challenges beyond the development of a vaccine for the endemic population.

  5. Immunizations for foreign travel.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of preparing travelers for destinations throughout the world is providing them with immunizations. Before administering any vaccines, however, a careful health and immunization history and travel itinerary should be obtained in order to determine vaccine indications and contraindications. There are three categories of immunizations for foreign travel. The first category includes immunizations which are routinely recommended whether or not the individual is traveling. Many travelers are due for primary vaccination or boosting against tetanus-diphtheria, measles-mumps-rubella, pneumococcal pneumonia, and influenza, for example, and the pre-travel visit is an ideal time to administer these. The second category are immunizations which might be required by a country as a condition for entry; these are yellow fever and cholera. The final category contains immunizations which are recommended because there is a risk of acquiring a particular disease during travel. Typhoid fever, meningococcal disease, rabies, and hepatitis are some examples. Travelers who are pregnant or who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus require special consideration. Provision of appropriate immunizations for foreign travel is an important aspect of preventing illness in travelers. PMID:1337807

  6. Orthopedic Surgery in Rural American Hospitals: A Survey of Rural Hospital Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weichel, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Rural American residents prefer to receive their medical care locally. Lack of specific medical services in the local community necessitates travel to a larger center which is less favorable. This study was done to identify how rural hospitals choose to provide orthopedic surgical services to their communities. Methods: All hospitals in 5 states…

  7. How Does Degree of Rurality Impact the Provision of Surgical Services at Rural Hospitals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doty, Brit; Zuckerman, Randall; Finlayson, Samuel; Jenkins, Paul; Rieb, Nathaniel; Heneghan, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Context: Rural residents frequently have decreased access to surgical services. Consequences of this situation include increased travel time and financial costs for patients. There are also economic implications for hospitals as they may lose revenue when patients leave the area in order to obtain surgical services. Rural communities vary in size…

  8. [Vaccination for international travelers].

    PubMed

    Arrazola, M Pilar; Serrano, Almudena; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-05-01

    Traveler's vaccination is one of the key strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases during international travel. The risk of acquiring an infectious disease is determined in each case by the characteristics of the traveler and the travel, so the pre-departure medical advice of the traveler must be individualized. The World Health Organization classifies travelerś vaccines into three groups. - Vaccines for routine use in national immunization programs: Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, polio, measles-mumps-rubella, tetanus-diphtheria-whooping a cough, and chickenpox. - Vaccinations required by law in certain countries before to enter them: yellow fever, meningococcal disease and poliomyelitis. - Vaccines recommended depending on the circumstances: cholera, japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies and BCG. This review is intended to introduce the reader to the field of international vaccination.

  9. Histoplasmosis in Israeli travelers.

    PubMed

    Segel, Michael J; Rozenman, Judith; Lindsley, Mark D; Lachish, Tamar; Berkman, Neville; Neuberger, Ami; Schwartz, Eli

    2015-06-01

    Histoplasmosis is a common endemic human mycoses acquired mostly in the Americas. We reviewed 23 cases of histoplasmosis in Israeli travelers; 22 had traveled to Central or South America and one to North America. Fourteen cases had been exposed to bat habitats and were symptomatic, presenting ≤ 3 months after their return. Asymptomatic patients (N = 9) were diagnosed during the evaluation of incidental radiological findings or because a travel partner had been suspected of Histoplasma infection, 16-120 months after their return. Serological testing was positive in 75% of symptomatic cases but only 22% of asymptomatic cases. Histoplasmosis should be considered in travelers returning from the Americas with respiratory or febrile illness within weeks of return, particularly if exposed to bat habitats. Travel history is essential in patients presenting with pulmonary nodules, even years after travel to endemic countries.

  10. [Travel and venous thromboembolism].

    PubMed

    Hallundbæk Mikkelsen, Kristian; Knudsen, Stine Ulrik; Nannestad Jørgensen, Lars

    2013-10-28

    A literature study on the association between travel and venous thromboembolism (VTE) is conducted. Studies examining the risk of travel-associated VTE, predisposing factors and prophylactic measures are presented. It is concluded that the absolute risk of travel-associated VTE is low and holds a 2-4 fold increase after travel. The risk increases with duration, presence of other risk factors for VTE and extremes of height. Stockings reduces the risk of asymptomatic VTE. Heparin is presumed to constitute protection whereas there is no evidence of a prophylactic effect of acetylsalicylic acid.

  11. Pregnancy and travel.

    PubMed

    Barry, M; Bia, F

    1989-02-03

    The special problems of travel during pregnancy have become clinically important as more women are traveling to remote places for business or recreation. Optimal maintenance of fetal and maternal health under these circumstances entails specific considerations for which data, unfortunately, remain incomplete. Nevertheless, questions regarding immunizations, antimalarials, therapy for traveler's diarrhea, and even the risks of high altitude or vigorous exercise for the pregnant woman may be examined clinically. With a few important exceptions, sufficient information is available to ensure relatively safe travel in pregnancy provided precautions are taken and preparations are made.

  12. Pre-Travel Medical Preparation of Business and Occupational Travelers

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nomana M.; Jentes, Emily S.; Brown, Clive; Han, Pauline; Rao, Sowmya R.; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Hagmann, Stefan H.F.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Ryan, Edward T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to understand more about pre-travel preparations and itineraries of business and occupational travelers. Methods: De-identified data from 18 Global TravEpiNet clinics from January 2009 to December 2012 were analyzed. Results: Of 23,534 travelers, 61% were non-occupational and 39% occupational. Business travelers were more likely to be men, had short times to departure and shorter trip durations, and commonly refused influenza, meningococcal, and hepatitis B vaccines. Most business travelers indicated that employers suggested the pre-travel health consultation, whereas non-occupational travelers sought consultations because of travel health concerns. Conclusions: Sub-groups of occupational travelers have characteristic profiles, with business travelers being particularly distinct. Employers play a role in encouraging business travelers to seek pre-travel consultations. Such consultations, even if scheduled immediately before travel, can identify vaccination gaps and increase coverage. PMID:26479857

  13. Information for travellers' physicians.

    PubMed

    Allison, D J; Blinco, K

    1990-07-01

    Physicians can obtain advice about international travel for their patients from many different sources of information. The authors review some of the most common sources based on their experience at the International Travellers' Clinic operated by the New Brunswick Department of Health and Community Services in Fredericton. They identify readily available handbooks and periodicals and compare two computer software programs.

  14. Seismic Travel Time Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report consists of an introduction in which is given a list of published papers on the travel times of body waves together with brief comments on...velocity distribution in the outer core have been based on the travel times of SKS. However, SKS arrivals can only be observed satisfactorily for arc

  15. Illness in Returned Travellers

    PubMed Central

    Lawee, D.; Scappatura, P.; Gutman, E.

    1989-01-01

    Intercontinental travel is more common now than it has ever been before, and so are travel-related diseases. A thorough history and physical examination provide many clues to possible pathogens, particularly when combined with knowledge of the geographic distribution of specific diseases. Prompt diagnosis and proper treatment are imperative. PMID:21249095

  16. Air Travel Health Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... improved health Before your flightOne key to air travel is to prepare ahead of time. If you are carrying on a bag, make ... need to change if your eating and sleeping times will change at your destination.If you have diabetes or epilepsy, you should travel with your ID card. For instance, the American ...

  17. Travelers' Health: Mumps

    MedlinePlus

    ... about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Home Destinations Travel Notices Zika Travel Information World Map of Zika Questions and ... confirmation of mumps involves virus isolation with RT-PCR or culture. For further information on laboratory testing, see ... ...

  18. [Fever after travel return].

    PubMed

    Schedel, I

    2004-06-01

    Between 20 and 70 percent of the 50 million people who travel from the industrialized world to the developing world each year report some illness associated with their travel. Approximately 3 percent of people traveling internationally for short periods (<2 weeks) report fever even after travel. Careful assessment of the travel history, likely incubation period, exposure history, associated signs and symptoms, duration of fever, immunization status use or nonuse of antimalarial chemoprophylaxis, and degree of compliance with a chemoprophylactic regimen, if used, helps to establish the diagnosis. Determining an approximate incubation period can be particular helpful in ruling out possible causes of fever. Specific examinations targeting the individual infection, assumed to be responsible for the development of febrile disease may ascertain diagnosis and lead to effective treatment.

  19. Quantifying travel behavior for infectious disease research: a comparison of data from surveys and mobile phones.

    PubMed

    Wesolowski, Amy; Stresman, Gillian; Eagle, Nathan; Stevenson, Jennifer; Owaga, Chrispin; Marube, Elizabeth; Bousema, Teun; Drakeley, Christopher; Cox, Jonathan; Buckee, Caroline O

    2014-07-14

    Human travel impacts the spread of infectious diseases across spatial and temporal scales, with broad implications for the biological and social sciences. Individual data on travel patterns have been difficult to obtain, particularly in low-income countries. Travel survey data provide detailed demographic information, but sample sizes are often small and travel histories are hard to validate. Mobile phone records can provide vast quantities of spatio-temporal travel data but vary in spatial resolution and explicitly do not include individual information in order to protect the privacy of subscribers. Here we compare and contrast both sources of data over the same time period in a rural area of Kenya. Although both data sets are able to quantify broad travel patterns and distinguish regional differences in travel, each provides different insights that can be combined to form a more detailed picture of travel in low-income settings to understand the spread of infectious diseases.

  20. Quantifying travel behavior for infectious disease research: a comparison of data from surveys and mobile phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesolowski, Amy; Stresman, Gillian; Eagle, Nathan; Stevenson, Jennifer; Owaga, Chrispin; Marube, Elizabeth; Bousema, Teun; Drakeley, Christopher; Cox, Jonathan; Buckee, Caroline O.

    2014-07-01

    Human travel impacts the spread of infectious diseases across spatial and temporal scales, with broad implications for the biological and social sciences. Individual data on travel patterns have been difficult to obtain, particularly in low-income countries. Travel survey data provide detailed demographic information, but sample sizes are often small and travel histories are hard to validate. Mobile phone records can provide vast quantities of spatio-temporal travel data but vary in spatial resolution and explicitly do not include individual information in order to protect the privacy of subscribers. Here we compare and contrast both sources of data over the same time period in a rural area of Kenya. Although both data sets are able to quantify broad travel patterns and distinguish regional differences in travel, each provides different insights that can be combined to form a more detailed picture of travel in low-income settings to understand the spread of infectious diseases.

  1. Have Courses, Will Travel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Yvonne Michie

    1981-01-01

    The University of Portland offers a Bachelor of Science in Nursing degree in rural Roseburg, Oregon, through an outreach program based at Umpqua Community College in Roseburg. The program enables rural nurses to acquire the degree while continuing to live and work in their community. (SK)

  2. Understanding taxi travel patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Hua; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhu, Ji; Jia, Xiaoping; Chiu, Anthony S. F.; Xu, Ming

    2016-09-01

    Taxis play important roles in modern urban transportation systems, especially in mega cities. While providing necessary amenities, taxis also significantly contribute to traffic congestion, urban energy consumption, and air pollution. Understanding the travel patterns of taxis is thus important for addressing many urban sustainability challenges. Previous research has primarily focused on examining the statistical properties of passenger trips, which include only taxi trips occupied with passengers. However, unoccupied trips are also important for urban sustainability issues because they represent potential opportunities to improve the efficiency of the transportation system. Therefore, we need to understand the travel patterns of taxis as an integrated system, instead of focusing only on the occupied trips. In this study we examine GPS trajectory data of 11,880 taxis in Beijing, China for a period of three weeks. Our results show that taxi travel patterns share similar traits with travel patterns of individuals but also exhibit differences. Trip displacement distribution of taxi travels is statistically greater than the exponential distribution and smaller than the truncated power-law distribution. The distribution of short trips (less than 30 miles) can be best fitted with power-law while long trips follow exponential decay. We use radius of gyration to characterize individual taxi's travel distance and find that it does not follow a truncated power-law as observed in previous studies. Spatial and temporal regularities exist in taxi travels. However, with increasing spatial coverage, taxi trips can exhibit dual high probability density centers.

  3. [Vaccinations for international travelers].

    PubMed

    Berens-Riha, N; Alberer, M; Löscher, T

    2014-03-01

    Vaccinations are a prominent part of health preparations before international travel. They can avoid or significantly reduce the risk of numerous infectious diseases. Until recently, vaccination against yellow fever was the only obligatory vaccination. However, according to updated international health regulations, other vaccinations and prophylactic measures may be required at entry from certain countries. For all routine vaccinations as recommended in Germany, necessary revaccination and catch-up of missed vaccinations should be administered before travel. At most destinations the risk of infection is higher than in Germany. Hepatitis A vaccine is generally recommended for travelers to areas of increased risk, polio vaccine for all destinations where eradication is not yet confirmed (Asia and Africa). The indications for other travel vaccines must take into consideration travel destination and itinerary, type and duration of travel, individual risk of exposure as well as the epidemiology of the disease to be prevented. Several vaccines of potential interest for travel medicine, e.g., new vaccines against malaria and dengue fever, are under development.

  4. [Traveling with immunosuppression].

    PubMed

    Birkenfeld, G

    2014-03-01

    The rapidly increasing number of patients with immunosuppression is followed by their expectation to lead-as much as possible-a "normal" life, including long-distance travel. The advice and preventive measures for diseases associated with travelling depend overall on the mode of the patient's immunosuppression. This report explains the individual preventive possibilities, limits and risks for travellers with asplenia, common variable immunodeficiency, chronic inflammatory bowel and rheumatic diseases, HIV, as well as for patients having undergone solid organ or bone marrow transplantation or chemotherapy.

  5. [Diabetes and travel].

    PubMed

    Bauduceau, B; Mayaudon, H; Ducorps, M; Belmejdoub, G; Thiolet, C; Pellan, M; Cosson, E

    1997-01-01

    With the continuing expansion in international air travel, increasing numbers of diabetic patients consult physicians for advice before going abroad. Careful planning is required taking into account climatic and medical conditions at the destination. Diabetic travelers should pack an appropriate treatment kit and contract special insurance coverage for medical evacuation. Precautions are necessary to limit the effects of motion sickness and time differences on diabetes control and especially the risk of hypoglycemia. Special attention is needed to avoid digestive problems and prevent foot injuries which can lead to serious complications in diabetic patients. Diabetic patients cannot forget their health problem during vacation and must be especially cautious when traveling. However with proper training, the risks of foreign travel can be reduced to acceptable levels.

  6. Traveling-wave photodetector

    DOEpatents

    Hietala, Vincent M.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    1993-01-01

    The traveling-wave photodetector of the present invention combines an absorptive optical waveguide and an electrical transmission line, in which optical absorption in the waveguide results in a photocurrent at the electrodes of the electrical transmission line. The optical waveguide and electrical transmission line of the electrically distributed traveling-wave photodetector are designed to achieve matched velocities between the light in the optical waveguide and electrical signal generated on the transmission line. This velocity synchronization provides the traveling-wave photodetector with a large electrical bandwidth and a high quantum efficiency, because of the effective extended volume for optical absorption. The traveling-wave photodetector also provides large power dissipation, because of its large physical size.

  7. Traveling-wave photodetector

    DOEpatents

    Hietala, V.M.; Vawter, G.A.

    1993-12-14

    The traveling-wave photodetector of the present invention combines an absorptive optical waveguide and an electrical transmission line, in which optical absorption in the waveguide results in a photocurrent at the electrodes of the electrical transmission line. The optical waveguide and electrical transmission line of the electrically distributed traveling-wave photodetector are designed to achieve matched velocities between the light in the optical waveguide and electrical signal generated on the transmission line. This velocity synchronization provides the traveling-wave photodetector with a large electrical bandwidth and a high quantum efficiency, because of the effective extended volume for optical absorption. The traveling-wave photodetector also provides large power dissipation, because of its large physical size. 4 figures.

  8. Tips for Travel

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Avoid bringing bed bugs home by taking precautions when traveling such as inspecting bedding and luggage racks in hotel rooms, and upon returning home unpacking directly into a washing machine and dry at high temperatures.

  9. Space Traveler Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Describes the winners of the Space Traveler Project, a contest jointly sponsored by Rockwell International, NASA, and this magazine to identify worthwhile elementary science programs relating to the Space Shuttle. (SJL)

  10. Travelers' Health: Cryptosporidiosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... was significantly associated with travel to Asia, particularly India, and Latin America. Another study found a 6. ... have direct anti- Cryptosporidium activity. PREVENTION Food and water precautions (see Chapter 2, Food & Water Precautions ) and ...

  11. Traveling Space Museum

    NASA Video Gallery

    In an effort to inspire and motivate the next generation of space explorers, NASA’s Ames Research Center teamed up with the Traveling Space Museum to teach students the way astronauts are taughtâ...

  12. Traveling Safely with Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... means taking a trip. To be sure that you can stay healthy on your trip, ask your pharmacist about how to travel safely with your medicines. Make sure that you always carry a list of all the medicines ...

  13. Infections in travelers.

    PubMed

    Bomsztyk, Mayan; Arnold, Richard W

    2013-07-01

    Travel medicine continues to grow as international tourism and patient medical complexity increases. This article reflects the state of the current field, but new recommendations on immunizations, resistance patterns, and treatment modalities constantly change. The US Centers for Disease Control and the World Health Organization maintain helpful Web sites for both patient and physician. With thoughtful preparation and prevention, risks can be minimized and travel can continue as safely as possible.

  14. [Travel thrombosis, 2008].

    PubMed

    Sándor, Tamás

    2009-01-18

    In Hungary, the first studies on travel thrombosis were published at the beginning of the 2000s. In this paper recent investigational results of this special type of venous thrombosis have been reviewed. Travel thrombosis is a subgroup of sitting thromboses. It is a consequence of prolonged sitting which is common of ground transportation and air travel. More and more computer-linked sitting thromboses have been observed as well. Long-haul air travel related venous thrombosis is a multifactorial disease. Possible contributory risk factors are in connection with the milieu of the cabin. Various investigations evaluated the effect of immobilization and hypobaric hypoxia on thrombin generation and fibrinolysis. The studies differed much in participants' characteristics, duration and type of exposure and statistical analysis, so the results are contradictory. Personal, traveller-related risk factors may be regarded as triggers. The presently available evidences do not permit to assess the exact actual risk. For healthy young passengers there seem to be low risk. However, passengers suffering from predisposing factors for venous thromboembolism can be exposed to serious hazards, if they fly more than 5000 km or travel more than 8 hours. Proper safety measures are summarized on the basis of recent international recommendations.

  15. Geographic Access to Health Care for Rural Medicare Beneficiaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Leighton; Hart, L. Gary; Goodman, David C.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Patients in rural areas may use less medical care than those living in urban areas. This could be due to differences in travel distance and time and a utilization of a different mix of generalists and specialists for their care. Purpose: To compare the travel times, distances, and physician specialty mix of all Medicare patients living in…

  16. Access to Cancer Services for Rural Colorectal Cancer Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Cai, Yong; Larson, Eric H.; Dobie, Sharon A.; Wright, George E.; Goodman, David C.; Matthews, Barbara; Hart, L. Gary

    2008-01-01

    Context: Cancer care requires specialty surgical and medical resources that are less likely to be found in rural areas. Purpose: To examine the travel patterns and distances of rural and urban colorectal cancer (CRC) patients to 3 types of specialty cancer care services--surgery, medical oncology consultation, and radiation oncology consultation.…

  17. Creativity in Rural Special Education Settings: An Example with Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Diane; And Others

    This paper examines how creative thinking techniques can be used to help rural educators provide effective transition programs and services to secondary students. Factors affecting transition in rural areas include a small, homogenous economic base; travel time and distance between job sites; lack of services and trained staff; the community role…

  18. Travel Health Advisory Group: a joint travel industry and travel health Special Interest Group promoting healthy travel in Australia.

    PubMed

    Leggat, Peter A; Zwar, Nicholas; Hudson, Bernie

    2012-09-01

    The Travel Health Advisory Group (THAG), established in 1997, is a joint initiative between the travel industry and travel health professionals in Australia that aims to promote healthy travel. THAG seeks to promote cooperation in improving the health of travellers between the travel industry and travel medicine professionals and to raise public awareness of the importance of travel health. From 2011, THAG has been a Special Interest Group of The Australasian College of Tropical Medicine and its membership has been active in several areas, including web-based travel health information, travel health promotion, media releases, research and education in Australia. Information is given on the objectives, membership and an overview of the various activities of the group.

  19. Risk assessment in travel medicine.

    PubMed

    Leggat, Peter A

    2006-01-01

    Risk assessment is an integral part of pre-travel and post- assessment. Risk assessment largely determines what health and safety advice and interventions are given within the relevant prevailing travel health guidelines. Risk assessment needs time and depends on information, including that given by the traveller. Risk assessment also needs to be documented. Risk assessment of the traveller preferably starts before they enter the consulting room, where travellers may complete a pre-travel health questionnaire. Armed with this information, risk assessment may be assisted by access to computerised travel health databases and the published literature. Experience of travel to the destination may also assist in risk assessment and the tour operator, overseas employer or agency, the traveller or even the travel health advisers themselves may provide this information.

  20. Are rural places less safe for motorists? Definitions of urban and rural to understand road safety disparities.

    PubMed

    McAndrews, Carolyn; Beyer, Kirsten; Guse, Clare E; Layde, Peter

    2017-01-24

    The objectives of the study are to understand road safety within the context of regional development processes and to assess how urban-rural categories represent differences in motor vehicle occupant fatality risk. We analysed 2015 motor vehicle occupant deaths in Wisconsin from 2010 to 2014, using three definitions of urban-rural continua and negative binomial regression to adjust for population density, travel exposure and the proportion of teen residents. Rural-Urban Commuting Area codes, Beale codes and the Census definition of urban and rural places do not explain differences in urban and rural transportation fatality rates when controlling for population density. Although it is widely believed that rural places are uniquely dangerous for motorised travel, this understanding may be an artefact of inaccurate constructs. Instead, population density is a more helpful way to represent transportation hazards across different types of settlement patterns, including commuter suburbs and exurbs.

  1. [Counsel for traveling children].

    PubMed

    Sorge, F; Gendrel, D

    2013-01-01

    Consultation of child traveler has two main objectives: to assess of health risk related to the child's health status and history and also the risk related to travel environment; to counsel and prescribe preventive measure to reduce these travel health risks. The evaluation is based on physical examination and a detailed interview including personal history and information regarding the regions of proposed travel. Up to date knowledge of the epidemiology of visited sites, preventive measures and presumptive treatment is required. Essential health recommendations include, in case of exposure, prevention of malaria, arthropod borned diseases and vaccine preventable diseases. For all destinations advice regarding prevention of diarrhea, accident risks and aggravation of preexisting chronic diseases is needed. Universal primary prevention counselling is valuable for all travellers regardless of their age. In the case of children, special attention must be given to food and water hygiene, sun and heat exposure, swimming risks and transports security measures. Evaluation of risk and health education take time and often several visits are needed to complete the immunization schedule before departure.

  2. Travel-related thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Cannegieter, Suzanne C

    2012-09-01

    Travel-related thrombosis is a serious public health concern considering the large and increasing number of travellers. Due to a lack of evidence, counselling air travellers on their venous thrombosis risk is not immediately straightforward, and advice will have to be based mostly on theoretical grounds. In this review a basis for these considerations is given. First of all it needs to be recognized that venous thrombosis is a multicausal disease, i.e. several risk factors have to be present before an event occurs. This is reflected in the literature where clearly increased risks have been described for certain groups, such as subjects with factor V Leiden, those who use oral contraceptives or are obese. Also, an increased risk for tall and short people has been reported. So, for subjects with a known risk factor who plan to travel, benefits and risks of thrombosis prophylaxis, (pharmacological or other), need to be weighed. This review provides some theoretical examples. For all other travellers, the advice to move and exercise as much as possible is likely to be sufficient.

  3. Travel, migration and HIV.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, S J; Hart, G J

    1993-01-01

    This is a review of recent publications on the subject of travel (taken in its widest sense) and HIV/AIDS. As with all epidemics caused by transmissible pathogens, AIDS has been seen in many countries as an imported problem. What this perspective fails to recognize is that with the explosion of international travel in the past thirty years it is virtually impossible to prevent the spread of infectious disease across international frontiers. Here we highlight the relative paucity of studies that describe or investigate the context in which sexual risk behaviour of travellers takes place, and suggest areas of further research which could increase understanding of the nature of sexual risk taking, and help in the design of health education programmes.

  4. Culture shock and travelers.

    PubMed

    Stewart, L; Leggat, P A

    1998-06-01

    As travel has become easier and more affordable, the number of people traveling has risen sharply. People travel for many and varied reasons, from the business person on an overseas assignment to backpackers seeking new and exotic destinations. Others may take up residence in different regions, states or countries for family, business or political reasons. Other people are fleeing religious or political persecution. Wherever they go and for whatever reason they go, people take their culture with them. Culture, like language, is acquired innately in early childhood and is then reinforced through formal and complex informal social education into adulthood. Culture provides a framework for interpersonal and social interactions. Therefore, the contact with a new culture is often not the exciting or pleasurable experience anticipated. When immersed in a different culture, people no longer know how to act when faced with disparate value systems. Contact with the unfamiliar culture can lead to anxiety, stress, mental illness and, in extreme cases, physical illness and suicide. "Culture shock" is a term coined by the anthropologist Oberg. It is the shock of the new. It implies that the experience of the new culture is an unpleasant surprise or shock, partly because it is unexpected and partly because it can lead to a negative evaluation of one's own culture. It is also known as cross-cultural adjustment, being that period of anxiety and confusion experienced when entering a new culture. It affects people intellectually, emotionally, behaviorally and physically and is characterized by symptoms of psychological distress. Culture shock affects both adults and children. In travelers or workers who have prolonged sojourns in foreign countries, culture shock may occur not only as they enter the new culture, but also may occur on their return to their original culture. Children may also experience readjustment problems after returning from leading sheltered lives in expatriate

  5. Intergalactic Travel Bureau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koski, Olivia; Rosin, Mark; Guerilla Science Team

    2014-03-01

    The Intergalactic Travel Bureau is an interactive theater outreach experience that engages the public in the incredible possibilities of space tourism. The Bureau is staffed by professional actors, who play the role of space travel agents, and professional astrophysicists, who play the role of resident scientists. Members of the public of all ages were invited to visit with bureau staff to plan the vacation of their dreams-to space. We describe the project's successful nine day run in New York in August 2013. Funded by the American Physical Society Public Outreach and Informing the Public Grants.

  6. Travel health. Part 1: preparing the tropical traveller.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Bernadette; Daniel, Amanda; Behrens, Ron H

    The health threats of modern day travel change as population, wealth and tourism increase across the world. A series of three articles have been written to describe the spectrum of health issues associated with travel. Pre-travel health advice has become more focused on risk assessment and educating the traveller about infectious disease and the more frequent non-infectious hazards associated with travel, while ensuring they are not unnecessarily exposed to injury from vaccines and drugs. In part one, the role of the health advisor and the needs of the traveller are examined. The importance of risk assessment during a consultation is described and factors that influence recommendations and prescribing are explored. As most travel-associated morbidity and mortality is non-vaccine preventable, the focus of the pre-travel consultation should be on educating the traveller and influencing behaviour change. The second article in this series deals with the highest risk group of travellers--residents who visit friends and relatives. It highlights their specific problems and special needs and how to influence their risk of disease by addressing their health beliefs and their cultural dimension of risk. The third article explores the common, and not so common, clinical problems found in returned travellers. Nurses have to deal with a large range of clinical problems and diagnostic dilemmas when attending to the returned traveller. The review provides a perspective on the frequency and severity of problems and how nurses should manage travel associated disease.

  7. Risk for Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... specified risk materials from animal feed and human food chains as of October 1, 2000; such bans had already been instituted in most member states. To reduce any risk of acquiring vCJD from food, concerned travelers to Europe or other areas with ...

  8. Blastocystis hominis and travelers.

    PubMed

    Sohail, Muhammad R; Fischer, Philip R

    2005-02-01

    B. hominis is a unicellular protozoan commonly identified in stool specimens of travelers who have returned from tropical countries. It has a world-wide distribution, and infection is more common in developing countries compared to industrialized nations. Clinical features of illness which have been attributed to Blastocystis include nausea, anorexia, abdominal pain, flatulence and acute or chronic diarrhea. The preferred method of diagnosis is a permanently stained smear of an unconcentrated stool specimen. The presence of B. hominis in stool specimens of symptomatic travelers should prompt clinicians to search for other unrecognized co-pathogens. Due to controversy regarding the pathogenicity of B. hominis in humans, clinicians are often faced with the dilemma of whether or not they should offer treatment for B. hominis infection in returned travelers. The most commonly used drugs for treatment include metronidazole and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), when treatment is deemed necessary. Prevention in travelers should focus on food and water precautions as the organism is transmitted by the fecal-oral route.

  9. Gulliver's Travels. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooks, Kirsten; McLean, Mary

    Based on Jonathan Swift's novel "Gulliver's Travels," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Swift comments on undesirable outcomes of advances in science; and other authors have also warned against abuse of science. The main activity of the lesson involves students developing a poster illustrating views of…

  10. The stress of travel.

    PubMed

    Waterhouse, J; Reilly, T; Edwards, B

    2004-10-01

    International travel is an essential part of the life of elite athletes, both for competition and training. It is also becoming increasingly common among recreational sportspersons. Long-distance travel is associated with a group of transient negative effects, collectively referred to as 'travel fatigue', which result from anxiety about the journey, the change to an individual's daily routine, and dehydration due to time spent in the dry air of the aircraft cabin. Travel fatigue lasts for only a day or so, but for those who fly across several time zones, there are also the longer-lasting difficulties associated with 'jet lag'. The problems of jet lag can last for over a week if the flight crosses 10 time zones or more, and they can reduce performance and the motivation to train effectively. Knowledge of the properties of the body clock enables the cause of the difficulties to be understood (an unadjusted body clock), and forms the basis of using light in the new time zone to promote adjustment of the body clock. Sleep loss and its effects are important components of jet lag, and attempts to promote sleep by the use of melatonin and other hypnotics are also relevant. Sleep loss is also found in those who undertake challenges that involve long periods where the normal consolidated sleep of 8 h length is not possible. Advice on sleep regimens in such circumstances is given.

  11. Family travel: an overview.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Karl

    2006-01-01

    Paediatric travel medicine involves the education of parents about the numerous health and safety issues related to traveling with infants and young children--whether overseas or a weekend at a local lake. It includes providing children with vaccines and medications, giving telephone advice to parents while they are traveling, and treating children should they come home ill. Practitioners must be knowledgeable about such varied topics like avoiding diarrhoea, infant safety seats for air travel, altitude sickness, sun exposure, waterfront safety, insect protection, dealing with hot and cold environments, and at what age it is safe to begin scuba diving, to name just a very few. Practitioners must also know when adult recommendations can--and cannot--be adapted for children; that vaccine doses, needle size, and injection site may vary with the size of the child; and the answers to hundreds of everyday questions such as how to administer an essential but bitter tasting medication to an uncooperative child--and what to do when the child refuses to take the medication or vomits it.

  12. Teachers and Gypsy Travellers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Gwynedd; Stead, Joan; Jordan, Elizabeth; Norris, Claire

    1999-01-01

    Interviews in 12 Scottish schools examined how teachers and staff perceived and responded to the culture and behavior of Traveller children--both Gypsies and occupational migrants. The findings raise issues about "difference" versus deviance and the extent to which schools can accommodate cultural diversity when it challenges norms of…

  13. Do British travel agents provide adequate health advice for travellers?

    PubMed Central

    Lawlor, D A; Burke, J; Bouskill, E; Conn, G; Edwards, P; Gillespie, D

    2000-01-01

    Travel-related illness is a burden for primary care, with more than two million travellers consulting a general practitioner each year. The annual cost of travel-related illness in the United Kingdom is 11 million Pounds. Travel agents are in a unique position to influence this burden as the most common and most serious problems are preventable with simple advice and/or immunisation. This study, using covert researchers, suggests this potential is not being fully utilised. PMID:10954940

  14. Malaria: prevention in travellers

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Malaria transmission occurs most frequently in environments with humidity over 60% and ambient temperature of 25-30 °C. Risks increase with longer visits and depend on activity. Infection can follow a single mosquito bite. Incubation is usually 10-14 days but can be up to 18 months depending on the strain of parasite. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug preventive interventions in adult travellers? What are the effects of drug prophylaxis in adult travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria vaccines in travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria interventions in child travellers, pregnant travellers, and in airline pilots? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to February 2006 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 69 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acoustic buzzers, aerosol insecticides, amodiaquine, air conditioning and electric fans, atovaquone-proguanil, biological control measures, chloroquine (alone or with proguanil), diethyltoluamide (DEET), doxycycline, full-length and light-coloured clothing, insecticide-treated clothing/nets, mefloquine, mosquito coils and vaporising mats, primaquine, pyrimethamine-dapsone, pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine, smoke, topical (skin-applied) insect repellents, and vaccines. PMID:19450348

  15. Malaria: prevention in travellers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Malaria transmission occurs most frequently in environments with humidity greater than 60% and ambient temperature of 25 °C to 30 °C. Risks increase with longer visits and depend on activity. Infection can follow a single mosquito bite. Incubation is usually 10 to 14 days but can be up to 18 months depending on the strain of parasite. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug preventive interventions in non-pregnant adult travellers? What are the effects of drug prophylaxis in non-pregnant adult travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria vaccines in adult and child travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria interventions in child travellers, pregnant travellers, and in airline pilots? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to November 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 79 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: aerosol insecticides, amodiaquine, air conditioning and electric fans, atovaquone–proguanil, biological control measures, chloroquine (alone or with proguanil), diethyltoluamide (DEET), dietary supplementation, doxycycline, electronic mosquito repellents, full-length and light-coloured clothing, insecticide-treated clothing/nets, mefloquine, mosquito coils and vapourising mats, primaquine, pyrimethamine–dapsone, pyrimethamine–sulfadoxine, smoke

  16. Rural Agrobusiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treillon, Roland; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This publication describes the formation and evolution of rural agribusiness (RA) in the southern hemisphere as a precondition for improving the lives of families in rural communities, and focuses on RA endeavors created by development projects in Latin America, the Caribbean, and Africa. After a short introduction, the first section of this study…

  17. Evaluating School Travel Initiatives and Promoting "Healthy Travel" through PSHCE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baslington, Hazel

    2010-01-01

    The number of primary school children travelling to school by car in the UK has almost doubled from 22% to 43% in 20 years. A governmental policy response is school travel plans (STPs). This paper reports the findings of an empirical evaluation designed to measure the effectiveness of the travel initiative at three schools. Quantitative and…

  18. International business travel: impact on families and travellers

    PubMed Central

    Espino, C; Sundstrom, S; Frick, H; Jacobs, M; Peters, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Spouses and staff of the World Bank Group (WBG) were questioned about the impact of international business travel on families and travellers. Dependent variables were self reported stress, concern about the health of the traveller, and negative impact on the family. We hypothesised that several travel factors (independent variables) would be associated with these impacts. These travel factors had to do with the frequency, duration, and predictability of travel and its interference with family activities. Methods: Survey forms were developed and distributed to all spouses of travelling staff as well as a small sample of operational staff. Kendall's tau b correlation coefficients of response frequencies were computed with the data from scaled items. Written responses to open ended questions were categorised. Results: Response rates for spouses and staff were 24% and 36%, respectively. Half the spouse sample (n=533) and almost 75% of the staff sample (n=102) reported high or very high stress due to business travel. Self reported spouse stress was associated with six out of eight travel factors. Female spouses, those with children, and younger spouses reported greater stress. Self reported staff stress was significantly associated with four out of nine travel factors. Further insight into how business travel affects families and staff (including children's behavioural changes) and how families cope was gained through responses to written questions. Conclusions: The findings support the notion that lengthy and frequent travel and frequent changes in travel dates which affect family plans, all characteristic of WBG missions, negatively affects many spouses and children (particularly young children) and that the strain on families contributes significantly to the stress staff feel about their travel. Policies or management practices that take into consideration family activities and give staff greater leeway in controlling and refusing travel may help relieve

  19. Travel and Adventure Medicine Resources.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Christopher A; Pottinger, Paul S

    2016-03-01

    Given the ever-changing nature of travel medicine, practitioners who provide pretravel and posttravel care are obligatorily students for the duration of their professional careers. A large variety of resources are available for medical practitioners. Providers should join at least one travel or tropical medicine professional association, attend its annual meeting, and read its journal. The largest general travel medicine association is the International Society of Travel Medicine.

  20. [The fever of international travel].

    PubMed

    Hristea, Adriana; Luka, A I; Aramă, Victoria; Moroti, Ruxandra

    2008-01-01

    Between 20 and 70 percent of the 50 million people who travel from the industrialized world to the developing world each year report some illness associated with their travel. Although most illness reported by travellers are mild, 20-70% of travellers become ill enough to seek medical attention, either during or immediately after travel. The full spectrum of health complaints is unknown. Nevertheless the usual presentation of a returned traveller is a particular syndrome-fever, respiratory infection, diarrhoea, eosinophilia, or skin and soft tissue infection- or screening for asymptomatic infection. The most common diseases diagnosed in returning travellers are more often of cosmopolitan than exotic origin. However, fever in returned travelers always should raise suspicion for a severe or potentially life-threatening tropical infection. Therefore, fever in a returned traveller requires prompt investigation focused on infections that are life-threatening, treatable or transmissible. Careful assessment of the travel history, likely incubation period, exposure history, associated signs and symptoms, duration of fever, immunization status, use or non-use of antimalarial chemoprophylaxis and degree of compliance with the prescribed regimen, if used, helps to establish the diagnosis. Determining an approximate incubation period can be particularly helpful in ruling out possible causes of fever. Malaria is the most important cause of fever in the returned traveller. While most travel-related infections present within 6 months of return, some infections with long latent periods or potential for lifetime persistence might be seen in those who have lived abroad.

  1. Program Tracks Cost Of Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, Lemuel E., III

    1993-01-01

    Travel Forecaster is menu-driven, easy-to-use computer program that plans, forecasts cost, and tracks actual vs. planned cost of business-related travel of division or branch of organization and compiles information into data base to aid travel planner. Ability of program to handle multiple trip entries makes it valuable time-saving device.

  2. Including Gypsy Travellers in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Gwynned; Stead, Joan

    2002-01-01

    Examined the educational exclusion and inclusion of Gypsy Traveller students, exploring how some Scottish schools responded to Traveller student culture and how this led to exclusion. Interviews with school staff, Traveller students, and parents indicated that continuing prejudice and harassment promoted inappropriate school placement and…

  3. [Travel and renal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Lavelle, O; Berland, Y

    1997-01-01

    Traveling can be dangerous for subjects with kidney insufficiency. Water loss or septic episodes can further increase renal dysfunction. Poor diet can lead to hyperkaliemia. Immunosuppression not only enhances the risk of infection but also complicates administration of live vaccines. Some antimalarial drugs are contraindicated (e.g. mefloquine) and others must be used with precaution. Prior to departure persons requiring hemodialysis should book sessions at centers listed in specialized guidebooks. In addition to infection, risks for hemodialysis patients include thrombosis of the arteriovenous fistula in case of dehydration or hypotension. In subjects with transplanted kidney, the risk of rejection can be enhanced either by poor compliance with immunodepressor treatment or by vaccination-induced antigenic stimulation. Pre-travel evaluation is necessary to determine metabolic, nutritional, and immune status. Subjects with kidney insufficiency and transplanted kidneys should be informed of the dangers and appropriate action in case of trouble.

  4. Travelers In The Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grauer, Albert D.

    2014-11-01

    Travelers In The Night is an engaging and informative series of two minute radio programs about asteroids, comets, spacecraft, and other objects in space. The pieces are evergreen in that they are current but not dated. They are published on the Public Radio Exchange and carried by a number of radio stations. For teachers, students, and kids of all ages, the script for each piece and the start of a path for further inquiry can be found on the website travelersinthenight.org . The Travelers InThe Night Pieces are written and produced by an observing member of the Catalina Sky Survey Team at the University of Arizona. DPS members are encouraged to submit program ideas which can be developed to feature their research efforts.

  5. Travel health: sun protection and skin cancer prevention for travellers.

    PubMed

    Wood, Cate

    The UK population likes to travel to sunny parts of the world, where the risk of sunburn is greater than it is at home. Sunburn and the cultural desire for a tan is one of the risk factors for the increase in skin cancer. The rise in foreign travel has resulted in an increased demand for pre-travel health services, with nurses in primary care acting as the main providers.Within these consultations, the traveller and their travel plans are risk assessed.Travel health consultations give an ideal opportunity to discuss and advise the public regarding sun burn and skin cancer protection. However, there are also other ways to impart safety in the sun message to travellers. Skin protection is a health promoting activity provided as a part of public health provision and all nurses can play a role in prevention.

  6. Aging and space travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohler, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The matter of aging and its relation to space vehicle crewmembers undertaking prolonged space missions is addressed. The capabilities of the older space traveler to recover from bone demineralization and muscle atrophy are discussed. Certain advantages of the older person are noted, for example, a greater tolerance of monotony and repetitious activities. Additional parameters are delineated including the cardiovascular system, the reproductive system, ionizing radiation, performance, and group dynamics.

  7. [Travelers, mad, wandering].

    PubMed

    Vaschetto, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the notion of "wandering" through the use of some phenomena enrolled at the dawn of modernity such as the Rousseau dromomanie's philosopher and writer, the origin of the first mad traveler (Albert Dadas), epidemics of mad travelers Europe and romantic tourism (with renewed acquires significance in the "beat generation" of the twentieth century). These historical facts are "mounting" as play contemporary manifestations such as loss, disorientation, to lose one's way, and wandering without reducing them only to clinical psychosis. Readings of classic psychiatrists such as Régis, Foville, Sérieux and Capgras, Tissié, go hand in hand with the current readings of the philosopher Ian Hacking and critics of pop culture as S. Reynolds and D. Diederichsen, illustrating how the travel's phenomenon can make different subjective configurations depending on historical times. In conclusion it is noted that not only psychosis exposes the wandering soul of suffering but there are also subject positions (as will be exemplified in a clinical case) and go no further nesting wandering into human existence.

  8. Neurological disorders and travel.

    PubMed

    Awada, Adnan; Kojan, Suleiman

    2003-02-01

    Travel is associated with a number of neurological disorders that can be divided into two categories: (1) Neurological infections including encephalitides, neurotuberculosis, neurobrucellosis, cysticercosis and trichinosis. Some of these disorders can be prevented by vaccinations, such as Japanese B encephalitis and rabies, some by the use of insect repellents and some by avoiding raw milk products and undercooked meat. (2) Non-infective neurological disorders, such as acute mountain sickness and high altitude cerebral oedema, problems occurring during air travel such as syncope, seizures, strokes, nerve compression, barotrauma and vertigo, motion sickness and foodborne neurotoxic disorders such as ciguatera, shellfish poisoning and intoxication by cassava. This group of diseases and disorders could be prevented if the traveller knows about them, applies simple physiological rules, takes some specific medications and knows how to avoid intoxications in certain geographical areas. Meningococcal meningitis, malaria and jet lag syndrome are extensively discussed in other articles of this issue. The discussion in this paper will be limited to the other disorders.

  9. The pre-travel medical evaluation: the traveler with chronic illness and the geriatric traveler.

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    The pre-travel medical evaluation of elderly patients and patients with chronic illness requires special assessment and advice. Screening and special precautions are reviewed for traveling patients with respiratory disease, cardiac disease, sinusitis, diabetes mellitus, HIV infection, and other chronic medical conditions. Current guidelines for empiric therapy and prophylaxis of travelers' diarrhea are reviewed, with emphasis on concerns in geriatric or chronically ill travelers. Special considerations such as potential drug-drug interactions and insurance coverage are also discussed. PMID:1290273

  10. Evidence on global medical travel

    PubMed Central

    Záliš, Ladislav; Meurice, Christopher R; Hilton, Ian; Ly, Terry-Lisa; Zupan, Zorana; Hinrichs, Saba

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The potential benefits of travelling across national borders to obtain medical treatment include improved care, decreased costs and reduced waiting times. However, medical travel involves additional risks, compared to obtaining treatment domestically. We review the publicly-available evidence on medical travel. We suggest that medical travel needs to be understood in terms of its potential risks and benefits so that it can be evaluated against alternatives by patients who are seeking care. We propose three domains –quality standards, informed decision-making, economic and legal protection – in which better evidence could support the development of medical travel policies. PMID:26549906

  11. Evidence on global medical travel.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Kai; Záliš, Ladislav; Meurice, Christopher R; Hilton, Ian; Ly, Terry-Lisa; Zupan, Zorana; Hinrichs, Saba

    2015-11-01

    The potential benefits of travelling across national borders to obtain medical treatment include improved care, decreased costs and reduced waiting times. However, medical travel involves additional risks, compared to obtaining treatment domestically. We review the publicly-available evidence on medical travel. We suggest that medical travel needs to be understood in terms of its potential risks and benefits so that it can be evaluated against alternatives by patients who are seeking care. We propose three domains -quality standards, informed decision-making, economic and legal protection - in which better evidence could support the development of medical travel policies.

  12. Home range and travels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  13. Rabies vaccination for international travelers.

    PubMed

    Gautret, Philippe; Parola, Philippe

    2012-01-05

    Rabies prevention in travelers is a controversial issue. According to experts, the decision to vaccinate results from an individual risk assessment based on the duration of stay, the likelihood of engagement in at-risk activities, the age of the traveler, the rabies endemicity and access to appropriate medical care in the country of destination. However, no detailed information is available regarding the last two determinants in many regions. Twenty-two cases of rabies were reported in tourists, expatriates and migrant travelers over the last decade, including three cases following short-term travel of no more than two weeks. Studies on rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in travelers show that overall, 0.4% (range 0.01-2.3%) of travelers have experienced an at-risk bite per month of stay in a rabies-endemic country, while 31% of expatriates and 12% of tourists were vaccinated against rabies before traveling. The main reason cited by travelers for not being vaccinated is the cost of the vaccine. The majority of patients who sustained a high risk injury was not vaccinated against rabies before traveling and were not properly treated abroad. From available studies, the following risk factors for injuries sustained from potentially rabid animals may be identified: traveling to South-East Asia, India or North Africa, young age, and traveling for tourism. The duration of travel does not appear to be a risk factor. It should be noted that "at-risk activities" have not been addressed in these studies. Detailed rabies distribution maps and information on the availability of rabies biologics are urgently needed in order to identify those travelers who need pre-travel vaccination. Meanwhile, cost-minimization of rabies pre-exposure vaccination may be achieved in several ways, notably by using the intra-dermal method of vaccination.

  14. Fellow travellers: Working memory and mental time travel in rodents.

    PubMed

    Dere, Ekrem; Dere, Dorothea; de Souza Silva, Maria Angelica; Huston, Joseph P; Zlomuzica, Armin

    2017-03-19

    The impairment of mental time travel is a severe cognitive symptom in patients with brain lesions and a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. Whether animals are also able to mentally travel in time both forward and backward is still a matter of debate. In this regard, we have proposed a continuum of mental time travel abilities across different animal species, with humans being the species with the ability to perform most sophisticated forms of mental time travel. In this review and perspective article, we delineate a novel approach to understand the evolution, characteristics and function of human and animal mental time travel. Furthermore, we propose a novel approach to measure mental time travel in rodents in a comprehensive manner using a test battery composed of well-validated and easy applicable tests.

  15. Travel Demand Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, Frank; Garrow, Dr. Laurie

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the principal types of both passenger and freight demand models in use today, providing a brief history of model development supported by references to a number of popular texts on the subject, and directing the reader to papers covering some of the more recent technical developments in the area. Over the past half century a variety of methods have been used to estimate and forecast travel demands, drawing concepts from economic/utility maximization theory, transportation system optimization and spatial interaction theory, using and often combining solution techniques as varied as Box-Jenkins methods, non-linear multivariate regression, non-linear mathematical programming, and agent-based microsimulation.

  16. Time, travel and infection.

    PubMed

    Cliff, Andrew; Haggett, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The collapse of geographical space over the last 200 years has had profound effects on the circulation of human populations and on the transfer of infectious diseases. Three examples are used to illustrate the process: (a) the impact of the switch from sail to steamships in importing measles into Fiji over a 40-year period; (b) changes in measles epidemic behaviour in Iceland over a 150-year period; and (c) changes in the spread of cholera within the United States over a 35-year period. In each case, the link between time, travel and disease has been an intimate one.

  17. [Travel and accidents].

    PubMed

    Cha, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Traumatic pathologies are the most frequent medical events to be observed among French travellers. Accidents on the public highway by lack of respect of the fundamental rules of road security, particularly abroad, traffic conditions in bad repair in numerous emergent countries, usually the destination of mass tourism and underdeveloped organization of health care and local urgency help. Sports activities are also a source of accidents. A good physical training is essential. Drowning is a real plague, especially among children due to a lack of vigilance. Preventive measures are simple, keep them constantly in mind and apply them carefully so as to have beautiful memories of our trip back home.

  18. Traveling-Wave Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.

    1998-01-01

    The traveling-wave tube (TWT) is a vacuum device invented in the early 1940's used for amplification at microwave frequencies. Amplification is attained by surrendering kinetic energy from an electron beam to a radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic wave. The demand for vacuum devices has been decreased largely by the advent of solid-state devices. However, although solid state devices have replaced vacuum devices in many areas, there are still many applications such as radar, electronic countermeasures and satellite communications, that require operating characteristics such as high power (Watts to Megawatts), high frequency (below 1 GHz to over 100 GHz) and large bandwidth that only vacuum devices can provide. Vacuum devices are also deemed irreplaceable in the music industry where musicians treasure their tube-based amplifiers claiming that the solid-state and digital counterparts could never provide the same "warmth" (3). The term traveling-wave tube includes both fast-wave and slow-wave devices. This article will concentrate on slow-wave devices as the vast majority of TWTs in operation fall into this category.

  19. Fungal infections in immunocompromised travelers.

    PubMed

    Lortholary, Olivier; Charlier, Caroline; Lebeaux, David; Lecuit, Marc; Consigny, Paul Henri

    2013-03-01

    Immunocompromised patients represent an increasing group of travelers, for business, tourism, and visiting friends and relatives. Those with severe cellular immunodeficiency (advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection and transplant recipients) display the highest risk of fungal infections. International travel is less risky in most other types of immunodeficiency (except those with neutropenia). A systematic visit in a travel clinic for immunocompromised patients traveling to the tropics ensures that the specific risks of acquiring fungal infections (and others) are understood. When immunocompromised hosts return to their area of residence, a nonbacteriologically documented, potentially severe, febrile pneumonia, with or without dissemination signs (skin lesions, cytopenia) should alert for travel-acquired fungal infection, even years after return. Localized subcutaneous nodule may be also ascribed to fungal infection. Finally, infectious diseases physicians should be aware of major clinical patterns of travel-acquired fungal infection, as well as the fungi involved, and risk factors according to the geographical area visited.

  20. Familial cluster of exposure to a confirmed rabid dog in travelers to Algeria.

    PubMed

    Antwi, Sylvie; Parola, Philippe; Sow, Doudou; Sornin, Victoria; Henrion, Maxime; Gautret, Philippe

    2017-01-09

    A 10 person-family originating from Algeria traveled in rural Algeria for the purpose of visiting friends and relatives without seeking pre-travel advice, did not received pre-travel rabies immunization, and were exposed to a confirmed rabid dog including 8 within less than 4 days of arrival. Three received suckling mouse brain rabies vaccine although WHO strongly recommends that its production and administration be discontinued and seven received insufficient doses of equine rabies immune globulin abroad. Rabies treatment was completed on returning to France. This reports underline the fact that travelers visiting friends and relatives in dog rabies endemic country are at high risk of rabies exposure and unaware of such a risk in most instances. Rabies risk warning should be reinforced and rabies pre-exposure vaccination should be considered in all individuals traveling to North Africa (and to sub-Saharan Africa) whatever the duration of stay.

  1. Should travellers in rabies endemic areas receive pre-exposure rabies immunization?

    PubMed

    Phanuphak, P; Ubolyam, S; Sirivichayakul, S

    1994-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted in 1,882 foreign travellers, 74% of which were Europeans, after being in Thailand for an average of 17 days, about the history of potential rabies exposure during their visits. Dog bite and dog lick were experienced in 1.3% and 8.9% of the travellers respectively. The exposed individuals tended to stay in Thailand longer and the incidents occurred mainly in cities rather than in the rural areas. Thirty-one (1.6%) of all travellers had a history of rabies vaccination, 9 as a result of dog bite or dog lick in Thailand whereas the remaining 22 had already received the vaccine prior to coming to Thailand. Such high prevalences of potential rabies exposure and rabies vaccination may justify the inclusion of rabies vaccine into the multiple vaccination program for travellers to rabies endemic countries. This was favoured by over half of the travellers interviewed.

  2. Travels in Space and Place: Identity and Rural Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This analysis draws on interview data from a three-year study of educational decision making of youth living in a coastal community in Atlantic Canada. Students whose educational and mobility aspirations extend outside the known spaces of the community develop the ability to negotiate multiple social spaces in and out of school. The school- …

  3. Traveling wave model of uni-traveling carrier photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanra, Senjuti; Das Barman, Abhirup

    2015-06-01

    A traveling wave time domain model of bulk InGaAs/InP uni-traveling carrier photodiode is presented in terms of integral carrier density rate equation. The wavelength dependent responsivity at different absorption width has been derived from quantum mechanical principle. Output photocurrent response with time is found in close agreement with the experimental value.

  4. Traveler: The Apiary Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Carl R.

    Observing and debugging concurrent actor programs on a distributed architecture such as the Apiary poses new problems not found in sequential systems. Since events are only partially ordered, the chronological order of events no longer corresponds to their causal ordering, so the execution trace of a computation must be more structured than a simple stream. Many events may execute concurrently, so a stepper must give the programmer control over the order in which events are stepped. Because of the arrival order nondeterminism of the actor model, different actors may have different views on the ordering of events. We conquer these problems by recording the activation ordering, the transaction pairing, and the arrival ordering of messages in the Apiary and displaying the resulting structures in Traveler's window oriented interface under user control.

  5. A traveling opera troupe.

    PubMed

    Gao, M

    1995-08-01

    In China, Mr. Chang Junjie, a retired middle school principal has personally organized and financed the "Family Planning Retired Cadre's Troupe," which travels around the countryside performing newly written costume operas. In the six years since he first began to organize the troupe, Chang's players have performed more than 1700 times for more than a million people. The operas draw their material from the real life situations faced by farmers and emphasize the importance of family planning by setting good examples. Chang's operas have been well received, and it is not unusual for his audiences to be moved to laughter and tears. Despite his widespread success, Chang is not content with what he has accomplished and is currently organizing a children's opera troupe and seeking ways to make a greater impact on the promotion of family planning.

  6. The Travelling Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    The telescope has been around for over 400 years, yet most people have never looked though one. We invite people outside under the stars to learn about those curious lights in the sky, and have a close encounter with the cosmos.Our main aim is to promote science, technology, engineering, and mathematics to the young minds by inspiring, empowering and engaging them using astronomy and astrophysics tools and concepts. We would like to see Africa compete with the rest of the world and we believe this can happen through having a scientifically literate society. We also work closely wit teachers, parents and the general public to further our objectives. We will present on our recently awarded project to work with schools in rural coastal Kenya, a very poor area of the country. We will also present on other work we continue to do with schools to make our project sustainable even after the OAD funding.

  7. Cost Effective, Home Based Delivery System for Rural, Early Childhood Special Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Thomas C.

    1986-01-01

    The Sensory Impaired Home Intervention (SKI*HI) Model provides services for rural, hearing impaired children at an average annual cost of $1,400 per child. Weekly home visits are provided by nearby or local part time parent advisors, thus minimizing travel costs and eliminating employment problems associated with long travel hours. (JHZ)

  8. Quantifying Access Disadvantage and Gathering Information in Rural and Remote Localities: The Griffith Service Access Frame.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Dennis A.

    2003-01-01

    A purely geographic classification is not the best way to measure rural disadvantage in Australia. A service access model is described that incorporates the following elements: population center size; distance, time, and cost of travel to the service center; and a measure of the economic capacity of residents to overcome the cost of travel.…

  9. Rural Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jon, Ed.; And Others

    Presented are 10 papers resulting from a workshop, involving representatives from 33 state developmental disabilities councils, designed to examine common problems and issues confronting developmentally disabled citizens in rural areas. Entries include the following titles and authors: "Who, What, and Where--Studying Prevalence of Developmental…

  10. Create a Traveling Literacy Trunk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fromherz, Robin Wright

    2003-01-01

    Considers how the concept of Traveling Literacy Trunk was designed to reach all corners of the state of Oregon with compelling, student-centered, developmentally appropriate writing activities that could be shared with teaching professionals. Outlines 12 steps for developing a Traveling Literacy Trunk. Describes many benefits of the Literacy…

  11. Travel and the Consumer 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idleman, Hillis K.

    The State Education Department of New York has prepared a series of modules--Expanded Programs in Consumer Education. "Travel and the Consumer" is the most recently produced module. It can be used as a discrete unit or with others in the series. The module stresses the importance of making travel creative, getting the most for one's…

  12. Reengineering the Air Travel Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-01

    Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (FROM - TO) xx-xx-1999 to xx-xx-1999 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Reengineering the Air Travel Process Unclassified 5a. CONTRACT...RELEASE , 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Every year, Department of Defense (DOD) travelers make thousands of trips that include air transportation

  13. Travel and Adult Transformative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Steven K.

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological research study examines the lived experience of individual adult transformation in the context of travel. Adults throughout history have experienced profound personal and perception changes as a result of significant travel events. Transformative learning occurs through experience, crisis, and reflection, all of which are…

  14. Preparing for Travel in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, James M.

    The complexity of the Indian society can be overwhelming, and preparation for travel in India requires careful and detailed advance planning. Practical suggestions are provided for travelers to help them understand cultural differences, avoid illnesses, and select appropriate clothing for the intense heat. Explanations are given about the monetary…

  15. Winter Wilderness Travel and Camping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilchrest, Norman

    Knowledge and skill are needed for safe and enjoyable travel and camping in the wilderness in winter. The beauty of snow and ice, reduced human use, and higher tolerance of animals toward humans make the wilderness attractive during winter. The uniqueness of winter travel presents several challenges that are not present in other seasons. Safety is…

  16. 49 CFR 229.55 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Piston travel. 229.55 Section 229.55... Piston travel. (a) Brake cylinder piston travel shall be sufficient to provide brake shoe clearance when... piston travel may not exceed 11/2 inches less than the total possible piston travel. The total...

  17. 49 CFR 229.55 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Piston travel. 229.55 Section 229.55... Piston travel. (a) Brake cylinder piston travel shall be sufficient to provide brake shoe clearance when... piston travel may not exceed 11/2 inches less than the total possible piston travel. The total...

  18. 49 CFR 229.55 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Piston travel. 229.55 Section 229.55... Piston travel. (a) Brake cylinder piston travel shall be sufficient to provide brake shoe clearance when... piston travel may not exceed 11/2 inches less than the total possible piston travel. The total...

  19. 49 CFR 229.55 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piston travel. 229.55 Section 229.55... Piston travel. (a) Brake cylinder piston travel shall be sufficient to provide brake shoe clearance when... piston travel may not exceed 11/2 inches less than the total possible piston travel. The total...

  20. 49 CFR 229.55 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Piston travel. 229.55 Section 229.55... Piston travel. (a) Brake cylinder piston travel shall be sufficient to provide brake shoe clearance when... piston travel may not exceed 11/2 inches less than the total possible piston travel. The total...

  1. [Travel and patients with allergies].

    PubMed

    Miltgen, J; N'Guyen, G; Cuguilliere, A; Marotel, C; Bonnet, D

    1997-01-01

    By changing their surroundings and lifestyle, travelers with allergic conditions exposed themselves to new risks. The main perennial allergens are house dust mites which thrive in tropical areas and can be especially sensitizing. The risk of seasonal reactions to grass-pollens varies from region to region. Reactions to some highly sensitizing respiratory allergens can occur in travelers who return to regions where they were previously exposed. Subjects with food allergies should beware of possible reactions to ingredients in exotic dishes. The bites of several insects can cause anaphylactic reactions. Some medications required for tropical travel (e.g. antimalarial drugs) can trigger severe hypersensitivity reactions. Avoidance of allergens is more difficult during travel. Travelers with allergic conditions should carry alert identification cards and medications for routine as well as emergency treatment including self-injectable adrenaline.

  2. Prophylaxis for the International Traveller

    PubMed Central

    MacPherson, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    Travellers should know as much as possible about the quality of food and drink in the areas of travel, and be prepared with safety measures if necessary. Routine immunization should be up to date; cholera and yellow fever vaccinations are required for travel to certain areas. Such prophylaxis should be sought, ideally, several months before departure. Resurgences of malaria are occurring in areas where the disease had previously been controlled, making prophylaxis essential for travel to endemic areas. Other mild disorders may be treated with medication appropriate to the type of travel and area. Patients may appreciate cautionary advice about behavior, to lessen the likelihood of physical or social harm. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:21274123

  3. Travel, venous thromboembolism, and thrombophilia.

    PubMed

    Gallus, Alexander S

    2005-02-01

    Current evidence indicates that prolonged air travel predisposes to venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. An effect is seen once travel duration exceeds 6 to 9 hours and becomes obvious in long-haul passengers traveling for 12 or more hours. A recent records linkage study found that increase in thrombosis rate among arriving passengers peaked during the first week and was no longer apparent after 2 weeks. Medium- to long-distance travelers have a 2- to 4-fold increase in relative thrombosis risk compared with nontravelers, but the averaged absolute risk is small (approximately one symptomatic event per 2 million arrivals, with a case-fatality rate of approximately 2%) and there is no evidence that thrombosis is more likely in economy class than in business- or first-class passengers. It remains uncertain whether and to what extent thrombosis risk is increased by short-distance air travel or prolonged travel by motorcar, train, or other means. Most travelers who develop venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism also have one or more other predisposing risk factors that may include older age, obesity, recent injury or surgery, previous thrombosis, venous insufficiency, malignancy, hormonal therapies, or pregnancy. Limited (though theoretically plausible) evidence suggests that factor V Leiden and the prothrombin gene mutation predispose to thrombosis in otherwise healthy travelers. Given that very many passengers with such predispositions do not develop thrombosis, and a lack of prospective studies to link predisposition with disease, it is not now possible to allocate absolute thrombosis risk among intending passengers or to estimate benefit-to-risk ratios or benefit-to-cost ratios for prophylaxis. Randomized comparisons using ultrasound imaging indicate a measurable incidence of subclinical leg vein thrombosis after prolonged air travel, which appears to increase with travel duration and is reduced by graded pressure elastic support stockings. Whether this

  4. The Visiting Specialist Model of Rural Health Care Delivery: A Survey in Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drew, Jacob; Cashman, Suzanne B.; Savageau, Judith A.; Stenger, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Context: Hospitals in rural communities may seek to increase specialty care access by establishing clinics staffed by visiting specialists. Purpose: To examine the visiting specialist care delivery model in Massachusetts, including reasons specialists develop secondary rural practices and distances they travel, as well as their degree of…

  5. Rural intentions

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Diane J.; Hakes, Jacquie; Bai, Meera; Tolhurst, Helen; Dickinson, James A.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the reasons for family medicine graduates’ career choices. DESIGN Qualitative study using focus groups and one-on-one interviews. SETTING University of Calgary in Alberta. PARTICIPANTS Seventeen male and female second-year family medicine residents, representing a range of ages and areas of origin, enrolled in the 2004 urban and rural south streams of the family medicine residency program at the University of Calgary. METHOD During the final month of training, 2 focus groups were conducted to determine graduating students’ career choices and the reasons for them. After focus-group data were analyzed, a questionnaire was constructed and subsequently administered to participants during face-to-face or telephone interviews. MAIN FINDINGS Most residents initially planned to do urban locums in order to gain experience. In the long term, they planned to open practices in urban areas for lifestyle and family reasons. Many residents from the rural stream had no long-term plans to establish rural practices. Most residents said they felt prepared for practice, but many indicated that an optional third year of paid training, with an emphasis on emergency medicine, obstetrics, and pediatrics, would be desirable. Reasons cited for not practising in rural areas were related to workload, lifestyle issues, family obligations, and perceived lack of medical support in the community. Only 4 female graduates and 1 male graduate intended to practise obstetrics. The main reason residents gave for this was inadequate training in obstetrics during residency. Finances were cited as a secondary reason for many choices, and might in fact be more important than at first apparent. CONCLUSION Despite its intention to recruit family medicine graduates to rural areas and to obstetrics, the University of Calgary residency training program was not successful in recruiting physicians to these areas. The program likely needs to re-examine the effectiveness of

  6. 25 CFR 700.533 - Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense... travel and travel expense reimbursement. (a) When an employee is on officially authorized travel his or... in cash or kind for travel expenses from any other source, even when the employee's expenses...

  7. 25 CFR 700.533 - Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense... travel and travel expense reimbursement. (a) When an employee is on officially authorized travel his or... in cash or kind for travel expenses from any other source, even when the employee's expenses...

  8. 25 CFR 700.533 - Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense... travel and travel expense reimbursement. (a) When an employee is on officially authorized travel his or... in cash or kind for travel expenses from any other source, even when the employee's expenses...

  9. 76 FR 43236 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION 41 CFR Chapter 301 Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice... Federal Travel Regulation (FTR) in an effort to streamline travel policies, increase travel efficiency and... pertain to Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances that include special conveyances, per diem and...

  10. 25 CFR 700.533 - Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense... travel and travel expense reimbursement. (a) When an employee is on officially authorized travel his or... in cash or kind for travel expenses from any other source, even when the employee's expenses...

  11. 25 CFR 700.533 - Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense... travel and travel expense reimbursement. (a) When an employee is on officially authorized travel his or... in cash or kind for travel expenses from any other source, even when the employee's expenses...

  12. Rural Prairie Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Kari

    "Rural Prairie Women" contains the work of two task forces: the Rural Social Work Task Force which looked at the forces active in North Dakota rural areas and the Rural Women Task Force which examined the position of women within those same rural communities. The relationship between the land, small towns, and sparse population is…

  13. Breast cancer stage at diagnosis: is travel time important?

    PubMed

    Henry, Kevin A; Boscoe, Francis P; Johnson, Christopher J; Goldberg, Daniel W; Sherman, Recinda; Cockburn, Myles

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have produced inconsistent results in their examination of the potential association between proximity to healthcare or mammography facilities and breast cancer stage at diagnosis. Using a multistate dataset, we re-examine this issue by investigating whether travel time to a patient's diagnosing facility or nearest mammography facility impacts breast cancer stage at diagnosis. We studied 161,619 women 40 years and older diagnosed with invasive breast cancer from ten state population based cancer registries in the United States. For each woman, we calculated travel time to their diagnosing facility and nearest mammography facility. Logistic multilevel models of late versus early stage were fitted, and odds ratios were calculated for travel times, controlling for age, race/ethnicity, census tract poverty, rural/urban residence, health insurance, and state random effects. Seventy-six percent of women in the study lived less than 20 min from their diagnosing facility, and 93 percent lived less than 20 min from the nearest mammography facility. Late stage at diagnosis was not associated with increasing travel time to diagnosing facility or nearest mammography facility. Diagnosis age under 50, Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Black race/ethnicity, high census tract poverty, and no health insurance were all significantly associated with late stage at diagnosis. Travel time to diagnosing facility or nearest mammography facility was not a determinant of late stage of breast cancer at diagnosis, and better geographic proximity did not assure more favorable stage distributions. Other factors beyond geographic proximity that can affect access should be evaluated more closely, including facility capacity, insurance acceptance, public transportation, and travel costs.

  14. Travel-associated skin disease.

    PubMed

    Morris-Jones, Rachael; Morris-Jones, Stephen

    2012-09-01

    Travel associated skin disease is extremely common and a frequent cause of the returning traveller seeking medical attention. Widespread cutaneous eruptions usually represent reactive rashes, indicating an underlying systemic infection or allergic reaction. Patients with disseminated or spreading rashes following travel often present with fever and malaise. In contrast, those presenting with localised skin disease such as a blister, nodule, plaque, ulcer etc are usually well in themselves but have sustained a bite/sting/penetrating injury or introduction of infection directly into the skin at the affected site. As a general rule widespread rashes are investigated with blood tests/serology and localised lesions with a skin biopsy for culture and histology.

  15. Cardiology and Travel (Part I): Risk Assessment Prior to Travel.

    PubMed

    Leon; Lateef; Fuentes

    1996-09-01

    Traveling has always been a distinction of man. In Homer's Odyssey, we find a narrative description of the astonishing and long-standing adventures of Odysseus returning to Ithaca from Troy, and later on Thoukedides and Herodotos described different civilizations and historic events based on personal experiences obtained from traveling. At that time, the only available means of transportation were animals and ships. Therefore the trips were time consuming and frequently accompanied by unpredictable events. Nowadays, the use of modern means of transportation has made traveling much more enjoyable and faster; however, it can occasionally become stressful and, as a result, can be associated with a variety of medical problems both in healthy patients and in subjects with cardiovascular diseases. Previous epidemiologic studies have consistently demonstrated that cardiovascular events (including myocardial infarctions and cerebrovascular events) are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among adult travelers.1-6 Since the population of many industrialized countries shows aging trends, the potential problems occurring in elderly passengers, many of whom are more likely to have cardiopulmonary problems, are anticipated to increase. Assessment of the risk of cardiopulmonary problems prior to travel in a mobile society becomes an issue for the public and, in particular, for physicians. The data regarding the cardiovascular risks prior to traveling are limited because of the lack of a central registry for the collection of information regarding health problems or emergencies among travelers. However, review of the literature provides us with important observations in which we can make specific recommendations for assessing cardiovascular status and risk prior to travel during a pretravel medical consultation.

  16. Commercial Travel Offices: Lessons Learned in the Fifth U.S. Army Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    jurisdiction of the Army and are relatively easy to solve. Keywords: Passenger traffic, Service contracting; Travel agency ; Travel contracting; Travel...management; Travel service; Commercial travel office; Travel service contractor; Travel support; Commercial travel services; Commercial travel agency .

  17. National Rural Health Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Roster NRHA Past Presidents NRHA Leadership Constituency Groups History of Rural Health History of Rural Health Globalization Urban Bias Dependency Theory Political Economy History of Rural Health IV: '60s ...

  18. Medicaid and Rural Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Rural? Economic Impact Analysis Tool Planning for Sustainability Rural Health IT Curriculum Resources Testing New Approaches ... and challenges with evaluating results in low-volume environments limit rural providers' ability to participate in pilot ...

  19. Notification: Management of Travel Cards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OA-FY15-0156, April 20, 2015. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Inspector General (OIG), plans to begin preliminary research for an audit of the management of travel cards.

  20. Influenza Prevention: Information for Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... season and are traveling to parts of the world where influenza activity is ongoing should get a ... have been circulating in other parts of the world. People should get vaccinated at least 2 weeks ...

  1. Tuberculosis Information for International Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... shelters). Travelers who will be working in clinics, hospitals, or other health care settings where TB patients are likely to be encountered should consult infection control or occupational health experts. They should ask about ...

  2. Travel and the home advantage.

    PubMed

    Pace, A; Carron, A V

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relative contributions of various travel related variables to visiting team success in the National Hockey League. A multiple regression design was used with game outcome as the dependent variable. The independent variables of interest included, as main effects and interactions, number of time zones crossed, direction of travel, distance traveled, preparation/adjustment time, time of season, game number on the road trip, and the home stand. Visiting team success was negatively associated with the interaction of number of time zones crossed and increased preparation time between games, and was positively associated with game number on the road. It was concluded that only a small portion of the variance in the home advantage/visitor disadvantage can be explained by travel related factors.

  3. The returning traveler with fever.

    PubMed

    Saxe, S E; Gardner, P

    1992-06-01

    The febrile returning traveler tests a clinician's knowledge of tropical medicine as well as skills in differential diagnosis. A thorough history with special emphasis placed on the patient's travel itinerary and knowledge of the geographic location and incubation times of certain tropical diseases will narrow the diagnostic possibilities. This will allow the clinician to focus the diagnostic work-up and make wise choices of laboratory tests and procedures.

  4. Sequentially pulsed traveling wave accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George J.; Nelson, Scott D.; Poole, Brian R.

    2009-08-18

    A sequentially pulsed traveling wave compact accelerator having two or more pulse forming lines each with a switch for producing a short acceleration pulse along a short length of a beam tube, and a trigger mechanism for sequentially triggering the switches so that a traveling axial electric field is produced along the beam tube in synchronism with an axially traversing pulsed beam of charged particles to serially impart energy to the particle beam.

  5. [Sexually transmitted diseases and travel].

    PubMed

    Halioua, B; Prazuck, T; Malkin, J E

    1997-01-01

    Travelers are highly exposed to acquiring sexually transmitted diseases especially since the most popular destinations are high risk areas. While this risk applies to all travelers, it is highest for the "sex" tourist who is typically a male with a mean age of 38 years. Awareness of risks is still incomplete, especially with regard to HIV. Several studies have shown that only 20% to 70% of travelers use condoms. This finding accounts for the high incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in returning travelers: 2% to 10%. The risk of HIV infection is particularly high for persons living abroad. Based on available data, we can define the typical profile of the high risk traveler who should be targeted for prevention. Prevention depends on providing adequate information before departure, especially concerning HIV infection. Use of a condom throughout sexual contact is a basic safety rule. However condom quality is poor in many developing countries. Returning travelers should seek medical advice if manifestations involving the anogenital regions should appear.

  6. Infectious Risks of Traveling Abroad.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin H; Blair, Barbra M

    2015-08-01

    A popular leisure activity, international travel can be associated with some infections. The most common travel-related illnesses appear to be gastrointestinal, dermatologic, respiratory, and systemic febrile syndromes. The pretravel medical consultation includes immunizations, malaria chemoprophylaxis, self-treatment for traveler's diarrhea, and advice on the prevention of a myriad of other infectious causes including dengue, chikungunya, rickettsiosis, leptospirosis, schistosomiasis, and strongyloidiasis. Travel to locations experiencing outbreaks such as Ebola virus disease, Middle East respiratory syndrome, avian influenza, and chikungunya call for specific alerts on preventive strategies. After travel, evaluation of an ill traveler must explore details of exposure, including destinations visited; activities; ingestion of contaminated food or drinks; contact with vectors, animals, fresh water, or blood and body fluids; and other potential exposures. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of infectious diseases is important in generating the differential diagnoses and testing accordingly. Empiric treatment is sometimes necessary when suspicion of a certain diagnosis is strong and confirmatory tests are delayed or lacking, particularly for infections that are rapidly progressive (for example, malaria) or for which timing of testing is prolonged (such as leptospirosis).

  7. Using "Moodle[TM]": How Rural School Librarians Stay Connected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleton, Karen; DeGroot, Dorothy; Lampe, Karen; Carruthers, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    So, what if one lives in a remote, rural area, but still has important knowledge and insights that others might benefit from learning? What if one is the only school librarian for multiple districts, and one just cannot justify the time to travel to a regular, traditional class meeting These are questions that school librarians in Iowa, as well as…

  8. The Economics of [Not] Closing Small Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witham, Mark

    This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the comparative costs and benefits of closing small rural schools in South Australia. The cost analysis includes accounting for the use of staff, goods, and services; distance education support; land and buildings; and the opportunity cost of children's bus travel time. The assumption that children's…

  9. Public Relations and the Role of the Rural School Psychologist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, A. Reese

    Although there is no difference between the training provided for school psychologists who practice in rural communities and those who render service in urban areas, there are definite contrasts in the actual work. An elaboration of these comprises the bulk of this paper. Differences covered are: (1) the inordinate amount of travel time required…

  10. Access to Care: Overcoming the Rural Physician Shortage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    1999-01-01

    Describes three state-initiated programs that address the challenge of providing access to health care for Appalachia's rural residents: a traveling pediatric diabetes clinic serving eastern Kentucky; a telemedicine program operated out of Knoxville, Tennessee; and a new medical school in Kentucky dedicated to training doctors from Appalachia for…

  11. Continuing Education--A Reality for the Rural Nurse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Mary E.; Eirite, Rosemarie

    1976-01-01

    A successful series of workshops was planned and implemented in a rural area of Michigan where travel distances and lack of financial support from health care agencies were barriers to continuing education. Data obtained from a survey of 150 nurses identified priority subject areas and resource persons. (MS)

  12. Community-Based Education and Rural Development. Site Visit to Nebraska. Rural Funders Working Group Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeden, Carol Lee

    In September 2000, grantmakers from around the country traveled to three Nebraska communities--Albion, Crete, and Henderson--to see how community-based education can positively affect the economic, environmental, and cultural development of a rural community. In Albion, the school is an open laboratory in which students, teachers, and parents work…

  13. 8 CFR 1244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Travel abroad. 1244.15 Section 1244.15... REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After... Status shall not constitute permission to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by...

  14. 28 CFR 2.93 - Travel approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Travel approval. 2.93 Section 2.93... Travel approval. (a) A parolee's Supervision Officer may approve travel outside the district of... possibilities. (3) Recurring travel across a district boundary, not to exceed fifty miles outside the...

  15. 8 CFR 244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Travel abroad. 244.15 Section 244.15 Aliens... NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After the grant of Temporary Protected Status... to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by the director pursuant to the...

  16. 8 CFR 244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Travel abroad. 244.15 Section 244.15 Aliens... NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After the grant of Temporary Protected Status... to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by the director pursuant to the...

  17. 38 CFR 21.7103 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.7103... Bill-Active Duty) Counseling § 21.7103 Travel expenses. (a) Travel for veterans and servicemembers. (1... travel to and from the place of counseling for individuals who are required to receive counseling if—...

  18. 28 CFR 2.93 - Travel approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel approval. 2.93 Section 2.93... Travel approval. (a) A parolee's Supervision Officer may approve travel outside the district of... possibilities. (3) Recurring travel across a district boundary, not to exceed fifty miles outside the...

  19. 8 CFR 1244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Travel abroad. 1244.15 Section 1244.15... REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After... Status shall not constitute permission to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by...

  20. 8 CFR 244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Travel abroad. 244.15 Section 244.15 Aliens... NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After the grant of Temporary Protected Status... to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by the director pursuant to the...

  1. 8 CFR 244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Travel abroad. 244.15 Section 244.15 Aliens... NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After the grant of Temporary Protected Status... to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by the director pursuant to the...

  2. 28 CFR 2.93 - Travel approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Travel approval. 2.93 Section 2.93... Travel approval. (a) A parolee's Supervision Officer may approve travel outside the district of... possibilities. (3) Recurring travel across a district boundary, not to exceed fifty miles outside the...

  3. 8 CFR 1244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel abroad. 1244.15 Section 1244.15... REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After... Status shall not constitute permission to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by...

  4. 28 CFR 2.93 - Travel approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Travel approval. 2.93 Section 2.93... Travel approval. (a) A parolee's Supervision Officer may approve travel outside the district of... possibilities. (3) Recurring travel across a district boundary, not to exceed fifty miles outside the...

  5. 8 CFR 1244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Travel abroad. 1244.15 Section 1244.15... REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After... Status shall not constitute permission to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by...

  6. 38 CFR 21.7103 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.7103... Bill-Active Duty) Counseling § 21.7103 Travel expenses. (a) Travel for veterans and servicemembers. (1... travel to and from the place of counseling for individuals who are required to receive counseling if—...

  7. 28 CFR 2.93 - Travel approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel approval. 2.93 Section 2.93... Travel approval. (a) A parolee's Supervision Officer may approve travel outside the district of... possibilities. (3) Recurring travel across a district boundary, not to exceed fifty miles outside the...

  8. 8 CFR 244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel abroad. 244.15 Section 244.15 Aliens... NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After the grant of Temporary Protected Status... to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by the director pursuant to the...

  9. 38 CFR 21.7103 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.7103... Bill-Active Duty) Counseling § 21.7103 Travel expenses. (a) Travel for veterans and servicemembers. (1... travel to and from the place of counseling for individuals who are required to receive counseling if—...

  10. 8 CFR 1244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Travel abroad. 1244.15 Section 1244.15... REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After... Status shall not constitute permission to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by...

  11. Community Travel for Physically Impaired Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millet Learning Center, Saginaw, MI.

    The community travel program for physically impaired children at the Millet Learning Center (Saginaw, Michigan) blends skills from two professions: orientation and mobility, and physical therapy. Program goals include enabling students to overcome travel fears, to learn travel skills, to learn to make adaptations necessary for successful travel,…

  12. Further We Travel the Faster We Go

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Levente; Kovács, András; Tóth, Géza; Papp, István; Néda, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    The average travelling speed increases in a nontrivial manner with the travel distance. This leads to scaling-like relations on quite extended spatial scales, for all mobility modes taken together and also for a given mobility mode in part. We offer a wide range of experimental results, investigating and quantifying this universal effect and its measurable causes. The increasing travelling speed with the travel distance arises from the combined effects of: choosing the most appropriate travelling mode; the structure of the travel networks; the travel times lost in the main hubs, starting or target cities; and the speed limit of roads and vehicles. PMID:26863605

  13. Further We Travel the Faster We Go.

    PubMed

    Varga, Levente; Kovács, András; Tóth, Géza; Papp, István; Néda, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    The average travelling speed increases in a nontrivial manner with the travel distance. This leads to scaling-like relations on quite extended spatial scales, for all mobility modes taken together and also for a given mobility mode in part. We offer a wide range of experimental results, investigating and quantifying this universal effect and its measurable causes. The increasing travelling speed with the travel distance arises from the combined effects of: choosing the most appropriate travelling mode; the structure of the travel networks; the travel times lost in the main hubs, starting or target cities; and the speed limit of roads and vehicles.

  14. Paediatric travel medicine: vaccines and medications

    PubMed Central

    Starr, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The paediatric aspects of travel medicine can be complex, and individual advice is often required. Nonetheless, children are much more likely to acquire common infections than exotic tropical diseases whilst travelling. Important exceptions are malaria and tuberculosis, which are more frequent and severe in children. Overall, travellers' diarrhoea is the most common illness affecting travellers. This review discusses vaccines and medications that may be indicated for children who are travelling overseas. It focuses on immunizations that are given as part of the routine schedule, as well as those that are more specific to travel. Malaria and travellers' diarrhoea are also discussed. PMID:23163285

  15. Observational Study of Travelers' Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Meuris

    1995-03-01

    Background: European air travelers returning from Algeria, Egypt, Mexico, Morocco, and Tunisia were interviewed about their experience of travelers' diseases upon arrival in Brussels. Diarrhea was mentioned by 37% of the adults and 27% of the children. These subjects were questioned about the types of measures taken, type and duration of drug treatment (if any), and about duration of diarrhea and side effects experienced. Methods: Final analysis was performed based on 2160 interviews. The largest proportion of diarrhea was reported in the age group 15-24 years (46%). Results: The majority of the 2160 subjects had opted for drug treatment (81%): 927 subjects for loperamide alone, 235 for loperamide in combination with nifuroxazide, and 178 for nifuroxazide alone. Other drugs had been used less frequently. The median time to recovery was 2.4 days with loperamide compared to 3.2 days with nifuroxazide and to 3.4 days for the no-treatment group. Conclusions: A stratification of the results by severity of the diarrhea suggests a rank of antidiarrheal potency as follows: loperamide > nifuroxazide > no-drug treatment. The side effect with the highest incidence was constipation (2.4% with loperamide). (J Travel Med 2:11-15, 1995) Travelers' diarrhea is usually defined as the passage of at least three unformed stools per day or any number of such stools when accompanied by fever, abdominal cramping, or vomiting. The definition may be broadened to include more trivial bowel disturbance.1,2 The duration of this self-limited disease generally is 3 to 5 days. Medical intervention aims at shortening the duration of disease, thus allowing the sufferer to resume his or her usual activities at an early stage. A shortened period of recovery to physical well-being has obvious favorable economic implications if the traveler is on business and may help the maintenance of a desired level of quality of life while a traveler is on holiday. An observational study of various medical

  16. Poliomyelitis--prevention in travellers.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Cora A; Neilson, Amy A

    2010-03-01

    This article is the second in a series providing a summary of prevention strategies and vaccination for infections that may be acquired by travellers. The series aims to provide practical strategies to assist general practitioners in giving travel advice, as a synthesis of multiple information sources which must otherwise be consulted. Poliomyelitis is a potentially fatal viral illness, which may cause acute flaccid paralysis and permanent central nervous system damage. Ongoing global efforts to eradicate poliomyelitis have been under way since 1988. Travellers are at risk of infection in countries with endemic wild poliomyelitis virus or imported cases, and can spread the infection to areas where poliomyelitis has been eradicated. While all adults should be immune to poliomyelitis, it is important that at-risk travellers are vaccinated appropriately. Vaccine options and regions currently reporting poliomyelitis are presented from a number of sources, which may facilitate the process of giving travel advice in a general practice setting, although it is also important to seek up-to-date epidemiological information.

  17. Future Trends in Business Travel Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Keith J.

    2002-01-01

    This research surveys twenty large companies and their travellers to identify and evaluate the effects of pressures on the business travel market in the future. The influence of the following areas on the decision making process are addressed: (1) Corporate travel policies and increasing professionalism in corporate purchasing; (2) The development of global strategic airline alliances; (3) The emergence of low cost airlines on short haul markets; and (4) The development of internet based booking tools and travel agency IT. The survey shows differences in views between travel managers, and travellers with regard to corporate travel policies. While travel managers see policy rules, travellers interpret these as guidelines, indicating travel managers will need to take further actions to exercise true control of travel budgets. The data shows that companies are more likely to prescribe a class of airline ticket, than the choice of airline itself. Corporate hierarchical bias in travel policies is still common both for short and particularly long haul flying. Other findings show that while travel managers believe that their companies are likely to sign global deals with strategic airline groups within a five year period in a bid to consolidating spending, they also believe that nearly a third of short haul flying will be taken with low cost carriers, indicating further penetration in this business travel market by these carriers. The paper also provides other predictions about the business travel market, based on the survey findings.

  18. Leadership for Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, E. Robert; Turner, Walter G.

    The rural school superintendency is, in many ways, as demanding and difficult as the urban superintendency. Chapter 1 of this book provides a working definition of a rural small school district, an estimation of the number of rural systems in the nation that fit the criteria, and a profile of rural small school superintendents. Chapter 2 discusses…

  19. The Rural Development Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Louis E.

    1991-01-01

    Progress toward rural development has been hampered by flawed views of rural America; serious limitations to existing social and economic data on sparsely populated areas; treatment of rural America as a geographical entity unconnected to the larger U.S. economy and society; perceived lack of feasible political solution to rural problems; and…

  20. Rural Development Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC. Economic Development Div.

    Elements essential to an adequate framework for rural development in the U.S. are a national growth and development policy which includes a rural development strategy and definition of common problems and programmatic actions required to deal with them. Many past federal rural development programs (lacking a federal rural policy focus) have failed…

  1. What Is Rural? Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Many people have definitions for the term rural, but seldom are these rural definitions in agreement. For some, rural is a subjective state of mind. For others, rural is an objective quantitative measure. In this brief report the United States Department of Agriculture presents the following information along with helpful links for the reader: (1)…

  2. Rural-Urban Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Daniel F.; LaGreca, Anthony J.; Mullis, Ronald L.

    This publication combines three papers on rural and urban youth issues. "Key Issues Facing Rural Youth" (Daniel F. Perkins) notes that rural adolescents share the same concerns and exhibit the same problem behaviors as their urban counterparts. But in addition, geographic isolation presents problems unique to rural areas. A framework is proposed…

  3. The Rural Bellwether.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sherry Freeland, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This theme issue of "State Education Leader" contains eight articles on rural education. "The Rural Bellwether" (Kathy Christie) discusses declining enrollment in rural schools, rural problems with teacher shortages and special education funding, issues related to school size and school district size, and distance learning…

  4. [Malaria prevention in international travel].

    PubMed

    López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2003-05-01

    For travelers malaria represents the principal infectious risk of severe complications and death. Infection during traveling depends on the geographical area visited, the predominant species of parasite, the frequency of resistance to antimalarial agents, and whether preventive measures have been taken. Until a vaccine has been developed, prevention strategies consist of providing travelers with information, the use of barrier methods against vector bites, the correct use of chemoprophylaxis, and the possibility of self-diagnosis and treatment. The choice of chemoprophylaxis regimen should be individualized since no regimen guarantees 100% protection or is free of adverse effects or contraindications. The most effective drugs are doxycycline, atovaquone-proguanil and mefloquine while those producing severe adverse effects with the least frequency are atovaquone-proguanil and doxycycline.

  5. Fundamental Travel Demand Model Example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanssen, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Instances of transportation models are abundant and detailed "how to" instruction is available in the form of transportation software help documentation. The purpose of this paper is to look at the fundamental inputs required to build a transportation model by developing an example passenger travel demand model. The example model reduces the scale to a manageable size for the purpose of illustrating the data collection and analysis required before the first step of the model begins. This aspect of the model development would not reasonably be discussed in software help documentation (it is assumed the model developer comes prepared). Recommendations are derived from the example passenger travel demand model to suggest future work regarding the data collection and analysis required for a freight travel demand model.

  6. [Protracted rheumatologic manifestations in travelers].

    PubMed

    Levy, Tali; Kivity, Shaye; Schwartz, Eli

    2010-09-01

    Protracted rheumatological manifestations especially arthralgia and or polyarthritis may occur as a consequence of a wide range of pathogens including viral, bacterial and parasites. Few pathogenetic mechanisms leading to these clinical presentations have been suggested including a direct invasion of the synovial cells by the pathogens, immune complex formation, and others. The natural history of infectious arthritis/arthralgia is altogether benign, with full recovery and without sequelae, albeit sometimes very long. Diagnosis of infections-related arthralgia/arthritis is important since these diseases have a better prognosis, and can relieve anxiety among patients who are afraid of developing a chronic rheumatic disease. Since many patients will seek medical advice with these chronic complaints a long time after travel, physicians should be aware of the possible association between these complaints and remote travel. Thus, travel history should be mandatory, even in a rheumatologic setting.

  7. Schizotypy and mental time travel.

    PubMed

    Winfield, Hannah; Kamboj, Sunjeev K

    2010-03-01

    Mental time travel is the capacity to imagine the autobiographical past and future. Schizotypy is a dimensional measure of psychosis-like traits found to be associated with creativity and imagination. Here, we examine the phenomenological qualities of mental time travel in highly schizotypal individuals. After recollecting past episodes (autobiographical memory) and imagining future events (episodic future thinking), those scoring highly on positive schizotypy reported a greater sense of 'autonoetic awareness,' defined as a greater feeling of mental time travel and re-living/'pre-living' imagined events. Furthermore, in contrast to other sensory domains, imagery of the past and future episodes contained more olfactory detail in these high scorers. The results are discussed in relation to previous reports of anomalous olfactory experiences in schizotypy and heightened vividness of olfactory imagery in post-traumatic stress disorder, for which schizotypy is a risk factor.

  8. Toxoplasmosis as a travel risk.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda-Arias, Juan C; Gómez-Marin, Jorge E; Bobić, Branko; Naranjo-Galvis, Carlos A; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite with worldwide distribution that infects more than one third of the global population. Primary infection in immunocompetent individuals is usually asymptomatic; however, different organs can be affected in immunocompromised individuals leading to the development of encephalitis, myocarditis or pneumonitis. The prevalence of infection with Toxoplasma as well as its genetic structure varies geographically and for that reason travel may be considered as a risk factor to acquire the infection. As toxoplasmosis is a foodborne disease, health care providers should give health education on prevention measures to all prospective travelers in order to decrease the risk of infection in endemic areas. This review presents an overview of the infection with T. gondii with some considerations for travelers to and from endemic zones.

  9. Schistosomiasis in Travelers and Expatriates.

    PubMed

    Jelinek; Nothdurft; Löscher

    1996-09-01

    Background: Several outbreaks of schistosomiasis among travelers, expatriates, and military serviceman have been reported in recent years. Methods: The travel histories and anamnestic and clinical features of 62 patients with schistosomiasis, who presented to a German outpatient clinic specializing in infectious and tropical diseases, were investigated to identify risk factors that could lead to infection in travelers and expatriates. Results: All patients remembered incidents that led to a likely exposure to cercariae of Schistosoma sp. Fifty nine patients (95%) acquired infection in Africa, two (3%) in South America, and one each (2% each) in Iraq and the Mekong River, respectively. The highest proportion of infection (45%) was imported from West Africa. Patients returning from West Africa reported either contact with tributaries of the Niger (including freshwater pools in the Dogon country, Mali) or with waters of the Volta River, notably Lake Volta and/or its delta. Six patients (10%) acquired infection in little-visited areas such as Central Africa and the Congo Basin. East Africa (especially Lake Victoria) and Lake Malawi contributed 14 patients (22%) to our study group; a further nine patients (14%) became infected after contact with waters of the Zambezi River. Conclusions: The most sensitive method for detection of possible infection with schistosomiasis appeared to be a combination of thorough travel history and serologic testing by indirect hemagglutination (IHA), immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Most infections were acquired by travelers on lengthy and adventurous journeys or by expatriates venturing outside their normal areas of activity. Most patients knew that they had traveled in an area endemic for schistosomiasis, but were uninformed about behavioral risks they had taken in specific settings.

  10. [Travel and chronic respiratory insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Bonnet, D; Marotel, C; Miltgen, J; N'Guyen, G; Cuguilliere, A; L'Her, P

    1997-01-01

    Changes in climate, altitude and lifestyle during travel confronts patients presenting chronic respiratory insufficiency with special problems. A major challenge is related to high altitude during air travel. To limit risks, a preflight examination is necessary to ascertain respiratory status. Patients requiring oxygen therapy must ensure availability both during the flight and at the destination. Patients with asthma or chronic bronchitis must bring along a sufficient supply of usual inhalers. All patients should carry a doctor's letter describing their condition and listing medications. Using these elementary precautions, patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency can safely enjoy sightseeing and outdoor leisure activities.

  11. Traveling-Wave Membrane Photomixers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyss, R. A.; Martin, S. C.; Nakamura, B. J.; Neto, A.; Pasqualini, D.; Siegel, P. H.; Kadow, C.; Gossard, A. C.

    2001-01-01

    Traveling-wave photomixers have superior performance when compared with lumped area photomixers in the 1 to 3 THz frequency range. Their large active area and distributed gain mechanism assure high thermal damage threshold and elimination of the capacitive frequency roll-off. However, the losses experienced by the radio frequency wave traveling along the coplanar strips waveguide (due to underlying semi-infinite GaAs substrate) were a serious drawback. In this paper we present device designs and an experimental setup that make possible the realization of photomixers on membranes which eliminate the losses.

  12. Hematospermia in a returned traveler

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Raynell; Minion, Jessica; Wong, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Hematospermia is a common complaint among patients seen in outpatient urology clinics. The differential diagnosis is broad and includes inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic, structural, systemic, and traumatic causes. The most common infectious causes are uropathogens and sexually transmitted infections. However, with increasing global travel, physicians must maintain a high clinical suspicion for pathogens not endemic to their region, including Echinococcus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Schistosoma.1 We present a case of hematospermia in a traveler returning from Eastern Africa with exposure to Lake Malawi. The patient’s microscopic analysis of semen was positive for Schistosoma haematobium, revealing a rare presentation of S. haematobium infection. PMID:28163813

  13. Navigation: traveling the water highways!

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Marion; Vandas, Stephen; Farrar, Frank

    1996-01-01

    NAVIGATION is travel or transportation over water. Many different kinds of boats and ships are used on rivers and oceans to move people and products from one place to another. Navigation was extremely important for foreign and domestic trade and travel in the early days of our country before cars, trucks, trains, and airplanes were invented. In those days, rivers were used as "roads" to connect inland settlements to river and coastal ports. Communities established at these commercial ports became important economic, cultural, and social hubs in the development of our Nation.

  14. Collection Development "Mini-Travel Guides": Traveling Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    Predictions regarding how much traveling Americans will be doing this year and where they might go vary, but it is expected that many will cut back on what is increasingly considered a luxury. Even so, gasoline prices are down substantially from a year ago, the stronger dollar means better prices in Europe, and there are discounts in all areas of…

  15. Village High Schools: Some Educational Strategies to Help Meet Developmental Needs of Rural Youth. ISER Occasional Paper No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinfeld, Judith; Berry, Franklin L.

    Educational strategies that small rural high schools can use to address important developmental needs of rural youth were explored, focusing on the importance of educational environments outside traditional high school classrooms, (i.e., work-experience programs, student exchange programs, and travel-study). Of the 92 Alaskan village high schools…

  16. Travel itinerary uncertainty and the pre-travel consultation--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Gerard; Md Nor, Muhammad Najmi

    2016-01-01

    Risk assessment relies on the accuracy of the information provided by the traveller. A questionnaire was administered to 83 consecutive travellers attending a travel medicine clinic. The majority of travellers was uncertain about destinations within countries, transportation or type of accommodation. Most travellers were uncertain if they would be visiting malaria regions. The degree of uncertainty about itinerary potentially impacts on the ability of the travel medicine specialist to perform an adequate risk assessment, select appropriate vaccinations and prescribe malaria prophylaxis. This study reveals high levels of traveller uncertainty about their itinerary which may potentially reduce the effectiveness of their pre-travel consultation.

  17. Economic Downturn Limits Conference Travel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2009-01-01

    Attendance is down at many academic and professional conferences in higher education this year, and next year's numbers are expected to be far worse, as campus budgets take further beatings. With many colleges limiting travel to professors or administrators who are speaking at events they are attending, will anyone be left in the audience? A new…

  18. Time Travel in the Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Donna W.

    2005-01-01

    A Time Travel project in the library gives enthusiasm to students to connect with the past and reinforces their research skills while instilling respect for the past years. The librarian should choose one specific decade to highlight in the library and create an extravaganza that would allow memorabilia from that time period to be located without…

  19. Music Travel: Avoiding the Potholes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2010-01-01

    Even given the countless hours clocked in class and rehearsal time, there's nothing that compares to a road trip to seal the bond among band, orchestra, and vocal music students. "Nothing can replace travel," says Peter Markes, orchestra director at Edmond North High School in Oklahoma. "It's safe, well-structured and, for many of…

  20. Preparing Students for Travel Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novotny, Jeanne

    1989-01-01

    This article outlines information which can be provided by the school nurse or health educator to help make student trips abroad healthy as well as educational. Topics covered include: food and water, traveler's diarrhea, handwashing, insect and animal bites, stress, and prior health problems. (IAH)

  1. 75 FR 43395 - Campaign Travel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... / Monday, July 26, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION 11 CFR Part 9004 Campaign Travel AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Announcement of effective date. SUMMARY: On... by and on behalf of presidential candidates receiving public funding for the general election, 11...

  2. Your Travel Dollar. Money Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.

    This illustrated guide was designed to familiarize consumers with planning a vacation trip, whether domestic or abroad. The guide covers setting up a budget; package tours; cruises and charter flights; travel agencies and clubs; and arranging stays in hotels/motels, rental condominiums, bed-and-breakfasts, hostels, campsites, and private…

  3. Refractory giardiasis in Spanish travellers.

    PubMed

    Muñoz Gutiérrez, Jose; Aldasoro, Edelweiss; Requena, Ana; Comin, Ana M; Pinazo, Maria Jesús; Bardají, Azucena; Oliveira, Inés; Valls, Maria Eugenia; Gascon, Joaquim

    2013-01-01

    Drug failure is a common cause of symptom persistence after treatment of imported Giardia duodenalis. In this retrospective study we describe a high prevalence of refractory giardiasis in people attended in a travel clinic in Spain, especially those with infections acquired in Asia. Moreover, we discuss various treatment strategies to tackle G. duodenalis that is refractory to nitroimidazoles.

  4. Impact of Local Resources on Hospitalization Patterns of Medicare Beneficiaries and Propensity to Travel outside Local Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basu, Jayasree; Mobley, Lee R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine how local health care resources impact travel patterns of patients age 65 and older across the rural urban continuum. Methods: Information on inpatient hospital discharges was drawn from complete 2004 hospital discharge files from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) State Inpatient Databases (SID) for New York,…

  5. Travel Patterns and Characteristics of Elderly Subpopulation in New York State

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Ho-Ling; Wilson, Daniel W.; Reuscher, Tim; Yang, Jianjiang; Taylor, Rob D.; Chin, Shih-Miao

    2015-03-01

    With the increasing demographic shift towards a larger population of elderly (individuals 65 years and older), it is essential for policy makers and planners to have an understanding of transportation issues that affect the elderly. These issues include livability of the community, factors impacting travel behavior and mobility, transportation safety, etc. In this study, Oak Ridge National Laboratory was tasked by the New York State (NYS) Department of Transportation to conduct a detailed examination of travel behaviors, and identify patterns and trends of the elderly within NYS. The National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) was used as the primary data source to analyze subjects and address questions such as: Are there differences in traveler demographics between the elderly population and those of younger age groups who live in various NYS regions; e.g., New York City, other urban areas of NYS, or other parts of the country? How do they compare with the population at large? Are there any regional differences (e.g., urban versus rural)? Gender differences? Do any unique travel characteristics or patterns exist within the elderly group? In addition to analysis of NHTS data, roadway travel safety concerns associated with elderly travelers were also investigated in this study. Specifically, data on accidents involving the elderly (including drivers, passengers, and others) as captured in the Fatal Analysis Reporting System (FARS) database was analyzed to examine elderly driver and elderly pedestrian travel safety issues in NYS. The analyses of these data sets provide a greater understanding of the elderly within NYS and their associated transportation issues. Through this study, various key findings on elderly population size, household characteristics, and travel patterns were produced and are report herein this report.

  6. A Perspective on Rural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, W. Wade; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Includes "Perspective on Rural Education" (Miller); "You Want Them to Learn What?" (Jones); "Rural Education" (Baker, Burns); "Metnet" (Frick); "Rural Education and Training in Egypt" (Swan, Aly); "Mentors, Youth at Risk, and Rural Education Programs" (Wingenbach); "Designing…

  7. Office of Rural Health Policy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Hub Rural Health Research Gateway Rural Community Health Gateway White House Rural Council  Eligibility Analyzer Contact Us Subscribe to FORHP weekly announcement for rural health grantees and stakeholders by e-mail Subscribe to ...

  8. Rural Policies for the 1990s. Rural Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flora, Cornelia B., Ed.; Christenson, James A., Ed.

    Written by some of the foremost experts on rural America, this book focuses on policy-relevant research on the problems of rural areas. In each chapter, rural policy needs are identified by examining the flow of events and rural sociology of the 1980s. Chapters are: (1) "Critical Times for Rural America: The Challenge for Rural Policy in the…

  9. Network structure and travel time perception.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathi, Pavithra; Levinson, David; Hochmair, Hartwig

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to test the systematic variation in the perception of travel time among travelers and relate the variation to the underlying street network structure. Travel survey data from the Twin Cities metropolitan area (which includes the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul) is used for the analysis. Travelers are classified into two groups based on the ratio of perceived and estimated commute travel time. The measures of network structure are estimated using the street network along the identified commute route. T-test comparisons are conducted to identify statistically significant differences in estimated network measures between the two traveler groups. The combined effect of these estimated network measures on travel time is then analyzed using regression models. The results from the t-test and regression analyses confirm the influence of the underlying network structure on the perception of travel time.

  10. Network Structure and Travel Time Perception

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathi, Pavithra; Levinson, David; Hochmair, Hartwig

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to test the systematic variation in the perception of travel time among travelers and relate the variation to the underlying street network structure. Travel survey data from the Twin Cities metropolitan area (which includes the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul) is used for the analysis. Travelers are classified into two groups based on the ratio of perceived and estimated commute travel time. The measures of network structure are estimated using the street network along the identified commute route. T-test comparisons are conducted to identify statistically significant differences in estimated network measures between the two traveler groups. The combined effect of these estimated network measures on travel time is then analyzed using regression models. The results from the t-test and regression analyses confirm the influence of the underlying network structure on the perception of travel time. PMID:24204932

  11. The practice of travel medicine in Europe.

    PubMed

    Schlagenhauf, P; Santos-O'Connor, F; Parola, P

    2010-03-01

    Europe, because of its geographical location, strategic position on trade routes, and colonial past, has a long history of caring for travellers' health. Within Europe, there is great diversity in the practice of travel medicine. Some countries have travel medicine societies and provisions for a periodic distribution of recommendations, but many countries have no national pre-travel guidelines and follow international recommendations such as those provided by the WHO. Providers of travel medicine include tropical medicine specialists, general practice nurses and physicians, specialist 'travel clinics', occupational physicians, and pharmacists. One of the core functions of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control-funded network of travel and tropical medicine professionals, EuroTravNet, is to document the status quo of travel medicine in Europe. A three-pronged approach is used, with a real-time online questionnaire, a structured interview with experts in each country, and web searching.

  12. 49 CFR 230.76 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and...) Maximum piston travel. The maximum piston travel when steam locomotive is standing shall be as follows... Driving Wheel Brake 6 Engine Truck Brake 8 Tender Brake 9...

  13. 49 CFR 230.76 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and...) Maximum piston travel. The maximum piston travel when steam locomotive is standing shall be as follows... Driving Wheel Brake 6 Engine Truck Brake 8 Tender Brake 9...

  14. 49 CFR 230.76 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and...) Maximum piston travel. The maximum piston travel when steam locomotive is standing shall be as follows... Driving Wheel Brake 6 Engine Truck Brake 8 Tender Brake 9...

  15. 49 CFR 230.76 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and...) Maximum piston travel. The maximum piston travel when steam locomotive is standing shall be as follows... Driving Wheel Brake 6 Engine Truck Brake 8 Tender Brake 9...

  16. 49 CFR 230.76 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and...) Maximum piston travel. The maximum piston travel when steam locomotive is standing shall be as follows... Driving Wheel Brake 6 Engine Truck Brake 8 Tender Brake 9...

  17. Report: EPA Travel Program Lacks Necessary Controls

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #10-P-0078, March 9, 2010. The EPA travel program, which comprises EPA policies and GovTrip, lacks necessary control procedures to assure all travel authorizations were necessary and in the best interest of the government.

  18. National Strategy to Combat Terrorist Travel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-02

    Terrorist Travel Visa Waiver Program The Visa Waiver Program (VWP) generally enables citizens of 27 countries to travel to the United States for tourism or...NATIONAL STRATEGY TO COMBAT TERRORIST TRAVEL May 2, 2006 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the...Strategy to Combat Terorist Travel 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER

  19. 38 CFR 21.9585 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.9585...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Counseling § 21.9585 Travel expenses. VA will not pay for any costs of travel to and from the place of counseling regardless of whether the...

  20. 38 CFR 21.9585 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.9585...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Counseling § 21.9585 Travel expenses. VA will not pay for any costs of travel to and from the place of counseling regardless of whether the...

  1. 38 CFR 21.7603 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.7603 Section 21.7603 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... § 21.7603 Travel expenses. The Department of Veterans Affairs will not pay for any costs of travel...

  2. 2 CFR 200.474 - Travel costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Travel costs. 200.474 Section 200.474 Grants... REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Cost Principles General Provisions for Selected Items of Cost § 200.474 Travel costs. (a) General. Travel costs are the expenses for transportation, lodging, subsistence, and...

  3. 38 CFR 21.7603 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.7603 Section 21.7603 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... § 21.7603 Travel expenses. The Department of Veterans Affairs will not pay for any costs of travel...

  4. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section 617.46... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.46 Travel allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of travel allowance (including lodging and meals) payable under § 617.45(a)(1)...

  5. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section 617.46... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.46 Travel allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of travel allowance (including lodging and meals) payable under § 617.45(a)(1)...

  6. 28 CFR 2.41 - Travel approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel approval. 2.41 Section 2.41..., YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.41 Travel approval. (a) The probation officer may approve travel outside the district without approval of...

  7. 38 CFR 60.5 - Travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel. 60.5 Section 60.5... TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.5 Travel. As a condition for receiving temporary lodging under this part, a veteran must be required to travel either 50 or more miles, or at least two hours from his or her home to...

  8. 38 CFR 21.7603 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.7603 Section 21.7603 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... § 21.7603 Travel expenses. The Department of Veterans Affairs will not pay for any costs of travel...

  9. 38 CFR 21.5103 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.5103.... Chapter 32 Counseling § 21.5103 Travel expenses. (a) General. VA shall determine and pay the necessary expense of travel to and from the place of counseling for a veteran who is required to receive...

  10. 32 CFR 726.6 - Travel orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Travel orders. 726.6 Section 726.6 National... MENTALLY INCOMPETENT MEMBERS OF THE NAVAL SERVICE § 726.6 Travel orders. The Chief of Naval Personnel or the Deputy Commandant, Manpower & Reserve Affairs, may issue travel orders to a member to...

  11. 38 CFR 21.5103 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.5103.... Chapter 32 Counseling § 21.5103 Travel expenses. (a) General. VA shall determine and pay the necessary expense of travel to and from the place of counseling for a veteran who is required to receive...

  12. 28 CFR 2.41 - Travel approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Travel approval. 2.41 Section 2.41..., YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.41 Travel approval. (a) The probation officer may approve travel outside the district without approval of...

  13. 38 CFR 21.9585 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.9585...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Counseling § 21.9585 Travel expenses. VA will not pay for any costs of travel to and from the place of counseling regardless of whether the...

  14. 38 CFR 21.5103 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.5103.... Chapter 32 Counseling § 21.5103 Travel expenses. (a) General. VA shall determine and pay the necessary expense of travel to and from the place of counseling for a veteran who is required to receive...

  15. 32 CFR 726.6 - Travel orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel orders. 726.6 Section 726.6 National... MENTALLY INCOMPETENT MEMBERS OF THE NAVAL SERVICE § 726.6 Travel orders. The Chief of Naval Personnel or the Deputy Commandant, Manpower & Reserve Affairs, may issue travel orders to a member to...

  16. 32 CFR 726.6 - Travel orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Travel orders. 726.6 Section 726.6 National... MENTALLY INCOMPETENT MEMBERS OF THE NAVAL SERVICE § 726.6 Travel orders. The Chief of Naval Personnel or the Deputy Commandant, Manpower & Reserve Affairs, may issue travel orders to a member to...

  17. 32 CFR 726.6 - Travel orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel orders. 726.6 Section 726.6 National... MENTALLY INCOMPETENT MEMBERS OF THE NAVAL SERVICE § 726.6 Travel orders. The Chief of Naval Personnel or the Deputy Commandant, Manpower & Reserve Affairs, may issue travel orders to a member to...

  18. 38 CFR 21.3105 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.3105.... Chapter 35 Counseling § 21.3105 Travel expenses. (a) General. VA shall determine and pay the necessary expense of travel to and from the place of counseling for an eligible person who is required to...

  19. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section 617.46... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.46 Travel allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of travel allowance (including lodging and meals) payable under § 617.45(a)(1)...

  20. 32 CFR 726.6 - Travel orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Travel orders. 726.6 Section 726.6 National... MENTALLY INCOMPETENT MEMBERS OF THE NAVAL SERVICE § 726.6 Travel orders. The Chief of Naval Personnel or the Deputy Commandant, Manpower & Reserve Affairs, may issue travel orders to a member to...

  1. 38 CFR 21.7603 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.7603 Section 21.7603 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... § 21.7603 Travel expenses. The Department of Veterans Affairs will not pay for any costs of travel...

  2. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section 617.46... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.46 Travel allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of travel allowance (including lodging and meals) payable under § 617.45(a)(1)...

  3. 28 CFR 2.41 - Travel approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel approval. 2.41 Section 2.41..., YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.41 Travel approval. (a) The probation officer may approve travel outside the district without approval of...

  4. 38 CFR 21.9585 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.9585...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Counseling § 21.9585 Travel expenses. VA will not pay for any costs of travel to and from the place of counseling regardless of whether the...

  5. 38 CFR 21.5103 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.5103.... Chapter 32 Counseling § 21.5103 Travel expenses. (a) General. VA shall determine and pay the necessary expense of travel to and from the place of counseling for a veteran who is required to receive...

  6. 28 CFR 2.41 - Travel approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Travel approval. 2.41 Section 2.41..., YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.41 Travel approval. (a) The probation officer may approve travel outside the district without approval of...

  7. 38 CFR 60.5 - Travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Travel. 60.5 Section 60.5... TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.5 Travel. As a condition for receiving temporary lodging under this part, a veteran must be required to travel either 50 or more miles, or at least two hours from his or her home to...

  8. 38 CFR 21.3105 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.3105.... Chapter 35 Counseling § 21.3105 Travel expenses. (a) General. VA shall determine and pay the necessary expense of travel to and from the place of counseling for an eligible person who is required to...

  9. 38 CFR 21.7603 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.7603 Section 21.7603 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... § 21.7603 Travel expenses. The Department of Veterans Affairs will not pay for any costs of travel...

  10. 38 CFR 21.3105 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.3105.... Chapter 35 Counseling § 21.3105 Travel expenses. (a) General. VA shall determine and pay the necessary expense of travel to and from the place of counseling for an eligible person who is required to...

  11. 38 CFR 21.3105 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.3105.... Chapter 35 Counseling § 21.3105 Travel expenses. (a) General. VA shall determine and pay the necessary expense of travel to and from the place of counseling for an eligible person who is required to...

  12. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section 617.46... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.46 Travel allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of travel allowance (including lodging and meals) payable under § 617.45(a)(1)...

  13. 38 CFR 21.5103 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.5103.... Chapter 32 Counseling § 21.5103 Travel expenses. (a) General. VA shall determine and pay the necessary expense of travel to and from the place of counseling for a veteran who is required to receive...

  14. 28 CFR 2.41 - Travel approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Travel approval. 2.41 Section 2.41..., YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.41 Travel approval. (a) The probation officer may approve travel outside the district without approval of...

  15. 38 CFR 21.9585 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.9585...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Counseling § 21.9585 Travel expenses. VA will not pay for any costs of travel to and from the place of counseling regardless of whether the...

  16. 38 CFR 21.3105 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.3105.... Chapter 35 Counseling § 21.3105 Travel expenses. (a) General. VA shall determine and pay the necessary expense of travel to and from the place of counseling for an eligible person who is required to...

  17. 5 CFR 630.207 - Travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel time. 630.207 Section 630.207... and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.207 Travel time. The travel time granted an employee under section 6303(d) of title 5, United States Code, is inclusive of the time...

  18. 38 CFR 60.5 - Travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel. 60.5 Section 60.5... TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.5 Travel. As a condition for receiving temporary lodging under this part, a veteran must be required to travel either 50 or more miles, or at least two hours from his or her home to...

  19. 5 CFR 630.207 - Travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Travel time. 630.207 Section 630.207... and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.207 Travel time. The travel time granted an employee under section 6303(d) of title 5, United States Code, is inclusive of the time...

  20. Recommended vaccines for international travelers to India.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj

    2015-01-01

    India's tourism industry generated 6.6% of the nation's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) during 2012. International travel to India is predicted to grow at an average annual rate of ∼ 8% over the next decade. The number of foreign tourists has increased by 9% to 5.8 million. Approximately 8% of travelers to developing countries require medical care during or after travel; the main diagnoses are vaccine-preventable diseases. Travelers to India can be exposed to various infectious diseases; water-borne, water-related, and zoonotic diseases may be imported to India where the disease is not endemic. The World Health Organization (WHO) emphasizes that all international travelers should be up to date with routine vaccinations. The recommended vaccinations for travelers to India vary according to the traveler's age, immunization history, existing medical conditions, duration, legal requirements for entry into countries being visited, travelers preferences, and values. Travelers should consult with a doctor so that there is sufficient time for completion of optimal vaccination schedules. No matter where traveling, one should be aware of potential exposure to certain organisms that can cause severely illnesses, even death. There is no doubt that vaccines have reduced or virtually eliminated many diseases that killed or severely disabled children and adults just a few generations ago. Thus, travelers must take recommended vaccines per schedule before traveling to India.

  1. Recommended vaccines for international travelers to India.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj

    2014-06-18

    India's tourism industry generated 6.6% of the nation's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) during 2012. International travel to India is predicted to grow at an average annual rate of ~8% over the next decade. The number of foreign tourists has increased by 9% to 5.8 million. Approximately 8% of travelers to developing countries require medical care during or after travel; the main diagnoses are vaccine-preventable diseases. Travelers to India can be exposed to various infectious diseases; water-borne, water-related, and zoonotic diseases may be imported to India where the disease is not endemic. The World Health Organization (WHO) emphasizes that all international travelers should be up to date with routine vaccinations. The recommended vaccinations for travelers to India vary according to the traveler's age, immunization history, existing medical conditions, duration, legal requirements for entry into countries being visited, travelers preferences, and values. Travelers should consult with a doctor so that there is sufficient time for completion of optimal vaccination schedules. No matter where traveling, one should be aware of potential exposure to certain organisms that can cause severely illnesses, even death. There is no doubt that vaccines have reduced or virtually eliminated many diseases that killed or severely disabled children and adults just a few generations ago. Thus, travelers must take recommended vaccines per schedule before traveling to India.

  2. 5 CFR 630.207 - Travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Travel time. 630.207 Section 630.207... and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.207 Travel time. The travel time granted an employee under section 6303(d) of title 5, United States Code, is inclusive of the time...

  3. 5 CFR 630.207 - Travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Travel time. 630.207 Section 630.207... and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.207 Travel time. The travel time granted an employee under section 6303(d) of title 5, United States Code, is inclusive of the time...

  4. 5 CFR 630.207 - Travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Travel time. 630.207 Section 630.207... and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.207 Travel time. The travel time granted an employee under section 6303(d) of title 5, United States Code, is inclusive of the time...

  5. Travelling Safely on Ice: Algonquin Park.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Craig

    1994-01-01

    Provides safety considerations for snowshoe travel on iced waterways such as those of Algonquin Park (Ontario). Addresses what season is safe for waterway travel, how to determine the strength of the ice, reasonable travel time per day, what to do if you fall through the ice, and appropriate sites for winter camping. (LP)

  6. Severe Histoplasmosis in Travelers to Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Julia; Lance-Parker, Susan; Traeger, Marc; Wiersma, Steven; Phan, Quyen; Dennison, David; MacDonald, Pia; Lindsley, Mark; Guarner, Jeannette; Connolly, Patricia; Cetron, Martin; Hajjeh, Rana

    2003-01-01

    We investigated an outbreak of unexpectedly severe histoplasmosis among 14 healthy adventure travelers from the United States who visited a bat-infested cave in Nicaragua. Although histoplasmosis has rarely been reported to cause serious illness among travelers, this outbreak demonstrates that cases may be severe among travelers, even young, healthy persons. PMID:14609473

  7. 78 FR 73702 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Telework Travel Expenses Test Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ...] RIN 3090-AJ23 Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Telework Travel Expenses Test Programs AGENCY: Office... 2010, which establishes and authorizes telework travel expenses test programs, authorizes reimbursement for any necessary travel expenses in conjunction with such a test program in lieu of any...

  8. 41 CFR Appendix C to Chapter 301 - Standard Data Elements for Federal Travel [Traveler Identification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... particular site in order to perform operational or managerial activities. Travel to attend a meeting to... for Federal Travel C Appendix C to Chapter 301 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES Ch. 301, App. C Appendix C to Chapter...

  9. Aggregate vehicle travel forecasting model

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Chin, Shih-Miao; Gibson, R.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes a model for forecasting total US highway travel by all vehicle types, and its implementation in the form of a personal computer program. The model comprises a short-run, econometrically-based module for forecasting through the year 2000, as well as a structural, scenario-based longer term module for forecasting through 2030. The short-term module is driven primarily by economic variables. It includes a detailed vehicle stock model and permits the estimation of fuel use as well as vehicle travel. The longer-tenn module depends on demographic factors to a greater extent, but also on trends in key parameters such as vehicle load factors, and the dematerialization of GNP. Both passenger and freight vehicle movements are accounted for in both modules. The model has been implemented as a compiled program in the Fox-Pro database management system operating in the Windows environment.

  10. Plasma Colloquium Travel Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hazeltine, R.D.

    1998-09-14

    OAK B188 Plasma Colloquium Travel Grant Program. The purpose of the Travel Grant Program is to increase the awareness of plasma research. The new results and techniques of plasma research in fusion plasmas, plasma processing space plasmas, basic plasma science, etc, have broad applicability throughout science. The benefits of these results are limited by the relatively low awareness and appreciation of plasma research in the larger scientific community. Whereas spontaneous interactions between plasma scientists and other scientists are useful, a focused effort in education and outreach to other scientists is efficient and is needed. The academic scientific community is the initial focus of this effort, since that permits access to a broad cross-section of scientists and future scientists including undergraduates, graduate students, faculty, and research staff.

  11. Helping patients travel by air.

    PubMed Central

    Skjenna, O W; Evans, J F; Moore, M S; Thibeault, C; Tucker, A G

    1991-01-01

    Although safe and rapid, air travel may present problems for people with certain medical conditions. Most medical emergencies that occur during a flight are preventable by judicious screening and preparation. We provide guidelines for physicians who are consulted about the wisdom of undertaking a journey by air. Potential stresses before, during and after the flight are outlined, including decreased atmospheric pressure, low humidity, turbulence, inactivity and time changes. We recommend precautionary measures for passengers with certain medical conditions, such as recent myocardial infarction, pulmonary disorders, pneumothorax, cerebrovascular accidents and diabetes and for those who have recently had surgery. The policy regarding air travel for pregnant women varies with each airline, but for certain conditions associated with pregnancy supplemental oxygen should be ordered before the trip. The special equipment and care that most airlines offer to ill or disabled people are described. PMID:1989707

  12. Supporting Sustainable Rural Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Supporting Sustainable Rural Communities summarizes the findings of a work group of EPA, HUD, DOT, and USDA and creates a framework for the Partnership for Sustainable Communities’ future work with rural communities.

  13. Rural Wellness and Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Rural? Economic Impact Analysis Tool Planning for Sustainability Rural Health IT Curriculum Resources Testing New Approaches ... health of all groups Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all Promote quality ...

  14. Rural area in a European country from a health care point of view: an adaption of the Rural Ranking Scale

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In many countries, rural areas are facing a shortage of general practitioners (GPs). Appropriate strategies to address this challenge are needed. From a health care delivery point of view, the term rural area is often poorly defined. However rural areas have to be adequately defined to ensure specific strategies are tailored to these environments. The aims of this study were to translate the New Zealand 6-item Rural Ranking Scale (RRS), to culturally adapt it and to implement it to identify rural areas from a health care delivery perspective. Therefore we aimed to validate the RRS by defining cut-off scores for urban, semi-rural and rural areas in Germany. Methods After receiving permission, two researchers independently translated the RRS. In a consensus meeting, four items were identified that had to be culturally adapted. The modified RRS-Germany (mRRS-G) was sent to 724 GPs located in urban, semi-rural and rural areas to validate the “rurality” scoring system for conditions in Germany. Results Four items, “travelling time to next major hospital”, “on-call duty”, “regular peripheral clinic” and “on-call for major traumas” had to be adapted due to differences in the health care system. The survey had a response rate of 33.7%. A factor analysis showed a three dimensional structure of the mRRS-G scale with a poor internal consistency. Nevertheless, the three items regarding “on-call duty”, “next major hospital” and “most distant boundary covered by your practice” were identified as significant predictors for rurality. The adapted cut-off point for rurality in Germany was 16. From this study’s participants, 9 met the RRS cut-off point for rurality (a score of 35 or more). Conclusion Compared with New Zealand rurality scores based on this tool, German scores are far less rural from a health care delivery point of view. We consider that the construct of rurality has more aspects than those assessed by the m

  15. Treating time travel quantum mechanically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, John-Mark A.

    2014-10-01

    The fact that closed timelike curves (CTCs) are permitted by general relativity raises the question as to how quantum systems behave when time travel to the past occurs. Research into answering this question by utilizing the quantum circuit formalism has given rise to two theories: Deutschian-CTCs (D-CTCs) and "postselected" CTCs (P-CTCs). In this paper the quantum circuit approach is thoroughly reviewed, and the strengths and shortcomings of D-CTCs and P-CTCs are presented in view of their nonlinearity and time-travel paradoxes. In particular, the "equivalent circuit model"—which aims to make equivalent predictions to D-CTCs, while avoiding some of the difficulties of the original theory—is shown to contain errors. The discussion of D-CTCs and P-CTCs is used to motivate an analysis of the features one might require of a theory of quantum time travel, following which two overlapping classes of alternate theories are identified. One such theory, the theory of "transition probability" CTCs (T-CTCs), is fully developed. The theory of T-CTCs is shown not to have certain undesirable features—such as time-travel paradoxes, the ability to distinguish nonorthogonal states with certainty, and the ability to clone or delete arbitrary pure states—that are present with D-CTCs and P-CTCs. The problems with nonlinear extensions to quantum mechanics are discussed in relation to the interpretation of these theories, and the physical motivations of all three theories are discussed and compared.

  16. [Travel during pregnancy (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, W D

    1976-08-27

    Before a long journey, the healthy pregnant woman should be advised by her doctor after a careful examination. Healthy pregnant women may consider traveling to any destination except tropical and subtropical regions, where a danger of infection with malaria or dysentery exists. Likewise she should not select a country where vaccination with living virus is required on entry. Pregnant women with a high risk (hemorrhages, toxemia of pregnancy, threatening premature birth) should be advised unconditionally against a long journey.

  17. Traveling-wave induction launchers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, David G.

    1989-01-01

    An analysis of traveling-wave induction launchers shows that induction is a feasible method of producing armature current and that efficient accelerators can be built without sliding contacts or arcs. In a traveling-wave induction launcher the armature current is induced by a slip speed between the armature and a traveling magnetic field. At 9 m/s slip speed a 9 kg projectile with an aluminum armature weighing 25 percent of the total mass can be accelerated to 3000 m/s in a 5 m-long barrel with a total ohmic loss in the barrel coils and armature of 4 percent of the launch kinetic energy and with an average armature temperature rise of 220 deg C, but a peak excitation frequency of 8600 Hz is required. With a 2 kg launch mass the ohmic loss is 7 percent. A launcher system optimized for rotating generators would have a peak frequency of 4850 Hz; with an aluminum armature weighing 33 percent of the launch mass and a slip speed of 30 m/s the total ohmic loss in the generators, cables, and accelerator would be 43 percent of the launch kinetic energy, and the average armature temperature rise would be 510 deg C.

  18. Twitter for travel medicine providers.

    PubMed

    Mills, Deborah J; Kohl, Sarah E

    2016-03-01

    Travel medicine practitioners, perhaps more so than medical practitioners working in other areas of medicine, require a constant flow of information to stay up-to-date, and provide best practice information and care to their patients. Many travel medicine providers are unaware of the popularity and potential of the Twitter platform. Twitter use among our travellers, as well as by physicians and health providers, is growing exponentially. There is a rapidly expanding body of published literature on this information tool. This review provides a brief overview of the ways Twitter is being used by health practitioners, the advantages that are peculiar to Twitter as a platform of social media, and how the interested practitioner can get started. Some key points about the dark side of Twitter are highlighted, as well as the potential benefits of using Twitter as a way to disseminate accurate medical information to the public. This article will help readers develop an increased understanding of Twitter as a tool for extracting useful facts and insights from the ever increasing volume of health information.

  19. Air travel and venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed Central

    Mendis, Shanthi; Yach, Derek; Alwan, Ala

    2002-01-01

    There has recently been increased publicity on the risk of venous thrombosis after long-haul flights. This paper reviews the evidence base related to the association between air travel and venous thromboembolism. The evidence consists only of case reports, clinical case-control studies and observational studies involving the use of intermediate end-points, or expert opinion. Some studies have suggested that there is no clear association, whereas others have indicated a strong relationship. On the whole it appears that there is probably a link between air travel and venous thrombosis. However, the link is likely to be weak, mainly affecting passengers with additional risk factors for venous thromboembolism. The available evidence is not adequate to allow quantification of the risk. There are insufficient scientific data on which to base specific recommendations for prevention, other than that leg exercise should be taken during travel. Further studies are urgently needed in order to identify prospectively the incidence of the condition and those at risk. PMID:12077617

  20. International travel and HIV infection.

    PubMed Central

    von Reyn, C. F.; Mann, J. M.; Chin, J.

    1990-01-01

    Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a worldwide problem, its prevalence and pattern vary from country to country. Accordingly, the risk to international travellers of acquiring HIV infection also varies widely in different parts of the world, and depends principally on their behaviour. The risk of sexual acquisition of HIV infection can be virtually eliminated by avoiding penetrative sexual intercourse with intravenous drug users and persons who have had multiple sexual partners (such as prostitutes) or reduced by the use of condoms. The risk of parenteral exposure to HIV can be reduced by avoiding parenteral drug use and behaviour that is likely to lead to injury (with its attendant risk of requiring blood transfusion) and by seeking medical facilities with adequate capabilities to screen blood donors for HIV and to sterilize instruments. HIV screening of international travellers is an ineffective, costly, and impractical public health strategy for limiting the worldwide spread of HIV infection. Travellers infected with HIV require specialized advice regarding health precautions, prophylactic medications, and immunization. PMID:2194689

  1. Travel Behavior Change in Older Travelers: Understanding Critical Reactions to Incidents Encountered in Public Transport.

    PubMed

    Sundling, Catherine

    2015-11-18

    Accessibility of travel may be better understood if psychological factors underlying change in travel behavior are known. This paper examines older (65+) travelers' motives for changing their travel behavior. These changes are grounded in critical incidents earlier encountered in public-transport travel. A scientific framework is developed based on cognitive and behavioral theory. In 29 individual interviews, travelers' critical reactions (i.e., cognitive, emotional, and/or behavioral) to 77 critical incidents were examined. By applying critical incident technique (CIT), five reaction themes were identified that had generated travel-behavior change: firm restrictions, unpredictability, unfair treatment, complicated trips, and earlier adverse experiences. To improve older travelers' access to public transport, key findings were: (a) service must be designed so as to strengthen the feeling of being in control throughout the journey; (b) extended personal service would increase predictability in the travel chain and decrease travel complexity; consequently,

  2. Rural Youths' Images of the Rural

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, Johan Fredrik

    2006-01-01

    Following the cultural turn within the social sciences, recent debates on how to conceptualise "the rural" have focused on "rurality" as a phenomenon produced by processes of social construction. This paper presents an empirical account of the outcome of these social construction processes through an analysis of how teenagers…

  3. Access to Specialist Care in Rural Saskatchewan: The Saskatchewan Rural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Karunanayake, Chandima P.; Rennie, Donna C.; Hagel, Louise; Lawson, Joshua; Janzen, Bonnie; Pickett, William; Dosman, James A.; Pahwa, Punam

    2015-01-01

    The role of place has emerged as an important factor in determining people’s health experiences. Rural populations experience an excess in mortality and morbidity compared to those in urban settings. One of the factors thought to contribute to this rural-urban health disparity is access to healthcare. The objective of this analysis was to examine access to specialized medical care services and several possible determinants of access to services in a distinctly rural population in Canada. In winter 2010, we conducted a baseline mail survey of 11,982 households located in rural Saskatchewan, Canada. We obtained 4620 completed household surveys. A key informant for each household responded to questions about access to medical specialists and the exact distance traveled to these services. Correlates of interest included the location of the residence within the province and within each household, socioeconomic status, household smoking status, median age of household residents, number of non-respiratory chronic conditions and number of current respiratory conditions. Analyses were conducted using log binomial regression for the outcome of interest. The overall response rate was 52%. Of households who required a visit to a medical specialist in the past 12 months, 23% reported having difficulty accessing specialist care. The magnitude of risk for encountering difficulty accessing medical specialist care services increased with the greatest distance categories. Accessing specialist care professionals by rural residents was particularly difficult for persons with current respiratory conditions. PMID:27417750

  4. [Accessible Rural Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Nick, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue of the quarterly newsletter "Rural Exchange" provides information and resources on accessible rural housing for the disabled. "Accessible Manufactured Housing Could Increase Rural Home Supply" (Nick Baker) suggests that incorporation of access features such as lever door handles and no-step entries into manufactured housing could help…

  5. Rural Students at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Judi

    Identifying and describing students in rural schools who are at potential educational risk is the purpose of this study which involved extensive taped interviews with administrators, teachers and students in selected rural schools in Iowa. Various indicators of educational risk in selected rural environments suggest that students are decidedly…

  6. America's Rural Information Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Caille John, Patricia

    The Rural Information Center (RIC), a project of two agencies of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, has served rural information needs since 1988. The targeted audience for the RIC is local officials and citizens, rather than scientists and federal officials, and the thrust of its information is rural development rather than production…

  7. Think Rural Means Isolated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy

    1990-01-01

    The benefits of distance education have made converts out of many rural school administrators. Through communication satellites, schools can gain access to the most advanced courses for students and staff while maintaining their rural characteristics and personal touch. Sidebars present a glossary and one rural New York school's experience with…

  8. Rural Research Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lewis W.

    The following rural sociological research needs were identified: (1) acceptance of general sociological theory and methodology for use in "Rural" research; (2) recognition of bench marks and probable base lines in rural sociological research; (3) collection of widely scattered reports for examination and perhaps respecification; (4) establishment…

  9. Reaching Rural Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard van Leer Foundation Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter issue focuses on programming undertaken to address the health and educational needs of rural families in developing and developed nations. After examining the nature of rural families and rural poverty, the newsletter discusses: (1) the Mon Women's Organization in Thailand; (2) The "Contact With Kids" parent education…

  10. Rural Poverty and Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural Housing Alliance, Washington, DC.

    Today poverty in rural America remains pervasive and persistent. A decade ago, 14 million rural Americans were classified as "officially" poor. In 1973, nearly 9.2 million were classified poor. The decline in rural poverty over the years has been minimal. This paper briefly documents the poverty statistics according to the living standards used by…

  11. [Rural School Administrator's Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AEL, Inc., Charleston, WV.

    This packet contains resources on five topics relevant to rural school administrators. "Assessing Parent Involvement: A Checklist for Rural Schools": discusses educator beliefs that support successful parent engagement programs, challenges and advantages of rural schools attempting to involve parents and community, and aspects of…

  12. Beyond immunization: travelers' infectious diseases. 1--Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh; Morsy, Tosson A

    2015-04-01

    Travelers' diarrhea is the most common illness in persons traveling from resource-rich to resource-poor regions of the world. The fear of developing diarrhea while traveling is common among travelers to any part of the developing world. This concern is realistic; 40 to 60% of travelers to these countries may develop diarrhea. Diarrheal diseases represent one of the five leading causes of death worldwide. Morbidity and mortality are significant even in the United States where diarrhea is more often than not a "nuisance disease" in the normally healthy individual.

  13. An investigation of equity of rural speech-language pathology services for children: a geographic perspective.

    PubMed

    Verdon, Sarah; Wilson, Linda; Smith-Tamaray, Michelle; McAllister, Lindy

    2011-06-01

    The World Health Organization's equity objective states that there should be equal access to healthcare for equal need, regardless of location. Disparities between health services and challenges to achieving the equity objective have been documented both in Australia and around the world. However, little is known about the extent to which this objective has been met in the field of speech-language pathology in Australia. This study used structured interviews with 74 speech-language pathologists working in rural areas of New South Wales and Victoria. The data obtained were used to develop maps to describe the availability of paediatric speech-language pathology services through consideration of location and frequency. The findings show that 98.60% of localities are unserviced at the ideal frequency of weekly or more often. It is important to note that these percentages include all localities in the represented rural areas of New South Wales and Victoria, some of which are minimally populated. The maps also depict travel and distance as barriers to the accessibility of services and have been used to suggest a critical maximum distance for paediatric outpatient speech-language pathology services in rural New South Wales and Victoria. From the data collected, 50 kilometres was suggested as the critical maximum distance past which consumers become unable or unwilling to travel to access weekly rural speech-language pathology services in rural New South Wales and Victoria. Thus, people living in almost one third of rural localities in rural New South Wales and Victoria lie beyond what is considered by rural speech-language pathologists to be a reasonable travel distance to weekly speech-language pathology services. These results highlight barriers to the achievement of equitable services in rural areas. The results also provide an essential foundation to inform policy development and assist health service planning to meet the needs of rural consumers.

  14. [Travel medicine for HIV-infected patients].

    PubMed

    Rossi, M; Furrer, H

    2001-06-01

    Many HIV-infected persons travel from temperate zones to (sub)tropical destinations. HIV-specific immigration issues, medical resources abroad and problems regarding travelling with multiple medications have to be anticipated. When prescribing immunizations and specific chemoprophylaxis, the stage of immunodeficiency as well as drug interactions with antiretrovirals and medicaments against opportunistic infections have to be taken into account. Live vaccines may be contraindicated. Immunocompromised HIV-infected travellers have a higher risk for serious courses of diseases by enteropathogens. Therefore a good information about food hygiene is important and a prescription of an antibiotic to take in case of severe diarrhea may be indicated. A new antiretroviral combination therapy should not be started immediately before travelling to the tropics. The possibility to continue an established HIV treatment during travel has to be evaluated cautiously. With good pre-travel advice the risk of severe health problems is low for most HIV-infected travellers.

  15. Business travelers: vaccination considerations for this population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin H; Leder, Karin; Wilson, Mary E

    2013-04-01

    Illness in business travelers is associated with reduced productivity on the part of the employee as well as the employer. Immunizations offer a reliable method of preventing infectious diseases for international business travelers. The authors review the travel patterns of business travelers, available data on illnesses they encounter, their potential travel-associated risks for vaccine-preventable diseases and recommendations on immunizations for this population. Routine vaccines (e.g., measles, tetanus and influenza) should be reviewed to assure that they provide current coverage. The combined hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccine with a rapid schedule offers options for those with time constraints. Other vaccine recommendations for business travelers need to focus on their destinations and activities and underlying health, taking into account the concept of cumulative risk for those with frequent travel, multiple trips or long stays.

  16. Geometric scaling as traveling waves.

    PubMed

    Munier, S; Peschanski, R

    2003-12-05

    We show the relevance of the nonlinear Fisher and Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piscounov (KPP) equation to the problem of high energy evolution of the QCD amplitudes. We explain how the traveling wave solutions of this equation are related to geometric scaling, a phenomenon observed in deep-inelastic scattering experiments. Geometric scaling is for the first time shown to result from an exact solution of nonlinear QCD evolution equations. Using general results on the KPP equation, we compute the velocity of the wave front, which gives the full high energy dependence of the saturation scale.

  17. Bites and stings in travellers

    PubMed Central

    Reid, H. Alistair

    1975-01-01

    As a rule, bites and stings in travellers are merely a nuisance. But it is sensible to be informed about the more serious possibilities which can result. Systemic diseases can be transmitted, the skin lesions from insects can be troublesome and finally, some bites and stings can cause envenoming. Thus, the bather may be harmed by venomous fish stings, sea urchins, jellyfish and in Asian-Pacific waters by sea-snakes. Land hazards include bites or stings by scorpions, spiders, ticks, centipedes, bees, wasps, caterpillars and snakes. The main clinical features of such bites and stings, including treatment and prevention, are outlined. PMID:1239754

  18. Improved Traveling-Wave Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseau, Art; Tammaru, Ivo; Vaszari, John

    1988-01-01

    New space traveling-wave tube (TWT) provides coherent source of 75 watts of continuous-wave power output over bandwidth of 5 GHz at frequency of 65 GHz. Coupled-cavity TWT provides 50 dB of saturated gain. Includes thermionic emitter, M-type dispenser cathode providing high-power electron beam. Beam focused by permanent magnets through center of radio-frequency cavity structure. Designed for reliable operation for 10 years, and overall efficiency of 35 percent minimizes prime power input and dissipation of heat.

  19. Time Travel: Deutsch vs. Teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svetlichny, George

    2011-12-01

    The quantum teleportation protocol can be used to probabilistically simulate a quantum circuit with backward-in-time connections. This allows us to analyze some conceptual problems of time travel in the context of physically realizable situations free of paradoxes. As an example one can perform encrypted measurements of future states for which the decryption key becomes available in the future. Likewise, the gauge-like freedom of locally changing the direction of time flow in quantum circuits can lead to conceptual and computational simplifications. I contrast this situation with Deutsch's treatment of quantum mechanics in the presence of closed time-like curves pointing out some of its deficiencies and problems.

  20. Large holograms in traveling exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christakis, Anne-Marie

    1994-01-01

    The presentation of large holograms in travelling exhibitions has always posed problems, mainly due to lack of space. The Museum of Holography was consequently required to develop, with Jean-Francois Moreau, display consoles which are light, affordable and completely detachable. In a permanent exposition at the Forum des Halles in Paris, the Museum displays a room with 22 holograms, each measuring 1 m X 1 m, in a structure designed by the architect Fabien Vienne. The different systems used by the Museum are presented here.

  1. On traveling waves in beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Robert W; Budiansky, Bernard

    1954-01-01

    The basic equations of Timoshenko for the motion of vibrating nonuniform beams, which allow for effects of transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia, are presented in several forms, including one in which the equations are written in the directions of the characteristics. The propagation of discontinuities in moment and shear, as governed by these equations, is discussed. Numerical traveling-wave solutions are obtained for some elementary problems of finite uniform beams for which the propagation velocities of bending and shear discontinuities are taken to be equal. These solutions are compared with modal solutions of Timoshenko's equations and, in some cases, with exact closed solutions. (author)

  2. 41 CFR 301-71.105 - Must we issue a written or electronic travel authorization in advance of travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or electronic travel authorization in advance of travel? 301-71.105 Section 301-71.105 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 71-AGENCY TRAVEL ACCOUNTABILITY REQUIREMENTS Travel Authorization §...

  3. 41 CFR 301-71.105 - Must we issue a written or electronic travel authorization in advance of travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... or electronic travel authorization in advance of travel? 301-71.105 Section 301-71.105 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 71-AGENCY TRAVEL ACCOUNTABILITY REQUIREMENTS Travel Authorization §...

  4. Joining Rural Development Theory and Rural Education Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Patricia Cahape

    Karl N. Stauber proposes three goals for rural development policy: helping the rural middle class survive, reducing concentrated rural poverty, and sustaining and improving the quality of the natural environment. In contrast to other visions, he advises policy that focuses on rural places rather than rural economic sectors such as agriculture,…

  5. Travel health risk perceptions and preparations among travelers at Hong Kong International Airport.

    PubMed

    Hung, Kevin K C; Lin, Agatha K Y; Cheng, Calvin K Y; Chan, Emily Y Y; Graham, Colin A

    2014-01-01

    Four levels of pre-travel health preparations were defined to allow the measurement of general travel health preparations by the traveling public. A cross-sectional survey of 770 travelers using Hong Kong International Airport was conducted. Important gaps were found in the self-preparation domain. Length of travel was the only factor associated with higher levels of health preparations after adjusting for potential confounders. Targeted health education should be considered to improve health risk perceptions among travelers in Hong Kong and other similar metropolitan cities that are critical hubs for commercial air transport.

  6. [Malaria chemoprophylaxis in traveling children].

    PubMed

    Minodier, P; Noël, G; Blanc, P; Tsaregorodtseva, N; Retornaz, K; Garnier, J M

    2005-01-01

    In France, 4,000 imported malaria cases are reported each year (7,000 to 8,000 estimated). Chemoprophylaxis is essential for prevention in travelers. When malaria is susceptible to chloroquine, this drug (Nivaquine) has to be used. It is given daily in France (1.5 mg/kg per day), from departure to four weeks after return. When low levels of chloroquino-resistance are reported, French authorities recommend the use of chloroquine + proguanil (Savarine) if the body weight is >50 kg or Nivaquine) + Paludrine), if <50 kg), or atovaquone + proguanil (Malarone). Nivaquine) (1.5 mg/kg per day) and Paludrine) (3 mg/kg per day) have to be pursued for one month after return, although Malarone) (1 pediatric tablet/10 kg per day, in children >10 kg weight) may be disrupted after one single week. Adverse events are rarer with atovaquone + proguanil, than with chloroquine + proguanil. When chloroquino-resistance is high, Malarone) or mefloquine (Lariam) are used. Weekly drug regimen is recommended with mefloquine (5 mg/kg per weight) for the travel duration and four weeks after return and the drug tolerance is good in pediatric prophylaxis. Doxycycline is used under conditions in children >8 years of age. New drugs as for tafenoquine, an amino-8 quinoleine, might enhance patients compliance if given monthly.

  7. [Travellers and multi-drug resistance bacteria].

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Nozomi

    2012-02-01

    The number of international travellers has increased. There is enormous diversity in medical backgrounds, purposes of travel, and travelling styles among travellers. Travellers are hospitalized abroad because of exotic and common diseases via medical tourism. This is one way of transporting and importing human bacteria between countries, including multi-drug resistant organisms. In developing countries, the antimicrobial resistance in Shigella sp. and Salmonella sp. have been a problem, because of this trend, the first choice of antibiotics has changed in some countries. Community acquired infections as well as hospital acquired infections with MRSA, multi-drug resistance (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and ESBL have been a problem. This review will discuss the risk of MDR bacterial infectious diseases for travellers.

  8. Traveling Lamb wave in elastic metamaterial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Haisheng; Xu, Lihuan; Shi, Xiaona; Zhao, Lei; Zhu, Jie

    2016-10-01

    The propagation of traveling Lamb wave in single layer of elastic metamaterial is investigated in this paper. We first categorized the traveling Lamb wave modes inside an elastic metamaterial layer according to different combinations (positive or negative) of effective medium parameters. Then the impacts of the frequency dependence of effective parameters on dispersion characteristics of traveling Lamb wave were studied. Distinct differences could be observed when comparing the traveling Lamb wave along an elastic metamaterial layer with one inside the traditional elastic layer. We further examined in detail the traveling Lamb wave mode supported in elastic metamaterial layer, when the effective P and S wave velocities were simultaneously imaginary. It was found that the effective modulus ratio is the key factor for the existence of special traveling wave mode, and the main results were verified by FEM simulations from two levels: the level of effective medium and the level of microstructure unit cell.

  9. Legionella infections and travel associated legionellosis.

    PubMed

    Guyard, Cyril; Low, Donald E

    2011-07-01

    Travel associated Legionnaires' disease represents a significant cause of travel associated respiratory tract infections and impacts disproportionately on otherwise healthy individuals as a consequence of their travel abroad or within their own country. Because of the propensity of these bacteria to colonize man-made water systems, legionellosis are frequently reported in travelers who stayed in accommodations sites such as hotels or cruise ships. Since the discovery of this new pathogen and the creation of surveillance networks, the number of reported travel associated legionellosis cases have increased regularly. Education of physicians about the association of Legionnaires' disease with travel and the use of appropriate diagnostic tests and therapy can result in a reduction in morbidity and mortality due to this important cause of community-acquired pneumonia.

  10. Rural Stress: Myths and Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Thomas D.; McIntire, Walter G.

    A comparison between the common myths of "rural existence" and the documented realities of rural living explodes the myth that rural living is generally stress free, shows that life stress in rural settings can have deleterious effects on the function of individual and family, and provides a basis for exploring some implications of rural stress…

  11. Disparities in Patterns of Health Care Travel Among Inpatients Diagnosed With Congestive Heart Failure, Florida, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Xierali, Imam M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a major public health problem in the United States and is a leading cause of hospitalization in the elderly population. Understanding the health care travel patterns of CHF patients and their underlying cause is important to balance the supply and demand for local hospital resources. This article explores the nonclinical factors that prompt CHF patients to seek distant instead of local hospitalization. Methods Local hospitalization was defined as inpatients staying within hospital service areas, and distant hospitalization was defined as inpatients traveling outside hospital service areas, based on individual hospital discharge data in 2011 generated by a Dartmouth–Swiss hybrid approach. Multiple logistic and linear regression models were used to compare the travel patterns of different groups of inpatients in Florida. Results Black patients, no-charge patients, patients living in large metropolitan areas, and patients with a low socioeconomic status were more likely to seek local hospitalization than were white patients, those who were privately insured, those who lived in rural areas, and those with a high socioeconomic status, respectively. Conclusion Findings indicate that different populations diagnosed with CHF had different travel patterns for hospitalization. Changes or disruptions in local hospital supply could differentially affect different groups in a population. Policy makers could target efforts to CHF patients who are less likely to travel to seek treatment. PMID:26378896

  12. Trends and characteristics among HIV-infected and diabetic travelers seeking pre-travel advice.

    PubMed

    Elfrink, Floor; van den Hoek, Anneke; Sonder, Gerard J B

    2014-01-01

    The number of individuals with a chronic disease increases. Better treatment options have improved chronic patients' quality of life, likely increasing their motivation for travel. This may have resulted in a change in the number of HIV-infected travelers and/or travelers with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) visiting our travel clinic. We retrospectively analyzed the database of the travel clinic of the Public Health Service Amsterdam, between January 2001 and December 2011 and examined the records for patients with these conditions. Of the 25,000 travelers who consult our clinic annually, the proportion of travelers with HIV or DM has increased significantly. A total of 564 HIV-infected travelers visited our clinic. The mean age was 41 years, 86% were male, 43% visited a yellow fever endemic country and 46.5% had a CD4 count <500 cells/mm(3). Travelers with low CD4 counts traveled significantly more often to visit friends or relatives. A total of 3704 diabetics visited our clinic. The mean age was 55 years, 52% were male, 27% visited a yellow fever endemic country and 36% were insulin-dependent. Insulin-dependent diabetics traveled more often for work than non-insulin-dependent diabetics. Adequately trained and qualified travel health professionals and up-to-date guidelines for travelers with chronic diseases are of increasing importance.

  13. Travel health preparation and travel-related morbidity of splenectomised individuals.

    PubMed

    Boeddha, Christien; de Graaf, Wilmar; Overbosch, David; van Genderen, Perry J J

    2012-07-01

    Asplenic or hyposplenic patients are at an increased risk of encapsulated bacterial and intraerythrocytic parasitic infections, which are endemic at many travel destinations. With proper travel health advice and preparation splenectomised individuals could have comparable travel-related morbidity as healthy control subjects. We conducted a prospective case-control study with 21 travel pairs. Each pair consisted of a splenectomised patient (case) and a healthy, non-splenectomised travel companion (control) in order to match for travel destination, duration and potential exposures to travel-related health risks. All participants filled out a questionnaire detailing travel health preparation including vaccination and malaria prophylaxis as well as travel-related morbidity. Cases and controls were comparable for age and gender. Cases received significantly more information about on demand use of antibiotics in case of fever. Immunisation coverage against encapsulated bacteria and adherence to malaria prophylaxis guidelines was suboptimal. There were no significant differences in the occurrence of travel-related ailments nor differences in severity of ailments. The immunisation coverage against encapsulated bacteria and adherence to malaria prophylaxis guidelines was suboptimal in some splenectomised patients and should be improved. Strict adherence to national travel health advice guidelines and specific guidelines for asplenic patients is advisable. However, with regard to travel-related morbidity there are no significant differences in morbidity between splenectomised patients and healthy controls, at least in the setting of short-term travel.

  14. Have Diabetes? Get Tips for Safe Travels

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Healthy On-the-Go with Diabetes Video Transportation Security Administration instructions for passengers with diabetes Transportation Security Administration instructions for travelers with disabilities and ...

  15. Brucellosis and its particularities in children travelers.

    PubMed

    Bosilkovski, Mile; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2014-01-01

    Brucellosis is still endemic in many countries in the world, however, having a significantly higher incidence in developing countries. As consequence of travel, risk for children from non-endemic areas would be considerable when visiting developing countries. Then, the purpose of this review is to provide, after a bibliographical search, an update on the main aspects of this disease in the traveler children. For the general practitioner, but particularly for travel medicine practitioner and pediatricians, these clinicoepidemiological considerations should be taken in mind in the differential diagnosis when assessing children returning from travel to brucellosis endemic areas.

  16. Travellers' diarrhoea: causes, prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Rhoswen; Bennett, Clare

    This article describes the prevention and treatment of travellers' diarrhoea, the leading cause of illness in people travelling abroad. The most common cause of travellers' diarrhoea worldwide is bacterial pathogens, which account for up to 80% of cases. Exercising caution over dietary selection and personal hygiene is the most common method used for reducing the risk of acquiring travellers' diarrhoea. Antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics and bismuth subsalicylate have all been indicated for the prevention of this distressing condition. Treatments include antimotility agents, oral rehydration salts and antibiotics.

  17. Vaccination for safe travel to India.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Bharti; Jindal, Harashish; Bhatt, Bhumika; Kumar, Vijay; Singh Choudhary, Satvinder

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide more than 900 million international journeys are undertaken every year. India is one of the favorite tourist destinations around the world. International travel exposes travelers to a range of health risks. Traveling to India possess a threat to travelers with waterborne diseases like bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever; vector borne diseases like dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria; animal contact disease like rabies. Furthermore diseases spreading through behavior aspects cannot be ruled out hence posing a risk for hepatitis B, HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C as well. Hence, before travel the travelers are advised about the risk of disease in the country or countries they plan to visit and the steps to be taken to prevent illness. Vaccination offers the possibility of avoiding a number of infectious diseases that may be countered abroad. There is no single vaccination schedule that fits all travelers. Each schedule must be individualized according to the traveler's previous immunizations, countries to be visited, type and duration of travel, and the amount of time available before departure.

  18. Effect of travel on influenza epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Belderok, Sanne-Meike; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; van den Hoek, Anneke; Sonder, Gerard J B

    2013-06-01

    To assess the attack and incidence rates for influenza virus infections, during October 2006-October 2007 we prospectively studied 1,190 adult short-term travelers from the Netherlands to tropical and subtropical countries. Participants donated blood samples before and after travel and kept a travel diary. The samples were serologically tested for the epidemic strains during the study period. The attack rate for all infections was 7% (86 travelers) and for influenza-like illness (ILI), 0.8%. The incidence rate for all infections was 8.9 per 100 person-months and for ILI, 0.9%. Risk factors for infection were birth in a non-Western country, age 55-64 years, and ILI. In 15 travelers with fever or ILI, influenza virus infection was serologically confirmed; 7 of these travelers were considered contagious or incubating the infection while traveling home. Given the large number of travelers to (sub)tropical countries, travel-related infection most likely contributes to importation and further influenza spread worldwide.

  19. Approach to Immunization for the Traveling Child.

    PubMed

    Myers, Angela L; Christenson, John C

    2015-12-01

    Children are traveling to regions of the world that could pose a risk of acquiring diseases such as malaria, dermatosis, and infectious diarrhea. Most of these can be prevented by modifying high-risk behaviors or through the use of medications. Many of these same regions are endemic with diseases that are preventable through vaccination. Clinicians must be able to effectively prepare their pediatric-age travelers for international travel. Preventive education, prophylactic and self-treating medications, and vaccinations are all important components of this preparation. Familiarity with the use of travel vaccines is imperative.

  20. Travel thrombosis: Pathomechanisms and clinical aspects.

    PubMed

    Sándor, Tamás

    2008-12-01

    The possibility of life threatening venous thromboembolism (VTE) associated with long-haul air travel has received increasing attention in recent years. VTE can develop after long travel by car, bus or train, as well. In this paper recent investigational results on the pathomechanism of this special type of venous thrombosis have been reviewed. Travel thrombosis is a subgroup of sitting thromboses. It is a consequence of prolonged sitting, which is common of ground transportation and air travel. Air travel-related venous thromboembolism (ATVT) is a multifactorial disease. Possible contributory risk factors are in connection with the milieu of the cabin, such as narrow sitting in cramp position, hypobaric hypoxia and lower humidity. Personal, traveler-related risk factors may be regarded as a trigger. The risk of thrombosis is depending on the duration and distance of the travel. Recent studies have clarified effects of long-haul travel on the coagulation system. Various investigations evaluated the effect of immobilization and hypobaric hypoxia on thrombin generation and fibrinolysis. The studies differed much in participant characteristics, duration and type of exposure and statistical analysis, so the results are contradictory. Healthy passengers seem to have low risk. However, travelers suffering from predisposing risk factors for VTE can be exposed to serious hazards.

  1. Zika Virus in an American Recreational Traveler.

    PubMed

    Summers, Dyan J; Acosta, Rebecca Wolfe; Acosta, Alberto M

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 48-year-old American traveler who presented to our clinic with diffuse rash, malaise, fatigue, fever, arthralgia, low back pain, and bilateral exudative conjunctivitis. The patient had an extensive vaccination and travel history: most notable for prior receipt of yellow fever vaccine; extensive travel or residence in areas endemic for dengue, chikungunya, and West Nile virus; and recent travel to French Polynesia. Clinical and laboratory findings were consistent with Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. Our report highlights the need to include ZIKV in the differential diagnosis, especially in febrile patients with a rash returning from endemic areas.

  2. Prospects for dengue vaccines for travelers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Travel-acquired dengue cases have been increasing as the overall global dengue burden has expanded. In Korea, imported dengue cases have been reported since 2000 when it first became a notifiable disease. During the first four months of 2016, three times more dengue cases were reported in Korea than during the same period the previous year. A safe and efficacious vaccine for travelers would be beneficial to prevent dengue disease in individual travelers and potentially decrease the risk of virus spread to non-endemic areas. Here, we summarize the characteristics of dengue vaccines for travelers and review dengue vaccines currently licensed or in clinical development. PMID:27489798

  3. Health preparations and travel-related morbidity of kidney transplant recipients traveling to developing countries.

    PubMed

    Roukens, A H E; van Dissel, J T; de Fijter, J W; Visser, L G

    2007-01-01

    A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted among Dutch kidney transplant recipients to investigate travel health knowledge, attitudes and practices while staying abroad. A total of 290 individuals visiting the nephrology outpatient clinic completed the questionnaires. Thirty four percent of the responders had traveled outside Western Europe (WE) and Northern America (NA); 22% of these travelers did not seek pre-travel health advice. Transplant physicians were most frequently consulted for pre-travel advice (53%). Of the responders traveling outside WE and NA 29% were ill during their most recent journey. Diabetic transplant recipients were at the highest risk. Four of seventeen ill recipients (24%) were hospitalized, reflecting the high morbidity of travel-related disease in this patient group. Our data show that there is need for improvement of pre-travel healthcare, and suggest an important role for transplant physicians in providing adequate counseling.

  4. The Rural Challenge: Rural Schools and Communities Working as Partners for the Future of Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annenberg Rural Challenge, Granby, CO.

    The Annenberg Rural Challenge locates and funds exemplary rural public school programs to serve as models for rural education reform. The guiding theory of the Rural Challenge is that when rural schools base their teaching on the economy, ecology, history, and culture of their communities while fully engaging the community in the school's work,…

  5. Associations of individual, household and environmental characteristics with carbon dioxide emissions from motorised passenger travel

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Christian; Goodman, Anna; Rutter, Harry; Song, Yena; Ogilvie, David

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from motorised travel are hypothesised to be associated with individual, household, spatial and other environmental factors. Little robust evidence exists on who contributes most (and least) to travel CO2 and, in particular, the factors influencing commuting, business, shopping and social travel CO2. This paper examines whether and how demographic, socio-economic and other personal and environmental characteristics are associated with land-based passenger transport and associated CO2 emissions. Primary data were collected from 3474 adults using a newly developed survey instrument in the iConnect study in the UK. The participants reported their past-week travel activity and vehicle characteristics from which CO2 emissions were derived using an adapted travel emissions profiling method. Multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine what characteristics predicted higher CO2 emissions. CO2 emissions from motorised travel were distributed highly unequally, with the top fifth of participants producing more than two fifth of emissions. Car travel dominated overall CO2 emissions, making up 90% of the total. The strongest independent predictors of CO2 emissions were owning at least one car, being in full-time employment and having a home-work distance of more than 10 km. Income, education and tenure were also strong univariable predictors of CO2 emissions, but seemed to be further back on the causal pathway than having a car. Male gender, late-middle age, living in a rural area and having access to a bicycle also showed significant but weaker associations with emissions production. The findings may help inform the development of climate change mitigation policies for the transport sector. Targeting individuals and households with high car ownership, focussing on providing viable alternatives to commuting by car, and supporting planning and other policies that reduce commuting distances may provide an equitable and

  6. Zoonoses and travel: Chapter 4 in Disease emergence and resurgence: The wildlife-human connection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hurley, James W.; Friend, Milton

    2006-01-01

    The escalating speed of transportation expands the global mobility of society, allows many products and services to be rapidly obtained anywhere in the world, and promotes the explosive growth of tourism (Fig. 4.1). Ecotourism is especially popular. Within a single day’s time, people can travel to rural and remote areas where there are unique and often concentrated collections of wildlife. When traveling to these areas, people can be exposed to pathogens not common in their home location.1–3 Timely and accurate diagnoses of the pathogens involved are often essential to prevent lifethreatening stages of disease from developing. Also, travelers who contract infections can serve to initiate epidemics (e.g., SARS) (Fig. 4.2). This chapter focuses on travel as a factor in exposure to zoonoses and other factors potentially confounding diagnoses.Infections that travelers can obtain while far from home can complicate timely diagnoses. Travelers may also unknowingly bring home exotic pathogens through foods and other products. When local medical practitioners are taking a medical history, they may forget to ask, or the patient may forget to offer information about previous travel or exposures through other unusual means (Box 4–1). Some medical practitioners may have little familiarity with the pathogen involved or little reason to consider that pathogen without the patient offering adequate historical perspective. The medical practitioner may miss the diagnosis because of the similarity in clinical signs and symptoms that are associated with multiple diseases, especially during early stages of illness. Thus, the primary objectives for this chapter are: (1) to raise general awareness of human activities for which exposure to zoonoses may be underappreciated, and (2) to provide guidance for individuals seeking medical assistance that may help with timely and accurate diagnoses.

  7. Associations of individual, household and environmental characteristics with carbon dioxide emissions from motorised passenger travel.

    PubMed

    Brand, Christian; Goodman, Anna; Rutter, Harry; Song, Yena; Ogilvie, David

    2013-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from motorised travel are hypothesised to be associated with individual, household, spatial and other environmental factors. Little robust evidence exists on who contributes most (and least) to travel CO2 and, in particular, the factors influencing commuting, business, shopping and social travel CO2. This paper examines whether and how demographic, socio-economic and other personal and environmental characteristics are associated with land-based passenger transport and associated CO2 emissions. Primary data were collected from 3474 adults using a newly developed survey instrument in the iConnect study in the UK. The participants reported their past-week travel activity and vehicle characteristics from which CO2 emissions were derived using an adapted travel emissions profiling method. Multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine what characteristics predicted higher CO2 emissions. CO2 emissions from motorised travel were distributed highly unequally, with the top fifth of participants producing more than two fifth of emissions. Car travel dominated overall CO2 emissions, making up 90% of the total. The strongest independent predictors of CO2 emissions were owning at least one car, being in full-time employment and having a home-work distance of more than 10 km. Income, education and tenure were also strong univariable predictors of CO2 emissions, but seemed to be further back on the causal pathway than having a car. Male gender, late-middle age, living in a rural area and having access to a bicycle also showed significant but weaker associations with emissions production. The findings may help inform the development of climate change mitigation policies for the transport sector. Targeting individuals and households with high car ownership, focussing on providing viable alternatives to commuting by car, and supporting planning and other policies that reduce commuting distances may provide an equitable and

  8. Rural and urban traffic fatalities, vehicle miles, and population density.

    PubMed

    Clark, David E; Cushing, Brad M

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of population density on the rates of motor vehicle mortality in rural and urban areas, while controlling for vehicle miles traveled (VMT). Rural and urban data for traffic mortality, VMT, and population were obtained for each state from the Federal Highway Administration for 1998-2000. Linear regression was used to estimate the effect of population density, VMT per capita, southern location, and presence of a trauma system on mortality. Variation in rural mortality rate (per 100,000 population) was proportional to rural VMT per capita, but population density and southern location were also independent predictors, together accounting for 91% of this variation. Variation in urban mortality rates was not affected by population density, but urban rates were also higher in the south. The exposure-based rural mortality rate (deaths per 100 million VMT) was inversely proportional to population density, which along with southern location explained 41% of the variation from state to state. The presence of a state trauma system did not measurably affect mortality. After controlling for VMT and southern location, state population density was a moderately strong predictor of rural but not urban traffic mortality rates.

  9. Supporting Sustainable Rural Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presentation about creating sustainable rural communities discussing principles, energy efficiency, water quality, waste, business, building improvements and restoration, transportation, and green building.transportation, and green building.

  10. The interactive surrogate travel system.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, I; Ichimura, A; Juzoji, H; Mugita, K

    1999-01-01

    The Interactive Surrogate Travel (IST) system is based on the super-miniaturized system of virtual technology, Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE). Using bilateral virtual reality (VR-to-VR) communications, IST enables the testing of subjects via interactive communications. It appears that IST will find practical applications in the near future. We examined the utility of IST in medical treatment and psychiatric tests. Psychiatric symptoms reflect human pathos, which in turn are greatly influenced by culture. If these culture-bound symptoms can be adequately communicated between providers and clients of different cultures, we can develop effective telepsychiatric services across different societies and cultures. IST requires high-speed transmission and gigabyte circuits. A pilot project tested the utility of IST (through the use of optical fiber communications on earth) as a basis for experiments via the Gigabit satellite, to be launched in the year 2002.

  11. Extending Medical Center Computer Application to Rural Health Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Gottfredson, Douglas K.

    1983-01-01

    A paper entitled “A COMPUTER DATA BASE FOR CLINICIANS, MANAGERS AND RESEARCHERS,” presented during the 1981 SCAMC, described the Salt Lake VA Medical Center computer system. Since that time, two Rural Health Clinics each about 150 miles from Salt Lake City were established by the SL VAMC to reduce traveling distances and improve services for Veterans. Although many existing computer applications were available with no modifications, additional software was needed to support unique needs of the clinics. The Rural Health package of software was designed to gather and store demographic and clinical information on each Veteran, determine the types of services provided, track services over time, monitor services provided by local hospitals and clinical laboratories which are paid for by the VA, determine total clinic costs, etc. These computer applications may be of interest to Medical Centers with separate clinics or outreach programs and individuals or groups in private practice with programs similar to the VA Rural Health Clinics.

  12. Surgical travellers: tapestry to Bayeux.

    PubMed

    Hedley-Whyte, John; Milamed, Debra R

    2014-09-01

    The planning for surgery in war was revisited in 1937 when Ian Fraser was elected a member of the Surgical Travellers. At their 1938 Surgical Travellers meeting in Vienna, Ian and Eleanor Fraser were evicted from their hotel room by the Nazis. The 1939 meeting in Belfast discussed the organization of surgery and the conduct of Emergency Medical Service Hospitals in the United Kingdom; the vast majority were to be under civilian government and military control. From 1943 lengthy and informative organizational meetings were held at least monthly under the chairmanship of Sir Alexander Hood, KBE, Head of the RAMC. Surgical Consultants, now Major Generals, Brigadiers or Full Colonels in the British and U.S. Armies stationed in the UK, prepared for the invasion of Europe. The allocation of medical, surgical, nursing and auxiliary responsibilities was delineated. Liaison with the RAF and US Army Air Force was close as it was with the proposed leaders, Ulstermen Brooke and Montgomery. Montgomery chose Arthur Porritt as Surgeon in Chief to Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF), and Eisenhower, General Albert W. Kenner. Just after D-Day, Porritt met Ian Fraser, who had waded in on Arromanches Beach. The triage and evacuation plans for Allied casualties had been controversial, particularly as regards Landing Ship Tanks (LSTs). The dispute with the Hood-selected surgeons on one side, against medical and surgical deployment of LSTs, and Admiral Ernest King and Winston Churchill on the other, favouring LST use for surgery and evacuation. King and Churchill were correct but total Allied air superiority allowed wide use of many of the Allies' Dakotas; 10,000 DC-3s were eventually in service. Supported by forty Allied combat planes to each Luftwaffe, the dispute about Landing Ship Tank use in about a fortnight became moot. The multifaceted role of the Princess Royal in the Emergency Medical Services of the United Kingdom and her close liaison with the Consultant

  13. Surgical Travellers: Tapestry to Bayeux

    PubMed Central

    Hedley-Whyte, John; Milamed, Debra R

    2014-01-01

    The planning for surgery in war was revisited in 1937 when Ian Fraser was elected a member of the Surgical Travellers. At their 1938 Surgical Travellers meeting in Vienna, Ian and Eleanor Fraser were evicted from their hotel room by the Nazis. The 1939 meeting in Belfast discussed the organization of surgery and the conduct of Emergency Medical Service Hospitals in the United Kingdom; the vast majority were to be under civilian government and military control. From 1943 lengthy and informative organizational meetings were held at least monthly under the chairmanship of Sir Alexander Hood, KBE, Head of the RAMC. Surgical Consultants, now Major Generals, Brigadiers or Full Colonels in the British and U.S. Armies stationed in the UK, prepared for the invasion of Europe. The allocation of medical, surgical, nursing and auxiliary responsibilities was delineated. Liaison with the RAF and US Army Air Force was close as it was with the proposed leaders, Ulstermen Brooke and Montgomery. Montgomery chose Arthur Porritt as Surgeon in Chief to Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF), and Eisenhower, General Albert W. Kenner. Just after D-Day, Porritt met Ian Fraser, who had waded in on Arromanches Beach. The triage and evacuation plans for Allied casualties had been controversial, particularly as regards Landing Ship Tanks (LSTs). The dispute with the Hood-selected surgeons on one side, against medical and surgical deployment of LSTs, and Admiral Ernest King and Winston Churchill on the other, favouring LST use for surgery and evacuation. King and Churchill were correct but total Allied air superiority allowed wide use of many of the Allies' Dakotas; 10,000 DC-3s were eventually in service. Supported by forty Allied combat planes to each Luftwaffe, the dispute about Landing Ship Tank use in about a fortnight became moot. The multifaceted role of the Princess Royal in the Emergency Medical Services of the United Kingdom and her close liaison with the Consultant

  14. 76 FR 32340 - Federal Travel Regulation; Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances (Taxes); Relocation Allowances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION 41 CFR Parts 301-11, 302-2, 302-3, and 302-17 RIN 3090-AI95 Federal Travel Regulation; Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances (Taxes); Relocation Allowances (Taxes) AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide... amend the Federal Travel Regulation (FTR) by incorporating recommendations of the...

  15. Lewis Online Travel System: Preparer's/Traveler's Manual, Release 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seese, Michael

    1992-01-01

    The Lewis Online Travel System (LOTS) is a menu-driven interactive application that automates nearly all of the functions associated with government travel. The purpose of this manual is to provide LOTS users with concise instructions for using the computerized application. As such, it will not go into the details of travel regulations.

  16. Examining the Relationship between Online Travel Agency Information and Traveler Destination Transaction Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerby, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the role that available Online Travel Agency (OTA) destination information may have on a traveler's perceptions and intent in transaction decisions with that respective OTA. Specifically, this research examined a pleasure traveler's transaction perceptions and intentions with an OTA…

  17. An Update on Travel Vaccines and Issues in Travel and International Medicine.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Bonnie; Bunn, William B; Connor, Bradley A

    2016-08-23

    The fields of travel and international medicine are rapidly changing and growing. The role of occupational and travel health nurses is expanding and should be a focus for the future. At the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses Annual meeting on March 24, 2015, in Boston, five presentations were included in the session, An Update on Travel Vaccines and Issues in Travel and International Medicine. This article summarizes three of the presentations and includes a portion of the information generated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) included in the fourth presentation. The first section focuses on the Essential Elements of Travel Medicine Programs including the pre-travel care assessment, trip research and risk identification, medication intervention review, non-pharmaceutical and prevention strategies, and post-travel care. The next section is an overview of key issues for business travelers. The growth in the number of international business travelers and unique aspects of business travel are emphasized in a comprehensive travel health program. This section also includes a discussion of expatriates and their special risks identified in recent literature (e.g., an assessment of the significant costs of health events and productivity losses by both business travelers and expatriates). The final section offers a specific example of a vaccine-preventable disease, namely, Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus, and needed changes in JE vaccine recommendations.

  18. Educational Facility Evaluations of Primary Schools in Rural Honduras: Departments of Cortes and Meambar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, Scottsdale, AZ.

    A team of 11 educational facility planners and architects from the United States and Canada conducted a facility evaluation of schools in the rural areas of Meambar and Cortes, Honduras. Team members were all part of the Council of Educational Facility Planners, International and traveled to Honduras under the auspices of a Christian mission…

  19. Continuing Professional Education, Organizational Support, and Professional Competence: Dilemmas of Rural Nurses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Rebecca M.

    2001-01-01

    Responses from 199 rural Pennsylvania nurses showed that 86% had participated in recent continuing education. Deterrents included lack of support from supervisors/spouses, inflexible schedules, money, time, and travel. Administrators believed nurses were supported for professional development. Little money was available for continuing education.…

  20. Leveraging Rural America in the Fight Against Terrorism in America Through the Use of Conservation Districts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    fluctuations due to tourism , limited access to specialized equipment and resources (HAZMAT), international border boundaries, equipment and staffing...key resource might exist in their area that is secret or otherwise non-disclosed. Differing geography, population fluctuations due to tourism , limited...regardless of population center (urban and rural), and furthermore, their staff actively travel the countryside making daily contacts with private

  1. Travelers' diarrhea: Risk reduction and management.

    PubMed

    Moore, Karen S

    2015-11-15

    Travelers' diarrhea is a common complaint for patients traveling abroad. Onset of illness, symptoms experienced, and the duration of symptoms are greatly impacted by the causative agent. This article explores the causes, prevention recommendations, and treatment methodologies recommended for this common condition.

  2. Traveling Policies: Hijacked in Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silova, Iveta

    2005-01-01

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asian education reform discourses have become increasingly similar to distinctive Western policy discourses traveling globally across national boundaries. Tracing the trajectory of "traveling policies" in Central Asia, this article discusses the way Western education discourses have been…

  3. Including Travel in Your Academic Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, David

    2004-01-01

    As teachers and principals prepare students to pass mandated academic tests, they should not overlook the role educational travel can play in motivating students to achieve. Travel brings curriculum to life and teaches lessons that students will remember--and need--throughout their lives. In this article, the author describes educational travel…

  4. Evolutionary Stability in the Traveler's Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Andrew T.

    2009-01-01

    The traveler's dilemma is a generalization of the prisoner's dilemma which shows clearly a paradox of game theory. In the traveler's dilemma, the strategy chosen by analysis and theory seems obviously wrong intuitively. Here we develop a measure of evolutionary stability and show that the evolutionarily stable equilibrium is in some sense not very…

  5. Home Education, School, Travellers and Educational Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Arcy, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The difficulties Traveller pupils experience in school are well documented. Yet those in home educating go unreported. Monk suggests this is because some groups are overlooked; that gypsies and Travellers are often not perceived as home educators. This article highlights how the move to home education is seldom a free choice for Traveller…

  6. Travelers' diarrhea in children visiting tropical countries.

    PubMed

    Silva, Filipe Glória; Figueiredo, António; Varandas, Luis

    2009-01-01

    We studied a group of 174 Portuguese children (aged 2 mo-16 y) who mostly traveled to tropical Portuguese-speaking countries and found an attack rate of 21.8% for travelers' diarrhea, much lower than previously described. We also showed that African rate analysis by region may hide significant differences between countries.

  7. On the question of interstellar travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    Arguments are presented which show that motives for interstellar travel by advanced technological civilizations based on an extrapolation of earth's history may be quite invalid. In addition, it is proposed that interstellar travel is so enormously expensive and perhaps so hazardous, that advanced civilizations do not engage in such practices because of the ease of information transfer via interstellar communication.

  8. Code for Calculating Regional Seismic Travel Time

    SciTech Connect

    BALLARD, SANFORD; HIPP, JAMES; & BARKER, GLENN

    2009-07-10

    The RSTT software computes predictions of the travel time of seismic energy traveling from a source to a receiver through 2.5D models of the seismic velocity distribution within the Earth. The two primary applications for the RSTT library are tomographic inversion studies and seismic event location calculations. In tomographic inversions studies, a seismologist begins with number of source-receiver travel time observations and an initial starting model of the velocity distribution within the Earth. A forward travel time calculator, such as the RSTT library, is used to compute predictions of each observed travel time and all of the residuals (observed minus predicted travel time) are calculated. The Earth model is then modified in some systematic way with the goal of minimizing the residuals. The Earth model obtained in this way is assumed to be a better model than the starting model if it has lower residuals. The other major application for the RSTT library is seismic event location. Given an Earth model, an initial estimate of the location of a seismic event, and some number of observations of seismic travel time thought to have originated from that event, location codes systematically modify the estimate of the location of the event with the goal of minimizing the difference between the observed and predicted travel times. The second application, seismic event location, is routinely implemented by the military as part of its effort to monitor the Earth for nuclear tests conducted by foreign countries.

  9. International travel and the elite athlete.

    PubMed

    Pipe, Andrew L

    2011-01-01

    International travel is a frequent occurrence in the life of the elite athlete; such travel can pose challenges to the sport medicine practitioner. Travel is also the reality of many recreational level or sub-elite athletes as opportunities for international competition and training proliferate. An appreciation of the range of responsibilities associated with the preparation for and the strategies to facilitate such travel is essential for any physician charged with the care of athletes and teams. An appreciation of (1) the medical and public health challenges associated with competition in a particular setting; (2) the requirements for vaccination and immunization; (3) the strategies for the management of jet lag and climatic or environmental extremes; (4) the range of supplies and equipment necessary for travel to certain locales; (5) the need to ensure the availability of ample familiar and nutritious foods; (6) the potential need for specialty care in strange settings; (7) the management of common travel-associated illness; and (8) the challenges associated with the evacuation of an injured athlete are fundamental to the successful management of international travel involving athletes and teams. The adoption of a methodical approach to pre-trip planning can ensure an enhanced travel experience, illness-free training and competition, and facilitate optimal performance.

  10. Melioidosis in Traveler from Africa to Spain

    PubMed Central

    Quereda, Carmen; Gil, Horacio; Anda, Pedro; Núñez-Murga, María; Cantón, Rafael; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide epidemiology of melioidosis is changing. We describe a case of acute melioidosis in Spain in a patient who had traveled to Africa. A novel sequence type of Burkholderia pseudomallei was identified in this patient. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of melioidosis in travelers returning from melioidosis-nonendemic regions. PMID:24047798

  11. Cybermediation in the Tourism and Travel Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killion, Les

    Travel and tourism are second only to pornography in adopting Internet-based technologies to intermediate between those supplying the total travel experience, and those seeking to satisfy leisure needs by engaging in tourism. From Thomas Cook in the 1800s, traditional ‘travel trade networks’ have provided the components of the travel experience: transport, accommodation and attractions. However, the Internet has encouraged customer self-service, and on-going debate regarding the future of traditional travel trade intermediaries. The intermediation debate suggests the emergence of ‘hybrid’ intermediation systems combining customer self-service with face-to-face customer contacts characteristic of traditional travel agents. A focus group investigation identified profiles and motives of customers using the Internet to make holiday arrangements. Potential cost savings are a primary motivation for customer self-service. Using the Internet for travel and tourism is becoming commonplace among older travellers as well as younger people. In gathering information before making holiday decisions, potential tourists also engage in a Web 2.0 environment where family and friends, not established intermediaries, provide reliable and authentic information via their individual blogs.

  12. 78 FR 50370 - Travelers' Information Stations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ...), which Public Safety Pool-eligible entities operate to transmit noncommercial, travel-related information...' Information Stations (TIS) to transmit noncommercial, travel-related information over AM band frequencies to... this time. Accordingly, we ask whether there is any reason this restriction should not be removed....

  13. 75 FR 69080 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION Federal Travel Regulation (FTR) Fly America Act; United States and European Union ``Open Skies... Bulletin 11-02, updating the Fly America Act information on the GSA web site with recent changes to the new... November 10, 2010. Applicability Date: This final rule is applicable for travel performed on and...

  14. Beyond Europe: The New Student Travel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deresiewicz, William

    2009-01-01

    The academic year has ended, and over the past few weeks, thousands of students have traveled abroad for the summer or the first year after college. However, students aren't heading abroad in the same direction, or the same spirit, that their parents or grandparents did. This article examines why the patterns of student travel has changed.

  15. Travel and the Social Studies Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Doris, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Travel allows teachers to gather the data and realia to enliven history or global education in the classroom. In this special issue teachers describe personal travel experiences to many parts of the globe. Points of interest, itineraries, budgets, and artifacts collected are discussed. (RM)

  16. Gibbon travel paths are goal oriented.

    PubMed

    Asensio, Norberto; Brockelman, Warren Y; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Reichard, Ulrich H

    2011-05-01

    Remembering locations of food resources is critical for animal survival. Gibbons are territorial primates which regularly travel through small and stable home ranges in search of preferred, limited and patchily distributed resources (primarily ripe fruit). They are predicted to profit from an ability to memorize the spatial characteristics of their home range and may increase their foraging efficiency by using a 'cognitive map' either with Euclidean or with topological properties. We collected ranging and feeding data from 11 gibbon groups (Hylobates lar) to test their navigation skills and to better understand gibbons' 'spatial intelligence'. We calculated the locations at which significant travel direction changes occurred using the change-point direction test and found that these locations primarily coincided with preferred fruit sources. Within the limits of biologically realistic visibility distances observed, gibbon travel paths were more efficient in detecting known preferred food sources than a heuristic travel model based on straight travel paths in random directions. Because consecutive travel change-points were far from the gibbons' sight, planned movement between preferred food sources was the most parsimonious explanation for the observed travel patterns. Gibbon travel appears to connect preferred food sources as expected under the assumption of a good mental representation of the most relevant sources in a large-scale space.

  17. 29 CFR 776.12 - Employees traveling across State lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employees traveling across State lines. 776.12 Section 776... Engaging âin Commerceâ § 776.12 Employees traveling across State lines. Questions are frequently asked as... questions arise are those of traveling service men, traveling buyers, traveling construction...

  18. 29 CFR 776.12 - Employees traveling across State lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employees traveling across State lines. 776.12 Section 776... Engaging âin Commerceâ § 776.12 Employees traveling across State lines. Questions are frequently asked as... questions arise are those of traveling service men, traveling buyers, traveling construction...

  19. 41 CFR 301-30.1 - What is emergency travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What is emergency travel? 301-30.1 Section 301-30.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 30-EMERGENCY TRAVEL § 301-30.1 What...

  20. 41 CFR 301-30.1 - What is emergency travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is emergency travel? 301-30.1 Section 301-30.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 30-EMERGENCY TRAVEL § 301-30.1 What...

  1. 29 CFR 776.12 - Employees traveling across State lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employees traveling across State lines. 776.12 Section 776... Engaging âin Commerceâ § 776.12 Employees traveling across State lines. Questions are frequently asked as... questions arise are those of traveling service men, traveling buyers, traveling construction...

  2. 29 CFR 776.12 - Employees traveling across State lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employees traveling across State lines. 776.12 Section 776... Engaging âin Commerceâ § 776.12 Employees traveling across State lines. Questions are frequently asked as... questions arise are those of traveling service men, traveling buyers, traveling construction...

  3. 29 CFR 785.39 - Travel away from home community.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel away from home community. 785.39 Section 785.39... Principles Traveltime § 785.39 Travel away from home community. Travel that keeps an employee away from home overnight is travel away from home. Travel away from home is clearly worktime when it cuts across...

  4. 41 CFR 301-30.1 - What is emergency travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is emergency travel? 301-30.1 Section 301-30.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 30-EMERGENCY TRAVEL § 301-30.1 What...

  5. 41 CFR 301-30.1 - What is emergency travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is emergency travel? 301-30.1 Section 301-30.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 30-EMERGENCY TRAVEL § 301-30.1 What...

  6. 29 CFR 776.12 - Employees traveling across State lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees traveling across State lines. 776.12 Section 776... Engaging âin Commerceâ § 776.12 Employees traveling across State lines. Questions are frequently asked as... questions arise are those of traveling service men, traveling buyers, traveling construction...

  7. 29 CFR 785.39 - Travel away from home community.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel away from home community. 785.39 Section 785.39... Principles Traveltime § 785.39 Travel away from home community. Travel that keeps an employee away from home overnight is travel away from home. Travel away from home is clearly worktime when it cuts across...

  8. 41 CFR 301-30.1 - What is emergency travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is emergency travel? 301-30.1 Section 301-30.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 30-EMERGENCY TRAVEL § 301-30.1 What...

  9. 5 CFR 550.1404 - Creditable travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Creditable travel time. 550.1404 Section... ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1404 Creditable travel time. (a) General. Subject... off for time in a travel status if— (1) The employee is required to travel away from the official...

  10. 5 CFR 550.1404 - Creditable travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Creditable travel time. 550.1404 Section... ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1404 Creditable travel time. (a) General. Subject... off for time in a travel status if— (1) The employee is required to travel away from the official...

  11. 5 CFR 550.1404 - Creditable travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Creditable travel time. 550.1404 Section... ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1404 Creditable travel time. (a) General. Subject... off for time in a travel status if— (1) The employee is required to travel away from the official...

  12. 5 CFR 550.1404 - Creditable travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Creditable travel time. 550.1404 Section... ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1404 Creditable travel time. (a) General. Subject... off for time in a travel status if— (1) The employee is required to travel away from the official...

  13. 5 CFR 550.1404 - Creditable travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Creditable travel time. 550.1404 Section... ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1404 Creditable travel time. (a) General. Subject... off for time in a travel status if— (1) The employee is required to travel away from the official...

  14. Commercial Travel Offices: A Course of Action for the Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    6- 4 Glossary .................................................... Gloss. 1 Appendix A. Profile of the Travel Agency Industry...A-1 -A-6 Appendix B. Travel Agency Operations .......................... B-1 -B-3 Appendix C. Federal Travel Discounts... travel agency industry, and Appendix B describes how a travel agency operates.) Since 1949, Federal Agencies, including the Army, have booked and

  15. Rural training and the state of rural health services: effect of rural background on the perception and attitude of first-year medical students at the university of melbourne.

    PubMed

    Azer, S A; Simmons, D; Elliott, S L

    2001-08-01

    travel (29% vs 12%). None of these interfering factors were significantly different. Urban students were more likely than rural students to report that their views were a result of adverse media reports. In conclusion, students from a rural background were more willing to be trained or to work as doctors in rural areas. This was associated with a greater adverse influence by the media upon students.

  16. Positioner with long travel in two dimensions

    DOEpatents

    Trumper, David L.; Williams, Mark E.

    1997-12-23

    A precision positioning system is provided which provides long travel in two of the linear dimensions, while using non-contact bearings for both a first subassembly which provides long travel in one of the linear dimension and a second subassembly which provides long travel in the second linear dimension. The first or upper subassembly is preferably a magnetic subassembly which, in addition to providing long travel, also compensates or positions in three rotary dimensions and in the third linear dimension. The second subassembly is preferably either an air bearing or magnetic subassembly and is normally used only to provide long travel. Angled surfaces may be provided for magnetic bearings and capacitive or other gap sensing probes may be mounted to the stage and ground flush with the bearing actuators to provide more precise gap measurements.

  17. Substituting telecommunications for travel - Feasible or desirable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Vleck, E. M.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in telecommunications and examines the detailed structure of travel to estimate the feasibility of substituting telecommunications for various travel objectives. The impact of travel is analyzed from a social, economic, energy, and pollution standpoint to assess the desirability of substitution. Perhaps 35-50% of the nation's travel could, in theory, be replaced by very advanced telecommunications (such as a much improved large-screen teleconferencing network), but public resistance would be massive. Much economic dislocation would result since, for example, over 25% of retail sales are travel-related. The energy savings would be modest since only 25% of the nation's energy is consumed by transportation. However, all pollution would be reduced substantially since transportation accounts for 75% of the carbon monoxide, 60% of the hydrocarbon, and 55% of the nitrogen oxide pollution in the nation. Problems related to the implementation of large-scale substitution are discussed.

  18. Neurologic Aspects of Infections in International Travelers

    PubMed Central

    Han, May H.; Zunt, Joseph R.

    2009-01-01

    Background As international travel for business and pleasure becomes part of contemporary lifestyle, the clinician today is confronted with an increasing number of travelers returning ill with unfamiliar syndromes. The physician will encounter a myriad of patients with exotic infections, emerging infectious diseases, or resurgent Old-World infections. Review Summary This review article will discuss salient points of important infectious diseases associated with overseas travel, provide a syndromic approach to the traveler who returns with neurologic manifestations, and list resources for additional diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive information. Conclusions As many of infections acquired in other countries can directly or indirectly affect the nervous system, the care of the ill traveler often falls into the hands of neurologists. The contemporary neurologist should therefore be knowledgeable of the clinical manifestations, potential complications, and appropriate management of region-specific infections. PMID:15631642

  19. Travel and the emergence of infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, M. E.

    1995-01-01

    Travel is a potent force in the emergence of disease. Migration of humans has been the pathway for disseminating infectious diseases throughout recorded history and will continue to shape the emergence, frequency, and spread of infections in geographic areas and populations. The current volume, speed, and reach of travel are unprecedented. The consequences of travel extend beyond the traveler to the population visited and the ecosystem. When they travel, humans carry their genetic makeup, immunologic sequelae of past infections, cultural preferences, customs, and behavioral patterns. Microbes, animals, and other biologic life also accompany them. Today's massive movement of humans and materials sets the stage for mixing diverse genetic pools at rates and in combinations previously unknown. Concomitant changes in the environment, climate, technology, land use, human behavior, and demographics converge to favor the emergence of infectious diseases caused by a broad range of organisms in humans, as well as in plants and animals. PMID:8903157

  20. Nonlinear refraction and reflection travel time tomography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Jiahua; ten Brink, U.S.; Toksoz, M.N.

    1998-01-01

    We develop a rapid nonlinear travel time tomography method that simultaneously inverts refraction and reflection travel times on a regular velocity grid. For travel time and ray path calculations, we apply a wave front method employing graph theory. The first-arrival refraction travel times are calculated on the basis of cell velocities, and the later refraction and reflection travel times are computed using both cell velocities and given interfaces. We solve a regularized nonlinear inverse problem. A Laplacian operator is applied to regularize the model parameters (cell slownesses and reflector geometry) so that the inverse problem is valid for a continuum. The travel times are also regularized such that we invert travel time curves rather than travel time points. A conjugate gradient method is applied to minimize the nonlinear objective function. After obtaining a solution, we perform nonlinear Monte Carlo inversions for uncertainty analysis and compute the posterior model covariance. In numerical experiments, we demonstrate that combining the first arrival refraction travel times with later reflection travel times can better reconstruct the velocity field as well as the reflector geometry. This combination is particularly important for modeling crustal structures where large velocity variations occur in the upper crust. We apply this approach to model the crustal structure of the California Borderland using ocean bottom seismometer and land data collected during the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment along two marine survey lines. Details of our image include a high-velocity zone under the Catalina Ridge, but a smooth gradient zone between. Catalina Ridge and San Clemente Ridge. The Moho depth is about 22 km with lateral variations. Copyright 1998 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Ad Hoc Rural Regionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamin, Elisabeth M.; Marcucci, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    A new regionalism has been much documented and researched for metropolitan areas; this article documents that there is a new rural regionalism as well. In the United States, these groups appear most likely to emerge in areas that are challenged by outcomes characterizing globalization's effects on the rural condition: namely, exurban or…

  2. AIDS in Rural California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooten, Donald B.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the increase in AIDS patients in rural California, which is greater than that in urban areas, including AIDS population projections through 1991. Describes differences between AIDS populations in rural and urban areas and relates these to state expenditure patterns and differential needs. (DHP)

  3. National Rural Health Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications Join Donate NRHA Connect Partners search-opener Search for: Experience the best health care climate Learn from rural health leaders by the beach in sunny San Diego NRHA's Annual Rural Health Conference is May 9-12 NRHA Partners Program Support ...

  4. Rural Development Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, David W., Ed.; Reid, J. Norman, Ed.

    This book seeks to provide a basis for reexamining rural development policy by presenting comprehensive and current information on the effectiveness of various rural policy approaches. An introduction that defines development terminology and discusses changing policy needs is followed by 13 chapters that represent the best recent research…

  5. Developing Rural Business Incubators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Mark L.; Burnier, DeLysa

    1991-01-01

    Offers background on rural entrepreneurship and incubation in the United States, with particular focus on rural incubators at community colleges and regional incubation systems. Explains how incubators, which provide shared services and business/management assistance for tenant companies, differ from other entrepreneurial development strategies.…

  6. Pacereport: Rural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gores, Richard W., Ed.

    Seven Projects to Advance Creativity in Education (PACE) concerned with small schools and rural areas present reports of progress and plans in this July-August 1968 issue of PACEreport. The document also contains a listing of publications dealing with rural education and a listing of films, filmstrips, and publications, developed under Title III…

  7. Measuring Rural Hospital Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moscovice, Ira; Wholey, Douglas R.; Klingner, Jill; Knott, Astrid

    2004-01-01

    Increased interest in the measurement of hospital quality has been stimulated by accrediting bodies, purchaser coalitions, government agencies, and other entities. This paper examines quality measurement for hospitals in rural settings. We seek to identify rural hospital quality measures that reflect quality in all hospitals and that are sensitive…

  8. The New Rural Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldmark, Peter C.

    The New Rural Society project concerns itself with the deterioration of America through urban overcrowding and rural depletion. Coupled with experimentation and pilot testing, the study is designed to demonstrate that imaginative application of telecommunication will enable business and government departments to function effectively though their…

  9. Unique Rural District Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Tod Allen

    2009-01-01

    The politics of rural educational leadership are both intense and concentrated. Rural educational leaders need to be savvy and politically skilled if they are to inspire educational stakeholders and accomplish organizational objectives. The local school system is an organization with a political culture that can be characterized as a competitive…

  10. Rural Administrative Leadership Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tift, Carolyn

    This resource book on rural administrative leadership is the result of 1988 interviews with school administrators involved in successful rural educational programs. The material is divided into eight chapters, each self-contained for separate use. Chapter 1, "Getting to Know the Community," addresses qualities of living and working in…

  11. Infectious disease following travel to developed regions: a snapshot of presentations to an Australian travel medicine clinic.

    PubMed

    Drewett, George; Leder, Karin

    2016-06-01

    Much of the travel medicine literature focuses on travel to 'developing' regions by travellers from 'developed' regions; however literature about travel to developed regions is scarce. This article examines presentations to a travel medicine clinic over a 17-year period with illnesses resulting from travel to developed regions. From a cohort of general presentations to the clinic of 1077 patients, 85 patients acquired infections due to travel to developed regions, with a total of 99 infectious diagnoses made. This serves to highlight the risk of infectious disease even among travel to only developed regions, and the importance of travel advice in these situations.

  12. Family medicine residents’ risk of adverse motor vehicle events: a comparison between rural and urban placements

    PubMed Central

    Janke, Fred; Dobbs, Bonnie; McKay, Rhianne; Linsdell, Meghan; Babenko, Oksana

    2013-01-01

    Background Sleep deprivation and fatigue are associated with long and irregular work hours. These work patterns are common to medical residents. Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are a leading cause of injury related deaths in Canada, with MVC fatality rates in rural areas up to three times higher than in urban areas. Objectives To: 1) examine the number of adverse motor vehicle events (AMVEs) in family medicine residents in Canada; 2) assess whether residents with rural placements are at greater risk of experiencing AMVEs than urban residents; and 3) determine if family medicine residency programs across Canada have travel policies in place. Methodology A prospective, cross-sectional study, using a national survey of second-year family medicine residents. Results A higher percentage of rural residents reported AMVEs than urban residents. The trend was for rural residents to be involved in more MVCs during residency, while urban residents were more likely to be involved in close calls. The majority of Canadian medical schools do not have resident travel policies in place. Conclusion AMVEs are common in family medicine residents, with a trend for the number of MVCs to be greater for rural residents. These data support the need for development and incorporation of travel policies by medical schools. PMID:26451211

  13. 41 CFR 301-71.105 - Must we issue a written or electronic travel authorization in advance of travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 71-AGENCY TRAVEL ACCOUNTABILITY REQUIREMENTS Travel Authorization § 301-71.105..., except as provided by agency mission; (n) Acceptance of payment from a non-Federal source for travel... or electronic travel authorization in advance of travel? 301-71.105 Section 301-71.105...

  14. 41 CFR 301-71.105 - Must we issue a written or electronic travel authorization in advance of travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 71-AGENCY TRAVEL ACCOUNTABILITY REQUIREMENTS Travel Authorization § 301-71.105..., except as provided by agency mission; (n) Acceptance of payment from a non-Federal source for travel... or electronic travel authorization in advance of travel? 301-71.105 Section 301-71.105...

  15. 41 CFR 301-71.105 - Must we issue a written or electronic travel authorization in advance of travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 71-AGENCY TRAVEL ACCOUNTABILITY REQUIREMENTS Travel Authorization § 301-71.105..., except as provided by agency mission; (n) Acceptance of payment from a non-Federal source for travel... or electronic travel authorization in advance of travel? 301-71.105 Section 301-71.105...

  16. Health issues of air travel.

    PubMed

    DeHart, Roy L

    2003-01-01

    at least one physician on 85% of all its flights. Both passenger and cargo aircraft have proven to be vectors of disease in that they transport humans, mosquitoes, and other insects and animals who, in turn, transmit disease. Transmission to other passengers has occurred with tuberculosis and influenza. Vectors for yellow fever, malaria, and dengue have been identified on aircraft. Although there are numerous health issues associated with air travel they pale in comparison to the enormous benefits to the traveler, to commerce, to international affairs, and to the public's health.

  17. Rural America at a Glance. Rural Development Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This report highlights the most recent indicators of social and economic conditions in rural areas for use in developing rural policies and programs. The economic expansion of the 1990s greatly benefited rural economies. Rural areas attracted both urban residents and immigrants. Hispanics accounted for over 25 percent of nonmetropolitan population…

  18. Don't Let Measles Be Your Travel Souvenir

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Features Don’t Let Measles Be Your Travel Souvenir Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... if you have received MMR vaccine. Before You Travel After You Travel More Information More Information Measles ...

  19. Interstellar Travel. (Latest citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning travel between the stars. Topics include cost considerations, hyperspace navigation, exploration, and propulsion systems for vehicles to be used in interstellar travel. Human factor issues and social aspects of interstellar travel are also discussed.

  20. Travels with the Fossil Hunters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whybrow, Peter J.

    2000-04-01

    Whether dodging bullets in West Africa, or rabid dogs in Pakistan, surviving yak-butter tea in Tibet, or eating raw fish in China, the life of a globe-trotting fossil hunter is often hazardous and always filled with surprises. Travels with the Fossil Hunters lets readers share the wonder, joys of discovery, and excitement of these intrepid scientists. Packed with more than 100 beautiful, full-color photographs, the volume takes readers on twelve expeditions to remote parts of the world in search of diverse fossil remains, from those of dinosaurs to human ancestors. Each expedition by paleontologists from London's Natural History Museum reveals the problems and challenges of working in extreme conditions, from the deserts of the Sahara and Yemen to the frozen wastes of Antarctica, from the mountains of India to the forests of Latvia. Along the way they also describe the paleontology and geology of the countries they visit and the scientific reasons for their expeditions. With a foreword from Sir David Attenborough and an introduction from Richard Fortey, this fascinating book will appeal to amateur and professional fossil hunters alike and to readers interested in accounts of exotic locales. Peter Whybrow is a research scientist at the Natural History Museum, London. His research interests include Arabian Miocene vertebrates, paleoclimates, paleogeography, and biotic diversity. He is senior editor with A. Hill of Fossil Vertebrates of Arabia (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1999).

  1. Globalization of leptospirosis through travel and migration.

    PubMed

    Bandara, Medhani; Ananda, Mahesha; Wickramage, Kolitha; Berger, Elisabeth; Agampodi, Suneth

    2014-08-12

    Leptospirosis remains the most widespread zoonotic disease in the world, commonly found in tropical or temperate climates. While previous studies have offered insight into intra-national and intra-regional transmission, few have analyzed transmission across international borders. Our review aimed at examining the impact of human travel and migration on the re-emergence of Leptospirosis. Results suggest that alongside regional environmental and occupational exposure, international travel now constitute a major independent risk factor for disease acquisition. Contribution of travel associated leptospirosis to total caseload is as high as 41.7% in some countries. In countries where longitudinal data is available, a clear increase of proportion of travel-associated leptospirosis over the time is noted. Reporting patterns is clearly showing a gross underestimation of this disease due to lack of diagnostic facilities. The rise in global travel and eco-tourism has led to dramatic changes in the epidemiology of Leptospirosis. We explore the obstacles to prevention, screening and diagnosis of Leptopirosis in health systems of endemic countries and of the returning migrant or traveler. We highlight the need for developing guidelines and preventive strategies of Leptospirosis related to travel and migration, including enhancing awareness of the disease among health professionals in high-income countries.

  2. Globalization of leptospirosis through travel and migration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis remains the most widespread zoonotic disease in the world, commonly found in tropical or temperate climates. While previous studies have offered insight into intra-national and intra-regional transmission, few have analyzed transmission across international borders. Our review aimed at examining the impact of human travel and migration on the re-emergence of Leptospirosis. Results suggest that alongside regional environmental and occupational exposure, international travel now constitute a major independent risk factor for disease acquisition. Contribution of travel associated leptospirosis to total caseload is as high as 41.7% in some countries. In countries where longitudinal data is available, a clear increase of proportion of travel-associated leptospirosis over the time is noted. Reporting patterns is clearly showing a gross underestimation of this disease due to lack of diagnostic facilities. The rise in global travel and eco-tourism has led to dramatic changes in the epidemiology of Leptospirosis. We explore the obstacles to prevention, screening and diagnosis of Leptopirosis in health systems of endemic countries and of the returning migrant or traveler. We highlight the need for developing guidelines and preventive strategies of Leptospirosis related to travel and migration, including enhancing awareness of the disease among health professionals in high-income countries. PMID:25112368

  3. Travel to Brazil: analysis of data from the Boston Area Travel Medicine Network (BATMN) and relevance to travelers attending world cup and olympics.

    PubMed

    Iliaki, Eirini; Chen, Lin H; Hamer, Davidson H; Macleod, William B; Jentes, Emily S; Barnett, Elizabeth D; Wilson, Mary E

    2014-01-01

    We describe travelers who were evaluated pre-travel to Brazil from March 2008 through July 2010 in the Boston area. Of 599 Brazil travelers, 71%, 58%, and 50% received vaccines for yellow fever (YF), typhoid, and hepatitis A, respectively. Fewer received influenza and hepatitis B vaccines (14%, 11%). A total of 60% traveled during Brazil's peak influenza season, and one fourth visited during peak dengue transmission. The 2014 World Cup and 2016 Olympics include events throughout Brazil. Travelers should seek pre-travel assessment including YF and malaria risk; travelers should be vaccinated against influenza, be up to date on other routine vaccines, and be prepared to protect themselves against mosquitoes.

  4. Changes & Challenges for Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Leslie Asher, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This theme issue of the newsletter SEDLetter contains articles about the challenges facing rural youth, communities, and schools, and the ways that rural schools are meeting those challenges. "When Rural Traditions Really Count" (Ullik Rouk) outlines the rural situation with regard to adolescent substance abuse, youth gangs, teen pregnancy,…

  5. Workplace Learning in Rural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Robert F.; Brooks, Ann K.

    2008-01-01

    Many people perceive rural America as being an almost completely agricultural, farming, or ranching economy. In fact, less than 7 percent of rural employment is in agriculture; service industries account for over half, and service and manufacturing together account for more than 66 percent of employment in rural areas. Rural regions take 50…

  6. The Rural School Leadership Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surface, Jeanne L.; Theobald, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The idea that rural schools and communities, indeed, even rural people, are somehow substandard or second-class has deep historical roots. The goal of this essay is to reveal that history so as to render stereotypical conceptions all things rural less powerful and more easily dismissed by rural school professionals. Consequently the focus is on…

  7. Rural Libraries, Volume XIV, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Mary Lou, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    The 2 issues in this volume contain 10 articles on rural libraries and information access in rural America. Topics include telecommunications and distance education in Nebraska, the future of small rural public libraries, federal programs to improve rural access to information, outreach issues for public libraries, and the role of information in…

  8. International Perspectives in Rural Sociology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newby, Howard, Ed.

    Essays which focus on similarities between developed and underdeveloped nations, concentrating on the issues of power and rural social stratification, are contained in this textbook on rural sociology. It is intended for students of rural sociology, including teachers and researchers. In two main parts, the book first deals with rural social…

  9. Rural Health Issues. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Gary

    Medical students that come from rural areas are more likely to return to rural areas to practice, but rural students apply for medical school at half the rate of urban students. Factors that contribute to this problem are the lack of rural representation on medical school selection committees; centralization of medical education facilities in…

  10. Social Studies in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, John E.; Garcia, Jesus

    1982-01-01

    Seventy six teachers and 737 social studies students from rural high schools in six states were surveyed to determine whether rural secondary social studies programs discuss topics and themes that provide an insight into rural America. Findings suggest that rural life-styles are inadequately portrayed in social studies curricula. (AM)

  11. Kapitza-Dirac effect with traveling waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayrapetyan, Armen G.; Grigoryan, Karen K.; Götte, Jörg B.; Petrosyan, Rubik G.

    2015-08-01

    We report on the possibility of diffracting electrons from light waves traveling inside a dielectric medium. We show that, in the frame of reference which moves with the group velocity of light, the traveling wave acts as a stationary diffraction grating from which electrons can diffract, similar to the conventional Kapitza-Dirac effect. To characterize the Kapitza-Dirac effect with traveling light waves, we make use of the Hamiltonian Analogy between electron optics and quantum mechanics and apply the Helmholtz-Kirchhoff theory of diffraction.

  12. Ocean acoustic tomography - Travel time biases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiesberger, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The travel times of acoustic rays traced through a climatological sound-speed profile are compared with travel times computed through the same profile containing an eddy field. The accuracy of linearizing the relations between the travel time difference and the sound-speed deviation at long ranges is assessed using calculations made for two different eddy fields measured in the eastern Atlantic. Significant nonlinearities are found in some cases, and the relationships of the values of these nonlinearities to the range between source and receiver, to the anomaly size associated with the eddies, and to the positions of the eddies are studied. An analytical model of the nonlinearities is discussed.

  13. Hormonal contraceptives and travel to high altitude.

    PubMed

    Keyes, Linda E

    2015-03-01

    Women frequently ask about the safety and efficacy of using hormonal contraception (HC), either oral contraceptive pills (OC) or other forms, when traveling to high altitude locales. What are the risks and benefits of using HC at high altitude? Does HC affect acclimatization, exercise performance, or occurrence of acute mountain sickness? This article reviews current data regarding the risks and benefits of HC at high altitude, both demonstrated and theoretical, with the aim of helping health care providers to advise women traveling above 2500 meters. Most healthy women can safely use HC when traveling to high altitude, but should be aware of the potential risks and inconveniences.

  14. OPPORTUNITIES FOR RURAL YOUTH IN RURAL AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOWLER, LLOYD

    AGRIBUSINESS IS DEFINED AS THE SUM TOTAL OF ALL OPERATIONS INVOLVED IN THE MANUFACTURE AND DISTRIBUTION OF FARM SUPPLIES, PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE ON THE FARM, AND THE STORAGE, PROCESSING, AND DISTRIBUTION OF FARM COMMODITIES AND ITEMS MADE FROM THEM. WITHIN THESE THREE AREAS ARE SEEN MANY JOB OPPORTUNITIES FOR RURAL AND URBAN YOUTH HAVING COLLEGE…

  15. The Rural Outreach Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Clarence D.

    2000-01-01

    The Rural Outreach Project was designed to increase the diversity of NASA's workforce by: 1) Conducting educational research designed to investigate the most effective strategies for expanding innovative, NASA-sponsored pre-college programs into rural areas; 2) Field-testing identified rural intervention strategies; 3) Implementing expanded NASA educational programs to include 300 rural students who are disabled, female and/or minority; and 4) Disseminating project strategies. The Project was a partnership that included NASA Langley Research Center's Office of Education, Norfolk State University, Cooperative Hampton Roads Organizations for Minorities in Engineering (CHROME) and Paul D. Camp Community College. There were four goals and activities identified for this project; 1) Ascertain effective strategies for expanding successful NASA-sponsored urban-based, pre-college programs into rural settings; 2) Field test identified rural intervention strategies; 3) Publish or disseminate two reports, concerning project research and activities at a national conference; 4) Provide educational outreach to 300, previously underserved, rural students who are disabled, female and /or minority.

  16. Risk factors for psychological stress among international business travellers

    PubMed Central

    Striker, J.; Luippold, R. S.; Nagy, L.; Liese, B.; Bigelow, C.; Mundt, K. A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated sources of self reported psychological stress among international business travellers at the World Bank, following up on a previous study showing that travellers submitted more insurance claims for psychological disorders. Hypotheses were that work, personal, family, and health concerns, as well as time zone travel, contribute to travel stress. METHODS: A travel survey was developed from focus groups and consisted of questions about these potential sources of travel stress. Surveys were sent to a random sample of staff, stratified by number of travel missions, age range, and sex. Canonical correlation analyses estimated the association between key survey items on sources of stress and two measures of travel stress. RESULTS: 498 staff completed the survey. More than a third reported high to very high travel stress. Correlations between predictors and travel stress showed that social and emotional concerns (such as impact of travel on family and sense of isolation) contributed the most to such stress, followed by health concerns, and workload upon return from travel. Surprisingly, time zone travel did not contribute to the self reported stress of these travellers. There were few modifiers of stress, although respondents suggested that a day of rest after travel and reduced workloads would help. CONCLUSIONS: The current study confirms clinical impressions about several correlates of travel stress. Similar research with travellers in other organisations could help to determine whether the findings from this study are valid and what measures can be taken to reduce the psychological health risks to travellers.   PMID:10450241

  17. Rural intern training.

    PubMed

    Mugford, B V; Braund, W; Worley, P S; Martin, A

    2001-01-01

    In recent times, legislative initiatives in Australia have changed the method by which doctors enter general practice. One result of this tightening has been to restrict the access of junior doctors to medical experiences outside the hospital environment, and force a closer examination of the 'generalist training' provided to junior doctors. The Australian Medical Training Review Panel, created as part of these legislative changes, developed a series of recommendations about general training in 1996, one of which was to provide for rural and community experiences for junior doctors. This article describes the experience of a 'rural intern' rotation from Flinders Medical Centre to the rural community of Jamestown, in South Australia.

  18. Pre-travel health, immunization status, and demographics of travel to the developing world for individuals visiting a travel medicine service.

    PubMed

    Hill, D R

    1991-08-01

    It is estimated that five million Americans will travel to the developing world over the next year. This study examines the demographic profile, past medical and immunization history, itinerary, and reason for travel of 2, 445 travelers to the developing world seen at a travel medicine service from 1984 through 1989. The travelers age ranged from three months to 85 years (mean age 43). A chronic medical condition was reported by 654 (27%). Four percent of all travelers were intolerant of sulfonamides, and 9% had contraindications to mefloquine for malaria prophylaxis. Many travelers were due to receive the primary series or updatings of routinely recommended immunizations: 43% for tetanus/diphtheria, 55% of those born after 1956 for measles, and 70% for polio if their travel itinerary included a polio risk. Most travel (71%) was for vacations, 13% was for teaching or study, 11% for business, and 5% for missionary activities. The median duration of travel was 21 days; 5% traveled for more than one year. While over 150 countries were visited, 52% of all travel was to 10 countries in East Africa, the Indian subcontinent, the Far East, and South America. Information about the epidemiology of travel to the developing world can help physicians and travel medicine services develop more effective preventive measures for travelers.

  19. A consultation with Canadian rural women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Ross E.; James, Pamela; Manthorne, Jackie; Gould, Judy; Fitch, Margaret I.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Objective  Relatively little research has been carried out on the health and supportive care needs of rural women living with breast cancer. In this study, results from a Canadian focus group study are used to highlight issues of importance to rural women. Setting and participants  A total of 276 rural women with breast cancer divided into 17 focus groups participated in the study conducted across Canada. A standardized protocol for discussion was employed. Issues of access to information, support and services were discussed, with women describing their experiences in trying to find appropriate programmes and services. Main results  The major theme identified through analysis of qualitative data was ‘becoming aware of and/or gaining access to health care information, support and services.’ Other major themes included: (1) dealing with isolation; (2) having to travel; (3) feeling the financial burden and (4) coping with changing work. Conclusions  Rural women with breast cancer have supportive care challenges related to their circumstances. A series of recommendations were generated through the consultation process which are contributing to the development of a national strategy focusing on the development and extension of programmes for rural women with breast cancer. Although the research on the project was not to specified standards, and suffered from less attention than community capacity building and advocacy, it proved to be of worth and revealed potential benefits from collaborations between researchers and community organizations. PMID:14982498

  20. Rural maternity care: can we learn from Wal-Mart?

    PubMed

    van Teijlingen, E R; Pitchforth, E

    2010-03-01

    In many countries rural maternity care is under threat. Consequently rural pregnant women will have to travel further to attend larger maternity units to receive care and deliver their babies. This trend is not dissimilar from the disappearance of other rural services, such as village shops, banks, post offices and bus services. We use a comparative approach to draw an analogy with large-scale supermarkets, such as the Wal-Mart and Tesco and their effect on the viability of smaller rural shops, depersonalisation of service and the wider community. The closure of a community-maternity unit leads to women attending a different type of hospital with a different approach to maternity care. Thus small community-midwifery units are being replaced, not by a very similar unit that happens to be further away, but by a larger obstetric unit that operates on different models, philosophy and notions of risk. Comparative analysis allows a fresh perspective on the provision of rural maternity services. We argue that previous discussions focusing on medicalisation and change in maternity services can be enhanced by drawing on experience in other sectors and taking a wider societal lens.

  1. Model of traveling ionospheric disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorenko, Yury P.; Tyrnov, Oleg F.; Fedorenko, Vladimir N.; Dorohov, Vasiliy L.

    2013-10-01

    A multiscale semi-empirical model of traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) is developed. The model is based on the following assumptions: (1) TIDs are generated by acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs) and propagate as pressure waves; (2) time intervals between adjacent extrema of atmospheric pressure oscillations in a disturbance source are constant; (3) the pressure extrema propagate from the source up to ~14 000 km at a constant horizontal velocity; (4) the velocity of each extremum is determined only by its number in a TID train. The model was validated using literature data on disturbances generated by about 20 surface and high-altitude nuclear explosions, two volcano explosions, one earthquake and by energetic proton precipitation events in the magnetospheric cusp of the northern hemisphere. Model tests using literature data show that the spatial and temporal TID periods may be predicted with an accuracy of 12%. Adequacy of the model was also confirmed by our observations collected using transionospheric sounding. The following TID parameters: amplitudes, horizontal spatial periods, and a TID front inclination angle in a vertical plane are increasing as the distance between an AGW and the excitation source is increasing. Diurnal and seasonal variability of the TID occurrence, defined as ratio of TID events to the total number of observations for the corresponding period, is not observed. However, the TID occurrence was growing from ~50% in 1987 to ~98% in 2010. The results of other studies asserting that the TID occurrence does not depend on the number of sunspots and magnetic activity are confirmed. The TID occurrence has doubled over the period from 1987 to 2010 indicating increasing solar activity which is not associated with sunspot numbers. The dynamics of spatial horizontal periods was studied in a range of 150-35 000 km.

  2. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a Chilean patient with recent travel in Bolivia.

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, R.; Vial, P.; Noriega, L. M.; Johnson, A.; Nichol, S. T.; Rollin, P. E.; Wells, R.; Zaki, S.; Reynolds, E.; Ksiazek, T. G.

    1998-01-01

    A case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) was serologically confirmed in a critically ill patient in Santiago, Chile. The patient's clinical course had many similarities to that of other HPS patients in North and South America but was complicated by acute severe renal failure. The patient's history included self-reported urban and probable rural rodent exposure during travel in Bolivia. Comparison of a viral sequence from an acute-phase serum sample with other known hantaviruses showed that the hantavirus nucleic acid sequence from the patient was very similar to a virus recently isolated from rodents associated with HPS cases in Paraguay. PMID:9452401

  3. Tips for Travel and Aircraft Flight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Survivors Prevention Treatment Medicine Healthy Steps summer sunburn insect swim travel vacation trip sun screen luggage flight ... to be signed by your Doctor.) Buy some insect repellent [ideally, Deet-free. Ed.], and take something ...

  4. Effectiveness of typhoid vaccination in US travelers.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Barbara E; Newton, Anna E; Mintz, Eric D

    2014-06-17

    Typhoid vaccination is recommended in the United States before travel to countries where typhoid fever is endemic, though little information is available on its effectiveness in travelers. We estimated typhoid vaccination effectiveness (VE) by comparing vaccination status in cases of typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever (Salmonella Paratyphi A infection, against which typhoid vaccine offers no protection) reported in the United States. We included travelers to Southern Asia and excluded persons <2 years old and cases in which vaccination status was not reported. From 2008 through 2011, 744 eligible cases (602 typhoid, 142 paratyphoid A) were reported to CDC. Typhoid vaccination was reported for 5% (29/602) of typhoid patients and for 20% (29/142) of paratyphoid A patients. Estimated VE was 80% (95% confidence interval, 66-89%). Because of missing data, we could not estimate VE for specific vaccines. We demonstrated moderate effectiveness of typhoid vaccination in US travelers, supporting vaccination recommendations.

  5. Tips for Traveling with HomePEN

    MedlinePlus

    ... with you in the cabin, choosing a direct flight whenever possible, and having the rest of the ... contents (clearly labeled) and your travel itinerary (including flight/transportation information, destination addresses and phone numbers). One ...

  6. Traveling waves on a magnetic universe

    SciTech Connect

    Garfinkle, D. Department of Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309 ); Melvin, M.A. )

    1992-02-15

    We find solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations representing gravitational and electromagnetic waves traveling along the axis direction in a cylindrical magnetic universe. The waves are strongly gravitating and can have an arbitrary profile.

  7. Travelers' Health: MERS in the Arabian Peninsula

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Compartir Warning - Level 3, Avoid Nonessential Travel Alert - Level 2, Practice Enhanced Precautions Watch - Level 1, ... overseas. Clinician Information: Health care providers should be alert to patients who develop fever and symptoms of ...

  8. Cosmocultural Evolution: Cosmic Motivation for Interstellar Travel?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupisella, M.

    Motivations for interstellar travel can vary widely from practical survival motivations to wider-ranging moral obligations to future generations. But it may also be fruitful to explore what, if any, "cosmic" relevance there may be regarding interstellar travel. Cosmocultural evolution can be defined as the coevolution of cosmos and culture, with cultural evolution playing an important and perhaps critical role in the overall evolution of the universe. Strong versions of cosmocultural evolution might suggest that cultural evolution may have unlimited potential as a cosmic force. In such a worldview, the advancement of cultural beings throughout the universe could have significant cosmic relevance, perhaps providing additional motivation for interstellar travel. This paper will explore some potential philosophical and policy implications for interstellar travel of a cosmocultural evolutionary perspective and other related concepts, including some from a recent NASA book, Cosmos and Culture: Cultural Evolution in a Cosmic Context.

  9. Murine typhus in travelers returning from Indonesia.

    PubMed Central

    Parola, P.; Vogelaers, D.; Roure, C.; Janbon, F.; Raoult, D.

    1998-01-01

    We report the first three documented cases of murine typhus imported into Europe from Indonesia, discuss clues for the diagnosis of the disease, and urge that murine fever be considered in the diagnosis of febrile disease in travelers. PMID:9866749

  10. Murine typhus in travelers returning from Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Parola, P; Vogelaers, D; Roure, C; Janbon, F; Raoult, D

    1998-01-01

    We report the first three documented cases of murine typhus imported into Europe from Indonesia, discuss clues for the diagnosis of the disease, and urge that murine fever be considered in the diagnosis of febrile disease in travelers.

  11. Traveling baseball players' problem in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Hyang Min; Kim, Sang-Woo; Choi, Younguk; Kim, Aaram J.; Eun, Jonghyoun; Kim, Beom Jun

    2012-08-01

    We study the so-called traveling tournament problem (TTP) to find an optimal tournament schedule. Differently from the original TTP, in which the total travel distance of all the participants is the objective function to minimize, we instead seek to maximize the fairness of the round robin tournament schedule of the Korean Baseball League. The standard deviation of the travel distances of teams is defined as the energy function, and the Metropolis Monte-Carlo method combined with the simulated annealing technique is applied to find the ground-state configuration. The resulting tournament schedule is found to satisfy all the constraint rules set by the Korean Baseball Organization, but with drastically increased fairness in traveling distances.

  12. Travel Efficiency Assessment Method: Three Case Studies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This slide presentation summarizes three case studies EPA conducted in partnership with Boston, Kansas City, and Tucson, to assess the potential benefits of employing travel efficiency strategies in these areas.

  13. Tips for Airline Travelers with Sjogren's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... the TSA Disability and Disease Coalition as an advisor on special needs. U.S. travel rules can change ... mouth, nose, or lips. You must let a Security Officer know about your condition and declare these ...

  14. Vaccination for the expatriate and long-term traveler.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Suzanne M; Shoff, William H

    2014-06-01

    Duration of travel is an important factor in addressing travel health safety due to cumulative risk of exposure to illness and injury. The diverse group of expatriate and long-term business and leisure travelers present a different spectrum of issues for the travel medicine practitioner to address during consultation than does the short-term traveler, due to changes in travel patterns and activities, lifestyle alterations, and increased interaction with local populations. Immunization provides one safe and reliable method of preventing infectious illness in this group. We review travel patterns and available data on illnesses that they may be exposed to, including the increased risk of certain vaccine-preventable illnesses. We review the pre-travel management of these travelers, particularly the increased risk of certain vaccine-preventable illnesses as it applies to routine vaccines, recommended travel vaccines and required travel vaccines.

  15. [Trial chemoprophylaxis of traveler's diarrhea using nifuroxazide].

    PubMed

    Bourée, P; Kouchner, G

    1986-06-01

    Traveler's diarrhea is a very common condition that affects approximately 12 million subjects each year. This disorder is benign but nevertheless interferes with the traveler's plans in 40% of cases. Several drugs have been used for prophylaxis, in association with appropriate precautions concerning food and drink. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and cyclines are effective but may induce adverse effects. Nifuroxazide in a dose of 400 mg each day throughout the trip has proved effective. Tolerance was outstanding with no adverse effects.

  16. Rubella contact tracing associated with air travel.

    PubMed

    Kim, Curi; Chavez, Pollyanna; Pierce, Abbi; Murray, Andrew; Sander, Molly; Kenyon, Cynthia; Sharangpani, Ruta; Abernathy, Emily; Icenogle, Joseph; Kutty, Preeta K; Redd, Susan B; Gallagher, Kathleen; Neatherlin, John; Marienau, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This report reviews U.S. guidelines for the identification of persons exposed to rubella during air travel. In response to an individual with rubella who traveled on multiple flights, CDC conducted an airline contact investigation that was expanded beyond customary protocol to assess if current operating procedures are adequate. Of 250 potentially exposed airline passengers, 215 (86%) were contacted and none developed a rubella-like rash, arguing against the need to notify passengers beyond the standard protocol in most cases.

  17. Rural Oregon Community Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Young-Lorion, Julia; Davis, Melinda M.; Kirks, Nancy; Hsu, Anna; Slater, Jana Kay; Rollins, Nancy; Aromaa, Susan; McGinnis, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The Community Health Improvement Partnership (CHIP) model has supported community health development in more than 100 communities nationally. In 2011, four rural Oregon CHIPs collaborated with investigators from the Oregon Rural Practice-based Research Network (ORPRN), a component of the Oregon Clinical and Translational Research Institute (OCTRI), to obtain training on research methods, develop and implement pilot research studies on childhood obesity, and explore matches with academic partners. This article summarizes the experiences of the Lincoln County CHIP, established in 2003, as it transitioned from CHIP to Community Health Improvement and Research Partnership (CHIRP). Our story and lessons learned may inform rural community-based health coalitions and academicians who are engaged in or considering Community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnerships. Utilizing existing infrastructure and relationships in community and academic settings provides an ideal starting point for rural, bidirectional research partnerships. PMID:24056513

  18. Rural Broadband Initiative Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Owens, William L. [D-NY-23

    2011-03-15

    03/22/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Rural Development, Research, Biotechnology, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. "Ruralizing" Presidential Job Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leist, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Rural community college presidential job advertisements that focus on geography, politics, and culture can improve the likelihood of a good fit between the senior leader and the institution. (Contains 2 figures.)

  20. Rural Health Information Hub

    MedlinePlus

    ... more deliveries of needed supplies. Strategies for Superbugs: Antibiotic Stewardship for Rural Hospitals Resistant bacteria, or “superbugs,” ... as well as infectious disease experts, believe hospital antibiotic stewardship programs are the answer to blunting the ...

  1. The scaling laws of human travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockmann, D.; Hufnagel, L.; Geisel, T.

    2006-01-01

    The dynamic spatial redistribution of individuals is a key driving force of various spatiotemporal phenomena on geographical scales. It can synchronize populations of interacting species, stabilize them, and diversify gene pools. Human travel, for example, is responsible for the geographical spread of human infectious disease. In the light of increasing international trade, intensified human mobility and the imminent threat of an influenza A epidemic, the knowledge of dynamical and statistical properties of human travel is of fundamental importance. Despite its crucial role, a quantitative assessment of these properties on geographical scales remains elusive, and the assumption that humans disperse diffusively still prevails in models. Here we report on a solid and quantitative assessment of human travelling statistics by analysing the circulation of bank notes in the United States. Using a comprehensive data set of over a million individual displacements, we find that dispersal is anomalous in two ways. First, the distribution of travelling distances decays as a power law, indicating that trajectories of bank notes are reminiscent of scale-free random walks known as Lévy flights. Second, the probability of remaining in a small, spatially confined region for a time T is dominated by algebraically long tails that attenuate the superdiffusive spread. We show that human travelling behaviour can be described mathematically on many spatiotemporal scales by a two-parameter continuous-time random walk model to a surprising accuracy, and conclude that human travel on geographical scales is an ambivalent and effectively superdiffusive process.

  2. Emerging infectious diseases and travel medicine.

    PubMed

    Ostroff, S M; Kozarsky, P

    1998-03-01

    International movement of individuals, populations, and products is one of the major factors associated with the emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases as the pace of global travel and commerce increases rapidly. Travel can be associated with disease emergence because (1) the disease arises in an area of heavy tourism, (2) tourists may be at heightened risk because of their activities, or (3) because they can act as vectors to transport the agent to new areas. Examples of recently recognized diseases with relationship to travel include HIV, Legionnaire's disease, cyclosporiasis, Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal, hantavirus, and variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease. Reemerging diseases include dengue fever, malaria, cholera, schistosomiasis, leptospirosis, and viral hemorrhagic fevers. In addition, tuberculosis, drug-resistant shigellosis, and cholera have been major concerns in refugee and migrant populations. Because of the unique role of travel in emerging infections, efforts are underway to address this factor by agencies such as the CDC, WHO, the International Society of Travel Medicine, and the travel industry.

  3. Assisted reproductive travel: UK patient trajectories.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Nicky; Culley, Lorraine

    2011-11-01

    Media reporting of 'fertility tourism' tends to portray those who travel as a cohesive group, marked by their desperation and/or selfishness and propensity towards morally questionable behaviour. However, to date little has been known about the profile of those leaving the UK for treatment. This paper discusses the first UK-based study of patient assisted reproduction travel that was designed to explore individual travel trajectories. It is argued that existing ways of conceptualizing cross-border reproductive care as 'fertility or reproductive tourism' are in danger of essentializing what the data suggest are diverse, complex and often ambiguous motivations for reproductive travel. The concept of seriality is used to suggest that, whilst 'reproductive tourists' share some characteristics, they also differ in significant ways. This paper argues that, through an examination of the personal landscapes of fertility travel, the diverse processes involved in reproductive travel can be better understood and policymakers can be assisted to avoid what might be regarded as simplistic responses to cross-border reproductive care.

  4. Prescribed Travel Schedules for Fatigue Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmire, Alexandra; Johnston, Smith; Lockley, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Fatigue Management Team is developing recommendations for managing fatigue during travel and for shift work operations, as Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Circadian Desynchrony in ISS Operations. The Guidelines provide the International Space Station (ISS ) flight surgeons and other operational clinicians with evidence-based recommendations for mitigating fatigue and other factors related to sleep loss and circadian desynchronization. As much international travel is involved both before and after flight, the guidelines provide recommendations for: pre-flight training, in-flight operations, and post-flight rehabilitation. The objective of is to standardize the process by which care is provided to crewmembers, ground controllers, and other support personnel such as trainers, when overseas travel or schedule shifting is required. Proper scheduling of countermeasures - light, darkness, melatonin, diet, exercise, and medications - is the cornerstone for facilitating circadian adaptation, improving sleep, enhancing alertness, and optimizing performance. The Guidelines provide, among other things, prescribed travel schedules that outline the specific implementation of these mitigation strategies. Each travel schedule offers evidence based protocols for properly using the NASA identified countermeasures for fatigue. This presentation will describe the travel implementation schedules and how these can be used to alleviate the effects of jet lag and/or schedule shifts.

  5. The Planetary Consciousness of British Travel Writers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, H.

    2013-04-01

    Global travel, advanced in the early 20th century by trains, automobiles, and airplanes, transformed modernist thought and experience. Stephen Kern has commented that in the modern period “a series of sweeping changes in technology and culture created distinctive new modes of thinking about and experiencing of time and space. Technological innovations including the telephone, wireless telegraph, x-ray, cinema, bicycle, automobile, and airplane established the material foundation for this reorientation.” (1983, pp. 1-2). Emerging travel technologies not only hurled passengers through multiple time zones in a day but also brought to the fore a global awareness regarding Earth as a globe in space and one's position on it. As early as 1909, while traveling in Florence, Virginia Woolf had noted in her diary, “It is strange how one begins to hold a globe in one's head: I can travel from Florence to Fitzroy Square on solid land all the time” (1984, p. 399). This paper traces the ways modernist British travel writers challenged England's geographical and geopolitical imagination at the turn of the 20th century through their travel narratives.

  6. You, too, can be an international medical traveler: reading medical travel guidebooks.

    PubMed

    Ormond, Meghann; Sothern, Matthew

    2012-09-01

    Drawing on literature on self-help and travel guide writing, this paper interrogates five international medical travel guidebooks aimed at encouraging American and British audiences to travel abroad to purchase medical care. These guidebooks articulate a three-step self-help "program" to produce a "savvy" international medical traveler. First, readers are encouraged to view their home healthcare system as dysfunctional. Second, they are encouraged to re-read destinations' healthcare landscapes as hosting excellent and accessible care. Finally, these texts explicitly enjoin readers to see themselves as active, cosmopolitan consumers whose pursuits are central to rectifying the dysfunction of their home healthcare systems.

  7. [Health concerns of Israelis traveling to Third World countries--experience of a travel advisory clinic].

    PubMed

    Berger, S A; Giladi, M; Shapira, I

    1994-04-01

    Following army service young Israelis often travel to remote third world regions for prolonged periods. During such tours, they are exposed to a variety of medical problems, including infections, environmental diseases, political violence and inability to obtain proper medical care. From May 1991 to Nov. 1992, 1,969 travelers aged 20-25 years old, and 926 older than 25, were given medical advice, vaccines and medications prior to travel. A clinic specializing in "emporiatrics" has been established to deal with pre- and post-travel medical problems associated with tourism.

  8. Rural-urban differences in access to Iowa child health services.

    PubMed

    Levey, L M; Curry, J P; Levey, S

    1988-07-01

    Indicators of access, utilization, and quality of available child health services as well as health status were obtained through a telephone survey of Iowa households with children under age six. These indicators were compared for rural-urban subsamples within an AFDC sample drawn from Iowa Department of Human Service files (N = 637), and within poverty (N = 129) and nonpoverty groups (N = 631) drawn from the population of all households in the state with children under age six. About 55 percent of all households studied were rural. Rural households were generally larger than urban households, more likely to be intact maritally, white, and earning a living from farming. The findings support the hypothesis that place of residence has an impact on access, utilization, and quality of child health services over and above family income, although not always to the disadvantage of rural children. Typical problems for rural children, irrespective of income, were access to pediatric care, greater travel time to providers, and discontinuity of well care and sick care. Rural children in all income groups had lower seat belt use than urban children; they were also less likely to have well visits and their providers showed less attentiveness to behavioral and developmental issues at these visits. Rural residency exacerbated problems in access to care for low income children, who were less likely to be eligible for AFDC/Medicaid than their urban counterparts. Medicaid coverage, however, did not eliminate rural-urban differences in receiving desired medical care.

  9. Educational Travel to Israel in the Era of Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezrachi, Elan

    2015-01-01

    Travel to Israel has been a central feature of Jewish and Zionist education yet it is time for this educational travel to be examined in the context of current cultural trends of travel and transnational experiences. The Jewish educational community has not yet internalized the impact of global trends on the field of travel to Israel from a…

  10. 20 CFR 416.1498 - What travel expenses are reimbursable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What travel expenses are reimbursable. 416... Determinations and Decisions Payment of Certain Travel Expenses § 416.1498 What travel expenses are reimbursable. Reimbursable travel expenses include the ordinary expenses of public or private transportation as well...

  11. 20 CFR 416.1498 - What travel expenses are reimbursable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What travel expenses are reimbursable. 416... Determinations and Decisions Payment of Certain Travel Expenses § 416.1498 What travel expenses are reimbursable. Reimbursable travel expenses include the ordinary expenses of public or private transportation as well...

  12. 20 CFR 405.901 - Reimbursement of certain travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reimbursement of certain travel expenses. 405... FOR ADJUDICATING INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Payment of Certain Travel Expenses § 405.901 Reimbursement of certain travel expenses. When you file a disability claim, you may incur certain travel...

  13. 11 CFR 9004.7 - Allocation of travel expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Allocation of travel expenditures. 9004.7... travel expenditures. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of 11 CFR 106.3, expenditures for travel relating... aircraft for campaign-related travel, the candidate's authorized committee shall pay the...

  14. 48 CFR 3452.247-70 - Foreign travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Foreign travel. 3452.247....247-70 Foreign travel. As prescribed in 3447.701, insert the following clause in all solicitations and resultant cost-reimbursement contracts: Foreign Travel (MAR 2011) Foreign travel shall not be...

  15. 26 CFR 1.162-2 - Traveling expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Traveling expenses. 1.162-2 Section 1.162-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.162-2 Traveling expenses. (a) Traveling expenses include travel fares, meals and lodging, and expenses incident to...

  16. 48 CFR 3447.701 - Foreign travel clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Foreign travel clause. 3447... REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Foreign Travel 3447.701 Foreign travel clause. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 3452.247-70 (Foreign travel) in all solicitations and resultant...

  17. 20 CFR 416.1498 - What travel expenses are reimbursable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What travel expenses are reimbursable. 416... Determinations and Decisions Payment of Certain Travel Expenses § 416.1498 What travel expenses are reimbursable. Reimbursable travel expenses include the ordinary expenses of public or private transportation as well...

  18. 48 CFR 3447.7000 - Foreign travel clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foreign travel clause... REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Foreign Travel 3447.7000 Foreign travel clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause in 3452.247-70, Foreign Travel, in all solicitations and resultant...

  19. 20 CFR 416.1498 - What travel expenses are reimbursable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What travel expenses are reimbursable. 416... Determinations and Decisions Payment of Certain Travel Expenses § 416.1498 What travel expenses are reimbursable. Reimbursable travel expenses include the ordinary expenses of public or private transportation as well...

  20. 48 CFR 3452.247-70 - Foreign travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Foreign travel. 3452.247....247-70 Foreign travel. As prescribed in 3447.701, insert the following clause in all solicitations and resultant cost-reimbursement contracts: Foreign Travel (MAR 2011) Foreign travel shall not be...