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Sample records for rural travel

  1. International students' image of rural Pennsylvania as a travel destination

    Treesearch

    Po-Ju Chen; Deborah L. Kerstetter

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the image international students at Penn State have of rural travel destinations in the state of Pennsylvania. In addition, this study investigated whether destination image differed depending upon travel behavior and socio-demographic variables. Four distinct image dimensions, "tourism infrastructure," "...

  2. Travelers' diarrhea among American Peace Corps volunteers in rural Thailand.

    PubMed

    Echeverria, P; Blacklow, N R; Sanford, L B; Cukor, G G

    1981-06-01

    Diarrheal disease was studied prospectively in 35 Peace Corps volunteers during their first five weeks in rural Thailand. Twenty (57%) developed the syndrome of travelers' diarrhea. Recognized bacterial enteric pathogens were isolated from stools during 47% of 39 episodes of travelers' diarrhea. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli was isolated during 26% and Shigella during 13% of the episodes. Of the 20 volunteers, 50% had bacteriologic and/or serologic evidence of infection with enterotoxigenic E. coli. Sixty-one percent of isolates of enterotoxigenic E. coli and 92% of isolates of Shigella were resistant to doxycycline. Other enteric pathogens, including Campylobacter jejuni/coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella, rotavirus, Norwalk agent, and Entamoeba histolytica, were associated with episodes of travelers' diarrhea. Aeromonas hydrophila, isolated from 31% of 39 episodes of travelers' diarrhea, was of unknown pathogenic importance. Thus, episodes of travelers' diarrhea in Thailand were associated with a variety of organisms, among which antibiotic-resistant bacterial enteropathogens were common.

  3. Illness severity and propensity to travel along the urban-rural continuum.

    PubMed

    Basu, Jayasree; Mobley, Lee R

    2007-06-01

    In this paper, we examine whether the relationship between severity of illness and the propensity to travel greater distance relative to the norm (defined by peers in one's county of residence) is uniform across the urban-rural continuum of geography or over time. We focus on the elderly in New York State who have been admitted to hospital for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs), admissions which are presumed to be representative of usual travel patterns. The two periods of time examined span the implementation of the Balanced Budget Act (BBA) of 1997, which established the Medicare Rural Hospital Flexibility Program, a major national initiative to strengthen rural health care with the development of rural Critical Access Hospitals (CAHs). As the number of NY rural hospitals certified as CAH increased with the expanded funding from the BBA, one might expect to see increased distance traveled by more severely ill rural elderly, as their CAHs referred them to their affiliated support hospitals. The logistic regression estimates support this expectation, highlighting an asymmetrical relationship between relative distance and severity across patients in rural and urban areas. Despite a general decline in average propensity to travel further than the norm across the landscape, severity had a larger impact on travel propensity in rural areas, which increased over time.

  4. Commuting to work: RN travel time to employment in rural and urban areas.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Marie-Claire; Corcoran, Sean P; Kovner, Christine; Brewer, Carol

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the variation in average daily travel time to work among registered nurses (RNs) living in urban, suburban, and rural areas. We examine how travel time varies across RN characteristics, job setting, and availability of local employment opportunities. Descriptive statistics and linear regression using a 5% sample from the 2000 Census and a longitudinal survey of newly licensed RNs (NLRN). Travel time for NLRN respondents was estimated using geographic information systems (GIS) software. In the NLRN, rural nurses and those living in small towns had significantly longer average commute times. Young married RNs and RNs with children also tended to have longer commute times, as did RNs employed by hospitals. The findings indicate that travel time to work varies significantly across locale types. Further research is needed to understand whether and to what extent lengthy commute times impact RN workforce needs in rural and urban areas.

  5. Rural Roots, Rural Routes: Discourses of Rural Self and Travelling Other in Debates about the Future of Appleby New Fair, 1945-1969

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, S. L.

    2004-01-01

    The notion that Gypsies, in an idealised form, have a place in the rural idyll has been sufficiently influential within Geography that it currently features in our undergraduate texts concerned with the meaning of place. The position of real Gypsy-Travellers in the countryside is of course more complex, and this paper seeks to move the debate…

  6. Rural Roots, Rural Routes: Discourses of Rural Self and Travelling Other in Debates about the Future of Appleby New Fair, 1945-1969

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, S. L.

    2004-01-01

    The notion that Gypsies, in an idealised form, have a place in the rural idyll has been sufficiently influential within Geography that it currently features in our undergraduate texts concerned with the meaning of place. The position of real Gypsy-Travellers in the countryside is of course more complex, and this paper seeks to move the debate…

  7. Differences in the social patterning of active travel between urban and rural populations: findings from a large UK household survey.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Jayne; White, Piran C L; Graham, Hilary

    2014-12-01

    To determine the social patterning of active travel of short journeys for urban and rural residents in a large UK representative sample. Associations between frequently walking or cycling short journeys and socio-demographic factors in the UK Household Longitudinal Study were determined using logistic regression. Urban residents were 64 % more likely to frequently engage in active travel than rural residents (95 % CI 1.52, 1.77). Being younger, male, without full-time employment and having a lower income independently predicted greater active travel for both urban and rural residents. Degree level education and not having children were independent predictors for urban, but not rural residents. Actively travelling short journeys is less common and independently associated with fewer socio-demographic factors in rural than in urban populations.

  8. Travel time to maternity care and its effect on utilization in rural Ghana: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Masters, Samuel H; Burstein, Roy; Amofah, George; Abaogye, Patrick; Kumar, Santosh; Hanlon, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Rates of neonatal and maternal mortality are high in Ghana. In-facility delivery and other maternal services could reduce this burden, yet utilization rates of key maternal services are relatively low, especially in rural areas. We tested a theoretical implication that travel time negatively affects the use of in-facility delivery and other maternal services. Empirically, we used geospatial techniques to estimate travel times between populations and health facilities. To account for uncertainty in Ghana Demographic and Health Survey cluster locations, we adopted a novel approach of treating the location selection as an imputation problem. We estimated a multilevel random-intercept logistic regression model. For rural households, we found that travel time had a significant effect on the likelihood of in-facility delivery and antenatal care visits, holding constant education, wealth, maternal age, facility capacity, female autonomy, and the season of birth. In contrast, a facility's capacity to provide sophisticated maternity care had no detectable effect on utilization. As the Ghanaian health network expands, our results suggest that increasing the availability of basic obstetric services and improving transport infrastructure may be important interventions.

  9. Accessing doctors at times of need-measuring the distance tolerance of rural residents for health-related travel.

    PubMed

    McGrail, Matthew Richard; Humphreys, John Stirling; Ward, Bernadette

    2015-05-29

    Poor access to doctors at times of need remains a significant impediment to achieving good health for many rural residents. The two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) method has emerged as a key tool for measuring healthcare access in rural areas. However, the choice of catchment size, a key component of the 2SFCA method, is problematic because little is known about the distance tolerance of rural residents for health-related travel. Our study sought new evidence to test the hypothesis that residents of sparsely settled rural areas are prepared to travel further than residents of closely settled rural areas when accessing primary health care at times of need. A questionnaire survey of residents in five small rural communities of Victoria and New South Wales in Australia was used. The two outcome measures were current travel time to visit their usual doctor and maximum time prepared to travel to visit a doctor, both for non-emergency care. Kaplan-Meier charts were used to compare the association between increased distance and decreased travel propensity for closely-settled and sparsely-settled areas, and ordinal multivariate regression models tested significance after controlling for health-related travel moderating factors and town clustering. A total of 1079 questionnaires were completed with 363 from residents in closely-settled locations and 716 from residents in sparsely-settled areas. Residents of sparsely-settled communities travel, on average, 10 min further than residents of closely-settled communities (26.3 vs 16.9 min, p < 0.001), though this difference was not significant after controlling for town clustering. Differences were more apparent in terms of maximum time prepared to travel (54.1 vs 31.9 min, p < 0.001). Differences of maximum time remained significant after controlling for demographic and other constraints to access, such as transport availability or difficulties getting doctor appointments, as well as after controlling for town

  10. A cost comparison of travel models and behavioural telemedicine for rural, Native American populations in New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Horn, Brady P; Barragan, Gary N; Fore, Chis; Bonham, Caroline A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to model the cost of delivering behavioural health services to rural Native American populations using telecommunications and compare these costs with the travel costs associated with providing equivalent care. Behavioural telehealth costs were modelled using equipment, transmission, administrative and IT costs from an established telecommunications centre. Two types of travel models were estimated: a patient travel model and a physician travel model. These costs were modelled using the New Mexico resource geographic information system program (RGIS) and ArcGIS software and unit costs (e.g. fuel prices, vehicle depreciation, lodging, physician wages, and patient wages) that were obtained from the literature and US government agencies. The average per-patient cost of providing behavioural healthcare via telehealth was US$138.34, and the average per-patient travel cost was US$169.76 for physicians and US$333.52 for patients. Sensitivity analysis found these results to be rather robust to changes in imputed parameters and preliminary evidence of economies of scale was found. Besides the obvious benefits of increased access to healthcare and reduced health disparities, providing behavioural telehealth for rural Native American populations was estimated to be less costly than modelled equivalent care provided by travelling. Additionally, as administrative and coordination costs are a major component of telehealth costs, as programmes grow to serve more patients, the relative costs of these initial infrastructure as well as overall per-patient costs should decrease. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Surgical patients travel longer distances than non-surgical patients to receive care at a rural hospital in Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Faierman, Michelle L.; Anderson, Jamie E.; Assane, Americo; Bendix, Peter; Vaz, Fernando; Rose, John A.; Funzamo, Carlos; Bickler, Stephen W.; Noormahomed, Emilia V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Surgical care is increasingly recognised as an important component of global health delivery. However, there are still major gaps in knowledge related to access to surgical care in low-income countries. In this study, we compare distances travelled by surgical patients with patients seeking other medical services at a first-level hospital in rural Mozambique. Methods Data were collected on all inpatients at Hospital Rural de Chókwè in rural Mozambique between 20 June 2012 and 3 August 2012. Euclidean distances travelled by surgical versus non-surgical patients using coordinates of each patient's city of residence were compared. Data were analysed using ArcGIS 10 and STATA. Results In total, 500 patients were included. Almost one-half (47.6%) lived in the city where the hospital is based. By hospital ward, the majority (62.0%) of maternity patients came from within the hospital's city compared with only 35.2% of surgical patients. The average distance travelled was longest for surgical patients (42 km) compared with an average of 17 km for patients on all other wards. Conclusions Patients seeking surgical care at this first-level hospital travel farther than patients seeking other services. While other patients may have access to at community clinics, surgical patients depend more heavily on the services available at first-level hospitals. PMID:25135818

  12. Association of increased travel distance to dialysis units with the risk of anemia in rural chronic hemodialysis elderly.

    PubMed

    Chao, Chia-Ter; Lai, Chun-Fu; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Huang, Sheng-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Geographic remoteness has been found to influence health-related outcomes negatively. As reported in the literature, rural dialysis patients have a higher risk of mortality with increasing travel distance to dialysis units. However, few studies have focused on the impact of travel distances on the development of dialysis complications. We utilized a prospectively collected chronic hemodialysis patient cohort from a rural regional hospital for analysis. Data on demographics, comorbidities, and serum laboratory results were obtained. Correlation analyses between travel distance to dialysis units and dialysis complications were conducted, and significantly correlated parameters were entered into multivariate logistic regression models to determine their exact associations. A total of 46 rural chronic hemodialysis patients were enrolled, with an average age higher than others in the literature. Significant correlation was found between travel distance and serum hemoglobin levels (R(2) = -0.34, P value = 0.029). Multivariate logistic regression found that every 1 km increase in travel distance was associated with an increased risk of anemia (hemoglobin <9 g/dL) (odds ratio 1.46; P value = 0.01). Sensitivity analyses further showed that the associated risk was partially attenuated by serum albumin (odds ratio 1.83; P value = 0.07) and ferritin (odds ratio 1.39; P value = 0.08) levels. This is the first study to demonstrate the association between increased travel distance to dialysis units and the risk of anemia in chronic dialysis patients, especially elderly. Malnutrition, inflammation, and atherosclerosis syndrome could be partially responsible for the observed association. Further research is required to confirm our findings. © 2014 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  13. Surgical patients travel longer distances than non-surgical patients to receive care at a rural hospital in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Faierman, Michelle L; Anderson, Jamie E; Assane, Americo; Bendix, Peter; Vaz, Fernando; Rose, John A; Funzamo, Carlos; Bickler, Stephen W; Noormahomed, Emilia V

    2015-01-01

    Surgical care is increasingly recognised as an important component of global health delivery. However, there are still major gaps in knowledge related to access to surgical care in low-income countries. In this study, we compare distances travelled by surgical patients with patients seeking other medical services at a first-level hospital in rural Mozambique. Data were collected on all inpatients at Hospital Rural de Chókwè in rural Mozambique between 20 June 2012 and 3 August 2012. Euclidean distances travelled by surgical versus non-surgical patients using coordinates of each patient's city of residence were compared. Data were analysed using ArcGIS 10 and STATA. In total, 500 patients were included. Almost one-half (47.6%) lived in the city where the hospital is based. By hospital ward, the majority (62.0%) of maternity patients came from within the hospital's city compared with only 35.2% of surgical patients. The average distance travelled was longest for surgical patients (42 km) compared with an average of 17 km for patients on all other wards. Patients seeking surgical care at this first-level hospital travel farther than patients seeking other services. While other patients may have access to at community clinics, surgical patients depend more heavily on the services available at first-level hospitals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Impact of travel time and rurality on presentation and outcomes of symptomatic colorectal cancer: a cross-sectional cohort study in primary care.

    PubMed

    Murage, Peninah; Murchie, Peter; Bachmann, Max; Crawford, Michael; Jones, Andy

    2017-07-01

    Several studies have reported a survival disadvantage for rural dwellers who develop colorectal cancer, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Delayed presentation to GPs may be a contributory factor, but evidence is lacking. To examine the association between rurality and travel time on diagnosis and survival of colorectal cancer in a cohort from northeast Scotland. The authors used a database linking GP records to routine data for patients diagnosed between 1997 and 1998, and followed up to 2011. Primary outcomes were alarm symptoms, emergency admissions, stage, and survival. Travel time in minutes from patients to GP was estimated. Logistic and Cox regression were used to model outcomes. Interaction terms were used to determine if travelling time impacted differently on urban versus rural patients. Rural patients and patients travelling farther to the GP had better 3-year survival. When the travel outcome associations were explored using interaction terms, the associations differed between rural and urban areas. Longer travel in urban areas significantly reduced the odds of emergency admissions (odds ratio [OR] 0.62, P<0.05), and increased survival (hazard ratio 0.75, P<0.05). Longer travel also increased the odds of presenting with alarm symptoms in urban areas; this was nearly significant (OR 1.34, P = 0.06). Presence of alarm symptoms reduced the likelihood of emergency admissions (OR 0.36, P<0.01). Living in a rural area, and travelling farther to a GP in urban areas, may reduce the likelihood of emergency admissions and poor survival. This may be related to how patients present with alarm symptoms. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  15. The impact of a museum travelling exhibition on middle school teachers and students from rural, low-income homes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badger, James; Harker, Richard J. W.

    2016-06-01

    Schools may be places of learning, but a great deal of learning occurs outside of school. A growing body of literature investigates how school field trips allow rural students to make real-life connections with their school curriculum. This paper contributes to that area of research by describing how students from five middle schools in the United States responded to a travelling museum exhibition hosted at a non-museum site. The authors explore the impact of the exhibition on students from poor, rural backgrounds, discussing how it helped them to engage with themes such as freedom of expression, democracy, citizenship and Holocaust education. The results show that, by connecting curricular content with real-life situations, field trips such as this have the potential to change not only students' understanding of the curriculum, but also their teachers' estimation of their abilities.

  16. The Road Less Traveled: Atypical Doctoral Preparation of Leaders in Rural Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, Ned; Crittenden, Laura; Davis, Melvin; Stumpf, Dan

    2003-01-01

    Discusses an atypical doctoral degree program in Community College Leadership at Mississippi State University, which takes an interdisciplinary approach to educating future rural community college administrators. Program characteristics include: (1) instruction and research driven by priorities established by rural community colleges; (2) a degree…

  17. Significance of Travel to Rural Areas as a Risk Factor for Malarial Anemia in an Urban Setting

    PubMed Central

    Siri, Jose G.; Wilson, Mark L.; Murray, Susan; Rosen, Daniel H.; Vulule, John M.; Slutsker, Laurence; Lindblade, Kim A.

    2010-01-01

    The epidemiology of malaria in urban environments is poorly characterized, yet increasingly problematic. We conducted an unmatched case–control study of risk factors for malarial anemia with high parasitemia in urban Kisumu, Kenya, from June 2002 through February 2003. Cases (n = 80) were hospital patients with a hemoglobin level ≤ 8 g/dL and a Plasmodium parasite density ≥ 10,000/μL. Controls (n = 826) were healthy respondents to a concurrent citywide knowledge, attitude, and practice survey. Children who reported spending at least one night per month in a rural area were especially at risk (35% of cases; odds ratio = 9.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.4–19.7, P < 0.0001), and use of mosquito coils, bed net ownership, and house construction were non-significant, potentially indicating that malaria exposure during rural travel comprises an important element of risk. Control of severe malaria in an urban setting may be complicated by Plasmodium infections acquired elsewhere. Epidemiologic studies of urban malaria in low transmission settings should take travel history into account. PMID:20207862

  18. The utility of rural and underserved designations in geospatial assessments of distance traveled to healthcare services: implications for public health research and practice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Dickerson, Justin B; Wendel, Monica L; Ahn, Sangnam; Pulczinski, Jairus C; Drake, Kelly N; Ory, Marcia G

    2013-01-01

    Health disparities research in rural populations is based on several common taxonomies identified by geography and population density. However, little is known about the implications of different rurality definitions on public health outcomes. To help illuminate the meaning of different rural designations often used in research, service delivery, or policy reports, this study will (1) review the different definitions of rurality and their purposes; (2) identify the overlap of various rural designations in an eight-county Brazos Valley region in Central Texas; (3) describe participant characteristic profiles based on distances traveled to obtain healthcare services; and (4) examine common profile characteristics associated with each designation. Data were analyzed from a random sample from 1,958 Texas adults participating in a community assessment. K-means cluster analysis was used to identify natural groupings of individuals based on distance traveled to obtain three healthcare services: medical care, dental care, and prescription medication pick-up. Significant variation in cluster representation and resident characteristics was observed by rural designation. Given widely used taxonomies for designating areas as rural (or provider shortage) in health-related research, this study highlights differences that could influence research results and subsequent program and policy development based on rural designation.

  19. The Economic Importance of Air Travel in High-Amenity Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasker, Ray; Gude, Patricia H.; Gude, Justin A.; van den Noort, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    The western United States offers a case study on the importance of access to large population centers and their markets, via road and air travel, for economic development. The vast distances between towns and cities in the American West can be a detriment to business, yet they also serve to attract technology and knowledge-based workers seeking to…

  20. The Economic Importance of Air Travel in High-Amenity Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasker, Ray; Gude, Patricia H.; Gude, Justin A.; van den Noort, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    The western United States offers a case study on the importance of access to large population centers and their markets, via road and air travel, for economic development. The vast distances between towns and cities in the American West can be a detriment to business, yet they also serve to attract technology and knowledge-based workers seeking to…

  1. Effects of patient load and travel distance on HIV transmission in rural China: Implications for treatment as prevention.

    PubMed

    Smith, M Kumi; Miller, William C; Liu, Huixin; Ning, Chuanyi; He, Wensheng; Cohen, Myron S; Wang, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Sustained viral suppression through ART reduces sexual HIV transmission risk, but may require routine access to reliable and effective medical care which may be difficult to obtain in resource constrained areas. We investigated the roles of patient load and travel distance to HIV care clinic on transmission risk in HIV serodiscordant couples in Henan Province, China. Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare HIV transmission events across couples living near, medium, or farther distances from their assigned HIV care clinics, as well as those attending clinics where clinicians bore high versus low patient loads. Most (84·4%) of the 3695 serodiscordant couples lived within 10 kilometers of their assigned HIV clinic, and most (73·5%) attended clinics with patient-to-provider ratios of at least 100:1. In adjusted Cox models, attending clinics where clinicians bore average patient loads of 100 or more elevated HIV transmission risk (aHR, 1·50, 95% CI, 1·00-4·84), an effect amplified in village tier clinics (aHR = 1·55; 95% CI, 1·23-6·78). Travel distance was associated with HIV transmission only after stratification; traveling medium distances to village clinics (5-10km) increased transmission risk (aHR = 1·83, 95% CI, 1·04-3·21) whereas traveling longer distances to township or county level clinics lowered transmission risk (aHR = 0·10, 95% CI, 0·01-0·75). Higher patient loads at HIV clinics was associated with risk of HIV transmission in our population, particularly at village level clinics. Farther travel distance had divergent effects based on clinic tier, suggesting unique mechanisms operating across levels of resource availability. The resource intensity of long-term HIV treatment may place significant strains on small rural clinics, for which investments in additional support staff or time-saving tools such as point-of-care laboratory testing may bring about impactful change in treatment outcomes.

  2. People living with HIV travel farther to access healthcare: a population-based geographic analysis from rural Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Akullian, Adam N; Mukose, Aggrey; Levine, Gillian A; Babigumira, Joseph B

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The availability of specialized HIV services is limited in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa where the need is the greatest. Where HIV services are available, people living with HIV (PLHIV) must overcome large geographic, economic and social barriers to access healthcare. The objective of this study was to understand the unique barriers PLHIV face when accessing healthcare compared with those not living with HIV in a rural area of sub-Saharan Africa with limited availability of healthcare infrastructure. Methods We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of 447 heads of household on Bugala Island, Uganda. Multiple linear regression models were used to compare travel time, cost and distance to access healthcare, and log binomial models were used to test for associations between HIV status and access to nearby health services. Results PLHIV travelled an additional 1.9 km (95% CI (0.6, 3.2 km), p=0.004) to access healthcare compared with those not living with HIV, and they were 56% less likely to access healthcare at the nearest health facility to their residence, so long as that facility lacked antiretroviral therapy (ART) services (aRR=0.44, 95% CI (0.24 to 0.83), p=0.011). We found no evidence that PLHIV travelled further for care if the nearest facility supplies ART services (aRR=0.95, 95% CI (0.86 to 1.05), p=0.328). Among those who reported uptake of care at one of two facilities on the island that provides ART (81% of PLHIV and 68% of HIV-negative individuals), PLHIV tended to seek care at a higher tiered facility that provides ART, even when this facility was not their closest facility (30% of PLHIV travelled further than the closest ART facility compared with 16% of HIV-negative individuals), and travelled an additional 2.2 km (p=0.001) to access that facility, relative to HIV-negative individuals (aRR=1.91, 95% CI (1.00 to 3.65), p=0.05). Among PLHIV, residential distance was associated with access to facilities providing ART (RR=0

  3. Monitoring the impact of decentralised chronic care services on patient travel time in rural Africa--methods and results in Northern Malawi.

    PubMed

    Houben, Rein M G J; Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Mwinuka, Venance; Mzumara, Peter; Branson, Keith; Linard, Catherine; Chimbwandira, Frank; French, Neil; Glynn, Judith R; Crampin, Amelia C

    2012-11-15

    Decentralised health services form a key part of chronic care strategies in resource-limited settings by reducing the distance between patient and clinic and thereby the time and costs involved in travelling. However, few tools exist to evaluate the impact of decentralisation on patient travel time or what proportion of patients attend their nearest clinic. Here we develop methods to monitor changes in travel time, using data from the antiretroviral therapy (ART) roll-out in a rural district in North Malawi. Clinic position was combined with GPS information on the home village of patients accessing ART services in Karonga District (North Malawi) between July 2005 and July 2009. Potential travel time was estimated as the travel time for an individual attending their nearest clinic, and estimated actual travel time as the time to the clinic attended. This allowed us to calculate changes in potential and actual travel time as new clinics opened and track the proportion and origin of patients not accessing their nearest clinic. The model showed how the opening of further ART clinics in Karonga District reduced median potential travel time from 83 to 43 minutes, and median actual travel time fell from 83 to 47 minutes. The proportion of patients not attending their nearest clinic increased from 6% when two clinics were open, to 12% with four open. Integrating GPS information with patient data shows the impact of decentralisation on travel time and clinic choice to inform policy and research questions. In our case study, travel time decreased, accompanied by an increased uptake of services. However, the model also identified an increasing proportion of ART patients did not attend their nearest clinic.

  4. Understanding the 'four directions of travel': qualitative research into the factors affecting recruitment and retention of doctors in rural Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Motivation and retention of health workers, particularly in rural areas, is a question of considerable interest to policy-makers internationally. Many countries, including Vietnam, are debating the right mix of interventions to motivate doctors in particular to work in remote areas. The objective of this study was to understand the dynamics of the health labour market in Vietnam, and what might encourage doctors to accept posts and remain in-post in rural areas. Methods This study forms part of a labour market survey which was conducted in Vietnam in November 2009 to February 2010. The study had three stages. This article describes the findings of the first stage - the qualitative research and literature review, which fed into the design of a structured survey (second stage) and contingent valuation (third stage). For the qualitative research, three tools were used - key informant interviews at national and provincial level (6 respondents); in-depth interviews of doctors at district and commune levels (11 respondents); and focus group discussions with medical students (15 participants). Results The study reports on the perception of the problem by national level stakeholders; the motivation for joining the profession by doctors; their views on the different factors affecting their willingness to work in rural areas (including different income streams, working conditions, workload, equipment, support and supervision, relationships with colleagues, career development, training, and living conditions). It presents findings on their overall satisfaction, their ranking of different attributes, and willingness to accept different kinds of work. Finally, it discusses recent and possible policy interventions to address the distribution problem. Conclusions Four typical 'directions of travel' are identified for Vietnamese doctors - from lower to higher levels of the system, from rural to urban areas, from preventive to curative health and from public to private

  5. Inpatient child mortality by travel time to hospital in a rural area of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Manongi, Rachel; Mtei, Frank; Mtove, George; Nadjm, Behzad; Muro, Florida; Alegana, Victor; Noor, Abdisalan M; Todd, Jim; Reyburn, Hugh

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the association, if any, between child mortality and distance to the nearest hospital. The study was based on data from a 1-year study of the cause of illness in febrile paediatric admissions to a district hospital in north-east Tanzania. All villages in the catchment population were geolocated, and travel times were estimated from availability of local transport. Using bands of travel time to hospital, we compared admission rates, inpatient case fatality rates and child mortality rates in the catchment population using inpatient deaths as the numerator. Three thousand hundred and eleven children under the age of 5 years were included of whom 4.6% died; 2307 were admitted from <3 h away of whom 3.4% died and 804 were admitted from ≥ 3 h away of whom 8.0% died. The admission rate declined from 125/1000 catchment population at <3 h away to 25/1000 at ≥ 3 h away, and the corresponding hospital deaths/catchment population were 4.3/1000 and 2.0/1000, respectively. Children admitted from more than 3 h away were more likely to be male, had a longer pre-admission duration of illness and a shorter time between admission and death. Assuming uniform mortality in the catchment population, the predicted number of deaths not benefiting from hospital admission prior to death increased by 21.4% per hour of travel time to hospital. If the same admission and death rates that were found at <3 h from the hospital applied to the whole catchment population and if hospital care conferred a 30% survival benefit compared to home care, then 10.3% of childhood deaths due to febrile illness in the catchment population would have been averted. The mortality impact of poor access to hospital care in areas of high paediatric mortality is likely to be substantial although uncertainty over the mortality benefit of inpatient care is the largest constraint in making an accurate estimate. © 2014 The Authors Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons

  6. Travelers' Health: Immunocompromised Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Books, Journals, Articles & Websites Resources for the Travel Industry Yellow Book Contents Chapter 8 (15) Immunocompromised Travelers ... with the patient’s permission) to discuss the traveler’s fitness to travel, give specific medical advice for the ...

  7. Travelers' Health: Pregnant Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Travel Families with Children Fish Poisoning in Travelers Food and Water Getting Health Care Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador Insurance International Adoption Jet Lag Last-Minute Travel Long-Term ...

  8. The Road Less Travelled: Tracing the Path of First-Generation Students from Rural Areas to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodsdon, Michelle Caron

    2012-01-01

    Narrative inquiry was used to trace the educational journeys of 11 first-generation university students from rural areas of Colorado in an effort to identify the experiences, beliefs, and people that impacted their decision to attend a 4-year institution. Students were asked to convey their experiences growing up within the contexts of their…

  9. The Impact of a Museum Travelling Exhibition on Middle School Teachers and Students from Rural, Low-Income Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badger, James; Harker, Richard J. W.

    2016-01-01

    Schools may be places of learning, but a great deal of learning occurs outside of school. A growing body of literature investigates how school field trips allow rural students to make real-life connections with their school curriculum. This paper contributes to that area of research by describing how students from five middle schools in the United…

  10. The Impact of a Museum Travelling Exhibition on Middle School Teachers and Students from Rural, Low-Income Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badger, James; Harker, Richard J. W.

    2016-01-01

    Schools may be places of learning, but a great deal of learning occurs outside of school. A growing body of literature investigates how school field trips allow rural students to make real-life connections with their school curriculum. This paper contributes to that area of research by describing how students from five middle schools in the United…

  11. Have computers, will travel: providing on-site library instruction in rural health facilities using a portable computer lab.

    PubMed

    Neilson, Christine J

    2010-01-01

    The Saskatchewan Health Information Resources Partnership (SHIRP) provides library instruction to Saskatchewan's health care practitioners and students on placement in health care facilities as part of its mission to provide province-wide access to evidence-based health library resources. A portable computer lab was assembled in 2007 to provide hands-on training in rural health facilities that do not have computer labs of their own. Aside from some minor inconveniences, the introduction and operation of the portable lab has gone smoothly. The lab has been well received by SHIRP patrons and continues to be an essential part of SHIRP outreach.

  12. Travelers' Health: Immunocompromised Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... data are lacking. Box 8-01. Key patient education points for the immunocompromised traveler Develop plan in ... waterborne infections, patients should avoid swallowing water during swimming and other water-based recreational activities and should ...

  13. Traveling with breathing problems

    MedlinePlus

    Oxygen - travel; Collaped lung - travel; Chest surgery - travel; COPD - travel; Chronic obstructive airways disease - travel; Chronic obstructive lung disease - travel; Chronic bronchitis - travel; ...

  14. Connected Traveler

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Alex

    2015-11-01

    The Connected Traveler project is a multi-disciplinary undertaking that seeks to validate potential for transformative transportation system energy savings by incentivizing efficient traveler behavior. This poster outlines various aspects of the Connected Traveler project, including market opportunity, understanding traveler behavior and decision-making, automation and connectivity, and a projected timeline for Connected Traveler's key milestones.

  15. Travelers' Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  16. Travelers' Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  17. Travelers' Health: Travel and Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador Insurance International Adoption Jet Lag Last-Minute Travel Long-Term Travel ... Vaccine Recommendations for Infants & Children Travel & Breastfeeding International Adoption Tables Maps Figures Boxes Updates About the Yellow ...

  18. [Travelers' vaccines].

    PubMed

    Ouchi, Kazunobu

    2011-09-01

    The number of Japanese oversea travelers has gradually increased year by year, however they usually pay less attention to the poor physical condition at the voyage place. Many oversea travelers caught vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. The Vaccine Guideline for Oversea Travelers 2010 published by Japanese Society of Travel Health will be helpful for spreading the knowledge of travelers' vaccine and vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. Many travelers' vaccines have not licensed in Japan. I hope these travelers' vaccines, such as typhoid vaccine, meningococcal vaccine, cholera vaccine and so on will be licensed in the near future.

  19. Travel Patterns in China

    PubMed Central

    Garske, Tini; Yu, Hongjie; Peng, Zhibin; Ye, Min; Zhou, Hang; Cheng, Xiaowen; Wu, Jiabing; Ferguson, Neil

    2011-01-01

    The spread of infectious disease epidemics is mediated by human travel. Yet human mobility patterns vary substantially between countries and regions. Quantifying the frequency of travel and length of journeys in well-defined population is therefore critical for predicting the likely speed and pattern of spread of emerging infectious diseases, such as a new influenza pandemic. Here we present the results of a large population survey undertaken in 2007 in two areas of China: Shenzhen city in Guangdong province, and Huangshan city in Anhui province. In each area, 10,000 randomly selected individuals were interviewed, and data on regular and occasional journeys collected. Travel behaviour was examined as a function of age, sex, economic status and home location. Women and children were generally found to travel shorter distances than men. Travel patterns in the economically developed Shenzhen region are shown to resemble those in developed and economically advanced middle income countries with a significant fraction of the population commuting over distances in excess of 50 km. Conversely, in the less developed rural region of Anhui, travel was much more local, with very few journeys over 30 km. Travel patterns in both populations were well-fitted by a gravity model with a lognormal kernel function. The results provide the first quantitative information on human travel patterns in modern China, and suggest that a pandemic emerging in a less developed area of rural China might spread geographically sufficiently slowly for containment to be feasible, while spatial spread in the more economically developed areas might be expected to be much more rapid, making containment more difficult. PMID:21311745

  20. Travelers' Health: Travel and Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Travel Families with Children Fish Poisoning in Travelers Food and Water Getting Health Care Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador Insurance International Adoption Jet Lag Last-Minute Travel Long-Term ...

  1. Travel medicine

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To define the practice of travel medicine, provide the basics of a comprehensive pretravel consultation for international travelers, and assist in identifying patients who might require referral to travel medicine professionals. Sources of information Guidelines and recommendations on travel medicine and travel-related illnesses by national and international travel health authorities were reviewed. MEDLINE and EMBASE searches for related literature were also performed. Main message Travel medicine is a highly dynamic specialty that focuses on pretravel preventive care. A comprehensive risk assessment for each individual traveler is essential in order to accurately evaluate traveler-, itinerary-, and destination-specific risks, and to advise on the most appropriate risk management interventions to promote health and prevent adverse health outcomes during travel. Vaccinations might also be required and should be personalized according to the individual traveler’s immunization history, travel itinerary, and the amount of time available before departure. Conclusion A traveler’s health and safety depends on a practitioner’s level of expertise in providing pretravel counseling and vaccinations, if required. Those who advise travelers are encouraged to be aware of the extent of this responsibility and to refer all high-risk travelers to travel medicine professionals whenever possible. PMID:25500599

  2. Connected Traveler

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    The Connected Traveler framework seeks to boost the energy efficiency of personal travel and the overall transportation system by maximizing the accuracy of predicted traveler behavior in response to real-time feedback and incentives. It is anticipated that this approach will establish a feedback loop that 'learns' traveler preferences and customizes incentives to meet or exceed energy efficiency targets by empowering individual travelers with information needed to make energy-efficient choices and reducing the complexity required to validate transportation system energy savings. This handout provides an overview of NREL's Connected Traveler project, including graphics, milestones, and contact information.

  3. Travelers' diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Hill, David R; Beeching, Nick J

    2010-10-01

    Travelers' diarrhea affects 20-60% of travelers to low-income regions of the world. Much of the evidence for the clinical description and management of travelers' diarrhea was generated years ago, however, there is new information on geographic and host risk, etiology, and prevention strategies. Travel to South Asia, followed by sub-Saharan Africa and South America, carries the highest risk for diarrheal syndromes in returned travelers. Women are more susceptible to travel-related diarrhea than men. Host genetic studies have demonstrated that single nucleotide polymorphisms in the lactoferrin, osteoprotegerin, and IL-10 genes are associated with small but increased risks for diarrhea and enteric pathogens. Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis is likely to be a new agent identified as causing travelers' diarrhea, and heat-stable toxin-producing Escherichia coli appears to be more common than heat-labile toxin E. coli. Overall levels of sanitation at the travel destination, including individual eating establishments, are strong predictors for acquisition of travelers' diarrhea. A new transdermal LT vaccine shows promise in modifying the severity of travelers' diarrhea. It remains uncertain whether prophylaxis or prompt self-treatment of travelers' diarrhea will prevent late-onset irritable bowel syndrome. For self-treatment, azithromycin is the drug of choice in travelers to areas where there is a high risk of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter spp., such as South and Southeast Asia and possibly North Africa, Central and South America. There is increased understanding of the determinants of travelers' diarrhea. Despite this travelers' diarrhea remains one of the most common illnesses in travelers. Continued focus on intervention strategies may ultimately lead to decreased incidence.

  4. Traveller's diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Al-Abri, Seif S; Beeching, Nick J; Nye, Fred J

    2005-06-01

    Traveller's diarrhoea affects over 50% of travellers to some destinations and can disrupt holidays and business trips. This review examines the main causes and epidemiology of the syndrome, which is associated with poor public health infrastructure and hygiene practices, particularly in warmer climates. Although travellers may be given common sense advice on avoidance of high-risk foods and other measures to prevent traveller's diarrhoea, adherence to such advice is sometimes difficult and the evidence for its effectiveness is contradictory. However, non-antimicrobial means for prevention of traveller's diarrhoea are favoured in most settings. A simple stepwise approach to the management of traveller's diarrhoea includes single doses or 3-day courses of antimicrobials, often self administered. The antibiotics of choice are currently fluoroquinolones or azithromycin, with an emerging role for rifaximin. In the long term, there will be greater benefit and effect on the health of local inhabitants and travellers from improving public health and hygiene standards at tourist destinations.

  5. Travelers' thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Raymond V; Hudson, Martin F

    2014-02-01

    The suggestion that venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with air travel has for several decades been the subject of both "media hype" and extensive debate in the medical literature. As emotion and anecdote is often a feature in this debate, it is therefore necessary to separate evidence from anecdote. "Travelers' thrombosis" is a more appropriate term because the evidence suggests that any form of travel involving immobility lasting more than 4 h can predispose to thrombosis. There is no unique factor in the air travel cabin environment that has been shown to have any effect on the coagulation cascade. Prevention of thrombosis in any form of travel, including air travel, requires being aware of the issue and making an adequate risk assessment together with appropriate prophylactic measures.

  6. Traveler's Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Giddings, Stanley L; Stevens, A Michal; Leung, Daniel T

    2016-03-01

    Traveler's diarrhea (TD) is the most common travel-related illness, and it can have a significant impact on the traveler. Pretravel consultation provides an excellent opportunity for the clinician to counsel the traveler and discuss strategies such as food and water hygiene, vaccinations, and medications for prophylaxis or self-treatment that may decrease the incidence and impact of TD. Postinfectious sequelae, such as postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome, reactive arthritis, and Guillain-Barre syndrome, may develop weeks or months after return. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Travellers to South America].

    PubMed

    Lloveras, Susana Cristina

    2011-12-01

    The geography, tourist attractions and the multiple sites of historical and cultural interest make South America as an important destination chosen by travelers. The continent has a wide climatic variation from north to south, making exposure to risk different between the tropics and the temperate or cold regions. In the countries of tropical South America, the greatest risk is associated with the possibility of acquiring vector-borne diseases, like yellow fever, dengue, malaria and leishmaniasis. The risk of acquiring traveler's diarrhea and food-borne illness is similar across the continent, with some variations according to country and to visit urban or rural areas. Rabies, pertussis and diphtheria have appeared as epidemics in several countries and other diseases such as rickettsiosis, hantavirosis and viral encephalitis have expanded their distribution. The geographic and epidemiological diversity of South America, promotes a challenge for travel medicine specialists because during the pre-travel advice they have to take in account the kind of trip, traveller's medical history, exposure to risk and the dynamics of endemic emerging and reemerging diseases in the region.

  8. Major variations in malaria exposure of travellers in rural areas: an entomological cohort study in western Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Orlandi-Pradines, Eve; Rogier, Christophe; Koffi, Bernard; Jarjaval, Fanny; Bell, Melissa; Machault, Vanessa; Pons, Christophe; Girod, Romain; Boutin, Jean-Paul; Pagès, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    Background Malaria remains a major threat, to both travellers and military personnel deployed to endemic areas. The recommendations for travellers given by the World Health Organization is based on the incidence of malaria in an area and do not take the degree of exposure into account. The aim of this article is to evaluate the exposure of travellers by entomologic methods, which are the commonly used measures of the intensity of malaria transmission. Methods From February 2004 to June 2004, five groups of 30 military personnel were stationed in up to 10 sites in western Côte d'Ivoire, from one week to several months. Adult mosquitoes were collected by human landing catches at each site during the five months and the level of exposure to malaria transmission of each group was estimated. Results The level of transmission varied from one site to another one from less than one to approximately more than 100 infective bites per month. In the majority of sites, at least two anopheline species were involved in transmission. The cumulative EIR over the study period varied according to the groups from 29 infected bites per person/per mission to 324. Conclusion The level of malaria transmission and malaria risk varies widely (varying by a factor of eleven) between groups of travellers travelling in the same region and at the same time. Physicians involved in travel medicine or supporting expatriated populations or refugees should consider this heterogeneity and emphasize the importance of combining appropriate measures, such as chemoprophylaxis and protective measures against mosquitoes. PMID:19638219

  9. Travelling diabetics.

    PubMed

    Chełmińska, Katarzyna; Jaremin, Bogdan

    2002-01-01

    During the past several decades, the number of both business and tourist travels has greatly increased. Among them are persons suffering from chronic diseases, including diabetics for whom travels pose the additional health-hazard. Irrespective of better education, self-control and constantly improving quality of specialistic equipment available, diabetics still are the group of patients requiring particular attention. In the case of travelling diabetics, problems may occur concerning the transport and storage of insulin, as well as control of glycaemia, all caused by irregularity of meals, variable diet, physical activity, stress, kinetosis (sea voyages), and the change of time zones. The travel may as well evoke ailments caused by the change of climate and concomitant diseases such as traveller's diarrhoea, malaria, etc. Apart from avoiding glycaemia fluctuations, important for retaining health of diabetics is the prevention of other diseases and carrying the necessary drugs.

  10. [Travel medicine].

    PubMed

    Schubert, S; Grimm, M

    2009-07-01

    Travel medicine deals with travellers' diseases. The target group is therefore distinct from tropical medicine. It has gained in significance due to the increase in tourism and professional work abroad in the last 50 years. Dangerous and widespread diseases in tropical countries, in particular tropical malaria, have come into focus in industrialized countries because of their appearance in travellers. Travel medicine deals not only with infectious or transmittable diseases, but also with the ability of patients with chronic diseases to travel, the medical aspects of flying, as well as the health hazards of professional work or high-risk sports abroad. The risk of disease as a result of travelling can be minimized by advice and prophylactic measures, such as vaccinations and drug prophylaxis against malaria, if indicated. On return, medical symptoms should be investigated promptly to ensure early detection of life-threatening disease courses, particularly tropical malaria, as well as to prevent the occurrence of small-scale epidemics. A small number of diseases can also emerge after several years, such as benign types of malaria, amoebic liver abscess and visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar). Aids also belongs to these diseases. Therefore, in this era of HIV pandemic travellers concerned should be made aware of the risks.

  11. [Adventure travel].

    PubMed

    Beck, Bernhard R

    2013-06-01

    Extreme travelling experiences appear to be a quite popular kick offered by tourist operators and sought by some travellers. But some travellers expose themselves to increased risk also during normal holidays, either voluntarily by booking hikes or tours leading them to adventurous locations or to unexpectedly encountering dangerous situations. In planned adventures, precise information in advance, good physical condition, careful planning, and profound medical preparation may contribute to a less hazardous adventure. Advising medical persons may need an expert consultation for specific topics in order to optimise the preparation. Based on three specific environmental situations (jungle, desert, and cave) the specific conditions, dangers and some medical aspects are outlined.

  12. TRAVEL FORECASTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, L. E.

    1994-01-01

    Business travel planning within an organization is often a time-consuming task. Travel Forecaster is a menu-driven, easy-to-use program which plans, forecasts cost, and tracks actual vs. planned cost for business-related travel of a division or branch of an organization and compiles this information into a database to aid the travel planner. The program's ability to handle multiple trip entries makes it a valuable time-saving device. Travel Forecaster takes full advantage of relational data base properties so that information that remains constant, such as per diem rates and airline fares (which are unique for each city), needs entering only once. A typical entry would include selection with the mouse of the traveler's name and destination city from pop-up lists, and typed entries for number of travel days and purpose of the trip. Multiple persons can be selected from the pop-up lists and multiple trips are accommodated by entering the number of days by each appropriate month on the entry form. An estimated travel cost is not required of the user as it is calculated by a Fourth Dimension formula. With this information, the program can produce output of trips by month with subtotal and total cost for either organization or sub-entity of an organization; or produce outputs of trips by month with subtotal and total cost for international-only travel. It will also provide monthly and cumulative formats of planned vs. actual outputs in data or graph form. Travel Forecaster users can do custom queries to search and sort information in the database, and it can create custom reports with the user-friendly report generator. Travel Forecaster 1.1 is a database program for use with Fourth Dimension Runtime 2.1.1. It requires a Macintosh Plus running System 6.0.3 or later, 2Mb of RAM and a hard disk. The standard distribution medium for this package is one 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. Travel Forecaster was developed in 1991. Macintosh is a registered trademark of

  13. TRAVEL FORECASTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, L. E.

    1994-01-01

    Business travel planning within an organization is often a time-consuming task. Travel Forecaster is a menu-driven, easy-to-use program which plans, forecasts cost, and tracks actual vs. planned cost for business-related travel of a division or branch of an organization and compiles this information into a database to aid the travel planner. The program's ability to handle multiple trip entries makes it a valuable time-saving device. Travel Forecaster takes full advantage of relational data base properties so that information that remains constant, such as per diem rates and airline fares (which are unique for each city), needs entering only once. A typical entry would include selection with the mouse of the traveler's name and destination city from pop-up lists, and typed entries for number of travel days and purpose of the trip. Multiple persons can be selected from the pop-up lists and multiple trips are accommodated by entering the number of days by each appropriate month on the entry form. An estimated travel cost is not required of the user as it is calculated by a Fourth Dimension formula. With this information, the program can produce output of trips by month with subtotal and total cost for either organization or sub-entity of an organization; or produce outputs of trips by month with subtotal and total cost for international-only travel. It will also provide monthly and cumulative formats of planned vs. actual outputs in data or graph form. Travel Forecaster users can do custom queries to search and sort information in the database, and it can create custom reports with the user-friendly report generator. Travel Forecaster 1.1 is a database program for use with Fourth Dimension Runtime 2.1.1. It requires a Macintosh Plus running System 6.0.3 or later, 2Mb of RAM and a hard disk. The standard distribution medium for this package is one 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. Travel Forecaster was developed in 1991. Macintosh is a registered trademark of

  14. [Traveller's diarrhoea].

    PubMed

    Vila, Jordi; Oliveira, Ines; Zboromyrska, Yuliya; Gascon, Joaquim

    2016-11-01

    Traveller's diarrhoea (TD) is acquired primarily through ingestion of food and drinks contaminated with pathogens that cause diarrhoea. They can be bacteria, protozoa, helminths, and viruses. Globally, the most common causes of TD are two pathotypes of Escherichia coli (enterotoxigenic and enteroaggregative) and Campylobacter, although there are significant variations by geographic area visited. Most TD occurs in individuals traveling to low-middle income countries. The type of travel, length of stay, traveller's age, and the presence of certain underlying conditions are important risk factors to consider for the acquisition of TD. While TD is usually a mild and self-limiting disease, half of travellers with TD experience some limitation of activities during their trip, while up to 10% will experience persistent diarrhoea or other complications. The purpose of this article is to provide an updated microbiological, epidemiological, and clinical profile of traveller's diarrhoea, including known risk factors, as well as to make recommendations on the prevention and treatment of TD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  15. The challenge of global water access monitoring: evaluating straight-line distance versus self-reported travel time among rural households in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jeff C; Russel, Kory C; Davis, Jennifer

    2014-03-01

    Support is growing for the incorporation of fetching time and/or distance considerations in the definition of access to improved water supply used for global monitoring. Current efforts typically rely on self-reported distance and/or travel time data that have been shown to be unreliable. To date, however, there has been no head-to-head comparison of such indicators with other possible distance/time metrics. This study provides such a comparison. We examine the association between both straight-line distance and self-reported one-way travel time with measured route distances to water sources for 1,103 households in Nampula province, Mozambique. We find straight-line, or Euclidean, distance to be a good proxy for route distance (R(2) = 0.98), while self-reported travel time is a poor proxy (R(2) = 0.12). We also apply a variety of time- and distance-based indicators proposed in the literature to our sample data, finding that the share of households classified as having versus lacking access would differ by more than 70 percentage points depending on the particular indicator employed. This work highlights the importance of the ongoing debate regarding valid, reliable, and feasible strategies for monitoring progress in the provision of improved water supply services.

  16. The association between travel time to health facilities and childhood vaccine coverage in rural Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Okwaraji, Yemisrach B; Mulholland, Kim; Schellenberg, Joanna R M Armstrong; Andarge, Gashaw; Admassu, Mengesha; Edmond, Karen M

    2012-06-22

    Few studies have examined associations between access to health care and childhood vaccine coverage in remote communities that lack motorised transport. This study assessed whether travel time to health facilities was associated with childhood vaccine coverage in a remote area of Ethiopia. This was a cross-sectional study using data from 775 children aged 12-59 months who participated in a household survey between January -July 2010 in Dabat district, north-western Ethiopia. 208 households were randomly selected from each kebele. All children in a household were eligible for inclusion if they were aged between 12-59 months at the time of data collection. Travel time to vaccine providers was collected using a geographical information system (GIS). The primary outcome was the percentage of children in the study population who were vaccinated with the third infant Pentavalent vaccine ([Diphtheria, Tetanus,-Pertussis Hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenza type b] Penta3) in the five years before the survey. We also assessed effects on BCG, Penta1, Penta2 and Measles vaccines. Analysis was conducted using Poisson regression models with robust standard error estimation and the Wald test. Missing vaccination data ranged from 4.6% (36/775) for BCG to 16.4% (127/775) for Penta3 vaccine. In children with complete vaccination records, BCG vaccine had the highest coverage (97.3% [719/739]), Penta3 coverage was (92.9% [602/648]) and Measles vaccine had the lowest coverage (81.7% [564/690]). Children living ≥60mins from a health post were significantly less likely (adjRR = 0.85 [0.79-0.92] p value < =0.001) to receive Penta3 vaccine compared to children living <30mins from a health post. This effect was not modified by household wealth (p value = 0.240). Travel time also had a highly significant association with BCG (adjRR = 0.95 [0.93-0.98] p value =0.002) and Measles (adjRR = 0.88 [0.79-0.97] p value =0.027) vaccine coverage. Travel time to vaccine

  17. Travelers' diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Barrett-Connor, E

    1973-03-01

    On the average, one-fourth of North Americans visiting developing countries experience a self-limited diarrheal illness that interferes with holiday or business activities. Recent work suggests that these episodes are caused by a small inoculum of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli which are common in the country visited and rare in the country of origin. Neither antimicrobial treatment nor anti-diarrheal agents have proven benefit once the illness has begun. Despite its frequent use, iodochlorhydroxyquin has not been shown in double blind studies to be effective as a preventive agent, and may be dangerous. The status of furazolidone for prevention of tourist diarrhea is questionable. Both neomycin sulfate and phythalylsulfathiazole have demonstrated efficacy as chemoprophylactics in Mexico. However, their use should be restricted to limited types of travel and travelers. General admonitions concerning avoidance of certain ingestibles are recommended; despite questionable value in preventing travelers' diarrhea such precautions may prevent more serious gastrointestinal illness.

  18. Mapping the ecoepidemiology of Zika virus infection in urban and rural areas of Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia, 2015-2016: Implications for public health and travel medicine.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Ruiz, Pablo; Tabares, Javier; Ossa, Carlos Augusto; Yepes-Echeverry, Maria Camila; Ramirez-Jaramillo, Valeria; Galindo-Marquez, Maria Leonor; García-Loaiza, Carlos Julian; Sabogal-Roman, Juan Alejandro; Parra-Valencia, Esteban; Lagos-Grisales, Guillermo J; Lozada-Riascos, Carlos O; de Pijper, Cornelis A; Grobusch, Martin P

    Geographical information systems (GIS) have been demonstrated earlier to be of great use to inform public health action against vector-borne infectious diseases. Using surveillance data on the ongoing ZIKV outbreak from Pereira, Colombia (2015-2016), we estimated incidence rates (cases/100,000 population), and developed maps correlating with the ecoepidemiology of the area. Up to October 8, 2016, 439 cases of ZIKV were reported in Pereira (93 cases/100,000 pop.), with highest rates in the South-West area. At the corregiments (sub-municipalities) of Pereira, Caimalito presented the highest rate. An urban area, Cuba, has 169 cases/100,000 pop., with a low economical level and the highest Aedic index (9.1%). Entomological indexes were associated with ZIKV incidence at simple and multiple non-linear regressions (r(2) > 0.25; p < 0.05). Combining entomological, environmental, human population density, travel patterns and case data of vector-borne infections, such as ZIKV, leads to a valuable tool that can be used to pinpoint hotspots also for infections such as dengue, chikungunya and malaria. Such a tool is key to planning mosquito control and the prevention of mosquito-borne diseases in local populations. Such data also enable microepidemiology and the prediction of risk for travelers who visit specific areas in a destination country. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reconciliation of Travel Advances and Travel Liquidations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    AD-A236 677 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California DTIC ELECTE JN12 1981’ THESIS RECONCILIATION OF TRAVEL ADVANCES AND TRAVEL LIQUIDATIONS by...Classification) RECONCILIATION OF TRAVEL ADVANCES AND TRAVEL LIQUIDATIONS 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Conzales. Dnmingo 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b TIME COVERED 14 DATE OF...TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block numoer) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Travel orders, Travel advance, Travel liquida- tion

  20. Traveler's Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... cola).Hot drinks, such as tea or coffee.Carbonated or noncarbonated bottled water, as long as you are the one who ... borne illness, infectious gastroenteritis, intestinal flu, traveler's ... to your family doctor to find out if this information applies to you and to ...

  1. Traveling Apples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland Unified School District, Rowland Heights, CA.

    Teacher-developed materials for a basic computer literacy and utilization program for elementary students in grades 3-6 are included in this 4-part packet, which was originally prepared for use with or without the Apple IIe "traveling" microcomputers shared by 15 Rowland Unified School District elementary schools. Implementation…

  2. Plains Traveler

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-04-10

    This MOC image shows a dust devil traveling across a plain west-southwest of Schiaparelli Crater, in far eastern Sinus Meridiani. The dust devil is casting a shadow toward the northeast, just south below of an egg-shaped crater

  3. Travelers' Health: International Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Yellow Fever Vaccine Course Travel Medicine References: Books, Journals, Articles & Websites Resources for the Travel Industry Yellow Book Contents Chapter 7 Traveling Safely with Infants & Children ...

  4. Travelers' Health: Cruise Ship Travel

    MedlinePlus

    ... as well as unaccustomed changes in diet and physical activity. Foreign travel may increase the likelihood of risk-taking behaviors such as alcohol misuse, drug use, and unsafe sex. In spite of modern stabilizer systems, seasickness is a common complaint (affecting ...

  5. Granted travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Geological Society of America (GSA)is accepting applications for the 30th International Geological Congress (IGC) Travel Grant Program. The 1996 congress will be held in Beijing, China, August 4-14. The program was formed at the end of the 28th IGC, held in Washington, D.C. in July 1989. The fund is to be used to support the attendance of young geoscientists to future IGCs until the United States again hosts an IGC. Travel grants consist of economy air-fare to China. To be eligible, an applicant must be a resident or citizen of the United States; must have been born after August 31, 1956; and must have an abstract included in the program of the 30th IGC. Official application forms are available from the grants administrator, GSA Headquarters, 3300 Penrose Place, P.O. Box 9140, Boulder, CO 80301.

  6. [Immunocompromised travelers].

    PubMed

    Delmont, J; Igo-Kemenes, A; Peyron, F; Ruiz, J M; Moreau, J; Bourgeade, A

    1997-01-01

    More and more immunocompromised people travel abroad especially in tropical countries where infectious risks are high. Before leaving, these subjects must consult their general practitioner who will determine their fitness in function of type of immunodeficiency, travel destination, availability of medical care at the destination, and possibility of medical evacuation. Counseling should also be provided concerning the precautions necessary to avoid the hazards of exposure to fecal material, venereal disease, insect bites, and sun. Antimalarial drug prophylaxis is the same as for uncompromised subjects. Advising immunocompromised subjects about vaccinations is difficult since there is no consensus on the subject. Administration of inert vaccines is usually recommended but their effectiveness is often diminished and harmful effects have been observed in HIV-infected subjects. Administration of live vaccines is always contraindicated in severely immunocompromised subjects but some live vaccines can be used in moderately immunocompromised subjects. The guidelines for vaccination differ depending on the underlying cause of immunodeficiency: congenital defects, cancer, hemopathy, treatment with immunosuppressors or corticosteroids (transplant patients and patients with systemic disease), HIV-infection, or spleen dysfunction. If there is a high risk of contracting a disease for which vaccination is contraindicated, drug prophylaxis or administration of immunoglobulins can be an alternative. If not, travel should either be postponed or the destination should be changed.

  7. Travel during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Travel During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Travel During Pregnancy ... Pregnancy FAQ055, April 2017 PDF Format Travel During Pregnancy Pregnancy Is travel safe during pregnancy? When is ...

  8. Travel Medical Kit.

    PubMed

    Terry, Anne C; Haulman, N Jean

    2016-03-01

    "The traveler's medical kit is an essential tool for both the novice and expert traveler. It is designed to treat travel-related illness and injury and to ensure preexisting medical conditions are managed appropriately. Travelers are at increased risk for common gastrointestinal issues during travel. Respiratory illnesses make up approximately 8% of the ailments present in returned international travelers. Approximately 12% of travelers experience a travel-related skin condition. First aid treatment for minor injuries is essential to all travel medical kits. The complexity ranges from a small, simple case for the urban traveler to a larger, extensive case for wilderness travel."

  9. Transportation and Travel: Travel Overseas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    responsibility of the soldier or the family members. It is expected that, in some cases, soldiers will have insufficient funds to defray the cost of...ports of embarkation (for example, billeting and food costs ). (See app C, fig C–6 for format of space available travel orders.) e. Family members who... cost of the move from the old PDS, to the new PDS. The designated place may be— (1) Any place in CONUS the soldier designates. (2) The place outside

  10. Plains Traveler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    10 April 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dust devil traveling across a plain west-southwest of Schiaparelli Crater, in far eastern Sinus Meridiani. The dust devil is casting a shadow toward the northeast, just south (below) of an egg-shaped crater.

    Location near: 6.4oS, 349.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  11. Plains Traveler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    10 April 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dust devil traveling across a plain west-southwest of Schiaparelli Crater, in far eastern Sinus Meridiani. The dust devil is casting a shadow toward the northeast, just south (below) of an egg-shaped crater.

    Location near: 6.4oS, 349.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  12. Advice to travelers living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Sax, P; Turk, B

    1996-07-01

    HIV-positive persons should make a medical precaution visit to an intended vacation site several weeks or months prior to traveling. This will ensure that proper medical intervention care will be available. Before departing, pack necessary medications and doctors' contact information. Determine insurance coverage limitations. During travel, eat well-cooked foods, drink bottled water and avoid ice cubes, use insect repellents to protect against insect-borne diseases, avoid rural areas far from hospitals, and bring diarrhea medication.

  13. Malaria: prevention in travellers

    PubMed Central

    Croft, Ashley

    2000-01-01

    Definition Malaria is caused by a protozoan infection of red blood cells with one of four species of the genus plasmodium: P falciparum, P vivax, P ovale, or P malariae.1 Clinically, malaria may present in different ways, but it is usually characterised by fever (which may be swinging), tachycardia, rigors, and sweating. Anaemia, hepatosplenomegaly, cerebral involvement, renal failure, and shock may occur. Incidence/prevalence Each year there are 300-500 million clinical cases of malaria. About 40% of the world's population is at risk of acquiring the disease.23 Each year 25-30 million people from non-tropical countries visit areas in which malaria is endemic,4 of whom between 10 000 and 30 000 contract malaria.5 Aetiology/risk factors Malaria is mainly a rural disease, requiring standing water nearby. It is transmitted by bites6 from infected female anopheline mosquitoes,7 mainly at dusk and during the night.18 In cities, mosquito bites are usually from female culicene mosquitoes, which are not vectors of malaria.9 Malaria is resurgent in most tropical countries and the risk to travellers is increasing.10 Prognosis Ninety per cent of travellers who contract malaria do not become ill until after they return home.5 “Imported malaria” is easily treated if diagnosed promptly, and it follows a serious course in only about 12% of people.1112 The most severe form of the disease is cerebral malaria, with a case fatality rate in adult travellers of 2-6%,3 mainly because of delays in diagnosis.5 Aims To reduce the risk of infection; to prevent illness and death. Outcomes Rates of malarial illness and death, and adverse effects of treatment. Proxy measures include number of mosquito bites and number of mosquitoes in indoor areas. We found limited evidence linking number of mosquito bites and risk of malaria.13 Methods Clinical Evidence search and appraisal in November 1999. We reviewed all identified systematic reviews and randomised controlled trials (RCTs

  14. The Travelling Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murabona Oduori, Susan

    2015-08-01

    The telescope has been around for more than 400 years, and through good use of it scientists have made many astonishing discoveries and begun to understand our place in the universe. Most people, however, have never looked through one. Yet it is a great tool for cool science and observation especially in a continent and country with beautifully dark skies. The Travelling Telescope project aims to invite people outside under the stars to learn about those curious lights in the sky.The Travelling Telescope aims to promote science learning to a wide range of Kenyan schools in various locations exchanging knowledge about the sky through direct observations of celestial bodies using state of the art telescopes. In addition to direct observing we also teach science using various hands-on activities and astronomy software, ideal for explaining concepts which are hard to understand, and for a better grasp of the sights visible through the telescope. We are dedicated to promoting science using astronomy especially in schools, targeting children from as young as 3 years to the youth, teachers, their parents and members of the public. Our presentation focuses on the OAD funded project in rural coastal Kenya.

  15. Health, sustainability and student travel.

    PubMed

    Green, Gill; Morris, Jenny; Wade, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    A survey of 246 pre-registration nursing students in a University in the South West of England was carried out to explore the impact of course related travel on the student experience. Results from the survey indicated that students' main mode of transport to practice placements was by car which reflects the rural nature of the South West and the relative paucity of public transport. Long distances that many students travel to their study centre and to placements, and the concurrent financial strain that this creates, impacted negatively on the student experience. Students recognised the need to travel to a place of study and clinical placements and suggestions of minimising the negative impact of travel were offered. These included the increased use of electronic delivery of lectures, attendance at local university premises, the provision of shared transport to placements and placements closer to the student's home. Few students, however, considered the environmental impact of travel. Higher Education Institutions need to address issues of sustainability through promoting student wellbeing and taking steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It is therefore important that student awareness of sustainability related issues is increased as well as focusing on reducing the environmental impact through organisational change. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Travel perceptions, behaviors, and environment by degree of urbanization.

    PubMed

    Badland, Hannah M; Duncan, Mitch J; Mummery, W Kerry

    2008-09-01

    This study examines how engagement in transport-related physical activity (TPA), perceptions of the commute route, actual travel distance, and perceptions of travel distance vary by degree of urbanization in rural and remote areas of Central Queensland, Australia. A random, cross-sectional sample of 1230 adults aged 18 years and over residing in rural and remote Central Queensland were surveyed by telephone in October-November 2006. Engagement in and attitudes towards TPA, perceptions of the commute route, actual travel distances, and perceived appropriate travel distances for TPA were assessed. For this study 765 adults were eligible for the analysis as they traveled to an occupation. Overall, 86% of the sample commuted to their occupation by motorized modes, 71% of individuals recognized 5 km or less as an appropriate distance to travel via TPA modes, and 45% of respondents reported travel distances less than five kilometers (km) to reach their workplace. Participants from small rural and remote settings more frequently traveled greater than 20 km to reach their occupation, reported fewer sidewalks and shops, and less heavy traffic enroute compared to respondents in large rural settings. Infrastructure for, and participation in TPA varies according to degree of urbanization. Future work in this area should target the substantial population that recognizes they could engage in TPA. As such, increasing TPA participation in these settings likely requires a cultural shift and infrastructure improvements.

  17. Travelers' Health: Leishmaniasis, Visceral

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  18. Travelers' Health: Varicella (Chickenpox)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  19. Travelers' Health: Yellow Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  20. Travelers' Health: Japanese Encephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  1. Travelers' Health: Meningococcal Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  2. Travelers' Health: Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  3. Travelers' Health: Motion Sickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  4. Travelers' Health: Scabies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  5. Travelers' Health: Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  6. Travelers' Health: Pertussis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  7. Travelers' Health: Giardiasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  8. Travelers' Health: Japanese Encephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Yellow Fever Vaccine Course Travel Medicine References: Books, Journals, Articles & Websites Resources for the Travel Industry Yellow Book Contents Chapter 3 (81) Japanese Encephalitis more Tables ...

  9. Childhood and Travel Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espey, David

    If children are not present in most travel literature--precisely because the genre has most typically been the domain of solitary male travelers who are escaping domestic obligation, routine, the familiar, and the family--they nevertheless are an integral part of the genre. The traveler is in many ways a child, an innocent abroad. Traveler writers…

  10. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis E

    MedlinePlus

    ... Travel Families with Children Fish Poisoning in Travelers Food and Water Getting Health Care Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador Insurance International Adoption Jet Lag Last-Minute Travel Long-Term ...

  11. Travelers' Health: Cryptosporidiosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Travel Families with Children Fish Poisoning in Travelers Food and Water Getting Health Care Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador Insurance International Adoption Jet Lag Last-Minute Travel Long-Term ...

  12. Travelers' Health: Giardiasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Travel Families with Children Fish Poisoning in Travelers Food and Water Getting Health Care Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador Insurance International Adoption Jet Lag Last-Minute Travel Long-Term ...

  13. Travelers' Health: Scabies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Travel Families with Children Fish Poisoning in Travelers Food and Water Getting Health Care Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador Insurance International Adoption Jet Lag Last-Minute Travel Long-Term ...

  14. Travelers' Health: Motion Sickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Travel Families with Children Fish Poisoning in Travelers Food and Water Getting Health Care Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador Insurance International Adoption Jet Lag Last-Minute Travel Long-Term ...

  15. Travel-related illness.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Carol C

    2013-06-01

    Travel abroad for business and pleasure should be safe and meaningful for the traveler. To assure that safe experience, certain processes should be considered before travel. A thorough pretravel health assessment will offer patients and health care providers valuable information for anticipatory guidance before travel. The destination-based risk assessment will help determine the risks involved in travel to specific locations and guide in the development of contingency plans for all travelers, especially those with chronic conditions. Diseases are more prevalent overseas, and immunizations and vaccinations are all important considerations for persons traveling abroad.

  16. Pre-travel health preparation for malaria prevention among Hong Kong travellers.

    PubMed

    Hung, Kevin K C; Lin, Agatha K Y; Cheng, Calvin K Y; Chan, Emily Y Y; Graham, Colin A

    2015-03-01

    Malaria remains a significant cause of travel-related mortality and morbidity. Asians are known to have higher risks because they are less careful in pre-travel health preparations. This study reports on a cohort of travellers to malaria-prone regions examined in a previous study, which explored general levels of pre-travel health preparation. To describe the preparations taken by travellers at Hong Kong International Airport going to destinations with significant malaria risks according to the WHO. A cross-sectional survey was conducted by personal interviews at the boarding gates of flights in April 2013. The flights were chosen from those to malaria-prone regions (type I or above) from the 2012 WHO International Travel and Health Country List. 403 respondents (75.6% Chinese ethnicity) were travelling to malaria-prone regions. 95.3% were travelling to developing countries including China, Thailand, Malaysia and India. 55.1% of respondents had taken at least one mosquito prevention measure and 8.9% of respondents had malaria chemoprophylaxis. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that female gender (OR=2.21, 95% CI 1.23 to 3.97), residence outside Hong Kong (OR=2.71, 95% CI 1.46 to 5.04) and travel including rural areas (OR=5.67, 95% CI 3.11 to 10.34) were predictors of optimum pre-travel health preparations. Underestimation of malaria risks was a major barrier to adequate pre-travel health preparations. Targeted health education and information about risk is necessary to improve levels of travel health preparedness. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Rabies in travelers.

    PubMed

    Gautret, Philippe; Parola, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    Most cases of rabies in travelers are associated with dog bites and occur in adults who are commonly migrants. The incidence of injuries to travelers caused by potentially rabid animals is approximately 0.4 % per month of stay. Dogs account for 51 % of cases, but nonhuman primates are the leading animals responsible for injuries in travelers returning from Southeast Asia. Travel to Southeast Asia, India and North Africa, young age, and traveling for tourism are risk factors for potential exposure. More than 70 % of travelers are not immunized prior to departing and do not receive adequate care when injured. The intradermal vaccination route has been proven economical, safe and immunogenic in travelers. The immunity provided by the three-dose series is long-lasting and should be considered an investment for future travel. Abbreviated schedules may be used for last-minute travelers.

  18. International travel and vaccinations.

    PubMed Central

    Rizvon, M K; Qazi, S; Ward, L A

    1999-01-01

    With the increase in global travel, no disease is beyond the reach of any population. Traveling patients should be advised to follow food and water precautions and encouraged to receive the recommended immunizations. Travel medicine plays a vital role not only in limiting the morbidity of travel-related illnesses but also in limiting the spread of diseases. This article addresses the common issues related to travel, reviews the care of the immunocompromised traveler, and updates the available vaccinations and prophylactic regimens available to limit sickness abroad. PMID:10063396

  19. Travel Time to Hospital for Childbirth: Comparing Calculated Versus Reported Travel Times in France.

    PubMed

    Pilkington, Hugo; Prunet, Caroline; Blondel, Béatrice; Charreire, Hélène; Combier, Evelyne; Le Vaillant, Marc; Amat-Roze, Jeanne-Marie; Zeitlin, Jennifer

    2017-08-05

    Objectives Timely access to health care is critical in obstetrics. Yet obtaining reliable estimates of travel times to hospital for childbirth poses methodological challenges. We compared two measures of travel time, self-reported and calculated, to assess concordance and to identify determinants of long travel time to hospital for childbirth. Methods Data came from the 2010 French National Perinatal Survey, a national representative sample of births (N = 14 681). We compared both travel time measures by maternal, maternity unit and geographic characteristics in rural, peri-urban and urban areas. Logistic regression models were used to study factors associated with reported and calculated times ≥30 min. Cohen's kappa coefficients were also calculated to estimate the agreement between reported and calculated times according to women's characteristics. Results In urban areas, the proportion of women with travel times ≥30 min was higher when reported rather than calculated times were used (11.0 vs. 3.6%). Longer reported times were associated with non-French nationality [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.3 (95% CI 1.0-1.7)] and inadequate prenatal care [aOR 1.5 (95% CI 1.2-2.0)], but not for calculated times. Concordance between the two measures was higher in peri-urban and rural areas (52.4 vs. 52.3% for rural areas). Delivery in a specialised level 2 or 3 maternity unit was a principal determinant of long reported and measured times in peri-urban and rural areas. Conclusions for Practice The level of agreement between reported and calculated times varies according to geographic context. Poor measurement of travel time in urban areas may mask problems in accessibility.

  20. Travel and Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... medical records with you while traveling. High Altitudes, Exotic Spots Traveling to higher altitudes shouldn’t necessarily ... The bigger concern, Gandy said, is that an exotic place may have less access to good medical ...

  1. Traveler's diarrhea diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... diarrhea. Function Bacteria and other substances in the water and food can cause traveler's diarrhea. People who live in ... your risk for getting traveler's diarrhea by avoiding water, ice, and food that may be contaminated. The goal of the ...

  2. Zika Travel Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... GeoSentinel Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Zika Travel Information Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Language: ... Map of Areas with Risk of Zika Zika Travel Notices Zika Virus in Cape Verde Zika Virus ...

  3. Travelers' Health: Meningococcal Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children Fish Poisoning in Travelers Food and Water Getting Health ... Suppl 2: B26–36. Rosenstein NE, Perkins BA, Stephens DS, Popovic T, Hughes JM. Meningococcal disease. N ...

  4. Intercity Travel Data Search.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Intercity Travel Data Search is an annotated bibliography on U.S. domestic intercity passenger travel by the four major modes of air, auto, bus and...socioeconomic, attitudinal and trip behavior characteristics of intercity travelers , and (3) demand models for predicting point-to-point intercity... travel . The bibliography totals 422 items, almost all published after 1964. Approximately 100 of these are in the first two subject areas and the

  5. Vaccines for international travel.

    PubMed

    McKinney, W P

    2001-12-01

    American travelers increasingly are selecting exotic destinations in the developing world. This poses a challenge to primary care clinicians who wish to provide recommendations to their patients regarding optimal protection from infectious disease risks. Recommendations should be individualized for each traveler and journey, accounting for personal health, health risks of specific destinations, style of travel, and activities anticipated. This article updates practitioners on the essentials of immunization before international travel.

  6. Travel Agent Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    Written for college entry-level travel agent training courses, this course outline can also be used for inservice training programs offered by travel agencies. The outline provides information on the work of a travel agent and gives clear statements on what learners must be able to do by the end of their training. Material is divided into eight…

  7. Traveling and Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Traveling and Asthma KidsHealth > For Kids > Traveling and Asthma A A A What's in this ... t have to get in the way of travel fun. Let's find out how to be prepared ...

  8. The Jet Travel Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    Airplane travelers are dismayed by the long lines and seemingly chaotic activities that precede boarding a full airplane. Surely, the one who can solve this problem is going to make many travelers happy. This article describes the Jet Travel Challenge, an activity that challenges students to create some alternatives to this now frustrating…

  9. The Jet Travel Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    Airplane travelers are dismayed by the long lines and seemingly chaotic activities that precede boarding a full airplane. Surely, the one who can solve this problem is going to make many travelers happy. This article describes the Jet Travel Challenge, an activity that challenges students to create some alternatives to this now frustrating…

  10. Minimizing travel claims cost with minimal-spanning tree model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamalluddin, Mohd Helmi; Jaafar, Mohd Azrul; Amran, Mohd Iskandar; Ainul, Mohd Sharizal; Hamid, Aqmar; Mansor, Zafirah Mohd; Nopiah, Zulkifli Mohd

    2014-06-01

    Travel demand necessitates a big expenditure in spending, as has been proven by the National Audit Department (NAD). Every year the auditing process is carried out throughout the country involving official travel claims. This study focuses on the use of the Spanning Tree model to determine the shortest path to minimize the cost of the NAD's official travel claims. The objective is to study the possibility of running a network based in the Kluang District Health Office to eight Rural Clinics in Johor state using the Spanning Tree model applications for optimizing travelling distances and make recommendations to the senior management of the Audit Department to analyze travelling details before an audit is conducted. Result of this study reveals that there were claims of savings of up to 47.4% of the original claims, over the course of the travel distance.

  11. Preparing the traveller.

    PubMed

    Spira, Alan M

    2003-04-19

    The four steps for giving travellers the foundation for healthy journeys are to assess their health, analyse their itineraries, select vaccines, and provide education about prevention and self-treatment of travel-related diseases. This process takes time. Since there is a risk of information overload, travellers should leave the clinic with some written advice for reinforcement. The order of these steps can be tailored to what best suits the travel clinic, but vaccinating early in the process allows monitoring for adverse reactions. Face-to-face discussion is vital for explaining the use and side-effects of medications. Those who provide a travel medicine service should be seeing many travellers and should seek specialist training. In 2003, the International Society of Travel Medicine introduced a certificate of knowledge examination in travel medicine. We cannot make travellers bullet-proof but it is possible to make them bullet-resistant. The pre-travel visit should minimise health risks specific to the journey, give travellers the capability to handle most minor medical problems, and allow them to identify when to seek local care during the trip or on return.

  12. Travel/Travelers and Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can Be Acquired During Travel* Contaminated Food and Water More Common giardiasis cryptosporidiosis cyclosporiasis Less Common amebiasis ... Page last updated: July 28, 2016 Content source: Global Health - Division of Parasitic Diseases Email Recommend Tweet ...

  13. Improving health sector travel.

    PubMed

    Hurdle, David; Davis, Adrian

    2004-10-01

    Preventing ill health and obesity and building more physical activity into our daily lives have never been so high on the agenda, and the way we travel can help. Many workplaces and schools are drawing up travel plans, with the aims usually to minimise car use and encourage healthier and more environmentally friendly travel. The Transport White Paper of 1998 advocated travel plans and singled out hospitals for action. Travel plans continue to be a focus within the latest Transport White Paper, launched in July 2004. This article covers various prompts to the health sector to implement travel plans. It addresses issues and concerns facing NHS Trusts, the practical things Trusts can do, and the increasing amount of good practice available. Finally, it demonstrates that travel plans can work, and are working, in the health sector.

  14. A week in the life of a travel clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Blair, D C

    1997-01-01

    International travel has increased enormously in recent years. With the greater movement of people have come increased encounters with a wide variety of diseases: malaria, dengue, cholera, typhoid fever, Ebola virus, and many more. The need for greater scope, consistency, and knowledgeability in pretravel health care to meet these challenges has been met by the emergence of the discipline of travel medicine. Travelers are well advised to become informed of the risks they face and to take steps to minimize those risks. After reviewing a traveler's medical history and a detailed itinerary, a travel medicine practitioner can offer expert advice on behavioral modifications, immunizations, and chemoprophylaxis regimens which will increase the traveler's margin of safety. The issues most frequently addressed in a travel clinic include treatment of traveler's diarrhea, malaria chemoprophylaxis, and immunizations, for hepatitis A, typhoid fever, tetanus/diphtheria, influenza, pneumococcus, hepatitis B, polio, meningococcus, measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, and rabies. Pretravel consultation must consider the age and underlying health problems of the traveler, the nature of the trip (wilderness, jungle, rural, urban, resort, or cruise), the duration of travel, and the latest available information on the site in terms of disease outbreaks, terrorism, and natural calamities. PMID:9336667

  15. A week in the life of a travel clinic.

    PubMed

    Blair, D C

    1997-10-01

    International travel has increased enormously in recent years. With the greater movement of people have come increased encounters with a wide variety of diseases: malaria, dengue, cholera, typhoid fever, Ebola virus, and many more. The need for greater scope, consistency, and knowledgeability in pretravel health care to meet these challenges has been met by the emergence of the discipline of travel medicine. Travelers are well advised to become informed of the risks they face and to take steps to minimize those risks. After reviewing a traveler's medical history and a detailed itinerary, a travel medicine practitioner can offer expert advice on behavioral modifications, immunizations, and chemoprophylaxis regimens which will increase the traveler's margin of safety. The issues most frequently addressed in a travel clinic include treatment of traveler's diarrhea, malaria chemoprophylaxis, and immunizations, for hepatitis A, typhoid fever, tetanus/diphtheria, influenza, pneumococcus, hepatitis B, polio, meningococcus, measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, and rabies. Pretravel consultation must consider the age and underlying health problems of the traveler, the nature of the trip (wilderness, jungle, rural, urban, resort, or cruise), the duration of travel, and the latest available information on the site in terms of disease outbreaks, terrorism, and natural calamities.

  16. Immunizations for foreign travel.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of preparing travelers for destinations throughout the world is providing them with immunizations. Before administering any vaccines, however, a careful health and immunization history and travel itinerary should be obtained in order to determine vaccine indications and contraindications. There are three categories of immunizations for foreign travel. The first category includes immunizations which are routinely recommended whether or not the individual is traveling. Many travelers are due for primary vaccination or boosting against tetanus-diphtheria, measles-mumps-rubella, pneumococcal pneumonia, and influenza, for example, and the pre-travel visit is an ideal time to administer these. The second category are immunizations which might be required by a country as a condition for entry; these are yellow fever and cholera. The final category contains immunizations which are recommended because there is a risk of acquiring a particular disease during travel. Typhoid fever, meningococcal disease, rabies, and hepatitis are some examples. Travelers who are pregnant or who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus require special consideration. Provision of appropriate immunizations for foreign travel is an important aspect of preventing illness in travelers. PMID:1337807

  17. Geographic disparities in patient travel for dialysis in the United States.

    PubMed

    Stephens, J Mark; Brotherton, Samuel; Dunning, Stephan C; Emerson, Larry C; Gilbertson, David T; Harrison, David J; Kochevar, John J; McClellan, Ann C; McClellan, William M; Wan, Shaowei; Gitlin, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    To estimate travel distance and time for US hemodialysis patients and to compare travel of rural versus urban patients. Dialysis patient residences were estimated from ZIP code-level patient counts as of February 2011 allocated within the ZIP code proportional to census tract-level population, obtained from the 2010 U.S. Census. Dialysis facility addresses were obtained from Medicare public-use files. Patients were assigned to an "original" and "replacement" facility, assuming patients used the facility closest to home and would select the next closest facility as a replacement, if a replacement facility was required. Driving distances and times were calculated between patient residences and facility locations using GIS software. The mean one-way driving distance to the original facility was 7.9 miles; for rural patients average distances were 2.5 times farther than for urban patients (15.9 vs. 6.2 miles). Mean driving distance to a replacement facility was 10.6 miles, with rural patients traveling on average 4 times farther than urban patients to a replacement facility (28.8 vs. 6.8 miles). Rural patients travel much longer distances for dialysis than urban patients. Accessing alternative facilities, if required, would greatly increase rural patient travel, while having little impact on urban patients. Increased travel could have clinical implications as longer travel is associated with increased mortality and decreased quality of life. © 2013 National Rural Health Association.

  18. Histoplasmosis in Israeli Travelers

    PubMed Central

    Segel, Michael J.; Rozenman, Judith; Lindsley, Mark D.; Lachish, Tamar; Berkman, Neville; Neuberger, Ami; Schwartz, Eli

    2015-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a common endemic human mycoses acquired mostly in the Americas. We reviewed 23 cases of histoplasmosis in Israeli travelers; 22 had traveled to Central or South America and one to North America. Fourteen cases had been exposed to bat habitats and were symptomatic, presenting ≤ 3 months after their return. Asymptomatic patients (N = 9) were diagnosed during the evaluation of incidental radiological findings or because a travel partner had been suspected of Histoplasma infection, 16–120 months after their return. Serological testing was positive in 75% of symptomatic cases but only 22% of asymptomatic cases. Histoplasmosis should be considered in travelers returning from the Americas with respiratory or febrile illness within weeks of return, particularly if exposed to bat habitats. Travel history is essential in patients presenting with pulmonary nodules, even years after travel to endemic countries. PMID:25918200

  19. Histoplasmosis in Israeli travelers.

    PubMed

    Segel, Michael J; Rozenman, Judith; Lindsley, Mark D; Lachish, Tamar; Berkman, Neville; Neuberger, Ami; Schwartz, Eli

    2015-06-01

    Histoplasmosis is a common endemic human mycoses acquired mostly in the Americas. We reviewed 23 cases of histoplasmosis in Israeli travelers; 22 had traveled to Central or South America and one to North America. Fourteen cases had been exposed to bat habitats and were symptomatic, presenting ≤ 3 months after their return. Asymptomatic patients (N = 9) were diagnosed during the evaluation of incidental radiological findings or because a travel partner had been suspected of Histoplasma infection, 16-120 months after their return. Serological testing was positive in 75% of symptomatic cases but only 22% of asymptomatic cases. Histoplasmosis should be considered in travelers returning from the Americas with respiratory or febrile illness within weeks of return, particularly if exposed to bat habitats. Travel history is essential in patients presenting with pulmonary nodules, even years after travel to endemic countries.

  20. [Travel and venous thromboembolism].

    PubMed

    Hallundbæk Mikkelsen, Kristian; Knudsen, Stine Ulrik; Nannestad Jørgensen, Lars

    2013-10-28

    A literature study on the association between travel and venous thromboembolism (VTE) is conducted. Studies examining the risk of travel-associated VTE, predisposing factors and prophylactic measures are presented. It is concluded that the absolute risk of travel-associated VTE is low and holds a 2-4 fold increase after travel. The risk increases with duration, presence of other risk factors for VTE and extremes of height. Stockings reduces the risk of asymptomatic VTE. Heparin is presumed to constitute protection whereas there is no evidence of a prophylactic effect of acetylsalicylic acid.

  1. Pregnancy and travel.

    PubMed

    Barry, M; Bia, F

    1989-02-03

    The special problems of travel during pregnancy have become clinically important as more women are traveling to remote places for business or recreation. Optimal maintenance of fetal and maternal health under these circumstances entails specific considerations for which data, unfortunately, remain incomplete. Nevertheless, questions regarding immunizations, antimalarials, therapy for traveler's diarrhea, and even the risks of high altitude or vigorous exercise for the pregnant woman may be examined clinically. With a few important exceptions, sufficient information is available to ensure relatively safe travel in pregnancy provided precautions are taken and preparations are made.

  2. Effects of residence and race on burden of travel for care: cross sectional analysis of the 2001 US National Household Travel Survey.

    PubMed

    Probst, Janice C; Laditka, Sarah B; Wang, Jong-Yi; Johnson, Andrew O

    2007-03-09

    Travel burden is a key element in conceptualizing geographic access to health care. Prior research has shown that both rural and minority populations bear disproportionate travel burdens. However, many studies are limited to specific types of patient or specific locales. The purpose of our study was to quantify geographic and race-based differences in distance traveled and time spent in travel for medical/dental care using representative national data. Data were drawn from 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS), a nationally representative, cross-sectional household survey conducted by the US Department of Transportation. Participants recorded all travel on a designated day; the overall response rate was 41%. Analyses were restricted to households reporting at least one trip for medical and/or dental care; 3,914 trips made by 2,432 households. Dependent variables in the analysis were road miles traveled, minutes spent traveling, and high travel burden, defined as more than 30 miles or 30 minutes per trip. Independent variables of interest were rural residence and race. Characteristics of the individual, the trip, and the community were controlled in multivariate analyses. The average trip for care in the US in 2001 entailed 10.2 road miles (16.4 kilometers) and 22.0 minutes of travel. Rural residents traveled further than urban residents in unadjusted analysis (17.5 versus 8.3 miles; 28.2 versus 13.4 km). Rural trips took 31.4% longer than urban trips (27.2 versus 20.7 minutes). Distance traveled did not vary by race. African Americans spent more time in travel than whites (29.1 versus 20.6 minutes); other minorities did not differ. In adjusted analyses, rural residence (odds ratio, OR, 2.67, 95% confidence interval, CI 1.39 5.1.5) was associated with a trip of 30 road miles or more; rural residence (OR, 1.80, CI 1.09 2.99) and African American race/ethnicity (OR 3.04. 95% CI 2.0 4.62) were associated with a trip lasting 30 minutes or longer. Rural residents

  3. National Rural Health Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Policy Responses Sequestration Impact Programs State Rural Health Associations Rural Medical Education Rural Health Fellows Rural Health ... Membership Categories Membership Application PROGRAMS State Rural Health Associations Rural Medical Education Rural Health Fellows Rural Health ...

  4. Pre-Travel Medical Preparation of Business and Occupational Travelers

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nomana M.; Jentes, Emily S.; Brown, Clive; Han, Pauline; Rao, Sowmya R.; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Hagmann, Stefan H.F.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Ryan, Edward T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to understand more about pre-travel preparations and itineraries of business and occupational travelers. Methods: De-identified data from 18 Global TravEpiNet clinics from January 2009 to December 2012 were analyzed. Results: Of 23,534 travelers, 61% were non-occupational and 39% occupational. Business travelers were more likely to be men, had short times to departure and shorter trip durations, and commonly refused influenza, meningococcal, and hepatitis B vaccines. Most business travelers indicated that employers suggested the pre-travel health consultation, whereas non-occupational travelers sought consultations because of travel health concerns. Conclusions: Sub-groups of occupational travelers have characteristic profiles, with business travelers being particularly distinct. Employers play a role in encouraging business travelers to seek pre-travel consultations. Such consultations, even if scheduled immediately before travel, can identify vaccination gaps and increase coverage. PMID:26479857

  5. Seismic Travel Time Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report consists of an introduction in which is given a list of published papers on the travel times of body waves together with brief comments on...velocity distribution in the outer core have been based on the travel times of SKS. However, SKS arrivals can only be observed satisfactorily for arc

  6. Illness in Returned Travellers

    PubMed Central

    Lawee, D.; Scappatura, P.; Gutman, E.

    1989-01-01

    Intercontinental travel is more common now than it has ever been before, and so are travel-related diseases. A thorough history and physical examination provide many clues to possible pathogens, particularly when combined with knowledge of the geographic distribution of specific diseases. Prompt diagnosis and proper treatment are imperative. PMID:21249095

  7. Information for Travellers' Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Allison, David J.; Blinco, Kimberley

    1990-01-01

    Physicians can obtain advice about international travel for their patients from many different sources of information. The authors review some of the most common sources based on their experience at the International Travellers' Clinic operated by the New Brunswick Department of Health and Community Services in Fredericton. They identify readily available handbooks and periodicals and compare two computer software programs. PMID:21233910

  8. Air Travel Health Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... improved health Before your flightOne key to air travel is to prepare ahead of time. If you are carrying on a bag, make ... need to change if your eating and sleeping times will change at your destination.If you have diabetes or epilepsy, you should travel with your ID card. For instance, the American ...

  9. Dengue infections in travellers

    PubMed Central

    Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2012-01-01

    Dengue has been designated a major international public health problem by the World Health Organization (WHO). It is endemic in most tropical and sub-tropical countries, which are also popular tourist destinations. Travellers are not only at significant risk of acquiring dengue but they also contribute to its spread to non-endemic regions. Furthermore, they may serve as sentinels to alert the international community to epidemics in dengue-endemic regions. GeoSentinel, a global surveillance network, monitors all travel-related illnesses and estimates that dengue accounts for 2% of all illness in travellers returning from dengue-endemic regions. In fact, in travellers returning from South-east Asia, dengue is now a more frequent cause of febrile illness than malaria. Dengue-infected travellers returning home to countries where the vector exists can place the local population at risk of further spread of the disease with subsequent autochthonous cycles of infection. The true incidence of dengue amongst travellers may be underestimated because of variability in reporting requirements in different countries and under-diagnosis owing to the non-specific clinical presentation of the disease. Risk factors for acquiring dengue include duration of stay, season of travel and epidemic activity at the destination. Any pre-travel advice on the risks of developing dengue infections should consider these factors. PMID:22668447

  10. Travelers' Health: Mumps

    MedlinePlus

    ... about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Home Destinations Travel Notices Zika Travel Information World Map of Zika Questions and ... confirmation of mumps involves virus isolation with RT-PCR or culture. For further information on laboratory testing, see ... ...

  11. Information for travellers' physicians.

    PubMed

    Allison, D J; Blinco, K

    1990-07-01

    Physicians can obtain advice about international travel for their patients from many different sources of information. The authors review some of the most common sources based on their experience at the International Travellers' Clinic operated by the New Brunswick Department of Health and Community Services in Fredericton. They identify readily available handbooks and periodicals and compare two computer software programs.

  12. Orthopedic Surgery in Rural American Hospitals: A Survey of Rural Hospital Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weichel, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Rural American residents prefer to receive their medical care locally. Lack of specific medical services in the local community necessitates travel to a larger center which is less favorable. This study was done to identify how rural hospitals choose to provide orthopedic surgical services to their communities. Methods: All hospitals in 5 states…

  13. How Does Degree of Rurality Impact the Provision of Surgical Services at Rural Hospitals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doty, Brit; Zuckerman, Randall; Finlayson, Samuel; Jenkins, Paul; Rieb, Nathaniel; Heneghan, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Context: Rural residents frequently have decreased access to surgical services. Consequences of this situation include increased travel time and financial costs for patients. There are also economic implications for hospitals as they may lose revenue when patients leave the area in order to obtain surgical services. Rural communities vary in size…

  14. Orthopedic Surgery in Rural American Hospitals: A Survey of Rural Hospital Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weichel, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Rural American residents prefer to receive their medical care locally. Lack of specific medical services in the local community necessitates travel to a larger center which is less favorable. This study was done to identify how rural hospitals choose to provide orthopedic surgical services to their communities. Methods: All hospitals in 5 states…

  15. [Fever after travel return].

    PubMed

    Schedel, I

    2004-06-01

    Between 20 and 70 percent of the 50 million people who travel from the industrialized world to the developing world each year report some illness associated with their travel. Approximately 3 percent of people traveling internationally for short periods (<2 weeks) report fever even after travel. Careful assessment of the travel history, likely incubation period, exposure history, associated signs and symptoms, duration of fever, immunization status use or nonuse of antimalarial chemoprophylaxis, and degree of compliance with a chemoprophylactic regimen, if used, helps to establish the diagnosis. Determining an approximate incubation period can be particular helpful in ruling out possible causes of fever. Specific examinations targeting the individual infection, assumed to be responsible for the development of febrile disease may ascertain diagnosis and lead to effective treatment.

  16. Travelers' Health: Traveling Safely with Infants and Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  17. Quantifying travel behavior for infectious disease research: a comparison of data from surveys and mobile phones.

    PubMed

    Wesolowski, Amy; Stresman, Gillian; Eagle, Nathan; Stevenson, Jennifer; Owaga, Chrispin; Marube, Elizabeth; Bousema, Teun; Drakeley, Christopher; Cox, Jonathan; Buckee, Caroline O

    2014-07-14

    Human travel impacts the spread of infectious diseases across spatial and temporal scales, with broad implications for the biological and social sciences. Individual data on travel patterns have been difficult to obtain, particularly in low-income countries. Travel survey data provide detailed demographic information, but sample sizes are often small and travel histories are hard to validate. Mobile phone records can provide vast quantities of spatio-temporal travel data but vary in spatial resolution and explicitly do not include individual information in order to protect the privacy of subscribers. Here we compare and contrast both sources of data over the same time period in a rural area of Kenya. Although both data sets are able to quantify broad travel patterns and distinguish regional differences in travel, each provides different insights that can be combined to form a more detailed picture of travel in low-income settings to understand the spread of infectious diseases.

  18. Quantifying travel behavior for infectious disease research: a comparison of data from surveys and mobile phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesolowski, Amy; Stresman, Gillian; Eagle, Nathan; Stevenson, Jennifer; Owaga, Chrispin; Marube, Elizabeth; Bousema, Teun; Drakeley, Christopher; Cox, Jonathan; Buckee, Caroline O.

    2014-07-01

    Human travel impacts the spread of infectious diseases across spatial and temporal scales, with broad implications for the biological and social sciences. Individual data on travel patterns have been difficult to obtain, particularly in low-income countries. Travel survey data provide detailed demographic information, but sample sizes are often small and travel histories are hard to validate. Mobile phone records can provide vast quantities of spatio-temporal travel data but vary in spatial resolution and explicitly do not include individual information in order to protect the privacy of subscribers. Here we compare and contrast both sources of data over the same time period in a rural area of Kenya. Although both data sets are able to quantify broad travel patterns and distinguish regional differences in travel, each provides different insights that can be combined to form a more detailed picture of travel in low-income settings to understand the spread of infectious diseases.

  19. Quantifying travel behavior for infectious disease research: a comparison of data from surveys and mobile phones

    PubMed Central

    Wesolowski, Amy; Stresman, Gillian; Eagle, Nathan; Stevenson, Jennifer; Owaga, Chrispin; Marube, Elizabeth; Bousema, Teun; Drakeley, Christopher; Cox, Jonathan; Buckee, Caroline O.

    2014-01-01

    Human travel impacts the spread of infectious diseases across spatial and temporal scales, with broad implications for the biological and social sciences. Individual data on travel patterns have been difficult to obtain, particularly in low-income countries. Travel survey data provide detailed demographic information, but sample sizes are often small and travel histories are hard to validate. Mobile phone records can provide vast quantities of spatio-temporal travel data but vary in spatial resolution and explicitly do not include individual information in order to protect the privacy of subscribers. Here we compare and contrast both sources of data over the same time period in a rural area of Kenya. Although both data sets are able to quantify broad travel patterns and distinguish regional differences in travel, each provides different insights that can be combined to form a more detailed picture of travel in low-income settings to understand the spread of infectious diseases. PMID:25022440

  20. Space Invaders and Pedagogical Innovators: Regional Educational Understandings from Australian Occupational Travelers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danaher, Patrick Alan; Danaher, Geoff; Moriarty, Beverley

    2003-01-01

    Australian occupational Travelers such as circus and fairground people often enter territories normally occupied by permanent residents. This article examines the ways in which these Travelers act as "space invaders," disrupting the boundaries between urban and rural, and as pedagogical innovators, when they develop pioneering approaches…

  1. Traveler's Health: Avoid Bug Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  2. Understanding taxi travel patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Hua; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhu, Ji; Jia, Xiaoping; Chiu, Anthony S. F.; Xu, Ming

    2016-09-01

    Taxis play important roles in modern urban transportation systems, especially in mega cities. While providing necessary amenities, taxis also significantly contribute to traffic congestion, urban energy consumption, and air pollution. Understanding the travel patterns of taxis is thus important for addressing many urban sustainability challenges. Previous research has primarily focused on examining the statistical properties of passenger trips, which include only taxi trips occupied with passengers. However, unoccupied trips are also important for urban sustainability issues because they represent potential opportunities to improve the efficiency of the transportation system. Therefore, we need to understand the travel patterns of taxis as an integrated system, instead of focusing only on the occupied trips. In this study we examine GPS trajectory data of 11,880 taxis in Beijing, China for a period of three weeks. Our results show that taxi travel patterns share similar traits with travel patterns of individuals but also exhibit differences. Trip displacement distribution of taxi travels is statistically greater than the exponential distribution and smaller than the truncated power-law distribution. The distribution of short trips (less than 30 miles) can be best fitted with power-law while long trips follow exponential decay. We use radius of gyration to characterize individual taxi's travel distance and find that it does not follow a truncated power-law as observed in previous studies. Spatial and temporal regularities exist in taxi travels. However, with increasing spatial coverage, taxi trips can exhibit dual high probability density centers.

  3. [Vaccinations for international travelers].

    PubMed

    Berens-Riha, N; Alberer, M; Löscher, T

    2014-03-01

    Vaccinations are a prominent part of health preparations before international travel. They can avoid or significantly reduce the risk of numerous infectious diseases. Until recently, vaccination against yellow fever was the only obligatory vaccination. However, according to updated international health regulations, other vaccinations and prophylactic measures may be required at entry from certain countries. For all routine vaccinations as recommended in Germany, necessary revaccination and catch-up of missed vaccinations should be administered before travel. At most destinations the risk of infection is higher than in Germany. Hepatitis A vaccine is generally recommended for travelers to areas of increased risk, polio vaccine for all destinations where eradication is not yet confirmed (Asia and Africa). The indications for other travel vaccines must take into consideration travel destination and itinerary, type and duration of travel, individual risk of exposure as well as the epidemiology of the disease to be prevented. Several vaccines of potential interest for travel medicine, e.g., new vaccines against malaria and dengue fever, are under development.

  4. [Traveling with immunosuppression].

    PubMed

    Birkenfeld, G

    2014-03-01

    The rapidly increasing number of patients with immunosuppression is followed by their expectation to lead-as much as possible-a "normal" life, including long-distance travel. The advice and preventive measures for diseases associated with travelling depend overall on the mode of the patient's immunosuppression. This report explains the individual preventive possibilities, limits and risks for travellers with asplenia, common variable immunodeficiency, chronic inflammatory bowel and rheumatic diseases, HIV, as well as for patients having undergone solid organ or bone marrow transplantation or chemotherapy.

  5. [Travel destinations South America].

    PubMed

    Neumayr, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    The number of tourists visiting South America comprises only a small fraction of the worldwide stream of international travellers (approx. 980 Mio. in 2011). Nevertheless, their number has markedly increased in the last years (2000: 15.3 Mio.; 2005: 18.3 Mio.; 2010: 23.6 Mio.; 2011: 26.1 Mio.) and in 2011, South America was ranked top in the list of worldwide travel destinations with the highest increase in annual international tourist arrivals (10.4 %)[1]. This article aims at providing a practice-oriented overview on vaccinations, malaria prophylaxis, and other relevant health risks to be considered when counselling travellers visiting South America.

  6. Have Courses, Will Travel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Yvonne Michie

    1981-01-01

    The University of Portland offers a Bachelor of Science in Nursing degree in rural Roseburg, Oregon, through an outreach program based at Umpqua Community College in Roseburg. The program enables rural nurses to acquire the degree while continuing to live and work in their community. (SK)

  7. Space Traveler Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Describes the winners of the Space Traveler Project, a contest jointly sponsored by Rockwell International, NASA, and this magazine to identify worthwhile elementary science programs relating to the Space Shuttle. (SJL)

  8. Tips for Travel

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Avoid bringing bed bugs home by taking precautions when traveling such as inspecting bedding and luggage racks in hotel rooms, and upon returning home unpacking directly into a washing machine and dry at high temperatures.

  9. Traveling-wave photodetector

    SciTech Connect

    Hietala, V.M.; Vawter, G.A.

    1992-12-31

    The traveling-wave photodetector of the present invention combines an absorptive optical waveguide and an electrical transmission line, in which optical absorption in the waveguide results in a photocurrent at the electrodes of the electrical transmission line. The optical waveguide and electrical transmission line of the electrically distributed traveling-wave photodetector are designed to achieve matched velocities between the light in the optical waveguide and electrical signal generated on the transmission line. This velocity synchronization provides the traveling-wave photodetector with a large electrical bandwidth and a high quantum efficiency, because of the effective extended volume for optical absorption. The traveling-wave photodetector also provides large power dissipation, because of its large physical size.

  10. Travelers' Health: Scuba Diving

    MedlinePlus

    ... Books, Journals, Articles & Websites Resources for the Travel Industry Yellow Book Contents Chapter 2 (21) Scuba Diving ... disease, and pregnancy raise special concerns about diving fitness. Special mention must be made regarding cardiovascular fitness. ...

  11. Travelers' Health: HIV Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Compartir Chapter 3 - Histoplasmosis Chapter 3 - Influenza HIV Infection Philip J. Peters, John T. Brooks INFECTIOUS ... at 888-448-4911 ( www.nccc.ucsf.edu ). HIV TESTING REQUIREMENTS FOR US TRAVELERS ENTERING FOREIGN COUNTRIES ...

  12. Traveling-wave photodetector

    DOEpatents

    Hietala, V.M.; Vawter, G.A.

    1993-12-14

    The traveling-wave photodetector of the present invention combines an absorptive optical waveguide and an electrical transmission line, in which optical absorption in the waveguide results in a photocurrent at the electrodes of the electrical transmission line. The optical waveguide and electrical transmission line of the electrically distributed traveling-wave photodetector are designed to achieve matched velocities between the light in the optical waveguide and electrical signal generated on the transmission line. This velocity synchronization provides the traveling-wave photodetector with a large electrical bandwidth and a high quantum efficiency, because of the effective extended volume for optical absorption. The traveling-wave photodetector also provides large power dissipation, because of its large physical size. 4 figures.

  13. Traveling-wave photodetector

    DOEpatents

    Hietala, Vincent M.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    1993-01-01

    The traveling-wave photodetector of the present invention combines an absorptive optical waveguide and an electrical transmission line, in which optical absorption in the waveguide results in a photocurrent at the electrodes of the electrical transmission line. The optical waveguide and electrical transmission line of the electrically distributed traveling-wave photodetector are designed to achieve matched velocities between the light in the optical waveguide and electrical signal generated on the transmission line. This velocity synchronization provides the traveling-wave photodetector with a large electrical bandwidth and a high quantum efficiency, because of the effective extended volume for optical absorption. The traveling-wave photodetector also provides large power dissipation, because of its large physical size.

  14. [Diabetes and travel].

    PubMed

    Bauduceau, B; Mayaudon, H; Ducorps, M; Belmejdoub, G; Thiolet, C; Pellan, M; Cosson, E

    1997-01-01

    With the continuing expansion in international air travel, increasing numbers of diabetic patients consult physicians for advice before going abroad. Careful planning is required taking into account climatic and medical conditions at the destination. Diabetic travelers should pack an appropriate treatment kit and contract special insurance coverage for medical evacuation. Precautions are necessary to limit the effects of motion sickness and time differences on diabetes control and especially the risk of hypoglycemia. Special attention is needed to avoid digestive problems and prevent foot injuries which can lead to serious complications in diabetic patients. Diabetic patients cannot forget their health problem during vacation and must be especially cautious when traveling. However with proper training, the risks of foreign travel can be reduced to acceptable levels.

  15. Space Traveler Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Describes the winners of the Space Traveler Project, a contest jointly sponsored by Rockwell International, NASA, and this magazine to identify worthwhile elementary science programs relating to the Space Shuttle. (SJL)

  16. Traveling Space Museum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    In an effort to inspire and motivate the next generation of space explorers, NASA’s Ames Research Center teamed up with the Traveling Space Museum to teach students the way astronauts are taughtâ...

  17. Malaria and Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov Malaria and Travelers Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... may be at risk for infection. Determine if malaria transmission occurs at the destinations Obtain a detailed ...

  18. Pregnancy and travel

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016. Freedman DO. Protection of travelers. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and ... TP, Rothman AL, Barrett AD. Flaviviruses. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and ...

  19. Traveling Safely with Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... means taking a trip. To be sure that you can stay healthy on your trip, ask your pharmacist about how to travel safely with your medicines. Make sure that you always carry a list of all the medicines ...

  20. Infections in travelers.

    PubMed

    Bomsztyk, Mayan; Arnold, Richard W

    2013-07-01

    Travel medicine continues to grow as international tourism and patient medical complexity increases. This article reflects the state of the current field, but new recommendations on immunizations, resistance patterns, and treatment modalities constantly change. The US Centers for Disease Control and the World Health Organization maintain helpful Web sites for both patient and physician. With thoughtful preparation and prevention, risks can be minimized and travel can continue as safely as possible.

  1. The New England travel market: changes in generational travel patterns

    Treesearch

    Rodney B. Warnick

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and explore the New England domestic travel market trends, from 1979 through 1991 within the context of generations. The existing travel markets, who travel to New England, are changing by age cohorts and specifically within different generations. The New England changes in generational travel patterns do not reflect national...

  2. Travelers' Health: Traveling Safely with Infants and Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Travel Families with Children Fish Poisoning in Travelers Food and Water Getting Health Care Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador Insurance International Adoption Jet Lag Last-Minute Travel Long-Term ...

  3. [Vaccination for international travelers].

    PubMed

    Arrazola, M Pilar; Serrano, Almudena; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-05-01

    Traveler's vaccination is one of the key strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases during international travel. The risk of acquiring an infectious disease is determined in each case by the characteristics of the traveler and the travel, so the pre-departure medical advice of the traveler must be individualized. The World Health Organization classifies travelerś vaccines into three groups. - Vaccines for routine use in national immunization programs: Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, polio, measles-mumps-rubella, tetanus-diphtheria-whooping a cough, and chickenpox. - Vaccinations required by law in certain countries before to enter them: yellow fever, meningococcal disease and poliomyelitis. - Vaccines recommended depending on the circumstances: cholera, japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies and BCG. This review is intended to introduce the reader to the field of international vaccination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  4. [Travel thrombosis, 2008].

    PubMed

    Sándor, Tamás

    2009-01-18

    In Hungary, the first studies on travel thrombosis were published at the beginning of the 2000s. In this paper recent investigational results of this special type of venous thrombosis have been reviewed. Travel thrombosis is a subgroup of sitting thromboses. It is a consequence of prolonged sitting which is common of ground transportation and air travel. More and more computer-linked sitting thromboses have been observed as well. Long-haul air travel related venous thrombosis is a multifactorial disease. Possible contributory risk factors are in connection with the milieu of the cabin. Various investigations evaluated the effect of immobilization and hypobaric hypoxia on thrombin generation and fibrinolysis. The studies differed much in participants' characteristics, duration and type of exposure and statistical analysis, so the results are contradictory. Personal, traveller-related risk factors may be regarded as triggers. The presently available evidences do not permit to assess the exact actual risk. For healthy young passengers there seem to be low risk. However, passengers suffering from predisposing factors for venous thromboembolism can be exposed to serious hazards, if they fly more than 5000 km or travel more than 8 hours. Proper safety measures are summarized on the basis of recent international recommendations.

  5. Rural pharmacy closures: implications for rural communities.

    PubMed

    Todd, Kelli; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Retail pharmacies provide essential services to residents of rural areas and serve many communities as the sole provider of pharmacist services. Losing the only retail pharmacy within a rural community (census designated city), and within a 10 mile radius based on driving distance ("sole community pharmacy"), may affect access to prescription and over-the-counter drugs and, in some cases, leave the community without proximate access to any clinical provider. This policy brief documents the closure of local retail pharmacies in which the pharmacist was the only clinical provider available in the community at the time the pharmacy closed. Characteristics of the community and the retail pharmacy are described. The findings may suggest future policy actions to minimize the risk or mitigate the negative consequences of pharmacy closures. Key Findings. (1) Between May 1, 2006, and October 31, 2010, 119 sole community pharmacies closed. (2) Of those 119 pharmacies, 31 were located in rural communities with no other health professionals or clinical providers. (3) In 16 states, at least 1 community lost a sole community retail pharmacy, and there was no other pharmacy within 10 miles (actual driving distance). (4) Of the 31 pharmacy closures in communities with no other providers, 17% were located in remote rural areas designated with a Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) score of 10 or higher. Such a score means that, on average, 60 minutes of travel time is required to reach an urbanized area, and 40 minutes is required to reach a large urban cluster of 20,000 population or more.

  6. Travel health attitudes among Turkish business travellers to African countries.

    PubMed

    Selcuk, Engin Burak; Kayabas, Uner; Binbasioglu, Hulisi; Otlu, Baris; Bayindir, Yasar; Bozdogan, Bulent; Karatas, Mehmet

    The number of international travellers is increasing worldwide. Although health risks related to international travel are important and generally well-understood, the perception of these risks was unclear among Turkish travellers. We aimed to evaluate the attitudes and health risk awareness of Turkish travellers travelling to African countries. A survey was performed of Turkish travellers bound for Africa from Istanbul International Ataturk Airport in July 2013. A total of 124 travellers were enrolled in the study. Among them, 62.9% had information about their destination but only 11.3% had looked for information on health problems related to travel and their destination. Of all travellers, 53.2% had at least one vaccination before travelling. The most commonly administered vaccine was for typhoid. Among the travellers, 69.3% and 80.6% had "no idea" about yellow fever vaccination and malaria prophylaxis, respectively. A positive correlation was found between a higher level of travellers' education and receiving the recommended vaccination for the destination. Our study revealed significant gaps in the vaccination and chemoprophylaxis uptake of Turkish travellers departing to Africa. An awareness and training program should be developed for travellers, as well as public health workers, to address health risks related to travel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk assessment in travel medicine.

    PubMed

    Leggat, Peter A

    2006-01-01

    Risk assessment is an integral part of pre-travel and post- assessment. Risk assessment largely determines what health and safety advice and interventions are given within the relevant prevailing travel health guidelines. Risk assessment needs time and depends on information, including that given by the traveller. Risk assessment also needs to be documented. Risk assessment of the traveller preferably starts before they enter the consulting room, where travellers may complete a pre-travel health questionnaire. Armed with this information, risk assessment may be assisted by access to computerised travel health databases and the published literature. Experience of travel to the destination may also assist in risk assessment and the tour operator, overseas employer or agency, the traveller or even the travel health advisers themselves may provide this information.

  8. Travel Health Advisory Group: a joint travel industry and travel health Special Interest Group promoting healthy travel in Australia.

    PubMed

    Leggat, Peter A; Zwar, Nicholas; Hudson, Bernie

    2012-09-01

    The Travel Health Advisory Group (THAG), established in 1997, is a joint initiative between the travel industry and travel health professionals in Australia that aims to promote healthy travel. THAG seeks to promote cooperation in improving the health of travellers between the travel industry and travel medicine professionals and to raise public awareness of the importance of travel health. From 2011, THAG has been a Special Interest Group of The Australasian College of Tropical Medicine and its membership has been active in several areas, including web-based travel health information, travel health promotion, media releases, research and education in Australia. Information is given on the objectives, membership and an overview of the various activities of the group.

  9. Travel-related thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Cannegieter, Suzanne C

    2012-09-01

    Travel-related thrombosis is a serious public health concern considering the large and increasing number of travellers. Due to a lack of evidence, counselling air travellers on their venous thrombosis risk is not immediately straightforward, and advice will have to be based mostly on theoretical grounds. In this review a basis for these considerations is given. First of all it needs to be recognized that venous thrombosis is a multicausal disease, i.e. several risk factors have to be present before an event occurs. This is reflected in the literature where clearly increased risks have been described for certain groups, such as subjects with factor V Leiden, those who use oral contraceptives or are obese. Also, an increased risk for tall and short people has been reported. So, for subjects with a known risk factor who plan to travel, benefits and risks of thrombosis prophylaxis, (pharmacological or other), need to be weighed. This review provides some theoretical examples. For all other travellers, the advice to move and exercise as much as possible is likely to be sufficient.

  10. [Counsel for traveling children].

    PubMed

    Sorge, F; Gendrel, D

    2013-01-01

    Consultation of child traveler has two main objectives: to assess of health risk related to the child's health status and history and also the risk related to travel environment; to counsel and prescribe preventive measure to reduce these travel health risks. The evaluation is based on physical examination and a detailed interview including personal history and information regarding the regions of proposed travel. Up to date knowledge of the epidemiology of visited sites, preventive measures and presumptive treatment is required. Essential health recommendations include, in case of exposure, prevention of malaria, arthropod borned diseases and vaccine preventable diseases. For all destinations advice regarding prevention of diarrhea, accident risks and aggravation of preexisting chronic diseases is needed. Universal primary prevention counselling is valuable for all travellers regardless of their age. In the case of children, special attention must be given to food and water hygiene, sun and heat exposure, swimming risks and transports security measures. Evaluation of risk and health education take time and often several visits are needed to complete the immunization schedule before departure.

  11. Nutrition for travel.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Thomas; Waterhouse, Jim; Burke, Louise M; Alonso, Juan Manuel

    2007-01-01

    The training and competitive programmes of elite athletes incorporate travel schedules, often long journeys, across multiple time zones. In such cases, travel causes both transient fatigue and a malaise known as "jet-lag" that persists for some days. Jet-lag is due to the disturbance of the body's circadian rhythms: diurnal and performance rhythms are displaced, depending on the direction of travel and the number of time zones crossed in flight. Attention to diet and hydration is relevant during the flight and following disembarkation until adjustment to the new meridian is complete. The consequences of jet-lag on rhythms in digestion may be compounded if food preparation and hygiene are inadequate in training camps or competitive venues overseas. The irony of travel is that it often places athletes at a greater risk of failing to meet their specific nutrition goals or succumbing to illness, at a time when the demands or outcomes of performance are of greatest importance. In addition, gastrointestinal infections related to travelling are frequent among athletes. Fastidious planning and organization among the support staff is recommended before the journey to prevent any such problems arising. Equally, athletes often need special education initiatives to assist them to cope with the challenges of a new and unusual food supply, or altered access to food.

  12. Rural Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckley, Betty; Hitchings, Jim

    1971-01-01

    A course in rural studies, as part of the Home Economics curriculum at Worcester College of Education, provides students with the opportunity to grow their own vegetables and flowers, look after livestock, and experience a rural environment. (RY)

  13. Rural maternity care.

    PubMed

    Miller, Katherine J; Couchie, Carol; Ehman, William; Graves, Lisa; Grzybowski, Stefan; Medves, Jennifer

    2012-10-01

    To provide an overview of current information on issues in maternity care relevant to rural populations. Medline was searched for articles published in English from 1995 to 2012 about rural maternity care. Relevant publications and position papers from appropriate organizations were also reviewed. This information will help obstetrical care providers in rural areas to continue providing quality care for women in their communities. Recommendations 1. Women who reside in rural and remote communities in Canada should receive high-quality maternity care as close to home as possible. 2. The provision of rural maternity care must be collaborative, woman- and family-centred, culturally sensitive, and respectful. 3. Rural maternity care services should be supported through active policies aligned with these recommendations. 4. While local access to surgical and anaesthetic services is desirable, there is evidence that good outcomes can be sustained within an integrated perinatal care system without local access to operative delivery. There is evidence that the outcomes are better when women do not have to travel far from their communities. Access to an integrated perinatal care system should be provided for all women. 5. The social and emotional needs of rural women must be considered in service planning. Women who are required to leave their communities to give birth should be supported both financially and emotionally. 6. Innovative interprofessional models should be implemented as part of the solution for high-quality, collaborative, and integrated care for rural and remote women. 7. Registered nurses are essential to the provision of high-quality rural maternity care throughout pregnancy, birth, and the postpartum period. Maternity nursing skills should be recognized as a fundamental part of generalist rural nursing skills. 8. Remuneration for maternity care providers should reflect the unique challenges and increased professional responsibility faced by providers in

  14. Travel, migration and HIV.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, S J; Hart, G J

    1993-01-01

    This is a review of recent publications on the subject of travel (taken in its widest sense) and HIV/AIDS. As with all epidemics caused by transmissible pathogens, AIDS has been seen in many countries as an imported problem. What this perspective fails to recognize is that with the explosion of international travel in the past thirty years it is virtually impossible to prevent the spread of infectious disease across international frontiers. Here we highlight the relative paucity of studies that describe or investigate the context in which sexual risk behaviour of travellers takes place, and suggest areas of further research which could increase understanding of the nature of sexual risk taking, and help in the design of health education programmes.

  15. Geographic Access to Health Care for Rural Medicare Beneficiaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Leighton; Hart, L. Gary; Goodman, David C.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Patients in rural areas may use less medical care than those living in urban areas. This could be due to differences in travel distance and time and a utilization of a different mix of generalists and specialists for their care. Purpose: To compare the travel times, distances, and physician specialty mix of all Medicare patients living in…

  16. Geographic Access to Health Care for Rural Medicare Beneficiaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Leighton; Hart, L. Gary; Goodman, David C.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Patients in rural areas may use less medical care than those living in urban areas. This could be due to differences in travel distance and time and a utilization of a different mix of generalists and specialists for their care. Purpose: To compare the travel times, distances, and physician specialty mix of all Medicare patients living in…

  17. Culture shock and travelers.

    PubMed

    Stewart, L; Leggat, P A

    1998-06-01

    As travel has become easier and more affordable, the number of people traveling has risen sharply. People travel for many and varied reasons, from the business person on an overseas assignment to backpackers seeking new and exotic destinations. Others may take up residence in different regions, states or countries for family, business or political reasons. Other people are fleeing religious or political persecution. Wherever they go and for whatever reason they go, people take their culture with them. Culture, like language, is acquired innately in early childhood and is then reinforced through formal and complex informal social education into adulthood. Culture provides a framework for interpersonal and social interactions. Therefore, the contact with a new culture is often not the exciting or pleasurable experience anticipated. When immersed in a different culture, people no longer know how to act when faced with disparate value systems. Contact with the unfamiliar culture can lead to anxiety, stress, mental illness and, in extreme cases, physical illness and suicide. "Culture shock" is a term coined by the anthropologist Oberg. It is the shock of the new. It implies that the experience of the new culture is an unpleasant surprise or shock, partly because it is unexpected and partly because it can lead to a negative evaluation of one's own culture. It is also known as cross-cultural adjustment, being that period of anxiety and confusion experienced when entering a new culture. It affects people intellectually, emotionally, behaviorally and physically and is characterized by symptoms of psychological distress. Culture shock affects both adults and children. In travelers or workers who have prolonged sojourns in foreign countries, culture shock may occur not only as they enter the new culture, but also may occur on their return to their original culture. Children may also experience readjustment problems after returning from leading sheltered lives in expatriate

  18. Intergalactic Travel Bureau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koski, Olivia; Rosin, Mark; Guerilla Science Team

    2014-03-01

    The Intergalactic Travel Bureau is an interactive theater outreach experience that engages the public in the incredible possibilities of space tourism. The Bureau is staffed by professional actors, who play the role of space travel agents, and professional astrophysicists, who play the role of resident scientists. Members of the public of all ages were invited to visit with bureau staff to plan the vacation of their dreams-to space. We describe the project's successful nine day run in New York in August 2013. Funded by the American Physical Society Public Outreach and Informing the Public Grants.

  19. Rural Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jess

    To be scientific, rural sociology must have a distinctive conceptual basis; therefore, defining "rural" has long been a major concern of rural sociologists. Recently faced with similar problems, political economists have revitalized the field of urban sociology by looking beyond the city to the social production of spatial forms under…

  20. Travel health. Part 1: preparing the tropical traveller.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Bernadette; Daniel, Amanda; Behrens, Ron H

    The health threats of modern day travel change as population, wealth and tourism increase across the world. A series of three articles have been written to describe the spectrum of health issues associated with travel. Pre-travel health advice has become more focused on risk assessment and educating the traveller about infectious disease and the more frequent non-infectious hazards associated with travel, while ensuring they are not unnecessarily exposed to injury from vaccines and drugs. In part one, the role of the health advisor and the needs of the traveller are examined. The importance of risk assessment during a consultation is described and factors that influence recommendations and prescribing are explored. As most travel-associated morbidity and mortality is non-vaccine preventable, the focus of the pre-travel consultation should be on educating the traveller and influencing behaviour change. The second article in this series deals with the highest risk group of travellers--residents who visit friends and relatives. It highlights their specific problems and special needs and how to influence their risk of disease by addressing their health beliefs and their cultural dimension of risk. The third article explores the common, and not so common, clinical problems found in returned travellers. Nurses have to deal with a large range of clinical problems and diagnostic dilemmas when attending to the returned traveller. The review provides a perspective on the frequency and severity of problems and how nurses should manage travel associated disease.

  1. The stress of travel.

    PubMed

    Waterhouse, J; Reilly, T; Edwards, B

    2004-10-01

    International travel is an essential part of the life of elite athletes, both for competition and training. It is also becoming increasingly common among recreational sportspersons. Long-distance travel is associated with a group of transient negative effects, collectively referred to as 'travel fatigue', which result from anxiety about the journey, the change to an individual's daily routine, and dehydration due to time spent in the dry air of the aircraft cabin. Travel fatigue lasts for only a day or so, but for those who fly across several time zones, there are also the longer-lasting difficulties associated with 'jet lag'. The problems of jet lag can last for over a week if the flight crosses 10 time zones or more, and they can reduce performance and the motivation to train effectively. Knowledge of the properties of the body clock enables the cause of the difficulties to be understood (an unadjusted body clock), and forms the basis of using light in the new time zone to promote adjustment of the body clock. Sleep loss and its effects are important components of jet lag, and attempts to promote sleep by the use of melatonin and other hypnotics are also relevant. Sleep loss is also found in those who undertake challenges that involve long periods where the normal consolidated sleep of 8 h length is not possible. Advice on sleep regimens in such circumstances is given.

  2. Family travel: an overview.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Karl

    2006-01-01

    Paediatric travel medicine involves the education of parents about the numerous health and safety issues related to traveling with infants and young children--whether overseas or a weekend at a local lake. It includes providing children with vaccines and medications, giving telephone advice to parents while they are traveling, and treating children should they come home ill. Practitioners must be knowledgeable about such varied topics like avoiding diarrhoea, infant safety seats for air travel, altitude sickness, sun exposure, waterfront safety, insect protection, dealing with hot and cold environments, and at what age it is safe to begin scuba diving, to name just a very few. Practitioners must also know when adult recommendations can--and cannot--be adapted for children; that vaccine doses, needle size, and injection site may vary with the size of the child; and the answers to hundreds of everyday questions such as how to administer an essential but bitter tasting medication to an uncooperative child--and what to do when the child refuses to take the medication or vomits it.

  3. Travel trends and energy

    Treesearch

    Thomas M. Corsi; Milton E. Harvey

    1980-01-01

    This paper utilizes available data sources to construct a picture of adjustment patterns in vacation/recreation travel with respect to both past and prospective fuel price/availability developments. The increases in fuel prices coupled with supply uncertainties that have occurred during the 1970's have strained the traditional vacation patterns of many American...

  4. Hyperspace for Space Travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Giorgio; Murad, Paul; Baker, Robert M. L.

    2007-01-01

    In the Theory of Relativity time is treated as a dimension. This property of time has never been completely understood and accepted because we instinctively perceive time only as a running parameter. In recent developments of the Theory of Relativity, it has been proposed to apply a coordinate transformation by which the four coordinates all acquire the dimension of space, with time defined as a running parameter related to the speed of light. The transformation formally defines the Four-Space or, using a common word for spaces with more than three dimensions, the ``Hyperspace''. Under this paradigm, the entire story of the Universe is similar to a set of nested trajectories in which our ``reality'' develops along a membrane moving through the nested trajectories at the speed of light. The new paradigm implies the existence of multiple ``parallel'' membranes, or parallel local universes or multiverses and ``crossing'' membranes, or ``orthogonal'' local Universes, which do not emerge from the plain Theory of Relativity. In the Hyperspace everything normally travels at the speed of light, but a localized strong gravitational field, which creates a propagation speed discontinuity in Hyperspace, may allow travel to different local universes or Faster Than Light (FTL) travel within the same local universe. The collision or focusing of gravitational waves can produce effects comparable to those of short-lived black holes that can be projected into the Hyperspace to produce the required speed modification. Well known optical effects and four-dimensional rotation may also find application to Hyperspace travel.

  5. Gulliver's Travels. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooks, Kirsten; McLean, Mary

    Based on Jonathan Swift's novel "Gulliver's Travels," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Swift comments on undesirable outcomes of advances in science; and other authors have also warned against abuse of science. The main activity of the lesson involves students developing a poster illustrating views of…

  6. Zika Travel Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners GeoSentinel Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Zika Travel Information Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... visit CDC’s Zika website . Areas with Risk of Zika Because Zika infection during pregnancy can cause severe ...

  7. Teachers and Gypsy Travellers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Gwynedd; Stead, Joan; Jordan, Elizabeth; Norris, Claire

    1999-01-01

    Interviews in 12 Scottish schools examined how teachers and staff perceived and responded to the culture and behavior of Traveller children--both Gypsies and occupational migrants. The findings raise issues about "difference" versus deviance and the extent to which schools can accommodate cultural diversity when it challenges norms of…

  8. Mentors as Fellow Travelers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrosino, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    A junior faculty member arrives at an unfamiliar university for a new teaching assignment. She is poised for the adventure, but feels like a traveler at the edge of long, unknown road. She does not know what obstacles or vistas may appear on the road, and wants to avoid major potholes. She takes a nervous look around and finds an experienced…

  9. Traveling in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philyaw, Henry; And Others

    This minicourse guide for teachers of French is intended to help motivate and prepare students for travel in France. Activities are outlined in eleven related areas, including (1) planning for the trip, (2) currency, (3) going through customs, (4) tipping, (5) shopping, (6) guided tours, (7) touring on your own, (8) social life and entertainment,…

  10. Teachers and Gypsy Travellers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Gwynedd; Stead, Joan; Jordan, Elizabeth; Norris, Claire

    1999-01-01

    Interviews in 12 Scottish schools examined how teachers and staff perceived and responded to the culture and behavior of Traveller children--both Gypsies and occupational migrants. The findings raise issues about "difference" versus deviance and the extent to which schools can accommodate cultural diversity when it challenges norms of…

  11. Creativity in Rural Special Education Settings: An Example with Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Diane; And Others

    This paper examines how creative thinking techniques can be used to help rural educators provide effective transition programs and services to secondary students. Factors affecting transition in rural areas include a small, homogenous economic base; travel time and distance between job sites; lack of services and trained staff; the community role…

  12. Access to Cancer Services for Rural Colorectal Cancer Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Cai, Yong; Larson, Eric H.; Dobie, Sharon A.; Wright, George E.; Goodman, David C.; Matthews, Barbara; Hart, L. Gary

    2008-01-01

    Context: Cancer care requires specialty surgical and medical resources that are less likely to be found in rural areas. Purpose: To examine the travel patterns and distances of rural and urban colorectal cancer (CRC) patients to 3 types of specialty cancer care services--surgery, medical oncology consultation, and radiation oncology consultation.…

  13. Access to Cancer Services for Rural Colorectal Cancer Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Cai, Yong; Larson, Eric H.; Dobie, Sharon A.; Wright, George E.; Goodman, David C.; Matthews, Barbara; Hart, L. Gary

    2008-01-01

    Context: Cancer care requires specialty surgical and medical resources that are less likely to be found in rural areas. Purpose: To examine the travel patterns and distances of rural and urban colorectal cancer (CRC) patients to 3 types of specialty cancer care services--surgery, medical oncology consultation, and radiation oncology consultation.…

  14. Malaria: prevention in travellers

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Malaria transmission occurs most frequently in environments with humidity over 60% and ambient temperature of 25-30 °C. Risks increase with longer visits and depend on activity. Infection can follow a single mosquito bite. Incubation is usually 10-14 days but can be up to 18 months depending on the strain of parasite. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug preventive interventions in adult travellers? What are the effects of drug prophylaxis in adult travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria vaccines in travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria interventions in child travellers, pregnant travellers, and in airline pilots? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to February 2006 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 69 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acoustic buzzers, aerosol insecticides, amodiaquine, air conditioning and electric fans, atovaquone-proguanil, biological control measures, chloroquine (alone or with proguanil), diethyltoluamide (DEET), doxycycline, full-length and light-coloured clothing, insecticide-treated clothing/nets, mefloquine, mosquito coils and vaporising mats, primaquine, pyrimethamine-dapsone, pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine, smoke, topical (skin-applied) insect repellents, and vaccines. PMID:19450348

  15. Malaria: prevention in travellers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Malaria transmission occurs most frequently in environments with humidity greater than 60% and ambient temperature of 25 °C to 30 °C. Risks increase with longer visits and depend on activity. Infection can follow a single mosquito bite. Incubation is usually 10 to 14 days but can be up to 18 months depending on the strain of parasite. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug preventive interventions in non-pregnant adult travellers? What are the effects of drug prophylaxis in non-pregnant adult travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria vaccines in adult and child travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria interventions in child travellers, pregnant travellers, and in airline pilots? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to November 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 79 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: aerosol insecticides, amodiaquine, air conditioning and electric fans, atovaquone–proguanil, biological control measures, chloroquine (alone or with proguanil), diethyltoluamide (DEET), dietary supplementation, doxycycline, electronic mosquito repellents, full-length and light-coloured clothing, insecticide-treated clothing/nets, mefloquine, mosquito coils and vapourising mats, primaquine, pyrimethamine–dapsone, pyrimethamine–sulfadoxine, smoke

  16. Do British travel agents provide adequate health advice for travellers?

    PubMed Central

    Lawlor, D A; Burke, J; Bouskill, E; Conn, G; Edwards, P; Gillespie, D

    2000-01-01

    Travel-related illness is a burden for primary care, with more than two million travellers consulting a general practitioner each year. The annual cost of travel-related illness in the United Kingdom is 11 million Pounds. Travel agents are in a unique position to influence this burden as the most common and most serious problems are preventable with simple advice and/or immunisation. This study, using covert researchers, suggests this potential is not being fully utilised. PMID:10954940

  17. Evaluating School Travel Initiatives and Promoting "Healthy Travel" through PSHCE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baslington, Hazel

    2010-01-01

    The number of primary school children travelling to school by car in the UK has almost doubled from 22% to 43% in 20 years. A governmental policy response is school travel plans (STPs). This paper reports the findings of an empirical evaluation designed to measure the effectiveness of the travel initiative at three schools. Quantitative and…

  18. Evaluating School Travel Initiatives and Promoting "Healthy Travel" through PSHCE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baslington, Hazel

    2010-01-01

    The number of primary school children travelling to school by car in the UK has almost doubled from 22% to 43% in 20 years. A governmental policy response is school travel plans (STPs). This paper reports the findings of an empirical evaluation designed to measure the effectiveness of the travel initiative at three schools. Quantitative and…

  19. International business travel: impact on families and travellers

    PubMed Central

    Espino, C; Sundstrom, S; Frick, H; Jacobs, M; Peters, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Spouses and staff of the World Bank Group (WBG) were questioned about the impact of international business travel on families and travellers. Dependent variables were self reported stress, concern about the health of the traveller, and negative impact on the family. We hypothesised that several travel factors (independent variables) would be associated with these impacts. These travel factors had to do with the frequency, duration, and predictability of travel and its interference with family activities. Methods: Survey forms were developed and distributed to all spouses of travelling staff as well as a small sample of operational staff. Kendall's tau b correlation coefficients of response frequencies were computed with the data from scaled items. Written responses to open ended questions were categorised. Results: Response rates for spouses and staff were 24% and 36%, respectively. Half the spouse sample (n=533) and almost 75% of the staff sample (n=102) reported high or very high stress due to business travel. Self reported spouse stress was associated with six out of eight travel factors. Female spouses, those with children, and younger spouses reported greater stress. Self reported staff stress was significantly associated with four out of nine travel factors. Further insight into how business travel affects families and staff (including children's behavioural changes) and how families cope was gained through responses to written questions. Conclusions: The findings support the notion that lengthy and frequent travel and frequent changes in travel dates which affect family plans, all characteristic of WBG missions, negatively affects many spouses and children (particularly young children) and that the strain on families contributes significantly to the stress staff feel about their travel. Policies or management practices that take into consideration family activities and give staff greater leeway in controlling and refusing travel may help relieve

  20. Travel and Adventure Medicine Resources.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Christopher A; Pottinger, Paul S

    2016-03-01

    Given the ever-changing nature of travel medicine, practitioners who provide pretravel and posttravel care are obligatorily students for the duration of their professional careers. A large variety of resources are available for medical practitioners. Providers should join at least one travel or tropical medicine professional association, attend its annual meeting, and read its journal. The largest general travel medicine association is the International Society of Travel Medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [The fever of international travel].

    PubMed

    Hristea, Adriana; Luka, A I; Aramă, Victoria; Moroti, Ruxandra

    2008-01-01

    Between 20 and 70 percent of the 50 million people who travel from the industrialized world to the developing world each year report some illness associated with their travel. Although most illness reported by travellers are mild, 20-70% of travellers become ill enough to seek medical attention, either during or immediately after travel. The full spectrum of health complaints is unknown. Nevertheless the usual presentation of a returned traveller is a particular syndrome-fever, respiratory infection, diarrhoea, eosinophilia, or skin and soft tissue infection- or screening for asymptomatic infection. The most common diseases diagnosed in returning travellers are more often of cosmopolitan than exotic origin. However, fever in returned travelers always should raise suspicion for a severe or potentially life-threatening tropical infection. Therefore, fever in a returned traveller requires prompt investigation focused on infections that are life-threatening, treatable or transmissible. Careful assessment of the travel history, likely incubation period, exposure history, associated signs and symptoms, duration of fever, immunization status, use or non-use of antimalarial chemoprophylaxis and degree of compliance with the prescribed regimen, if used, helps to establish the diagnosis. Determining an approximate incubation period can be particularly helpful in ruling out possible causes of fever. Malaria is the most important cause of fever in the returned traveller. While most travel-related infections present within 6 months of return, some infections with long latent periods or potential for lifetime persistence might be seen in those who have lived abroad.

  2. Program Tracks Cost Of Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, Lemuel E., III

    1993-01-01

    Travel Forecaster is menu-driven, easy-to-use computer program that plans, forecasts cost, and tracks actual vs. planned cost of business-related travel of division or branch of organization and compiles information into data base to aid travel planner. Ability of program to handle multiple trip entries makes it valuable time-saving device.

  3. Including Gypsy Travellers in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Gwynned; Stead, Joan

    2002-01-01

    Examined the educational exclusion and inclusion of Gypsy Traveller students, exploring how some Scottish schools responded to Traveller student culture and how this led to exclusion. Interviews with school staff, Traveller students, and parents indicated that continuing prejudice and harassment promoted inappropriate school placement and…

  4. Program Tracks Cost Of Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, Lemuel E., III

    1993-01-01

    Travel Forecaster is menu-driven, easy-to-use computer program that plans, forecasts cost, and tracks actual vs. planned cost of business-related travel of division or branch of organization and compiles information into data base to aid travel planner. Ability of program to handle multiple trip entries makes it valuable time-saving device.

  5. Including Gypsy Travellers in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Gwynned; Stead, Joan

    2002-01-01

    Examined the educational exclusion and inclusion of Gypsy Traveller students, exploring how some Scottish schools responded to Traveller student culture and how this led to exclusion. Interviews with school staff, Traveller students, and parents indicated that continuing prejudice and harassment promoted inappropriate school placement and…

  6. [Travel and renal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Lavelle, O; Berland, Y

    1997-01-01

    Traveling can be dangerous for subjects with kidney insufficiency. Water loss or septic episodes can further increase renal dysfunction. Poor diet can lead to hyperkaliemia. Immunosuppression not only enhances the risk of infection but also complicates administration of live vaccines. Some antimalarial drugs are contraindicated (e.g. mefloquine) and others must be used with precaution. Prior to departure persons requiring hemodialysis should book sessions at centers listed in specialized guidebooks. In addition to infection, risks for hemodialysis patients include thrombosis of the arteriovenous fistula in case of dehydration or hypotension. In subjects with transplanted kidney, the risk of rejection can be enhanced either by poor compliance with immunodepressor treatment or by vaccination-induced antigenic stimulation. Pre-travel evaluation is necessary to determine metabolic, nutritional, and immune status. Subjects with kidney insufficiency and transplanted kidneys should be informed of the dangers and appropriate action in case of trouble.

  7. Travelers In The Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grauer, Albert D.

    2014-11-01

    Travelers In The Night is an engaging and informative series of two minute radio programs about asteroids, comets, spacecraft, and other objects in space. The pieces are evergreen in that they are current but not dated. They are published on the Public Radio Exchange and carried by a number of radio stations. For teachers, students, and kids of all ages, the script for each piece and the start of a path for further inquiry can be found on the website travelersinthenight.org . The Travelers InThe Night Pieces are written and produced by an observing member of the Catalina Sky Survey Team at the University of Arizona. DPS members are encouraged to submit program ideas which can be developed to feature their research efforts.

  8. Travel health: sun protection and skin cancer prevention for travellers.

    PubMed

    Wood, Cate

    The UK population likes to travel to sunny parts of the world, where the risk of sunburn is greater than it is at home. Sunburn and the cultural desire for a tan is one of the risk factors for the increase in skin cancer. The rise in foreign travel has resulted in an increased demand for pre-travel health services, with nurses in primary care acting as the main providers.Within these consultations, the traveller and their travel plans are risk assessed.Travel health consultations give an ideal opportunity to discuss and advise the public regarding sun burn and skin cancer protection. However, there are also other ways to impart safety in the sun message to travellers. Skin protection is a health promoting activity provided as a part of public health provision and all nurses can play a role in prevention.

  9. Aging and space travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohler, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The matter of aging and its relation to space vehicle crewmembers undertaking prolonged space missions is addressed. The capabilities of the older space traveler to recover from bone demineralization and muscle atrophy are discussed. Certain advantages of the older person are noted, for example, a greater tolerance of monotony and repetitious activities. Additional parameters are delineated including the cardiovascular system, the reproductive system, ionizing radiation, performance, and group dynamics.

  10. Health status of Gypsies and Travellers in England.

    PubMed

    Parry, Glenys; Van Cleemput, Patrice; Peters, Jean; Walters, Stephen; Thomas, Kate; Cooper, Cindy

    2007-03-01

    To provide the first valid and reliable estimate of the health status of Gypsies and Travellers in England by using standardised instruments to compare their health with that of a UK resident non-Traveller sample, drawn from different socioeconomic and ethnic groups, matched for age and sex. Epidemiological survey, by structured interview, of quota sample and concurrent age-sex-matched comparators. The homes or alternative community settings of the participants at five study locations in England. Gypsies and Travellers of UK or Irish origin (n = 293) and an age-sex-matched comparison sample (n = 260); non-Gypsies or Travellers from rural communities, deprived inner-city White residents and ethnic minority populations. Gypsies and Travellers reported poorer health status for the last year, were significantly more likely to have a long-term illness, health problem or disability, which limits daily activities or work, had more problems with mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain or discomfort and anxiety or depression as assessed using the EuroQol-5D health utility measure, and a higher overall prevalence of reported chest pain, respiratory problems, arthritis, miscarriage and premature death of offspring. No inequality was reported in diabetes, stroke and cancer. Significant health inequalities exist between the Gypsy and Traveller population in England and their non-Gypsy counterparts, even when compared with other socially deprived or excluded groups, and with other ethnic minorities.

  11. Health status of Gypsies and Travellers in England

    PubMed Central

    Parry, Glenys; Van Cleemput, Patrice; Peters, Jean; Walters, Stephen; Thomas, Kate; Cooper, Cindy

    2007-01-01

    Objective To provide the first valid and reliable estimate of the health status of Gypsies and Travellers in England by using standardised instruments to compare their health with that of a UK resident non‐Traveller sample, drawn from different socioeconomic and ethnic groups, matched for age and sex. Design Epidemiological survey, by structured interview, of quota sample and concurrent age–sex‐matched comparators. Setting The homes or alternative community settings of the participants at five study locations in England. Participants Gypsies and Travellers of UK or Irish origin (n = 293) and an age–sex‐matched comparison sample (n = 260); non‐Gypsies or Travellers from rural communities, deprived inner‐city White residents and ethnic minority populations. Results Gypsies and Travellers reported poorer health status for the last year, were significantly more likely to have a long‐term illness, health problem or disability, which limits daily activities or work, had more problems with mobility, self‐care, usual activities, pain or discomfort and anxiety or depression as assessed using the EuroQol‐5D health utility measure, and a higher overall prevalence of reported chest pain, respiratory problems, arthritis, miscarriage and premature death of offspring. No inequality was reported in diabetes, stroke and cancer. Conclusions Significant health inequalities exist between the Gypsy and Traveller population in England and their non‐Gypsy counterparts, even when compared with other socially deprived or excluded groups, and with other ethnic minorities. PMID:17325395

  12. Family planning for travellers.

    PubMed

    Rustom, A

    1990-11-01

    A public health nurse from London describes the customs of nomadic people in the British Isles, known as "travellers," as they affect provision of family planning services. Most are of British or Irish stock, some migrate and others live in caravan sites all year. Their traditions dictate that men work and women are housewives. Early, often arranged, marriage, early childbearing and large families are the norm. Sex and contraception are not considered appropriate for discussion between the sexes, or in the presence of children. Large families and financial hardship force many women to space pregnancies. Women often have to hide contraceptives from their husbands, difficult in conditions without privacy. Therefore they prefer IUDs, but some use oral contraceptives, although sometimes erratically because most are illiterate. Traveller women are usually unwilling to do self-examination, as needed with IUDs. They often have difficulty attending regular Pap smear clinics. Cervical cancer rates are high. They experience discrimination in clinics, and need extra care about modesty. It is worth while to take time to develop trust in the clinical relationship, to deal with the traveller woman's uneasy among outsiders.

  13. Neurological disorders and travel.

    PubMed

    Awada, Adnan; Kojan, Suleiman

    2003-02-01

    Travel is associated with a number of neurological disorders that can be divided into two categories: (1) Neurological infections including encephalitides, neurotuberculosis, neurobrucellosis, cysticercosis and trichinosis. Some of these disorders can be prevented by vaccinations, such as Japanese B encephalitis and rabies, some by the use of insect repellents and some by avoiding raw milk products and undercooked meat. (2) Non-infective neurological disorders, such as acute mountain sickness and high altitude cerebral oedema, problems occurring during air travel such as syncope, seizures, strokes, nerve compression, barotrauma and vertigo, motion sickness and foodborne neurotoxic disorders such as ciguatera, shellfish poisoning and intoxication by cassava. This group of diseases and disorders could be prevented if the traveller knows about them, applies simple physiological rules, takes some specific medications and knows how to avoid intoxications in certain geographical areas. Meningococcal meningitis, malaria and jet lag syndrome are extensively discussed in other articles of this issue. The discussion in this paper will be limited to the other disorders.

  14. [Travelers, mad, wandering].

    PubMed

    Vaschetto, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the notion of "wandering" through the use of some phenomena enrolled at the dawn of modernity such as the Rousseau dromomanie's philosopher and writer, the origin of the first mad traveler (Albert Dadas), epidemics of mad travelers Europe and romantic tourism (with renewed acquires significance in the "beat generation" of the twentieth century). These historical facts are "mounting" as play contemporary manifestations such as loss, disorientation, to lose one's way, and wandering without reducing them only to clinical psychosis. Readings of classic psychiatrists such as Régis, Foville, Sérieux and Capgras, Tissié, go hand in hand with the current readings of the philosopher Ian Hacking and critics of pop culture as S. Reynolds and D. Diederichsen, illustrating how the travel's phenomenon can make different subjective configurations depending on historical times. In conclusion it is noted that not only psychosis exposes the wandering soul of suffering but there are also subject positions (as will be exemplified in a clinical case) and go no further nesting wandering into human existence.

  15. Time - A Traveler's Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickover, Clifford A.

    1999-09-01

    "Bucky Fuller thought big," Wired magazine recently noted, "Arthur C. Clarke thinks big, but Cliff Pickover outdoes them both." In his newest book, Cliff Pickover outdoes even himself, probing a mystery that has baffled mystics, philosophers, and scientists throughout history--What is the nature of time?In Time: A Traveler's Guide , Pickover takes readers to the forefront of science as he illuminates the most mysterious phenomenon in the universe--time itself. Is time travel possible? Is time real? Does it flow in one direction only? Does it have a beginning and an end? What is eternity? Pickover's book offers a stimulating blend of Chopin, philosophy, Einstein, and modern physics, spiced with diverting side-trips to such topics as the history of clocks, the nature of free will, and the reason gold glitters. Numerous diagrams ensure readers will have no trouble following along.By the time we finish this book, we understand a wide variety of scientific concepts pertaining to time. And most important, we will understand that time travel is, indeed, possible.

  16. Update on traveler's diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Strum, W B

    1988-07-01

    Traveler's diarrhea affects a substantial number of travelers to high-risk areas of the world. The key to controlling this troublesome disease is prevention. The most important preventive measures depend on educating patients to consume only safe foods and pure water. Physicians cannot overemphasize the importance of avoiding high-risk foods and of boiling water if a safe water supply is not available. Prophylactic medications are a secondary consideration and should be prescribed with discretion. In most cases, diarrhea is mild and self-limited, requiring only fluid and electrolyte replacement and perhaps an antidiarrheal agent. In moderate to severe cases, the addition of an antimicrobial agent may be of benefit. Until an efficacious polyvalent vaccine is developed, caution and common sense, together with discretionary dietary and hygienic practices, are the best defenses against traveler's diarrhea. The ultimate solution is greatly improved sanitation and personal hygiene, especially in high-risk countries. However, only dreamers will consider waiting for this transformation to occur.

  17. The pre-travel medical evaluation: the traveler with chronic illness and the geriatric traveler.

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    The pre-travel medical evaluation of elderly patients and patients with chronic illness requires special assessment and advice. Screening and special precautions are reviewed for traveling patients with respiratory disease, cardiac disease, sinusitis, diabetes mellitus, HIV infection, and other chronic medical conditions. Current guidelines for empiric therapy and prophylaxis of travelers' diarrhea are reviewed, with emphasis on concerns in geriatric or chronically ill travelers. Special considerations such as potential drug-drug interactions and insurance coverage are also discussed. PMID:1290273

  18. Evidence on global medical travel

    PubMed Central

    Záliš, Ladislav; Meurice, Christopher R; Hilton, Ian; Ly, Terry-Lisa; Zupan, Zorana; Hinrichs, Saba

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The potential benefits of travelling across national borders to obtain medical treatment include improved care, decreased costs and reduced waiting times. However, medical travel involves additional risks, compared to obtaining treatment domestically. We review the publicly-available evidence on medical travel. We suggest that medical travel needs to be understood in terms of its potential risks and benefits so that it can be evaluated against alternatives by patients who are seeking care. We propose three domains –quality standards, informed decision-making, economic and legal protection – in which better evidence could support the development of medical travel policies. PMID:26549906

  19. Evidence on global medical travel.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Kai; Záliš, Ladislav; Meurice, Christopher R; Hilton, Ian; Ly, Terry-Lisa; Zupan, Zorana; Hinrichs, Saba

    2015-11-01

    The potential benefits of travelling across national borders to obtain medical treatment include improved care, decreased costs and reduced waiting times. However, medical travel involves additional risks, compared to obtaining treatment domestically. We review the publicly-available evidence on medical travel. We suggest that medical travel needs to be understood in terms of its potential risks and benefits so that it can be evaluated against alternatives by patients who are seeking care. We propose three domains -quality standards, informed decision-making, economic and legal protection - in which better evidence could support the development of medical travel policies.

  20. Travelers with Disabilities and Medical Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Travel Redress Claims Travel Tips Travel Checklist FAQ Disabilities and Medical Conditions To ensure your security, all ... other questions or concerns about traveling with a disability please contact passenger support . If you are approved ...

  1. Home range and travels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  2. Rabies vaccination for international travelers.

    PubMed

    Gautret, Philippe; Parola, Philippe

    2012-01-05

    Rabies prevention in travelers is a controversial issue. According to experts, the decision to vaccinate results from an individual risk assessment based on the duration of stay, the likelihood of engagement in at-risk activities, the age of the traveler, the rabies endemicity and access to appropriate medical care in the country of destination. However, no detailed information is available regarding the last two determinants in many regions. Twenty-two cases of rabies were reported in tourists, expatriates and migrant travelers over the last decade, including three cases following short-term travel of no more than two weeks. Studies on rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in travelers show that overall, 0.4% (range 0.01-2.3%) of travelers have experienced an at-risk bite per month of stay in a rabies-endemic country, while 31% of expatriates and 12% of tourists were vaccinated against rabies before traveling. The main reason cited by travelers for not being vaccinated is the cost of the vaccine. The majority of patients who sustained a high risk injury was not vaccinated against rabies before traveling and were not properly treated abroad. From available studies, the following risk factors for injuries sustained from potentially rabid animals may be identified: traveling to South-East Asia, India or North Africa, young age, and traveling for tourism. The duration of travel does not appear to be a risk factor. It should be noted that "at-risk activities" have not been addressed in these studies. Detailed rabies distribution maps and information on the availability of rabies biologics are urgently needed in order to identify those travelers who need pre-travel vaccination. Meanwhile, cost-minimization of rabies pre-exposure vaccination may be achieved in several ways, notably by using the intra-dermal method of vaccination.

  3. Rural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouk, Ullik, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This journal issue is devoted to the theme topic "Rural Education." The first article, "Science is Everywhere," by Chris Taylor, presents a project which uses local experts as an integral part of the school's science curriculum. "Better Teachers, Better Readers" by Scott Steen describes a system of strategic reading used in rural Wisconsin school…

  4. Rural Agrobusiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treillon, Roland; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This publication describes the formation and evolution of rural agribusiness (RA) in the southern hemisphere as a precondition for improving the lives of families in rural communities, and focuses on RA endeavors created by development projects in Latin America, the Caribbean, and Africa. After a short introduction, the first section of this study…

  5. Fellow travellers: Working memory and mental time travel in rodents.

    PubMed

    Dere, Ekrem; Dere, Dorothea; de Souza Silva, Maria Angelica; Huston, Joseph P; Zlomuzica, Armin

    2017-03-19

    The impairment of mental time travel is a severe cognitive symptom in patients with brain lesions and a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. Whether animals are also able to mentally travel in time both forward and backward is still a matter of debate. In this regard, we have proposed a continuum of mental time travel abilities across different animal species, with humans being the species with the ability to perform most sophisticated forms of mental time travel. In this review and perspective article, we delineate a novel approach to understand the evolution, characteristics and function of human and animal mental time travel. Furthermore, we propose a novel approach to measure mental time travel in rodents in a comprehensive manner using a test battery composed of well-validated and easy applicable tests.

  6. Time, travel and infection.

    PubMed

    Cliff, Andrew; Haggett, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The collapse of geographical space over the last 200 years has had profound effects on the circulation of human populations and on the transfer of infectious diseases. Three examples are used to illustrate the process: (a) the impact of the switch from sail to steamships in importing measles into Fiji over a 40-year period; (b) changes in measles epidemic behaviour in Iceland over a 150-year period; and (c) changes in the spread of cholera within the United States over a 35-year period. In each case, the link between time, travel and disease has been an intimate one.

  7. Travel Demand Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, Frank; Garrow, Dr. Laurie

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the principal types of both passenger and freight demand models in use today, providing a brief history of model development supported by references to a number of popular texts on the subject, and directing the reader to papers covering some of the more recent technical developments in the area. Over the past half century a variety of methods have been used to estimate and forecast travel demands, drawing concepts from economic/utility maximization theory, transportation system optimization and spatial interaction theory, using and often combining solution techniques as varied as Box-Jenkins methods, non-linear multivariate regression, non-linear mathematical programming, and agent-based microsimulation.

  8. Vaccines for foreign travel.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, M S

    1990-06-01

    Exotic infections are a significant threat to the child traveling to or going to live in the developing world. Vaccines are available that can prevent some of these infections. It is essential that basic routine childhood vaccination be up to date and that necessary modifications be made from the usual schedule in the United States. The current requirements and local disease conditions (both endemic and epidemic) for each country to be visited must be known so that appropriate vaccines are received. Resources for this information are listed. Details for each vaccine are given, including indications, dose, booster, side effects, contraindications, and other specific information.

  9. [Travel and accidents].

    PubMed

    Cha, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Traumatic pathologies are the most frequent medical events to be observed among French travellers. Accidents on the public highway by lack of respect of the fundamental rules of road security, particularly abroad, traffic conditions in bad repair in numerous emergent countries, usually the destination of mass tourism and underdeveloped organization of health care and local urgency help. Sports activities are also a source of accidents. A good physical training is essential. Drowning is a real plague, especially among children due to a lack of vigilance. Preventive measures are simple, keep them constantly in mind and apply them carefully so as to have beautiful memories of our trip back home.

  10. Health hazards of international travel.

    PubMed

    Cossar, J H; Reid, D

    1989-01-01

    The growth of travel and the increasing numbers of those affected by travel-related illnesses, some of a serious nature, will cause this subject to demand the attention of the medical profession, the travel trade, travellers themselves and the health authorities of countries receiving tourists. Provision of appropriate advice for the traveller is a shared responsibility, best channelled mainly through travel agencies; it can moreover be shown to be cost-beneficial. Continued monitoring of illness in travellers and provision of information systems geared to this problem and its prevention are fully justified. They should be based on traditional channels of communication and currently-available modern technology, and be readily accessible to medical and related workers. Increased collaboration between medical workers, health educators and those involved in the travel trade would be a positive and useful contribution towards the reduction of illness and discomfort among travellers and the associated expense incurred by the various national health services concerned. There are clearly economic benefits from the development of international tourism, but these have to be balanced in countries accepting tourists by attention to the prevention of illnesses associated with travel.

  11. Traveling-Wave Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.

    1998-01-01

    The traveling-wave tube (TWT) is a vacuum device invented in the early 1940's used for amplification at microwave frequencies. Amplification is attained by surrendering kinetic energy from an electron beam to a radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic wave. The demand for vacuum devices has been decreased largely by the advent of solid-state devices. However, although solid state devices have replaced vacuum devices in many areas, there are still many applications such as radar, electronic countermeasures and satellite communications, that require operating characteristics such as high power (Watts to Megawatts), high frequency (below 1 GHz to over 100 GHz) and large bandwidth that only vacuum devices can provide. Vacuum devices are also deemed irreplaceable in the music industry where musicians treasure their tube-based amplifiers claiming that the solid-state and digital counterparts could never provide the same "warmth" (3). The term traveling-wave tube includes both fast-wave and slow-wave devices. This article will concentrate on slow-wave devices as the vast majority of TWTs in operation fall into this category.

  12. Fungal infections in immunocompromised travelers.

    PubMed

    Lortholary, Olivier; Charlier, Caroline; Lebeaux, David; Lecuit, Marc; Consigny, Paul Henri

    2013-03-01

    Immunocompromised patients represent an increasing group of travelers, for business, tourism, and visiting friends and relatives. Those with severe cellular immunodeficiency (advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection and transplant recipients) display the highest risk of fungal infections. International travel is less risky in most other types of immunodeficiency (except those with neutropenia). A systematic visit in a travel clinic for immunocompromised patients traveling to the tropics ensures that the specific risks of acquiring fungal infections (and others) are understood. When immunocompromised hosts return to their area of residence, a nonbacteriologically documented, potentially severe, febrile pneumonia, with or without dissemination signs (skin lesions, cytopenia) should alert for travel-acquired fungal infection, even years after return. Localized subcutaneous nodule may be also ascribed to fungal infection. Finally, infectious diseases physicians should be aware of major clinical patterns of travel-acquired fungal infection, as well as the fungi involved, and risk factors according to the geographical area visited.

  13. Evaluation of the returned traveler.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    Recognition of clinical syndromes in returned travelers is an important part of providing care to international travelers. The first step is to take a history with attention to pre-travel preventive measures, the patient's itinerary, and potential exposure to infectious agents. The patient should then be examined to document physical signs, such as fever, rash, or hepatosplenomegaly, and to have basic laboratory data obtained. This evaluation will provide most physicians with the necessary information to generate a differential diagnosis. Each diagnosis should be matched against the incubation period of the disease, the geographic location of illness, the frequency of illness in returned travelers, and the pre-travel preventive measures. Careful attention to these aspects of patient care should result in the appropriate diagnosis and therapeutic intervention for the ill returned traveler. PMID:1290276

  14. Plasmodium knowlesi in travellers, update 2014.

    PubMed

    Müller, Mattia; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2014-05-01

    =3), back pain (n=3), abdominal problems (n=1), anorexia (n=2), fatigue (n=2), malaise (n=1), arthralgia (n=1), sore throat (n=1) vomiting (n=2), and jaundice (n=1). All patients were treated successfully with currently available antimalaria treatments. The identification of the pathogen by microscopy can be problematic due to the morphological similarity of P. knowlesi to Plasmodium malariae. P. knowlesi appears to be a threat not only to the local population in Malaysia, but also to the estimated 25 million annual tourists and occupational travellers to Malaysia, especially those who visit rural, forested areas of the country. The P. knowlesi risk is not limited to Malaysia, and travellers from Southeast Asia presenting with possible malaria should be considered for a diagnostic work-up that includes P. knowlesi. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. An overview: tularemia and travel medicine.

    PubMed

    Ulu-Kilic, Aysegul; Doganay, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Tularemia is a bacterial zoonotic infection. The disease is endemic in most parts of the world, has been reported through the northern hemisphere between 30 and 71° N latitude. Francisella tularensis causes infection in a wide range of vertebrates (rodents, lagomorphs) and invertebrates (ticks, mosquitoes and other arthropods). Humans can acquire this infection through several routes including; a bite from an infected tick, deerfly or mosquito, contact with an infected animal or its dead body. It can also be spread to human by drinking contaminated water or breathing contaminated dirt or aerosol. Clinical manifestation of this disease varies depending on the biotype, inoculum and port of entry. Infection is potentially life threatening, but can effectively be treated with antibiotics. Travelers visiting rural and agricultural areas in endemic countries may be at greater risk. Appropriate clothing and use of insect repellants is essential to prevent tick borne illness. Travelers also should be aware of food and waterborne disease; avoid consuming potentially contaminated water and uncooked meat. Physicians should be aware of any clinical presentation of tularemia in the patients returning from endemic areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Onchocerciasis-associated limb swelling in a traveler returning from Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ezzedine, Khaled; Malvy, Denis; Dhaussy, Ines; Steels, Emmanuelle; Castelein, Carine; De Dobbeler, Gilbert; Heenen, Michel

    2006-01-01

    Travelers to West Central Africa are at risk for infection with Onchocerca volvulus. We describe the case of an adventurous traveler who became infected with O volvulus after a 10-day stay in rural Cameroon. Two years after his return, he was diagnosed with a 3-month history of limb swelling with pruritus and fixed edema of the right arm. He was successfully treated by a single dose of ivermectin, with an additional treatment with doxycycline. The patient was followed-up during 1 year after therapy without relapse. Such travelers experiencing unusual dermatitis syndromes should prompt evaluation for onchocerciasis.

  17. Traveling wave model of uni-traveling carrier photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanra, Senjuti; Das Barman, Abhirup

    2015-06-01

    A traveling wave time domain model of bulk InGaAs/InP uni-traveling carrier photodiode is presented in terms of integral carrier density rate equation. The wavelength dependent responsivity at different absorption width has been derived from quantum mechanical principle. Output photocurrent response with time is found in close agreement with the experimental value.

  18. Traveler: The Apiary Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Carl R.

    Observing and debugging concurrent actor programs on a distributed architecture such as the Apiary poses new problems not found in sequential systems. Since events are only partially ordered, the chronological order of events no longer corresponds to their causal ordering, so the execution trace of a computation must be more structured than a simple stream. Many events may execute concurrently, so a stepper must give the programmer control over the order in which events are stepped. Because of the arrival order nondeterminism of the actor model, different actors may have different views on the ordering of events. We conquer these problems by recording the activation ordering, the transaction pairing, and the arrival ordering of messages in the Apiary and displaying the resulting structures in Traveler's window oriented interface under user control.

  19. A traveling opera troupe.

    PubMed

    Gao, M

    1995-08-01

    In China, Mr. Chang Junjie, a retired middle school principal has personally organized and financed the "Family Planning Retired Cadre's Troupe," which travels around the countryside performing newly written costume operas. In the six years since he first began to organize the troupe, Chang's players have performed more than 1700 times for more than a million people. The operas draw their material from the real life situations faced by farmers and emphasize the importance of family planning by setting good examples. Chang's operas have been well received, and it is not unusual for his audiences to be moved to laughter and tears. Despite his widespread success, Chang is not content with what he has accomplished and is currently organizing a children's opera troupe and seeking ways to make a greater impact on the promotion of family planning.

  20. Should travellers in rabies endemic areas receive pre-exposure rabies immunization?

    PubMed

    Phanuphak, P; Ubolyam, S; Sirivichayakul, S

    1994-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted in 1,882 foreign travellers, 74% of which were Europeans, after being in Thailand for an average of 17 days, about the history of potential rabies exposure during their visits. Dog bite and dog lick were experienced in 1.3% and 8.9% of the travellers respectively. The exposed individuals tended to stay in Thailand longer and the incidents occurred mainly in cities rather than in the rural areas. Thirty-one (1.6%) of all travellers had a history of rabies vaccination, 9 as a result of dog bite or dog lick in Thailand whereas the remaining 22 had already received the vaccine prior to coming to Thailand. Such high prevalences of potential rabies exposure and rabies vaccination may justify the inclusion of rabies vaccine into the multiple vaccination program for travellers to rabies endemic countries. This was favoured by over half of the travellers interviewed.

  1. Familial cluster of exposure to a confirmed rabid dog in travelers to Algeria.

    PubMed

    Antwi, Sylvie; Parola, Philippe; Sow, Doudou; Sornin, Victoria; Henrion, Maxime; Gautret, Philippe

    2017-01-09

    A 10 person-family originating from Algeria traveled in rural Algeria for the purpose of visiting friends and relatives without seeking pre-travel advice, did not received pre-travel rabies immunization, and were exposed to a confirmed rabid dog including 8 within less than 4 days of arrival. Three received suckling mouse brain rabies vaccine although WHO strongly recommends that its production and administration be discontinued and seven received insufficient doses of equine rabies immune globulin abroad. Rabies treatment was completed on returning to France. This reports underline the fact that travelers visiting friends and relatives in dog rabies endemic country are at high risk of rabies exposure and unaware of such a risk in most instances. Rabies risk warning should be reinforced and rabies pre-exposure vaccination should be considered in all individuals traveling to North Africa (and to sub-Saharan Africa) whatever the duration of stay.

  2. [Morbidity of Israeli travelers after traveling to developing countries].

    PubMed

    Mizrachi, Edit; Steinlauf, Shmuel; Schwartz, Eli

    2010-09-01

    International tourism, including traveling to developing countries, has become increasingly popular. The number of Israeli travelers to developing countries is estimated at approximately 170,000 annually. This study aims to analyze the morbidity among returning Israeli travelers. A retrospective evaluation was conducted of patient files for those attending the Tropical Disease clinic at the Sheba Medical Center between 1994-2004. A total of 842 patients attended the clinic during this period, with 1126 different diagnoses, including 20.9% of patients who were hospitalized in Israel and 6.2% abroad. Slightly more than half (56.7%) were male, 70% were in the 20-29 year age group. Most of the patients attended the clinic shortly after returning from traveling, but some attended the clinic more than 1 year later. The main destinations were Asia (49.2%), Latin America (23.4%) and Africa (23.2%). The most common diagnoses were gastrointestinal disease (41%), fatigue (25.8%), dermatological conditions (23.4%) and febrile diseases (22.7%). The typical diagnoses in travelers returning from Asia were chronic diarrhea and dengue fever. Dermatological conditions including leishmaniasis were prominent in travelers returning from Latin America, and in travelers returning from Africa--malaria, and schistosomiasis. In addition, there were gender differences; males acquired malaria, leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis more often, while females had more gastrointestinal complaints and fatigue. Travelers acquired different health problems in different continents. This must be taken into consideration when patients seek medical advice either before or after their journey. Furthermore, physicians must be aware of the importance of having a thorough travel history of their patients, since medical problems acquired during travel may manifest long after returning home.

  3. International Travelers' Sociodemographic, Health, and Travel Characteristics: An Italian Study.

    PubMed

    Troiano, Gianmarco; Mercone, Astrid; Bagnoli, Alessandra; Nante, Nicola

    Approximately the 8% of travelers requires medical care, with the diagnosis of a vaccine-preventable disease. The aim of our study was to analyze the socio-demographic, health and travel characteristics of the Italian international travelers. We conducted a cross sectional study from January 2015 to June 2016, at the Travel Medicine Clinic of Siena, asking the doctor to interview patients who attended the Clinic, recording socio-demographic and travel information, malaria prophylaxis, vaccinations. The data were organized in a database and processed by software Stata®. We collected 419 questionnaires. Patients chose 71 countries for their travels; the favorite destinations were: India (6.31%), Thailand (6.31%), and Brazil (5.10%). The mean length of stay was 36.17 days. Italians, students, and freelancers tended to stay abroad for a longer time (mean: 36.4 days, 59.87 days and 64.16 days respectively). 33.17% of our sample used drugs for malaria chemoprophylaxis: 71.9% of them used Atovaquone/Proguanil (Malarone®), 26.6% used Mefloquine (Lariam®), 1.5% other drugs. The vaccinations that travelers mostly got in our study were to prevent hepatitis A (n = 264), the typhoid fever (n = 187), the Tetanus + Diphtheria + Pertussis (n = 165), the Yellow fever (n = 118) and the cholera (n = 78). Twenty-eight (6.68%) refused some recommended vaccinations. The vaccines mostly refused were for Typhoid fever (n = 20), hepatitis a (n = 9), and cholera (n = 9). Our results demonstrated that Italian international travelers are at-risk because of their poor vaccinations adherence. This implies that pre-travel counseling is fundamental to increase the knowledge of the risks and the compliance of future travelers. Copyright © 2016 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Distance traveled for Medicaid-covered abortion care in California.

    PubMed

    Johns, Nicole E; Foster, Diana Greene; Upadhyay, Ushma D

    2017-04-19

    Access to abortion care in the United States is limited by the availability of abortion providers and their geographic distribution. We aimed to assess how far women travel for Medicaid-funded abortion in California and identify disparities in access to abortion care. We obtained data on all abortions reimbursed by the fee-for-service California state Medicaid program (Medi-Cal) in 2011 and 2012 and examined distance traveled to obtain abortion care by several demographic and abortion-related factors. Mixed-effects multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to examine factors associated with traveling 50 miles or more. County-level t-tests and linear regressions were conducted to examine the effects of a Medi-Cal abortion provider in a county on overall and urban/rural differences in utilization. 11.9% (95% CI: 11.5-12.2%) of women traveled 50 miles or more. Women obtaining second trimester or later abortions (21.7%), women obtaining abortions at hospitals (19.9%), and rural women (51.0%) were most likely to travel 50 miles or more. Across the state, 28 counties, home to 10% of eligible women, did not have a facility routinely providing Medi-Cal-covered abortions. Efforts are needed to expand the number of abortion providers that accept Medi-Cal. This could be accomplished by increasing Medi-Cal reimbursement rates, increasing the types of providers who can provide abortions, and expanding the use of telemedicine. If national trends in declining unintended pregnancy and abortion rates continue, careful attention should be paid to ensure that reduced demand does not lead to greater disparities in geographic and financial access to abortion care by ensuring that providers accepting Medicaid payment are available and widely distributed.

  5. Making a case for telehealth: measuring the carbon cost of health-related travel.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Isabelle; Cheek, Colleen; Jaffray, Linda; Skinner, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Telehealth services are promoted to reduce the cost of travel for people living in rural areas. The previous Australian Government, through the national Digital Economy Strategy, invested heavily in telehealth service development, at the same time introducing a carbon pricing mechanism. In planning a range of new telehealth services to a rural community the authors sought to quantify the travel conducted by people from one rural area in Australia to access health care, and to calculate the associated carbon emissions. A population survey was conducted over a 1-week period of health-related travel events for the year 1 July 2011 to 30 June 2012 of all households on King Island, a community situated between the Australian mainland state of Victoria and the state of Tasmania. Validated emissions calculators were sourced from the Carbon Neutral website, including the vehicle and fuel use calculator and air travel carbon calculator, to calculate the total emissions associated with the fuel burned in tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2e). Thirty nine percent of the population (625 participants) reported a total of 511 healthcare-related travel events. Participants travelled a total of 346 573 km and generated 0.22 tCO2e per capita. Participants paid the cost of their own travel more than 70% of the time. Dependence on fossil fuels for transport in a carbon economy has a significant impact on total healthcare carbon emissions. Alternative models of care, such as telehealth, need be developed for an environmentally sustainable healthcare system for rural and remote areas.

  6. Winter Wilderness Travel and Camping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilchrest, Norman

    Knowledge and skill are needed for safe and enjoyable travel and camping in the wilderness in winter. The beauty of snow and ice, reduced human use, and higher tolerance of animals toward humans make the wilderness attractive during winter. The uniqueness of winter travel presents several challenges that are not present in other seasons. Safety is…

  7. Preparing for Travel in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, James M.

    The complexity of the Indian society can be overwhelming, and preparation for travel in India requires careful and detailed advance planning. Practical suggestions are provided for travelers to help them understand cultural differences, avoid illnesses, and select appropriate clothing for the intense heat. Explanations are given about the monetary…

  8. Reengineering the Air Travel Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-01

    Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (FROM - TO) xx-xx-1999 to xx-xx-1999 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Reengineering the Air Travel Process Unclassified 5a. CONTRACT...RELEASE , 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Every year, Department of Defense (DOD) travelers make thousands of trips that include air transportation

  9. Travel and Adult Transformative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Steven K.

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological research study examines the lived experience of individual adult transformation in the context of travel. Adults throughout history have experienced profound personal and perception changes as a result of significant travel events. Transformative learning occurs through experience, crisis, and reflection, all of which are…

  10. Travel and Adult Transformative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Steven K.

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological research study examines the lived experience of individual adult transformation in the context of travel. Adults throughout history have experienced profound personal and perception changes as a result of significant travel events. Transformative learning occurs through experience, crisis, and reflection, all of which are…

  11. Create a Traveling Literacy Trunk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fromherz, Robin Wright

    2003-01-01

    Considers how the concept of Traveling Literacy Trunk was designed to reach all corners of the state of Oregon with compelling, student-centered, developmentally appropriate writing activities that could be shared with teaching professionals. Outlines 12 steps for developing a Traveling Literacy Trunk. Describes many benefits of the Literacy…

  12. Travel and the Consumer 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idleman, Hillis K.

    The State Education Department of New York has prepared a series of modules--Expanded Programs in Consumer Education. "Travel and the Consumer" is the most recently produced module. It can be used as a discrete unit or with others in the series. The module stresses the importance of making travel creative, getting the most for one's…

  13. The Travelling Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    The telescope has been around for over 400 years, yet most people have never looked though one. We invite people outside under the stars to learn about those curious lights in the sky, and have a close encounter with the cosmos.Our main aim is to promote science, technology, engineering, and mathematics to the young minds by inspiring, empowering and engaging them using astronomy and astrophysics tools and concepts. We would like to see Africa compete with the rest of the world and we believe this can happen through having a scientifically literate society. We also work closely wit teachers, parents and the general public to further our objectives. We will present on our recently awarded project to work with schools in rural coastal Kenya, a very poor area of the country. We will also present on other work we continue to do with schools to make our project sustainable even after the OAD funding.

  14. Pre-travel advice seeking from GPs by travellers with chronic illness seen at a travel clinic.

    PubMed

    Gagneux-Brunon, Amandine; Andrillat, Carole; Fouilloux, Pascale; Daoud, Fatiha; Defontaine, Christiane; Charles, Rodolphe; Lucht, Frédéric; Botelho-Nevers, Elisabeth

    2016-03-01

    Travellers are ageing and frequently report chronic illness. Pre-travel health advice is crucial, particularly in this subgroup, and general practitioners (GPs) are first in line for treatment adjustment before departure. Our aim is to evaluate pre-travel health advice seeking from GPs by travellers with chronic illness seen at a travel clinic. A cross-sectional observational survey using a questionnaire was conducted between August 2013 and July 2014 in travellers attending the travel medicine clinic of a tertiary university hospital in France. During the study, 2019 travellers were included. Mean age was 39.4 years (±18.8). Three hundred and ninety-one (19.4%) travellers reported a history of a chronic illness. Arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus were the most frequently reported illnesses, affecting, respectively, 168 (8.3%) travellers and 102 (5.1%). Hajj pilgrims were more likely to report a history of chronic illness than other travellers. Only 810 (40.1%) travellers sought pre-travel advice from their GP. Six hundred and fifty-two (40.1%) healthy travellers and 158 (40.5%) travellers reporting chronic illness sought pre-travel advice from their GP (P = 0.96). Travellers with a history of chronic illness do not seek pre-travel health advice from their GP more frequently than healthy travellers. Travel health specialists are generally not the best practitioners to manage the care of underlying medical conditions presenting risks during travel. However, GPs offer continuity and disease management expertise to improve the specificity of pre-travel planning. Thus, ongoing collaboration between the traveller, GP and travel health specialist is likely to yield the best outcomes. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Travels in Space and Place: Identity and Rural Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This analysis draws on interview data from a three-year study of educational decision making of youth living in a coastal community in Atlantic Canada. Students whose educational and mobility aspirations extend outside the known spaces of the community develop the ability to negotiate multiple social spaces in and out of school. The school- …

  16. Prophylaxis for the International Traveller

    PubMed Central

    MacPherson, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    Travellers should know as much as possible about the quality of food and drink in the areas of travel, and be prepared with safety measures if necessary. Routine immunization should be up to date; cholera and yellow fever vaccinations are required for travel to certain areas. Such prophylaxis should be sought, ideally, several months before departure. Resurgences of malaria are occurring in areas where the disease had previously been controlled, making prophylaxis essential for travel to endemic areas. Other mild disorders may be treated with medication appropriate to the type of travel and area. Patients may appreciate cautionary advice about behavior, to lessen the likelihood of physical or social harm. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:21274123

  17. [Travel and patients with allergies].

    PubMed

    Miltgen, J; N'Guyen, G; Cuguilliere, A; Marotel, C; Bonnet, D

    1997-01-01

    By changing their surroundings and lifestyle, travelers with allergic conditions exposed themselves to new risks. The main perennial allergens are house dust mites which thrive in tropical areas and can be especially sensitizing. The risk of seasonal reactions to grass-pollens varies from region to region. Reactions to some highly sensitizing respiratory allergens can occur in travelers who return to regions where they were previously exposed. Subjects with food allergies should beware of possible reactions to ingredients in exotic dishes. The bites of several insects can cause anaphylactic reactions. Some medications required for tropical travel (e.g. antimalarial drugs) can trigger severe hypersensitivity reactions. Avoidance of allergens is more difficult during travel. Travelers with allergic conditions should carry alert identification cards and medications for routine as well as emergency treatment including self-injectable adrenaline.

  18. Travel, venous thromboembolism, and thrombophilia.

    PubMed

    Gallus, Alexander S

    2005-02-01

    Current evidence indicates that prolonged air travel predisposes to venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. An effect is seen once travel duration exceeds 6 to 9 hours and becomes obvious in long-haul passengers traveling for 12 or more hours. A recent records linkage study found that increase in thrombosis rate among arriving passengers peaked during the first week and was no longer apparent after 2 weeks. Medium- to long-distance travelers have a 2- to 4-fold increase in relative thrombosis risk compared with nontravelers, but the averaged absolute risk is small (approximately one symptomatic event per 2 million arrivals, with a case-fatality rate of approximately 2%) and there is no evidence that thrombosis is more likely in economy class than in business- or first-class passengers. It remains uncertain whether and to what extent thrombosis risk is increased by short-distance air travel or prolonged travel by motorcar, train, or other means. Most travelers who develop venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism also have one or more other predisposing risk factors that may include older age, obesity, recent injury or surgery, previous thrombosis, venous insufficiency, malignancy, hormonal therapies, or pregnancy. Limited (though theoretically plausible) evidence suggests that factor V Leiden and the prothrombin gene mutation predispose to thrombosis in otherwise healthy travelers. Given that very many passengers with such predispositions do not develop thrombosis, and a lack of prospective studies to link predisposition with disease, it is not now possible to allocate absolute thrombosis risk among intending passengers or to estimate benefit-to-risk ratios or benefit-to-cost ratios for prophylaxis. Randomized comparisons using ultrasound imaging indicate a measurable incidence of subclinical leg vein thrombosis after prolonged air travel, which appears to increase with travel duration and is reduced by graded pressure elastic support stockings. Whether this

  19. President's address: travel medicine and principles of safe travel.

    PubMed

    DuPont, Herbert L

    2008-01-01

    Persons crossing international boundaries away from their medical support systems are put at risk for illness and injury. Travel medicine is a new medical discipline that quantifies these health risks and develops strategies for reducing them. Obtaining health and evacuation insurance for a future trip is important for persons with medical conditions, those planning trips to developing tropical or semi-tropical regions of the world or when an international stay anywhere will be as long as a month. Pre-travel medical evaluation, vaccines against endemic infectious diseases and medications to reduce the occurrence of diarrhea and malaria during trips to endemic areas, and medications for self-treatment of common illnesses such as diarrhea are fundamental to travel medicine. There are a number of miscellaneous areas to consider in travel medicine including preventing deep vein thrombosis and minimizing jet lag during long haul air travel and reducing the occurrence of accidents and water- and altitude-related illnesses. An important recently defined challenge to the field is the growing number of ill-prepared persons put at great risk for illness while visiting friends and relatives living in areas of reduced hygiene. All persons need to have an idea of how and where they may find medical care if they develop illness while abroad. This article summarizes essential elements in travel medicine and offers 10 recommendations for safe travel.

  20. President's Address: Travel Medicine and Principles of Safe Travel

    PubMed Central

    DuPont, Herbert L.

    2008-01-01

    Persons crossing international boundaries away from their medical support systems are put at risk for illness and injury. Travel medicine is a new medical discipline that quantifies these health risks and develops strategies for reducing them. Obtaining health and evacuation insurance for a future trip is important for persons with medical conditions, those planning trips to developing tropical or semi-tropical regions of the world or when an international stay anywhere will be as long as a month. Pre-travel medical evaluation, vaccines against endemic infectious diseases and medications to reduce the occurrence of diarrhea and malaria during trips to endemic areas, and medications for self-treatment of common illnesses such as diarrhea are fundamental to travel medicine. There are a number of miscellaneous areas to consider in travel medicine including preventing deep vein thrombosis and minimizing jet lag during long haul air travel and reducing the occurrence of accidents and water- and altitude-related illnesses. An important recently defined challenge to the field is the growing number of ill-prepared persons put at great risk for illness while visiting friends and relatives living in areas of reduced hygiene. All persons need to have an idea of how and where they may find medical care if they develop illness while abroad. This article summarizes essential elements in travel medicine and offers 10 recommendations for safe travel. PMID:18596858

  1. Travelers' Health: MERS in the Arabian Peninsula

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  2. Travelers' Health: Animal-Associated Hazards

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  3. Travelers' Health: Trypanosomiasis, American (Chagas Disease)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  4. Travelers' Health: Natural Disasters and Environmental Hazards

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  5. 25 CFR 700.533 - Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense... travel and travel expense reimbursement. (a) When an employee is on officially authorized travel his or... in cash or kind for travel expenses from any other source, even when the employee's expenses exceed...

  6. 25 CFR 700.533 - Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense... travel and travel expense reimbursement. (a) When an employee is on officially authorized travel his or... in cash or kind for travel expenses from any other source, even when the employee's expenses exceed...

  7. 25 CFR 700.533 - Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense... travel and travel expense reimbursement. (a) When an employee is on officially authorized travel his or... in cash or kind for travel expenses from any other source, even when the employee's expenses...

  8. 25 CFR 700.533 - Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense... travel and travel expense reimbursement. (a) When an employee is on officially authorized travel his or... in cash or kind for travel expenses from any other source, even when the employee's expenses...

  9. 25 CFR 700.533 - Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense... travel and travel expense reimbursement. (a) When an employee is on officially authorized travel his or... in cash or kind for travel expenses from any other source, even when the employee's expenses...

  10. Travel-associated skin disease.

    PubMed

    Morris-Jones, Rachael; Morris-Jones, Stephen

    2012-09-01

    Travel associated skin disease is extremely common and a frequent cause of the returning traveller seeking medical attention. Widespread cutaneous eruptions usually represent reactive rashes, indicating an underlying systemic infection or allergic reaction. Patients with disseminated or spreading rashes following travel often present with fever and malaise. In contrast, those presenting with localised skin disease such as a blister, nodule, plaque, ulcer etc are usually well in themselves but have sustained a bite/sting/penetrating injury or introduction of infection directly into the skin at the affected site. As a general rule widespread rashes are investigated with blood tests/serology and localised lesions with a skin biopsy for culture and histology.

  11. Cardiology and Travel (Part I): Risk Assessment Prior to Travel.

    PubMed

    Leon; Lateef; Fuentes

    1996-09-01

    Traveling has always been a distinction of man. In Homer's Odyssey, we find a narrative description of the astonishing and long-standing adventures of Odysseus returning to Ithaca from Troy, and later on Thoukedides and Herodotos described different civilizations and historic events based on personal experiences obtained from traveling. At that time, the only available means of transportation were animals and ships. Therefore the trips were time consuming and frequently accompanied by unpredictable events. Nowadays, the use of modern means of transportation has made traveling much more enjoyable and faster; however, it can occasionally become stressful and, as a result, can be associated with a variety of medical problems both in healthy patients and in subjects with cardiovascular diseases. Previous epidemiologic studies have consistently demonstrated that cardiovascular events (including myocardial infarctions and cerebrovascular events) are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among adult travelers.1-6 Since the population of many industrialized countries shows aging trends, the potential problems occurring in elderly passengers, many of whom are more likely to have cardiopulmonary problems, are anticipated to increase. Assessment of the risk of cardiopulmonary problems prior to travel in a mobile society becomes an issue for the public and, in particular, for physicians. The data regarding the cardiovascular risks prior to traveling are limited because of the lack of a central registry for the collection of information regarding health problems or emergencies among travelers. However, review of the literature provides us with important observations in which we can make specific recommendations for assessing cardiovascular status and risk prior to travel during a pretravel medical consultation.

  12. Travelers' Health: Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Yellow Fever Vaccine Course Travel Medicine References: Books, Journals, Articles & Websites Resources for the Travel Industry Yellow Book Contents Chapter 3 (81) Typhoid & Paratyphoid Fever more ...

  13. 49 CFR 230.76 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and...) Maximum piston travel. The maximum piston travel when steam locomotive is standing shall be as follows...

  14. 49 CFR 230.76 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and...) Maximum piston travel. The maximum piston travel when steam locomotive is standing shall be as follows...

  15. Quantifying Access Disadvantage and Gathering Information in Rural and Remote Localities: The Griffith Service Access Frame.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Dennis A.

    2003-01-01

    A purely geographic classification is not the best way to measure rural disadvantage in Australia. A service access model is described that incorporates the following elements: population center size; distance, time, and cost of travel to the service center; and a measure of the economic capacity of residents to overcome the cost of travel.…

  16. Cost Effective, Home Based Delivery System for Rural, Early Childhood Special Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Thomas C.

    1986-01-01

    The Sensory Impaired Home Intervention (SKI*HI) Model provides services for rural, hearing impaired children at an average annual cost of $1,400 per child. Weekly home visits are provided by nearby or local part time parent advisors, thus minimizing travel costs and eliminating employment problems associated with long travel hours. (JHZ)

  17. Quantifying Access Disadvantage and Gathering Information in Rural and Remote Localities: The Griffith Service Access Frame.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Dennis A.

    2003-01-01

    A purely geographic classification is not the best way to measure rural disadvantage in Australia. A service access model is described that incorporates the following elements: population center size; distance, time, and cost of travel to the service center; and a measure of the economic capacity of residents to overcome the cost of travel.…

  18. Breast cancer stage at diagnosis: is travel time important?

    PubMed

    Henry, Kevin A; Boscoe, Francis P; Johnson, Christopher J; Goldberg, Daniel W; Sherman, Recinda; Cockburn, Myles

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have produced inconsistent results in their examination of the potential association between proximity to healthcare or mammography facilities and breast cancer stage at diagnosis. Using a multistate dataset, we re-examine this issue by investigating whether travel time to a patient's diagnosing facility or nearest mammography facility impacts breast cancer stage at diagnosis. We studied 161,619 women 40 years and older diagnosed with invasive breast cancer from ten state population based cancer registries in the United States. For each woman, we calculated travel time to their diagnosing facility and nearest mammography facility. Logistic multilevel models of late versus early stage were fitted, and odds ratios were calculated for travel times, controlling for age, race/ethnicity, census tract poverty, rural/urban residence, health insurance, and state random effects. Seventy-six percent of women in the study lived less than 20 min from their diagnosing facility, and 93 percent lived less than 20 min from the nearest mammography facility. Late stage at diagnosis was not associated with increasing travel time to diagnosing facility or nearest mammography facility. Diagnosis age under 50, Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Black race/ethnicity, high census tract poverty, and no health insurance were all significantly associated with late stage at diagnosis. Travel time to diagnosing facility or nearest mammography facility was not a determinant of late stage of breast cancer at diagnosis, and better geographic proximity did not assure more favorable stage distributions. Other factors beyond geographic proximity that can affect access should be evaluated more closely, including facility capacity, insurance acceptance, public transportation, and travel costs.

  19. Commercial Travel Offices: Lessons Learned in the Fifth U.S. Army Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    jurisdiction of the Army and are relatively easy to solve. Keywords: Passenger traffic, Service contracting; Travel agency ; Travel contracting; Travel...management; Travel service; Commercial travel office; Travel service contractor; Travel support; Commercial travel services; Commercial travel agency .

  20. Travel and the home advantage.

    PubMed

    Pace, A; Carron, A V

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relative contributions of various travel related variables to visiting team success in the National Hockey League. A multiple regression design was used with game outcome as the dependent variable. The independent variables of interest included, as main effects and interactions, number of time zones crossed, direction of travel, distance traveled, preparation/adjustment time, time of season, game number on the road trip, and the home stand. Visiting team success was negatively associated with the interaction of number of time zones crossed and increased preparation time between games, and was positively associated with game number on the road. It was concluded that only a small portion of the variance in the home advantage/visitor disadvantage can be explained by travel related factors.

  1. Travelers' Health: Injuries and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Afghanistan). Motor vehicle crashes—not crime or terrorism—are the number 1 killer of healthy US ... are related to natural disasters, aviation accidents, drugs, terrorism, falls, burns, and poisoning. If a traveler is ...

  2. Josephson Traveling-Wave Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurin, V. V.; Vdovicheva, N. K.; Shereshevskii, I. A.

    2017-04-01

    We propose a new approach to the problem of obtaining coherent radiation from systems with a great number of Josephson junctions, which is based on the concept of traveling-wave antennas. The traveling wave in a line ensures identity of the electrodynamic conditions, under which the junctions operate, whereas the energy leakage to radiation in the lateral direction prevents saturation of the nonlinearity of the individual junctions having a small dynamic range. Simple analytical models, which demonstrate feasibility of the traveling-wave regime, are considered. A code for direct numerical simulation of Josephson microchips including microantennas, lumped elements, and power supply circuits have been developed. Using the direct numerical simulation, a version of the Josephson antenna, which is similar to the simplest single-wire antenna, is studied and the possibility to realize the traveling-wave regime is demonstrated.

  3. Influenza Prevention: Information for Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Influenza Prevention: Information for Travelers Language: English (US) Españ ...

  4. Notification: Management of Travel Cards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OA-FY15-0156, April 20, 2015. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Inspector General (OIG), plans to begin preliminary research for an audit of the management of travel cards.

  5. Immunizations for High Flyin' Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166883.html Immunizations for High Flyin' Travelers Don't leave home ... way to protect yourself is by getting certain vaccinations before you leave home. Regardless of your destination, ...

  6. Travelers' Health: Injuries and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Senior Citizens Sex Tourism STDs Sun Exposure Swimming and Diving Study Abroad Tick Bites Travelers' Diarrhea ... during, and after a plane ride. Drowning Avoid swimming alone or in unfamiliar waters. Wear life jackets ...

  7. Tuberculosis Information for International Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... shelters). Travelers who will be working in clinics, hospitals, or other health care settings where TB patients are likely to be encountered should consult infection control or occupational health experts. They should ask about ...

  8. Sequentially pulsed traveling wave accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George J.; Nelson, Scott D.; Poole, Brian R.

    2009-08-18

    A sequentially pulsed traveling wave compact accelerator having two or more pulse forming lines each with a switch for producing a short acceleration pulse along a short length of a beam tube, and a trigger mechanism for sequentially triggering the switches so that a traveling axial electric field is produced along the beam tube in synchronism with an axially traversing pulsed beam of charged particles to serially impart energy to the particle beam.

  9. The returning traveler with fever.

    PubMed

    Saxe, S E; Gardner, P

    1992-06-01

    The febrile returning traveler tests a clinician's knowledge of tropical medicine as well as skills in differential diagnosis. A thorough history with special emphasis placed on the patient's travel itinerary and knowledge of the geographic location and incubation times of certain tropical diseases will narrow the diagnostic possibilities. This will allow the clinician to focus the diagnostic work-up and make wise choices of laboratory tests and procedures.

  10. Infectious Risks of Traveling Abroad.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin H; Blair, Barbra M

    2015-08-01

    A popular leisure activity, international travel can be associated with some infections. The most common travel-related illnesses appear to be gastrointestinal, dermatologic, respiratory, and systemic febrile syndromes. The pretravel medical consultation includes immunizations, malaria chemoprophylaxis, self-treatment for traveler's diarrhea, and advice on the prevention of a myriad of other infectious causes including dengue, chikungunya, rickettsiosis, leptospirosis, schistosomiasis, and strongyloidiasis. Travel to locations experiencing outbreaks such as Ebola virus disease, Middle East respiratory syndrome, avian influenza, and chikungunya call for specific alerts on preventive strategies. After travel, evaluation of an ill traveler must explore details of exposure, including destinations visited; activities; ingestion of contaminated food or drinks; contact with vectors, animals, fresh water, or blood and body fluids; and other potential exposures. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of infectious diseases is important in generating the differential diagnoses and testing accordingly. Empiric treatment is sometimes necessary when suspicion of a certain diagnosis is strong and confirmatory tests are delayed or lacking, particularly for infections that are rapidly progressive (for example, malaria) or for which timing of testing is prolonged (such as leptospirosis).

  11. [Sexually transmitted diseases and travel].

    PubMed

    Halioua, B; Prazuck, T; Malkin, J E

    1997-01-01

    Travelers are highly exposed to acquiring sexually transmitted diseases especially since the most popular destinations are high risk areas. While this risk applies to all travelers, it is highest for the "sex" tourist who is typically a male with a mean age of 38 years. Awareness of risks is still incomplete, especially with regard to HIV. Several studies have shown that only 20% to 70% of travelers use condoms. This finding accounts for the high incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in returning travelers: 2% to 10%. The risk of HIV infection is particularly high for persons living abroad. Based on available data, we can define the typical profile of the high risk traveler who should be targeted for prevention. Prevention depends on providing adequate information before departure, especially concerning HIV infection. Use of a condom throughout sexual contact is a basic safety rule. However condom quality is poor in many developing countries. Returning travelers should seek medical advice if manifestations involving the anogenital regions should appear.

  12. Rural Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... parts of the country. Populations of older adults increase by level of rurality: Source: Geographic Comparison Tables 0103 and 0104 , 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates This map, based on 2010 Census Data, shows the percent of the population over 65 ...

  13. Rural Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jon, Ed.; And Others

    Presented are 10 papers resulting from a workshop, involving representatives from 33 state developmental disabilities councils, designed to examine common problems and issues confronting developmentally disabled citizens in rural areas. Entries include the following titles and authors: "Who, What, and Where--Studying Prevalence of Developmental…

  14. The Visiting Specialist Model of Rural Health Care Delivery: A Survey in Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drew, Jacob; Cashman, Suzanne B.; Savageau, Judith A.; Stenger, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Context: Hospitals in rural communities may seek to increase specialty care access by establishing clinics staffed by visiting specialists. Purpose: To examine the visiting specialist care delivery model in Massachusetts, including reasons specialists develop secondary rural practices and distances they travel, as well as their degree of…

  15. The Visiting Specialist Model of Rural Health Care Delivery: A Survey in Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drew, Jacob; Cashman, Suzanne B.; Savageau, Judith A.; Stenger, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Context: Hospitals in rural communities may seek to increase specialty care access by establishing clinics staffed by visiting specialists. Purpose: To examine the visiting specialist care delivery model in Massachusetts, including reasons specialists develop secondary rural practices and distances they travel, as well as their degree of…

  16. Travel medicine and the international athlete.

    PubMed

    Kary, Joel M; Lavallee, Mark

    2007-07-01

    International travel for athletic competition presents unique challenges for athletes and medical staff. This article provides strategies for all phases of an international trip, including travel preparation, travel, competition, and post competition. Adequate planning should encompass the needs of all members of the traveling team (athletes and nonathletes), proper documentation and licensure, emergency planning, venue set-up, and appropriate medical supplies and equipment.

  17. Segmenting Michigan tourists based on distance traveled

    Treesearch

    Xiamei Xu; Tsao-Fang Yuan; Edwin Gomez; Joseph D. Fridgen

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to segment Michigan travelers into short, medium and long distance traveler groups by distance that they traveled from home to a primary destination in Michigan, and to compare travel behavior, trip characteristics and sociodemographics among these segments. Significant differences were identified in past trip experiences in Michigan,...

  18. Community Travel for Physically Impaired Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millet Learning Center, Saginaw, MI.

    The community travel program for physically impaired children at the Millet Learning Center (Saginaw, Michigan) blends skills from two professions: orientation and mobility, and physical therapy. Program goals include enabling students to overcome travel fears, to learn travel skills, to learn to make adaptations necessary for successful travel,…

  19. 8 CFR 244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Travel abroad. 244.15 Section 244.15 Aliens... NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After the grant of Temporary Protected Status... to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by the director pursuant to the Service's...

  20. 8 CFR 244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel abroad. 244.15 Section 244.15 Aliens... NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After the grant of Temporary Protected Status... to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by the director pursuant to the Service's...

  1. 28 CFR 2.93 - Travel approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel approval. 2.93 Section 2.93... Travel approval. (a) A parolee's Supervision Officer may approve travel outside the district of... possibilities. (3) Recurring travel across a district boundary, not to exceed fifty miles outside the district...

  2. 8 CFR 1244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Travel abroad. 1244.15 Section 1244.15... REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After... Status shall not constitute permission to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by the...

  3. 8 CFR 1244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel abroad. 1244.15 Section 1244.15... REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After... Status shall not constitute permission to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by the...

  4. 28 CFR 2.93 - Travel approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Travel approval. 2.93 Section 2.93... Travel approval. (a) A parolee's Supervision Officer may approve travel outside the district of... possibilities. (3) Recurring travel across a district boundary, not to exceed fifty miles outside the...

  5. 8 CFR 244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Travel abroad. 244.15 Section 244.15 Aliens... NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After the grant of Temporary Protected Status... to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by the director pursuant to the...

  6. 8 CFR 244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Travel abroad. 244.15 Section 244.15 Aliens... NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After the grant of Temporary Protected Status... to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by the director pursuant to the...

  7. 8 CFR 1244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Travel abroad. 1244.15 Section 1244.15... REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After... Status shall not constitute permission to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by...

  8. 8 CFR 244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Travel abroad. 244.15 Section 244.15 Aliens... NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After the grant of Temporary Protected Status... to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by the director pursuant to the...

  9. 28 CFR 2.93 - Travel approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Travel approval. 2.93 Section 2.93... Travel approval. (a) A parolee's Supervision Officer may approve travel outside the district of... possibilities. (3) Recurring travel across a district boundary, not to exceed fifty miles outside the...

  10. 28 CFR 2.93 - Travel approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Travel approval. 2.93 Section 2.93... Travel approval. (a) A parolee's Supervision Officer may approve travel outside the district of... possibilities. (3) Recurring travel across a district boundary, not to exceed fifty miles outside the...

  11. 8 CFR 1244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Travel abroad. 1244.15 Section 1244.15... REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After... Status shall not constitute permission to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by...

  12. 8 CFR 1244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Travel abroad. 1244.15 Section 1244.15... REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After... Status shall not constitute permission to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by...

  13. Travel medicine: what's involved? When to refer?

    PubMed

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-12-01

    To define the practice of travel medicine, provide the basics of a comprehensive pretravel consultation for international travelers, and assist in identifying patients who might require referral to travel medicine professionals. Guidelines and recommendations on travel medicine and travel-related illnesses by national and international travel health authorities were reviewed. MEDLINE and EMBASE searches for related literature were also performed. Travel medicine is a highly dynamic specialty that focuses on pretravel preventive care. A comprehensive risk assessment for each individual traveler is essential in order to accurately evaluate traveler-, itinerary-, and destination-specific risks, and to advise on the most appropriate risk management interventions to promote health and prevent adverse health outcomes during travel. Vaccinations might also be required and should be personalized according to the individual traveler's immunization history, travel itinerary, and the amount of time available before departure. A traveler's health and safety depends on a practitioner's level of expertise in providing pretravel counseling and vaccinations, if required. Those who advise travelers are encouraged to be aware of the extent of this responsibility and to refer all high-risk travelers to travel medicine professionals whenever possible. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  14. Further We Travel the Faster We Go

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Levente; Kovács, András; Tóth, Géza; Papp, István; Néda, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    The average travelling speed increases in a nontrivial manner with the travel distance. This leads to scaling-like relations on quite extended spatial scales, for all mobility modes taken together and also for a given mobility mode in part. We offer a wide range of experimental results, investigating and quantifying this universal effect and its measurable causes. The increasing travelling speed with the travel distance arises from the combined effects of: choosing the most appropriate travelling mode; the structure of the travel networks; the travel times lost in the main hubs, starting or target cities; and the speed limit of roads and vehicles. PMID:26863605

  15. Further We Travel the Faster We Go.

    PubMed

    Varga, Levente; Kovács, András; Tóth, Géza; Papp, István; Néda, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    The average travelling speed increases in a nontrivial manner with the travel distance. This leads to scaling-like relations on quite extended spatial scales, for all mobility modes taken together and also for a given mobility mode in part. We offer a wide range of experimental results, investigating and quantifying this universal effect and its measurable causes. The increasing travelling speed with the travel distance arises from the combined effects of: choosing the most appropriate travelling mode; the structure of the travel networks; the travel times lost in the main hubs, starting or target cities; and the speed limit of roads and vehicles.

  16. Paediatric travel medicine: vaccines and medications

    PubMed Central

    Starr, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The paediatric aspects of travel medicine can be complex, and individual advice is often required. Nonetheless, children are much more likely to acquire common infections than exotic tropical diseases whilst travelling. Important exceptions are malaria and tuberculosis, which are more frequent and severe in children. Overall, travellers' diarrhoea is the most common illness affecting travellers. This review discusses vaccines and medications that may be indicated for children who are travelling overseas. It focuses on immunizations that are given as part of the routine schedule, as well as those that are more specific to travel. Malaria and travellers' diarrhoea are also discussed. PMID:23163285

  17. Rural intentions

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Diane J.; Hakes, Jacquie; Bai, Meera; Tolhurst, Helen; Dickinson, James A.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the reasons for family medicine graduates’ career choices. DESIGN Qualitative study using focus groups and one-on-one interviews. SETTING University of Calgary in Alberta. PARTICIPANTS Seventeen male and female second-year family medicine residents, representing a range of ages and areas of origin, enrolled in the 2004 urban and rural south streams of the family medicine residency program at the University of Calgary. METHOD During the final month of training, 2 focus groups were conducted to determine graduating students’ career choices and the reasons for them. After focus-group data were analyzed, a questionnaire was constructed and subsequently administered to participants during face-to-face or telephone interviews. MAIN FINDINGS Most residents initially planned to do urban locums in order to gain experience. In the long term, they planned to open practices in urban areas for lifestyle and family reasons. Many residents from the rural stream had no long-term plans to establish rural practices. Most residents said they felt prepared for practice, but many indicated that an optional third year of paid training, with an emphasis on emergency medicine, obstetrics, and pediatrics, would be desirable. Reasons cited for not practising in rural areas were related to workload, lifestyle issues, family obligations, and perceived lack of medical support in the community. Only 4 female graduates and 1 male graduate intended to practise obstetrics. The main reason residents gave for this was inadequate training in obstetrics during residency. Finances were cited as a secondary reason for many choices, and might in fact be more important than at first apparent. CONCLUSION Despite its intention to recruit family medicine graduates to rural areas and to obstetrics, the University of Calgary residency training program was not successful in recruiting physicians to these areas. The program likely needs to re-examine the effectiveness of

  18. Integrated rural energy planning

    SciTech Connect

    El Mahgary, Y.; Biswas, A.K.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on integrated community energy systems in developing countries. Topics considered include an integrated rural energy system in Sri Lanka, rural energy systems in Indonesia, integrated rural food-energy systems and technology diffusion in India, bringing energy to the rural sector in the Philippines, the development of a new energy village in China, the Niaga Wolof experimental rural energy center, designing a model rural energy system for Nigeria, the Basaisa village integrated field project, a rural energy project in Tanzania, rural energy development in Columbia, and guidelines for the planning, development and operation of integrated rural energy projects.

  19. Cadres for Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iagofarova, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    Considers qualities required of rural teachers in the USSR and implications for teacher education. Reports survey results of 430 rural teachers in the Tatar region concerning what a rural teacher must know and problems specific to rural teaching. Concludes that rural teachers must coordinate teaching with social work and face housing and material…

  20. Rural Prairie Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Kari

    "Rural Prairie Women" contains the work of two task forces: the Rural Social Work Task Force which looked at the forces active in North Dakota rural areas and the Rural Women Task Force which examined the position of women within those same rural communities. The relationship between the land, small towns, and sparse population is…

  1. Rural as Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Craig B.; Howley, Aimee A.

    This essay explains two ways in which "the rural" serves as context. The common way interprets the rural lifeworld as an impediment to certain projects and goals, thus framing "the rural" as a subjugated and diminished reality. The other way is called "the rural circumstance" in order to situate the rural lifeworld as…

  2. Rural Prairie Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Kari

    "Rural Prairie Women" contains the work of two task forces: the Rural Social Work Task Force which looked at the forces active in North Dakota rural areas and the Rural Women Task Force which examined the position of women within those same rural communities. The relationship between the land, small towns, and sparse population is…

  3. Observational Study of Travelers' Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Meuris

    1995-03-01

    Background: European air travelers returning from Algeria, Egypt, Mexico, Morocco, and Tunisia were interviewed about their experience of travelers' diseases upon arrival in Brussels. Diarrhea was mentioned by 37% of the adults and 27% of the children. These subjects were questioned about the types of measures taken, type and duration of drug treatment (if any), and about duration of diarrhea and side effects experienced. Methods: Final analysis was performed based on 2160 interviews. The largest proportion of diarrhea was reported in the age group 15-24 years (46%). Results: The majority of the 2160 subjects had opted for drug treatment (81%): 927 subjects for loperamide alone, 235 for loperamide in combination with nifuroxazide, and 178 for nifuroxazide alone. Other drugs had been used less frequently. The median time to recovery was 2.4 days with loperamide compared to 3.2 days with nifuroxazide and to 3.4 days for the no-treatment group. Conclusions: A stratification of the results by severity of the diarrhea suggests a rank of antidiarrheal potency as follows: loperamide > nifuroxazide > no-drug treatment. The side effect with the highest incidence was constipation (2.4% with loperamide). (J Travel Med 2:11-15, 1995) Travelers' diarrhea is usually defined as the passage of at least three unformed stools per day or any number of such stools when accompanied by fever, abdominal cramping, or vomiting. The definition may be broadened to include more trivial bowel disturbance.1,2 The duration of this self-limited disease generally is 3 to 5 days. Medical intervention aims at shortening the duration of disease, thus allowing the sufferer to resume his or her usual activities at an early stage. A shortened period of recovery to physical well-being has obvious favorable economic implications if the traveler is on business and may help the maintenance of a desired level of quality of life while a traveler is on holiday. An observational study of various medical

  4. Poliomyelitis--prevention in travellers.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Cora A; Neilson, Amy A

    2010-03-01

    This article is the second in a series providing a summary of prevention strategies and vaccination for infections that may be acquired by travellers. The series aims to provide practical strategies to assist general practitioners in giving travel advice, as a synthesis of multiple information sources which must otherwise be consulted. Poliomyelitis is a potentially fatal viral illness, which may cause acute flaccid paralysis and permanent central nervous system damage. Ongoing global efforts to eradicate poliomyelitis have been under way since 1988. Travellers are at risk of infection in countries with endemic wild poliomyelitis virus or imported cases, and can spread the infection to areas where poliomyelitis has been eradicated. While all adults should be immune to poliomyelitis, it is important that at-risk travellers are vaccinated appropriately. Vaccine options and regions currently reporting poliomyelitis are presented from a number of sources, which may facilitate the process of giving travel advice in a general practice setting, although it is also important to seek up-to-date epidemiological information.

  5. Future Trends in Business Travel Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Keith J.

    2002-01-01

    This research surveys twenty large companies and their travellers to identify and evaluate the effects of pressures on the business travel market in the future. The influence of the following areas on the decision making process are addressed: (1) Corporate travel policies and increasing professionalism in corporate purchasing; (2) The development of global strategic airline alliances; (3) The emergence of low cost airlines on short haul markets; and (4) The development of internet based booking tools and travel agency IT. The survey shows differences in views between travel managers, and travellers with regard to corporate travel policies. While travel managers see policy rules, travellers interpret these as guidelines, indicating travel managers will need to take further actions to exercise true control of travel budgets. The data shows that companies are more likely to prescribe a class of airline ticket, than the choice of airline itself. Corporate hierarchical bias in travel policies is still common both for short and particularly long haul flying. Other findings show that while travel managers believe that their companies are likely to sign global deals with strategic airline groups within a five year period in a bid to consolidating spending, they also believe that nearly a third of short haul flying will be taken with low cost carriers, indicating further penetration in this business travel market by these carriers. The paper also provides other predictions about the business travel market, based on the survey findings.

  6. Fundamental Travel Demand Model Example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanssen, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Instances of transportation models are abundant and detailed "how to" instruction is available in the form of transportation software help documentation. The purpose of this paper is to look at the fundamental inputs required to build a transportation model by developing an example passenger travel demand model. The example model reduces the scale to a manageable size for the purpose of illustrating the data collection and analysis required before the first step of the model begins. This aspect of the model development would not reasonably be discussed in software help documentation (it is assumed the model developer comes prepared). Recommendations are derived from the example passenger travel demand model to suggest future work regarding the data collection and analysis required for a freight travel demand model.

  7. Schizotypy and mental time travel.

    PubMed

    Winfield, Hannah; Kamboj, Sunjeev K

    2010-03-01

    Mental time travel is the capacity to imagine the autobiographical past and future. Schizotypy is a dimensional measure of psychosis-like traits found to be associated with creativity and imagination. Here, we examine the phenomenological qualities of mental time travel in highly schizotypal individuals. After recollecting past episodes (autobiographical memory) and imagining future events (episodic future thinking), those scoring highly on positive schizotypy reported a greater sense of 'autonoetic awareness,' defined as a greater feeling of mental time travel and re-living/'pre-living' imagined events. Furthermore, in contrast to other sensory domains, imagery of the past and future episodes contained more olfactory detail in these high scorers. The results are discussed in relation to previous reports of anomalous olfactory experiences in schizotypy and heightened vividness of olfactory imagery in post-traumatic stress disorder, for which schizotypy is a risk factor.

  8. [Protracted rheumatologic manifestations in travelers].

    PubMed

    Levy, Tali; Kivity, Shaye; Schwartz, Eli

    2010-09-01

    Protracted rheumatological manifestations especially arthralgia and or polyarthritis may occur as a consequence of a wide range of pathogens including viral, bacterial and parasites. Few pathogenetic mechanisms leading to these clinical presentations have been suggested including a direct invasion of the synovial cells by the pathogens, immune complex formation, and others. The natural history of infectious arthritis/arthralgia is altogether benign, with full recovery and without sequelae, albeit sometimes very long. Diagnosis of infections-related arthralgia/arthritis is important since these diseases have a better prognosis, and can relieve anxiety among patients who are afraid of developing a chronic rheumatic disease. Since many patients will seek medical advice with these chronic complaints a long time after travel, physicians should be aware of the possible association between these complaints and remote travel. Thus, travel history should be mandatory, even in a rheumatologic setting.

  9. [Malaria prevention in international travel].

    PubMed

    López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2003-05-01

    For travelers malaria represents the principal infectious risk of severe complications and death. Infection during traveling depends on the geographical area visited, the predominant species of parasite, the frequency of resistance to antimalarial agents, and whether preventive measures have been taken. Until a vaccine has been developed, prevention strategies consist of providing travelers with information, the use of barrier methods against vector bites, the correct use of chemoprophylaxis, and the possibility of self-diagnosis and treatment. The choice of chemoprophylaxis regimen should be individualized since no regimen guarantees 100% protection or is free of adverse effects or contraindications. The most effective drugs are doxycycline, atovaquone-proguanil and mefloquine while those producing severe adverse effects with the least frequency are atovaquone-proguanil and doxycycline.

  10. Toxoplasmosis as a travel risk.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda-Arias, Juan C; Gómez-Marin, Jorge E; Bobić, Branko; Naranjo-Galvis, Carlos A; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite with worldwide distribution that infects more than one third of the global population. Primary infection in immunocompetent individuals is usually asymptomatic; however, different organs can be affected in immunocompromised individuals leading to the development of encephalitis, myocarditis or pneumonitis. The prevalence of infection with Toxoplasma as well as its genetic structure varies geographically and for that reason travel may be considered as a risk factor to acquire the infection. As toxoplasmosis is a foodborne disease, health care providers should give health education on prevention measures to all prospective travelers in order to decrease the risk of infection in endemic areas. This review presents an overview of the infection with T. gondii with some considerations for travelers to and from endemic zones.

  11. Schistosomiasis in Travelers and Expatriates.

    PubMed

    Jelinek; Nothdurft; Löscher

    1996-09-01

    Background: Several outbreaks of schistosomiasis among travelers, expatriates, and military serviceman have been reported in recent years. Methods: The travel histories and anamnestic and clinical features of 62 patients with schistosomiasis, who presented to a German outpatient clinic specializing in infectious and tropical diseases, were investigated to identify risk factors that could lead to infection in travelers and expatriates. Results: All patients remembered incidents that led to a likely exposure to cercariae of Schistosoma sp. Fifty nine patients (95%) acquired infection in Africa, two (3%) in South America, and one each (2% each) in Iraq and the Mekong River, respectively. The highest proportion of infection (45%) was imported from West Africa. Patients returning from West Africa reported either contact with tributaries of the Niger (including freshwater pools in the Dogon country, Mali) or with waters of the Volta River, notably Lake Volta and/or its delta. Six patients (10%) acquired infection in little-visited areas such as Central Africa and the Congo Basin. East Africa (especially Lake Victoria) and Lake Malawi contributed 14 patients (22%) to our study group; a further nine patients (14%) became infected after contact with waters of the Zambezi River. Conclusions: The most sensitive method for detection of possible infection with schistosomiasis appeared to be a combination of thorough travel history and serologic testing by indirect hemagglutination (IHA), immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Most infections were acquired by travelers on lengthy and adventurous journeys or by expatriates venturing outside their normal areas of activity. Most patients knew that they had traveled in an area endemic for schistosomiasis, but were uninformed about behavioral risks they had taken in specific settings.

  12. Continuing Education--A Reality for the Rural Nurse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Mary E.; Eirite, Rosemarie

    1976-01-01

    A successful series of workshops was planned and implemented in a rural area of Michigan where travel distances and lack of financial support from health care agencies were barriers to continuing education. Data obtained from a survey of 150 nurses identified priority subject areas and resource persons. (MS)

  13. Public Relations and the Role of the Rural School Psychologist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, A. Reese

    Although there is no difference between the training provided for school psychologists who practice in rural communities and those who render service in urban areas, there are definite contrasts in the actual work. An elaboration of these comprises the bulk of this paper. Differences covered are: (1) the inordinate amount of travel time required…

  14. Access to Care: Overcoming the Rural Physician Shortage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    1999-01-01

    Describes three state-initiated programs that address the challenge of providing access to health care for Appalachia's rural residents: a traveling pediatric diabetes clinic serving eastern Kentucky; a telemedicine program operated out of Knoxville, Tennessee; and a new medical school in Kentucky dedicated to training doctors from Appalachia for…

  15. The Economics of [Not] Closing Small Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witham, Mark

    This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the comparative costs and benefits of closing small rural schools in South Australia. The cost analysis includes accounting for the use of staff, goods, and services; distance education support; land and buildings; and the opportunity cost of children's bus travel time. The assumption that children's…

  16. Access to Care: Overcoming the Rural Physician Shortage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    1999-01-01

    Describes three state-initiated programs that address the challenge of providing access to health care for Appalachia's rural residents: a traveling pediatric diabetes clinic serving eastern Kentucky; a telemedicine program operated out of Knoxville, Tennessee; and a new medical school in Kentucky dedicated to training doctors from Appalachia for…

  17. Using "Moodle[TM]": How Rural School Librarians Stay Connected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleton, Karen; DeGroot, Dorothy; Lampe, Karen; Carruthers, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    So, what if one lives in a remote, rural area, but still has important knowledge and insights that others might benefit from learning? What if one is the only school librarian for multiple districts, and one just cannot justify the time to travel to a regular, traditional class meeting These are questions that school librarians in Iowa, as well as…

  18. Using "Moodle[TM]": How Rural School Librarians Stay Connected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleton, Karen; DeGroot, Dorothy; Lampe, Karen; Carruthers, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    So, what if one lives in a remote, rural area, but still has important knowledge and insights that others might benefit from learning? What if one is the only school librarian for multiple districts, and one just cannot justify the time to travel to a regular, traditional class meeting These are questions that school librarians in Iowa, as well as…

  19. Rural Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... higher in rural areas. These factors include: the geography of rural areas facilitates the kind of isolation ... differ for rural and urban women. Community-level barriers to enforce civil protective orders exist for women ...

  20. Rural Health Disparities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gateway Evidence-based Toolkits Rural Health Models & Innovations Supporting Rural Community Health Tools for Success Am ... Update of the Rural-Urban Chartbook Highlights current trends and disparities across different levels of metro- and ...

  1. National Rural Health Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Roster NRHA Past Presidents NRHA Leadership Constituency Groups History of Rural Health History of Rural Health Globalization Urban Bias Dependency Theory Political Economy History of Rural Health IV: '60s ...

  2. Hematospermia in a returned traveler

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Raynell; Minion, Jessica; Wong, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Hematospermia is a common complaint among patients seen in outpatient urology clinics. The differential diagnosis is broad and includes inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic, structural, systemic, and traumatic causes. The most common infectious causes are uropathogens and sexually transmitted infections. However, with increasing global travel, physicians must maintain a high clinical suspicion for pathogens not endemic to their region, including Echinococcus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Schistosoma.1 We present a case of hematospermia in a traveler returning from Eastern Africa with exposure to Lake Malawi. The patient’s microscopic analysis of semen was positive for Schistosoma haematobium, revealing a rare presentation of S. haematobium infection. PMID:28163813

  3. Black Holes: A Traveler's Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickover, Clifford A.

    1998-03-01

    BLACK HOLES A TRAVELER'S GUIDE Clifford Pickover's inventive and entertaining excursion beyond the curves of space and time. "I've enjoyed Clifford Pickover's earlier books . . . now he has ventured into the exploration of black holes. All would-be tourists are strongly advised to read his traveler's guide." -Arthur C. Clarke. "Many books have been written about black holes, but none surpass this one in arousing emotions of awe and wonder towards the mysterious structure of the universe." -Martin Gardner. "Bucky Fuller thought big. Arthur C. Clarke thinks big, but Cliff Pickover outdoes them both." -Wired. "The book is fun, zany, in-your-face, and refreshingly addictive." -Times Higher Education Supplement.

  4. Traveling-Wave Membrane Photomixers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyss, R. A.; Martin, S. C.; Nakamura, B. J.; Neto, A.; Pasqualini, D.; Siegel, P. H.; Kadow, C.; Gossard, A. C.

    2001-01-01

    Traveling-wave photomixers have superior performance when compared with lumped area photomixers in the 1 to 3 THz frequency range. Their large active area and distributed gain mechanism assure high thermal damage threshold and elimination of the capacitive frequency roll-off. However, the losses experienced by the radio frequency wave traveling along the coplanar strips waveguide (due to underlying semi-infinite GaAs substrate) were a serious drawback. In this paper we present device designs and an experimental setup that make possible the realization of photomixers on membranes which eliminate the losses.

  5. [Travel and chronic respiratory insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Bonnet, D; Marotel, C; Miltgen, J; N'Guyen, G; Cuguilliere, A; L'Her, P

    1997-01-01

    Changes in climate, altitude and lifestyle during travel confronts patients presenting chronic respiratory insufficiency with special problems. A major challenge is related to high altitude during air travel. To limit risks, a preflight examination is necessary to ascertain respiratory status. Patients requiring oxygen therapy must ensure availability both during the flight and at the destination. Patients with asthma or chronic bronchitis must bring along a sufficient supply of usual inhalers. All patients should carry a doctor's letter describing their condition and listing medications. Using these elementary precautions, patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency can safely enjoy sightseeing and outdoor leisure activities.

  6. Hematospermia in a returned traveler.

    PubMed

    Lang, Raynell; Minion, Jessica; Wong, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Hematospermia is a common complaint among patients seen in outpatient urology clinics. The differential diagnosis is broad and includes inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic, structural, systemic, and traumatic causes. The most common infectious causes are uropathogens and sexually transmitted infections. However, with increasing global travel, physicians must maintain a high clinical suspicion for pathogens not endemic to their region, including Echinococcus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Schistosoma.1 We present a case of hematospermia in a traveler returning from Eastern Africa with exposure to Lake Malawi. The patient's microscopic analysis of semen was positive for Schistosoma haematobium, revealing a rare presentation of S. haematobium infection.

  7. Navigation: traveling the water highways!

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Marion; Vandas, Stephen; Farrar, Frank

    1996-01-01

    NAVIGATION is travel or transportation over water. Many different kinds of boats and ships are used on rivers and oceans to move people and products from one place to another. Navigation was extremely important for foreign and domestic trade and travel in the early days of our country before cars, trucks, trains, and airplanes were invented. In those days, rivers were used as "roads" to connect inland settlements to river and coastal ports. Communities established at these commercial ports became important economic, cultural, and social hubs in the development of our Nation.

  8. Collection Development "Mini-Travel Guides": Traveling Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    Predictions regarding how much traveling Americans will be doing this year and where they might go vary, but it is expected that many will cut back on what is increasingly considered a luxury. Even so, gasoline prices are down substantially from a year ago, the stronger dollar means better prices in Europe, and there are discounts in all areas of…

  9. Collection Development "Mini-Travel Guides": Traveling Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    Predictions regarding how much traveling Americans will be doing this year and where they might go vary, but it is expected that many will cut back on what is increasingly considered a luxury. Even so, gasoline prices are down substantially from a year ago, the stronger dollar means better prices in Europe, and there are discounts in all areas of…

  10. Travel Time Influences Readmission Risk: Geospatial Mapping of Surgical Readmissions.

    PubMed

    Turrentine, Florence E; Buckley, Patrick J; Sohn, Min-Woong; Williams, Michael D

    2017-06-01

    The University of Virginia (UVA) has recently become an Accountable Care Organization (ACO), intensifying efforts to provide better care for individuals. UVA's ACO population resides across the entire Commonwealth, with a large percentage of patients living in rural areas. To provide better health for this population, the central tenet of the ACO mission, we identified geographic risk factors influencing hospital readmission. We analyzed the relationship between the distance of patients' residence to the nearest hospital and 30-day readmission in general surgery patients. A retrospective chart review using January 1, 2011 through October 31, 2013 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data for general surgery procedures was conducted. ArcGIS mapped street addresses provided graphical representation of distance between surgical population and the nearest hospital. We analyzed the impact on readmission, of time traveled, insurance status, and median household income. Each increase of 10 minutes in travel time from the patient's residence to the nearest hospital, not just UVA, was associated with a 9 per cent increase in the probability of readmission after adjusting for patient characteristics, preoperative comorbidities, laboratory values, and postoperative complications before or after discharge (odds ratio = 1.09; 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.17; P = 0.019). Unlike urban hospitals, those serving rural populations may be at particular risk of postsurgical readmissions. Patients living furthest from a hospital facility are most at risk for readmission after a general surgery procedure. This vulnerable population may benefit most from comprehensive discharge planning.

  11. Community-Based Education and Rural Development. Site Visit to Nebraska. Rural Funders Working Group Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeden, Carol Lee

    In September 2000, grantmakers from around the country traveled to three Nebraska communities--Albion, Crete, and Henderson--to see how community-based education can positively affect the economic, environmental, and cultural development of a rural community. In Albion, the school is an open laboratory in which students, teachers, and parents work…

  12. Risk perception of travelers to tropical and subtropical countries visiting a swiss travel health center.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Rosalie; Hattendorf, Jan; Blum, Johannes; Nüesch, Reto; Hatz, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the risk perception ratings of travelers pre- and post-travel and in comparison to the ratings by travel health experts. While most surveys on travel health knowledge, attitudes, and practices focus on malaria and vaccine-preventable diseases, noninfectious travel risks were included in this study. Pre- and post-travel perception of nine travel-associated health risks was recorded among 314 travelers to tropical and subtropical destinations. All travelers sought pre-travel health advice at the Travel Clinic of the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute in 2008 and 2009. In addition, 18 Swiss travel health experts provided an assessment of the respective risks. A validated visual psychometric measuring instrument was used [pictorial representation of illness and self measure (PRISM)]. Travelers and experts rated most risks similarly, except for accidents and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) which experts rated higher. Compared to other risks, accidents ranked highly in both groups and were the only risk perceived higher after travel. Pre- and post-travel perceptions of all other risks were similar with a tendency to be lower after travel. Travelers perceived mosquitoes to be the highest risk before travel and accidents after travel. Travelers' risk perception appears to be accurate for most risks stated in this study. However, travel health professionals should be aware that some perception patterns among travelers regarding travel-related health risks may be different from professional risk assessment. Important but insufficiently perceived health risks, such as sexual behavior/STIs and accidents, should be considered to be part of any pre-travel health advice package. © 2012 Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Medicine and Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland.

  13. Individual traveller health priorities and the pre-travel health consultation.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Gerard T; Chen, Bingling; Avalos, Gloria

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the principal travel health priorities of travellers. The most frequently selected travel health concerns were accessing medical care abroad, dying abroad, insect bites, malaria, personal safety and travel security threats. The travel health risks of least concern were culture shock, fear of flying, jet lag and sexually transmitted infections. This study is the first to develop a hierarchy of self-declared travel health risk priorities among travellers. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Music Travel: Avoiding the Potholes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2010-01-01

    Even given the countless hours clocked in class and rehearsal time, there's nothing that compares to a road trip to seal the bond among band, orchestra, and vocal music students. "Nothing can replace travel," says Peter Markes, orchestra director at Edmond North High School in Oklahoma. "It's safe, well-structured and, for many of…

  15. Your Travel Dollar. Money Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.

    This illustrated guide was designed to familiarize consumers with planning a vacation trip, whether domestic or abroad. The guide covers setting up a budget; package tours; cruises and charter flights; travel agencies and clubs; and arranging stays in hotels/motels, rental condominiums, bed-and-breakfasts, hostels, campsites, and private…

  16. Refractory giardiasis in Spanish travellers.

    PubMed

    Muñoz Gutiérrez, Jose; Aldasoro, Edelweiss; Requena, Ana; Comin, Ana M; Pinazo, Maria Jesús; Bardají, Azucena; Oliveira, Inés; Valls, Maria Eugenia; Gascon, Joaquim

    2013-01-01

    Drug failure is a common cause of symptom persistence after treatment of imported Giardia duodenalis. In this retrospective study we describe a high prevalence of refractory giardiasis in people attended in a travel clinic in Spain, especially those with infections acquired in Asia. Moreover, we discuss various treatment strategies to tackle G. duodenalis that is refractory to nitroimidazoles.

  17. 75 FR 43395 - Campaign Travel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... / Monday, July 26, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION 11 CFR Part 9004 Campaign Travel AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Announcement of effective date. SUMMARY: On... by and on behalf of presidential candidates receiving public funding for the general election, 11...

  18. Twitter for travel medicine providers.

    PubMed

    Mills, Deborah J; Kohl, Sarah E

    2016-03-01

    Travel medicine practitioners, perhaps more so than medical practitioners working in other areas of medicine, require a constant flow of information to stay up-to-date, and provide best practice information and care to their patients. Many travel medicine providers are unaware of the popularity and potential of the Twitter platform. Twitter use among our travellers, as well as by physicians and health providers, is growing exponentially. There is a rapidly expanding body of published literature on this information tool. This review provides a brief overview of the ways Twitter is being used by health practitioners, the advantages that are peculiar to Twitter as a platform of social media, and how the interested practitioner can get started. Some key points about the dark side of Twitter are highlighted, as well as the potential benefits of using Twitter as a way to disseminate accurate medical information to the public. This article will help readers develop an increased understanding of Twitter as a tool for extracting useful facts and insights from the ever increasing volume of health information. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Time Travel in the Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Donna W.

    2005-01-01

    A Time Travel project in the library gives enthusiasm to students to connect with the past and reinforces their research skills while instilling respect for the past years. The librarian should choose one specific decade to highlight in the library and create an extravaganza that would allow memorabilia from that time period to be located without…

  20. Time Travel in the Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Donna W.

    2005-01-01

    A Time Travel project in the library gives enthusiasm to students to connect with the past and reinforces their research skills while instilling respect for the past years. The librarian should choose one specific decade to highlight in the library and create an extravaganza that would allow memorabilia from that time period to be located without…

  1. Music Travel: Avoiding the Potholes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2010-01-01

    Even given the countless hours clocked in class and rehearsal time, there's nothing that compares to a road trip to seal the bond among band, orchestra, and vocal music students. "Nothing can replace travel," says Peter Markes, orchestra director at Edmond North High School in Oklahoma. "It's safe, well-structured and, for many of…

  2. Preparing Students for Travel Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novotny, Jeanne

    1989-01-01

    This article outlines information which can be provided by the school nurse or health educator to help make student trips abroad healthy as well as educational. Topics covered include: food and water, traveler's diarrhea, handwashing, insect and animal bites, stress, and prior health problems. (IAH)

  3. Your Travel Dollar. Money Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.

    This illustrated guide was designed to familiarize consumers with planning a vacation trip, whether domestic or abroad. The guide covers setting up a budget; package tours; cruises and charter flights; travel agencies and clubs; and arranging stays in hotels/motels, rental condominiums, bed-and-breakfasts, hostels, campsites, and private…

  4. Economic Downturn Limits Conference Travel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2009-01-01

    Attendance is down at many academic and professional conferences in higher education this year, and next year's numbers are expected to be far worse, as campus budgets take further beatings. With many colleges limiting travel to professors or administrators who are speaking at events they are attending, will anyone be left in the audience? A new…

  5. Preparing Students for Travel Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novotny, Jeanne

    1989-01-01

    This article outlines information which can be provided by the school nurse or health educator to help make student trips abroad healthy as well as educational. Topics covered include: food and water, traveler's diarrhea, handwashing, insect and animal bites, stress, and prior health problems. (IAH)

  6. Economic Downturn Limits Conference Travel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2009-01-01

    Attendance is down at many academic and professional conferences in higher education this year, and next year's numbers are expected to be far worse, as campus budgets take further beatings. With many colleges limiting travel to professors or administrators who are speaking at events they are attending, will anyone be left in the audience? A new…

  7. Risk factors and pre-travel healthcare of international travellers attending a Dutch travel clinic: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Wieten, Rosanne W; van der Schalie, Maurice; Visser, Benjamin J; Grobusch, Martin P; van Vugt, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    The number of international travellers is currently estimated to exceed one billion annually. To address travel related health risks and facilitate risk reduction strategies, detailed knowledge of travellers' characteristics is important. In this cross-sectional study, data of a 20% sample of travellers visiting the Academic Medical Center (AMC) travel clinic Amsterdam from July 2011 to July 2012 was collected. Itineraries and protection versus exposure rates of preventable infectious diseases were mapped and reported according to STROBE guidelines. 1749 travellers were included. South-Eastern Asia, South-America and West-Africa were most frequently visited. 26.2% of the population had pre-existing medical conditions (often cardiovascular). Young and VFR travellers had a longer median travel time (28 and 30 days) compared to the overall population (21 days). Young adult travellers were relatively often vaccinated against hepatitis B (43.9% vs. 20.5%, p < .001) and rabies (16.6% vs. 4.3%, p < .001). VFRs were less often vaccinated against hepatitis B (11.6% vs. 30.6%, p < .001) and rabies (1.3% vs. 9.0%, p .012) compared to non-VFR travellers. Pre-travel guidelines were well adhered to. Young adult travellers had high-risk itineraries but were adequately protected. Improvement of hepatitis B and rabies protection would be desirable, specifically for VFRs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Automated highways: Effects on travel, emissions, and traveler welfare

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R.A.; Rodier, C.J.

    1999-05-01

    A recent project simulating automated freeways in the Sacramento, Calif., region is described. Of special interest is the economic welfare model applied in this project. It was found that travel and emissions increase with capacity. Traveler economic welfare increased (over the no-build case) only in modest [97 km/h (60 mi/h) or one lane] automated highway system scenarios. Peak-period freeway tolls and parking pricing with land-use intensification at outer freeway ramps greatly increased user benefits, as did automating only single HOV lanes. Future automated highway system research should consider incremental automation (one lane at a time), tolls and parking cash-out, and land-use intensification near freeway ramps.

  9. Satisfaction with rural rheumatology telemedicine service.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Katherine A; Millen, Catherine M; Lakshman, Umayal I; Buttner, Petra G; Roberts, Lynden J

    2015-03-01

    To assess patient satisfaction with the rheumatology telemedicine service provided to a rural town in northern Australia. A prospective, questionnaire-based exploratory study of patients seen at the Mount Isa (rural town) rheumatology telemedicine clinics during 2012 was undertaken. Control groups included patients travelling over 3 h to be seen face-to-face in Townsville (tertiary referral centre), and patients seen at the infrequent face-to-face clinic in Mount Isa. A 5-point Likert scale was used to explore themes of communication, confidentiality, physical examination, rapport, medication safety and access. This study evaluated 107 rheumatology outpatients (49 telemedicine, 46 face-to-face Townsville, 12 face-to-face Mount Isa). Patients seen in Mount Isa travelled a median of < 10 km for either the telemedicine or local face-to-face appointments. The patients attending the Townsville face-to-face clinic travelled a median of 354 km. New patients comprised 14% of consultations. Satisfaction with themes related to quality-of-care was high with over 90% selecting 'agree' or 'strongly agree' to these questions. Comparing models of care, there were no statistically significant differences in the rates of those selecting 'strongly agree' across questions, apart from a single question related to rapport which favored the Mount Isa face-to-face model (P = 0.018). When asked whether they would rather travel to Townsville than participate in a telemedicine consultation, 63% of patients selected 'disagree' (17%) or 'strongly disagree' (46%). These results suggest that patients are satisfied with a rheumatology telemedicine service, and may prefer this to extensive travelling. Evaluation in other settings is recommended before generalizing this finding. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. 49 CFR 230.76 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and...) Maximum piston travel. The maximum piston travel when steam locomotive is standing shall be as follows... Driving Wheel Brake 6 Engine Truck Brake 8 Tender Brake 9...

  11. 49 CFR 230.76 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and...) Maximum piston travel. The maximum piston travel when steam locomotive is standing shall be as follows... Driving Wheel Brake 6 Engine Truck Brake 8 Tender Brake 9...

  12. 49 CFR 230.76 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and...) Maximum piston travel. The maximum piston travel when steam locomotive is standing shall be as follows... Driving Wheel Brake 6 Engine Truck Brake 8 Tender Brake 9...

  13. Travel Recommendations for the Nursing Mother

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be reunited, regardless if milk is stored. Air Travel No special precautions are necessary for airport ... Electric breast pumps are considered personal items during air travel and may be carried on and stowed ...

  14. The practice of travel medicine in Europe.

    PubMed

    Schlagenhauf, P; Santos-O'Connor, F; Parola, P

    2010-03-01

    Europe, because of its geographical location, strategic position on trade routes, and colonial past, has a long history of caring for travellers' health. Within Europe, there is great diversity in the practice of travel medicine. Some countries have travel medicine societies and provisions for a periodic distribution of recommendations, but many countries have no national pre-travel guidelines and follow international recommendations such as those provided by the WHO. Providers of travel medicine include tropical medicine specialists, general practice nurses and physicians, specialist 'travel clinics', occupational physicians, and pharmacists. One of the core functions of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control-funded network of travel and tropical medicine professionals, EuroTravNet, is to document the status quo of travel medicine in Europe. A three-pronged approach is used, with a real-time online questionnaire, a structured interview with experts in each country, and web searching.

  15. Network structure and travel time perception.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathi, Pavithra; Levinson, David; Hochmair, Hartwig

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to test the systematic variation in the perception of travel time among travelers and relate the variation to the underlying street network structure. Travel survey data from the Twin Cities metropolitan area (which includes the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul) is used for the analysis. Travelers are classified into two groups based on the ratio of perceived and estimated commute travel time. The measures of network structure are estimated using the street network along the identified commute route. T-test comparisons are conducted to identify statistically significant differences in estimated network measures between the two traveler groups. The combined effect of these estimated network measures on travel time is then analyzed using regression models. The results from the t-test and regression analyses confirm the influence of the underlying network structure on the perception of travel time.

  16. Tips for Traveling with HomePEN

    MedlinePlus

    ... assistance and on-the-spot resolution to any passenger concerns at the checkpoint. What to Expect - National ... Traveling with Medication (9/26/13) Screening for Passengers Requiring Special Assistance (6/2013) Travelers with Disabilities ...

  17. Network Structure and Travel Time Perception

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathi, Pavithra; Levinson, David; Hochmair, Hartwig

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to test the systematic variation in the perception of travel time among travelers and relate the variation to the underlying street network structure. Travel survey data from the Twin Cities metropolitan area (which includes the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul) is used for the analysis. Travelers are classified into two groups based on the ratio of perceived and estimated commute travel time. The measures of network structure are estimated using the street network along the identified commute route. T-test comparisons are conducted to identify statistically significant differences in estimated network measures between the two traveler groups. The combined effect of these estimated network measures on travel time is then analyzed using regression models. The results from the t-test and regression analyses confirm the influence of the underlying network structure on the perception of travel time. PMID:24204932

  18. Report: EPA Travel Program Lacks Necessary Controls

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #10-P-0078, March 9, 2010. The EPA travel program, which comprises EPA policies and GovTrip, lacks necessary control procedures to assure all travel authorizations were necessary and in the best interest of the government.

  19. Safe travels? HIV transmission among Britons travelling abroad.

    PubMed

    Rice, B; Gilbart, V L; Lawrence, J; Smith, R; Kall, M; Delpech, V

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the study was to identify and describe the characteristics of persons born in the UK who acquire HIV infection abroad. Analyses using case reports and follow-up data from the national HIV database held at the Health Protection Agency were performed. Fifteen per cent (2066 of 13 891) of UK-born adults diagnosed in England, Wales and Northern Ireland between 2002 and 2010 acquired HIV infection abroad. Thailand (534), the USA (117) and South Africa (108) were the countries most commonly reported. As compared with UK-born adults acquiring HIV infection in the UK, those acquiring HIV infection abroad were significantly (P < 0.01) more likely to have acquired it heterosexually (70% vs. 22%, respectively), to be of older age at diagnosis (median 42 years vs. 36 years, respectively), and to have reported sex with a commercial sex worker (5.6% vs. 1%, respectively). Among men infected in Thailand, 11% reported sex with a commercial sex worker. A substantial number of UK-born adults are acquiring HIV infection in countries with generalized HIV epidemics, and in common holiday destinations. Of particular concern is the high proportion of men infected reporting sex with a commercial sex worker. We recommend HIV prevention and testing efforts be extended to include travellers abroad, and that sexual health advice be provided routinely in travel health consultations and in occupational health travel advice packs, particularly to those travelling to high HIV prevalence areas and destinations for sex tourism. Safer sex messages should include an awareness of the potential detrimental health and social impacts of the sex industry. © 2012 British HIV Association.

  20. Travel Patterns and Characteristics of Elderly Subpopulation in New York State

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Ho-Ling; Wilson, Daniel W.; Reuscher, Tim; Yang, Jianjiang; Taylor, Rob D.; Chin, Shih-Miao

    2015-03-01

    With the increasing demographic shift towards a larger population of elderly (individuals 65 years and older), it is essential for policy makers and planners to have an understanding of transportation issues that affect the elderly. These issues include livability of the community, factors impacting travel behavior and mobility, transportation safety, etc. In this study, Oak Ridge National Laboratory was tasked by the New York State (NYS) Department of Transportation to conduct a detailed examination of travel behaviors, and identify patterns and trends of the elderly within NYS. The National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) was used as the primary data source to analyze subjects and address questions such as: Are there differences in traveler demographics between the elderly population and those of younger age groups who live in various NYS regions; e.g., New York City, other urban areas of NYS, or other parts of the country? How do they compare with the population at large? Are there any regional differences (e.g., urban versus rural)? Gender differences? Do any unique travel characteristics or patterns exist within the elderly group? In addition to analysis of NHTS data, roadway travel safety concerns associated with elderly travelers were also investigated in this study. Specifically, data on accidents involving the elderly (including drivers, passengers, and others) as captured in the Fatal Analysis Reporting System (FARS) database was analyzed to examine elderly driver and elderly pedestrian travel safety issues in NYS. The analyses of these data sets provide a greater understanding of the elderly within NYS and their associated transportation issues. Through this study, various key findings on elderly population size, household characteristics, and travel patterns were produced and are report herein this report.

  1. Pediatric travel consultation in an integrated clinic.

    PubMed

    Christenson, J C; Fischer, P R; Hale, D C; Derrick, D

    2001-01-01

    In May 1997, a pediatric travel service was created within a larger integrated University-County Health Department international travel clinic. The purpose of the service was to further enhance the travel advice and care provided to children and their parents or guardians. The current study was designed to describe the care of children in this setting and to compare the care of children seen in the Pediatric Travel Service with that of children seen by other providers. All pediatric patients (defined as individuals < or = 18 years of age) receiving care in the travel clinic were considered candidates for inclusion in the analysis. Patients seen by the Pediatric Travel Service were compared to those seen by other staff members in the travel clinic (referred to as Regular Clinic). The following information was noted: basic demographic data, medical history including allergies, prior immunization records, intended place and duration of travel, and immunizations and medications prescribed at the time of visit. Travel advice covering water and food precautions, preventive measures against insect bites, injury prevention, malaria prevention, prevention of parasitic infections, and environmental-related problems was provided to all patients in both groups when necessary. Between May 1997 and December 1999, 287 pediatric age individuals were given pretravel care by the Pediatric Travel Service (median age, 6 years; range, 1 month-18 years). During the same time period, 722 pediatric age travelers (median age, 14 years; range, 8 months-18 years) were evaluated in the Regular Clinic by other staff members. Travel destinations most commonly traveled by both groups in descending order were: Africa, Central America and Mexico, South America, and Southeast Asia. When compared to travelers seen in the Regular Clinic, individuals in the Pediatric Travel Service group were more likely to travel for humanitarian work, and for parental work relocation. Persons in the Regular Clinic

  2. Impact of Local Resources on Hospitalization Patterns of Medicare Beneficiaries and Propensity to Travel outside Local Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basu, Jayasree; Mobley, Lee R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine how local health care resources impact travel patterns of patients age 65 and older across the rural urban continuum. Methods: Information on inpatient hospital discharges was drawn from complete 2004 hospital discharge files from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) State Inpatient Databases (SID) for New York,…

  3. Impact of Local Resources on Hospitalization Patterns of Medicare Beneficiaries and Propensity to Travel outside Local Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basu, Jayasree; Mobley, Lee R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine how local health care resources impact travel patterns of patients age 65 and older across the rural urban continuum. Methods: Information on inpatient hospital discharges was drawn from complete 2004 hospital discharge files from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) State Inpatient Databases (SID) for New York,…

  4. National Strategy to Combat Terrorist Travel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-02

    Terrorist Travel Visa Waiver Program The Visa Waiver Program (VWP) generally enables citizens of 27 countries to travel to the United States for tourism or...NATIONAL STRATEGY TO COMBAT TERRORIST TRAVEL May 2, 2006 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the...Strategy to Combat Terorist Travel 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER

  5. Village High Schools: Some Educational Strategies to Help Meet Developmental Needs of Rural Youth. ISER Occasional Paper No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinfeld, Judith; Berry, Franklin L.

    Educational strategies that small rural high schools can use to address important developmental needs of rural youth were explored, focusing on the importance of educational environments outside traditional high school classrooms, (i.e., work-experience programs, student exchange programs, and travel-study). Of the 92 Alaskan village high schools…

  6. What Is Rural? Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Many people have definitions for the term rural, but seldom are these rural definitions in agreement. For some, rural is a subjective state of mind. For others, rural is an objective quantitative measure. In this brief report the United States Department of Agriculture presents the following information along with helpful links for the reader: (1)…

  7. The Rural Bellwether.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sherry Freeland, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This theme issue of "State Education Leader" contains eight articles on rural education. "The Rural Bellwether" (Kathy Christie) discusses declining enrollment in rural schools, rural problems with teacher shortages and special education funding, issues related to school size and school district size, and distance learning…

  8. Rural Development Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC. Economic Development Div.

    Elements essential to an adequate framework for rural development in the U.S. are a national growth and development policy which includes a rural development strategy and definition of common problems and programmatic actions required to deal with them. Many past federal rural development programs (lacking a federal rural policy focus) have failed…

  9. Leadership for Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, E. Robert; Turner, Walter G.

    The rural school superintendency is, in many ways, as demanding and difficult as the urban superintendency. Chapter 1 of this book provides a working definition of a rural small school district, an estimation of the number of rural systems in the nation that fit the criteria, and a profile of rural small school superintendents. Chapter 2 discusses…

  10. The Rural Development Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Louis E.

    1991-01-01

    Progress toward rural development has been hampered by flawed views of rural America; serious limitations to existing social and economic data on sparsely populated areas; treatment of rural America as a geographical entity unconnected to the larger U.S. economy and society; perceived lack of feasible political solution to rural problems; and…

  11. Rural-Urban Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Daniel F.; LaGreca, Anthony J.; Mullis, Ronald L.

    This publication combines three papers on rural and urban youth issues. "Key Issues Facing Rural Youth" (Daniel F. Perkins) notes that rural adolescents share the same concerns and exhibit the same problem behaviors as their urban counterparts. But in addition, geographic isolation presents problems unique to rural areas. A framework is proposed…

  12. Skin diseases in rural Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Paek, So Yeon; Koriakos, Angie; Saxton-Daniels, Stephanie; Pandya, Amit G

    2012-07-01

    There are no known reports of the frequency of skin diseases endemic to rural Yucatan, Mexico. The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of dermatologic conditions in rural villages in that region. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of all cases of skin disease diagnosed by a team of American board-certified dermatologists during consultations in January 2009, August 2009, and June 2010, in the state of Yucatan, Mexico. Traveling clinics were held in eight different rural locations. Age, sex, and diagnosis, according to history and physical examination, were recorded for each patient. A total of 1071 cases of skin disease were seen in 858 patients. The frequency of parasitic, viral, and fungal infections was 34.5%. Dermatitis and eczema (24.6%) were the next most prevalent conditions, followed by disorders of skin appendages (12.2%), photosensitivity disorders (5.4%), papulosquamous disorders (3.2%), urticaria and erythema (1.5%), bacterial infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue (1.2%), and neoplastic disorders (2.1%). The most frequently seen single diagnoses were viral warts (12.2%), scabies (8.7%), acne (7.4%), dermatophytosis (6.8%), contact dermatitis (3.5%), and nummular eczema (3.5%). Infectious diseases, acne, and eczemas are the most common skin disorders seen in dermatology clinics in rural Yucatan, Mexico. Our findings may be useful in the development of public health initiatives targeting rural communities in this region. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  13. Severe Histoplasmosis in Travelers to Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Julia; Lance-Parker, Susan; Traeger, Marc; Wiersma, Steven; Phan, Quyen; Dennison, David; MacDonald, Pia; Lindsley, Mark; Guarner, Jeannette; Connolly, Patricia; Cetron, Martin; Hajjeh, Rana

    2003-01-01

    We investigated an outbreak of unexpectedly severe histoplasmosis among 14 healthy adventure travelers from the United States who visited a bat-infested cave in Nicaragua. Although histoplasmosis has rarely been reported to cause serious illness among travelers, this outbreak demonstrates that cases may be severe among travelers, even young, healthy persons. PMID:14609473

  14. 5 CFR 630.207 - Travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Travel time. 630.207 Section 630.207... and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.207 Travel time. The travel time granted an employee under section 6303(d) of title 5, United States Code, is inclusive of the time necessarily...

  15. 5 CFR 630.207 - Travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel time. 630.207 Section 630.207... and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.207 Travel time. The travel time granted an employee under section 6303(d) of title 5, United States Code, is inclusive of the time necessarily...

  16. Travelling Safely on Ice: Algonquin Park.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Craig

    1994-01-01

    Provides safety considerations for snowshoe travel on iced waterways such as those of Algonquin Park (Ontario). Addresses what season is safe for waterway travel, how to determine the strength of the ice, reasonable travel time per day, what to do if you fall through the ice, and appropriate sites for winter camping. (LP)

  17. Recommended vaccines for international travelers to India.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj

    2015-01-01

    India's tourism industry generated 6.6% of the nation's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) during 2012. International travel to India is predicted to grow at an average annual rate of ∼ 8% over the next decade. The number of foreign tourists has increased by 9% to 5.8 million. Approximately 8% of travelers to developing countries require medical care during or after travel; the main diagnoses are vaccine-preventable diseases. Travelers to India can be exposed to various infectious diseases; water-borne, water-related, and zoonotic diseases may be imported to India where the disease is not endemic. The World Health Organization (WHO) emphasizes that all international travelers should be up to date with routine vaccinations. The recommended vaccinations for travelers to India vary according to the traveler's age, immunization history, existing medical conditions, duration, legal requirements for entry into countries being visited, travelers preferences, and values. Travelers should consult with a doctor so that there is sufficient time for completion of optimal vaccination schedules. No matter where traveling, one should be aware of potential exposure to certain organisms that can cause severely illnesses, even death. There is no doubt that vaccines have reduced or virtually eliminated many diseases that killed or severely disabled children and adults just a few generations ago. Thus, travelers must take recommended vaccines per schedule before traveling to India.

  18. Recommended vaccines for international travelers to India.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj

    2014-06-18

    India's tourism industry generated 6.6% of the nation's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) during 2012. International travel to India is predicted to grow at an average annual rate of ~8% over the next decade. The number of foreign tourists has increased by 9% to 5.8 million. Approximately 8% of travelers to developing countries require medical care during or after travel; the main diagnoses are vaccine-preventable diseases. Travelers to India can be exposed to various infectious diseases; water-borne, water-related, and zoonotic diseases may be imported to India where the disease is not endemic. The World Health Organization (WHO) emphasizes that all international travelers should be up to date with routine vaccinations. The recommended vaccinations for travelers to India vary according to the traveler's age, immunization history, existing medical conditions, duration, legal requirements for entry into countries being visited, travelers preferences, and values. Travelers should consult with a doctor so that there is sufficient time for completion of optimal vaccination schedules. No matter where traveling, one should be aware of potential exposure to certain organisms that can cause severely illnesses, even death. There is no doubt that vaccines have reduced or virtually eliminated many diseases that killed or severely disabled children and adults just a few generations ago. Thus, travelers must take recommended vaccines per schedule before traveling to India.

  19. Family structure and its relationship to travel

    Treesearch

    Christine Cornell McCreedy; Joseph T. O' Leary; Daniel Fesenmaier

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between family structure and travel to further understand what differences exist between family groups. Results indicate that the absence of a husband delays travel for single mothers and that they are not as well-off as their married counterparts. We examine other travel and leisure studies to make comparisons with these data,...

  20. 38 CFR 21.7103 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION All Volunteer Force Educational Assistance Program (Montgomery GI Bill-Active Duty) Counseling § 21.7103 Travel expenses. (a) Travel for veterans and servicemembers. (1... travel to and from the place of counseling for individuals who are required to receive counseling if— (i...

  1. 38 CFR 21.7103 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION All Volunteer Force Educational Assistance Program (Montgomery GI Bill-Active Duty) Counseling § 21.7103 Travel expenses. (a) Travel for veterans and servicemembers. (1... travel to and from the place of counseling for individuals who are required to receive counseling if— (i...

  2. 38 CFR 21.7103 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION All Volunteer Force Educational Assistance Program (Montgomery GI Bill-Active Duty) Counseling § 21.7103 Travel expenses. (a) Travel for veterans and servicemembers. (1... travel to and from the place of counseling for individuals who are required to receive counseling if— (i...

  3. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section 617.46... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.46 Travel allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of travel allowance (including lodging and meals) payable under § 617.45(a)(1) shall...

  4. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section 617.46... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.46 Travel allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of travel allowance (including lodging and meals) payable under § 617.45(a)(1) shall...

  5. 28 CFR 2.41 - Travel approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel approval. 2.41 Section 2.41..., YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.41 Travel approval. (a) The probation officer may approve travel outside the district without approval of the...

  6. 5 CFR 630.207 - Travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Travel time. 630.207 Section 630.207... and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.207 Travel time. The travel time granted an employee under section 6303(d) of title 5, United States Code, is inclusive of the time necessarily...

  7. 5 CFR 630.207 - Travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Travel time. 630.207 Section 630.207... and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.207 Travel time. The travel time granted an employee under section 6303(d) of title 5, United States Code, is inclusive of the time necessarily...

  8. 5 CFR 630.207 - Travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Travel time. 630.207 Section 630.207... and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.207 Travel time. The travel time granted an employee under section 6303(d) of title 5, United States Code, is inclusive of the time necessarily...

  9. Acute Chagas Disease in a Returning Traveler

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Yvonne L.; Juliano, Jonathan J.; Montgomery, Susan P.; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    Acute Chagas disease is rarely recognized, and the risk for acquiring the disease is undefined in travelers to Central America. We describe a case of acute Chagas disease in a traveler to Costa Rica and highlight the need for increased awareness of this infection in travelers to Chagas-endemic areas. PMID:23091192

  10. The Traveler with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Willen, Shaina M.; Thornburg, Courtney D.; Lantos, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most common genetic disease among persons with African ancestry. This article provides a background on SCD and reviews many important aspects of travel preparation in this population. Methods The medical literature was searched for studies about travel-associated preparedness and complications in individuals with SCD. Topics researched included malaria, bacterial infections, vaccinations, dehydration, altitude, air travel, and travel preparedness. Results There is very little published literature that specifically addresses the risks faced by travelers with SCD. Rates of medical complications during travel appear to be high. There is a body of literature that describes complications of SCD in indigenous populations, particularly within Africa. The generalizability of these data to a traveler are uncertain. Combining these sources of data and the broader medical literature we address major travel-related questions that may face a provider preparing an individual with SCD for safe travel. Conclusions Travelers with SCD face considerable medical risks when traveling to developing tropical countries; these include malaria, bacterial infections, hypovolemia, and sickle cell-associated vaso-occlusive crises. Frank counseling about risks, vigilant preventative measures, and contingency planning for illness while abroad are necessary parts of the pre-travel visit for individuals with SCD. PMID:24947546

  11. 2 CFR 200.474 - Travel costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Travel costs. 200.474 Section 200.474 Grants... REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Cost Principles General Provisions for Selected Items of Cost § 200.474 Travel costs. (a) General. Travel costs are the expenses for transportation, lodging, subsistence, and...

  12. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section 617.46... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.46 Travel allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of travel allowance (including lodging and meals) payable under § 617.45(a)(1)...

  13. 28 CFR 2.41 - Travel approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Travel approval. 2.41 Section 2.41..., YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.41 Travel approval. (a) The probation officer may approve travel outside the district without approval of...

  14. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section 617.46... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.46 Travel allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of travel allowance (including lodging and meals) payable under § 617.45(a)(1)...

  15. 28 CFR 2.41 - Travel approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Travel approval. 2.41 Section 2.41..., YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.41 Travel approval. (a) The probation officer may approve travel outside the district without approval of...

  16. 38 CFR 60.5 - Travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Travel. 60.5 Section 60.5... TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.5 Travel. As a condition for receiving temporary lodging under this part, a veteran must be required to travel either 50 or more miles, or at least two hours from his or her home to...

  17. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section 617.46... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.46 Travel allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of travel allowance (including lodging and meals) payable under § 617.45(a)(1)...

  18. 28 CFR 2.41 - Travel approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Travel approval. 2.41 Section 2.41..., YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.41 Travel approval. (a) The probation officer may approve travel outside the district without approval of...

  19. Travellers' profile, travel patterns and vaccine practices--a 10-year prospective study in a Swiss Travel Clinic.

    PubMed

    Boubaker, Rim; Meige, Pierrette; Mialet, Catherine; Buffat, Chantal Ngarambe; Uwanyiligira, Mediatrice; Widmer, Francine; Rochat, Jacynthe; Fossati, Annie Hérard; Souvannaraj-Blanchant, Manisinh; Payot, Sylvie; Rochat, Laurence; de Vallière, Serge; Genton, Blaise; D'Acremont, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    The travel clinic in Lausanne serves a catchment area of 700 000 of inhabitants and provides pre- and post-travel consultations. This study describes the profile of attendees before departure, their travel patterns and the travel clinic practices in terms of vaccination over time. We included all pre-travel first consultation data recorded between November 2002 and December 2012 by a custom-made program DIAMM/G. We analysed client profiles, travel characteristics and vaccinations prescribed over time. Sixty-five thousand and forty-six client-trips were recorded. Fifty-one percent clients were female. Mean age was 32 years. In total, 0.1% were aged <1 year and 0.2% ≥80 years. Forty-six percent of travellers had pre-existing medical conditions. Forty-six percent were travelling to Africa, 35% to Asia, 20% to Latin America and 1% (each) to Oceania and Europe; 19% visited more than one country. India was the most common destination (9.6% of travellers) followed by Thailand (8.6%) and Kenya (6.4%). Seventy-three percent of travellers were planning to travel for ≤ 4 weeks. The main reasons for travel were tourism (75%) and visiting friends and relatives (18%). Sixteen percent were backpackers. Pre-travel advice were sought a median of 29 days before departure. Ninety-nine percent received vaccine(s). The most frequently administered vaccines were hepatitis A (53%), tetanus-diphtheria (46%), yellow fever (39%), poliomyelitis (38%) and typhoid fever (30%). The profile of travel clinic attendees was younger than the general Swiss population. A significant proportion of travellers received vaccinations that are recommended in the routine national programme. These findings highlight the important role of travel clinics to (i) take care of an age group that has little contact with general practitioners and (ii) update vaccination status. The most commonly prescribed travel-related vaccines were for hepatitis A and yellow fever. The question remains to know whether

  20. Helping patients travel by air.

    PubMed Central

    Skjenna, O W; Evans, J F; Moore, M S; Thibeault, C; Tucker, A G

    1991-01-01

    Although safe and rapid, air travel may present problems for people with certain medical conditions. Most medical emergencies that occur during a flight are preventable by judicious screening and preparation. We provide guidelines for physicians who are consulted about the wisdom of undertaking a journey by air. Potential stresses before, during and after the flight are outlined, including decreased atmospheric pressure, low humidity, turbulence, inactivity and time changes. We recommend precautionary measures for passengers with certain medical conditions, such as recent myocardial infarction, pulmonary disorders, pneumothorax, cerebrovascular accidents and diabetes and for those who have recently had surgery. The policy regarding air travel for pregnant women varies with each airline, but for certain conditions associated with pregnancy supplemental oxygen should be ordered before the trip. The special equipment and care that most airlines offer to ill or disabled people are described. PMID:1989707

  1. Aggregate vehicle travel forecasting model

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Chin, Shih-Miao; Gibson, R.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes a model for forecasting total US highway travel by all vehicle types, and its implementation in the form of a personal computer program. The model comprises a short-run, econometrically-based module for forecasting through the year 2000, as well as a structural, scenario-based longer term module for forecasting through 2030. The short-term module is driven primarily by economic variables. It includes a detailed vehicle stock model and permits the estimation of fuel use as well as vehicle travel. The longer-tenn module depends on demographic factors to a greater extent, but also on trends in key parameters such as vehicle load factors, and the dematerialization of GNP. Both passenger and freight vehicle movements are accounted for in both modules. The model has been implemented as a compiled program in the Fox-Pro database management system operating in the Windows environment.

  2. Plasma Colloquium Travel Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hazeltine, R.D.

    1998-09-14

    OAK B188 Plasma Colloquium Travel Grant Program. The purpose of the Travel Grant Program is to increase the awareness of plasma research. The new results and techniques of plasma research in fusion plasmas, plasma processing space plasmas, basic plasma science, etc, have broad applicability throughout science. The benefits of these results are limited by the relatively low awareness and appreciation of plasma research in the larger scientific community. Whereas spontaneous interactions between plasma scientists and other scientists are useful, a focused effort in education and outreach to other scientists is efficient and is needed. The academic scientific community is the initial focus of this effort, since that permits access to a broad cross-section of scientists and future scientists including undergraduates, graduate students, faculty, and research staff.

  3. 78 FR 73702 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Telework Travel Expenses Test Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ...] RIN 3090-AJ23 Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Telework Travel Expenses Test Programs AGENCY: Office... 2010, which establishes and authorizes telework travel expenses test programs, authorizes reimbursement for any necessary travel expenses in conjunction with such a test program in lieu of any payment...

  4. 41 CFR Appendix C to Chapter 301 - Standard Data Elements for Federal Travel [Traveler Identification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... particular site in order to perform operational or managerial activities. Travel to attend a meeting to... for Federal Travel C Appendix C to Chapter 301 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES Ch. 301, App. C Appendix C to Chapter...

  5. 76 FR 79226 - Travelers Insurance, a Subsidiary of the Travelers Indemnity Company, Personal Insurance Division...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... Employment and Training Administration Travelers Insurance, a Subsidiary of the Travelers Indemnity Company... response to a petition filed on May 4, 2011 on behalf of workers of Travelers Insurance, a subsidiary of The Travelers Indemnity Company, Personal Insurance Division, Account Processing/Underwriting Group...

  6. Treating time travel quantum mechanically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, John-Mark A.

    2014-10-01

    The fact that closed timelike curves (CTCs) are permitted by general relativity raises the question as to how quantum systems behave when time travel to the past occurs. Research into answering this question by utilizing the quantum circuit formalism has given rise to two theories: Deutschian-CTCs (D-CTCs) and "postselected" CTCs (P-CTCs). In this paper the quantum circuit approach is thoroughly reviewed, and the strengths and shortcomings of D-CTCs and P-CTCs are presented in view of their nonlinearity and time-travel paradoxes. In particular, the "equivalent circuit model"—which aims to make equivalent predictions to D-CTCs, while avoiding some of the difficulties of the original theory—is shown to contain errors. The discussion of D-CTCs and P-CTCs is used to motivate an analysis of the features one might require of a theory of quantum time travel, following which two overlapping classes of alternate theories are identified. One such theory, the theory of "transition probability" CTCs (T-CTCs), is fully developed. The theory of T-CTCs is shown not to have certain undesirable features—such as time-travel paradoxes, the ability to distinguish nonorthogonal states with certainty, and the ability to clone or delete arbitrary pure states—that are present with D-CTCs and P-CTCs. The problems with nonlinear extensions to quantum mechanics are discussed in relation to the interpretation of these theories, and the physical motivations of all three theories are discussed and compared.

  7. [Travel during pregnancy (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, W D

    1976-08-27

    Before a long journey, the healthy pregnant woman should be advised by her doctor after a careful examination. Healthy pregnant women may consider traveling to any destination except tropical and subtropical regions, where a danger of infection with malaria or dysentery exists. Likewise she should not select a country where vaccination with living virus is required on entry. Pregnant women with a high risk (hemorrhages, toxemia of pregnancy, threatening premature birth) should be advised unconditionally against a long journey.

  8. "Finding my own time": examining the spatially produced experiences of rural RNs in the rural nursing certificate program.

    PubMed

    Place, Jessica; MacLeod, Martha; John, Norma; Adamack, Monica; Lindsey, A Elizabeth

    2012-07-01

    Rural nurses require access to education that exposes them to the most up-to-date information and skill development. However, since most education opportunities are located in urban centers and focused on providing skills to urban nurses, geography effectively acts as a barrier to accessing education that meets the needs of rural nurses. The Rural Nursing Certificate Program is a post-basic education program that addresses these concerns by providing rural-relevant content online, with limited campus sessions. Does online delivery of rural nursing curriculum overcome challenges related to geography? This study employed surveys with some open-ended questions. Analysis included descriptive statistics and content analysis. Students reported that online delivery improved access. Benefits included not having to relocate; being able to continue working; and, flexibility. Challenges included travel for practical experiences and time management related to staffing shortages, personal-professional overlap and family responsibilities. Online learning improved access to nursing education. However, the realities of rural nursing made it impossible to completely overcome geography: sense of obligation to work overtime, cost and time of traveling to workshops and practicums, uneven access to the Internet and computer services, and distance from peer and university support remained challenges. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Are rural places less safe for motorists? Definitions of urban and rural to understand road safety disparities.

    PubMed

    McAndrews, Carolyn; Beyer, Kirsten; Guse, Clare E; Layde, Peter

    2017-01-24

    The objectives of the study are to understand road safety within the context of regional development processes and to assess how urban-rural categories represent differences in motor vehicle occupant fatality risk. We analysed 2015 motor vehicle occupant deaths in Wisconsin from 2010 to 2014, using three definitions of urban-rural continua and negative binomial regression to adjust for population density, travel exposure and the proportion of teen residents. Rural-Urban Commuting Area codes, Beale codes and the Census definition of urban and rural places do not explain differences in urban and rural transportation fatality rates when controlling for population density. Although it is widely believed that rural places are uniquely dangerous for motorised travel, this understanding may be an artefact of inaccurate constructs. Instead, population density is a more helpful way to represent transportation hazards across different types of settlement patterns, including commuter suburbs and exurbs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Air travel and venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed Central

    Mendis, Shanthi; Yach, Derek; Alwan, Ala

    2002-01-01

    There has recently been increased publicity on the risk of venous thrombosis after long-haul flights. This paper reviews the evidence base related to the association between air travel and venous thromboembolism. The evidence consists only of case reports, clinical case-control studies and observational studies involving the use of intermediate end-points, or expert opinion. Some studies have suggested that there is no clear association, whereas others have indicated a strong relationship. On the whole it appears that there is probably a link between air travel and venous thrombosis. However, the link is likely to be weak, mainly affecting passengers with additional risk factors for venous thromboembolism. The available evidence is not adequate to allow quantification of the risk. There are insufficient scientific data on which to base specific recommendations for prevention, other than that leg exercise should be taken during travel. Further studies are urgently needed in order to identify prospectively the incidence of the condition and those at risk. PMID:12077617

  11. Traveling-wave induction launchers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, David G.

    1989-01-01

    An analysis of traveling-wave induction launchers shows that induction is a feasible method of producing armature current and that efficient accelerators can be built without sliding contacts or arcs. In a traveling-wave induction launcher the armature current is induced by a slip speed between the armature and a traveling magnetic field. At 9 m/s slip speed a 9 kg projectile with an aluminum armature weighing 25 percent of the total mass can be accelerated to 3000 m/s in a 5 m-long barrel with a total ohmic loss in the barrel coils and armature of 4 percent of the launch kinetic energy and with an average armature temperature rise of 220 deg C, but a peak excitation frequency of 8600 Hz is required. With a 2 kg launch mass the ohmic loss is 7 percent. A launcher system optimized for rotating generators would have a peak frequency of 4850 Hz; with an aluminum armature weighing 33 percent of the launch mass and a slip speed of 30 m/s the total ohmic loss in the generators, cables, and accelerator would be 43 percent of the launch kinetic energy, and the average armature temperature rise would be 510 deg C.

  12. Travel Behavior Change in Older Travelers: Understanding Critical Reactions to Incidents Encountered in Public Transport.

    PubMed

    Sundling, Catherine

    2015-11-18

    Accessibility of travel may be better understood if psychological factors underlying change in travel behavior are known. This paper examines older (65+) travelers' motives for changing their travel behavior. These changes are grounded in critical incidents earlier encountered in public-transport travel. A scientific framework is developed based on cognitive and behavioral theory. In 29 individual interviews, travelers' critical reactions (i.e., cognitive, emotional, and/or behavioral) to 77 critical incidents were examined. By applying critical incident technique (CIT), five reaction themes were identified that had generated travel-behavior change: firm restrictions, unpredictability, unfair treatment, complicated trips, and earlier adverse experiences. To improve older travelers' access to public transport, key findings were: (a) service must be designed so as to strengthen the feeling of being in control throughout the journey; (b) extended personal service would increase predictability in the travel chain and decrease travel complexity; consequently,

  13. Beyond immunization: travelers' infectious diseases. 1--Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh; Morsy, Tosson A

    2015-04-01

    Travelers' diarrhea is the most common illness in persons traveling from resource-rich to resource-poor regions of the world. The fear of developing diarrhea while traveling is common among travelers to any part of the developing world. This concern is realistic; 40 to 60% of travelers to these countries may develop diarrhea. Diarrheal diseases represent one of the five leading causes of death worldwide. Morbidity and mortality are significant even in the United States where diarrhea is more often than not a "nuisance disease" in the normally healthy individual.

  14. Zika Virus in an American Recreational Traveler.

    PubMed

    Summers, Dyan J; Acosta, Rebecca Wolfe; Acosta, Alberto M

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 48-year-old American traveler who presented to our clinic with diffuse rash, malaise, fatigue, fever, arthralgia, low back pain, and bilateral exudative conjunctivitis. The patient had an extensive vaccination and travel history: most notable for prior receipt of yellow fever vaccine; extensive travel or residence in areas endemic for dengue, chikungunya, and West Nile virus; and recent travel to French Polynesia. Clinical and laboratory findings were consistent with Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. Our report highlights the need to include ZIKV in the differential diagnosis, especially in febrile patients with a rash returning from endemic areas. © 2015 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  15. Illness in the Returned International Traveler.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Christopher A; Fung, Claire

    2016-03-01

    Familiarity with the distribution, mode of transmission, and risk factors for acquisition of illnesses commonly transmitted to travelers to low-income nations can help guide clinicians in their work-up of an ill returned traveler. The 3 most common categories of illness in returned international travelers are gastrointestinal illness, fever, and dermatoses. Diarrhea is the most common illness reported in returned international travelers. Fever is a marker of a potentially significant illness; work-up of the ill febrile returned traveler should be conducted promptly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Pre-travel advice for the elderly].

    PubMed

    Potin, M

    2005-05-11

    The aging population, the multiplication of leisure activities and the many possibilities to travel will confront the primary care physician to elderly travelers who want health advice prior to their journey, sometimes in remote areas. Age itself is no contra-indication to travel, but the co-morbidities and the potential upsets that the elderly can be submitted to might render her/him more vulnerable to health problems. A medical evaluation, specific recommendations about traveling (including sufficient medication and medical material) and a medical certificate should be proposed by the primary care practitioner to her/his elderly patient planning to travel.

  17. Profile of Travelers With Preexisting Medical Conditions Attending a Specialist Travel Medicine Clinic in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Han, Calvin Teo Jia; Flaherty, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Patients with complex medical comorbidities travel for protracted periods to remote destinations, often with limited access to medical care. Few descriptions are available of their preexisting health burden. This study aimed to characterize preexisting medical conditions and medications of travelers seeking pre-travel health advice at a specialized travel medicine clinic. Records of travelers attending the Galway Tropical Medical Bureau clinic between 2008 and 2014 were examined and information relating to past medical history was entered into a database. Data were recorded only where the traveler had a documented medical history and/or was taking medications. Of the 4,817 records available, 56% had a documented medical history and 24% listed medications. The majority of travelers with preexisting conditions were female. The mean age of the cohort was 31.68 years. The mean period remaining before the planned trip was 40 days. Southeast Asia was the most popular single destination, and 17% of travelers with medical conditions were traveling alone. The most frequently reported conditions were allergies (20%), insect bite sensitivity (15%), asthma (11%), psychiatric conditions (4%), and hypertension (3%). Of the 30 diabetic travelers, 14 required insulin; 4.5% of travelers were taking immunosuppressant drugs, including corticosteroids. Half of the female travelers were taking the oral contraceptive pill while 11 travelers were pregnant at the time of their pre-travel consultation. This study provides an insight into the medical profile of travelers attending a travel health clinic. The diverse range of diseases reported highlights the importance of educating physicians and nurses about the specific travel health risks associated with particular conditions. Knowledge of the effects of travel on underlying medical conditions will inform the pre-travel health consultation. © 2015 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  18. Travelers' Health: Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... regard to duration of travel and period of observation after travel. Estimates of travel-related VTE incidence ... in duration of travel, measured outcome, period of observation after the flight, and the populations observed. In ...

  19. Predictors of Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy in Rural Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Carlucci, James G.; Kamanga, Aniset; Sheneberger, Robb; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Jenkins, Cathy A.; Spurrier, John; Vermund, Sten H.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Objective Antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence levels of ≥95% optimize outcomes and minimize HIV drug resistance. As such, identifying barriers to adherence is essential. We sought to assess travel to point-of-care for ART as a potential barrier to adherence in rural Zambia, within the context of patient demographics, perceived stigma, and selected clinical indices. Methods We studied 424 patients receiving ART from the Macha Mission Hospital (MMH). Interviews ascertained age, gender, education, perceived stigma, nearest rural health facility (RHF), and mode/cost/time of transport for each study participant. Motorcycle odometer and global positioning system way-points measured distance from the MMH to each of the RHFs, estimating patients’ home-to-MMH travel distances. Body mass index, World Health Organization HIV/AIDS stage, and pill counts were assessed from review of patients’ medical and pharmacy records. Results At least 95% adherence was documented for 83.7% of the patients in their first months of ART. Travel-related factors did not predict adherence. Adherence was higher for those on ART for a longer time (odds ratio = 1.04 per day; P = 0.002). Conclusions Patients in rural Zambia can achieve adherence rates compatible with good clinical outcomes despite long travel distances. The MMH was able to provide quality HIV/AIDS care by implementing programmatic features selecting for a highly adherent population in this resource-limited setting. PMID:18209678

  20. Business travelers: vaccination considerations for this population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin H; Leder, Karin; Wilson, Mary E

    2013-04-01

    Illness in business travelers is associated with reduced productivity on the part of the employee as well as the employer. Immunizations offer a reliable method of preventing infectious diseases for international business travelers. The authors review the travel patterns of business travelers, available data on illnesses they encounter, their potential travel-associated risks for vaccine-preventable diseases and recommendations on immunizations for this population. Routine vaccines (e.g., measles, tetanus and influenza) should be reviewed to assure that they provide current coverage. The combined hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccine with a rapid schedule offers options for those with time constraints. Other vaccine recommendations for business travelers need to focus on their destinations and activities and underlying health, taking into account the concept of cumulative risk for those with frequent travel, multiple trips or long stays.

  1. [Travel medicine for HIV-infected patients].

    PubMed

    Rossi, M; Furrer, H

    2001-06-01

    Many HIV-infected persons travel from temperate zones to (sub)tropical destinations. HIV-specific immigration issues, medical resources abroad and problems regarding travelling with multiple medications have to be anticipated. When prescribing immunizations and specific chemoprophylaxis, the stage of immunodeficiency as well as drug interactions with antiretrovirals and medicaments against opportunistic infections have to be taken into account. Live vaccines may be contraindicated. Immunocompromised HIV-infected travellers have a higher risk for serious courses of diseases by enteropathogens. Therefore a good information about food hygiene is important and a prescription of an antibiotic to take in case of severe diarrhea may be indicated. A new antiretroviral combination therapy should not be started immediately before travelling to the tropics. The possibility to continue an established HIV treatment during travel has to be evaluated cautiously. With good pre-travel advice the risk of severe health problems is low for most HIV-infected travellers.

  2. Attitudes, knowledge and barriers to participation in cancer clinical trials among rural and remote patients.

    PubMed

    Sabesan, Sabe; Burgher, Bjourn; Buettner, Petra; Piliouras, Peter; Otty, Zulfiquer; Varma, Suresh; Thaker, Darshit

    2011-03-01

    To assess the knowledge of randomized clinical trials and willingness and barriers to participation among rural, remote and regional cancer patients of North Queensland. A survey was conducted in medical oncology outpatient clinics at the Townsville and Mt Isa hospitals on patients, following their informed consent, using questionnaires. Rurality was defined according to the rural remote and metropolitan area classification. Of the 180 patients approached, 178 participated. The median distance to the regional trial center for rural participants was 180 km (range 80-1300 km). 45.4% lived in rural or remote areas and the rest lived in Townsville, a regional metropolitan center. Their overall knowledge was low, with a median knowledge score of 3 (inter-quartile ranges n=2.5). For randomized controlled trials there were no significant relationships between willingness to participate and rurality or education level (P=0.981). Cost of travel (41.1% rural or remote; 23.5% regional; P<0.001) and the need for family or friends to accompany them (38.9% rural or remote; 24.1% regional, P=0.021) were more important for rural/remote than regional patients as factors affecting participation. Rural and remote patients are as interested in participating in randomized clinical trials as regional patients. Their knowledge of trials is poor and education earlier in the consultations is needed. Since cost of travel and the need for family members to accompany them are important for rural patients trial budgets should include the cost of travel to encourage participation. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. A profile of travelers--an analysis from a large swiss travel clinic.

    PubMed

    Bühler, Silja; Rüegg, Rolanda; Steffen, Robert; Hatz, Christoph; Jaeger, Veronika K

    2014-01-01

    Globally, the Swiss have one of the highest proportions of the population traveling to tropical and subtropical countries. Large travel clinics serve an increasing number of customers with specific pre-travel needs including uncommon destinations and preexisting medical conditions. This study aims to identify health characteristics and travel patterns of travelers seeking advice in the largest Swiss travel clinic so that tailored advice can be delivered. A descriptive analysis was performed on pre-travel visits between July 2010 and August 2012 at the Travel Clinic of the Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Zurich, Switzerland. A total of 22,584 travelers sought pre-travel advice. Tourism was the main reason for travel (17,875, 81.5%), followed by visiting friends and relatives (VFRs; 1,715, 7.8%), traveling for business (1,223, 5.6%), and "other reasons" (ie, volunteer work, pilgrimage, study abroad, and emigration; 1,112, 5.1%). The main travel destination was Thailand. In the VFR group, the highest proportions of traveling children (258, 15.1%) and of pregnant or breastfeeding women (23, 3.9%) were observed. Mental disorders were more prominent in VFRs (93, 5.4%) and in travel for "other reasons" (63, 5.7%). The latter stayed for the longest periods abroad; 272 (24.9%) stayed longer than 6 months. VFR travelers received the highest percentage of yellow fever vaccinations (523, 30.5%); in contrast, rabies (269, 24.2%) and typhoid vaccinations (279, 25.1%) were given more often to the "other travel reasons" group. New insights into the characteristics of a selected and large population of Swiss international travelers results in improved understanding of the special needs of an increasingly diverse population and, thus, in targeted preventive advice and interventions. © 2014 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  4. Factors Associated with Travel Time and Distance to Access Hospital Care Among Infants with Spina Bifida.

    PubMed

    Radcliff, Elizabeth; Delmelle, Eric; Kirby, Russell S; Laditka, Sarah B; Correia, Jane; Cassell, Cynthia H

    2015-10-20

    Using geographic information systems (GIS), we examined travel time and distance to access hospital care for infants with spina bifida (SB). This study was a statewide, population-based analysis of Florida-born children with SB, 1998-2007, identified by the Florida Birth Defects Registry and linked to hospitalizations. We geocoded maternal residence at delivery and identified hospital locations for infants (<1 year). Using 2007 Florida Department of Transportation road data, we calculated one-way mean travel time and distance to access hospital care. We used Poisson regression to examine selected factors associated with travel time and distance [≤30 vs. >30 min/miles (reference)], including presence of hydrocephalus and SB type [isolated (no other major birth defect) versus non-isolated SB]. For 612 infants, one-way mean (median) travel time was 45.1 (25.9) min. Infants with both non-isolated SB and hydrocephalus traveled longest to access hospitals (mean 60.8 min/48.5 miles; median 34.2 min/26.9 miles). In adjusted results, infants with non-isolated SB and whose mothers had a rural residence were less likely to travel ≤30 min to hospitals. Infants born to mothers in minority racial/ethnic groups were more likely to travel ≤30 min. Birth defects registry data and GIS-based methods can be used to evaluate geographic accessibility to hospital care for infants with birth defects. Results can help to identify geographic barriers to accessing hospital care, such as travel time and distance, and inform opportunities to improve access to care for infants with SB or other special needs.

  5. Starting rural, staying rural: how can we strengthen the pathway from rural upbringing to rural practice?

    PubMed

    Strasser, Roger; Hogenbirk, John C; Lewenberg, Michael; Story, Margot; Kevat, Ajay

    2010-12-01

      To determine if selecting rural background students into the Monash Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) program affects vocational training location and intended practice location after training.   Retrospective cohort mail survey.   Australia.   Rural-background students at Monash 1992-1994 (n=24/40) and 1995-1999 (n=59/120) and urban background students (n=36/93 and 104/300, respectively). Overall study population: 62% female, average age of 28 years; 79% Australian-born; and 60% married/partnered.   Rural or urban background, rural undergraduate exposure.   Intent towards rural medical practice, vocational training location and subsequent practice location.   There was a positive and significant (P ≤0.05) association between rural background and rural practice intent when respondents began (10-times higher than urban graduates) and completed (three times higher) their MBBS course. Rural practice intent increased fourfold in urban background graduates. There was a positive and significant association between rural background and preferred place of practice in 5-10 years in a Rural, Remote and Metropolitan Area (RRMA) 3-7 community (three times higher). There was a positive, but non-significant association between rural background and RRMA 3-7 community as their current location and first place of practice once vocationally qualified.   Interest in rural practice is not fully reflected in location during or after vocational training. The beneficial effects of rural undergraduate exposure might be lost if internship and vocational training programs provide insufficient rural clinical experiences and curriculum content. Continuation of the rural pathway might be needed to maintain rural practice intent. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  6. Office of Rural Health Policy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Hub Rural Health Research Gateway Rural Community Health Gateway White House Rural Council  Eligibility Analyzer Contact Us Subscribe to FORHP weekly announcement for rural health grantees and stakeholders by e-mail Subscribe to ...

  7. A Perspective on Rural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, W. Wade; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Includes "Perspective on Rural Education" (Miller); "You Want Them to Learn What?" (Jones); "Rural Education" (Baker, Burns); "Metnet" (Frick); "Rural Education and Training in Egypt" (Swan, Aly); "Mentors, Youth at Risk, and Rural Education Programs" (Wingenbach); "Designing…

  8. A Perspective on Rural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, W. Wade; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Includes "Perspective on Rural Education" (Miller); "You Want Them to Learn What?" (Jones); "Rural Education" (Baker, Burns); "Metnet" (Frick); "Rural Education and Training in Egypt" (Swan, Aly); "Mentors, Youth at Risk, and Rural Education Programs" (Wingenbach); "Designing…

  9. Travel itinerary uncertainty and the pre-travel consultation--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Gerard; Md Nor, Muhammad Najmi

    2016-01-01

    Risk assessment relies on the accuracy of the information provided by the traveller. A questionnaire was administered to 83 consecutive travellers attending a travel medicine clinic. The majority of travellers was uncertain about destinations within countries, transportation or type of accommodation. Most travellers were uncertain if they would be visiting malaria regions. The degree of uncertainty about itinerary potentially impacts on the ability of the travel medicine specialist to perform an adequate risk assessment, select appropriate vaccinations and prescribe malaria prophylaxis. This study reveals high levels of traveller uncertainty about their itinerary which may potentially reduce the effectiveness of their pre-travel consultation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International society of travel medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Rural Policies for the 1990s. Rural Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flora, Cornelia B., Ed.; Christenson, James A., Ed.

    Written by some of the foremost experts on rural America, this book focuses on policy-relevant research on the problems of rural areas. In each chapter, rural policy needs are identified by examining the flow of events and rural sociology of the 1980s. Chapters are: (1) "Critical Times for Rural America: The Challenge for Rural Policy in the…

  11. Rural Policies for the 1990s. Rural Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flora, Cornelia B., Ed.; Christenson, James A., Ed.

    Written by some of the foremost experts on rural America, this book focuses on policy-relevant research on the problems of rural areas. In each chapter, rural policy needs are identified by examining the flow of events and rural sociology of the 1980s. Chapters are: (1) "Critical Times for Rural America: The Challenge for Rural Policy in the…

  12. Improved Traveling-Wave Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseau, Art; Tammaru, Ivo; Vaszari, John

    1988-01-01

    New space traveling-wave tube (TWT) provides coherent source of 75 watts of continuous-wave power output over bandwidth of 5 GHz at frequency of 65 GHz. Coupled-cavity TWT provides 50 dB of saturated gain. Includes thermionic emitter, M-type dispenser cathode providing high-power electron beam. Beam focused by permanent magnets through center of radio-frequency cavity structure. Designed for reliable operation for 10 years, and overall efficiency of 35 percent minimizes prime power input and dissipation of heat.

  13. Geometric scaling as traveling waves.

    PubMed

    Munier, S; Peschanski, R

    2003-12-05

    We show the relevance of the nonlinear Fisher and Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piscounov (KPP) equation to the problem of high energy evolution of the QCD amplitudes. We explain how the traveling wave solutions of this equation are related to geometric scaling, a phenomenon observed in deep-inelastic scattering experiments. Geometric scaling is for the first time shown to result from an exact solution of nonlinear QCD evolution equations. Using general results on the KPP equation, we compute the velocity of the wave front, which gives the full high energy dependence of the saturation scale.

  14. On traveling waves in beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Robert W; Budiansky, Bernard

    1954-01-01

    The basic equations of Timoshenko for the motion of vibrating nonuniform beams, which allow for effects of transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia, are presented in several forms, including one in which the equations are written in the directions of the characteristics. The propagation of discontinuities in moment and shear, as governed by these equations, is discussed. Numerical traveling-wave solutions are obtained for some elementary problems of finite uniform beams for which the propagation velocities of bending and shear discontinuities are taken to be equal. These solutions are compared with modal solutions of Timoshenko's equations and, in some cases, with exact closed solutions. (author)

  15. Improved Traveling-Wave Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseau, Art; Tammaru, Ivo; Vaszari, John

    1988-01-01

    New space traveling-wave tube (TWT) provides coherent source of 75 watts of continuous-wave power output over bandwidth of 5 GHz at frequency of 65 GHz. Coupled-cavity TWT provides 50 dB of saturated gain. Includes thermionic emitter, M-type dispenser cathode providing high-power electron beam. Beam focused by permanent magnets through center of radio-frequency cavity structure. Designed for reliable operation for 10 years, and overall efficiency of 35 percent minimizes prime power input and dissipation of heat.

  16. Bites and stings in travellers

    PubMed Central

    Reid, H. Alistair

    1975-01-01

    As a rule, bites and stings in travellers are merely a nuisance. But it is sensible to be informed about the more serious possibilities which can result. Systemic diseases can be transmitted, the skin lesions from insects can be troublesome and finally, some bites and stings can cause envenoming. Thus, the bather may be harmed by venomous fish stings, sea urchins, jellyfish and in Asian-Pacific waters by sea-snakes. Land hazards include bites or stings by scorpions, spiders, ticks, centipedes, bees, wasps, caterpillars and snakes. The main clinical features of such bites and stings, including treatment and prevention, are outlined. PMID:1239754

  17. Time Travel: Deutsch vs. Teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svetlichny, George

    2011-12-01

    The quantum teleportation protocol can be used to probabilistically simulate a quantum circuit with backward-in-time connections. This allows us to analyze some conceptual problems of time travel in the context of physically realizable situations free of paradoxes. As an example one can perform encrypted measurements of future states for which the decryption key becomes available in the future. Likewise, the gauge-like freedom of locally changing the direction of time flow in quantum circuits can lead to conceptual and computational simplifications. I contrast this situation with Deutsch's treatment of quantum mechanics in the presence of closed time-like curves pointing out some of its deficiencies and problems.

  18. Large holograms in traveling exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christakis, Anne-Marie

    1994-01-01

    The presentation of large holograms in travelling exhibitions has always posed problems, mainly due to lack of space. The Museum of Holography was consequently required to develop, with Jean-Francois Moreau, display consoles which are light, affordable and completely detachable. In a permanent exposition at the Forum des Halles in Paris, the Museum displays a room with 22 holograms, each measuring 1 m X 1 m, in a structure designed by the architect Fabien Vienne. The different systems used by the Museum are presented here.

  19. Sexual behavior in travelers visiting Cuzco.

    PubMed

    Cabada, Miguel M; Montoya, Manuel; Echevarria, Juan I; Verdonck, Kristien; Seas, Carlos; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    In South America, little is known about sexual behavior and risk factors for acquiring sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among travelers and among local people sexually interacting with travelers. There is evidence that, in Peru, significant sexual interaction between these groups exists. An anonymous written questionnaire was administered to travelers in the airport and bus stations before they left Cuzco. Of the travelers,5.6% engaged in sexual activity with a new partner during their stay in Cuzco. Sexual intercourse with other travelers was most common (76/140, 54.3%), followed by sex with local partners (57/140, 40.7%), and with commercial sex workers (3/140, 2.15%). Consistent condom use was reported by 97/140 (69.3%). In the multivariate analysis, the following variables were independently associated with casual sex: male gender, single marital status, age between 15 and 35 years, non-United States travelers (NUSTs), traveling alone or with friends, length of stay more than 30 days, homosexual or bisexual orientation, and expectation of having sex before traveling. Homosexual and bisexual travelers had 3 or more new sexual partners more frequently than heterosexual travelers (4/8, 18/129, OR=6.17 (1.16travelers (USTs). Travelers visiting Cuzco engage in sexual activities that put them at risk of acquiring STD and transmitting it, both in their home country and in Peru. We recommend the inclusion of Peru and possibly other Latin American countries in the list of destinations where there is substantial risk of transmission of STD and the provision of pretravel advice regarding this issue to travelers to Peru.

  20. Travellers and influenza: risks and prevention

    PubMed Central

    van Genderen, P.; Ward, B. J.; Wilder-Smith, A.; Steffen, R.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Influenza viruses are among the major causes of serious human respiratory tract infection worldwide. In line with the high disease burden attributable to influenza, these viruses play an important, but often neglected, role in travel medicine. Guidelines and recommendations regarding prevention and management of influenza in travellers are scarce. Of special interest for travel medicine are risk populations and also circumstances that facilitate influenza virus transmission and spread, like travel by airplane or cruise ship and mass gatherings. Methods: We conducted a PUBMED/MEDLINE search for a combination of the MeSH terms Influenza virus, travel, mass gathering, large scale events and cruise ship. In addition we gathered guidelines and recommendations from selected countries and regarding influenza prevention and management in travellers. By reviewing these search results in the light of published knowledge in the fields of influenza prevention and management, we present best practice advice for the prevention and management of influenza in travel medicine. Results: Seasonal influenza is among the most prevalent infectious diseases in travellers. Known host-associated risk factors include extremes of age and being immune-compromised, while the most relevant environmental factors are associated with holiday cruises and mass gatherings. Conclusions: Pre-travel advice should address influenza and its prevention for travellers, whenever appropriate on the basis of the epidemiological situation concerned. Preventative measures should be strongly recommended for travellers at high-risk for developing complications. In addition, seasonal influenza vaccination should be considered for any traveller wishing to reduce the risk of incapacitation, particularly cruise ship crew and passengers, as well as those participating in mass gatherings. Besides advice concerning preventive measures and vaccination, advice on the use of antivirals may be considered for some

  1. 41 CFR 301-71.105 - Must we issue a written or electronic travel authorization in advance of travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or electronic travel authorization in advance of travel? 301-71.105 Section 301-71.105 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 71-AGENCY TRAVEL ACCOUNTABILITY REQUIREMENTS Travel Authorization §...

  2. 41 CFR 301-71.105 - Must we issue a written or electronic travel authorization in advance of travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... or electronic travel authorization in advance of travel? 301-71.105 Section 301-71.105 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 71-AGENCY TRAVEL ACCOUNTABILITY REQUIREMENTS Travel Authorization §...

  3. Independently owned pharmacy closures in rural America.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Kaitlin; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith

    2012-07-01

    The closure of rural independently owned pharmacies, including pharmacies that are the sole source of access to local pharmacy services, from 2003 through 2011 coincides with the implementation of two major policies related to payment for prescription medications: (1) Medicare prescription drug discount cards were introduced on January 1, 2004; and (2) the Medicare prescription drug benefit (Part D) began on January 1, 2006. In this brief, we focus on rural pharmacy closure because of the potential threat such closures present to access to any local pharmacy services in a community. Services include providing medications from local stock without delay or travel, overseeing administration of medications to nursing homes and hospitals, and patient consultation.

  4. Australian senior adventure travellers to Peru: Maximising older tourists' travel health experience.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Irmgard

    2012-03-01

    Financially comfortable, with ample spare time and much better health, older people travel more than ever and to more adventurous destinations. Taking Australian senior adventure travellers to Peru as an example, travel health preparations need to take into account the phenomenon 'senior traveller', the destination with its attractions and challenges, and age-related changes and restrictions. The need for routine travel health advice, vaccinations and prophylaxis remains unchanged. However, more emphasis should be placed on locality-specific issues so that age-appropriate advice and preparations maximize the chances for a safe and memorable travel experience.

  5. Travel health risk perceptions and preparations among travelers at Hong Kong International Airport.

    PubMed

    Hung, Kevin K C; Lin, Agatha K Y; Cheng, Calvin K Y; Chan, Emily Y Y; Graham, Colin A

    2014-01-01

    Four levels of pre-travel health preparations were defined to allow the measurement of general travel health preparations by the traveling public. A cross-sectional survey of 770 travelers using Hong Kong International Airport was conducted. Important gaps were found in the self-preparation domain. Length of travel was the only factor associated with higher levels of health preparations after adjusting for potential confounders. Targeted health education should be considered to improve health risk perceptions among travelers in Hong Kong and other similar metropolitan cities that are critical hubs for commercial air transport.

  6. Rural area in a European country from a health care point of view: an adaption of the Rural Ranking Scale

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In many countries, rural areas are facing a shortage of general practitioners (GPs). Appropriate strategies to address this challenge are needed. From a health care delivery point of view, the term rural area is often poorly defined. However rural areas have to be adequately defined to ensure specific strategies are tailored to these environments. The aims of this study were to translate the New Zealand 6-item Rural Ranking Scale (RRS), to culturally adapt it and to implement it to identify rural areas from a health care delivery perspective. Therefore we aimed to validate the RRS by defining cut-off scores for urban, semi-rural and rural areas in Germany. Methods After receiving permission, two researchers independently translated the RRS. In a consensus meeting, four items were identified that had to be culturally adapted. The modified RRS-Germany (mRRS-G) was sent to 724 GPs located in urban, semi-rural and rural areas to validate the “rurality” scoring system for conditions in Germany. Results Four items, “travelling time to next major hospital”, “on-call duty”, “regular peripheral clinic” and “on-call for major traumas” had to be adapted due to differences in the health care system. The survey had a response rate of 33.7%. A factor analysis showed a three dimensional structure of the mRRS-G scale with a poor internal consistency. Nevertheless, the three items regarding “on-call duty”, “next major hospital” and “most distant boundary covered by your practice” were identified as significant predictors for rurality. The adapted cut-off point for rurality in Germany was 16. From this study’s participants, 9 met the RRS cut-off point for rurality (a score of 35 or more). Conclusion Compared with New Zealand rurality scores based on this tool, German scores are far less rural from a health care delivery point of view. We consider that the construct of rurality has more aspects than those assessed by the m

  7. Medical oxygen and air travel.

    PubMed

    Lyznicki, J M; Williams, M A; Deitchman, S D; Howe, J P

    2000-08-01

    This report responds to a resolution that asked the American Medical Association (AMA) to take action to improve airport and airline accommodations for passengers requiring medical oxygen. Information for the report was derived from a search of the MEDLINE database and references listed in pertinent articles, as well as through communications with experts in aerospace and emergency medicine. Based on this information, the AMA Council on Scientific Affairs determined that commercial air travel exposes passengers to altitude-related hypoxia and gas expansion, which may cause some passengers to experience significant symptoms and medical complications during flight. Medical guidelines are available to help physicians evaluate and counsel potential passengers who are at increased risk of inflight hypoxemia. Supplemental oxygen may be needed for some passengers to maintain adequate tissue oxygenation and prevent hypoxemic complications. For safety and security reasons, federal regulations prohibit travelers from using their own portable oxygen system onboard commercial aircraft. Many U.S. airlines supply medical oxygen for use during flight but policies and procedures vary. Oxygen-dependent passengers must make additional arrangements for the use of supplemental oxygen in airports. Uniform standards are needed to specify procedures and equipment for the use of medical oxygen in airports and aboard commercial aircraft. Revision of federal regulations should be considered to accommodate oxygen-dependent passengers and permit them to have an uninterrupted source of oxygen from departure to destination.

  8. [Malaria chemoprophylaxis in traveling children].

    PubMed

    Minodier, P; Noël, G; Blanc, P; Tsaregorodtseva, N; Retornaz, K; Garnier, J M

    2005-01-01

    In France, 4,000 imported malaria cases are reported each year (7,000 to 8,000 estimated). Chemoprophylaxis is essential for prevention in travelers. When malaria is susceptible to chloroquine, this drug (Nivaquine) has to be used. It is given daily in France (1.5 mg/kg per day), from departure to four weeks after return. When low levels of chloroquino-resistance are reported, French authorities recommend the use of chloroquine + proguanil (Savarine) if the body weight is >50 kg or Nivaquine) + Paludrine), if <50 kg), or atovaquone + proguanil (Malarone). Nivaquine) (1.5 mg/kg per day) and Paludrine) (3 mg/kg per day) have to be pursued for one month after return, although Malarone) (1 pediatric tablet/10 kg per day, in children >10 kg weight) may be disrupted after one single week. Adverse events are rarer with atovaquone + proguanil, than with chloroquine + proguanil. When chloroquino-resistance is high, Malarone) or mefloquine (Lariam) are used. Weekly drug regimen is recommended with mefloquine (5 mg/kg per weight) for the travel duration and four weeks after return and the drug tolerance is good in pediatric prophylaxis. Doxycycline is used under conditions in children >8 years of age. New drugs as for tafenoquine, an amino-8 quinoleine, might enhance patients compliance if given monthly.

  9. [Foodborne dermatosis after traveling: gnathostomiasis].

    PubMed

    Orduna, Tomás A; Lloveras, Susana C; Echazarreta, Sofía E; Garro, Santiago L; González, Gustavo D; Falcone, Claudia C

    2013-01-01

    We describe a case of a 32-year-old man, resident in Buenos Aires, with dermatologic manifestations compatible with gnathostomiasis. The patient had traveled to Colombia in the month prior to the onset of symptoms. There, he repeatedly ate ceviche (raw fish marinated in lemon juice). He presented with an erythematous migratory panniculitis accompanied by eosinophilia. He underwent skin biopsy of a lesion and pathological diagnosis was "eosinophilic panniculitis". The triad of migratory panniculitis, eosinophilia and consume of raw fish during the trip to Colombia was suggestive of gnathostomiasis. Ivermectin treatment started out with good initial response but subsequent relapse. We performed a new treatment with the same drug with good results and no relapses during three years of follow up. The dermatological disease is common upon return from a trip, and is the third leading cause of morbidity in travelers. It is very important to recognize cutaneous manifestations of disease as many of them are potentially serious and may compromise the patient's life if not promptly diagnosed and treated.

  10. Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, W.H.; Caesar, S.

    1992-09-01

    The Franklin Institute Science Museum provided an exhibit entitled the Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition. This 3500 square-foot exhibit on global climate change was developed in collaboration with the Association of Science-Technology Centers. The exhibit opened at The Franklin Institute on February 14, 1992, welcoming 291,000 visitors over its three-month stay. During its three-year tour, Greenhouse Earth will travel to ten US cities, reaching two million visitors. Greenhouse Earth aims to deepen public understanding of the scientific issues of global warming and the conservation measures that can be taken to slow its effects. The exhibit features hands-on exhibitry, interactive computer programs and videos, a theater production, a demonstration cart,'' guided tours, and lectures. supplemental educational programs at the Institute included a teachers preview, a symposium on climate change, and a satellite field trip.'' The development of Greenhouse Earth included front-end and formative evaluation procedures. Evaluation includes interviews with visitors, prototypes, and summative surveys for participating museums. During its stay in Philadelphia, Greenhouse Earth was covered by the local and national press, with reviews in print and broadcast media. Greenhouse Earth is the first large-scale museum exhibit to address global climate change.

  11. New Developments in Traveler's Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    de la Cabada Bauche, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Traveler's diarrhea (TD) is a crucial area for research, as it affects millions of tourists each year and creates a large economic burden. More than 60% of TD cases are caused by a variety of bacterial enteropathogens: diarrhea-producing Escherichia coli, Shigella, Campylobacter, Salmonella, Aeromonas, Plesiomonas, and noncholera Vibrios. Noroviruses are also an important cause of morbidity among travelers. Recent studies have identified host genetic risk factors associated with susceptibility to pathogen-specific TD. Prevention strategies should be emphasized, as all individuals with TD experience approximately 24 hours of disability and 5-10% experience chronic functional bowel disease. Poorly absorbed rifaximin provides protection for trips lasting 2 weeks or less. TD vaccines are also currently in development. All individuals planning trips to developing regions should be armed with 1 of the 3 agents that have shown efficacy for self-treatment of TD: ciprofloxacin (or levofloxacin), rifaximin, or azithromycin, depending upon the location of the trip. Although global epidemiologic changes in etiologic agents as well as antibiotic resistance patterns have been better understood recently, changes should be expected during the next decade due to new prevention and treatment approaches. PMID:21475415

  12. Legionella infections and travel associated legionellosis.

    PubMed

    Guyard, Cyril; Low, Donald E

    2011-07-01

    Travel associated Legionnaires' disease represents a significant cause of travel associated respiratory tract infections and impacts disproportionately on otherwise healthy individuals as a consequence of their travel abroad or within their own country. Because of the propensity of these bacteria to colonize man-made water systems, legionellosis are frequently reported in travelers who stayed in accommodations sites such as hotels or cruise ships. Since the discovery of this new pathogen and the creation of surveillance networks, the number of reported travel associated legionellosis cases have increased regularly. Education of physicians about the association of Legionnaires' disease with travel and the use of appropriate diagnostic tests and therapy can result in a reduction in morbidity and mortality due to this important cause of community-acquired pneumonia.

  13. [Travellers and multi-drug resistance bacteria].

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Nozomi

    2012-02-01

    The number of international travellers has increased. There is enormous diversity in medical backgrounds, purposes of travel, and travelling styles among travellers. Travellers are hospitalized abroad because of exotic and common diseases via medical tourism. This is one way of transporting and importing human bacteria between countries, including multi-drug resistant organisms. In developing countries, the antimicrobial resistance in Shigella sp. and Salmonella sp. have been a problem, because of this trend, the first choice of antibiotics has changed in some countries. Community acquired infections as well as hospital acquired infections with MRSA, multi-drug resistance (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and ESBL have been a problem. This review will discuss the risk of MDR bacterial infectious diseases for travellers.

  14. Traveling Lamb wave in elastic metamaterial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Haisheng; Xu, Lihuan; Shi, Xiaona; Zhao, Lei; Zhu, Jie

    2016-10-01

    The propagation of traveling Lamb wave in single layer of elastic metamaterial is investigated in this paper. We first categorized the traveling Lamb wave modes inside an elastic metamaterial layer according to different combinations (positive or negative) of effective medium parameters. Then the impacts of the frequency dependence of effective parameters on dispersion characteristics of traveling Lamb wave were studied. Distinct differences could be observed when comparing the traveling Lamb wave along an elastic metamaterial layer with one inside the traditional elastic layer. We further examined in detail the traveling Lamb wave mode supported in elastic metamaterial layer, when the effective P and S wave velocities were simultaneously imaginary. It was found that the effective modulus ratio is the key factor for the existence of special traveling wave mode, and the main results were verified by FEM simulations from two levels: the level of effective medium and the level of microstructure unit cell.

  15. Rural Wellness and Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Rural? Economic Impact Analysis Tool Planning for Sustainability Rural Health IT Curriculum Resources Testing New Approaches ... health of all groups Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all Promote quality ...

  16. Rural People with Disabilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics & States Topics View more Rural People with Disabilities People with disabilities, young and old, who live ... Act for local government? How many people with disabilities live in rural areas? According to the U.S. ...

  17. Medicaid and Rural Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... How does Medicaid impact rural healthcare and the economy? In many ways, Medicaid plays a larger role ... the report states that “Medicaid contributes to rural economic development in four important ways: providing opportunity for ...

  18. Rural ground water contamination

    SciTech Connect

    D'Itri, F.M.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Remedial Actions; Analysis and Control of Rural Ground Wate; Ground Water Contamination Sources; Research Theory, and Practice; and Regulations Pertaining to Rural Ground Water.

  19. Supporting Sustainable Rural Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Supporting Sustainable Rural Communities summarizes the findings of a work group of EPA, HUD, DOT, and USDA and creates a framework for the Partnership for Sustainable Communities’ future work with rural communities.

  20. Medicare and Rural Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... differences exist in rural and urban Medicare enrollee populations? According to MedPAC’s Report to the Congress (June ... rural people make up 19% of the U.S. population and you will see why the Medicare program ...

  1. Access to Specialist Care in Rural Saskatchewan: The Saskatchewan Rural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Karunanayake, Chandima P.; Rennie, Donna C.; Hagel, Louise; Lawson, Joshua; Janzen, Bonnie; Pickett, William; Dosman, James A.; Pahwa, Punam

    2015-01-01

    The role of place has emerged as an important factor in determining people’s health experiences. Rural populations experience an excess in mortality and morbidity compared to those in urban settings. One of the factors thought to contribute to this rural-urban health disparity is access to healthcare. The objective of this analysis was to examine access to specialized medical care services and several possible determinants of access to services in a distinctly rural population in Canada. In winter 2010, we conducted a baseline mail survey of 11,982 households located in rural Saskatchewan, Canada. We obtained 4620 completed household surveys. A key informant for each household responded to questions about access to medical specialists and the exact distance traveled to these services. Correlates of interest included the location of the residence within the province and within each household, socioeconomic status, household smoking status, median age of household residents, number of non-respiratory chronic conditions and number of current respiratory conditions. Analyses were conducted using log binomial regression for the outcome of interest. The overall response rate was 52%. Of households who required a visit to a medical specialist in the past 12 months, 23% reported having difficulty accessing specialist care. The magnitude of risk for encountering difficulty accessing medical specialist care services increased with the greatest distance categories. Accessing specialist care professionals by rural residents was particularly difficult for persons with current respiratory conditions. PMID:27417750

  2. Trends and characteristics among HIV-infected and diabetic travelers seeking pre-travel advice.

    PubMed

    Elfrink, Floor; van den Hoek, Anneke; Sonder, Gerard J B

    2014-01-01

    The number of individuals with a chronic disease increases. Better treatment options have improved chronic patients' quality of life, likely increasing their motivation for travel. This may have resulted in a change in the number of HIV-infected travelers and/or travelers with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) visiting our travel clinic. We retrospectively analyzed the database of the travel clinic of the Public Health Service Amsterdam, between January 2001 and December 2011 and examined the records for patients with these conditions. Of the 25,000 travelers who consult our clinic annually, the proportion of travelers with HIV or DM has increased significantly. A total of 564 HIV-infected travelers visited our clinic. The mean age was 41 years, 86% were male, 43% visited a yellow fever endemic country and 46.5% had a CD4 count <500 cells/mm(3). Travelers with low CD4 counts traveled significantly more often to visit friends or relatives. A total of 3704 diabetics visited our clinic. The mean age was 55 years, 52% were male, 27% visited a yellow fever endemic country and 36% were insulin-dependent. Insulin-dependent diabetics traveled more often for work than non-insulin-dependent diabetics. Adequately trained and qualified travel health professionals and up-to-date guidelines for travelers with chronic diseases are of increasing importance.

  3. Travel health preparation and travel-related morbidity of splenectomised individuals.

    PubMed

    Boeddha, Christien; de Graaf, Wilmar; Overbosch, David; van Genderen, Perry J J

    2012-07-01

    Asplenic or hyposplenic patients are at an increased risk of encapsulated bacterial and intraerythrocytic parasitic infections, which are endemic at many travel destinations. With proper travel health advice and preparation splenectomised individuals could have comparable travel-related morbidity as healthy control subjects. We conducted a prospective case-control study with 21 travel pairs. Each pair consisted of a splenectomised patient (case) and a healthy, non-splenectomised travel companion (control) in order to match for travel destination, duration and potential exposures to travel-related health risks. All participants filled out a questionnaire detailing travel health preparation including vaccination and malaria prophylaxis as well as travel-related morbidity. Cases and controls were comparable for age and gender. Cases received significantly more information about on demand use of antibiotics in case of fever. Immunisation coverage against encapsulated bacteria and adherence to malaria prophylaxis guidelines was suboptimal. There were no significant differences in the occurrence of travel-related ailments nor differences in severity of ailments. The immunisation coverage against encapsulated bacteria and adherence to malaria prophylaxis guidelines was suboptimal in some splenectomised patients and should be improved. Strict adherence to national travel health advice guidelines and specific guidelines for asplenic patients is advisable. However, with regard to travel-related morbidity there are no significant differences in morbidity between splenectomised patients and healthy controls, at least in the setting of short-term travel.

  4. 38 CFR 60.5 - Travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel. 60.5 Section 60.5... TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.5 Travel. As a condition for receiving temporary lodging under this part, a veteran must be required to travel either 50 or more miles, or at least two hours from his or her home to the...

  5. Medical Preparation for Travel in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Feinsod, Fred M.; Smith, Robert P.; Locke, Susan A.

    1982-01-01

    Physicians are asked with increasing frequency to prepare individuals for travel in Africa. This paper presents an organized approach which includes medical screening, vaccination protocol, and malaria prophylaxis, as well as a discussion of personal hygiene for the tropics. African travel can be safe and enjoyable if the traveler is medically prepared and directs his or her concerns in an informed and intelligent way. PMID:7175965

  6. 38 CFR 60.5 - Travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel. 60.5 Section 60.5... TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.5 Travel. As a condition for receiving temporary lodging under this part, a veteran must be required to travel either 50 or more miles, or at least two hours from his or her home to the...

  7. Experience with a rural telepsychiatry clinic for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ermer, D J

    1999-02-01

    Access to child and adolescent psychiatric services in many rural areas is limited by lack of physicians and long travel times. A child and adolescent telepsychiatry clinic that is part of the University of Kansas Medical Center's telemedicine program addresses this problem by linking the medical center with a county mental health center in rural Pittsburg, Kansas. The clinic receives ten to 18 visits a week and has been able to serve severely disturbed children and children in crisis. The quality of clinical interactions in the telepsychiatry clinic appears comparable to that in face-to-face meetings.

  8. An investigation of equity of rural speech-language pathology services for children: a geographic perspective.

    PubMed

    Verdon, Sarah; Wilson, Linda; Smith-Tamaray, Michelle; McAllister, Lindy

    2011-06-01

    The World Health Organization's equity objective states that there should be equal access to healthcare for equal need, regardless of location. Disparities between health services and challenges to achieving the equity objective have been documented both in Australia and around the world. However, little is known about the extent to which this objective has been met in the field of speech-language pathology in Australia. This study used structured interviews with 74 speech-language pathologists working in rural areas of New South Wales and Victoria. The data obtained were used to develop maps to describe the availability of paediatric speech-language pathology services through consideration of location and frequency. The findings show that 98.60% of localities are unserviced at the ideal frequency of weekly or more often. It is important to note that these percentages include all localities in the represented rural areas of New South Wales and Victoria, some of which are minimally populated. The maps also depict travel and distance as barriers to the accessibility of services and have been used to suggest a critical maximum distance for paediatric outpatient speech-language pathology services in rural New South Wales and Victoria. From the data collected, 50 kilometres was suggested as the critical maximum distance past which consumers become unable or unwilling to travel to access weekly rural speech-language pathology services in rural New South Wales and Victoria. Thus, people living in almost one third of rural localities in rural New South Wales and Victoria lie beyond what is considered by rural speech-language pathologists to be a reasonable travel distance to weekly speech-language pathology services. These results highlight barriers to the achievement of equitable services in rural areas. The results also provide an essential foundation to inform policy development and assist health service planning to meet the needs of rural consumers.

  9. Rural Youths' Images of the Rural

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, Johan Fredrik

    2006-01-01

    Following the cultural turn within the social sciences, recent debates on how to conceptualise "the rural" have focused on "rurality" as a phenomenon produced by processes of social construction. This paper presents an empirical account of the outcome of these social construction processes through an analysis of how teenagers…

  10. Rural Education and Rural Community Viability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Patricia Cahape

    This thesis examines the ways in which rural schools support or undermine rural community viability in the United States. Beginning in the late 19th century, the diverse people of the United States came under the power of a single ideology of modernization and the superiority of urban culture. This ideology has resulted in the American transition…

  11. Rural Education Issues: Rural Administrators Speak Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Julia; Nierengarten, Gerry

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the issues that most affect Minnesota's rural public school administrators as they attempt to fulfill the mandates required from state legislation and communities. A second purpose was to identify exemplary practices valued by individual Minnesota rural schools and districts. Electronic surveys were sent…

  12. Rural Education: Learning to Be Rural Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barter, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper draws on research which began in 2006 with students in a graduate course on rural education. Its purpose was to find out what graduate students saw as current issues of rural education, how that compared to the literature, and what they thought supporting agencies such as government and universities needed to be doing to…

  13. Have Diabetes? Get Tips for Safe Travels

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Preparedness & Response Environmental Health Healthy Living Injury, Violence & Safety Life Stages & Populations Travelers' Health Workplace Safety & Health Features Media Sign up for Features Get Email Updates To ...

  14. Travel thrombosis: Pathomechanisms and clinical aspects.

    PubMed

    Sándor, Tamás

    2008-12-01

    The possibility of life threatening venous thromboembolism (VTE) associated with long-haul air travel has received increasing attention in recent years. VTE can develop after long travel by car, bus or train, as well. In this paper recent investigational results on the pathomechanism of this special type of venous thrombosis have been reviewed. Travel thrombosis is a subgroup of sitting thromboses. It is a consequence of prolonged sitting, which is common of ground transportation and air travel. Air travel-related venous thromboembolism (ATVT) is a multifactorial disease. Possible contributory risk factors are in connection with the milieu of the cabin, such as narrow sitting in cramp position, hypobaric hypoxia and lower humidity. Personal, traveler-related risk factors may be regarded as a trigger. The risk of thrombosis is depending on the duration and distance of the travel. Recent studies have clarified effects of long-haul travel on the coagulation system. Various investigations evaluated the effect of immobilization and hypobaric hypoxia on thrombin generation and fibrinolysis. The studies differed much in participant characteristics, duration and type of exposure and statistical analysis, so the results are contradictory. Healthy passengers seem to have low risk. However, travelers suffering from predisposing risk factors for VTE can be exposed to serious hazards.

  15. Vaccination for safe travel to India.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Bharti; Jindal, Harashish; Bhatt, Bhumika; Kumar, Vijay; Singh Choudhary, Satvinder

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide more than 900 million international journeys are undertaken every year. India is one of the favorite tourist destinations around the world. International travel exposes travelers to a range of health risks. Traveling to India possess a threat to travelers with waterborne diseases like bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever; vector borne diseases like dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria; animal contact disease like rabies. Furthermore diseases spreading through behavior aspects cannot be ruled out hence posing a risk for hepatitis B, HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C as well. Hence, before travel the travelers are advised about the risk of disease in the country or countries they plan to visit and the steps to be taken to prevent illness. Vaccination offers the possibility of avoiding a number of infectious diseases that may be countered abroad. There is no single vaccination schedule that fits all travelers. Each schedule must be individualized according to the traveler's previous immunizations, countries to be visited, type and duration of travel, and the amount of time available before departure.

  16. Effect of travel on influenza epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Belderok, Sanne-Meike; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; van den Hoek, Anneke; Sonder, Gerard J B

    2013-06-01

    To assess the attack and incidence rates for influenza virus infections, during October 2006-October 2007 we prospectively studied 1,190 adult short-term travelers from the Netherlands to tropical and subtropical countries. Participants donated blood samples before and after travel and kept a travel diary. The samples were serologically tested for the epidemic strains during the study period. The attack rate for all infections was 7% (86 travelers) and for influenza-like illness (ILI), 0.8%. The incidence rate for all infections was 8.9 per 100 person-months and for ILI, 0.9%. Risk factors for infection were birth in a non-Western country, age 55-64 years, and ILI. In 15 travelers with fever or ILI, influenza virus infection was serologically confirmed; 7 of these travelers were considered contagious or incubating the infection while traveling home. Given the large number of travelers to (sub)tropical countries, travel-related infection most likely contributes to importation and further influenza spread worldwide.

  17. Approach to Immunization for the Traveling Child.

    PubMed

    Myers, Angela L; Christenson, John C

    2015-12-01

    Children are traveling to regions of the world that could pose a risk of acquiring diseases such as malaria, dermatosis, and infectious diarrhea. Most of these can be prevented by modifying high-risk behaviors or through the use of medications. Many of these same regions are endemic with diseases that are preventable through vaccination. Clinicians must be able to effectively prepare their pediatric-age travelers for international travel. Preventive education, prophylactic and self-treating medications, and vaccinations are all important components of this preparation. Familiarity with the use of travel vaccines is imperative.

  18. Travellers' diarrhoea: causes, prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Rhoswen; Bennett, Clare

    This article describes the prevention and treatment of travellers' diarrhoea, the leading cause of illness in people travelling abroad. The most common cause of travellers' diarrhoea worldwide is bacterial pathogens, which account for up to 80% of cases. Exercising caution over dietary selection and personal hygiene is the most common method used for reducing the risk of acquiring travellers' diarrhoea. Antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics and bismuth subsalicylate have all been indicated for the prevention of this distressing condition. Treatments include antimotility agents, oral rehydration salts and antibiotics.

  19. Brucellosis and its particularities in children travelers.

    PubMed

    Bosilkovski, Mile; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2014-01-01

    Brucellosis is still endemic in many countries in the world, however, having a significantly higher incidence in developing countries. As consequence of travel, risk for children from non-endemic areas would be considerable when visiting developing countries. Then, the purpose of this review is to provide, after a bibliographical search, an update on the main aspects of this disease in the traveler children. For the general practitioner, but particularly for travel medicine practitioner and pediatricians, these clinicoepidemiological considerations should be taken in mind in the differential diagnosis when assessing children returning from travel to brucellosis endemic areas.

  20. Prospects for dengue vaccines for travelers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Travel-acquired dengue cases have been increasing as the overall global dengue burden has expanded. In Korea, imported dengue cases have been reported since 2000 when it first became a notifiable disease. During the first four months of 2016, three times more dengue cases were reported in Korea than during the same period the previous year. A safe and efficacious vaccine for travelers would be beneficial to prevent dengue disease in individual travelers and potentially decrease the risk of virus spread to non-endemic areas. Here, we summarize the characteristics of dengue vaccines for travelers and review dengue vaccines currently licensed or in clinical development. PMID:27489798