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Sample records for russian automated federal

  1. Russian Federation. Health system review.

    PubMed

    Popovich, Larisa; Potapchik, Elena; Shishkin, Sergey; Richardson, Erica; Vacroux, Alexandra; Mathivet, Benoit

    2011-01-01

    The HiT reviews are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. At independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, the Russian health system inherited an extensive, centralized Semashko system, but was quick to reform health financing by adopting a mandatory health insurance (MHI) model in 1993. MHI was introduced in order to open up an earmarked stream of funding for health care in the face of severe fiscal constraints. While the health system has evolved and changed significantly since the early 1990 s, the legacy of having been a highly centralized system focused on universal access to basic care remains. High energy prices on world markets have ensured greater macroeconomic stability, a budget surplus and improvements in living standards for most of the Russian population. However, despite an overall reduction in the poverty rate, there is a marked urban rural split and rural populations have worse health and poorer access to health services than urban populations. The increase in budgetary resources available to policy-makers have led to a number of recent federal-level health programmes that have focused on the delivery of services and increasing funding for priority areas including primary care provision in rural areas. Nevertheless, public health spending in the Russian Federation remains relatively low given the resources available. However, it is also clear that, even with the current level of financing, the performance of the health system could be improved. Provider payment mechanisms are the main obstacle to improving technical efficiency in

  2. Factors fragmenting the Russian Federation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, E.

    1993-10-06

    This paper examines the factors that threaten the future of the Russian Federation (RF). The observations are based on a study that focused on eight republics: Mordova, Udmurtia, Tatarstan, Mari El, Bashkortostan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Buryatia, and Altay Republic. These republics were selected for their geographic and economic significance to the RF. Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, Udmurtia, and Mari El are located on important supply routes, such as the Volga River and the trans-Siberian railroad. Some of these republics are relatively wealthy, with natural resources such as oil (e.g., Tatarstan and Bashkortostan), and all eight republics play significant roles in the military-industrial complex. The importance of these republics to the RF contrasts to the relative insignificance of the independence-minded Northern Caucasus area. The author chose not to examine the Northern Caucasus region (except Kabardino-Balkaria) because these republics may have only a minor impact on the rest of the RF if they secede. Their impact would be minimized because they lie on the frontiers of the RF. Many Russians believe that {open_quotes}it might be best to let such a troublesome area secede.{close_quotes}

  3. 31 CFR 540.304 - Government of the Russian Federation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Government of the Russian Federation...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.304 Government of the Russian Federation. (a) The term Government of the Russian Federation means the Government of the Russian Federation,...

  4. 31 CFR 540.304 - Government of the Russian Federation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Government of the Russian Federation...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.304 Government of the Russian Federation. (a) The term Government of the Russian Federation means the Government of the Russian Federation,...

  5. 31 CFR 540.304 - Government of the Russian Federation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Government of the Russian Federation...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.304 Government of the Russian Federation. (a) The term Government of the Russian Federation means the Government of the Russian Federation,...

  6. 31 CFR 540.304 - Government of the Russian Federation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Government of the Russian Federation...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.304 Government of the Russian Federation. (a) The term Government of the Russian Federation means the Government of the Russian Federation,...

  7. 31 CFR 540.304 - Government of the Russian Federation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Government of the Russian Federation...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.304 Government of the Russian Federation. (a) The term Government of the Russian Federation means the Government of the Russian Federation,...

  8. Medical education in the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Wright, R A; Goldfarb, A S

    1996-11-01

    The process of becoming a medical doctor in the Russian Federation is detailed in this paper. There has been a decline in the number of students entering the medical profession, as well as a marked decrease in the faculty members at the medical institutes since perestroika. This is secondary to a marked decrease in financial support as well as falling morale. PMID:9217911

  9. [Characteristic of mortality in the Russian Federation].

    PubMed

    Pigolkin, Iu I; Sidorovich, Iu V

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to estimate the overall mortality in the Russian Federation and to elucidate the structure and characteristics of violent and non-violent mortality in this country. The study is largely based on the materials of reports on the activities of local bureaus of forensic medical expertise for the period from 2003 to 2008; in addition, the data from the official demographic and statistical yearbooks issued by the Russian State Statistical Committee (Goskomstat) in 2008-2009 were used. It is shown that cardiovascular pathology appears to be currently the leading cause of general mortality in the Russian Federation. A substantial fraction in the structure of general mortality is constituted by mechanical injuries most of which are inflicted in car accidents. More than half of the fatal cases caused by external factors and around one third of the deaths from cardiovascular diseases are associated with alcohol intoxication. Statistical treatment of the results of analysis conducted in the present study provided materials for the development of recommendations designed to improve the demographic situation in the Russian Federation. PMID:21516803

  10. Public health assessment--Russian Federation, 1992.

    PubMed

    1992-02-14

    On December 25, 1991, the Russian Federation became an independent republic, and on January 2, 1992, restrictions on retail prices of most commodities were removed. From January 16 through February 6, a multidisciplinary team from the U.S. Food and Humanitarian Assistance Bureau (FHA) conducted an assessment of the needs for humanitarian and technical assistance, focusing on three regions in the southern Ural Mountains-Yekaterinburg, Perm, and Cheliabinsk-and three regions in south-central Siberia-Kusbas, Tomsk, and Novosibirsk. The FHA assessment included observations of health facilities, vaccine- and drug-storage centers, and disease-control programs; review of health data at central, regional, and district epidemiology stations; and collection of food-price and income data through interviews with administrative authorities and surveys of markets and private homes. This report summarizes findings from the assessment. PMID:1734228

  11. Supervising development in petroleum industry of the Russian Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizov, A.; Tretyakov, K.; Boyarko, G.; Shenderova, I.; Shakirov, A.

    2015-11-01

    Supervising has strongly consolidated in the domestic petroleum services market of the Russian Federation. But despite the rapid growth of the supervising services market, there is a definite need for its further development. In the article, the developments of supervising in petroleum industry of the Russian Federation, as well as possible ways of its improvement are considered.

  12. [Health insurance in the Russian Federation].

    PubMed

    Starodubov, V I; Semenov, V Iu

    1997-01-01

    The need to reform health care in Russia became evident in the late 1980s when due to socioeconomic crisis, the government could not cover the expenses connected with this field and put the up-to-date expensive technologies into life. The introduction of the compulsory health insurance system (CHIS) is aimed at: 1) obtaining an additional financial source for health care by making the goal-oriented stable rates of deductions from the wage fund; 2) protecting the Russian Federation citizens' rights to have free medical aid of the guaranteed scope; 3) enhancing the quality of medial care delivered to the population by introducing a mechanism of movement of funds paid for a patient; 4) paying for medical care in relation to the volume and quality of the work done by simultaneously controlling the stipulated use of funds. Three-year experience of CHIS in Russia has indicated that there is a real mechanism of reformation and government regulation of health care under the conditions of transition to the market, with the interests of the general population and medical personnel in mind. Obvious legal, organizational, technological, and psychological problems and disadvantages have been found at all management levels, which are an obstacle in the way of the reforms and which whip up social tension and call for prompt decisions. PMID:9213488

  13. Maternal mortality in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation.

    PubMed Central

    Gurina, Natalia A.; Vangen, Siri; Forsén, Lisa; Sundby, Johanne

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the levels and causes of maternal mortality in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation. METHODS: We collected data about all pregnancy-related deaths in St. Petersburg over the period 1992-2003 using several sources of information. An independent research group reviewed and classified all cases according to ICD-10 and the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom. We tested trends of overall and cause specific ratios (deaths per 100,000 births) for four 3-year intervals using the chi2 test. FINDINGS: The maternal mortality ratio for the study period was 43 per 100,000 live births. A sharp decline of direct obstetric deaths was observed from the first to fourth 3-year interval (49.8 for 1992-94 versus 18.5 for 2001-03). Sepsis and haemorrhage were the main causes of direct obstetric deaths. Among the total deaths from sepsis, 63.8% were due to abortion. Death ratios from sepsis declined significantly from the first to second study interval. In the last study interval (2001-03), 50% of deaths due to haemorrhage were secondary to ectopic pregnancies. The death ratio from thromboembolism remained low (2.9%) and stable throughout the study period. Among indirect obstetric deaths a non-significant decrease was observed for deaths from cardiac disease. Death ratios from infectious causes and suicides increased over the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal mortality levels in St. Petersburg still exceed European levels by a factor of five. Improved management of abortion, emergency care for sepsis and haemorrhage, and better identification and control of infectious diseases in pregnancy, are needed. PMID:16628301

  14. AUTOMATED RADIOLOGICAL MONITORING AT A RUSSIAN MINISTRY OF DEFENSE NAVAL SITE.

    SciTech Connect

    MOSKOWITZ,P.D.; POMERVILLE,J.; GAVRILOV,S.; KISSELEV,V.; DANIYLAN,V.; BELIKOV,A.; EGORKIN,A.; SOKOLOVSKI,Y.; ENDREGARD,M.; KROSSHAVN,M.; SUNDLING,C.V.; YOKSTAD,H.

    2001-02-25

    The Arctic Military Environmental Cooperation (AMEC) Program is a cooperative effort between the military establishments of the Kingdom of Norway, the Russian Federation, and the US. This paper discusses joint activities conducted over the past year among Norwegian, Russian, and US technical experts on a project to develop, demonstrate and implement automated radiological monitoring at Russian Navy facilities engaged in the dismantlement of nuclear-powered strategic ballistic missile launching submarines. Radiological monitoring is needed at these facilities to help protect workers engaged in the dismantlement program and the public living within the footprint of routine and accidental radiation exposure areas. By providing remote stand-alone monitoring, the Russian Navy will achieve added protection due to the defense-in-depth strategy afforded by local (at the site), regional (Kola) and national-level (Moscow) oversight. The system being implemented at the Polyaminsky Russian Naval Shipyard was developed from a working model tested at the Russian Institute for Nuclear Safety, Moscow, Russia. It includes Russian manufactured terrestrial and underwater gamma detectors, smart controllers for graded sampling, radio-modems for offsite transmission of the data, and a data fusion/display system: The data fusion/display system is derived from the Norwegian Picasso AMEC Environmental Monitoring software package. This computer package allows monitoring personnel to review the real-time and historical status of monitoring at specific sites and objects and to establish new monitoring protocols as required, for example, in an off-normal accident situation. Plans are being developed to implement the use of this system at most RF Naval sites handling spent nuclear fuel.

  15. AUTOMATED RADIOLOGICAL MONITORING AT A RUSSIAN MINISTRY OF DEFENCE NAVAL SITE.

    SciTech Connect

    MOSKOWITZ,P.D.; POMERVILLE,J.; GAVRILOV,S.; KISSELEV,V.; DANIYLAN,V.; BELIKOV,A.; EGORKIN,A.; SOKOLOVSKI,Y.; ENDREGARD,M.; KROSSHAVN,M.; SUNDLING,C.V.; YOKSTAD,H.

    2001-02-25

    The Arctic Military Environmental Cooperation (AMEC) Program is a cooperative effort between the military establishments of the Kingdom of Norway, the Russian Federation, and the US. This paper discusses joint activities conducted over the past year among Norwegian, Russian, and US technical experts on a project to develop, demonstrate and implement automated radiological monitoring at Russian Navy facilities engaged in the dismantlement of nuclear-powered strategic ballistic missile launching submarines. Radiological monitoring is needed at these facilities to help protect workers engaged in the dismantlement program and the public living within the footprint of routine and accidental radiation exposure areas. By providing remote stand-alone monitoring, the Russian Navy will achieve added protection due to the defense-in-depth strategy afforded by local (at the site), regional (Kola) and national-level (Moscow) oversight. The system being implemented at the Polyaminsky Russian Naval Shipyard was developed from a working model tested at the Russian Institute for Nuclear Safety, Moscow, Russia. It includes Russian manufactured terrestrial and underwater gamma detectors, smart controllers for graded sampling, radio-modems for offsite transmission of the data, and a data fusion/display system: The data fusion/display system is derived from the Norwegian Picasso AMEC Environmental Monitoring software package. This computer package allows monitoring personnel to review the real-time and historical status of monitoring at specific sites and objects and to establish new monitoring protocols as required, for example, in an off-normal accident situation. Plans are being developed to implement the use of this system at most RF Naval sites handling spent nuclear fuel.

  16. [Polymorphism of Y-chromosomal microsatellites in Russian population from Southern Federal district of the Russian Federation].

    PubMed

    Kornienko, I V; Bondarenko, E V; Mikhalkovich, L S; Moliarchuk, B A; Kotova, E N

    2009-01-01

    Haplotype frequencies and allele distributions at 11 STR loci of the Y chromosome were evaluated in 180 unrelated individuals from Russian population of Southern Federal district of the Russian Federation (Rostov oblast, Krasnodar krai, and Stavropol krai). Among 153 Y-chromosomal haplotypes discovered, 63 were unique. In the sample of Russian population, the most frequent haplotype (frequency of 5.56%) was 16-11,14-13-30-25-11-11-13-14-11-10 (for the loci DYS19, DYS385a,b, DYS3891, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, and DYS439, respectively). Despite the high diversity of Y-chromosomal haplotypes in the Russian populations from the south of Russia (the h value was 0.997, 0.995, and 0.994 in Rostov, Krasnodar, and Stavropol samples, respectively), analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed the absence of differentiation between the populations (phiQST = 0.1%, P=0.36). Comparative differentiation analysis performed for 13 Russian populations from the European part of Russia pointed to low among-population differentiation in Y-chromosomal lineages (phiST = 0.52%, P=0.03). PMID:19239108

  17. 77 FR 46712 - Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium From the Russian Federation: Negative Final Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... From the Russian Federation, 60 FR 35550 (July 10, 1995). \\3\\ See Preliminary Negative Determination... Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium From the Russian Federation, 77 FR 6537, (February 8, 2012) (Preliminary... importation of vanadium pentoxide from the Russian Federation (Russia) by the Evraz Group,\\1\\ which is...

  18. Climate changes and technological disasters in the Russian Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, E. G.

    2009-04-01

    Global warming and climate change are responsible for many ecological, economic and other significant influences on natural environment and human society. Increasing in number and severity of natural and technological disasters (TD) around the world is among of such influences. Great changes in geographical distribution of disasters are also expected. The study suggested examines this problem by the example of the Russian Federation. Using data base of TD and na-techs (natural-technological disasters) happened in the Russian Federation in 1992-2008 the most important types of disasters caused by various natural hazards were identified and classified for Russian federal regions. In concept of this study na-techs are considered as TD produced by natural factors. 88 percent of all na-techs occurring in the Russian Federation during the observation period were caused by natural processes related to various meteorological and hydrological phenomena. The majority of them were produced by windstorms and hurricanes (37%), snowfalls and snowstorms (27%), rainfalls (16%), hard frost and icy conditions of roads (12%). 11 types of na-techs caused by meteorological and hydrological hazards were found. These types are: (1) accidents at power and heat supply systems caused by windstorms, cyclones, and hurricanes, snowfalls and sleets, hard frost, rainfalls, hailstones, icing, avalanches, or thunderstorms (more than 50% of all na-techs registered in the data base); (2) accidents at water supply systems caused by hard frost, rainfalls, or subsidence of rock (3%); (3) sudden collapses of constructions caused by windstorms, snowfalls, rainfalls, hard frost, subsidence of rock, or floods (12%); (4) automobile accidents caused by snowfalls and snowstorms, icy conditions of roads, rainfalls, fogs, mist, or avalanches (10%); (5) water transport accidents caused by storms, cyclones, typhoons, or fogs (9%); (6) air crashes caused by windstorms, snowfalls, icing, or fogs; (7) railway

  19. [THE MORBIDITY OF POPULATION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION: GEOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS].

    PubMed

    Semenov, V Yu

    2015-01-01

    The article considers the results of analysis of characteristics of morbidity of population residing in various geographic conditions of the Russian Federation. The comparison was applied to morbidity of residents of subjects of the Russian Federation residing approximately at the levels of 50 and 60 of northern longitude according data of 2008-2013. The average annual size of population of the Northern territories amounted to 8,994,112 and in the southern territories 32,600,569. The maximal differences are noted in relation to diseases of respiratory organs and congenital abnormalities of blood circulation system. Actually, indicators of morbidity of diseases of cardiovascular system and ischemic heart diseases had no differences. The rest of analyzed indicators differed on 10-40% towards higher values in the Northern regions. The exception included cerebrovascular diseases with morbidity higher in southern territories up to 11% than in northern territories. PMID:27116829

  20. National Standard of the Russian Federation for Space Debris Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loginov, S.; Yakovlev, M.; Mikhailov, M.; Popkova, L.

    2009-03-01

    Normative and technical document that define requirements for the mitigation of human-produced near-earth space pollution develops in Russian Federation.NATIONAL STANDARD of the Russian Federation GOST R 52925-2008 «SPACE TECHNOLOGY ITEMS. General Requirements on Space Systems for the Mitigation of Human-Produced near-Earth Space Pollution» was approved in 2008 and entered into force since 1st January of 2009. Requirements of this standard harmonized with requirements of «UN SPACE DEBRIS MITIGATION GUIDELINESÈ»This standard consists of six parts:- Scope;- References to Standards;- Terms & Definitions;- Abbreviations;- General Provisions;- General Requirements on Space Systems for the Mitigation of Human-Produced near-Earth Space Pollution.

  1. Tobacco control in the Russian Federation- a policy analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Russian Federation (Russia) has one of the highest smoking rates in the world. The purpose of this study is to analyze past and current trends of the tobacco epidemic in the Russian Federation, review current tobacco control policy responses, and identify areas of opportunity for policy priorities. Methods We used a policy triangle as analytical framework to examine content, context, and processes of Russian tobacco control policy. The analysis was based on secondary data on supply and demand sides of the Russian tobacco epidemic, tobacco-related economic and health effects during Russia’s economic transition, and compliance of Russian tobacco policy with international standards and regulations. Results Tobacco-promoting strategies have specifically targeted women and youth. Russia’s approval of a “National Tobacco Control Concept” and draft for a comprehensive tobacco control bill increasingly align national legislature with the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). However, several structural and cultural factors represent substantial barriers to the policy process. The influence of transnational tobacco companies on policy processes in Russia has so far impeded a full implementation of the FCTC mandates. Conclusions Several strategies have been identified as having the potential to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use in Russia and decrease tobacco-related national health and economic burden: adjusting national tobacco policy by raising tobacco tax from the current lowest level in Europe to at least 70%; consequent enforcement of a complete smoking ban in public places; marketing restrictions; and smoking cessation interventions integrated into primary care. Russia’s tobacco control efforts need to target women and youths specifically to efficiently counter industry efforts. PMID:23339756

  2. Environmental assessment of USAID housing projects in the Russian Federation

    SciTech Connect

    Loran, B.; Miller, C.

    1995-12-01

    Parsons was selected by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) as the general contractor for construction management for the construction of 2,500 housing units within the Russian Federation. These housing units, to be occupied by Russian officers returning from the Baltic States, are under construction on 15 sites, selected from an initial list of 200, based on habitability, capability of successful final construction. Cost meeting USAID guidelines, and impacts on the environment. USAID fulfilled NEPA requirements by preparing, with assistance of Parsons Engineering Science, a Programmatic Environmental Assessment and 15 site specific Environmental Assessments for the project. The sites were scattered over the entire Russian Federation west of the Ural Mountains. The site offerors completed an environmental checklist covering a broad range of possible impacts. Significant environmental issues and concerns were further identified during scoping meetings held at the site locations. The most important issues discussed were: soil contamination; gaseous, liquid, and solid pollutants to which the site may be exposed; incompatible adjacent land uses; ready access to utilities and social services; and socioeconomic situation favorable to resettlement of Russian military officers. No major environmental issues or concerns were identified for the 15 selected sites. Certificates indicating the absence of chemical and radiological surface and subsurface contamination at the proposed sites were provided by the local environmental officers. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons were found present at one of the sites considered in a preliminary selection, and later rejected due to the failure of contractual negotiations. The environmental assessments included mitigation and monitoring measures for construction and operation (occupancy) impacts.

  3. Dirofilaria immitis in a child from the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Tumolskaya, Nelli Ignatievna; Pozio, Edoardo; Rakova, Vera Mikhaylovna; Supriaga, Valentina Georgievna; Sergiev, Vladimir Petrovich; Morozov, Evgeny Nikolaevich; Morozova, Lola Farmonovna; Rezza, Giovanni; Litvinov, Serguei Kirillovich

    2016-01-01

    An immature female worm, Dirofilaria immitis, was isolated from the scrotum of a 14-month-old child. This is the first identification of human dirofilariosis caused by D. immitis in a relatively Northern region (Moscow) of the Russian Federation. The parasite was diagnosed by means of morphological examination of the worm, confirmed by PCR assay. This case raises questions about the range of the D. immitis distribution among humans in Russia. To better understand the geographical distribution of dirofilarioses, detailed clinical and epidemiological information should be collected from human cases with appropriate laboratory confirmation. PMID:27600944

  4. Natural And Technological Risk Assessment And Mapping In Russian Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burova, Valentina; Frolova, Nina; Ugarov, Aleksander; Pyrchenko, Vera

    2014-05-01

    Natural and technological disasters are serious threat for residents and infrastructures in urban areas of the Russian Federation and many other countries. Disasters' risk assessment and mapping is the first step to minimize the negative consequences of such events. The paper analyzes different approaches for risk assessment: mathematical simulation and empirical one based on statistic data of past events' consequences. Special attention is paid to verification of vulnerability functions of elements at risk against natural disasters. Numerical modeling of the impact of landslides on the building with various design elements and foundation with CAD systems PLAXIS 3D application was used to identify additional loads on buildings. The results of simulation were taken into account when assessing risk for the Russian Federation territory. The examples of natural and technological risk maps for some regions of the country are given. Verified vulnerability functions of buildings on pier foundation in tabular forms against landslides are presented, as well as verified vulnerability functions for different buildings type against floods.

  5. The Russian Federation's Ministry of Atomic Energy: Programs and Developments

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Craig M.

    2000-07-24

    The Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (Minatom) is one of Russia's largest and most influential federal bodies. Throughout 1999 its head, Yevgeny Adamov, has worked to increase the Ministry's commercial competitiveness by consolidating redundant facilities and tightening control over subsidiary organizations. Economic difficulties and budget constraints, however, have hindered Minatom's ability to achieve many of its programs and goals. As a result, the Ministry has continued, renewed or initiated contracts with several countries possessing questionable commitments to nonproliferation and has sought to expand its role in international nuclear waste management and spent fuel reprocessing in order to raise new sources of revenue. While many of these programs are not likely to come to fruition, others raise significant nonproliferation and environmental concerns. This paper reviews select programs driving Minatom's efforts to raise funds, comments on their potential viability, and highlights areas likely to be of particular concern for the United States over the next three to five years.

  6. TPMT Genetic Variations in Populations of the Russian Federation

    PubMed Central

    Samochatova, Elena V; Chupova, Natalia V; Rudneva, Anastassia; Makarova, Olga; Nasedkina, Tatyana V; Fedorova, Olga E; Glotov, Andrei S; Kozhekbaeva, Zh.; Maiorova, Olga A; Roumyantsev, Alexander G; Krynetski, Eugene Y; Krynetskaia, Natalia F; Evans, William E; Ribeiro, Raul C

    2009-01-01

    Background Polymorphisms that reduce the activity of thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) cause adverse reactions to conventional doses of thiopurines, routinely used for antileukemic and immunosuppressive treatment. There are more than 20 variant alleles of TPMT that cause decreased enzymatic activity. We studied the most common variant alleles of TPMT and their frequency distribution in a large cohort of multiracial residents in the Russian Federation and compared their frequencies in children with and without malignancy to determine whether TPMT gene abnormality is associated with hematologic malignancy. Procedure The TPMT biochip was used to detect 6 TPMT single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) corresponding to 7 TPMT-deficiency alleles (TPMT*2, TPMT*3A, TPMT*3B, TPMT*3C, TPMT*3D, TPMT*7, and TPMT*8). We analyzed allele frequencies in the whole cohort, the childhood cancer group, and the non-cancer group. We also characterized disease features and outcome according to the presence of TPMT SNPs in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Results Fifty-five (5.5%) study participants overall had heterozygous TPMT genotypes (1 variant and 1 wild-type allele): TPMT*1/*3A (n=45; 4.5%), TPMT*1/*3C (n=8; 0.8%), and TPMT*1/*2 (n=2; 0.2%). TPMT SNPs were more frequent in children with hematologic malignancy than in other participants (7.5% vs. 4.0%, P = 0.02). We found no significant association between TPMT SNPs and ALL treatment outcome (median follow-up, 31.3 months). Conclusions TPMT*3A is the most prevalent variant allele in the Russian Federation. The estimated frequency of variant alleles in the study cohort (5.5%) was similar to that observed in the White populations in the U.S. and Eastern Europe. PMID:19034904

  7. 75 FR 26922 - Magnesium Metal From the Russian Federation: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ..., silicon, rare earth metals/mischmetal, cryolite, silica/fly ash, magnesium oxide, periclase, ferroalloys...: Magnesium Metal From the Russian Federation, 70 FR 19930 (April 15, 2005) (Antidumping Duty Order). On April... Administrative Review, 74 FR 14771 (April 1, 2009). On April 30, 2009, AVISMA, a Russian Federation producer...

  8. 76 FR 39847 - Solid Fertilizer Grade Ammonium Nitrate From the Russian Federation; Final Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ...: Solid Fertilizer Grade Ammonium Nitrate From the Russian Federation, 64 FR 45236 (August 19, 1999). On... Fertilizer Grade Ammonium Nitrate From the Russian Federation, 65 FR 42669 (July 11, 2000) (``Final... Results of Review.'' \\1\\ See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 11202 (March 1,...

  9. 78 FR 77423 - Ferrosilicon From the Russian Federation and Venezuela: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... Russian Federation and Venezuela: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 78 FR 49471 (August 14, 2013) (``Initiation Notice''). \\2\\ See id., 78 FR at 49474. As explained in the memorandum from the... International Trade Administration Ferrosilicon From the Russian Federation and Venezuela: Postponement...

  10. Health expectancy in the Russian Federation: a new perspective on the health divide in Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Andreev, Evgueni M.; McKee, Martin; Shkolnikov, Vladimir M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare life expectancy and healthy life expectancy in the Russian Federation and in countries of Eastern and Western Europe. METHODS: WHO mortality data and data on self-reported health from the World Values Survey and the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey were used to compare the above three regions. Life expectancy was calculated using Sullivan's method, with years of life lived divided into healthy and unhealthy. The gap in healthy life expectancy between the Russian Federation and Western Europe was examined by decomposing the difference by gender and age. FINDINGS: The probability of remaining alive and healthy declines faster in the Russian Federation than in Western Europe, with the gap between Eastern Europe and the Russian Federation widening at older ages. In the Russian Federation, this rapid decline is due mainly to the high probability of death or of poor health for men and women, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There is a large toll of premature male mortality in the Russian Federation but there also appears to be a substantial burden of ill-health among women. As in other countries, the responses of men and women to adversity differ, leading to premature death in men but survival in a poor state of health in women. Epidemiological studies including objective measures of health would help policy-makers to estimate more precisely the scale and nature of this problem. Policy-makers must recognize that health expectancy in the Russian Federation is reduced in both men and women. PMID:14758403

  11. Health-systems efficiency in the Russian Federation: tuberculosis control.

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Katherine; Hutubessy, Raymond; Samyshkin, Yevgeniy; Korobitsyn, Alexei; Fedorin, Ivan; Volchenkov, Gregory; Kazeonny, Boris; Coker, Richard; Drobniewski, Francis; Jakubowiak, Wieslaw; Shilova, Margarita; Atun, Rifat A.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To conduct a comprehensive assessment of the case-mix of patients admitted to tuberculosis hospitals and the reasons for their admission in four Russian regions: Ivanovo, Orel, Samara and Vladimir. We also sought to quantify the extent to which efficiency could be improved by reducing hospitalization rates and re-profiling hospital beds available in the tuberculosis-control system. METHODS: We used a standard questionnaire to determine how beds were being used and who was using the beds in tuberculosis facilities in four Russian regions. Data were collected to determine how 4306 tuberculosis beds were utilized as well as on the socioeconomic and demographic indicators, clinical parameters and reasons for hospitalization for 3352 patients. FINDINGS: Of the 3352 patients surveyed about 70% were male; the average age was 40; and rates of unemployment, disability and alcohol misuse were high. About one-third of beds were occupied by smear-positive or culture-positive tuberculosis patients; 20% were occupied by tuberculosis patients who were smear-negative and/or culture-negative; 20% were occupied by patients who no longer had tuberculosis; and 20% were unoccupied. If clinical and public health admission criteria were applied then < 50% of admissions would be justified and < 50% of the current number of beds would be required. Up to 85% of admissions and beds were deemed to be necessary when social problems and poor access to outpatient care were considered along with clinical and public health admission criteria. CONCLUSION: Much of the Russian Federation's large tuberculosis hospital infrastructure is unnecessary when clinical and public health criteria are used, but the large hospital infrastructure within the tuberculosis-control system has an important social support function. Improving the efficiency of the system will require the reform of health-system norms and regulations as they relate to resource allocation and clinical care and implementation of

  12. Hepatitis C in the Russian Federation: challenges and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Mukomolov, Sergey; Trifonova, Galina; Levakova, Irina; Bolsun, Daria; Krivanogova, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the most prevalent health problems in the world. Official registration of HCV infections in the Russian Federation started in 1994. Two clinical forms of infection – acute and chronic hepatitis C – are registered separately. Moreover, the HCV national surveillance system also includes reports from laboratories on results from testing ∼20 population risk groups for antibodies to HCV; approximately 15–16 million tests are performed annually. Modern epidemiological features of HCV infection in the Russian Federation are characterized by low incidence of the acute form of infection (acute HCV; one to two per 100,000) and a dramatic increase in chronic HCV (CHCV) cases. In 2013, the average nationwide rate of newly detected CHCV cases was 39.3/100,000. In the same year, the prevalence of CHCV demonstrating an accumulation of chronically infected patients in the country was much higher – 335.8/100,000. Four risk groups were identified as greatly affected by HCV, which were demonstrated by a high prevalence of antibodies to HCV: newborns from chronically infected women, persons from correctional facilities, patients with chronic liver diseases, and clients from clinics for sexually transmitted disease patients and drug users. It was found that several HCV genotypes circulated in different regions of the country; HCV1b had a prevalence of 55%–80% in almost every part of the country. However, in St Petersburg during the final decade of the last century and from 2001–2005, HCV3a subtype expanded circulation among young people due to increased intravenous drug addiction. Intravenous drug users were the major cause of a higher registration of double infection, with two different virus subtypes, and the appearance in Russia of new recombinant virus RF_2k/1b. It can be concluded that CHCV infection should be a focus of the health care system in Russia because serious epidemics of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular

  13. The Russian Federation's Ministry of Atomic Energy: Programs and Developments

    SciTech Connect

    CM Johnson

    2000-07-24

    This paper reviews select programs driving the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation's (Minatom) efforts to raise funds, comments on their potential viability, and highlights areas likely to be of particular concern for the US over the next three to five years. The paper's findings are: (1) Despite numerous cabinet displacements throughout the Yeltsin administration, Yevgeny Adamov was reappointed Minister on four occasions. With Boris Yeltsin's January 1, 2000 resignation, Adamov's long-term position as the head of the Ministry is more tenuous, but he will likely retain his position until at least the March 2000 elections. Acting President Vladimir Putin is unlikely to reorganize his cabinet prior to that date and there are no signs that Putin is dissatisfied with Adamov's leadership of Minatom. (2) Adamov's chief priorities are downsizing Minatom's defense sector, increasing the oversight of subsidiary bodies by the central bureaucracy and consolidating commercial elements of the Ministry within an umbrella organization called Atomprom. (3) Viktor Mikhaylov, Adamov's predecessor and critic of his reform efforts, has been relieved of his duties as First Deputy Minister. While he retains his positions as Chief of the Science Councils and Chief Scientist at Arzamas-16, his influence on Minatom's direction is greatly diminished. Adamov will likely continue his efforts to further marginalize Mikhaylov in the coming year. (4) Securing extra-budgetary sources of income continues to be the major factor guiding Minatom's international business dealings. The Ministry will continue to aggressively promote the sale of nuclear technology abroad, often to countries with questionable nonproliferation commitments. (5) Given the financial difficulties in Russia and Minatom's client states, however, few nuclear development programs will come to fruition for a number of years, if ever. Nevertheless, certain peaceful nuclear cooperation agreements should be carefully

  14. International Field School on Permafrost: Yenisei, Russian Federation - 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyland, K. E.; Streletskiy, D. A.; Grebenets, V. I.

    2013-12-01

    The International Field School on Permafrost was established in Russia as part of International Polar Year activities. The first course was offered in 2007 in Northwestern Siberia and attracted students from Russia, Germany, and the United States. Over the past seven years undergraduate and graduate students representing eight different countries in North America, Europe, and Asia have participated in the field school. This annual summer field course visits different regions of the Russian Arctic each year, but the three course foci remain consistent, which are to make in depth examinations of, 1) natural permafrost characteristics and conditions, 2) field techniques and applications, and 3) engineering practices and construction on permafrost. During these field courses students participate in excursions to local museums and exhibitions, meet with representatives from local administrations, mining and construction industries, and learn field techniques for complex permafrost investigations, including landscape and soil descriptions, temperature monitoring, active-layer measurements, cryostratigraphy, and more. During these courses students attend an evening lecture series by their professors and also give presentations on various regionally oriented topics of interest, such as the local geology, climate, or historical development of the region. This presentation will relate this summer's (July 2013) field course which took place in the Yenisei River region of central Siberia. The course took place along a bioclimatic transect from south to north along the Yenisei River and featured extended stays in the cities of Igarka and Noril'sk. This year's students (undergraduate, masters, and one PhD student) represented universities in the United States, Canada, and the Russian Federation. The organization of this course was accomplished through the cooperation of The George Washington University's Department of Geography and the Lomonosov Moscow State University

  15. 76 FR 26247 - Magnesium Metal From the Russian Federation: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ..., silicon, rare earth metals/mischmetal, cryolite, silica/fly ash, magnesium oxide, periclase, ferroalloys...: Magnesium Metal From the Russian Federation, 70 FR 19930 (April 15, 2005). On April 1, 2010, the Department... Administrative Review, 75 FR 78968 (December 17, 2010), and Magnesium Metal From the Russian...

  16. Radionuclide behaviour in forest soils of Russian Federation and Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcheglov, A. I.; Tsvetnova, O. B.

    2012-04-01

    Behaviour of radionuclides in soil determines to a great extent the radionuclide root uptake and their further migration in food chains. The radionuclide fate in the soil is determined by a wide spectrum of simultaneously running, often competitive elementary processes, such as adsorption-desorption, diffusion-mass transport, retention-migration, etc. The intensity of each elementary process depends, in turn, on a combination of several factors such as nature of the radionuclide, physicochemical features of the fallout, soil properties, environmental regimes, etc. Radionuclide deposition in soils is known to be a basic criterion of the radioecological situation in the contaminated territory. Our long-term investigations performed in contaminated forests (30-km zone of Chernobyl NPP; Tula, Kaluga and Bryansk regions of the Russian Federation) had shown that radionuclide migration in the forest landscapes was determined primarily by the forest litter presence. The key factors of radionuclide redistribution within the soil litter are (i) permanent addition of the low-contaminated organic matter ("clean" litterfall), and (ii) high rate of transformation. The dynamics and intensity of decontamination processes depends on the forest litter sub-horizon. Leaf (A0l) layer exhibits the highest rate of decontamination: 137Cs content in this layer decreased twofold by the second year after the accident and reached its equilibrium value (about 1% of the total deposition) by the 4-5th year after the fallout. The corresponding quasi-equilibrium radionuclide content in A0f layer (10-20%) is reached by the 8-9th year after the accident. The corresponding equilibrium in A0h layer is not reached yet. Thus, the effective half-life of radionuclides in soils should be calculated for each sub-horizon separately, taking into account the above-discussed features of the radionuclide dynamics. The rate of annual radionuclide replacement from the forest litter to mineral layers depends on the

  17. [Antibiotic Resistance of MRSA in the Russian Federation].

    PubMed

    Gostev, V V; Kalinogorskaya, O S; Popenko, L N; Chernenkaya, T V; Naumenko, Z S; Voroshilova, T M; Zakharova, Yu A; Khokhlova, O E; Kruglov, A N; Ershova, M G; Molchanova, I V; Sidorenko, S V

    2015-01-01

    The results of the multicentre trial on estimation of MRSA antibiotic susceptibility to 17 antibiotics are presented. 474 nonrepeting isolates of MRSA (mecA+), collected in 2011-2014 in 10 cities of the Russian Federation were used in the trial. The antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the method of serial microdilutions in broth with estimation of the MICs in accordance with the international standards CLSI 2014 and EUCAST 2014. The highest levels of the MRSA resistance were stated against ciprofloxacin--92%(MIC50 32 mcg/ml), gentamicin--85% (MIC50 128 mcg/ml), erythromycin--54% (MIC50 32-mcg/ml) and clindainycin - 45% (MIC50 0.03 mcg/ml), as well as against rifampicin--38% (MIC50 0.06 mcg/ml). The frequency of MRSA isolated at the vancomycin dose of 2 mcg/ml equaled 26%. No correlation of the decrease in susceptibility to vancomycin and rifampicin was observed. In 5% of MRSA isolated from infected surgical wounds in patients with bone infection or sepsis, there was observed a decrease in the susceptibility to ceftarolin (MIC 2-4 mcg/ml). Co-trimoxasole, fusidic acid (MIC50 0.06 mcg/ml) and mupirocin (MIC50 0.5 mcg/ml) showed high antibacterial activity, 93-98% of the isolates being susceptible to the drugs. No resistance to linezolid and tigecycline was detected. By the associate resistance spectrum, most of the MRSA isolates were characterized by resistance to drugs of 3-7 groups (56%). The phenotypes with simultaneous resistance to drugs of 8-10 groups amounted to 6%. As a whole, 70 variants of associate resistance combinations were detected. PMID:26168679

  18. BACTERIOCINS AND BACTERIOPHAGE LYTIC PROTEINS AS ALTERNATIVES TO ANTIBIOTICS FROM RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND USA COLLABORATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel anti-microbial peptides (bacteriocins) were isolated and characterized in collaborative research between PMSRU, ARS-USDA scientists and representatives of the State Research Center for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology (SRCAMB) in Obolensk, Russian Federation. The bacteriocins are effect...

  19. [THE PRESENT STATE OF EPIZOOTOLOGICAL MONITORING OF THE NATURAL FOCI OF INFECTIONS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION].

    PubMed

    Trankvilevsky, D V; Tsarenko, V A; Zhukov, V I

    2016-01-01

    The facilities of the Russian Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare play a leading role in epizootological monitoring. The specialists (zoologists and entomologists) of Hygiene and Epidemiology Centers do basic work in the subjects of the Russian Federation. The data obtained in the participation of different ministries and departments are used to analyze the results of monitoring. The latter is one of the important steps in the management of the epidemic, process in natural focal infections. In recent years, there has been an unjustified reduction in the volume of studies in the natural foci. This negatively affects the reliability of estimates and predictions of the epidemic activity of the natural foci of infections. Ensuring the national, security of the Russian Federation, epidemiological surveillance, and control of its natural foci requires staffing and appropriate professional training in the zoological and entomological subdivisions of the Russian Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare. PMID:27405210

  20. Noncommunicable disease mortality in the Russian Federation: from legislation to policy.

    PubMed Central

    Levintova, Marya; Novotny, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Political, social and economic transitions that occurred as a result of the regime change in Eastern Europe and the Russian Federation from the late 1980s to the early 1990s led to a sudden increase in mortality across the region, with more than 80% of deaths being attributable to preventable causes, such as cardiovascular disease, lifestyle factors and injuries. The Russian Federation has experienced some of the most dramatic population declines in the world. Countrywide health reforms have been implemented, although they continue to ignore the impact of the epidemic of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in the Russian Federation. Improvements in mortality patterns in the Russian Federation are possible only with the broader engagement of organized nongovernmental groups within the civil society that is strongly supported by Federal legislation to address NCDs. We discuss the Russian Federal legislation germane to the prevention and control of NCDs in the light of the current mortality crisis and suggest possible policy responses to this crisis. PMID:15640924

  1. 76 FR 52731 - Determination on Bilateral Assistance Relating to the Government of the Russian Federation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Determination on Bilateral Assistance Relating to the Government of the Russian Federation Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the laws of the United States, including Section 7074(b) of the Department...

  2. [70th anniversary of 111th Main Federal Center of medical and forensic examination of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation].

    PubMed

    Pinchuk, P V; Fokin, A A

    2013-03-01

    The article is devoted to 70th anniversary of the head state forensic expert institution of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation--111th Main state center of medicolegal and criminalistic examination of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation. Some information about historical aspects of functioning of the institution and its activity at the present stage and in conditions of the reform of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation is given. PMID:23808218

  3. Russian Federation: penalties eased for possession of illegal drugs.

    PubMed

    2004-04-01

    In November 2003, after long deliberations, the Russian Parliament passed a bill amending the national Criminal Code to differentiate between the liability for possession of illegal drugs for drug users and for drug traffickers. The reforms involved redefining the terms "large" and "extra-large" with respect to the quantities for possession and trafficking of illegal substances. (There is no criminal liability for possession of less than a large amount.) On 16 December 2003, the new bill was enacted into law. PMID:15216819

  4. Successful Completion of the Largest Shipment of Russian Research Reactor High-Enriched Uranium Spent Nuclear Fuel from Czech Republic to Russian Federation

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Tyacke; Dr. Igor Bolshinsky; Jeff Chamberlin

    2008-07-01

    On December 8, 2007, the largest shipment of high-enriched uranium spent nuclear fuel was successfully made from a Russian-designed nuclear research reactor in the Czech Republic to the Russian Federation. This accomplishment is the culmination of years of planning, negotiations, and hard work. The United States, Russian Federation, and the International Atomic Energy Agency have been working together on the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) Program in support of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative. In February 2003, RRRFR Program representatives met with the Nuclear Research Institute in Rež, Czech Republic, and discussed the return of their high-enriched uranium spent nuclear fuel to the Russian Federation for reprocessing. Nearly 5 years later, the shipment was made. This paper discusses the planning, preparations, coordination, and cooperation required to make this important international shipment.

  5. [Molecular taxonomic identification of Trichinella spp. from the Arctic coasts of the Russian Federation].

    PubMed

    Odoevskaia, I M; Bukina, L A; Khiliuta, N V; Spiridonov, S É

    2013-01-01

    Epizootological surveys on the Arctic coasts of the Russian Federation revealed 8 terrestrial andmarine mammal species that were Trichinella carriers. The infection rate varied with the animal species from 1.6 to 92.8%. Analysis of the taxonomic affiliation of Trichinella isolated from the muscles of the terrestrial and marine mammals indicated that the Trichinella species T. nativa was widespread in the arctic areas of the Russian Federation. Analysis of sequences in the Cob gene of mtDNA revealed nucleotide differences between several isolates of this species. PMID:25924274

  6. General practitioners and family doctors in the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M; Stephen, J

    1996-08-01

    This paper looks at the emergence in Russia of a strategy for delivering primary health care which differs radically from the specialist-based system of the former Soviet Union. Drawing on Russian language sources, the paper outlines previous training arrangements, the limited role of 'sector' doctors and the reasons for official endorsement of general practice during the years of perestroika. It reports that the Health Ministry asked all the country's regions to make a gradual transition to general practice in 1992, and that legislation made the choice of family doctor a universal right in 1993. The conclusion refers to factors which are likely to determine whether that right will become a reality. PMID:8949332

  7. General practitioners and family doctors in the Russian Federation.

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, M; Stephen, J

    1996-01-01

    This paper looks at the emergence in Russia of a strategy for delivering primary health care which differs radically from the specialist-based system of the former Soviet Union. Drawing on Russian language sources, the paper outlines previous training arrangements, the limited role of 'sector' doctors and the reasons for official endorsement of general practice during the years of perestroika. It reports that the Health Ministry asked all the country's regions to make a gradual transition to general practice in 1992, and that legislation made the choice of family doctor a universal right in 1993. The conclusion refers to factors which are likely to determine whether that right will become a reality. PMID:8949332

  8. 77 FR 32513 - Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From the Russian Federation; Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... Products From the Russian Federation, 64 FR 38642 (July 19, 1999). Upon the request of the petitioners, the... Carbon-Quality Steel Products From the Russian Federation, 64 FR 38626 (July 19, 1999). Likewise, the... Russia, 64 FR 46951 (August 27, 1999). The MOT was the predecessor to the Ministry of...

  9. 77 FR 17410 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 53404 (August 26, 2011). Extension of Time Limit for... International Trade Administration Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Extension of Time Limit for... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on solid urea from the Russian Federation for the period...

  10. 76 FR 17380 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... Administrative Review, 75 FR 53274 (August 31, 2010). The preliminary results of this administrative review are... International Trade Administration Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Extension of Time Limit for... solid urea from the Russian Federation for the period July 1, 2009, through June 30, 2010....

  11. 77 FR 73979 - Magnesium Metal From the Russian Federation: Notice of Reinstated Final Results of Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... Russian Federation: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 73 FR 52642 (September 10... period April 1, 2006, through March 31, 2007. See Final Results, 73 FR at 52643. The CIT remanded the... Administrative Review Pursuant to Court Decision, 76 FR 13355 (March 11, 2011). On July 27, 2012, the...

  12. 76 FR 61342 - Magnesium Metal from the Russian Federation: Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 56396 (September 13, 2011) (Final Results). We... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003... International Trade Administration Magnesium Metal from the Russian Federation: Amended Final Results...

  13. [The radiation environment in the Russian Federation according to the results of radiohygienic certification].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G

    2009-01-01

    Ensuring nuclear and radiation safety in the use of atomic energy is one of the most important constituents of the Russian Federation's security, which is laid down in the "Foundations of Public Policy in the nuclear and radiation safety of the Russian Federation till 2010 and Further Prospects". The radiation safety in an area is determined by not only the number of radiation objects in it, the grade of their potential radiation hazard, their maintenance, the nature of use, but also by the measures ensuring radiation safety and preventing possible radiation accidents, and the readiness for liquidation of their consequences, and the effective supervision of whether the requirements are carried out. To assure constant and effective control over radiation safety, a uniform system for the information provision of radiation safety has been developed and introduced in the Russian Federation since 1998, which includes radiohygienic certification and the uniform state system for monitoring and considering the radiation doses exposed by the residents of Russia. The 2007 radiohygienic certification covered more than 16000 organizations dealing with the sources of ionizing irradiations. A total of 202.7 million medical diagnostic radiological procedures were performed in Russia in 2007. It should be noted that the dose of medical irradiation is reduced. In general, the radiation environment in the Russian Federation is satisfactory, but in a number of its regions there are reasonably serious problems associated with the population's radiation safety. PMID:19645102

  14. 76 FR 13128 - Magnesium Metal From the Russian Federation: Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order Pursuant to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... (Al203), calcium aluminate, soda ash, hydrocarbons, graphite, coke, silicon, rare earth metals/mischmetal... Order: Magnesium Metal From the Russian Federation, 70 FR 19930 (April 15, 2005). Pursuant to section... (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 9160 (March 1, 2010); Magnesium From China and Russia, 75 FR 9252 (March 1,...

  15. 78 FR 49471 - Ferrosilicon From the Russian Federation and Venezuela: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... antidumping duty (``AD'') petitions concerning imports of ferrosilicon from the Russian Federation (``Russia... Russia Petition'' and ``Supplement to Venezuela Petition''). On August 2, 2013, the Department spoke with... below. \\1\\ See ``Petitions for the Imposition of Antidumping Duties on Ferrosilicon from Russia...

  16. Comparative Analysis of Smart Meters Deployment Business Models on the Example of the Russian Federation Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daminov, Ildar; Tarasova, Ekaterina; Andreeva, Tatyana; Avazov, Artur

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the comparison of smart meter deployment business models to determine the most suitable option providing smart meters deployment. Authors consider 3 main business model of companies: distribution grid company, energy supplier (energosbyt) and metering company. The goal of the article is to compare the business models of power companies from massive smart metering roll out in power system of Russian Federation.

  17. 77 FR 42273 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... Revocation in Part, 76 FR 53404 (August 26, 2011). \\3\\ See Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 77 FR 17410 (March...: Final Modification, 77 FR 8101 (February 14, 2012) (``Final Modification for Reviews''). When...

  18. 75 FR 51440 - Solid Urea from the Russian Federation: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... From the Russian Federation: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 19610... and Countervailing Duty Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003...; Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value, 52 FR 19557 (May 26, 1987). Following the...

  19. The Russian Federation Islamic Republic of Dagestan: Curricular Decentralization, Social Cohesion, and Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Jana Sackman

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the curricular decentralization-sociopolitical stability nexus in the predominantly Muslim Russian Federation Republic of Dagestan, adjacent to war-torn Chechnya. Concomitant with the metamorphoses taking place in the economic and political sectors of society is the overhaul of institutionalized education. A major reform…

  20. The Development of Distance Education in the Russian Federation and the Former Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawacki-Richter, Olaf; Kourotchkina, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Distance education in the present Russian Federation and former Soviet Union has a long tradition that prevails to this day. The majority of students in Russia are enrolled in distance learning programs. The numbers indicate the existence of a well-established system for distance education, of which little is known in Western literature. A review…

  1. 77 FR 54897 - Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium from the Russian Federation: Revocation of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... master alloys, vanadium chemicals, vanadium waste and scrap, vanadium- bearing raw materials, such as... nitrided vanadium from Russia. \\1\\ See Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium From Russia, 77 FR 51825 (August... Antidumping Order: Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium from the Russian Federation, 60 FR 35550 (July 10,...

  2. Epidemiological Peculiarity of Septoria Species on Winter Wheat in the Central Region of the Russian Federation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The frequency of Septoria species on the host plant and development of disease were estimated during three growing seasons on five winter wheat cultivars in the Central region of the Russian Federation. Frequency of the species in the different plant growth stages varied. During the early growth sta...

  3. Prevalence of Kemerovo virus in ixodid ticks from the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Dedkov, V G; Markelov, M L; Gridneva, K A; Bekova, M V; Gmyl, A P; Kozlovskaya, L I; Karganova, G G; Romanova, L Iu; Pogodina, V V; Yakimenko, V V; Shipulin, G A

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of Kemerovo virus in ixodid ticks collected in 2008-2012 from 11 regions of the Russian Federation was investigated by real-time reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The presence of Kemerovo virus in Ixodes persulcatus, Ixodes ricinus, and Dermacentor reticulatus was confirmed. Virus prevalence depended on the region and varied from zero to 10.1%. PMID:25073856

  4. Characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolates recovered from pigeons in the territory of the Russian Federation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a continual problem for the poultry industry with synanthropic birds representing one of the possible reservoirs of infection. Outbreaks of ND are regularly confirmed among pigeons in different regions of the Russian Federation. The spread of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) a...

  5. Characteristics of Children, Caregivers, and Orphanages for Young Children in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The St. Petersburg-USA Orphanage Research Team

    2005-01-01

    This report provides baseline information on conditions in orphanages in the Russian Federation. This information addresses three major limitations in the literature on the development of children residing in substandard orphanages and those adopted from such environments. First, although there is an assumption that early exposure to substandard…

  6. Changing Symbolic and Geographical Boundaries between Penal Zones and Rural Communities in the Russian Federation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallot, Judith

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the processes involved in the integration of the USSR's secret places into mainstream rural society in the Russian Federation. Taking the example of one rural district in the Volga-Ural region that has been the site of a large prison complex over a period of ninety years, the article examines how economic changes and local…

  7. Development of the work on fuel cells in the Ministry for Atomic Energy of Russian Federation

    SciTech Connect

    Lubovin, B.Y.; Novitski, E.Z.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes research on fuel cells in the Russian Federation. The beginning of the practical work on fuel cells in Russia dates back to the 50`s and 60`s when the Ural Electrochemical Plant and the Ural Electromechanical Plant of the Ministry of Medium Machine-Building of the USSR, all Russian Research Institute of the power sources and many other institutes of the Ministry of Electrotechnical Industry of the USSR got to the development of the alkaline fuel cells for the spaceships according to the tasks of the SPC `Energy` and for the submarines on the tasks of the Ministry of Defense.

  8. Soil Moisture Changes in the Russian Federation: In Situ Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speranskaya, N. A.

    2009-04-01

    Soil moisture observations in the USSR began the middle of 1950s. At the peak of the network extent (in the middle of 1980s) more than 2000 stations performed these observations operated over Russia. Since that time the number of stations in this network was significantly reduced, especially at soil plots with natural vegetation. Therefore, in this study soil moisture changes over Russia during 1970-2000 (2001) are presented using the data of only 120 long-term stations. For the European part of Russia, it is concluded that: (1) Soil moisture changes within the upper 0-10 and 0-20 cm have no systematic component. Only when the thicker layers (starting with the upper 50 cm) are used, systematic changes (trends) can be found. That is why soil moisture of the upper 20 cm layer cannot be considered as characteristic of a moistening regime of the active soil layer. (2) Over most of non-boreal European Russia, soil moisture increase is observed for layers 0-50 and 0-100 cm both in spring and during the summer (i.e., during the entire growing period). Moreover, trends in soil moisture for the upper meter of soil (layer 0-100 cm) are more apparent when compared to those in layer 0-50 cm. (3) Only in the zone of mixed and broad-leaved forest, areas of decreasing levels of soil moisture are observed during the entire growing period. For the Asian part of Russia (Southern Siberia and the southern part of Russian Far East) soil moisture changes within the upper 0-10 and 0-20 cm have no systematic component too. Changes in soil moisture within the thicker layers (the upper 50 cm and the upper 1 m) are currently under scrutiny and results of their analysis will be presented at the Session.

  9. Speculation about Options for Teen Tobacco Use Cessation in the Russian Federation

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes prevalence and consequences, recent policies, prevention and cessation efforts, recent developmental work (focus groups), and speculation about the current status of cigarette smoking in the Russian Federation. Unique aspects of modern Russian society are suggested as leading to relatively high prevalence internationally of smoking among Russian males. Similar factors may lead to deflated smoking cessation attempt and quit rates. We believe that the future of tobacco control in Russia is close, but that it will involve raising the prices of tobacco products, enforcing no tobacco use policies among minors, ratification of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and implementation of evidenced-based tobacco use prevention and cessation programs. PMID:19570299

  10. Bioethical differences between drug addiction treatment professionals inside and outside the Russian Federation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an overview of a sociological study of the views of 338 drug addiction treatment professionals. A comparison is drawn between the bioethical approaches of Russian and foreign experts from 18 countries. It is concluded that the bioethical priorities of Russian and foreign experts differ significantly. Differences involve attitudes toward confidentiality, informed consent, compulsory treatment, opioid agonist therapy, mandatory testing of students for psychoactive substances, the prevention of mental patients from having children, harm reduction programs (needle and syringe exchange), euthanasia, and abortion. It is proposed that the cardinal dissimilarity between models for providing drug treatment in the Russian Federation versus the majority of the countries of the world stems from differing bioethical attitudes among drug addiction treatment experts. PMID:21663615

  11. Legal issues of the environmental safety regulation in the sphere of nanotechnology in Russian Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belokrylova, Ekaterina A.

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays one of the principal innovative spheres in Russia is considered to be a rapid development of nanotechnology and nanomaterials and implementation its products into almost all fields of social and industrial life. Nevertheless, despite the pointed advantages an appearance of nano products has set not only a positive example of the scientific progress development and dynamics, but also a potential threat of possible risks for the environment and people's health in the case of its massive use when there is a lack of research about its impacts. In Russian Federation the problem of nanosafety regulation is extremely actual. A number of international documents have noted a lack of legal regulation in the sphere of nanotechnologies in Russian Federation. Thus, according to the strategic EU program, it's mentioned that in 2009 on an annual meeting of OECD Tour de Table Meeting in Paris (November, 2007) Russia took responsibility to develop a long term program of nanoindustry development by 2015 (Nanotechnology Action Plan for Russia-2015). The key role should be dedicated to the nanosafety aspects and potential risk assessment of nanomaterials for environment and humans' health. Unfortunately, until now Russia did not provide this document for discussion at the international level by the partners of nanoconsortcium. Indeed, from 2007 until nowadays in Russian Federation there are no a single federal act of legislation (federal'nyi zakon), establishing the state foundations of regulation of nanosafety. The only one Federeal Legal Act in the described sphere is the Federalniy Zakon from 19 July 2007 "About the Russian corporation of nanotechnologies", which has established the principles of organization, activites, functions and termination of Rosnanotech. However, there are no articles dedicated to the environmental safety provision in regards of nano products applications. Also there is no complex federal act consolidating legal status of action in the field of

  12. Nuclear safety research collaborations between the U.S. and Russian Federation International Nuclear Safety Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D. J.; Braun, J. C.; Klickman, A. E.; Bougaenko, S. E.; Kabonov, L. P.; Kraev, A. G.

    2000-05-05

    The Russian Federation Ministry for Atomic Energy (MINATOM) and the US Department of Energy (USDOE) have formed International Nuclear Safety Centers to collaborate on nuclear safety research. USDOE established the US Center (ISINSC) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in October 1995. MINATOM established the Russian Center (RINSC) at the Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (RDIPE) in Moscow in July 1996. In April 1998 the Russian center became a semi-independent, autonomous organization under MINATOM. The goals of the center are to: Cooperate in the development of technologies associated with nuclear safety in nuclear power engineering; Be international centers for the collection of information important for safety and technical improvements in nuclear power engineering; and Maintain a base for fundamental knowledge needed to design nuclear reactors. The strategic approach is being used to accomplish these goals is for the two centers to work together to use the resources and the talents of the scientists associated with the US Center and the Russian Center to do collaborative research to improve the safety of Russian-designed nuclear reactors. The two centers started conducting joint research and development projects in January 1997. Since that time the following ten joint projects have been initiated: INSC databases--web server and computing center; Coupled codes--Neutronic and thermal-hydraulic; Severe accident management for Soviet-designed reactors; Transient management and advanced control; Survey of relevant nuclear safety research facilities in the Russian Federation; Computer code validation for transient analysis of VVER and RBMK reactors; Advanced structural analysis; Development of a nuclear safety research and development plan for MINATOM; Properties and applications of heavy liquid metal coolants; and Material properties measurement and assessment. Currently, there is activity in eight of these projects. Details on each of these

  13. Governmental structure of the Russian Federation with respect to environmental and energy programs

    SciTech Connect

    Colangelo, R.V.; Reistroffer, E.L.; Edgar, D.E.

    1992-09-01

    An investigation was conducted by the Environmental Planning Group, Inc., to provide an overview of the structure of government environmental and energy programs in the Russian Federation. The investigation was undertaken to provide a baseline of information to the US Department of Energy (DOE), so that technologies applicable to DOE environmental restoration and monitoring programs can be identified, tested, and transferred. Data for the report were collected through a network of Russian and American sources knowledgeable about environmental and energy programs in the Russian Federation. Sources of information included both US and Russian government personnel, nongovernmental organizations, private consultants, and experts from the academic and scientific communities. The peculiarities of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) remain prevalent in the structure of the Newly Independent States, especially in Russia. The legacy of communism is visible in all aspects of society, most particularly in the extreme environmental degradation that has resulted from careless central planning and policies of forced industrialization. Reforms initiated under Mikhail Gorbachev during the period of Perestroika were aimed at shifting power from the party to the respective government organs. In 1992 the Commonwealth of Independent States was created, joining 11 of the 15 republics into a loose federation. The investigation undertaken by the Environmental Planning Group, Inc., focused on the executive organs of the present Russian government in an effort to define key ministries with environmental and energy responsibilities. The structure of the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources (Minpriroda) and the Ministry of Atomic Power (Minatom) are presented. The Academy of Sciences and other ministries that have relevance to the transfer of technologies are discussed, as well as research institutions in which technologies appropriate to DOE programs are likely to reside.

  14. Cooperative Russian Federation -United States Near-Earth Object (NEO) Observation Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnelzer, Garry; Marshall, James; Bottke, William; Andrews, John

    On February 15, 2013, an asteroid exploded in the atmosphere near Chelyabinsk, Russia, causing significant damage and concern. Following the Chelyabinsk event, scientists and government leaders in the Russian Federation and United States have highlighted the need for collaborative efforts to quantify and characterize the potential threat from a Near Earth Objects (NEO). This paper will explore the possibility of a collaborative Russian Federation - United States program to perform a survey mission and create mechanisms and protocols for sharing of data relating to NEO threats to our planet. The joint collaboration would focus on identifying capability improvements for NEO observations using current or future space-based and/or ground-based assets of the two countries. Another part of the effort would include improvements in Bolide reporting, to include the “real-time” characterization of a NEO entry.

  15. Objective and Subjective Data on Altai and Kazakh Ethnolinguistic Vitality in the Russian Federation Republic of Altai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yagmur, Kutlay; Kroon, Sjaak

    2006-01-01

    This study deals with the ethnolinguistic vitality of Altai and Kazakh as compared to Russian in the Russian Federation Republic of Altai. Data were gathered by document analysis, interviews with experts and by conducting a subjective ethnolinguistic vitality questionnaire. The data showed that Altai and Kazakh, as a consequence of a long-lasting…

  16. [Use of modern first-aid kits in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation].

    PubMed

    Miroshnichenko, Iu V; Grebeniuk, A N; Kononov, V N; Stupnikov, A V; Minaev, D Iu

    2012-03-01

    Taken to supply of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, individual and group first aid kits include a range of innovative pharmaceuticals and medical devices, which ensures effective implementation of measures of first aid to servicemen injured and wounded in the performance of combat training missions, the conduct of hostilities with conventional weapons and weapons of mass destruction, as well as the occurrence of natural and man-made disasters (catastrophes). PMID:22686032

  17. [Development of the system for nanomaterials and nanotechnology safety in Russian Federation].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G; Tutelyan, V A; Gmoshinsky, I V; Khotimchenko, S A

    2013-01-01

    The article discloses a system of guidelines establishing unified order of detection, identification of nanoparticles and nanomaterials, estimation of their safety, sanitary regulation, control and supervision in environmental objects and production of nanoindustry, evaluation and management of risk produced by nanoparticles and nanomaterials. Recent development of nanosafety system in Russian Federation serves the aim of balanced achievement of unconditional ensuring welfare of present and future human population together with promotion of advanced technologies promising lot of useful applications. PMID:23805683

  18. [The sanitary and epidemiological problems in production and consumption waste handling in the Russian Federation].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G

    2009-01-01

    At the initiative of the bodies and organizations of the Russian Agency for Consumer Surveillance, the interdepartmental commissions on sanitary purification and on production and consumption waste handling heard more than 2275 items on the subjects of the Russian Federation in 2007. In 2006-2007, in all the subjects of the Russian Federation work was under way with the local authorities to legalize or liquidate unauthorized sites of waste disposal in rural settlements. As compared with 2006, there was a reduction in both the number of unauthorized dumps from 11,062 to 9,069 and the area under them from 33,587.6 to 29,506 ha. According to the administrations of the Russian Agency for Consumer Surveillance, in 2007, the number of enterprises generating waste was 1,092,871, of them 91.2% of the enterprises were under the control of bodies and organizations of the Russian Agency for Consumer Surveillance. The largest number of enterprises (813,233) produces domestic waste and 173,272 enterprises generate factory waste; as for poultry farming and cattle breeding waste, sewage sludge, and agrochemicals, these accounted for less than 10%. As compared with 2006, the number of sludge traps, tailing pits, waste banks, terraces, ash-and-slad burrows, etc. increased and amounted to 2,338. The reduction in the volume of accumulated waste, by involving the latter into the economic turnover, by introducing and improving their processing technologies is urgent. The highest percentage of waste utilization was achieved by building enterprises (91%), followed by agricultural ones (77%). At the same time this index at the enterprising generating the bulk of waste, namely, at the minerals-extracting enterprises, is 39% as that in Russia. In 2007, pesticides and agrochemicals were kept at 5600 storage facilities, of which as many as 2180 have a sanitary-and-epidemiological opinion; 60% of the storage facilities have an organized control area. PMID:19645103

  19. [Topical problems in the provision of the Russian Federation's population with sanitary-and-epidemiological well-being].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G

    2008-01-01

    The most important political and organizational events considerably affecting the strategy and tactics of prevention of infectious diseases may be called at the Summit of Eight (Saint Petersburg) that has considered the problem of consolidation of the world community's efforts in counteracting the prevalence of infectious diseases, as well as the adopted specific decisions on this matter; development of a concept of financial provision of Russian initiatives in the control of infectious diseases and its realization by the Government of the Russian Federation; implementation of the national priority health project on the additional mass immunization against rubella, influenza, poliomyelitis, prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS and viral hepatitis B and C; implementation of regional and federal programs on the population's sanitary-and-epidemiological well-being; further improvement and development of a legal and standard basis in the control of infectious diseases; reorganization of a state sanitary-and-epidemiological service on a large scale; conferment of the status of a poliomyelitis-free country and a WHO certificate to the Russian Federation; development and implementation of the national action plan to maintain the achieved results; implementation of the national program in eradicating measles in the Russian Federation; implementation of complex measures against the importation and spread of revived particularly dangerous infections, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome and avian influenza and preparation of the population for a possible influenza pandemic; establishment of an executive headquarters to coordinate activities against the prevalence of avian influenza in the Russian Federation; making decisions, with the results of a meeting of the Russian Federation's State Council being kept in mind, on the intensification and coordination of activities aimed at counteracting the epidemic of HIV/AIDS in the Russian Federation, by setting up a

  20. Barriers to sustainable tuberculosis control in the Russian Federation health system.

    PubMed Central

    Atun, R. A.; Samyshkin, Y. A.; Drobniewski, F.; Skuratova, N. M.; Gusarova, G.; Kuznetsov, S. I.; Fedorin, I. M.; Coker, R. J.

    2005-01-01

    The Russian Federation has the eleventh highest tuberculosis burden in the world in terms of the total estimated number of new cases that occur each year. In 2003, 26% of the population was covered by the internationally recommended control strategy known as directly observed treatment (DOT) compared to an overall average of 61% among the 22 countries with the highest burden of tuberculosis. The Director-General of WHO has identified two necessary starting points for the scaling-up of interventions to control emerging infectious diseases. These are a comprehensive engagement with the health system and a strengthening of the health system. The success of programmes aimed at controlling infectious diseases is often determined by constraints posed by the health system. We analyse and evaluate the impact of the arrangements for delivering tuberculosis services in the Russian Federation, drawing on detailed analyses of barriers and incentives created by the organizational structures, and financing and provider-payment systems. We demonstrate that the systems offer few incentives to improve the efficiency of services or the effectiveness of tuberculosis control. Instead, the system encourages prolonged supervision through specialized outpatient departments in hospitals (known as dispensaries), multiple admissions to hospital and lengthy hospitalization. The implementation, and expansion and sustainability of WHO-approved methods of tuberculosis control in the Russian Federation are unlikely to be realized under the prevailing system of service delivery. This is because implementation does not take into account the wider context of the health system. In order for the control programme to be sustainable, the health system will need to be changed to enable services to be reconfigured so that incentives are created to reward improvements in efficiency and outcomes. PMID:15798846

  1. A synopsis of original research projects published in scientific database in the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Daria; Pavlichenko, Alexey; Karpenko, Olga; Schmeleva, Liubov; Morozov, Petr

    2015-06-01

    The article describes the current state of scientific publications in the field of psychiatry in the Russian Federation. Issues of academic dissertations, lack of access to recent Russian language research in foreign databases, and recent reforms in the Ministry of Education and Science for overcoming these limitations are discussed in detail. Four exemplary dissertation studies published in Russian language are summarized. The first research examines the contribution of patient's verbal behavior to the reliable diagnosis of mild depression, identifying objective signs for distinguishing it from normal sadness; the mood component influenced the whole mental status and was represented in both structure and semantics of patients' speech. The second paper describes the course of panic disorder with agoraphobia, with the notable results that debut of panic disorder with full-blown panic attacks, often declines to a second accompanied with agoraphobia, which after several years gives way to limited symptom attacks and decreased agoraphobic avoidance. The third study describes the high prevalence of affective and anxiety disorders in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2, and the role of personality traits in adherence to treatment in patients with poor glucose control. The fourth project uses functional MRI for probing the features of neuronal resting-state networks in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy; the association with affective symptoms provides a model for investigating the pathophysiology of mood disorder. PMID:26022056

  2. Present experience of NRI REZ with preparation of spent nuclear fuel shipment to Russian Federation

    SciTech Connect

    Svitak, F.; Broz, V.; Hrehor, M.; Marek, M.; Novosad, P.; Podlaha, J.; Rychecky, J.

    2008-07-15

    The Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (NRI) jointed the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) programme under the US-Russian Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) initiative and started the preparation of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) shipment from the LVR-15 research reactor back to the Russian Federation (RF). The transport of 16 SKODA VPVR/M casks with EK-10, IRT-2M 80 %, and IRT-2M 36% fuel types is planned for the autumn of 2007. The paper describes the experience gained so far during the preparatory works for the SNF shipment (facility equipment modification, cask licenses) and the actual preparation of the SNF for transport, in particular its checking, repacking in a hot cell, loading into the VPVR/M casks, drying, manipulation, completion of the transport documentation, etc., including its transport to the SNF storage facility at the NRI before it is shipped to the RF. The paper also briefly describes a regulatory framework for these activities with a focus on legislative and methodological aspects of the return of vitrified waste back to the Czech Republic. (author)

  3. UTC(SU) and EOP(SU) - the only legal reference frames of Russian Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshelyaevsky, Nikolay B.; Blinov, Igor Yu; Pasynok, Sergey L.

    2015-08-01

    There are two legal time reference frames in Russian Federation. UTC(SU) deals with atomic time and play a role of reference for legal timing through the whole country. The other one, EOP(SU), deals with Earth's orientation parameters and provides the official EOP data for scientific, technical and metrological applications in Russia.The atomic time is based on two essential hardware components: primary Cs fountain standards and ensemble of continuously operating H-masers as a time unit/time scale keeper. Basing on H-maser intercomparison system data, regular H-maser frequency calibration against Cs standards and time algorithm autonomous TA(SU) time scale is maintained by the Main Metrological Center. Since 2013 time unit in TA(SU) is the second (SU) reproduced independently by VNIIFTRI Cs primary standards in accordance to it’s definition in the SI. UTC(SU) is relied on TA(SU) and steering to UTC basing on TWSTFT/GNSS time link data. As a result TA(SU) stability level relative to TT considerably exceeds 1×10-15 for sample time one month and more, RMS[UTC-UTC(SU)] ≤ 3 ns for the period of 2013-2015. UTC(SU) is broadcasted by different national means such as specialized radio and TV stations, NTP servers and GLONASS. Signals of Russian radio stations contains DUT1 and dUT1 values at 0.1s and 0.02s resolution respectively.The definitive EOP(SU) are calculated by the Main Metrological Center basing on composition of the eight independent individual EOP data streams delivered by four Russian analysis centers: VNIIFTRI, Institute of Applied Astronomy, Information-Analytical Center of Russian Space Agency and Analysis Center of Russian Space Agency. The accuracy of ultra-rapid EOP values for 2014 is estimated ≤ 0.0006" for polar motion, ≤ 70 microseconds for UT1-UTC and ≤ 0.0003" for celestial pole offsets respectively.The other VNIIFTRI EOP activities can be grouped in three basic directions:- arrangement and carrying out GNSS and SLR observations at five

  4. 78 FR 75528 - Federal Government Participation in the Automated Clearing House

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... Fiscal Service 31 CFR Part 210 RIN 1510-AB32 Federal Government Participation in the Automated Clearing... proposing to amend its regulation governing the use of the Automated Clearing House (ACH) system by Federal... unreadable, obscured or mutilated in a manner that prevents automated check processing or creating of...

  5. Mortality patterns in the Russian Federation: indirect technique using widowhood data.

    PubMed Central

    Bobak, Martin; Murphy, Michael; Pikhart, Hynek; Martikainen, Pekka; Rose, Richard; Marmot, Michael

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Russian mortality crisis of the early 1990s attracted considerable attention, but information on possible covariates of mortality is lacking, and concerns have been raised about the validity of official mortality data. To help elucidate the determinants of mortality, we examined whether indirect demographic techniques could be used to study mortality in countries such as the Russian Federation, where mortality data are inadequate, using input data independent from official vital statistics. METHODS: A national sample of the population was interviewed (n = 1600, response rate = 67%). Participants who had ever been married (82% of the sample) were asked about the date of birth and vital status of their first spouse. Spousal mortality was then estimated indirectly for the 531 men and 710 women for whom valid data were available. FINDINGS: The estimated risk of death between the ages of 35-69 years was 57% for male spouses and 17% for female spouses. Corresponding figures derived from national data for 1990 were 52% and 25% for the Russian Federation, and 31% and 20% for the United Kingdom. According to spouses' reports, 38% of their husbands died from cardiovascular disease, 22% from cancer, and 14% from injuries and accidents. Mortality of male spouses was inversely related to the education level of their wives, and the age-adjusted hazard ratios for death from all causes, compared to primary education, were 0.77 for secondary education and 0.57 for university education (trend P = 0.03). Mortality was also inversely related to ownership of household items, but not to size of settlement, pride in Russia, membership in the Soviet Communist Party, nationality or self-assessed social status. CONCLUSIONS: Although the indirect estimates were imprecise (partly owing to the small population size of the study), and mortality in women was probably underestimated (owing to many factors, including poorer reporting by males and high male mortality), our results

  6. The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's Orphan Source Recovery Project in the Russian Federation

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, J. W.; Ahumada, A. D.; Blanchard, T. A.

    2012-06-04

    After 9/11, officials at the United States Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grew more concerned about radiological materials that were vulnerable to theft and illicit use around the world. The concern was that terrorists could combine stolen radiological materials with explosives to build and detonate a radiological dispersal device (RDD), more commonly known as a “dirty bomb.” In response to this and other terrorist threats, the DOE/NNSA formed what is now known as the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) to consolidate and accelerate efforts to reduce and protect vulnerable nuclear and radiological materials located at civilian sites worldwide. Although a cooperative program was already underway in the Russian Federation to secure nuclear materials at a range of different facilities, thousands of sealed radioactive sources remained vulnerable at medical, research, and industrial sites. In response, GTRI began to focus efforts on addressing these materials. GTRI’s Russia Orphan Source Recovery Project, managed at the Nevada National Security Site’s North Las Vegas facility, was initiated in 2002. Throughout the life of the project, Joint Stock Company “Isotope” has served as the primary Russian subcontractor, and the organization has proven to be a successful partner. Since the first orphan source recovery of an industrial cobalt-60 irradiator with 647 curies (Ci) at an abandoned facility in Moscow in 2003, the GTRI Orphan Source Recovery Project in the Russian Federation has accomplished substantial levels of threat reduction. To date, GTRI has recovered and securely disposed of more than 5,100 sources totaling more that 628,000 Ci. This project serves as an extraordinary example of how international cooperation can be implemented by partners with mutual interests to achieve significant goals.

  7. Quality of attachment in St Petersburg (Russian Federation): A sample of family-reared infants.

    PubMed

    Pleshkova, Natalia L; Muhamedrahimov, Rifkat J

    2010-07-01

    The study aimed to describe the quality of attachment in the sample of children living in St Petersburg (Russian Federation). Up to the present there were no studies on quality of attachment relationship among infants living in families in the Russian Federation (RF), including families living in St Petersburg. The study results have an important value for understanding of development of attachment patterns in a changing society with a previous history of being a totalitarian state. The St Petersburg sample consisted of 130 children, living in families, aged 11-16 months old (mean = 13.3 months). Children were living in largely normative low-risk families. The Strange Situation Procedure was used (Ainsworth Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978). The attachment categories were classified according to the criteria of the DMM model (Crittenden, 2002). Results presented show that 50% of children showed the complex strategies (pre-A3-4 compulsive caregiving and compliant, pre-C3-4 aggressive and feigned helpless, A/C). It was found that among a St Petersburg sample of families there was small number of children with secure attachment pattern and many children with complex attachment strategies. PMID:20603423

  8. [ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF EPIDEMIOLOGIC CONTROL, LABORATORY DIAGNOSTICS AND PROPHYLAXIS OF CHOLERA IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION].

    PubMed

    Onischenko, G G; Popova, A Yu; Kutyrev, V V; Smirnova, N I; Scherbakova, S A; Moskvitina, E A; Titova, S V

    2016-01-01

    Main problems of system of epidemiologic control for cholera active in Russian Federation, as well as laboratory diagnostics and vaccine prophylaxis of this especially dangerous infection, that had emerged in the contemporary period of the ongoing 7th pandemic of cholera, are discussed. Features of the genome of natural strains of Vibrio cholerae of El Tor biovar, that possess a poten- tial epidemic threat, as well as problems, that have emerged during isolation of these strains from samples of water of surface water bodies during their monitoring, are also examined. The main direction of enhancement of the system of epidemiologic control for cholera consist in develop- ment of a new algorithm of differentiation of administrative territories of Russian Federation by types of epidemic manifestations, as well as optimization of monitoring of environment objects. Integration of modern highly informative technologies into practice, as well as development of new generation diagnostic preparations based on DNA-chips and immunechips is necessary to increase effectiveness of the conducted operative and retrospective diagnostics in the contemporary period. Creation of national cholera vaccine, ensuring simultaneous protection from cholera causative agents of both O1 and O139 serogroups, is also required. PMID:27029123

  9. Ensuring the Sustainability of Russian Federation National Nuclear Material Accounting System

    SciTech Connect

    Pitel, V; Kasumova, L; Kushnaryov, M; Babcock, R

    2006-06-07

    The Federal Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Information System (FIS) is the national information source on nuclear material accounting of the Russian Federation (RF). RF regulations mandated the creation of a national nuclear material accounting system to be managed by Federal Agency For Atomic Energy (Rosatom), and for the past decade, the FIS has been developed for all organizations required to report to Rosatom. The system represents a successful integration of U.S. financial support and consulting with Russian vision and technical expertise, creating a viable national nuclear material accounting system. This paper discusses crucial elements to ensure Sustainability of the FIS. A long-term plan for operation and maintenance of the information system is critical to a sustainable national accounting system. Plans undertaken throughout the FIS Project lifecycle have supported the necessary elements to ensure success. Through the next two years, long-term planning will be reevaluated and the successful elements and new initiatives will become part of an overall Operations Management Program. FIS resource needs will be managed through prioritization and ranking for each Program element, including: system operation; revising and implementing supporting regulations; establishing monitoring and control mechanisms to ensure validity of the data reported; maintaining and improving communication channels; and establishing regular FIS training. The results of a survey on improving FIS reporting, expected in June 2006, will be used in the prioritization and ranking process. Developing the Program and planning for long-term sustainability of the FIS will ensure a viable national nuclear material accounting system for the future.

  10. Scenarios of forestry carbon sequestration measures in the Russian Federation and priorities for action plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kokorin, A.O.

    1996-12-31

    Development of forestry mitigation strategy under Russian transition economy conditions has many difficulties and specific features. The most important factors are: shortage in funds; absence of well defined legislation, rules and standards; absence of adequate control systems; weak transport infrastructure and export problems. Assessment of economic possibilities, potential, short- and middle-term measures show that strategies have to be focused on improvement and promotion of current carbon sequestration activity. Five baseline forestry scenario (No. 1) and four other scenarios (No. 2 - No. 5) for 2000-2040 were developed. Each scenario covers all forested area but provides separate analysis of 30 `forestry ecoregions`. Three types of forestry management were included in scenarios: clear-cut logging and reforestation (by scenarios No. 2 and No. 3); selective logging and thinning (No. 4); measures to prevent and manage fires (No. 5). The baseline scenario results in a constant net-sink of about 150 MtC/yr. An increase in clear-cut logging on the basis of current forestry practice will cause a rapid drop of net-sink. Implementation of a modest increase in clear-cut logging with active forest fire and selective logging measures could provide with a slight increase of net-sink. Consideration of scenarios helps identify regional forestry priorities for Russian Climate Change Action Plan. The priorities by region include: European-Ural: (1) creation of economy mechanism to increase forestry effectiveness on the same cutting areas, (2) assistance to natural reforestation. Central and North-East Siberia: promotion of forest fire protection system. South Siberia and Primorie and Priamurie: limit of clear-cut logging and creation market situation for better forestry efficiency. The proposed Joint Implementation Vologda reforestation project which is being considered now by special bodies of the USA and the Russian Federation is in good agreement with these priorities.

  11. NORTHWEST RUSSIA AS A LENS FOR CHANGE IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Seward, Amy M.

    2009-04-18

    The region of Northwest Russia – encompassing the Kola Peninsula and the Arctic seas to its north – offers a lens through which to view the political, economic, ecological and cultural change occurring in the Russian Federation (RF) today. Amidst the upheaval that followed the collapse of the Soviet Union, this region was left to address the legacy of a Cold War history in which it was home to the Soviet (and now Russian) Navy’s Northern Fleet. This paper addresses the naval nuclear legacy from an ecological and environmental and perspective, first addressing the situation of radioactive contamination of the region. The focus then turns to one of the largest problems facing the RF today: the management and disposal of SNF and RW, much of which was produced by the Northern Fleet. Through the international programs to address these issues, and Russia's development of a national infrastructure to support spent nuclear fuel and waste management, the author discusses political, economic, environmental and cultural change in Russia.

  12. New methods of financing and managing health care in the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Sheiman, I

    1995-01-01

    Poor outcomes in Russian Federation health care performance have led to greater efforts being devoted to the search for new methods of finance and management. The new financial and managerial scheme was designed to introduce elements of market relations into a highly bureaucratic system. Strengthening the primary care sector and granting providers more economic freedom were intended to increase the quantity and quality of medical care, and make it more accessible to the population. In the late 1980s, economic experiments started in several regions of the country. This paper highlights the new methods of management, payment of providers, and quality assurance that were the focuses of the experiments. The impact of the experiments will be discussed. PMID:10156637

  13. Thermal degradations of wood biofuels, coals and hydrolysis lignin from the Russian Federation: Experiments and modeling.

    PubMed

    Popova, Evgeniya; Chernov, Aleksandr; Maryandyshev, Pavel; Brillard, Alain; Kehrli, Damaris; Trouvé, Gwenaëlle; Lyubov, Viktor; Brilhac, Jean-François

    2016-10-01

    The thermal degradation of wood biofuels (spruce, pine), of coals from different fields of the Russian Federation and of hydrolysis lignin is investigated using a thermogravimetric analyzer under different heating conditions and under non-oxidative or oxidative atmospheres. The samples are indeed submitted to a linear temperature ramp of 10K/min or to a temperature ramp of 200K/min up to a residence temperature between 250 and 450°C where they are maintained during 4h (isothermal conditions). The values of the kinetic parameters are determined for these different samples in both thermal conditions, either using the differential isoconversional method or by means of an Extended Independent Parallel Reaction (EIPR) model. The values of the kinetic parameters obtained with this EIPR model for spruce trunk are also compared with that of its main constituents (hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin). PMID:27455128

  14. Second Policy Development Seminar "Civic Education Policy and Standards Setting in the Russian Federation" (Moscow, Russian Federation, February 28-March 1, 2001). Revised. Education for Democratic Citizenship, 2001-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolotina, Tatiana

    The February 2002 Council of Europe seminar on "Civic Education Policy and Standards Setting in the Russian Federation" is the second seminar devoted to these issues. The first seminar was held in December 2000. The main objectives were to introduce European work in civic education, particularly that of Romania and Ireland, and to draft the first…

  15. Multi-year black carbon emissions from cropland burning in the Russian Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarty, Jessica L.; Ellicott, Evan A.; Romanenkov, Vladimir; Rukhovitch, Dmitry; Koroleva, Polina

    2012-12-01

    Cropland fires are an important source of black carbon (BC) emissions. Previous research has suggested that springtime cropland burning in Eastern Europe, more specifically Russia, is a main contributor of BC in the Arctic atmosphere, acting as a short-lived climate forcer strongly influencing snow-ice albedo and radiation transmission. BC emissions from cropland burning were estimated for the Russian Federation for years 2003 through 2009 using three satellite fire products, the 1 km MODIS Active Fire Product, 0.5° MODIS Fire Radiative Power monthly climate modeling grid product, and the 500 m MODIS Burned Area Product, and a agricultural statistics approach based on a modified method developed and published by the All-Russian Institute of Organic Peat and Fertilizers to estimate farm- and regional-level residue loading from straw surplus left after grain harvesting, while accounting for agricultural management and agrometeorological inputs. The satellite-based emission calculations utilized several different land cover classification schemas for defining croplands in Russia for both the 1 km MODIS Land Cover Product and the 300 m MERIS GlobCover v2.2 data sets. In general, the peaks of BC emissions from cropland burning occurred during the spring (April-May), summer (July-August), and the fall (October). 2008 had the highest annual BC emissions. The range of average annual BC emissions from cropland burning calculated from the different satellite fire products was 2.49 Gg-22.2 Gg, with the agricultural statistics approach annual average equal to 8.90 Gg. The Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) version 3 reported an annual average of 11.9 Gg of BC from agricultural burning. The results from this analysis showed that the majority of BC emissions originated in European Russia, followed by smaller contributions from West Siberia, Far East Russia, and East Siberia macro-regions. An uncertainty assessment on data used to calculate the BC emissions found moderate

  16. The Children of Russia Are in Danger! The Danger Comes from the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of General and Professional Education of the Russian Federation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medvedeva, Irina; Shishova, Tat'iana

    1998-01-01

    Argues against the international project called "Sex Education for the Schoolchildren of Russia" that is a sex education program intended for students in the seventh through ninth grades and is carried out by the Ministry of General and Professional Education of the Russian Federation and the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation (CMK)

  17. 77 FR 38457 - Blocking Property of the Government of the Russian Federation Relating to the Disposition of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ..., 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-15954 Filed 6-26-12; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... Russian Federation Relating to the Disposition of Highly Enriched Uranium Extracted From Nuclear Weapons... Disposition of Highly Enriched Uranium Extracted From Nuclear Weapons By the authority vested in me...

  18. 76 FR 13355 - Magnesium Metal From the Russian Federation: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 73 FR 52642 (September 10, 2008) (Final Results). In the Final Results... Review, 75 FR 56989 (September 17, 2010). In the event the CIT's ruling is not appealed or, if appealed... International Trade Administration Magnesium Metal From the Russian Federation: Notice of Court Decision Not...

  19. 75 FR 78968 - Magnesium Metal From the Russian Federation: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews, 75 FR 29976 (May 28, 2010). The preliminary... International Trade Administration Magnesium Metal From the Russian Federation: Extension of Time Limit for... a notice of initiation of an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on magnesium...

  20. Seeing the Trees within the Forest: Addressing the Needs of Children without Parental Care in the Russian Federation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhamedrahimov, Rifkat J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, we comment on the dominant practice in high-resource societies of placing children without biological parental care (CwoBPC) into substitution families, and the promotion of this solution as evidence-based and state of the art. As the Russian Federation has formulated and is now addressing in matching legislation, it possibly…

  1. 78 FR 61334 - Silicon Metal From the Russian Federation: Final Results of the Expedited Second Sunset Review of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ...'') Review, 78 FR 33063 (June 3, 2013) (Sunset Initiation Notice). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Elfi Blum... Russia, 68 FR 14578 (March 26, 2003) (Antidumping Duty Order), amended by Silicon Metal From the Russian Federation; Notice of Amended Final Determination Pursuant to Court Decision, 71 FR 8277 (February 16,...

  2. Education in the Context of the Priorities of the Long-Range Social and Economic Development of the Russian Federation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valeeva, E. Kh.; Vlasova, Iu. Iu.; Monakhov, S. V.

    2010-01-01

    The strategic goal of the long-range social and economic development of the Russian Federation is that of rising to an economic and social level in keeping with Russia's status as a leading world power in the 21st century, a country that occupies an advanced position in the global economic competition and reliably provides for the nation's…

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of a Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from a Rock Dove (Columba livia) in the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Yurchenko, Kseniya S; Sivay, Mariya V; Glushchenko, Alexandra V; Alkhovsky, Sergey V; Shchetinin, Alexey M; Shchelkanov, Michail Y; Shestopalov, Alexander M

    2015-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolate, NDV/Altai/pigeon/770/2011, isolated from a rock dove in the Russian Federation. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, this strain was clustered into genotype VIb class II. PMID:25635008

  4. [The demographic situation in the Russian Federation during the structural transition associated with perestroika and the subsequent economic stabilization].

    PubMed

    Antonova, O; Brui, B; Gorbunova, T; Nikitina, S

    1997-01-01

    The authors describe the demographic situation in the Russian Federation in the period of perestroika and in the subsequent period of economic and social turmoil associated with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Topics covered include changes in population growth and decline, life expectancy, morbidity, health status, the health system, and age distribution. PMID:12348413

  5. Characteristics of pigeon paramyxovirus serotype-1 isolates (PPMV-1) from the Russian Federation from 2001 to 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monitoring programs for highly dangerous avian diseases in the Russian Federation, from 2001 to 2009, detected 77 samples PCR-positive for avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1) isolates from sick or dead feral and domestic pigeons. Nucleotide sequences of the fusion (F) gene, including a nucleoti...

  6. 78 FR 73827 - Suspension Agreement on Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From the Russian Federation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate from the Russian Federation, 68 FR 3859 (January 27, 2003... International Trade Administration Suspension Agreement on Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From the... of an administrative review of the suspension agreement on certain cut-to-length carbon steel...

  7. Spatio-temporal modeling of the African swine fever epidemic in the Russian Federation, 2007–2012

    PubMed Central

    Korennoy, F.I.; Gulenkin, V.M.; Malone, J.B.; Mores, C.N.; Dudnikov, S.A.; Stevenson, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007 African swine fever (ASF) entered Georgia and in the same year the disease entered the Russian Federation. From 2007 to 2012 ASF spread throughout the southern region of the Russian Federation. At the same time several cases of ASF were detected in the central and northern regions of the Russian Federation, forming a northern cluster of outbreaks in 2011. This northern cluster is of concern because of its proximity to mainland Europe. The aim of this study was to use details of recorded ASF outbreaks and human and swine population details to estimate the spatial distribution of ASF risk in the southern region of the European part of the Russian Federation. Our model of ASF risk was comprised of two components. The first was an estimate of ASF suitability scores calculated using maximum entropy methods. The second was an estimate of ASF risk as a function of Euclidean distance from index cases. An exponential distribution fitted to a frequency histogram of the Euclidean distance between consecutive ASF cases had a mean value of 156 km, a distance greater than the surveillance zone radius of 100–150 km stated in the ASF control regulations for the Russian Federation. We show that the spatial and temporal risk of ASF expansion is related to the suitability of the area of potential expansion, which is in turn a function of socio-economic and geographic variables. We propose that the methodology presented in this paper provides a useful tool to optimize surveillance for ASF in affected areas. PMID:25457602

  8. [MALARIA IMPORTATION BY RUSSIA'S CITIZENS AND FOREIGNERS, INTO THE CITIES AND TOWNS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION].

    PubMed

    Baranova, A M; Guzeeva, T M; Ivanova, T N; Tanygina, E Yu; Morozova, L F

    2016-01-01

    A total of 436 malaria cases, including 12 from the CIS countries and 424 from far foreign countries (of Africa and Central and South-East Asia), were imported into the Russian Federation in 2010-2014. Most (96.6%) cases were notified in the urban areas of 52 administrative subjects of Russia. The largest number of the imported cases were seasonal workers (39.2%), tourists (31.3%), students and foreign postgraduate students (19.5%), and ship or aircraft crews (10%). During a short malaria transmission season (June to August), there were 150 cases of different types, out of them there were only 63 cases of tertian malaria (its pathogen is Plasmodium vivax, to which malaria mosquitoes of Russia's fauna are susceptible). The relatively small number of infection sources in the short transmission (June to August) season of malaria, its importation into low-susceptibility large towns, and a small proportion of imported vivax malaria cases substantially reduce the risk of malaria in the highrisk areas of the country. PMID:27405208

  9. [Revised classification of native probiotic strains of Lactobacillus used in Russian Federation].

    PubMed

    Botina, S G; Klimina, K M; Koroban, N V; Amerkhanova, A M; Zinchenko, V V; Danilenko, V N

    2010-11-01

    Thirteen strains of industrial bacterial cultures of the genus Lactobacillus (from a collection of Gabrichevsky Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology) were studied. These strains were used for decades in Russian Federation for food and drug production, as ferments for lactic acid products, for production of probiotics, biologically active and veterinary preparations. Complex analysis of data on cultures obtained using microbiological and molecular-genetic methods was conducted for the first time. Biochemical characteristics of these cultures were studied and the sequence of the proximal region of 16S ribosomal RNA gene was determined. The employment of the test system API-50CHL was shown to broaden the opportunities of a more accurate biochemical identification of bacteria belonging to the genus Lactobacillus, in comparison with the set ANAEROTEST-23. According to the results obtained in a comparative analysis of nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA gene, all strains examined show 97-99% homology of the proximal region of this gene with that of the type representatives of studied species. These data allowed taxonomic reclassification of the species position of cultures with consideration of the more advanced level of systematics. Nucleotide sequences of gene fragments of examined lactobacilli strains were recorded in NCBI database (accession numbers of deposits GU560031, GU560032, GU560033, GU560034, GU560035, GU560036, GU560037, GU560038, GU560039, GU560040, GU560041, GU560042, GU560043). PMID:21261060

  10. Microfossils in cherts from the Middle Riphean (Mesoproterozoic) Avzyan Formation, southern Ural Mountains, Russian Federation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergeev, V. N.; Knoll, A. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    A diverse assemblage of well-preserved microorganisms has been detected in black cherts from the approximately 1200 Ma-old Avzyan Formation (Suite) of the southern Ural Mountains, Russian Federation. The lower Kataskin Member contains a diverse, abundant microbiota dominated by mat-forming filamentous cyanobacteria, several types of colonial unicells, and morphologically distinctive stalked cyanobacteria. The upper Revet Member contains a less diverse biota dominated by unicellular cyanobacteria. Palaeoecological evidence indicates that the microbial community of the Kataskin Member inhabited a shallow water, presumably marine, carbonate environment. Revet microorganisms possibly lived in restricted peritidal environments. The biostratigraphic significance of the Avzyan microbiota is limited. Many of the taxa are long-ranging; they were already abundant in Palaeoproterozoic successions and continue into the Neoproterozoic. Nevertheless, in many respects, the Kataskin assemblage is comparable to those reported from the Middle-Late Riphean deposits of Northern America, Australia and Eurasia. The following taxa are here described: Chroococcaceae-Eogloeocapsa avzyanica Sergeev, Gloeodiniopsis lamellosa Schopf emend. Knoll et Golubic; Entophysalidaceae-Eoentophysalis belcherensis Hofmann; Dermocarpaceae-Polybessurus bipartitus Fairchild ex Green et al.; Nostocaceae-Eosphaeronostoc kataskinicum Sergeev; Nostocaceae or Oscillatoriaceae-Siphonophycus robustum (Schopf) emend. Knoll et Golubic emend. Knoll et al., Siphonophycus sp.; Incertae sedis-Eosynechococcus amadeus Knoll et Golubic.

  11. Microfossils in cherts from the Middle Riphean (Mesoproterozoic) Avzyan Formation, southern Ural Mountains, Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Sergeev, V N

    1994-01-01

    A diverse assemblage of well-preserved microorganisms has been detected in black cherts from the approximately 1200 Ma-old Avzyan Formation (Suite) of the southern Ural Mountains, Russian Federation. The lower Kataskin Member contains a diverse, abundant microbiota dominated by mat-forming filamentous cyanobacteria, several types of colonial unicells, and morphologically distinctive stalked cyanobacteria. The upper Revet Member contains a less diverse biota dominated by unicellular cyanobacteria. Palaeoecological evidence indicates that the microbial community of the Kataskin Member inhabited a shallow water, presumably marine, carbonate environment. Revet microorganisms possibly lived in restricted peritidal environments. The biostratigraphic significance of the Avzyan microbiota is limited. Many of the taxa are long-ranging; they were already abundant in Palaeoproterozoic successions and continue into the Neoproterozoic. Nevertheless, in many respects, the Kataskin assemblage is comparable to those reported from the Middle-Late Riphean deposits of Northern America, Australia and Eurasia. The following taxa are here described: Chroococcaceae-Eogloeocapsa avzyanica Sergeev, Gloeodiniopsis lamellosa Schopf emend. Knoll et Golubic; Entophysalidaceae-Eoentophysalis belcherensis Hofmann; Dermocarpaceae-Polybessurus bipartitus Fairchild ex Green et al.; Nostocaceae-Eosphaeronostoc kataskinicum Sergeev; Nostocaceae or Oscillatoriaceae-Siphonophycus robustum (Schopf) emend. Knoll et Golubic emend. Knoll et al., Siphonophycus sp.; Incertae sedis-Eosynechococcus amadeus Knoll et Golubic. PMID:11539566

  12. Food security and nutrition in the Russian Federation – a health policy analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lunze, Karsten; Yurasova, Elena; Idrisov, Bulat; Gnatienko, Natalia; Migliorini, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background In the Russian Federation (Russia), an elevated burden of premature mortality attributable to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has been observed since the country's economic transition. NCDs are largely related to preventable risk factors such as unhealthy diets. Objective This health policy study's aim was to analyze past and current food production and nutritional trends in Russia and their policy implications for Russia's NCD burden. Design We examined food security and nutrition in Russia using an analytical framework of food availability, access to food, and consumption. Results Agricultural production declined during the period of economic transition, and nutritional habits changed from high-fat animal products to starches. However, per-capita energy consumption remained stable due to increased private expenditures on food and use of private land. Paradoxically, the prevalence of obesity still increased because of an excess consumption of unsaturated fat, sugar, and salt on one side, and insufficient intake of fruit and vegetables on the other. Conclusions Policy and economic reforms in Russia were not accompanied by a food security crisis or macronutrient deprivation of the population. Yet, unhealthy diets in contemporary Russia contribute to the burden of NCDs and related avoidable mortality. Food and nutrition policies in Russia need to specifically address nutritional shortcomings and food-insecure vulnerable populations. Appropriate, evidence-informed food and nutrition policies might help address Russia's burden of NCDs on a population level. PMID:26112143

  13. Adaptation of Vocational Curricula for Industrial Business Clerks from Germany to the Russian Federation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomakhin, D.

    A pilot center was established in Yaroslavl, Russia, to train business clerks using German curricula and training that could be applied to Russian conditions. Choice of Germany as a model was due to increasingly developing cooperation with that country in the field of vocational education. The Russians analyzed German curricula and worked out the…

  14. Multi-year black carbon emissions from cropland burning in the Russian Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarty, J. L.; Ellicott, E. A.; Romanenkov, V.; Rukhovitch, D.; Koroleva, P.

    2011-12-01

    Cropland fires are an important source of black carbon (BC) emissions. Previous research has suggested that springtime cropland burning in Eastern Europe, and more specifically Russia, is a main source of BC in the Arctic atmosphere, acting as a short-lived climate forcer strongly influencing snow-ice albedo and radiation transmission in the atmosphere above the Arctic. BC emissions from cropland burning were estimated for the Russian Federation for years 2003 through 2009 using three satellite fire products, the 1 km MODIS Active Fire Product, 0.5° MODIS Fire Radiative Power monthly climate modeling grid product, and the 500 m MODIS Burned Area Product. Official statistics were also used to estimate BC emissions based on a modified approach developed and published by the All-Russian Institute of Organic Peat and Fertilizers to estimate farm- and regional-level residue loading based on straw surplus left after grain harvesting, while accounting for agricultural management and agrometeorological inputs. The satellite-based emission calculations utilized several different land cover classification schemas for defining croplands in Russia for both the 1 km MODIS Land Cover Product and the 300m MERIS GlobCover v2.2 data sets. In general, the peaks of BC emissions from cropland burning occurred during the spring (April - May), summer (July - August), and the fall (October). 2008 had the highest annual BC emissions. The range of average annual BC emissions from cropland burning calculated from the different satellite products was 2.49 Gg to 22.2 Gg, with the official statistics approach annual average equal to 7.34 Gg. The majority of BC emissions from the Fire Radiative Power and Burned Area satellite analyses originated in European Russia, followed by smaller contributions from West Siberia, Far East Russia, and East Siberia macro-regions, respectively. This presentation will further explore the uncertainties in the calculations of BC emissions from satellite and

  15. [On the interaction between State Forensic Medical Centers of the Russian Ministry of Defense and territorial organs of the Russian Federal Service on Surveillance for Consumer Rights (Roszdravnadzor): topical problems and possibilities for their solution].

    PubMed

    Pinchuk, P V

    2011-01-01

    The present paper is focused on the consideration of topical problems pertaining to the interaction between state forensic medical centers of the Russian Ministry of Defense (SFMF MD RF) and territorial organs of the Russian Federal Service on Surveillance for Consumer Rights (Roszdravnadzor) in the framework of unscheduled inspections of the organization and conduction of forensic medical expertise. Such inspections not infrequently give rise to conflicts between the administration of SFMF ND RF and commissions of territorial organs of Roszdravnadzor. The principal source of such conflicts is the representatives of Roszdavnadzor frequently fail to observe the requirements envisaged by the normative legal acts of the Russian Federation regulating activities of this state agency and the laws of the Russian Federation governing action management in the field of forensic medical expertise. The main causes behind the conflicts and their consequences are discussed, recommendations are proposed to resolve them. PMID:21938943

  16. Understanding HIV Risk Behavior among Tuberculosis Patients with Alcohol Use Disorders in Tomsk, Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ann C; Nelson, A Katrina; Livchits, Viktoria; Greenfield, Shelly F; Yanova, Galina; Yanov, Sergei; Connery, Hilary S; Atwood, Sidney; Lastimoso, Charmaine S; Shin, Sonya S

    2016-01-01

    Russian Federation's (RF) HIV epidemic is the fastest growing of any country. This study explores factors associated with high HIV risk behavior in tuberculosis (TB) patients with alcohol use disorders in Tomsk, RF. This analysis was nested within the Integrated Management of Physician-delivered Alcohol Care for TB Patients (IMPACT, trial number NCT00675961) randomized controlled study of integrating alcohol treatment into TB treatment in Tomsk. Demographics, HIV risk behavior (defined as participant report of high-risk intravenous drug use and/or multiple sexual partners with inconsistent condom use in the last six months), clinical data, alcohol use, depression and psychosocial factors were collected from 196 participants (161 male and 35 female) at baseline. Forty-six participants (23.5%) endorsed HIV risk behavior at baseline. Incarceration history(Odds Ratio (OR)3.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.95, 7.95), age under 41 (OR:2.97, CI:1.46, 6.04), drug addiction(OR: 3.60 CI:1.10, 11.77), history of a sexually transmitted disease(STD)(OR 2.00 CI:1.02, 3.90), low social capital (OR:2.81 CI:0.99, 8.03) and heavier alcohol use (OR:2.56 CI: 1.02, 6.46) were significantly more likely to be associated with HIV risk behavior at baseline. In adjusted analysis, age under 41(OR: 4.93, CI: 2.10, 11.58), incarceration history(OR: 3.56 CI:1.55, 8.17) and STD history (OR: 3.48, CI: 1.5, 8.10) continued to be significantly associated with HIV risk behavior. Understanding HIV transmission dynamics in Russia remains an urgent priority to inform strategies to address the epidemic. Larger studies addressing sex differences in risks and barriers to protective behavior are needed. PMID:26871943

  17. Utilizing Regional Centers in Sustaining Upgraded Russian Federation Ministry of Defense Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kaldenbach, Karen Yvonne; Chainikov, General Vladimir; Fedorov, General Victor; Larionov, Igor V; Sokolnikov, Pavel I; Estigneev, Yuri; Bolton, Charles; Ross, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s the governments of the United States (U.S.) and the Russian Federation (RF) have been collaborating on nonproliferation projects, particularly in the protection of nuclear material through the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). To date, this collaboration has resulted in upgrades to more than 72 RF Ministry of Defense (MOD) sensitive sites and facilities. These upgrades include physical protection systems (PPS), facilities to ensure material remains secure in various configurations, and infrastructure to support, maintain, and sustain upgraded sites. Significant effort on the part of both governments has also been expended to ensure that personnel obtain the necessary skills and training to both operate and maintain the security systems, thereby ensuring long term sustainability. To accomplish this, initial vendor training on physical protection systems was provided to key personnel, and an approved training curriculum was developed to teach the skills of operating, managing, administering, and maintaining the installed physical protection systems. This approach also included documentation of the processes and procedures to support infrastructure, requisite levels of maintenance and testing of systems and equipment, lifecycle management support, inventory systems and spare parts caches. One of the core components in the U.S. exit strategy and full transition to the RF MOD is the development and utilization of regional centers to facilitate centralized training and technical support to upgraded MOD sites in five regions of the RF. To date, two regional centers and one regional classroom facility are functional, and two additional regional centers are currently under construction. This paper will address the process and logistics of regional center establishment and the future vision for integrated regional center support by the RF MOD.

  18. [Reliability of the Search for 19 Common Mutations in the CFTR Gene in Russian Cystic Fibrosis Patients and the Calculated Frequency of the Disease in Russian Federation].

    PubMed

    Stepanova, A A; Krasovsky, S A; Polyakov, A V

    2016-02-01

    A study of Russian cystic fibrosis (CF) patient DNA was conducted to assess the incidence frequency of 19 mutations, namely CFTRdele2,3(21kb), F508del, I507del, 1677delTA, 2143delT, 2184insA, 394delTT, 3821delT, L138ins, 604insA, 3944delGT, G542X, W128X, N1303K, R334W, and 3849+10kbC>T, S1196X, 621+1g>t, and E92K of the CFTR gene. We also sought to determine the estimated CF frequency in Russian Federation. In addition, we determined the total information content of the approach for 19 common mutations registration in the CFTR gene, 84.6%, and the allelic frequencies of the examined mutations: three mutations were observed with a frequency exceeding 5% (F508del, 53.98%, E92K, 6.47%, CFTRdele2,3(21kb), 5.35%); other mutations were observed with frequencies ranging from 0.13% to 3.0%. The CF population carrier frequency was 1 in 38 subjects, while the predicted CF frequency was 1 in 5776 newborns. PMID:27215038

  19. [Etiological characteristics of the influenza epidemics of 2006-2009 in the Russian Federation (according to the data of the Research Institute of Influenza, North-Western Branch, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences)].

    PubMed

    Konovalova, N I; Eropkin, M Iu; Gudkova, T M; Grigor'eva, V A; Danilenko, D M; Ivanova, A V; Smirnova, T S; Lobova, T G; Shchekanova, S M

    2010-01-01

    The basic trends in the evolution of influenza A and B in the Russian Federation during the epidemic seasons of 2006-2009 were studied on the basis of an antigenic analysis of 1774 Influenza isolated at the Research Institute of Influenza (RII), North-Western Branch, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, and sent from resting bases (the regional centers of the Russian Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare, which collaborate with the RII). Although the trends in the substitution of representative strains generally coincide with the world patterns, the authors revealed some specific features of the antigenic drift of influenza viruses in the Russian Federation and regional varieties. Data on some biological properties and those of the antigenic analysis of the first pandemic influenza A(H1NI)v strains isolated at the RII from Saint Petersburg patients in July-August 2009 are also given in the paper. PMID:20886706

  20. Melanoma incidence mortality rates and clinico-pathological types in the Siberian area of the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Gyrylova, Svetlana Nikolaevna; Aksenenko, Mariya Borisovna; Gavrilyuk, Dmitriy Vladimirovich; Palkina, Nadezda Vladimirovna; Dyhno, Yuriy Alexandrovich; Ruksha, Tatiana Gennadievna; Artyukhov, Ivan Pavlovich

    2014-01-01

    Russian rates for melanoma incidence and mortality are relatively low as compared to some other white populations but the tumor is of increasing importance. In this paper, data are based on a retrospective descriptive analysis of melanoma epidemiology and clinicopathological characteristics in Krasnoyarsk Territory belonging to the Siberian Federal District of the Russian Federation. The age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for the period 1996-2009 were determined with subsequent retrospective analysis of clinicopathological data of 103 primary melanoma cases. Our results showed that incidence and mortality rates in the region under consideration match the Russian national trends and correspond to epidemiological data of the countries of Eastern Europe. Stratification of melanoma cases by age, sex, clinicopathological state and localization revealed a prevalence of lesions on the trunk and lower extremities. Most melanomas diagnosed were of superficial spreading type and the third Clark's level of tumor invasion and stage II according to AJCC. In spite of comparatively low rates of incidence and mortality the trend to increase of melanoma cases in the region under consideration obviously calls for more attention and further investigation. PMID:24716957

  1. [THE CONDITION AND TENDENCIES OF DEVELOPMENT OF CLINICAL AND SANITARY MICROBIOLOGY IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND PROBLEM OF IMPORT SUBSTITUTION].

    PubMed

    Dyatlov, I A; Mironov, A Yu; Shepelin, A P; Aleshkin, V A

    2015-08-01

    The import substitution becomes one of the strategic tasks of national economy as a result of prolongation of economic sanctions concerning the Russian Federation of part of the USA, EU countries, Japan and number of other countries. It is not proper to be limited in import substitution only by goods because in conditions ofsanctions when access toforeign technologies is complicated Russia is needed to substitute foreign technologies by national designs in faster manner One of directions of effective import substitution is localization of production of laboratory equipment and consumables for clinical and sanitary microbiology on the territory ofthe Russian Federation and countries of Customs union. In Russia, in the field ofdiagnostic of dangerous and socially significant infections, all components for import substitution to implement gene diagnostic, immune diagnostic. bio-sensory and biochip approaches, isolation and storage of live microbial cultures, implementation of high-tech methods of diagnostic are available. At the same time, national diagnostic instrument-making industry for microbiology is factually absent. The few devices of national production more than on 50% consist of import components. The microbiological laboratories are to be equipped only with import devices of open type for applying national components. The most perspective national designs to be implemented are multiplex polimerase chain reaction test-systems and biochips on the basis of national plotters and readers. The modern development of diagnostic equipment and diagnostic instruments requires supplement of national collections of bacterial and viral pathogens and working-through of organizational schemes of supplying collections with strains. The presented data concerning justification of nomenclature of laboratory equipment and consumables permits to satisfy in fill scope the needs of clinical and sanitary microbiology in devices, growth mediums, consumables of national production

  2. Chernobyl and iodine deficiency in the Russian Federation: an environmental disaster leading to a public health opportunity.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Richard J; DeLozier, David M; Gerasimov, Gregory; Borisova, Olga; Garbe, Paul L; Goultchenko, Lioudmila; Shakarishvili, George; Hollowell, Joseph G; Miller, Dayton T

    2002-01-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear disaster of April 26, 1986, triggered a chain of devastating events that later included an unexpected increase in childhood thyroid cancer and evidence of iodine deficiency (ID) in Russia. For the Russian people the Chernobyl event had profound psychological impacts, provoking anxiety about nuclear technology and mistrust of governmental control efforts. Frequently in public health a crisis is required to create the political will to manage longstanding problems, and public health officials must rapidly mobilize to take advantage of the opportunity. In this case, ID, previously not seen as a problem in Russia, was recognized to be potentially serious, and the Russian Federation, assisted by the catalytic bi-national effort of the U.S.-Russian Joint Commission on Economic and Technological Cooperation (Gore-Chernomyrdin Commission (GCC)) established a model salt iodization policy, developed a planning process, and implemented a program to prevent ID through a systematic approach that included the people, government, and private groups using open communication, dissemination of the findings, and action plans. By 1999, political will had been mobilized and over 20% of the nation's salt was being iodized, up from about 1% in 1996. Universal iodization of salt was not a specific objective of the GCC; however, the increasing availability of iodized salt is leading to the elimination of ID, which is now a political goal in Russia. The full realization of this goal will require more time for education, marketing, and possibly legislative action. PMID:12532684

  3. Analysis of Russian Federation budget revenues from the implementation of export duties "60-66-90" scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinkevich, L.; Sharf, I.; Gerasimovich, G.

    2014-08-01

    Innovative development of the national economy provides qualitative transformation of the refining sector. In order to promote the depth of oil refining and the relative increase the refining share in oil extraction the Government of Russian Federation has changed the mechanism for calculating export duty on crude oil, light and dark oil. This research work addresses the nature of financial implications for the budget system in connection with these changes. Different effects are observed for oil extractors and oil refiners. Conclusions are reasoned by calculations.

  4. [Prospective planning of activity of the Medical service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation for 2016-2020].

    PubMed

    Fisun, A Ya; Kalachev, O V; Redkin, E E; Bershev, M A; Murzo, A V

    2016-04-01

    The article reflects the characteristics of the Plan of activities of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation for 2016-2020--an important long-term planning document of the Armed Forces. It stressed the need for synchronization of activities for chain of command and deadline. Presented structure of the Medical Service Plan Military District operations (fleet) military medical organization. The attention is focused on the content of its sections. For example, a military hospital layouts presented an action plan and a schedule of events. Reflecting the requirements of the Minister of Defense for the development and adjustment plans, indicators of their performance. PMID:27416714

  5. Standing Up a Narcotic Confirmation Laboratory for the Russian Federation Ministry of Defense Nuclear Personnel Reliability Program

    SciTech Connect

    LukyanenkoMD, Victor; Eisele, Gerhard R; Coates, Cameron W

    2010-01-01

    Through a cooperative effort between the U. S. Department of Energy and the Russian Federation (RF) Ministry of Defense (MOD) a Personnel Reliability Program (PRP) for the nuclear handlers within the RF MOD has been implemented. A key element in the RF MOD PRP is the detection and confirmation of narcotic use in subject military and civilian personnel. This paper describes the process of narcotics screening and testing in the RF MOD and explains the confirmation process once screening has shown a positive result. Issues of laboratory certification, employee certification, employee training, sample chain-of-custody, and equipment needs will be addressed.

  6. [Service for Disaster Medicine of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation at the present stage].

    PubMed

    Belevitin, A B; Korniushko, I G; Iakovlev, S V

    2011-05-01

    The basic documents of the history of service Disaster Medicine in the USSR and the Armed Forces of the country, employed in this branch of medical terminology, classification of emergency situations are presented. The problem of Disaster Medicine Service of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation at the present stage, the levels of its operations and readiness, as well as the structure and objectives of the medical detachment for special purposes are considered. The involvement of service in peacekeeping operations and medical support of local armed conflicts are assessed. PMID:21874877

  7. The New History School Textbooks in the Russian Federation: 1992-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajda, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the ideologically-articulated shifts, and the images of transformation, and nation-building process presented in the new generation of school history textbooks in Russia. The article analyses the new content of post-Soviet history textbooks used in Russian secondary schools that represent various transformations from…

  8. Policy Shifts in Higher Education in the Russian Federation: Autonomy, Standards, and Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajda, Joseph; Zajda, Rea

    2007-01-01

    Prior to 1991, all higher education institutions in the Soviet Union were state institutions. There were some 900 higher educational institutions in 1990, including only 70 major universities, still referred to as VUZy, from the Russian "vysshee uchebnoe zavedenie". This acronym is popularly used to refer to all types of higher education…

  9. [The tasks of the Federal Service for the implementation of the legislation of the Russian Federation aimed at optimizing the compliance and enforcement].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G

    2011-01-01

    The priority of the Federal Service's activity in protecting consumer rights and human welfare is to execute a number of basic documents recently endorsed and directed towards observing the legislation on the optimization of supervision and control activities. To implement measures on the professional orientation and prehigher education preparation of schoolchildren and on the assistance with their entrance into the medical prophylaxis faculties of higher medical educational establishments within the framework of target enrollment, etc. is an urgent problem for the agencies and bodies of the Russian Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare. Interaction with civil society has recently been activated, which is required to ensure the transparency of the Service's work, to enhance its efficiency, and to optimize supervision. Public reception rooms have been set up, the function of which is to receive citizens, the representatives of legal persons, and individual employers concerning the matters of sanitary-and-epidemiological well-being, protection of the rights of consumers and a consumer market, and the activities of the agencies and bodies of the Russian Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare. The better activities of the agencies and bodies of the Service will call for a set of complex tasks to be accomplished in the immediate future. The end result will depend on how competently, responsibly, and cooperatively the appropriate measures will be carried out in all the agencies of the Federal service. PMID:21513054

  10. Housing Characteristics and Children’s Respiratory Health in the Russian Federation

    PubMed Central

    Spengler, John D.; Jaakkola, Jouni J. K.; Parise, Helen; Katsnelson, Boris A.; Privalova, Larissa I.; Kosheleva, Anna A.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We studied housing characteristics, parental factors, and respiratory health conditions in Russian children. Methods. We studied a population of 5951 children from 9 Russian cities, whose parents answered a questionnaire on their children’s respiratory health, home environment, and housing characteristics. The health outcomes were asthma conditions, current wheeze, dry cough, bronchitis, and respiratory allergy. Results. Respiratory allergy and dry cough increased in association with the home being adjacent to traffic. Consistent positive associations were observed between some health conditions and maternal smoking during pregnancy, many health conditions and lifetime exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and nearly all health conditions and water damage and molds in the home. Conclusions. Vicinity to traffic, dampness, mold, and ETS are important determinants of children’s respiratory health in Russia. PMID:15054021

  11. [Results and prospects of the guarantee of sanitary-epidemiological welfare of population of the Russian Federation].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    The issues of further development of scientific and methodological basis of the guarantee of sanitary-epidemiological welfare of population of the Russian Federation are highlighted in accordance with the implementation of the Concept of the activity of the Federal Service for the Oversight of Consumer Protection and Welfare until 2015. Features of this work over the past 5 years have been characterized, they include: changes in the structure of the objects under surveillance; integration processes in the economy of the country rise of attention to social problems of society strengthening the influence of epidemiological and natural man-made disasters in the world and the country, improvement of the supervisory authorities of the Service, the formation of its new structure and development of legislative assembly, including sanitary legislation. PMID:23082659

  12. Energy strategy and mitigation potential in energy sector of the Russian federation

    SciTech Connect

    Yakovlev, A.F.; Petrov, V.N.; Chupyatov, V.P.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the mitigation potential in the Russian energy sector and presents CO{sub 2} - emission scenarios. Based on the Russian energy strategy, energy conservation potential has been estimated and three groups of energy conservation measures have been pointed out. Taking into account the economic development scenarios and the scenarios of energy consumption and energy conservation, future CO{sub 2} emission scenarios for 2000 and 2010 have been prepared. Some important characteristics of these scenarios have been presented and discussed. For the period 2000-2010 annual growth rates for CO{sub 2} emission in the Russian energy sector will not exceed 0.9-1.3 %, and emission levels in 2000 make up - 75-78 %, and in 2010 - 81-88 % of the 1990 level. For the probable scenario the CO{sub 2} emission reducing will make up about 6% and 25% (for the optimistic scenario about 16% and 31%) of CO{sub 2} emission for reference scenario in 2000 and 2010 respectively. Additional CO{sub 2} emission reducing (3-5% of domestic CO{sub 2} emission) will result from increasing share of natural gas consumption.

  13. "A different atmosphere of love": a qualitative study of the experiences of participants in Evangelical substance user rehabilitation programs in the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Stoltzfus, Kenneth M; Cecil, David

    2013-04-01

    This article explores the lived experiences of individuals who have participated in faith-based substance user rehabilitation programs in the Russian Federation. The Russian Federation has high rates of alcohol and opioid dependence and a dearth of professional treatment options. In the post-Soviet period, Evangelical Christian groups have developed substance user rehabilitation programs to attempt to address substance use and its related problems. Data were collected during 2010 via focus group interviews with participants in three Evangelical rehabilitation programs in the Volga region of the Russian Federation. Themes emerging from the qualitative data analysis process were classified into three broad categories: Typical Day, Personal Background/Decision to Enter Rehabilitation, and Helpful Aspects of Rehabilitation Process. PMID:23461666

  14. Development Trends in Federal Library and Information Center Automation. Guides for Administrative and Technical Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information Dynamics Corp., Bethesda, MD.

    These two guides for interviews on trends in library automation in federal libraries and information centers cover administrative and technical interviews. The guide for administrative interviews is divided into five steps: (1) determining the details of the agency's mission and organizational structure, (2) establishing the administrative…

  15. 75 FR 80335 - Federal Government Participation in the Automated Clearing House

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... Fiscal Service 31 CFR Part 210 RIN 1510-AB24 Federal Government Participation in the Automated Clearing House AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Treasury. ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of the Treasury, Financial Management Service (FMS) is amending its...

  16. Development Trends in Federal Library and Information Center Automation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information Dynamics Corp., Bethesda, MD.

    A study was made to establish the patterns in past library automation development activities within the Federal Government of the United States so that these could be available for setting the boundaries for a generalized system design for computerized library operations. More than 50 administrative and technical personnel within the Federal…

  17. Phenomenon of organic carbon change in natural waters (system "catchment - Lake") of Russian Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinu, Marina; Tatyana, Moiseenko; Tatyana, Kremleva; Natalia, Gashkina

    2015-04-01

    In the last two decades in the Russian Federation was found significant increase in the concentration of dissolved organic carbon in many aqueous systems. Most obviously, these changes may be related to global warming. It is known that increasing the temperature dominate during dry periods and increases the concentration of nutrients, primary production increases, leading to an increase of the dissolved organic matter. At the same time, it is known that some of the increase in DOC may be largely due to a decrease of anthropogenic sulfur deposition and increasing organic matter in the soil. The European Russia (ER) is a region with substantial industrial emissions of sulphur. In the central part of ER are concentrated metallurgical productions. This has resulted in high concentrations of anthropogenic sulphate and an increase in the prevalence of acidification as well as a rise in metal concentrations in the lakes of North Kola. However, over the last 30 years, sulfur emissions in ?ola North have decreased substantially. The aim of this work was to explain the mechanisms to improve the content of natural organic matter and to assess its role in the processes of acidification and recovery of water quality while reducing the deposition of technogenic acid. The increasing of organic matter content in lake waters is being also observed for the totality of lakes in the Kola North. This conforms to the data reported by Skjelkvale et al. (2001a) which demonstrates the significant increase of DOC. Some authors explain the increased DOC levels by reduction in strong acid flow and return of water chemistry to its natural parameters of specifying organic matter concentrations in water. It is known that DOC level has a direct relationship with water color. In analyzing long-term study data with regard to the group of 75 lakes (obtained during 1990-2010) DOC is increased year-over-year, but the color decreased. The following chemical processes developing in water can explain

  18. Internet Search Patterns of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and the Digital Divide in the Russian Federation: Infoveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Casey; Hercz, Daniel; Gillespie, James A

    2013-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a serious health problem in the Russian Federation. However, the true scale of HIV in Russia has long been the subject of considerable debate. Using digital surveillance to monitor diseases has become increasingly popular in high income countries. But Internet users may not be representative of overall populations, and the characteristics of the Internet-using population cannot be directly ascertained from search pattern data. This exploratory infoveillance study examined if Internet search patterns can be used for disease surveillance in a large middle-income country with a dispersed population. Objective This study had two main objectives: (1) to validate Internet search patterns against national HIV prevalence data, and (2) to investigate the relationship between search patterns and the determinants of Internet access. Methods We first assessed whether online surveillance is a valid and reliable method for monitoring HIV in the Russian Federation. Yandex and Google both provided tools to study search patterns in the Russian Federation. We evaluated the relationship between both Yandex and Google aggregated search patterns and HIV prevalence in 2011 at national and regional tiers. Second, we analyzed the determinants of Internet access to determine the extent to which they explained regional variations in searches for the Russian terms for “HIV” and “AIDS”. We sought to extend understanding of the characteristics of Internet searching populations by data matching the determinants of Internet access (age, education, income, broadband access price, and urbanization ratios) and searches for the term “HIV” using principal component analysis (PCA). Results We found generally strong correlations between HIV prevalence and searches for the terms “HIV” and “AIDS”. National correlations for Yandex searches for “HIV” were very strongly correlated with HIV prevalence (Spearman rank-order coefficient

  19. An Interrupted Time-Series Analysis of Durkheim's Social Deregulation Thesis: The Case of the Russian Federation

    PubMed Central

    Pridemore, William Alex; Chamlin, Mitchell B.; Cochran, John K.

    2009-01-01

    The dissolution of the Soviet Union resulted in sudden, widespread, and fundamental changes to Russian society. The former social welfare system-with its broad guarantees of employment, healthcare, education, and other forms of social support-was dismantled in the shift toward democracy, rule of law, and a free-market economy. This unique natural experiment provides a rare opportunity to examine the potentially disintegrative effects of rapid social change on deviance, and thus to evaluate one of Durkheim's core tenets. We took advantage of this opportunity by performing interrupted time-series analyses of annual age-adjusted homicide, suicide, and alcohol-related mortality rates for the Russian Federation using data from 1956 to 2002, with 1992-2002 as the postintervention time-frame. The ARIMA models indicate that, controlling for the long-term processes that generated these three time series, the breakup of the Soviet Union was associated with an appreciable increase in each of the cause-of-death rates. We interpret these findings as being consistent with the Durkheimian hypothesis that rapid social change disrupts social order, thereby increasing the level of crime and deviance. PMID:20165565

  20. Risk analysis of PCB exposure via the soil-food crop pathway, and alternatives for remediation at Serpukhov, Russian Federation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsongas, T.; Orlinskii, D.; Priputina, I.; Pleskachevskaya, G.; Fetishchev, A.; Hinman, G.; Butcher, W.

    2000-02-01

    A risk assessment was conducted to determine the likelihood of certain health risks resulting from exposure to soils and food crops contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs). PCBs have contaminated soils, river sediments, and air in the past as a result of industrial activities at a capacitor plant located in the City of Serpukhov, Russian Federation. This risk assessment and suggestions for remediation are designed to aid in decision-making efforts by a joint Russian-American research team developing a community, national, and international response to industrial contamination. Bobovnikova et al. have reported that PCBs are elevated in soils and sediments, breast milk, and locally grown foods in the Serpukhov area. Data from these and other investigators have been used in this risk assessment to calculate a potential cancer risk resulting from exposure to PCBs. Their assessment indicates that members of the local population may be at increased risk of cancer, and possibly other adverse health effects, as a result of PCB contamination of their environment. Because previously unassessed environmental contamination is a common problem in the former Soviet Republics, as well as many other areas of the world, the authors believe this type of evaluation, using known methods, can serve as a model for assessment efforts in other parts of the globe and result in remediative efforts in regions constrained by faltering economies.

  1. A critical analysis and discussion of clinical research ethics in the Russian Federation and their implications for Western sponsored trials.

    PubMed

    Leintz, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    Globalization, political upheavals, and Western economic struggles have caused a geographical reprioritization in the realm of drug development and human clinical research. Regulatory and cost hurdles as well as a saturation of research sites and subjects in Western countries have forced the pharmaceutical industry to place an unprecedented level of importance on emerging markets, injecting Western corporate initiatives into cultures historically and socially isolated from Western-centric value systems. One of the greatest recipients of this onslaught of Western business and research practices is the Russian Federation. Namely, market forces are dictating a focused research initiative in the traditional emerging markets, but this focus may be at the expense of individual and societal dignity. PMID:22846056

  2. Specifics of Chemical Toxilogical Analyses in the Russian Federation for the Purpose of Identification of Narcotics in Biological Matters

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, Cameron W; Eisele, Gerhard R

    2011-01-01

    The Russian Federation (RF) is committed to implementing a comprehensive drug testing program under its Personnel Reliability Program (PRP) for military personnel involved in handling sensitive nuclear materials. This commitment leads to a number of mandatory requirements for the laboratory conducting the confirmation testing to ensure the legitimacy and integrity of the testing process. These requirements are established by the RF Duma to ensure that individuals conducting these tests have adequate training, certifications, and experience to conduct narcotic confirmation tests. This paper describes the facility requirements and personnel qualifications needed for conducting comprehensive drug abuse confirmation testing. Details regarding the personnel training and laboratory experience in the theory and practice of analytical forensic toxicology of drugs of abuse will be presented, as well as the facility requirements for the laboratory conducting such tests. Chain-of-custody, from sample receipt through completion of testing, reporting of results, and continuing until final disposition of specimens will be addressed.

  3. The control and management of the sexually transmitted diseases: a comparison of the United Kingdom and the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Renton, A M; Borisenko, K K; Tichonova, L I; Akovbian, V A

    1999-10-01

    During the last 20 years, both the United Kingdom and the Russian Federation have seen changes to clinical services for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) health systems and other mechanisms through which STDs are controlled. In the UK these changes followed the description of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); its causal agent. In Russia, the breakdown of the Soviet Union following glasnost and perestroika, and its associated political, social and economic changes generated substantial developments to the ideological and legislative framework within which STD control is achieved as well as a revolution in the financial base upon which clinical STD services operate. The purpose of this paper is to sketch these developments in STD services within the 2 countries to provide a context for the series of papers presented in this edition. PMID:10582633

  4. Determining effective technology transfer mechanisms: A case study in the Russian Federation

    SciTech Connect

    Colangelo, R.V.; Reistroffer, E. ); Edgar, D.E.; Johnson, D.O. )

    1992-01-01

    In order to transfer technology efficiently, it is essential to define the cultural context in which the technologies have been developed and currently reside. As a participant in the International Technology Exchange Program (ITEP), the Environmental Planning Group, Inc. (EPG), had the opportunity to study environmental and energy programs in Russia. EPG found that the unstable political situation in Russia, the inadequate funding in the Russian scientific community, and the withdrawal of government support for research have created new opportunities for accessing technology. EPG concluded that knowledge of the structure of the government and the organization of the scientific community and an understanding of current business practices are fundamental to the creation of successful technology transfer mechanisms.

  5. Determining effective technology transfer mechanisms: A case study in the Russian Federation

    SciTech Connect

    Colangelo, R.V.; Reistroffer, E.; Edgar, D.E.; Johnson, D.O.

    1992-11-01

    In order to transfer technology efficiently, it is essential to define the cultural context in which the technologies have been developed and currently reside. As a participant in the International Technology Exchange Program (ITEP), the Environmental Planning Group, Inc. (EPG), had the opportunity to study environmental and energy programs in Russia. EPG found that the unstable political situation in Russia, the inadequate funding in the Russian scientific community, and the withdrawal of government support for research have created new opportunities for accessing technology. EPG concluded that knowledge of the structure of the government and the organization of the scientific community and an understanding of current business practices are fundamental to the creation of successful technology transfer mechanisms.

  6. Medico-ecological zoning of the territory of the Russian Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubovtseva, Yu. S.; Kagan, A. I.; Pyatigina, O. O.; Voronova, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    The medico-ecological state of Russian regions has been analyzed on the basis of statistical data. It is found that the incidence of different groups of diseases varies significantly in different regions. The regions of Russia are classified according to their medico-ecological parameters; the zones of maximal health risk caused by environmental pollutions, including air, water and soil pollution, are determined. The proposed methods for zoning by health level and the estimate of medico-ecological conditions in different administrative units provide the basis for the development of measures for the adaptation of population. These data can be used for the control of sanitary measures planned by regional organizations for the social-ecological protection of the population.

  7. [VACCINE-ASSOCIATED PARALYTIC POLIOMYELITIS IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION DURING THE PERIOD OF CHANGES IN VACCINATION SCHEDULE (2006-2013 yy.)].

    PubMed

    Ivanova, O E; Eremeeva, T P; Morozova, N S; Shakaryan, A K; Gmyl, A P; Yakovenko, M L; Korotkova, E A; Chernjavskaja, O P; Baykova, O Yu; Silenova, O V; Krasota, A Yu; Krasnoproshina, L I; Mustafina, A N; Kozlovskaja, L I

    2016-01-01

    doses, 1.4 cases per million newborns and 1 case per 1.9 million doses, 4.9 cases per 1 million newborns, respectively. The study has been financed from Russian Federation budget within the framework of the Program for eradication of poliomyelitis in the Russian Federation, WHO Polio eradication initiative, WHO's European Regional Bureau, Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project No. 15-15-00147). PMID:27145594

  8. Celebrating the 65th anniversary of the Russian Federal Nuclear Center — All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 6 October 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-04-01

    A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) took place on 6 October 2010 in the Conference Hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS (FIAN) on the occasion of the 65th anniversary of founding of the Russian Federal Nuclear Center — All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF).The agenda of the session announced on the website www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division listed the following reports: (1) Ilkaev R I (RFNC-VNIIEF, Sarov, Nizhny Novgorod region). Opening remarks "On the fundamental physics research programs at RFNC-VNIIEF" (2) Mikhailov A L (RFNC-VNIIEF, Sarov, Nizhny Novgorod region) "Hydrodynamic instabilities in various media"; (3) Trunin R F (RFNC-VNIIEF, Sarov, Nizhny Novgorod region) "Study of extreme states of metals using shock waves"; (4) Ivanovskii A V (RFNC-VNIIEF, Sarov, Nizhny Novgorod region) "Explosive magnetic energy generators and their application in research"; (5) Podurets A M (RFNC-VNIIEF, Sarov, Nizhny Novgorod region) "X-ray studies of the structure of matter in shock waves"; (6) Garanin S G (RFNC-VNIIEF, Sarov, Nizhny Novgorod region) "High-power lasers in studies of the physics of hot, dense plasma and thermonuclear fusion"; (7) Selemir V D (RFNC-VNIIEF, Sarov, Nizhny Novgorod region) "Physics research in ultrahigh magnetic fields"; (8) Mkhitar'yan L S (RFNC-VNIIEF, Sarov, Nizhny Novgorod region) "Gasdynamic thermonuclear fusion."Articles based on reports 1-7 are published below. An extended version of report 3 written as a review paper will be published in a later issue of Physics-Uspekhi. • Fundamental physics research at the All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics, R I Ilkaev Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 4, Pages 387-392 • Hydrodynamic instabilities, A L Mikhailov, N V Nevmerzhitskii, V A Raevskii Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 4, Pages 392-397 • Extreme states of metals: investigation using shock

  9. Structural organization of the genome of SARS-associated coronavirus (Strain SoD) isolated on the territory of the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G; Govorun, V M; Sergienko, V I; Akopian, T A; Momynaliev, K T; Vereshchagin, V A; Lazarev, V N; Vasilev, N T; Markov, V I; Merkulov, V A; Maksimov, V A; Melnikov, V A; Lopukhin, Yu M

    2004-02-01

    Complete nucleotide cDNA sequence (29715 nucleotides) of SARS-associated coronavirus (strain SoD) isolated for the first time in the territory of the Russian Federation was determined. Phylogenetic analysis revealed maximum similarity between strain SoD genome and Frankfurt 1 strain genome. Three nucleotide substitutions determining two amino acid substitutions were detected. PMID:15273774

  10. 77 FR 72820 - Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From the Russian Federation; 2010-2011...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... Agreement, 77 FR 32513 (June 1, 2012) (``Preliminary Results''). In its Preliminary Results, the Department... Agreement was no longer fulfilling its statutory requirement. See Preliminary Results, 77 FR at 32516. The... Products from the Russian Federation; Request for Comment, 77 FR 70142 (November 23, 2012). The...

  11. Economic transition and environmental sustainability: effects of economic restructuring on air pollution in the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Cherp, Aleg; Kopteva, Irina; Mnatsakanian, Ruben

    2003-06-01

    Economic liberalization in former socialist countries may have various implications for their environmental sustainability. Positive effects of this process are potentially associated with improved efficiency, investments into cleaner technologies, responsiveness to environmentally aware markets, and ending subsidies to heavy industries. On the other hand, market liberalization may result in weaker environmental controls, economic instabilities distracting attention from environmental issues, and increasing orientation towards profit-making leading to more intensive exploitation of natural resources. In addition, trade liberalization may result in shifts towards more pollution and resource-intensive industries. This article seeks to quantify effects of economic restructuring in Russia on air pollution from productive economic sectors in the 1990s. Air pollution in Russia had significantly declined in 1991-1999, however, this decline was largely due to economic decline, as the overall pollution intensity of the economy had decreased only slightly. The factors that affected the pollution intensity are: (1) a decrease in the combined share of industrial and transport activities in the economy and (2) changing pollution intensities of the industrial and transport sectors. The pollution intensity of the Russian industry had remained relatively stable during the 1990s. This was the result of the two opposite and mutually canceling trends: (a) increasing shares of pollution-intensive branches such as metal smelting and oil production vs. less pollution intensive manufacturing and (b) decline in pollution intensities within the industrial branches. The article proposes a methodology by which the contribution of both factors to the overall pollution intensity of the industrial sector can be quantified. The pollution intensity of the Russian transport sector appears to have declined in the first half of the 1990s and increased in the second half. The most recent trend can be

  12. Cenoses of phototrophic algae of ultrasaline lakes in the Kulunda steppe (Altai krai, Russian Federation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapozhnikov, Ph. V.; Kalinina, O. Yu.; Nikitin, M. A.; Samylina, O. S.

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, expeditions of the Institute of Microbiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, delivered samples of algo-bacterial mats from Kulunda steppe alkaline lakes (Petukhovskoe alkaline lake, Tanatar VI, and Gorchina III). The filamentous alga Ctenocladus circinnatus (Chlorophyta) acted as an edificator of the mats. The composition of cenoses algocomponents also included chlorophytes Dunaliella viridis and Picocystis salinarum as well as diatoms Anomeoneis sphaerophora, Brachysira brebissonii, B. zellensis, Mastogloia pusilla var. subcapitata, Nitzschia amphibia, N. cf. communis, and Nitzschia sp. 1. The composition and structure of phototrophic algae cenoses (including diatom taxocenes) were described for the investigated lakes for the first time. For the period from 2011 to 2012, the total mineralization significantly increased in lakes. This involved sensible alterations of cenoses. B. zellensis was the most permanent component of diatom taxocenes in both seasons. In the summer of 2011, it was often accompanied by A. sphaerophora and B. brebissonii. In the summer of 2012, A. sphaerophora was found only singularly in Lake Gorchina III, and some biotopes of Lake Tanatar VI were massively inhabited by N. cf. communis, including colonies that had not been previously described for the species. The genetic analysis of three diatoms, which are markedly different from each other in their appearance and were sampled from different lakes but were all determined as Nitzschia cf. communis, showed their complete similarity to each other with the 18S rRNA gene fragment and the highest similarity of all the three diatoms with the species Nitzschia communis.

  13. Social and Demographic Problems of Young People in the Russian Federation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ermakov, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in reproductive behavior among young people in Russia, changing patterns of marriage and family formation, and high death rates among males are all affecting Russia's human capital potential, and public policy reforms will need to take this into account. The new Federal Law "On Youth Policy" represents an important stage…

  14. Multi-year black carbon emissions from cropland burning in the Russian Federation utilizing satellite fire data and agricultural statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarty, J.; Ellicott, E.; Romanenkov, V.; Rukhovitch, D.; Koroleva, P.

    2012-04-01

    Cropland fires are an important source of black carbon (BC) emissions. Previous research has suggested that springtime cropland burning in Eastern Europe, and more specifically Russia, is a main source of BC in the Arctic atmosphere, acting as a short-lived climate forcer strongly influencing snow-ice albedo and radiation transmission in the atmosphere above the Arctic. BC emissions from cropland burning were estimated for the Russian Federation for years 2003 through 2009 using three satellite fire products, the 1 km MODIS Active Fire Product, 0.5° MODIS Fire Radiative Power monthly climate modeling grid product, and the 500 m MODIS Burned Area Product. Agricultural statistics published by the Russian government were also used to estimate BC emissions from a modified approach developed and published by the All-Russian Institute of Organic Peat and Fertilizers to estimate farm- and regional-level residue loading based on straw surplus left after grain harvesting, while accounting for agricultural management and agrometeorological inputs. The satellite-based emission calculations utilized several different land cover classification schemas for defining croplands in Russia for both the 1 km MODIS Land Cover Product and the 300m MERIS GlobCover v2.2 data sets. In general, the peaks of BC emissions from cropland burning occurred during the spring (April - May), summer (July - August), and the fall (October). 2008 had the highest annual BC emissions. The range of average annual BC emissions from cropland burning calculated from the different satellite products was 2.49 Gg to 22.2 Gg, with the agricultural statistics approach annual average equal to 8.90 Gg. The Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) version 3 estimated average annual BC emissions from agricultural fires in Russia for this time period to be 11.9 Gg. The majority of BC emissions from the Fire Radiative Power, Burned Area, and Active Fire satellite analyses originated in European Russia, followed by

  15. Planning, Preparation, and Transport of the High-Enriched Uranium Spent Nuclear Fuel from the Czech Republic to the Russian Federation

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Tyacke; I. Bolshinsky; Frantisek Svitak

    2007-10-01

    The United States, Russian Federation, and the International Atomic Energy Agency have been working together on a program called the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) Program, which is part of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative. The purpose of this program is to return Soviet or Russian-supplied high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel, currently stored at Russian-designed research reactors throughout the world, to Russia. In February 2003, the RRRFR Program began discussions with the Nuclear Research Institute (NRI) in Rež, Czech Republic, about returning their HEU spent nuclear fuel to the Russian Federation for reprocessing. In March 2005, the U.S. Department of Energy signed a contract with NRI to perform all activities needed for transporting their HEU spent nuclear fuel to Russia. After 2 years of intense planning, preparations, and coordination at NRI and with three other countries, numerous organizations and agencies, and a Russian facility, this shipment is scheduled for completion before the end of 2007. This paper will provide a summary of activities completed for making this international shipment. This paper contains an introduction and background of the RRRFR Program and the NRI shipment project. It summarizes activities completed in preparation for the shipment, including facility preparations at NRI in Rež and FSUE “Mayak” in Ozyorsk, Russia; a new transportation cask system; regulatory approvals; transportation planning and preparation in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation though completion of the Unified Project and Special Ecological Programs. The paper also describes fuel loading and cask preparations at NRI and final preparations/approvals for transporting the shipment across the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation to FSUE Mayak where the HEU spent nuclear fuel will be processed, the uranium will be downblended and made into low-enriched uranium fuel for commercial reactor

  16. Understanding HIV Risk Behavior among Tuberculosis Patients with Alcohol Use Disorders in Tomsk, Russian Federation

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Ann C.; Nelson, A. Katrina; Livchits, Viktoria; Greenfield, Shelly F.; Yanova, Galina; Yanov, Sergei; Connery, Hilary S.; Atwood, Sidney; Lastimoso, Charmaine S.; Shin, Sonya S.

    2016-01-01

    Russian Federation’s (RF) HIV epidemic is the fastest growing of any country. This study explores factors associated with high HIV risk behavior in tuberculosis (TB) patients with alcohol use disorders in Tomsk, RF. This analysis was nested within the Integrated Management of Physician-delivered Alcohol Care for TB Patients (IMPACT, trial number NCT00675961) randomized controlled study of integrating alcohol treatment into TB treatment in Tomsk. Demographics, HIV risk behavior (defined as participant report of high-risk intravenous drug use and/or multiple sexual partners with inconsistent condom use in the last six months), clinical data, alcohol use, depression and psychosocial factors were collected from 196 participants (161 male and 35 female) at baseline. Forty-six participants (23.5%) endorsed HIV risk behavior at baseline. Incarceration history(Odds Ratio (OR)3.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.95, 7.95), age under 41 (OR:2.97, CI:1.46, 6.04), drug addiction(OR: 3.60 CI:1.10, 11.77), history of a sexually transmitted disease(STD)(OR 2.00 CI:1.02, 3.90), low social capital (OR:2.81 CI:0.99, 8.03) and heavier alcohol use (OR:2.56 CI: 1.02, 6.46) were significantly more likely to be associated with HIV risk behavior at baseline. In adjusted analysis, age under 41(OR: 4.93, CI: 2.10, 11.58), incarceration history(OR: 3.56 CI:1.55, 8.17) and STD history (OR: 3.48, CI: 1.5, 8.10) continued to be significantly associated with HIV risk behavior. Understanding HIV transmission dynamics in Russia remains an urgent priority to inform strategies to address the epidemic. Larger studies addressing sex differences in risks and barriers to protective behavior are needed. PMID:26871943

  17. Internet Search and Krokodil in the Russian Federation: An Infoveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Krokodil is an informal term for a cheap injectable illicit drug domestically prepared from codeine-containing medication (CCM). The method of krokodil preparation may produce desomorphine as well as toxic reactants that cause extensive tissue necrosis. The first confirmed report of krokodil use in Russia took place in 2004. In 2012, reports of krokodil-related injection injuries began to appear beyond Russia in Western Europe and the United States. Objective This exploratory study had two main objectives: (1) to determine if Internet search patterns could detect regularities in behavioral responses to Russian CCM policy at the population level, and (2) to determine if complementary data sources could explain the regularities we observed. Methods First, we obtained krokodil-related search pattern data for each Russia subregion (oblast) between 2011 and 2012. Second, we analyzed several complementary data sources included krokodil-related court cases, and related search terms on both Google and Yandex to evaluate the characteristics of terms accompanying krokodil-related search queries. Results In the 6 months preceding CCM sales restrictions, 21 of Russia's 83 oblasts had search rates higher than the national average (mean) of 16.67 searches per 100,000 population for terms associated with krokodil. In the 6 months following restrictions, mean national searches dropped to 9.65 per 100,000. Further, the number of oblasts recording a higher than average search rate dropped from 30 to 16. Second, we found krokodil-related court appearances were moderately positively correlated (Spearman correlation=.506, P≤.001) with behaviors consistent with an interest in the production and use of krokodil across Russia. Finally, Google Trends and Google and Yandex related terms suggested consistent public interest in the production and use of krokodil as well as for CCM as analgesic medication during the date range covered by this study. Conclusions Illicit drug use

  18. Characteristics of Populations of the Russian Federation over the Panel of Fifteen Loci Used for DNA Identification and in Forensic Medical Examination

    PubMed Central

    A Stepanov, V.; Balanovsky, O.P.; Melnikov, A.V.; Lash-Zavada, A.Yu.; Khar’kov, V.N.; Tyazhelova, T.V.; Akhmetova, V.L.; Zhukova, O.V.; Shneider, Yu.V.; Shil’nikova, I.N.; Borinskaya, S.A.; Marusin, A.V.; Spiridonova, M.G.; Simonova, K.V.; Khitrinskaya, I.Yu.; Radzhabov, M.O.; Romanov, A.G.; Shtygasheva, O.V.; Koshel’, S.M.; Balanovskaya, E.V.; Rybakova, A.V.; Khusnutdinova, E.K.; Puzyrev, V.P.; Yankovsky, N.K.

    2011-01-01

    Seventeen population groups within the Russian Federation were characterized for the first time using a panel of 15 genetic markers that are used for DNA identification and in forensic medical examinations. The degree of polymorphism and population diversity of microsatellite loci within the Power Plex system (Promega) in Russian populations; the distribution of alleles and genotypes within the populations of six cities and 11 ethnic groups of the Russian Federation; the levels of intra- and interpopulation genetic differentiation of population; genetic relations between populations; and the identification and forensic medical characteristics of the system of markers under study were determined. Significant differences were revealed between the Russian populations and the U.S. reference base that was used recently in the forensic medical examination of the RF. A database of the allelic frequencies of 15 microsatellite loci that are used for DNA identification and forensic medical examination was created; the database has the potential of becoming the reference for performing forensic medical examinations in Russia. The spatial organization of genetic diversity over the panel of the STR markers that are used for DNA identification was revealed. It represents the general regularities of geographical clusterization of human populations over various types of genetic markers. The necessity to take into account a population’s genetic structure during forensic medical examinations and DNA identification of criminal suspects was substantiated. PMID:22649684

  19. Current state, problems, and prospects of development of the fuel and power industry of the Russian Federation

    SciTech Connect

    Shatalov, A.T.

    1994-09-01

    Despite the political and territorial changes that have occurred in the former USSR, the Russian Federation as before remains the core of the entire energy supply system of countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the three Baltic States, as well as an exporter of oil and gas to European countries. Demonstrated gas reserves in Russia amount to 47 trillion cubic meters and coal reserves more than 200 billion tons. With the dissolution of the USSR, the infrastructure of the entire region was affected. The main production of pipes remained in Ukraine and 80% of the production of oil equipment remained in Azerbaijan. The majority of underground gas storage facilities, refineries, and electric-power installations constructed during the past 20 years remained in Belarus, Baltic Countries, and Ukraine. To solve some of the problems, laws were passed that aimed at the formation of market relations in the economy and power industry. The transition to a market economy in the oil and gas industry should take 5-7 years and has a large effect on the overall markets reforms taking place. The article also outlines the history and present state of petroleum reserves and development in Russia.

  20. Seeing the trees within the forest: addressing the needs of children without parental care in the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Muhamedrahimov, Rifkat J; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, we comment on the dominant practice in high-resource societies of placing children without biological parental care (CwoBPC) into substitution families, and the promotion of this solution as evidence-based and state of the art. As the Russian Federation has formulated and is now addressing in matching legislation, it possibly overestimated the role of substitution families and underestimated the importance of specialized institutions in addressing the CwoBPC issue. Although we do not question the overall benefit of placing all CwoBPC in adequate family settings, we question the specifics of its realization in particular societies, including that of modern Russia. We argue for the importance of a mixed model, in which informed and supervised family placements are combined with high-quality family-environment institutional settings as the most appropriate model for middle- and, perhaps, even high-resource societies, especially for young children and children with disabilities. Diversifying placements based on the individual needs of each CwoBPC, especially children with special needs, is what is best for these children. PMID:25732021

  1. Forced migration and destination choice: Armenian forced settlers and refugees in the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Riddle, L A; Buckley, C

    1998-01-01

    The Soviet Republic has experienced major population shifts between its 15 states since 1991. Large numbers of refugees and forced migrants are seeking asylum from successor states in Russia. The Federal Migration Service (FMS) of Russia keeps official registers of refugees and forced settlers, facilitates resettlement, and integrates migrants into society. This study examined the role of the FMS in resettling dislocated persons from Armenia to Russia. Data were obtained from official sources. 49.8% of immigrants to Russia come from the Central Republics. However, Armenia's refugee and forced migrant population is a larger share of its total population (about 5%, compared to 4.4% of Central Asian republics). A 1993 survey revealed that about 70% of the urban populations in Erevan, Gyumri, and Ashtarak would leave Armenia if the opportunity arose. 50% wanted their children to emigrate. In 1989 and 1993, the top receiving areas in Russia were Krasnodarskii Krai, Rostovskaia, and Stavropolskii Krai. In 1989, about 60% of the Armenian population in Russia lived in these territories. Ordinary least squares models indicate that 30% of the variance in Armenian resettlement in Russia, was predicted by high concentrations of Armenian residents and cost of living. Other structural factors, such as unemployment, urbanization, or new construction, were unrelated. Findings suggest that individual choice may be more important in determining residential location than migration policy. PMID:12293797

  2. Lessons learned from the first U.S./Russian Federation joint tabletop exercise to prepare for conducting on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    SciTech Connect

    Filarowski, C; Gough, R; Hawkins, W; Knowles, S; Kreek, S; MacLeod, G; Rockett, P; Smith, A; Sweeney, J; Wild, J; Wohletz, K

    1999-03-24

    A U.S./Russian Federation Joint Tabletop Exercise took place in Snezhinsk, Russia, from 19 to 24 October 1998, whose objectives were the following: (1) To simulate the actions of the Inspection Team (IT), including interactions with the inspected State Party (ISP), in order to examine different ways the United States and Russian Federation (RF) approach inspections and develop appropriate recommendations for the international community. (2) To identify ambiguities and contradictions in the interpretation of Treaty and Protocol provisions that might become apparent in the course of an inspection and that need clarification in connection with the development of Operational Manuals and on-site inspection (OSI) infrastructure. (3) To confirm the efficacy of using bilateral tabletop exercises to assist in developing an effective Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification regime. (4) To identify strong and weak points in the preparation and implementation methods of such exercises for the purpose of further improving possible future exercises.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Geobacillus icigianus Strain G1w1T Isolated from Hot Springs in the Valley of Geysers, Kamchatka (Russian Federation)

    PubMed Central

    Bryanskaya, Alla V.; Logacheva, Maria D.; Kotenko, Anastasia V.; Peltek, Sergey E.

    2014-01-01

    The Geobacillus icigianus G1w1T strain was isolated from sludge samples of unnamed vaporing hydrothermal (97°С) outlets situated in a geyser in the Troinoy region (Valley of Geysers, Kronotsky Nature Reserve, Kamchatka, Russian Federation; 54°25′51.40″N, 160°7′41.40″E). The sequenced and annotated genome is 3,457,810 bp and encodes 3,342 genes. PMID:25342695

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Geobacillus icigianus Strain G1w1T Isolated from Hot Springs in the Valley of Geysers, Kamchatka (Russian Federation).

    PubMed

    Bryanskaya, Alla V; Rozanov, Aleksey S; Logacheva, Maria D; Kotenko, Anastasia V; Peltek, Sergey E

    2014-01-01

    The Geobacillus icigianus G1w1(T) strain was isolated from sludge samples of unnamed vaporing hydrothermal (97°С) outlets situated in a geyser in the Troinoy region (Valley of Geysers, Kronotsky Nature Reserve, Kamchatka, Russian Federation; 54°25'51.40″N, 160°7'41.40″E). The sequenced and annotated genome is 3,457,810 bp and encodes 3,342 genes. PMID:25342695

  5. Tda-russian oilfield study: Final report. Evaluation and identification study of Varyeganneftegas, Raduzhny, Western Siberia, Russian Federation, July-August, 1994. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The study, conducted by Avanti, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the Russian Production Association Varyeganneftegas Joint Stock Company (VNG JSC). The purpose of the report is to assist VNG JSC in evaluating and identifying the equipment necessary to rehabilitate its hydrocarbon resources, specifically its oil production. This is the first of two phases and it is divided into the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Background; (3) Drilling Operations and Practices; (4) Completion and Production; (6) Hydrocarbon Processing Operations; and (6) Procurement and Logistics.

  6. Cost-effectiveness analysis of tuberculosis control policies in Ivanovo Oblast, Russian Federation. Ivanovo Tuberculosis Project Study Group.

    PubMed

    Migliori, G B; Khomenko, A G; Punga, V V; Ambrosetti, M; Danilova, I; Ribka, L N; Grzemska, M; Sawert, H; Raviglione, M C

    1998-01-01

    Many of the current tuberculosis control programmes in the Russian Federation are based on costly strategies which are underfunded and use long, individualized treatment regimens. This article compares, using a cost-effectiveness analysis, the new WHO strategy implemented in the Ivanovo Oblast (case-finding among symptomatic patients (SCF) and shorter regimens) and the old strategy (active screening of the asymptomatic population (ACF) and longer regimens). The cost per case cured was calculated at different levels of cure rate (45-95%) using three scenarios to describe the new WHO strategy (use of WHO-recommended regimens and three options at increasing rates of admission) and a fourth scenario to describe the old strategy (all patients admitted for the whole treatment and longer regimens). The cost per case detected was determined by calculating the following: yield of the new and old strategy (number of examinations necessary to diagnose one case); cost of the diagnostic process; multiplying yield per cost according to the three scenarios describing the new WHO strategy and a fourth scenario describing the old strategy. In the Ivanovo Oblast the cost per case cured, at 85% cure rate level, ranged from US$ 1197 (new strategy, scenario 1 without food) to US$ 6293 (old strategy, scenario 4) the cost per case detected ranged from US$ 1581 (new strategy, scenario 1) to US$ 4000 (old strategy, scenario 4). Significant savings can result from shifting towards the new WHO strategy. Decision-makers and health administrators should be responsible for re-investing the financial and human resources mobilized by the adoption of cost-effective strategies within the TB control programme. PMID:9868838

  7. Proactive coping and spirituality among patients who left or remained in antiretroviral treatment in St Petersburg, Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Pecoraro, Anna; Pacciolla, Aureliano; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Mimiaga, Matthew; Kwiatek, Piotr; Blokhina, Elena; Verbitskaya, Elena; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Woody, George E

    2016-01-01

    Positive Psychology, the study of "positive" factors or strengths and evidence-based interventions to increase them, is a rapidly developing field that is beginning to be applied to HIV care. Proactive coping and spirituality are two positive characteristics that have been examined in multiple chronic serious health conditions. In the present study, lost-to-care (LTCs; did not attend treatment for ≥12 months; n = 120) and engaged-in-care HIV clinic patients (EICs; attended treatment for ≥12 months and adherent with antiretrovirals; n = 120) in Leningrad Oblast, Russian Federation were compared on the Proactive Coping Inventory and View of God Scale. EICs had higher scores in proactive coping [t(229) = 3.69; p = .001] and instrumental [t(232) = 2.17; p = .03] and emotional [t(233) = 2.33; p = .02] support, indicating that they engage in autonomous goal setting and self-regulate their thoughts and behaviors; obtain advice and support from their social network; and cope with emotional distress by turning to others. LTCs had higher scores in avoidance coping [t(236) = -2.31; p = .02]. More EICs were spiritual, religious, or both [ χ(2)(1, N = 239) = 7.49, p = .006]. EICs were more likely to believe in God/Higher Power [χ(2)(1, N = 239 = 8.89, p = .002] and an afterlife [ χ(2)(1, N = 236) = 5.11, p = .024]; have a relationship with God/Higher Power [ χ(2)(1, N = 237) = 12.76, p = .000]; and call on God/Higher Power for help, healing, or protection [ χ(2)(1, N = 239) = 9.61]. EICs had more positive [t(238) = 2.78; p = .006] and less negative [t(236) = -2.38; p = .002] views of God. Similar proportions, but slightly more EICs than LTCs were members of a faith community; members of a12-step group; or attended religious or spiritual services, meetings, or activities. More EICs than LTCs engaged in private spiritual or religious activities, such as

  8. Russian Contract Procurement Document

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J G

    2010-03-29

    This contract supports the enhancement of physical protection or nuclear material control and accounting systems at institutes or enterprises of the newly independent states under the material protection control and accounting (MPC&A) program. The contract is entered into pursuant to the MPC&A Program, a gratuitous technical assistance program, in accordance with the bilateral Agreements between the Russian Federation and the United States of America concerning the Safe and Secure Transportation, Storage and Destruction of Weapons and the Prevention of Weapons Proliferation of June 1992, as extended and amended by Protocol signed of June 1999, Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation regarding Cooperation in the Area of Nuclear Materials Physical Protection, Control and Accounting of October 1999 and the Russian Federation law of May 1999 on the taxation exemption of gratuitous technical assistance with Russian Federation under registration No.DOE001000.

  9. 45 CFR 95.635 - Disallowance of Federal financial participation for automated systems that fail to comply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for automated systems that fail to comply substantially with requirements. 95.635 Section 95.635 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATION...) Automatic Data Processing Equipment and Services-Conditions for Federal Financial Participation...

  10. 45 CFR 95.635 - Disallowance of Federal financial participation for automated systems that fail to comply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for automated systems that fail to comply substantially with requirements. 95.635 Section 95.635 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATION...) Automatic Data Processing Equipment and Services-Conditions for Federal Financial Participation...

  11. 45 CFR 95.635 - Disallowance of Federal financial participation for automated systems that fail to comply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for automated systems that fail to comply substantially with requirements. 95.635 Section 95.635 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATION...) Automatic Data Processing Equipment and Services-Conditions for Federal Financial Participation...

  12. 45 CFR 95.635 - Disallowance of Federal financial participation for automated systems that fail to comply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for automated systems that fail to comply substantially with requirements. 95.635 Section 95.635 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATION...) Automatic Data Processing Equipment and Services-Conditions for Federal Financial Participation...

  13. Attitudes and Beliefs of Pig Farmers and Wild Boar Hunters Towards Reporting of African Swine Fever in Bulgaria, Germany and the Western Part of the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Vergne, T; Guinat, C; Petkova, P; Gogin, A; Kolbasov, D; Blome, S; Molia, S; Pinto Ferreira, J; Wieland, B; Nathues, H; Pfeiffer, D U

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the attitudes and beliefs of pig farmers and hunters in Germany, Bulgaria and the western part of the Russian Federation towards reporting suspected cases of African swine fever (ASF). Data were collected using a web-based questionnaire survey targeting pig farmers and hunters in these three study areas. Separate multivariable logistic regression models identified key variables associated with each of the three binary outcome variables whether or not farmers would immediately report suspected cases of ASF, whether or not hunters would submit samples from hunted wild boar for diagnostic testing and whether or not hunters would report wild boar carcasses. The results showed that farmers who would not immediately report suspected cases of ASF are more likely to believe that their reputation in the local community would be adversely affected if they were to report it, that they can control the outbreak themselves without the involvement of veterinary services and that laboratory confirmation would take too long. The modelling also indicated that hunters who did not usually submit samples of their harvested wild boar for ASF diagnosis, and hunters who did not report wild boar carcasses are more likely to justify their behaviour through a lack of awareness of the possibility of reporting. These findings emphasize the need to develop more effective communication strategies targeted at pig farmers and hunters about the disease, its epidemiology, consequences and control methods, to increase the likelihood of early reporting, especially in the Russian Federation where the virus circulates. PMID:25100620

  14. Prevalence and risk factors for erectile dysfunction and lower urinary tract symptoms in Russian Federation men: analysis from a national population-based multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Korneyev, I A; Alexeeva, T A; Al-Shukri, S H; Bernikov, A N; Erkovich, A A; Kamalov, A A; Kogan, M I; Pavlov, V N; Zhuravlev, V N; Pushkar, D Y

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of prevalence and associated common risk factors of ED and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) was performed in Russian Federation by cross-sectional multicenter survey. International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) score and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) were used for data collection in 1225 men between 20 and 77 years interviewed in six regions of Russian Federation. In addition, each participant's social, demographic, lifestyle, sexual and medical history was taken with special emphasis on risk factors for ED. Upon the basis of IIEF erectile domain score interpretation, ED was found in 530 (48.9%) men, consisting of mild and mild to moderate, moderate and severe ED in 375 (34.6%), 78 (7.2%) and 77 (7.1%) respondents, respectively. According to IPSS assessment, LUTSs were present in 649 (59.9%) responders; inclusive 370 (34.2%), 216 (19.9%) and 63 (5.8%) men with mild, moderate and severe LUTS, respectively. Men with both ED and LUTS shared common co-morbidities and lifestyle risk factors with age-adjusted odds ratio between 1.2 and 5.2. In logistic regression model (R(2)=0.361), the strongest associated with ED factor found was IPSS symptom score, followed by hypertension, IPSS-related quality of life, age, diabetes mellitus, obesity and unmotivated fatigue. PMID:26865104

  15. Minatom of Russia Situation and Crisis Center and the Automated Federal Information System for Nuclear Material Control and Accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Berchik,V P; Kasumova,L A; Babcock,R A; Heinberg,C L; Tynan,D M

    2001-06-25

    Under the Situation and Crisis Center (SCC) management, the Information Analytical Center (IAC) of the Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom) of Russia was created to oversee the operation of the Federal Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Information System (FIS). During 2000, the FIS achieved an important milestone in its development: the basic functions of the information system were implemented. This includes placing into operation the collecting and processing of nuclear material control and accounting (MC&A) information from the enterprises reporting to the FIS. The FIS began working with 14 Russian enterprises to develop and implement full-function reporting (i.e., reporting inventory and inventory changes including closeout and reconciliation between the FIS and enterprises). In 2001, the system will expand to include enterprise-level inventory information for all enterprises using nuclear materials in Russia. For this reason, at the end of 2000 through the beginning of 2001, five separate training sessions were held for over 100 enterprise personnel responsible for preparation and transfer of the reports to the FIS. Through the assistance of the Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) program, information systems for the accounting of nuclear materials are being installed at Russia enterprises. In creating the program for modernization of the Russian Federation State System of Accounting and Control (SSAC) of nuclear material, the SCC conducted a survey of the enterprises to determine the readiness of their internal MC&A systems for reporting to the FIS. Based on the information from the survey and the results of the projects on creation of local information systems at Russian enterprises, the analysis of information and the technical aspects of MC&A systems identified deficiencies that were analyzed and recommendations for eliminating these deficiencies were proposed. The concentration of analytical and administrative functions at the

  16. Processes and outcomes of training on rapid assessment and response methods on injecting drug use and related HIV infection in the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Burrows; Trautmann; Frost; Bijl; Sarankov; Sarang; Chernenko

    2000-03-01

    In September 1997, Médecins Sans Frontières-Holland (MSF-H) began a project to provide training and support for HIV/AIDS prevention among injecting drug users (IDUs) in the Russian Federation, focusing on the use of the World Health Organization Rapid Assessment and Response Guide on Injecting Drug Use, and the European Peer Support Manual. As part of the training, participants are asked to carry out a rapid situation assessment (RSA) in their city or region as a major step towards designing and implementing an effective program to prevent HIV transmission among IDUs. This paper focuses on the first four training cycles of the programme (from January 1998 to January 1999), in which 89 health professionals and others from 32 Russian cities took part. A total of 28 rapid situation assessments were completed or almost completed by participants during these four cycles. The paper provides an overview of the methods used and major problems faced by participants undertaking these assessments, as well as summarising the 14 harm reduction programmes which resulted. PMID:10699552

  17. Preparation of the Second Shipment of Spent Nuclear Fuel from the Ustav Jaderneho Vyzkumu Rez (UJV Rez), a.s., Czech Republic to the Russian Federation for Reprocessing - 13478

    SciTech Connect

    Trtilek, Radek; Podlaha, Josef

    2013-07-01

    After more than 50 years of operation of the LVR-15 research reactor operated by the UJV Rez, a. s. (formerly Nuclear Research Institute - NRI), a large amount of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of Russian origin has been accumulated. In 2005 UJV Rez, a. s. jointed the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) program under the United States (US) - Russian Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) and started the process of SNF shipment from the LVR-15 research reactor back to the Russian Federation (RF). In 2007 the first shipment of SNF was realized. In 2011, preparation of the second shipment of spent fuel from the Czech Republic started. The experience obtained from the first shipment will be widely used, but some differences must be taken into the account. The second shipment will be realized in 2013 and will conclude the return transport of all, both fresh and spent, high-enriched nuclear fuel from the Czech Republic to the Russian Federation. After the shipment is completed, there will be only low-enriched nuclear fuel on the territory of the Czech Republic, containing maximum of 20% of U-235, which is the conventionally recognized limit between the low- and high-enriched nuclear materials. The experience (technical, organizational, administrative, logistic) obtained from the each SNF shipment as from the Czech Republic as from other countries using the Russian type research reactors are evaluated and projected onto preparation of next shipment of high enriched nuclear fuel back to the Russian Federation. The results shown all shipments provided by the UJV Rez, a. s. in the frame of the GTRI Program have been performed successfully and safely. It is expected the experience and results will be applied to preparation and completing of the Chinese Miniature Neutron Source Reactors (MNSR) Spent Nuclear Fuel Repatriation in the near future. (authors)

  18. Lost-to-Care and Engaged-in-Care HIV Patients in Leningrad Oblast, Russian Federation: Barriers and Facilitators to Medical Visit Retention

    PubMed Central

    Pecoraro, Anna; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; O’Cleirigh, Conall; Safren, Steven A.; Blokhina, Elena; Verbitskaya, Elena; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Dvoriak, Sergii; Woody, George

    2014-01-01

    Sixty-nine percent of the 1.5 million Eastern Europeans and Central Asians with HIV live in the Russian Federation (RF). Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is effective but cannot help those who leave treatment. Focus groups with patients who dropped out of ART for ≥ 12 months (Lost-to-Care, LTCs, n=21), or continued for ≥ 12 months (Engaged-in-Care; EICs; n= 24) were conducted in St. Petersburg. Structural barriers included: stigma/discrimination; and problems with providers and accessing treatment. Individual barriers included: employment and caring for dependents; inaccurate beliefs about ART (LTC only); side-effects; substance use (LTCs, present; EICs, past); and depression. Desire to live, social support, and spirituality were facilitators for both; EICs also identified positive thinking and experiences with ART and healthcare/professionals. Interventions to facilitate retention and adherence are discussed. PMID:24666174

  19. Lost-to-care and engaged-in-care HIV patients in Leningrad Oblast, Russian Federation: barriers and facilitators to medical visit retention.

    PubMed

    Pecoraro, Anna; Mimiaga, Matthew J; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Safren, Steven A; Blokhina, Elena; Verbitskaya, Elena; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Dvoriak, Sergii; Woody, George

    2014-01-01

    Sixty-nine percent of the 1.5 million Eastern Europeans and Central Asians with HIV live in the Russian Federation. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is effective but cannot help those who leave treatment. Focus groups with patients who dropped out of ART for ≥12 months (lost-to-care, LTCs, n = 21) or continued for ≥12 months (engaged-in-care; EICs; n = 24) were conducted in St. Petersburg. Structural barriers included stigma/discrimination and problems with providers and accessing treatment. Individual barriers included employment and caring for dependents, inaccurate beliefs about ART (LTC only), side-effects, substance use (LTCs, present; EICs, past), and depression. Desire to live, social support, and spirituality were facilitators for both; EICs also identified positive thinking and experiences with ART and healthcare/professionals. Interventions to facilitate retention and adherence are discussed. PMID:24666174

  20. Comments on Presentation on Industrial Nuclear Explosion Sites in the Russian Federation: Recovery and Institutional Monitoring Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, Donald J.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. National Academy of Sciences selected 6 U.S. scientists to review papers prepared by Russian specialists in 6 specific areas of radioactive waste management concern. As one of the U.S. specialists selected, Don Bradley attended a meeting in Moscow, Russia where the papers were formally presented. Following the presentation, eah one was critiqued by the U.S. specialist. In Mr. Bradley's case the topic was contamination at Peaceful Nuclear Explosion test sites (PNE's). The formal title of the meeting was: "Cleaning Up Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Materials". Following discussions with the U.S. team, each of the U.S. specialists was charged with writing up a short comment paper for the U.S. Academy of Sciences. This is Mr. Bradley's comments on the presentation by Kasatkin V.V., Kamnev Ye.N. and Ilyichev V.A. (Rosatom, FGUP VNIPIpromtechnologii) .

  1. Universal health coverage in emerging economies: findings on health care utilization by older adults in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, the Russian Federation, and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Williams, Jennifer Stewart; Kowal, Paul; Negin, Joel; Snodgrass, James Josh; Yawson, Alfred; Minicuci, Nadia; Thiele, Liz; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Biritwum, Richard Berko; Naidoo, Nirmala; Chatterji, Somnath

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective The achievement of universal health coverage (UHC) in emerging economies is a high priority within the global community. This timely study uses standardized national population data collected from adults aged 50 and older in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, the Russian Federation, and South Africa. The objective is to describe health care utilization and measure association between inpatient and outpatient service use and patient characteristics in these six low- and middle-income countries. Design Secondary analysis of data from the World Health Organization’s Study on global AGEing and adult health Wave 1 was undertaken. Country samples are compared by socio-demographic characteristics, type of health care, and reasons for use. Logistic regressions describe association between socio-demographic and health factors and inpatient and outpatient service use. Results In the pooled multi-country sample of over 26,000 adults aged 50-plus, who reported getting health care the last time it was needed, almost 80% of men and women received inpatient or outpatient care, or both. Roughly 30% of men and women in the Russian Federation used inpatient services in the previous 3 years and 90% of men and women in India used outpatient services in the past year. In China, public hospitals were the most frequently used service type for 52% of men and 51% of women. Multivariable regression showed that, compared with men, women were less likely to use inpatient services and more likely to use outpatient services. Respondents with two or more chronic conditions were almost three times as likely to use inpatient services and twice as likely to use outpatient services compared with respondents with no reported chronic conditions. Conclusions This study provides a basis for further investigation of country-specific responses to UHC. PMID:25363363

  2. Minority Languages of the Russian Federation: Perspectives for a Ratification of the European Charter of Regional and Minority Languages. Mercator Working Papers = Las lenguas minoritarias de la Federacion Rusa Perspectivas para una ratificacion de la Carta Europea de las Lenguas Regionales y Minoritarias. Mercator Documentos de trabajo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieytez, Eduardo J. Ruiz

    This paper describes the linguistic plurality of the Russian Federation, assessing the impact that the hypothetical ratification of the European Charter of Regional and Minority Languages could have on it. Four sections focus on the following: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Part 1--The Linguistic Plurality of the Russian Federation": the linguistic…

  3. Russian Folktales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Anne

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of Russian folktales suggests a structured approach to introducing the characters, settings, and motifs in an elementary classroom. Highlights include beginner-level texts; connections to Russian culture; writing connections; activities; and an annotated bibliography of 32 titles. (LRW)

  4. The VNIIEF/LANL collaboration : ten years of scientific benefit to the Russian Federation and the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Lindemuth, I. R.; Fowler, C. M.; Reinovsky, R. E.; Chernyshev, Vladimir K.; Mokhov, Vladislav N.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1992, the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the institutes that designed the first nuclear weapons of the Soviet Union and the United States, respectively, have been working together in fundamental research related to pulsed power technology and high energy density science. Experimental and theoretical work has been performed at Sarov and Los Alamos in areas as diverse as imploding liner physics and applications, fusion plasma formation, isentropic compression of noble gases, and explosively driven high current generation technology, all traditional areas of the Megagauss series of conferences. Recent joint work has focused on the Atlas capacitor bank (23 MJ, 30 MA, 6 ps) now operational at LANL. Even before Atlas became operational, VNIIEF's DEMG capability was used to provide the US with the first available data at ATLAS! upper performance limit (31 MA, 4 ps, 12 km/s velocity for 50 g liner mass). VNIIEF has recently designed and fielded imploding liner experiments on Atlas, with the goal of studying material strength properties by observing unstable perturbation growth. This paper traces the origins of this collaboration and reviews the scientific accomplishments.

  5. 78 FR 61333 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From the Russian Federation; 2012; Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... Federation, 68 FR 3859 (January 27, 2003). On January 31, 2013, Nucor submitted a request for an... Suspended Investigation; Opportunity to Request Administrative Review, 78 FR 288 (January 3, 2013). The... Revocation in Part, 78 FR 13631 (February 28, 2013). The Department examined U.S. Customs and...

  6. 76 FR 12938 - Magnesium Metal From the Russian Federation: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... Federation: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews, 75 FR 29976 (May 28, 2010). On December 17, 2010... Administrative Determination Deadlines Pursuant to the Tariff Act of 1930, As Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10,...

  7. 76 FR 47143 - Opportunity for U.S. Businessmen and Women To Train in the Russian Federation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... working in the other country. Under the U.S.-Russia Management Training Exchange Program, early-career U.S... Federation. The training program is scheduled to take place in the Sverdlovsk region. DATES: The program will take place in late September 2011. The application is due by Friday, August 12, 2011....

  8. Current and recent drug use intensifies sexual and structural HIV risk outcomes among female sex workers in the Russian Federation

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz, AL; Peryshkina, A; Moguilnyi, V; Beyrer, C; Decker, MR

    2016-01-01

    Background Female sex workers (FSW) and people who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk for HIV infection, with FSW-PWID at even greater risk. HIV-related research often focuses on the primary mode of transmission –sexual or parenteral transmission for FSW and PWID, respectively- with less known on how sex work and injection drug use (IDU) are collectively associated with the risk environment experienced by sex workers. We investigated this relationship among FSW in three Russian cities. Methods In 2011, FSWs (N=754) in Tomsk, Krasnoyarsk, and Kazan were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and completed a survey and rapid HIV screening. Multivariable models evaluated the role of injection history (classified as active: last 6 months, former: prior to last 6 months, and never) with a set of sexual and structural HIV risk outcomes. Results IDU was common: 11% actively injected drugs and 11% were former injectors. HIV infection was most prevalent among active injectors (AOR: 6.7; 95% CI:2.4–18.9) and former injectors (AOR:4.5; 95%CI:1.7–11.6), compared to non-injectors. Some 6–8% of non-injecting FSWs reported recent physical or sexual client violence and 23% police extortion. Compared to these non-injectors, active injecting was associated with unprotected anal sex (AOR: 2.8, 95%CI:1.2–6.4), client violence (AOR: 7.3, 95%CI:2.1–24.7), and police extortion (AOR: 3.0 95%CI:1.5–5.9%). Self-reported sexual and structural risk outcomes were also more prevalent among active compared to former injectors; however, few differences existed between former and non-injectors. Conclusions FSW experience sexual, structural, and HIV risk outcomes and these risks are amplified for actively injecting FSWs. FSW who stopped injecting drugs demonstrated risk profiles closer to those of sex workers who had no history of injection. HIV prevention programs and outreach can provide opportunities to include harm reduction interventions and linkage to treatment for FSW to

  9. [Systemic Antimicrobials Consumption and Expenditures in Departments of Surgery of Multi-Profile Hospitals in the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus: Results of Multicentre Pharmacoepidemiological Study].

    PubMed

    Belkova, Yu A; Rachina, S A; Kozlov, R S; Mishchenko, V M; Pavlukov, R A; Abubakirova, A I; Berezhanskiy, B V; Eliseeva, E V; Zubareva, N A; Karpov, I A; Kopylova, I A; Palyutin, Sh Kh; Portnyagina, U S; Pribytkova, O V; Samuylo, E K

    2016-01-01

    The results of the systemic antimicrobials (AM) consumption and expenditures assessment in the departments of surgery of multi-profile hospitals in different regions of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus in 2009-2010 based on retrospective collection and analysis of the data from the hospital expenditure notes using ATC/DDD methodology are presented. The average AM consumption and expenditure rates in the above mentioned departments varied from 24.9 DDD/100 bed-days to 61.7 DDD/100 bed-days depending on the department profile, with beta-lactams (cephalosporins and penicillins) share in the consumption being as high as 70-90%, followed by fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. Only 55-70% of the consumed AM belonged to the drugs of choice, whereas the improper AM consumption and expenditure rates amounted up to 10-18%. The study outputs can be used for the budget allocation and AM distribution improvement in the departments of surgery, as well as for the development and efficacy control of the local antimicrobial stewardship programs. PMID:27337864

  10. Attitudes towards war, killing, and punishment of children among young people in Estonia, Finland, Romania, the Russian Federation, and the USA.

    PubMed Central

    McAlister, A.; Sandström, P.; Puska, P.; Veijo, A.; Chereches, R.; Heidmets, L. T.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the cultural differences in moral disengagement, which lends support to attitudes used to justify violence. METHODS: We carried out classroom surveys of a total of 3122 students in the USA (Houston, TX, and Washington, DC) and in four European countries--Estonia (Tartu), Finland (Helsinki), Romania (Satu Mare) and the Russian Federation (St Petersburg). Data were also taken from a random sample telephone survey of 341 young adults (aged 18-35 years) in Texas, USA. Ten distinct groups were studied. Seven questions were common to all the surveys, using identical statements about the participants' agreement with attitudes relating to war, diplomacy, killing, and the punishment of children. FINDINGS: The US students were more likely than those in Europe to agree with the following statements: "War is necessary" (20% vs 9%), "A person has the right to kill to defend property" (54% vs 17%), and "Physical punishment is necessary for children" (27% vs 10%). Justification of war and killing was less common among females than males in all groups; other differences within the US groups and the European groups were smaller than the differences between the US and European groups. CONCLUSION: The results confirm the gap between the US and European groups in moral disengagement attitudes and tendencies that could lead to deadly violence. PMID:11417032

  11. Organization of radio-ecological monitoring of the areas of the Russian Federation contaminated due to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP (on example of the Bryansk region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnik, Vitaly; Korobova, Elena; Vakulovsky, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    A severe accident at the Chernobyl NPP on April 26th, 1986 has led to radioactive contamination of many regions of the former USSR, now belonging to the Ukraine, the Republic of Belarus and the Russian Federation. Both natural and arable ecosystems have been subjected to fallout of radioactive isotopes. However both the distribution of radionuclides that define radioecological situation has depended not only on the initial contamination density but also on the landscape geochemical features of the areas controlling biogenic and abiogenic factors of radionuclide migration. To study and monitor peculiarities of migration of the most radioecologically significant radionuclides of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in different natural landscapes the Russian Scientific and Practical Experimental Center of the former State Chernobyl Committee has organized in 1992 a network of experimental plots in the most contaminated western part of the Bryansk region. It included 19 plots 100 m x 100 m in size which characterized 8 meadow and 11 forested catenas in the basin of the Iput' river. Cs-137 contamination level of the plots varied in 1992 from 740 kBq/m2 to 1850 kBq/m2. Although the study site has been located in the remote zone and the contamination was of condensation type the sampling performed at 11 plots registered some refractory radionuclides (144Ce, 154Eu, 238,239,240Pu and 90Sr) that proved the presence of fuel particles in fallout as far as 200 km from the damaged reactors. The sampling and monitoring scheme was organized to determine: the isotopic composition and contamination density of the plots; 2) estimation of radionuclide vertical and lateral migration; 3) evaluation of radionuclide inventories in different soil horizons; 4) calculation of radionuclide transfer in soil-plant system. Radiation measurements included field gamma-spectrometry using collimated gamma spectrometer "Corad" developed in the Kurchatov Institute and laboratory spectrometry the soil and plant samples

  12. Important factors governing exposure of the population and countermeasure application in rural settlements of the Russian Federation in the long-term after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Jacob, P; Alexakhin, R; Sanzharova, N I; Panov, A; Fesenko, G; Cecille, L

    2001-01-01

    Rural settlements located in areas of the Russian Federation contaminated after the Chernobyl accident and exceeding an annual dose of 1 mSv a-1 have been classified according to 137Cs contamination density, internal dose and the neighbourhood of forests. It has been shown that, with the exception of the most contaminated areas, the internal doses decreased in accordance with a decline in 137Cs availability for plant root uptake. An inverse tendency was observed in areas with 137Cs contamination above 555 kBq m-2 which can be explained by a reduction or even termination of countermeasure application and by an increasing consumption of forest products in areas where restrictive countermeasures are still implemented. Twenty-seven settlements have been studied to estimate the effectiveness of countermeasures applied previously and to identify the most important factors governing the radiation exposure to the population and its change with time. It has been shown that the effectiveness of countermeasures which resulted in a decrease of up to 40% of doses has a tendency to decline in the long term. The need for continuation of remediation in rural settlements was evaluated both for selected settlements and extrapolated to the whole contaminated area and it has been shown that the application of countermeasures will be of importance at least up to the year 2045. Rather high effectiveness in terms of internal dose reduction (factor of 2-2.5) of radical improvement (disking, ploughing and reseeding) and administration of Cs binders to animals (Ferrocyn) was demonstrated for the selected settlements. It could be demonstrated that for forest-remote settlements there is a linear dependence between internal dose normalised to the density of contamination and the proportion of peat soils around settlements. For near-forest settlements, this dependence was less pronounced which can be explained by the high contribution of forest food products to the internal dose. Milk is still

  13. Lessons learned from the first US/Russian Federation joint tabletop exercise to prepare for conducting on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    SciTech Connect

    Filarowski, C; Kreek, S; Smith, A; Sweeney, J; Wild, J; Gough, R; Rockett, P; MacLeod, G; Hawkins, W; Wohletz, K; Knowles, S

    1999-03-24

    A U.S./Russian Federation Joint Tabletop Exercise took place in Snezhinsk, Russia, from 19 to 24 October 1998 whose objectives were to examine the functioning of an Inspection Team (IT) in a given scenario, to evaluate the strategies and techniques employed by the IT, to identify ambiguous interpretations of treaty provisions that needed clarification, and to confirm the overall utility of tabletop exercises to assist in developing an effective Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification regime. To achieve these objectives, the United States and Russian Federation (RF) agreed that two exercises would be conducted. The first would be developed by the RF, who would act as controller and as the inspected State Party (ISP), while the United States would play the role of the IT. The roles would be reversed in the second exercise; the United States would develop the scenario and play the ISP, while the RF would play the IT. A joint control team, comprised of members of both the U.S. and RF control teams, agreed on a number of ground rules for the two exercises and established a joint Evaluation Team to evaluate both of the exercises against the stated objectives. To meet time limitations, the scope of this joint exercise needed to be limited. The joint control team decided that each of the two exercises would not go beyond the first 25 days of an on-site inspection (OSI) and that the focus would be on examining the decision-making of the IT as it utilized the various technologies to clarify whether a nuclear test explosion had taken place. Hence, issues such as logistics, restricted access, and activities prior to Point of Entry (POE) would be played only to the extent needed to provide for a realistic context for the exercises' focus on inspection procedures, sensor deployments, and data interpretation. Each of the exercises began at the POE and proceeded with several iterations of negotiations between the IT and ISP, instrument deployments, and data evaluation by

  14. Large-scale and Medium-scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances Registered during Magnetic Storms over North-Eastern Region of Russian Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Vera; Kurkin, Vladimir

    2016-07-01

    Earth's ionosphere is dynamical steadily changed medium. On a level with daily and seasonal variations of ionospheric parameters there are irregular components connected with wave motions in neutral atmosphere. F2 ionosphere region disturbances are developed in global scale during geomagnetic storms and characterized considerable variations in F2-region critical frequencies and heights. High frequency oblique-incidence sounding method allows us to diagnose ionospheric parameters variations in regions poorly equipped with vertical sounding stations. In this work we provide the analysis of large-scale and medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (LS and MS TID's accordingly) registered during experiments from 2006 till 2011 which carried out by means of the monthly duration sets with 5-min intervals over oblique-incidence sounding paths located in the north-eastern region of Russian Federation. For the analysis we have been chosen experimental data obtained during minor and moderate geomagnetic storms. After ionograms processing maximum observed frequencies (MOF) deviations from median values were calculated. Using MOF deviations from medians the analysis of LS TID's appearance cases was carried out. Studied MOF deviations from medians can be caused by cusps on ionograms also. These cusps move with the course of time through the sequences of ionograms along upper rays from region with higher delays to region with lower delays. Such cusps on ionograms are caused by MS TID's. In this work the analysis of MS TID events registration by these cusps on ionograms was carried out. Then the comparison between LS and MS TID's appearance probability was performed. It is shown that registered MOF variations are caused by superposition of wave-like processes of different scales taken place in ionosphere during magnetic storms. This work was supported by the RFBR grants No 14-05-00259-a and No 14-05-00578-a.

  15. Analysis of how the health systems context shapes responses to the control of human immunodeficiency virus: case-studies from the Russian Federation.

    PubMed Central

    Atun, Rifat A.; McKee, Martin; Drobniewski, Francis; Coker, Richard

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a methodology and an instrument that allow the simultaneous rapid and systematic examination of the broad public health context, the health care systems, and the features of disease-specific programmes. METHODS: Drawing on methodologies used for rapid situational assessments of vertical programmes for tackling communicable disease, we analysed programmes for the control human of immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and their health systems context in three regions in the Russian Federation. The analysis was conducted in three phases: first, analysis of published literature, documents and routine data from the regions; second, interviews with key informants, and third, further data collection and analysis. Synthesis of findings through exploration of emergent themes, with iteration, resulted in the identification of the key systems issues that influenced programme delivery. FINDINGS: We observed a complex political economy within which efforts to control HIV sit, an intricate legal environment, and a high degree of decentralization of financing and operational responsibility. Although each region displays some commonalities arising from the Soviet traditions of public health control, there are considerable variations in the epidemiological trajectories, cultural responses, the political environment, financing, organization and service delivery, and the extent of multisectoral work in response to HIV epidemics. CONCLUSION: Within a centralized, post-Soviet health system, centrally directed measures to enhance HIV control may have varying degrees of impact at the regional level. Although the central tenets of effective vertical HIV programmes may be present, local imperatives substantially influence their interpretation, operationalization and effectiveness. Systematic analysis of the context within which vertical programmes are embedded is necessary to enhance understanding of how the relevant policies are prioritized and translated to action. PMID

  16. Risk of solid cancer in the offspring of female workers of the Mayak nuclear facility in the Southern Urals, Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Tsareva, Y; Deltour, I; Sokolnikov, M; Okatenko, P; Vostrotin, V V; Schonfeld, S J; Schüz, J

    2016-08-01

    Studies of cancer risk following in utero exposure to ionizing radiation are limited in number, particularly for adult-onset cancers, and the evidence is unclear. In the present study, the risk of solid cancer incidence following in utero radiation exposure is examined among 8466 offspring of female nuclear workers at one of the largest nuclear facilities (Mayak Production Association) in the Russian Federation. Poisson regression methods were used to estimate excess relative risks (ERRs) per Gray (Gy). Mother's uterine gamma dose served as a surrogate for fetal gamma dose. During 277,002 person-years of follow-up (1948-2009), there were 177 first primary solid cancers excluding non-melanoma skin cancers. Estimated in utero gamma and plutonium doses exceeded zero for 41 and 23 % of offspring, respectively. Of the 177 solid cancers, 66 occurred among individuals with some in utero exposure to gamma radiation and 53 among those with estimated plutonium exposures. There was no indication of a statistically significantly increased risk of solid cancer incidence from in utero gamma exposure (linear ERR/Gy -1.0; upper 95 % confidence limit 0.5). This result was unchanged after accounting for subsequent occupational exposure. Plutonium doses were estimated but were too low to obtain meaningful risk estimates. Thus, in this cohort in utero radiation exposure was not associated with solid cancer risk. This is consistent with an earlier report of mortality in the cohort, but is based on twice as many cases and less susceptible to biases inherent in mortality analyses. Given the relatively young age of the cohort with respect to cancer, continued follow-up should be done as the number of cancer cases increases. PMID:27056719

  17. Russian Aviation and Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Russian Space Agency (RKA) was created on 25 February 1992 by a decree issued by the President of the Russian Federation. It was formed after the break-up of the former Soviet Union and the dissolution of the Soviet space program. The RKA uses the technology and launch sites that belonged to the former Soviet space program. This includes payment to Kazakhstan for use of the Baikonur Cosmodrom...

  18. Apatite and clinopyroxene as tracers for metasomatic processes in nepheline clinopyroxenites of Uralian-Alaskan-type complexes in the Ural Mountains, Russian Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Joachim; Harlov, Daniel E.; Pushkarev, Evgeny V.; Brügmann, Gerhard E.

    2013-11-01

    Clinopyroxene and apatite are found to trace metasomatic processes in nepheline-bearing clinopyroxenites (tilaites) from the igneous, mafic-ultramafic Uralian-Alaskan-type complexes of Kytlym and Nizhny Tagil, Ural Mountains, Russian Federation. The clinopyroxenites consist predominantly of coarse-grained, partially to totally altered clinopyroxene phenocrysts in a matrix of fine-grained olivine, clinopyroxene, plagioclase, K-feldspar, and nepheline. Apatite occurs as idiomorphic inclusions (<25 μm) in the clinopyroxene and as xenomorphic grains in the matrix. In the matrix, plagioclase is partially to totally replaced by a fine-grained symplectitic intergrowth of K-feldspar and nepheline most likely due to the influx of an K2O-, Na2O-, and Al2O3-bearing fluid. During conversion of the plagioclase, CaO and SiO2 were partitioned into the fluid. Altered areas in the clinopyroxene phenocrysts are characterized by the redistribution of major and trace elements. This includes depletion in Mg, Rb, and Sr and enrichment in Al, Na, Ba, U, Th, REE except Eu, and HFSE compared to the original magmatic areas in the clinopyroxene. Apatite inclusions in the altered areas of the clinopyroxene and in the matrix are enriched in Cl relative to apatite inclusions in the unaltered areas of clinopyroxene. It is proposed that these rocks experienced a two-stage metasomatic process. Stage 1 was the partial to total alteration of plagioclase to K-feldspar and nepheline due to interaction with an infiltrating (K,Na)Cl-rich brine (most likely late magmatic) with an Al component, which enriched the fluid in CaCl2. Stage 2 consisted of the partial to total chemical alteration of the original magmatic clinopyroxene by this now CaCl2-enriched fluid through the mechanism of coupled dissolution-reprecipitation. This process also chemically altered the apatite inclusions from fluor-chlorapatite to chlor-fluorapatite and redistributed as well as partially removed the titanomagnetite inclusions in

  19. Standard medical care of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in large specialised centres: data from the Russian Federation, Ukraine and Republic of Kazakhstan (ESSENCE)

    PubMed Central

    Nasonov, E; Soloviev, S; Davidson, J E; Lila, A; Togizbayev, G; Ivanova, R; Baimukhamedov, Ch; Omarbekova, Zh; Iaremenko, O; Gnylorybov, A; Shevchuk, S; Vasylyev, A; Pereira, M H S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe disease characteristics and treatment regimens for adult patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with autoantibody positive disease in three countries (the Russian Federation, Ukraine and Republic of Kazakhstan). Methods The ESSENCE study was a 1-year, retrospective, multicentre, observational study. Data included patients’ characteristics, disease activity and severity, and healthcare resource use in 2010. Results Twelve centres enrolled 436 eligible patients: 232 in Russia, 110 in Kazakhstan and 94 in Ukraine. Mean age ranged from 36 to 42 years and median SLE duration from 3 to 6.8 years. According to study definitions, 69.2% of patients in Russia, 72.7% in Kazakhstan and 55.4% in Ukraine had severe disease at diagnosis. SLE activity (Nasonova classification, 1972) decreased from diagnosis to the last visit in 2010 in all countries. At the last visit, mean (SD) Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus National Assessment–Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index score was 13.8 (10.5) in Russia, 19.4 (16.9) in Kazakhstan and 7.2 (6.8) in Ukraine, and Systemic Lupus International Collaborative Clinics/American College of Rheumatology damage index was 2.0 (2.2), 3.3 (3.2) and 2.2 (2.0), respectively. Treatment regimens included predominantly glucocorticoids (96.7–99.1%), immunosuppressants or cytotoxic drugs, for example, azathioprine and cyclophosphamide (20.7–53.2%), and antimalarial drugs (18.3–40.8%). Conclusions The study provides reliable insight into the SLE clinical profiles in the referenced countries. Patients were 4–10 years younger in the study and had 3–7 years shorter SLE duration than in Western European countries and both SLE activity and severity were higher with higher rate of hospitalisations, but decreased during treatment. Local and international scales demonstrated correlation in SLE activity and organ damage evaluation. There were differences in clinical characteristics and

  20. [The flagship of the national naval medical science (on the 80th anniversary of establishment of the 1st Central Research Institute of the Defense Ministry of Russian Federation)].

    PubMed

    Chumakov, Vl V; Arkhipov, A V; Borodavko, V K; Vasil'kov, A M; Groshilin, S M; Ivanov, A O; Smurov, A V

    2013-02-01

    The article is devoted to the 80th anniversary of the formation of the naval medical science subunit, which is the part of the 1st Central Research Institute of the Defense Ministry of Russian Federation. In the 30th years of XX century, a group of naval doctors formulated the main directions of preventive naval medicine. For eight decades, several generations of medical scientists have developed and ensured implementation of regulatory requirements for habitability and ergonomics of Navy ships. At the present stage, this work focuses on promising directions of the development of the domestic military shipbuilding and the use of advanced and innovative biomedical technologies. PMID:23808207

  1. Genetic resources of forage and grain legume crops of the central region of the Russian federation (on materials of expedition of 2008 in region of southern Ural mountains)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the article, the results of the international expedition under the guidance of N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Industry are stated. An overall objective of expedition gathering was exemplary wild-growing fodder and leguminous cultures which are of interest for selection on s...

  2. Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) System Upgrades and Performance Testing at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) VNIIEF)

    SciTech Connect

    Bushmelev, Vadim; Viktorov, Vladimir; Zhikharev, Stanislav; Yuferev, Vladimir; Singh, Surinder Paul; Kuzminski, Jozef; Hogan, Kevin; McKisson, Jacquelin

    2008-01-01

    The All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF), founded in 1946 at the historic village of Sarov, in Nizhniy Novgorod Oblast, is the largest nuclear research center in the Rosatom complex. In the framework of international collaboration, the United States (US) Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Agency, in cooperation with US national laboratories, on the one hand, Rosatom and VNIIEF on the other hand, have focused their cooperative efforts to upgrade the existing material protection control and accountability system to prevent unauthorized access to the nuclear material. In this paper we will discuss the present status of material control and accounting (MC&A) system upgrades and the preliminary results from a pilot program on the MC&A system performance testing that was recently conducted at one technical area.

  3. The Historical Self-Awareness of Russians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorshkov, M. K.; Davydova, N. M.

    2006-01-01

    In June and July 2004, the Institute for Comprehensive Social Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, in collaboration with the Russian Federation office of the F. Ebert Foundation, carried out a repeat survey on the topic of "Citizens of the New Russia: How Do They Feel about Themselves, and What Society Would They Like to Live In?" Use was…

  4. Legal Portion in Russian Inheritance Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inshina, Roza; Murzalimova, Lyudmila

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe the right to inherit as one of the basic human rights guaranteed by the Constitution of the Russian Federation. The state has set rules according to which after a person's death, his or her property is inherited by other persons. The Russian civil legislation establishes the institution of legal portions that is…

  5. [Forensic medical assessment of the cases of HIV infection and hemocontact viral hepatitis B and C during the period from 2011 till 2015 in different subjects of the Russian Federation].

    PubMed

    Kadochnikov, D S; Minaeva, P V

    2016-01-01

    The annually increasing number of the patients presenting with HIV infection and hemocontact viral hepatitis is naturally accompanied by the growing number of deaths from these infectious pathologies. The objective of the present study was to analyze the results of forensic medical expertises of the cases of HIV infection and hemocontact viral hepatitis B and C during the period from 2011 till 2015 in different subjects of the Russian Federation. The data obtained confirm the tendency toward the further rise in the frequency of such cases in the practical work of forensic medical experts. Moreover, they indicate the necessity of registration of such cases in state forensic medical expertise organizations and open up the prospects for the development of the common approaches to the solution of the existing problems including the evaluation of the degree of the harm to human health. PMID:27500474

  6. 77 FR 2512 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; U.S. Fishermen Fishing in Russian Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    .... Fishermen Fishing in Russian Waters AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). ACTION... Economic Zone of the Russian Federation. Russian authorities may permit U.S. fishermen to fish for allocations of surplus stocks in the Russian Economic Zone. Permit application information is sent to...

  7. Energy efficiency by use of automated energy-saving windows with heat-reflective screens and solar battery for power supply systems of European and Russian buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, V. M.; Smirnov, N. N.; Tyutikov, V. V.; Flament, B.

    2015-10-01

    The new energy saving windows with heat-reflecting shields have been developed, and for their practical use they need to be integrated into the automated system for controlling heat supply in buildings and the efficiency of their use together with the existing energy-saving measures must be determined. The study was based on the results of field tests of windows with heat-reflective shields in a certified climate chamber. The method to determine the minimum indoor air temperature under standby heating using heat-reflective shields in the windows and multifunctional energy-efficient shutter with solar battery have been developed. Annual energy saving for the conditions of different regions of Russia and France was determined. Using windows with heat-reflecting screens and a solar battery results in a triple power effect: reduced heat losses during the heating season due to increased window resistance; lower cost of heating buildings due to lowering of indoor ambient temperature; also electric power generation.

  8. Russians as People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Wright

    This analysis of the Russian character in various aspects of Soviet society in its daily activities focuses on the cultural rather than the political. Included in the study are sections on: (1) hibernation and awakening; (2) the Russian scene; (3) being a Russian; (4) Russian society--mass and minority; (5) manners, morals, and taste; and (6)…

  9. Russian Translation.

    PubMed

    O'dette, R E

    1957-03-29

    This discussion has described the status of the large United States program for translation from the Russian. A partial description of what is being done or planned, and by whom, has been provided as a guide for those who wish to follow the subject further. The urge to pass on useful information has necessarily restricted the space which might also have been profitably devoted to the philosophic aspects of the problem. Although it is not said with any sense of pride in achievement-because much more remains to be done than has been done-it would seem fair to describe the current national translation activity, including all contributions to it, as a phenomenon. Phenomena in scientific communication are not common: a full appreciation of their significance requires more analysis than results from a simple listing of their outward characteristics. But a few observations might be made in conclusion. Most United States scientists probably feel that, as a nation, we are and should be world leaders in science, even though this feeling is neither nurtured nor expressed in a spirit of violent competition. If this assumption is allowed, the point which seems to remain is that the United States will not retain its position casually. Our scientists expect to maintain an awareness of the scientific achievements and failures of the other nations of the world. But we must especially become more aware of the advances of Soviet science, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The evidence points toward this last conclusion, regardless of whether one is concerned with the production of ideas or things, increase in man's knowledge of himself and his environment, conflict between idealisms, or simply the national security. PMID:17836422

  10. A Teacher's Notebook: Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Independent Schools, Boston, MA.

    Articles written by teachers of Russian for their peers in similar classroom environments are intended to aid in the development of curricular innovation. The articles, all based on practical and direct experience, include: (1) "Direct Methods for Teaching Russian," (2) "The Eclectic Approach to Teaching Russian," (3) "So-Called Linguistic…

  11. Schooling, Peer Relations, and Family Life of Russian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Susan D.; Mirny, Anna I.; Bempechat, Janine; Li, Jin

    2008-01-01

    In the Russian Federation, a growing emphasis on individualism and a profusion of educational options create challenges and opportunities for adolescents making the transition to secondary school. To investigate Russian students' perspectives during this important developmental period, we conducted two open-ended interviews with 32 ninth graders…

  12. Vertical Profiles of Aerosol Optical and Microphysical Properties During a Rare Case of Long-range Transport of Mixed Biomass Burning-polluted Dust Aerosols from the Russian Federation-kazakhstan to Athens, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papayannis, Alexandros; Argyrouli, Athina; Kokkalis, Panayotis; Tsaknakis, Georgios; Binietoglou, Ioannis; Solomos, Stavros; Kazadzis, Stylianos; Samaras, Stefanos; Böckmann, Christine; Raptis, Panagiotis; Amiridis, Vassilis

    2016-06-01

    Multi-wavelength aerosol Raman lidar measurements with elastic depolarization at 532 nm were combined with sun photometry during the HYGRA-CD campaign over Athens, Greece, on May-June 2014. We retrieved the aerosol optical [3 aerosol backscatter profiles (baer) at 355-532-1064 nm, 2 aerosol extinction (aaer) profiles at 355-532 nm and the aerosol linear depolarization ratio (δ) at 532 nm] and microphysical properties [effective radius (reff), complex refractive index (m), single scattering albedo (ω)]. We present a case study of a long distance transport (~3.500-4.000 km) of biomass burning particles mixed with dust from the Russian Federation-Kazakhstan regions arriving over Athens on 21-23 May 2014 (1.7-3.5 km height). On 23 May, between 2-2.75 km we measured mean lidar ratios (LR) of 35 sr (355 nm) and 42 sr (532 nm), while the mean Ångström exponent (AE) aerosol backscatter-related values (355nm/532nm and 532nm/1064nm) were 2.05 and 1.22, respectively; the mean value of δ at 532 nm was measured to be 9%. For that day the retrieved mean aerosol microphysical properties at 2-2.75 km height were: reff=0.26 μm (fine mode), reff=2.15 μm (coarse mode), m=1.36+0.00024i, ω=0.999 (355 nm, fine mode), ω=0.992(355 nm, coarse mode), ω=0.997 (532 nm, fine mode), and ω=0.980 (532 nm, coarse mode).

  13. CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA: P N Lebedev Physical Institute RAS — 75 years(Joint session of the P N Lebedev Physical Institute Research Council and the Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the United Physical Society of the Russian Federation, 6 April 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesyats, Gennadii A.; Bolotovskii, Boris M.; Kopaev, Yurii V.; Kardashev, Nikolai S.; Zatsepin, Georgii T.; Roganova, Tat'yana M.; Masalov, Anatolii V.; Gubin, Mikhail A.; Velichansky, Vladimir L.; Dagkesamanskii, Rustam D.

    2009-11-01

    A Joint session of the P N Lebedev Physical Institute Research Council of the Academy of Sciences and the Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the United Physical Society of the Russian Federation was convened on 6 April 2009 to mark the 75th anniversary of the P N Lebedev Physical Institute of the Academy of Sciences (FIAN). The following papers were read to the session: (1) Mesyats G A (P N Lebedev Physical Institute RAS) "75 years of the P N Lebedev Physical Institute RAS which traces back its origin to the Physics Room of Peter the Great's Kunstkamera created 225 years ago"; (2) Bolotovskii B M (Division of Theoretical Physics, P N Lebedev Physical Institute RAS) "Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation"; (3) Kopaev Yu V (Division of Solid State Physics, P N Lebedev Physical Institute RAS) "Toroidal states in crystals"; (4) Kardashev N S (Astro-Cosmic Center of the P N Lebedev Physical Institute RAS) "Science program of the Radioastron mission"; (5) Zatsepin G T (Nuclear Research Institute RAS), Roganova T M (M V Lomonosov Moscow State University, D V Skobeltsyn Nuclear Physics Research Institute) "Cosmic ray studies"; (6) Masalov A V (Optics Division, P N Lebedev Physical Institute RAS) "Spectroscopy: from atoms to cosmic objects"; (7) Gubin M A, Velichansky V L (Division of Quantum Radiophysics, P N Lebedev Physical Institute RAS) "Small-size optical frequency standards"; (8) Dagkesamanskii R D (Radioastronomical Observatory in Pushchino of the Astro-Cosmic Center of the P N Lebedev Physical Institute RAS) "Prospects for radioastronomical research in Pushchino". Articles written on the basis of these talks are printed in this special issue of Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk (Usp. Fiz. Nauk 179 (11) 1145 - 1256 (2009) [English version: Phys. Usp. 52 (11) (2009] journal. • P N Lebedev Physical Institute RAS: past, present, and future, G A Mesyats Physics-Uspekhi, 2009, Volume 52, Number 11, Pages 1084-1097 • Vavilov

  14. Russian Language Analysis Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serianni, Barbara; Rethwisch, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the result of a language analysis research project focused on the Russian Language. The study included a diverse literature review that included published materials as well as online sources in addition to an interview with a native Russian speaker residing in the United States. Areas of study include the origin and history of the…

  15. Russian Supplementary Dialogues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Ashgabat (Turkmenistan).

    This manual is designed for the Russian language training of Peace Corps volunteers serving in Turkmenistan, and focuses on daily communication skills needed in that context. It consists of nine topical lessons, each containing several brief dialogues targeting specific language competencies, and exercises. Text is entirely in Russian, except for…

  16. RUSSIAN FOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    THE NEW YORK STATE SYLLABUS FOR RUSSIAN IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS FOLLOWS THE SAME FORMAT AS THOSE FOR FRENCH, GERMAN, AND SPANISH, AND FOR COMPLETE TEXT, INCLUDING GENERAL SECTIONS ON TEACHING LANGUAGES, THE READER MUST REFER TO ONE OF THOSE THREE BOOKS. THIS GUIDE DELINEATES THE AIMS, TECHNIQUES, CONTENT, AND SCOPE OF RUSSIAN INSTRUCTION FOR A 6-YEAR…

  17. Russian Teaching Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Betsy

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes two Russian teaching contracts, rhetorically comparing purpose and audience, culture, gender, and the role of the individual versus the state. Uses anecdotal episodes as a framework for examining Russian culture and analyzing university teaching contracts, concluding that the contracts are not only brief and factual but also reflect a…

  18. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution, cervical cancer screening practices and current status of vaccination implementation in Russian Federation, the Western countries of the former Soviet Union, Caucasus region and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Rogovskaya, Svetlana I; Shabalova, Irina P; Mikheeva, Irina V; Minkina, Galina N; Podzolkova, Nataly M; Shipulina, Olga Y; Sultanov, Said N; Kosenko, Iren A; Brotons, Maria; Buttmann, Nina; Dartell, Myassa; Arbyn, Marc; Syrjänen, Stina; Poljak, Mario

    2013-12-31

    Limited data are available on the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) and its associated diseases in the Russian Federation, the Western Countries of the former Soviet Union (Belarus, Republic of Moldova, Ukraine), the Caucasus region and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan). Both the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer are higher in these countries than in most Western European countries. In this article, we review available data on HPV prevalence and type distribution in women with normal cytology, women from the general population, cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer, as well as data on national policies of cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination initiatives in these countries. Based on scarce data from the 12 countries, the high-risk HPV (hrHPV) prevalence among 5226 women with normal cytology ranged from 0.0% to 48.4%. In women with low-grade cervical lesions, the hrHPV prevalence among 1062 women varied from 29.2% to 100%. HrHPV infection in 565 women with high-grade cervical lesions ranged from 77.2% to 100% and in 464 invasive cervical cancer samples from 89.8% to 100%. HPV16 was the most commonly detected hrHPV genotype in all categories. As the HPV genotype distribution in cervical diseases seems to be similar to that found in Western Europe the implementation of HPV testing in screening programs might be beneficial. Opportunistic screening programs, the lack of efficient call-recall systems, low coverage, and the absence of quality assured cytology with centralized screening registry are major reasons for low success rates of cervical cancer programs in many of the countries. Finally, HPV vaccination is currently not widely implemented in most of the twelve countries mainly due to pricing, availability, and limited awareness among public and health care providers. Country-specific research, organized nationwide screening programs, registries and well

  19. Russian Grouting Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.

    2002-10-15

    The final report on Russian Grouting experience provided an opportunity for international cooperation and access to Russian grouting/waste form experience. the data on radiolytic gas generation from grout mixtures was already used in evaluation of the source of hydrogen and methane generation detected in the sampling ports around the SRS high-level waste tanks in 2002. The concept of venting the radiolytic gases from a waste form by adding porous aggregate is being considered for future cement-based TRU waste forms at SRS. The objectives of this work were to document the Russian experience on grouting for waste forms and tank closures or other decommissioning applications.

  20. Research on Russian National Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Na, Zhuo

    2008-01-01

    The special geographical location Russia lies in creates the unique character of the Russian nation. Based on the dual nature of the Russian national character, the Russian geographical environment and the analysis of its social structure, this text tries to explore the reasons of the dual nature of Russian national character.

  1. Atmospheric and Climate Aspects of Russian Regions Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golitsyn, G. S.; Dubovsky, S. V.; Ginzburg, A. S.; Mokhov, I. I.; Khomyakov, P. M.

    Russia is one of the first countries created the national program of sustainable devel- opment. The Presidential Decree SOn the national strategy of the Russian Federation & cedil;in the environment protection and sustainable developmentT was issued by in 1994. Atmospheric and climate aspects play very important roles in the sustainable devel- opment at the regional level in Russia as well as at national one. Last year Russian Academy of Sciences in collaboration with some leaders of the local Russian au- thorities started the Project SSustainable development of Russia and its regionsT. In & cedil; this project the problems of Russian socio-economical development are considered together with regional atmospheric and climate changes, environmental and natural resources, population, urbanization, energetic and new technology development, and so on. The main problems of Russian regions socio-economical development related to global and local climate changes, environmental and natural resources, urbanization will be discussed.

  2. Station Tour: Russian Segment

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams concludes her tour of the International Space Station with a visit to the Russian segment, which includes Zarya, the first segment of the station launched in 1...

  3. Save Russian science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigel'Man, Mikhail

    2007-03-01

    Despite 15 years of turbulent change, 'brain drain' and a shortage of research funds, Russian science has survived, although in a much diminished state. International investment and collaboration over the next ten years could bring it back from the brink.

  4. The Russian Identity and Values in the Post-Soviet Era: Learning from the Past to Reinvent the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, William E.; Herman, Bryan K.; Sanatullova-Allison, Elvira

    2007-01-01

    This paper employed a psychological-historical framework for an analytical examination of the Russian identity during the Soviet period through the fall of the Soviet Union and the transitional period that led to an establishment of the Russian Federation. A theoretical model is provided for the analysis of Russian identity that can be generalized…

  5. Overview of contamination from US and Russian nuclear complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D.J.

    1995-06-01

    This paper briefly compares the United States and Russian weapons complexes and provides a perspective on the releases of radioactivity to the environment in both countries. Fortunately, the technologies, data, models, and scientific experience that have been gained over the last 50 years are being shared between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (MINATOM) which constitutes a new environmental partnership between the two countries.

  6. Proceedings of the 5. joint Russian-American computational mathematics conference

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    These proceedings contain a record of the talks presented and papers submitted by participants. The conference participants represented three institutions from the United States, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and two from Russia, Russian Federal Nuclear Center--All Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF/Arzamas-16), and Russian Federal Nuclear Center--All Russian Research Institute of Technical Physics (RFNC-VNIITF/Chelyabinsk-70). The presentations and papers cover a wide range of applications from radiation transport to materials. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. The Russian Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dluzhnevskaya, O. B.; Malkov, O. Yu.; Kilpio, A. A.; Kilpio, E. Yu.; Kovaleva, D. A.; Sat, L. A.

    The Russian Virtual Observatory (RVO) will be an integral component of the International Virtual Observatory (IVO). The RVO has the main goal of integrating resources of astronomical data accumulated in Russian observatories and institutions (databases, archives, digitized glass libraries, bibliographic data, a remote access system to information and technical resources of telescopes etc.), and providing transparent access for scientific and educational purposes to the distributed information and data services that comprise its content. Another goal of the RVO is to provide Russian astronomers with on-line access to the rich volumes of data and metadata that have been, and will continue to be, produced by astronomical survey projects. Centre for Astronomical Data (CAD), among other Russian institutions, has had the greatest experience in collecting and distributing astronomical data for more than 20 years. Some hundreds of catalogs and journal tables are currently available from the CAD repository. More recently, mirrors of main astronomical data resources (VizieR, ADS, etc) are now maintained in CAD. Besides, CAD accumulates and makes available for the astronomical community information on principal Russian astronomical resources.

  8. Studying Russian and Soviet History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Abraham, Ed.

    These essays were written to assist teachers in the task of making Russian history intelligible to young U.S. students. In "An Approach to Russian History," Edward Keenan proposes that students need to gain a better understanding of how Russians perceive themselves and their history. In "Pre-Petrine Russia," Andrzej S. Kaminski focuses on the…

  9. Russian Planetary Program: Phobos and the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galimov, E. M.; Marov, M. Ya.; Politshuk, G. M.; Zeleniy, L. M.

    2006-08-01

    Planetary exploration is a cornerstone of space science and technology development. Russia has a great legacy of the world recognized former space missions to the Moon and planets. Strategy of the Russian Federal Space Agency and the Russian Academy of Sciences planetary program for the coming decade is focused on space vehicle of new generation. The basic concept of this spacecraft development is the modern technology utilization, significant cost reduction and meeting objectives of the important science return. The bottom line is the use of middle class Soyuz-type launcher, which places the principal constraint on mass of the vehicle and mission profile. Flexibility in the design of space vehicle, including a possibility of SEP technology utilization, facilitates its adaptability for extended program of the solar system exploration. As the first step, the project is optimized around sample return mission from satellite of Mars Phobos ("Phobos-Grunt" or PSR) which is in the list of the Russian Federal Space Program for 2006 to 2015. It is to be launched in 2009 and completed in 2012. The experience gained from the former Russian "Phobos 88" serves as a clue to provide an important basis for the mission concept enabling solution of many problems of the project design and its implementation. There is a challenge to return relic matter from such small body like Phobos for the ground labs comprehensive study. The payload is also targeted for in-flight and extended remote sensing and in situ measurements using the capable instrument packages. The project is addressed as a milestone in the Russian program of the solar system study, with a potential for future ambitious missions to asteroids and comets pooling international efforts. Also endorsed by the Russian Federal Space Program is "Luna-Glob" mission to the Moon tentatively scheduled for 2011. The goal is to advance lunar science with the well instrumented orbiter, lander, and the network of penetrators. Return back

  10. Teaching Russian Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vakar, Nicholas

    1949-01-01

    Prior to World War Two, Slavic studies in America treated history, literature, and language as isolated disciplines and often neglected the study of Russian literature written after 1917. The pragmatic necessities of the war questioned the relevance of this traditional approach and specialists appeared, concentrating their efforts on the recent…

  11. Russian Librarianship after Perestroika.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Boris

    1995-01-01

    Provides historical background and describes the change in the role of Russian libraries from conduits for party propaganda to organizations designed to serve the needs of their users. Considers problems for library educators in providing librarians with the skills needed in the new political and technological environment of post-Communist Russia.…

  12. Sets of Reports and Articles Regarding Cement Wastes Forms Containing Alpha Emitters that are Potentially Useful for Development of Russian Federation Waste Treatment Processes for Solidification of Weapons Plutonium MOX Fuel Fabrication Wastes for

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J

    2003-06-12

    This is a set of nine reports and articles that were kindly provided by Dr. Christine A. Langton from the Savannah River Site (SRS) to L. J. Jardine LLNL in June 2003. The reports discuss cement waste forms and primarily focus on gas generation in cement waste forms from alpha particle decays. However other items such as various cement compositions, cement product performance test results and some cement process parameters are also included. This set of documents was put into this Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) releasable report for the sole purpose to provide a set of documents to Russian technical experts now beginning to study cement waste treatment processes for wastes from an excess weapons plutonium MOX fuel fabrication facility. The intent is to provide these reports for use at a US RF Experts Technical Meeting on: the Management of Wastes from MOX Fuel Fabrication Facilities, in Moscow July 9-11, 2003. The Russian experts should find these reports to be very useful for their technical and economic feasibility studies and the supporting R&D activities required to develop acceptable waste treatment processes for use in Russia as part of the ongoing Joint US RF Plutonium Disposition Activities.

  13. [CLINICAL AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE SCHEMES OF ANTIVIRAL THERAPY OF CHRONIC HEPATITIS C GENOTYPE 1 IN PATIENTS WHO DID NOT ANSWER TO THE PRIOR THERAPY, IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION].

    PubMed

    Pyadushkina, E V; Avxentyeva, M V; Omelyanovsky, V V; Khachatryan, G R

    2015-01-01

    We conducted clinical and economic analysis of the protease inhibitor simeprevir versus currently available in Russia protease inhibitors (boceprevir and telaprevir) in combination with pegylated interferon and ribavirin and dual therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 without polymorphism Q80K, who had not responded to previous treatment. Global cost-effectiveness model was adapted to the Russian health care system. We calculated differences in direct medical costs between the antiviral therapy schemes, treatment of long-term complications of chronic hepatitis C and the costs of achieving sustained virological response (SVR) to treatment. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio - additional cost per life year saved was calculated as well. Available published data and the tariffs of the Russian healthcare system were used for the calculations. Simeprevir was shown to be more effective than dual therapy with acceptable additional costs and more effective than boceprevir and telaprevir in the number of life years saved being less costly therapy option. PMID:26281179

  14. Adolescent Russian roulette deaths.

    PubMed

    Collins, Kim A

    2010-03-01

    Adolescence, between the ages of 10 and 19 years, is a unique period both physically and emotionally. During this time of life, individuals are known to experiment and engage in risky behavior, sometimes with unforeseen morbidity and mortality. We also see suicide emerge as a manner of death in this age group. The most common method is gunshot wound and sometimes in the form of Russian roulette. Few studies have looked at deaths by Russian roulette, the victims, and scenarios. In particular, no study examines the adolescent victim of Russian roulette. To better understand and classify this entity, adolescent Russian roulette autopsy cases over a 20-year period were examined looking at the victims, scenarios, autopsy findings, cause and manner of death, and the weapons. All victims were males, ages 13 to 19 years, with a Black-to-White ratio of 1:1. No victim had a previous psychiatric history. Toxicology was positive for alcohol and/or marijuana in 50% of the victims. Friends were present when the victim shot himself which occurred in the home the majority of the time. In all but 1 case, premeditation of the game was involved as the victim provided the weapon for the roulette. The cause of death was gunshot wound to the head (6 to the right side, 1 to the mouth, 1 to the forehead), and the manner of death was suicide in 6 cases and accident in 2 cases. A review of the literature discusses the adolescent victim, suicide, and Russian roulette. PMID:20010290

  15. Russian Basic Course. Naval Terminology Dictionary: Russian-English, English-Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This dictionary is a companion to "Naval Terminology," developed by the Defense Language Institute and printed in 1971. Cyrillic script is used for the Russian terminology. Two main sections define naval terms from Russian to English and from English to Russian. A list of abbreviations concludes the text. (RL)

  16. Geolocating Russian sources for Arctic black carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Meng-Dawn

    2014-08-01

    To design and implement an effective emission control strategy for black carbon (BC), the locations and strength of BC sources must be identified. Lack of accurate source information from the Russian Federation has created difficulty for a range of research and policy activities in the Arctic because Russia occupies the largest landmass in the Arctic Circle. A project was initiated to resolve emission sources of BC in the Russian Federation by using the Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF). It used atmospheric BC data from two Arctic sampling stations at Alert Nunavut, Canada, and Tiksi Bay, Russia. The geographical regions of BC emission sources in Russia were identified and summarized as follows: (1) a region surrounding Moscow, (2) regions in Eurasia stretching along the Ural Mountains from the White Sea to the Black Sea, and (3) a number of scattered areas from western Siberia to the Russian Far East. Particulate potassium ions, non-marine sulfate, and vanadium were used to assist in resolving the source types: forest fire/biomass burning, coal-fired power plant, and oil combustion. Correlating these maps with the BC map helped to resolve source regions of BC emissions and connect them to their corresponding source types. The results imply that a region south of Moscow and another north of the Ural Mountains could be significant BC sources, but none of the grid cells in these regions could be linked to forest fires, oil combustion, or coal-fired power plants based on these three markers.

  17. Russian Rocket Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA engineers successfully tested a Russian-built rocket engine on November 4, 1998 at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Engine Test Facility, which had been used for testing the Saturn V F-1 engines and Space Shuttle Main engines. The MSFC was under a Space Act Agreement with Lockheed Martin Astronautics of Denver to provide a series of test firings of the Atlas III propulsion system configured with the Russian-designed RD-180 engine. The tests were designed to measure the performance of the Atlas III propulsion system, which included avionics and propellant tanks and lines, and how these components interacted with the RD-180 engine. The RD-180 is powered by kerosene and liquid oxygen, the same fuel mix used in Saturn rockets. The RD-180, the most powerful rocket engine tested at the MSFC since Saturn rocket tests in the 1960s, generated 860,000 pounds of thrust.

  18. Russian Rocket Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA engineers successfully tested a Russian-built rocket engine on November 4, 1998 at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Engine Test Facility, which had been used for testing the Saturn V F-1 engines and Space Shuttle Main engines. The MSFC was under a Space Act Agreement with Lockheed Martin Astronautics of Denver to provide a series of test firings of the Atlas III propulsion system configured with the Russian-designed RD-180 engine. The tests were designed to measure the performance of the Atlas III propulsion system, which included avionics and propellant tanks and lines, and how these components interacted with the RD-180 engine. The RD-180 is powered by kerosene and liquid oxygen, the same fuel mix used in Saturn rockets. The RD-180, the most powerful rocket engine tested at the MSFC since Saturn rocket tests in the 1960s, generated 860,000 pounds of thrust. The test was the first test ever anywhere outside Russia of a Russian designed and built engine.

  19. Russian electrometallurgy: Achievements, problems, prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utochkin, Yu. I.; Semin, A. E.

    2011-12-01

    The changes in the Russian metallurgy, in particular, electric furnace steelmaking, having occurred in the recent years are analyzed. The main increase in the steelmaking output is due to putting into operation of new electric furnaces in new miniworks and enterprises equipped earlier with open-hearth furnaces. Reaching the rated capacity of a furnace in Russia substantially lags behind foreign enterprises. Only 30-35% of the Russian market of corrosion-resistant steel are provided by Russian metal.

  20. Russian expats seek research reforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Over 170 Russian researchers working abroad have signed a letter addressed to the Russian president, Dmitry Medvedev, and prime minister Vladimir Putin raising concerns about "the catastrophic state of basic science" in the country. The letter, which appeared last month in the Moscow business paper Vedomosti, warns Russian leaders that unless urgent measures are implemented by the government, then science in the country may collapse.

  1. Expert Assessments of Russians' Attitudes toward Higher Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigor'ev, S. I.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the opinion of experts who are first-rate specialists in their fields and can provide accurate and objective information about these issues. An expert survey was conducted by the Russian State Social University in seven federal districts, twenty-five regions of the country. The survey was participated in by 309 experts…

  2. Russian vaccines against especially dangerous bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Feodorova, Valentina A; Sayapina, Lidiya V; Corbel, Michael J; Motin, Vladimir L

    2014-01-01

    In response to the epidemiological situation, live attenuated or killed vaccines against anthrax, brucellosis, cholera, glanders, plague and tularemia were developed and used for immunization of at-risk populations in the Former Soviet Union. Certain of these vaccines have been updated and currently they are used on a selective basis, mainly for high risk occupations, in the Russian Federation. Except for anthrax and cholera these vaccines currently are the only licensed products available for protection against the most dangerous bacterial pathogens. Development of improved formulations and new products is ongoing. PMID:26038506

  3. In Brief: Russian volcano warnings reinstated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2007-04-01

    The Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) is again issuing warnings for aviation during periods of activity by Kamchatkan volcanoes. KVERT had stopped issuing warnings on 1 March due to a loss of funding by the Federal Unitary Enterprise State Air Traffic Management Corporation of Russia (see Eos 88(12), 2007). The funding for this work has now resumed. KVERT is a collaborative project of scientists from the Russian Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, the Kamchatka Experimental and Methodical Seismological Department, and the Alaska Volcano Observatory.

  4. Russian vaccines against especially dangerous bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Feodorova, Valentina A; Sayapina, Lidiya V; Corbel, Michael J; Motin, Vladimir L

    2014-12-01

    In response to the epidemiological situation, live attenuated or killed vaccines against anthrax, brucellosis, cholera, glanders, plague and tularemia were developed and used for immunization of at-risk populations in the Former Soviet Union. Certain of these vaccines have been updated and currently they are used on a selective basis, mainly for high risk occupations, in the Russian Federation. Except for anthrax and cholera these vaccines currently are the only licensed products available for protection against the most dangerous bacterial pathogens. Development of improved formulations and new products is ongoing. PMID:26038506

  5. Ecology: human role in Russian wild fires.

    PubMed

    Mollicone, Danilo; Eva, Hugh D; Achard, Frédéric

    2006-03-23

    Anomalies in temperature and precipitation in northern Russia over the past few years have been viewed as manifestations of anthropogenic climate change, prompting suggestions that this may also account for exceptional forest fires in the region. Here we examine the number of forest-fire events across the boreal Russian Federation for the period 2002 to 2005 in 'intact' forests, where human influence is limited, and in 'non-intact' forests, which have been shaped by human activity. Our results show that there were more fires in years during which the weather was anomalous, but that more than 87% of fires in boreal Russia were started by people. PMID:16554800

  6. Analysis of knowledge in Astronomy of the students of the technology course in industrial automation at the Federal Institute São Paulo at the Campus Cubatão

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes, Ataliba Capasso; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon

    2014-05-01

    This work is part of a research of the academic Masters in Science in Education in its final stages. It seeks to present the results of the survey conducted among students of the technology course in industrial automation at the Federal Institute São Paulo at the Campus Cubatão. In the first step, the students' lack of knowledge to the related primary concepts of Astronomy turned out. Correcting these deficiencies found, external to the program content, a Basic Course in Astronomy, containing dialogued or expository lectures with the aid of audiovisual resources and access to textbooks. Analysed the responses of this second step, it was found that students had a significant improvement in learning.

  7. Analysis of knowledge in Astronomy of the students of the Course of Technology in Industrial Automation at the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of São Paulo - Campus Cubatao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes, A. C.

    2014-02-01

    This work is part of a research of the academic Masters in Science in Education. It seeks to present the results of the survey conducted among students of the technology course in industrial automation at the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of São Paulo at the Campus Cubatão (IFSP Campus Cubatão). In the first step, the students' lack of knowledge to the related primary concepts of Astronomy turned out. In a second step, a Basic Course in Astronomy was held outside the syllabus, including classes, lectures and films with pertinent content, which corrected initially found erros. Through a special approach, containing diverse teaching strategies, astronomical concepts were learned or relearned. Analysing the responses of this second step it was found that students had a significant improvement in learning.

  8. Application of an automated natural language processing (NLP) workflow to enable federated search of external biomedical content in drug discovery and development.

    PubMed

    McEntire, Robin; Szalkowski, Debbie; Butler, James; Kuo, Michelle S; Chang, Meiping; Chang, Man; Freeman, Darren; McQuay, Sarah; Patel, Jagruti; McGlashen, Michael; Cornell, Wendy D; Xu, Jinghai James

    2016-05-01

    External content sources such as MEDLINE(®), National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants and conference websites provide access to the latest breaking biomedical information, which can inform pharmaceutical and biotechnology company pipeline decisions. The value of the sites for industry, however, is limited by the use of the public internet, the limited synonyms, the rarity of batch searching capability and the disconnected nature of the sites. Fortunately, many sites now offer their content for download and we have developed an automated internal workflow that uses text mining and tailored ontologies for programmatic search and knowledge extraction. We believe such an efficient and secure approach provides a competitive advantage to companies needing access to the latest information for a range of use cases and complements manually curated commercial sources. PMID:26979546

  9. Russian Lunar Space Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Petrukovich, Anatoly; Khartov, Victor V.; Dolgopolov, Vladimir; Mitrofanov, Igor; Martunov, M.; Lukianchikov, A.; Shevchenko, Vladislav

    Russia had a great number of “firsts” in Lunar Studies (first soft landing, first pictures of the dark side of the moon, first sample return, first rover). Now after a long break the focus of Russian Space Program is again aimed to the lunar science investigations. These investigations have two aims: 1) to get answers to a principal questions of lunar formation and evolution, search for volatiles and regions with subsurface lunar permafrost, studies of lunar dust, electrostatic fields and magnetic anomalies. 2) Preparation to Lunar Exploration stage and search for most promising sites for future lunar habitable scientific stations. First stage of Russian Lunar program during this decade of 2 Lunar includes launches Landers and one Lunar orbiter, discussed in a preceding talks. Further steps during the next decade are related, first of all, with the cryogenic lunar sample return from a certain locations, hear South (or North ) poles, which according to the analysis of orbital observations are enriched by the subsurface water ice inclusions. Next steps, which are planned now are transitional to the exploration stage: delivery of a “ heavy rover“ to the specific site (thoroughly investigated during previous stages), accomplishment of technological experiments on the mitigation of lunar dust and space radiation hazards, simple initial experiments on radioastronomy and cosmic ray studies. It is a long and complicated path to go and quite naturally Russia considers that all important steps on this way will be done in international partnership.

  10. English/Russian and Russian/English glossary of physical protection terms

    SciTech Connect

    Soo Hoo, M.S.

    1995-07-01

    This glossary was prepared in fulfillment of the Glossary Preparation Task identified in the Program Plan for providing Assistance to the Russian Federation in Nuclear Material Control and Accounting and Physical Protection. The Program Plan is part of the Cooperative Threat Reduction Program as provided for under House Resolution (H.R.) 3807 (Title II, as referenced under Public Law (P.L.) 102-229. The terms in this glossary were derived from physical protection training material prepared at Sandia. The training material, and thus refinements to the glossary, has undergone years of development in presentation to both domestic and international audiences. Also, Russian Colleagues and interpreters have reviewed the translations for accuracy.

  11. Russian-British conference on hydrologic consequences of climate change (Novosibirsk, June 13 15, 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'Ev, O. F.; Lykosov, V. N.; Mokhov, I. I.

    2008-08-01

    An international conference and a seminar on hydrologic consequences of climate changes were held at Akademogorodok in Novosibirsk in 2007 (June 13 15). At the initiative of the British Council, the conference was organized by the Institute for Water and Environmental Problems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences within arrangements devoted to the 50th anniversary of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The conference was financially supported by the British Council, the Federal Water Resources Agency of the RF Ministry of Natural Resources, the Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring (Rosgidromet), and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research. All in all, 65 leading specialists from institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences, its Siberian Branch and Karelian Scientific Centre, the institutions of Rosgidromet and the Federal Water Resources Agency of the RF Ministry of Natural Resources, and from Great Britain (Southampton University, National Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, and consulting firm of HR Wallingford).

  12. Russian Projects of Space Missions for Astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagrov, A. V.

    2006-08-01

    Since 1994 Institute of Astronomy of Russian Academy of Sciences is working on conception of astrometrical instrument of new generation under contract with Russian Space Agency. After HIPPARCOS mission it is obvious that necessary accuracy for modern astrometry is micro-arcseconds. The only way to approach this level is pupil interferometry outside atmosphere. The first Russian project was pair of twin Michelson interferometers with coincided bases. It consisted of 40-cm input telescopes and had baseline 4 meters long; its limiting magnitude was about 20^m and expected accuracy 2-4 mks. As this devise was proposed to be russian-american experiment for International Space Station, and NASA did not support it, the project was not move up. This is why improved conception of slightly diminished arcmeter-interferometer OSIRIS was proposed as national space project, and it is adopted to the Russian Federal Space Program for the period 2012-2015. Input optic of the OSIRIS will be of 20-cm aperture, and baseline will be 200 cm. It seems to be enough to get position accuracy of single measurement about 4-8 mks at arc range from 30 to 105 degrees, and limiting magnitude being 18^m. There are some technical invents that guarantee these parameters. The OSIRIS mission will establish referred to the ICRS inertial celestial reference frame in optic independent of epoch, that leads to new tasks of astrometry. The astrometrical instrument of new generation may be used for positioning of near-Earth probes as well as of ground objects. Using the same technology it became possible to point narrow-field telescope to any target with the same accuracy. A really desired for this aims accuracy is only milliseconds, and just for these applied experiments LIDA project was proposed last year. It will be suitable for bright sources above 12^m and it will measure instant positions with accuracy 1 mas. The LIDA will be low-mass and compact device suitable for launch by conversional rocket of

  13. Russian Orthography and Learning to Read

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerek, Eugenia; Niemi, Pekka

    2009-01-01

    The unique structure of Russian orthography may influence the organization and acquisition of reading skills in Russian. The present review examines phonemic-graphemic correspondences in Russian orthography and discusses its grain-size units and possible difficulties for beginning readers and writers. Russian orthography is governed by a…

  14. Highlighting Changes in Two Russian Schools with Successful One-to-One Laptop Programs: Moscow and Nizhny Novgorod Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Daniel; Pierson, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In the Russian Federation and other Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries, a focus of national education policy is to modernize the education system by integrating new technologies that have emerged within education in Western Europe and North America. The current promotion of one-to-one learning in Russian schools is one of the…

  15. Russian/US nuclear weapons labs share NDT technologies for emergency response

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, D.A.

    1997-04-01

    In December 1995 a team of NDT experts from Los Alamos National Laboratory travelled to the Russian city of Sarov, also known as Arzamas-16, to officially transfer to Russia NDT equipment--a mobile radiography system--built for use in nuclear emergency response. Previously, during the period August 29 through September 16, 1994, nine Russian nuclear weapons experts had been trained on the safe and effective use and maintenance of this NDT equipment, a mobile radiography capability, at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The training occurred mainly at Los Alamos` Technical Area 8--where NDT in support of the US nuclear weapons program has taken place since the 1940s. The Russians came from the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (MINATOM) and the Russian Federal Nuclear Centers at Arzamas-165 (VNIIEF) and Chelyabinsk-70 (VNIITF).

  16. Inside the Russian Soyuz Spacecraft

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this episode of NASA: Behind the Scenes, take a tour inside the Russian Soyuz, the vehicle which takes the expedition crews back and forth to the International Space Station. Astronaut Mike Finc...

  17. Updated estimate of carbon balance on Russian territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurganova, I. N.; Kudeyarov, V. N.; Lopes de Gerenyu, V. O.

    2010-11-01

    ABSTRACT The land use system in Russia changed considerably after 1990: 30.2 million ha of croplands were abandoned. Based on the own field investigations that were carried out in abandoned lands of different age (Luvic Phaeozems, deciduous forest zone; Moscow region, 54°50'N, 37°37'E), it has been shown that after 4-5 yr of abandonment, the former croplands acted as a stable sink of CO2. The net ecosystem production (NEP) in the post-agrogenic ecosystems averaged 245 +/- 73 g C m-2 yr-1 for the first 15 yr after land use change that corresponds to an estimated 74 +/- 22 Tg C yr-1 for the total area of abandoned lands in Russian Federation. Currently, the Russian territory acts as an absolute sink of atmospheric CO2 at a rate about 0.90 Pg C yr-1. Using three different approaches, it was demonstrated that after 1990, the carbon sequestration in Russian soils (0-20 cm layer) has averaged 34 +/- 2.2 Tg C yr-1. This soil C forms net biome production (NBP) where carbon lifetime is much longer than in `Kyoto forests'. Thus, the post-agrogenic ecosystems in Russia provide with the additional CO2 sink in NEP and NBP that could annually compensate about 25% of the current fossil fuel emissions in the Russian Federation.

  18. Certification of U.S. instrumentation in Russian nuclear processing facilities

    SciTech Connect

    D.H. Powell; J.N. Sumner

    2000-07-12

    Agreements between the United States (U.S.) and the Russian Federation (R.F.) require the down-blending of highly enriched uranium (HEU) from dismantled Russian Federation nuclear weapons. The Blend Down Monitoring System (BDMS) was jointly developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to continuously monitor the enrichments and flow rates in the HEU blending operations at the R.F. facilities. A significant requirement of the implementation of the BDMS equipment in R.F. facilities concerned the certification of the BDMS equipment for use in a Russian nuclear facility. This paper discusses the certification of the BDMS for installation in R.F. facilities, and summarizes the lessons learned from the process that can be applied to the installation of other U.S. equipment in Russian nuclear facilities.

  19. 76 FR 70866 - Expansions of the Russian River Valley and Northern Sonoma Viticultural Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... description of the features of the viticultural area that affect viticulture, such as climate, geology, soils..., in the Federal Register (73 FR 49123) regarding the proposed expansion of the Russian River Valley....) ATF-159, published in the Federal Register (48 FR 48812) on October 21, 1983. It was expanded by...

  20. MCNP calculations for Russian criticality-safety benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Capell, B.M.; Mosteller, R.D.; Pelowitz, D.B.

    1996-12-31

    The current edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments contains evaluations of 20 critical experiments performed and evaluated by the Institute for Experimental Physics of the Russian Federal Nuclear Center (VNIIEF) at Arzamas-16 and 16 critical experiments performed and evaluated by the Institute for Technical Physics of the Russian Federal Nuclear Center (VNIITF) at Chelyabinsk-70. These fast-spectrum experiments are of particular interest for data testing of ENDF/B-VI because they contain uranium metal systems of intermediate enrichment as well as uranium and plutonium metal systems with reflectors such as graphite, stainless steel, polyethylene, beryllium, and beryllium oxide. This paper presents the first published results for such systems using cross-section libraries based on ENDF/B-VI.

  1. Overview of Russian HEU transparency issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kempf, C.R.; Bieniawski, A.

    1993-09-01

    The U.S. has signed an agreement with the Russian Federation for the purchase of 500 metric tons of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) taken from dismantled nuclear weapons. The HEU will be blended down to low-enriched uranium and will be transported to the U.S. to be used by fuel fabricators to make fuel for commercial nuclear power plants. Both the U.S. and Russia have been preparing to institute transparency measures to provide assurance that nonproliferation and arms control objectives specified in the agreement are met. This paper provides background information on the original agreement and on subsequent negotiations with the Russians, as well as discussion of technical aspects of developing transparency measures suited to the facilities and processes which are expected to be involved. Transparency has been defined as those agreed-upon measures which build confidence that arms control and non-proliferation objectives shared by the parties are met. Transparency is a departure from exhaustive, detailed arms control verification regimes of past agreements, which were based on a presumption of detecting transgressions as opposed to confirming compliance.

  2. Automation or De-automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorlach, Igor; Wessel, Oliver

    2008-09-01

    In the global automotive industry, for decades, vehicle manufacturers have continually increased the level of automation of production systems in order to be competitive. However, there is a new trend to decrease the level of automation, especially in final car assembly, for reasons of economy and flexibility. In this research, the final car assembly lines at three production sites of Volkswagen are analysed in order to determine the best level of automation for each, in terms of manufacturing costs, productivity, quality and flexibility. The case study is based on the methodology proposed by the Fraunhofer Institute. The results of the analysis indicate that fully automated assembly systems are not necessarily the best option in terms of cost, productivity and quality combined, which is attributed to high complexity of final car assembly systems; some de-automation is therefore recommended. On the other hand, the analysis shows that low automation can result in poor product quality due to reasons related to plant location, such as inadequate workers' skills, motivation, etc. Hence, the automation strategy should be formulated on the basis of analysis of all relevant aspects of the manufacturing process, such as costs, quality, productivity and flexibility in relation to the local context. A more balanced combination of automated and manual assembly operations provides better utilisation of equipment, reduces production costs and improves throughput.

  3. Process automation

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Process automation technology has been pursued in the chemical processing industries and to a very limited extent in nuclear fuel reprocessing. Its effective use has been restricted in the past by the lack of diverse and reliable process instrumentation and the unavailability of sophisticated software designed for process control. The Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility was developed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) in part to demonstrate new concepts for control of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. A demonstration of fuel reprocessing equipment automation using advanced instrumentation and a modern, microprocessor-based control system is nearing completion in the facility. This facility provides for the synergistic testing of all chemical process features of a prototypical fuel reprocessing plant that can be attained with unirradiated uranium-bearing feed materials. The unique equipment and mission of the IET facility make it an ideal test bed for automation studies. This effort will provide for the demonstration of the plant automation concept and for the development of techniques for similar applications in a full-scale plant. A set of preliminary recommendations for implementing process automation has been compiled. Some of these concepts are not generally recognized or accepted. The automation work now under way in the IET facility should be useful to others in helping avoid costly mistakes because of the underutilization or misapplication of process automation. 6 figs.

  4. Russian Prime Minister Calls the Station Crew

    NASA Video Gallery

    Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin called the International Space Station from the Russian Mission Control Center in Korolev, Russia, on Jan. 11, 2011. Putin also offered his condolences to ISS ...

  5. Russian Soyuz in Launch Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Soyuz TM-31 launch vehicle is shown in the vertical position for its launch from Baikonur, carrying the first resident crew to the International Space Station. The Russian Soyuz launch vehicle is an expendable spacecraft that evolved out of the original Class A (Sputnik). From the early 1960s until today, the Soyuz launch vehicle has been the backbone of Russia's marned and unmanned space launch fleet. Today, the Soyuz launch vehicle is marketed internationally by a joint Russian/French consortium called STARSEM. As of August 2001, there have been ten Soyuz missions under the STARSEM banner.

  6. Automation pilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    An important concept of the Action Information Management System (AIMS) approach is to evaluate office automation technology in the context of hands on use by technical program managers in the conduct of human acceptance difficulties which may accompany the transition to a significantly changing work environment. The improved productivity and communications which result from application of office automation technology are already well established for general office environments, but benefits unique to NASA are anticipated and these will be explored in detail.

  7. Automated Urinalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Information from NASA Tech Briefs assisted DiaSys Corporation in the development of the R/S 2000 which automates urinalysis, eliminating most manual procedures. An automatic aspirator is inserted into a standard specimen tube, the "Sample" button is pressed, and within three seconds a consistent amount of urine sediment is transferred to a microscope. The instrument speeds up, standardizes, automates and makes urine analysis safer. Additional products based on the same technology are anticipated.

  8. Non-Textbook Materials in Russian Civilization Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinograde, Ann C.

    1977-01-01

    Supplementary, non-textbook materials used in Russian civilization classes include "Paintings from the Russian Museum Collection," with text in Russian and English; a Russian desk calendar; "In the Russian Style," with costume photographs and poetry excerpts, and a Russian primary school book. Uses of these materials are discussed. (CHK)

  9. Teaching Russian Culture: Concepts of Nature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dianne

    Russian culture is very much influenced by its huge land area, peculiar topography, and harsh climate. To understand Russian culture one must know how Russians perceive nature. This paper discusses how this concept may be conveyed to U.S. middle school students through poetry. Poems about nature can provide students an opportunity to understand…

  10. Processing of Contrastiveness by Heritage Russian Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekerina, Irina A.; Trueswell, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments in the Visual World paradigm compared how monolingual Russian (Experiment 1) and heritage Russian-English bilingual (Experiment 2) listeners process contrastiveness online in Russian. Materials were color adjective-noun phrases embedded into the split-constituent construction Krasnuju polozite zvezdovku..."Red put…

  11. Russian Loanword Adaptation in Persian; Optimal Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambuziya, Aliye Kord Zafaranlu; Hashemi, Eftekhar Sadat

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we analyzed some of the phonological rules of Russian loanword adaptation in Persian, on the view of Optimal Theory (OT) (Prince & Smolensky, 1993/2004). It is the first study of phonological process on Russian loanwords adaptation in Persian. By gathering about 50 current Russian loanwords, we selected some of them to analyze. We…

  12. An Evolutionary Sketch of Russian Kinship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Paul

    This paper presents a preliminary sketch of the evolution of Russian kinship from the reconstructed stages of Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Slavic, through old and nineteenth century Russian, to the trends of contemporary modern Russian. Linguistic, historical, and anthropological approaches have been combined. The kinship terminology is viewed as…

  13. Social and Racial Correlates of Russian Roulette

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven; Wasserman, Ira

    2008-01-01

    The epidemiology of a neglected form of suicidal behavior, Russian roulette, is addressed. Also tested is an explanation of racial differences based on the opportunity theory of deviant behavior related to the availability of revolvers, necessary weapons with which to play Russian roulette. Data refer to 15 cases of Russian roulette found through…

  14. 49 CFR 238.445 - Automated monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Automated monitoring. 238.445 Section 238.445 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 238.445 Automated monitoring. (a) Each passenger train shall be equipped to monitor...

  15. 49 CFR 238.445 - Automated monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Automated monitoring. 238.445 Section 238.445 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 238.445 Automated monitoring. (a) Each passenger train shall be equipped to monitor...

  16. 49 CFR 238.445 - Automated monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Automated monitoring. 238.445 Section 238.445 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 238.445 Automated monitoring. (a) Each passenger train shall be equipped to monitor...

  17. 49 CFR 238.445 - Automated monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Automated monitoring. 238.445 Section 238.445 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 238.445 Automated monitoring. (a) Each passenger train shall be equipped to monitor...

  18. 49 CFR 238.445 - Automated monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automated monitoring. 238.445 Section 238.445 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 238.445 Automated monitoring. (a) Each passenger train shall be equipped to monitor...

  19. Morphological Rules in Russian Conjugation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Linda Kopp

    Recent analyses of Russian (Halle 1963, Lightner 1972) have been forced by the criteria of rule "naturalness" and rule "generality" to posit highly abstract underlying forms. These underlying forms and rules are claimed to represent the speaker's competence. Such analyses are now being criticized (Derwing 1973, Hooper 1974) on the following…

  20. Oral Proficiency Testing in Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Barbara H., Comp.; Mayewski, Sandi, Comp.

    A handbook compiled for use in a one-day workshop on oral proficiency testing for teachers of Russian gives an overview of oral proficiency assessment principles and the available techniques. One section explains the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages/Educational Testing Service (ACTFL/ETS) Oral Proficiency Interview process and…

  1. Russian Honeybee Breeders Association Manual

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Honey Bee Breeding, Genetics and Physiology Laboratory has produced a stock of bees called “Russian Honey Bees”. This name recognizes the original source of the honey bee queens that were used to form the stock. Queen bees from Russia’s far-east, many o...

  2. Launch of Russian reactor postponed

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-05

    Astronomers and weapons scientists seemed heated on a collision course a few months ago over the military's plans to send a Russian nuclear reactor into space. But an agreement reached in late January has prevented a pile-up, at least for 6 months. The astronomers, led by Donald Lamb of the University of Chicago, were objecting to plans by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO) to launch Topaz 2, an experimental Russian nuclear reactor, arguing that rogue particles from it might ruin sensitive gamma ray experiments. The reactor is designed to propel itself in space with a jet of xenon ions. One worry was that leaking gamma rays and positrons, which can travel in the earth's magnetic field and pop up in the darndest places, might cause false signals in gamma ray monitors (Science, 18 December 1992, p. 1878). The worry has abated now that SDI officials will postpone choosing a rocket and mission altitutde for Topaz 2 for 6 months, while experts study how its emissions at various altitudes might affect instruments aboard the Gamma Ray Observatory and other satellites. In effect, the SDIO has agreed to an environmental impact study for space, following an unusual meeting organized by former Russian space official Roald Sagdeev at the University of Maryland on 19 January. There the Russian designers of Topaz 2, its new owners at the SDIO, and critics in the astronomy community achieved common ground: that more study was needed.

  3. [Epidemiologic aspects of energy drink intake in Russian Federation].

    PubMed

    Zastrozhin, M S; Drozhzhina, N A

    2015-01-01

    Article examines the impact of 'energy" drinks that have become so popular in recent decades on people. As a research tool a short structured questionnaire was used. It included questions about whether the respondent used "energy" drinks and, if yes, how often; whether he/she had an experience of using it with alcohol; if one is informed about the affect of substances that are included in the drink on the organism; reason of using; the reason of debut consumption; primary feeling during and after consumption; primary feeling after taking a large dose of "energy" drink. Each respondent also pointed out sex and noted whether he/she wanted to learn more about "energy" drinks and effects of their use on the organism. Within 3 years of study 1377 people (682 men and 695 women) aged 12 to 42 were surveyed. The results showed that 89.0% of respondents consumed energy drinks in some to some degree, and from these 7.4% used it constantly (at least 1 can a day). 24,0% of respondents had an experience of taking "energy" drinks with alcohol. With that, the number of men who used "energy" drinks with alcohol, prevails over the same number of women: 60.3% (n = 199) and 39.7% (n = 131), respectively (p = 0.003). Relationship between age of respondents and features of using as well as effects of "energy drinks" was also statistically proven. The elder the group is the less is the number of responders who drinks energetics constantly (Rs = -0.88, p < 0.001), who knows about the affect of caffeine and other substances on the organism (Rs = -0.93, p < 0.001), who drinks energetics forced by desire to get new feelings (Rs = -0.78, p < 0.001), exams (Rs = -0.73, p < 0.001), who feels fatigue (Rs = -0.79, p < 0.001), and get headache (Rs = -0.8, p < 0.001), the more is the number of responders who noticed that the primal feeling after energetics drinking was rising of working efficiency (Rs = 0.76, p < 0.001) and excessive motional activity (Rs = 0.59, p = 0.01). Basing on the data obtained basic principles of reducing the rate of use of energy drinks program were developed. PMID:26841552

  4. [The malaria situation in the Russian Federation (1997-1999)].

    PubMed

    Baranova, A M; Sergiev, V P

    2000-01-01

    Profound socio-economic changes within the CIS countries in the 1990s brought a lot of negative changes in malaria prevention in targeted countries. The previously stable connection and cooperation in prophylactic activities have been interrupted. Supply of antimalarials, insecticides and equipment had been stopped. Many qualified cadres in the sanitary-epidemiological services in the countries were lost. Because of difficult economic situation they had to change their occupation and place of job. After prolonged period of a stable benign epidemiological situation within Russia the number of imported cases started to grow up. The sharp increase of imported malaria cases from Azerbaijan and Tajikistan had been noticed since 1994 (Tab. 1). For the first time in the history of malaria registration the number of cases imported from the CIS countries has been exceeded the number of malaria cases imported from all other countries in the world in 1995. Later in the end of the 1990s the imported malaria cases has been registered in Russia from some other CIS countries apart from Azerbaijan and Tajikistan. There were malaria cases imported from Armenia (13 cases), Moldavia (2), Turkmenistan (2), and Uzbekistan (2) in 1998. The number of imported malaria cases in Russia in 1999 (Jan-July) is 437. There is no information about introduced or indigenous malaria cases registered until now] within Russia. There were 13 introduced malaria cases as the result of numerous imported ones. 13 introduced cases have been registered in 10 oblasts (administrative regions of Russia). This number has been increased to 53 (!) in 1998 in 20 oblasts. There was one local outbreak of P. vivax malaria in Izberbash settlement (Dagestan). Number of indigenous malaria cases were 5 (1996), 18 (1997), 1 (1998). The contra-epidemic measures in Izberbash have included active cases detection and treatment indoor insecticide spaying and one tour of mass primaguine treatment during interseasonal period of time. Additional indigenous cases after imported and introduced ones have been detected in Krasnodar (1 cases), Samara (1), Tolyaty (1), and Cherkessk (5) in 1998. One induced P. falciparum malaria case has been detected Moscow in 1998. Medical nurse from urological branch of the Moscow hospital No. 29 has penetrated by syringe needle her hand after performing of intravenous injection to the patient with imported P. falciparum malaria. No other induced cases have been detected. Because of local administrative problems with primaquine supply not all P. vivax malaria cases have received complete treatment. As the result of these events there was malaria relapsed cases registered every year. The actual number was 20 (1993), 37 (1994), 45 (1995), 59 (1996), 99 (1997). Due to late appearance of patient with P. falciparum malaria before medical staff and as a result late diagnosis and late and some time inappropriate treatment there were several lethal malaria cases registered [table: see text] every year. Inappropriate treatment means that treatment of P. falciparum malaria cases was consisted of chloroquine only. The cumulative number of lethal cases in 1994-1997 was 12, and the same number in 1998 was 6. One should mention that one lethal case in 1998 in Volgograd was due to P. vivax. The subject was chronic alcoholic and combination with P. vivax malaria brings him to death. Some calculation reveals the risk of resurgence of malaria in Russia. If one analyses all P. vivax imported cases from the point of view of time and place of detection the following picture would be emerged: 83% of all imported cases has been localized within cities, and 17% only--in rural areas. Half of the latter has been appeared during cold part of years when transmission was impossible. The result of approximately 200 imported cases has been appeared in a right time and place there were 75 introduced cases. PMID:10900914

  5. On State Youth Policy in the Russian Federation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markova, N. E.

    2014-01-01

    The social, economic, and cultural changes that occurred in Russia following the collapse of the Soviet Union have combined to impose severe damage on the population, and not the least on Russia's young people. The provision of new forms of social and economic support are needed, as well as new youth programs, if further damage is to be…

  6. Development of well construction and workover supervising in Russian Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizov, A.; Boyarko, G.; Shenderova, I.

    2014-08-01

    Despite long history of drilling supervising it still has a number of uncertainties. The period of rapid rise in supervising development at the beginning of the 90's changed in the 2000's. The necessity in the development of this sphere is obvious. The author describes the history of supervising, period of its market condition adaptation. The research also gives principles methods of supervising development and first steps for its position improvement.

  7. (Re)Thinking Teacher Networking in the Russian Federation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapham, Kate; Lindemann-Komarova, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the findings of research in Russia on the degree to which teachers and school principals are active and how they currently network with their colleagues. It builds on the work of David Frost and John Bangs (2012) on teacher self-efficacy using a survey and semi-structured interviews with teachers and principals to collect…

  8. MPC&A for plutonium disposition in the Russian federation

    SciTech Connect

    Sutcliffe, W.G.

    1995-08-08

    The issue of what to do with excess fissile materials from dismantled nuclear weapons has been discussed for a number of years. The options or alternatives commanding the most attention were identified by the American National Academy of Sciences. For plutonium these options are: (1) the fabrication and use of mixed-oxide (MOX) reactor fuel followed by the disposal of the spent fuel, or (2) vitrification (immobilization) of plutonium combined with highly radioactive material followed by direct disposal. The Academy report also identified the alternative of disposal in a deep borehole as requiring further study before being eliminated or accepted. The report emphasized security of nuclear materials as a principal factor in considering management and disposition decisions. Security of materials is particularly important in the near term-now-long before ultimate disposition can be accomplished. The MOX option was the subject of a NATO workshop held at Obninsk, Russia in October 1994. Hence this paper does not deal with the MOX alternative in detail. It deals with the following: materials protection, control, and accounting (MPC&A) for immobilization and disposal; the immobilization vs MOX alternatives; the security of disposed plutonium; the need to demonstrate MTC&A for plutonium disposition; and, finally, a recommended investment to quickly and inexpensively improve the protection of fissile materials in Russia. It is the author`s view that near-term management is of overriding importance. That is, with respect to the ultimate disposition of excess nuclear materials, how we get there is more important than where we are going.

  9. Cooperative MPC&A Enhancements at Russian Navy Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, N N; O'Shell, P; Hendrickson, S; Sukhoruchkin, V; Antipov, S; Melkhov, E; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N; Yurasov, N

    2001-05-30

    U.S. MPC&A cooperation with the Russian Federation (RF) Navy is based on a Joint Statement signed in 1996 to protect Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) fresh fuel used for nuclear propulsion. The Russian Federation Navy is the largest owner in Russia of highly enriched uranium, both in the form of fresh nuclear fuel, and in the form of slightly irradiated fuel with a long cooling time after irradiation. As a result of this agreement, projects began at the Northern Fleet Fresh Fuel Storage Facility (Site 49) and Refueling Ship PM-63. Initial projects provided upgrades for RF Navy HEU fresh fuel storage facilities, beginning with a land-based facility near Murmansk and later adding other land-based and ship-based fresh fuel storage facilities. Additional protocols (December 1997, January 1999, and March 2000) significantly expanded cooperation to include all HEU fuel under RF Navy control. To date, it is estimated that tens of metric tons of HEU have been secured - enough to construct hundreds of nuclear devices. It was determined that the cooperation would be coordinated by the Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute. This paper describes the history of the Program development, its stages, current status, scale of the work and prospects.

  10. Russians Work on Aft Portion of Zarya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this photograph, Russians are working on the aft portion of the United States-funded, Russian-built Functional Cargo Bay (FGB) also known as Zarya (Russian for sunrise). Built at Khrunichev, the FGB began pre-launch testing shortly after this photo was taken. Launched by a Russian Proton rocket from the Baikonu Cosmodrome on November 20, 1998, Zarya was the first element of the International Space Station (ISS) followed by the U.S. Unity Node. The aft docking mechanism, Pirs, on the far right with ventilation ducting rurning through it, will be docked with the third Station element, the Russian Service Module, or Zvezda.

  11. Russian perspectives: The past shapes the present

    SciTech Connect

    Houck, R.P.

    1994-11-01

    This document contains an outline of a speech given to a group of professionals at Pacific Northwest Laboratory which was intended to give an unbiased view of Soviet perceptions. Topics discussed include: The new mission of US and Soviet labs and institutions to develop products and dedicate research to post cold war threat, historical prospectives of Russia, Russian military roles and missions, ideology of Russian politics, evils of capitalism, Russian civil war, communism, world war II, Russian losses during the war, the cold war, reasons why America should care what happens in Russia, the internal threat against a market-based economy, the US should help, and the Russian people and their attitudes.

  12. 48 CFR 702.170-17 - Automated Directives System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Automated Directives... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions 702.170-17 Automated Directives System. “Automated Directives System” (“ADS”) sets forth the Agency's policies and essential procedures, as well...

  13. 48 CFR 702.170-17 - Automated Directives System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Automated Directives... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions 702.170-17 Automated Directives System. “Automated Directives System” (“ADS”) sets forth the Agency's policies and essential procedures, as well...

  14. 48 CFR 702.170-17 - Automated Directives System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Automated Directives... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions 702.170-17 Automated Directives System. “Automated Directives System” (“ADS”) sets forth the Agency's policies and essential procedures, as well...

  15. 48 CFR 702.170-17 - Automated Directives System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Automated Directives... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions 702.170-17 Automated Directives System. “Automated Directives System” (“ADS”) sets forth the Agency's policies and essential procedures, as well...

  16. 48 CFR 702.170-17 - Automated Directives System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automated Directives... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions 702.170-17 Automated Directives System. “Automated Directives System” (“ADS”) sets forth the Agency's policies and essential procedures, as well...

  17. Habitat automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swab, Rodney E.

    1992-01-01

    A habitat, on either the surface of the Moon or Mars, will be designed and built with the proven technologies of that day. These technologies will be mature and readily available to the habitat designer. We believe an acceleration of the normal pace of automation would allow a habitat to be safer and more easily maintained than would be the case otherwise. This document examines the operation of a habitat and describes elements of that operation which may benefit from an increased use of automation. Research topics within the automation realm are then defined and discussed with respect to the role they can have in the design of the habitat. Problems associated with the integration of advanced technologies into real-world projects at NASA are also addressed.

  18. Russian-American Experience in Science Education and Volcanological Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Gordeev, E. I.; Vesna, E. B.

    2007-12-01

    After five years experience in bringing American students to meet and learn with Russian students in Kamchatka and bringing Russian students to meet and learn with American students in Alaska, it is possible to make some generalizations about the problems and benefits this growing program. Some 200 students, including many from other countries besides the United States and Russian Federation, have now had this experience. The context of their collaboration is the International Volcanological Field School, sponsored by the University of Alaska Fairbanks, Kamchatka State University, and the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, and also a comparison of Mount St Helens, Bezymianny, and Shiveluch volcanoes under the National Science Foundation's Partnerships in International Research in Education, with important support from the Russian Academy of Sciences, Far East Division. Elements of these two projects are adaptation to unfamiliar, harsh, and remote environments; intensive courses in Russian language, history, geography, and culture; and sharing of research and education experiences among students. The challenges faced by the program are: · Slow and complex visa processes. · Demise of a direct airline connection, necessitating round-the-world travel to go 3000 km. · Adequately communicating to students beforehand the need for physical fitness, mental fortitude in uncomfortable conditions, and patience when bad weather limits mobility. Benefits of the projects have been: · Experiences that students report to be career- and life-changing. · Much more positive perceptions of Russia and Russian people by American students and of America and Americans by Russian students. · Introduction to the "expedition style" volcanology necessary in challenging environments. · Development of long-lasting collaborations and friendships in the context of international science. Students often comment that hearing about what their peers have done or are doing in research at

  19. Catastrophic Fires in Russian Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhinin, A. I.; McRae, D. J.; Stocks, B. J.; Conard, S. G.; Hao, W.; Soja, A. J.; Cahoon, D.

    2010-12-01

    We evaluated the contribution of catastrophic fires to the total burned area and the amount of tree mortality in Russia since the 1970’s. Such fires occurred in the central regions of European Russia (1972, 1976, 1989, 2002, 2010), Khabarovsk krai (1976, 1988, 1998), Amur region (1997-2002), Republics of Yakutia and Tuva (2002), Magadan and Kamchatka oblast (1984, 2001, 2010), and Irkutsk, Chita, Amur regions, Buryat, Agin national districts (2003, 2007-08). We define a catastrophic fire as a single high-severity fire that covers more than 10,000 ha and results in total consumption of the litter and humus layers and in high tree mortality, or the simultaneous occurrence of several high-severity fires in a given region with a total area exceeding 10,000 km2. Fires on this scale can cause substantial economic, social and environmental effects, with regional to global impacts. We hypothesize that there is a positive feedback between anticyclone growth and energy release from wildfires burning over large areas. Usually the first blocking anticyclone appears in June in Russia, bringing with it dry weather that increases fire hazard. The anticyclonic pattern has maximum activity in the end of July and disappears around the middle of August. When high fire activity occurs, the anticyclone may strengthen and develop a blocking character that prevents cyclonic patterns from moving into anticyclone-dominated areas, where the fire danger index may be more than six times the average maximum. The likelihood of uncontrolled fire situations developing increases greatly when the fire number and burned area exceed critical values as a function of conditions that favor high intensity fires. In such situations fire suppression by regional forest protection services becomes impossible and federal resources are required. If the appearance of a blocking anticyclone is forecast, active fire prevention and suppression of small fires (most of which appear to be human caused) is critical

  20. Automating Finance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John

    2007-01-01

    In past years, higher education's financial management side has been riddled with manual processes and aging mainframe applications. This article discusses schools which had taken advantage of an array of technologies that automate billing, payment processing, and refund processing in the case of overpayment. The investments are well worth it:…

  1. Automated dispenser

    SciTech Connect

    Hollen, R.M.; Stalnaker, N.D.

    1989-04-06

    An automated dispenser having a conventional pipette attached to an actuating cylinder through a flexible cable for delivering precise quantities of a liquid through commands from remotely located computer software. The travel of the flexible cable is controlled by adjustable stops and a locking shaft. The pipette can be positioned manually or by the hands of a robot. 1 fig.

  2. Russian RBMK reactor design information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document concerns the systems, design, and operations of the graphite-moderated, boiling, water-cooled, channel-type (RBMK) reactors located in the former Soviet Union (FSU). The Russian Academy of Sciences Nuclear Safety Institute (NSI) in Moscow, Russia, researched specific technical questions that were formulated by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and provided detailed technical answers to those questions. The Russian response was prepared in English by NSI in a question-and-answer format. This report presents the results of that technical exchange in the context they were received from the NSI organization. Pacific Northwest Laboratory is generating this document to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) community in responding to requests from FSU states, which are seeking Western technological and financial assistance to improve the safety systems of the Russian-designed reactors. This report expands upon information that was previously available to the United States through bilateral information exchanges, international nuclear society meetings, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reactor safety programs, and Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (RDIPE) reports. The response to the PNL questions have not been edited or reviewed for technical consistency or accuracy by PNL staff or other US organizations, but are provided for use by the DOE community in the form they were received.

  3. Environmental Hazard Identification Technique Developing of Territorial Administrations Strategy as Exemplified in Siberian Federal District

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeeva, S. S.; Garmishev, V. V.; Lugovtsova, N. Yu

    2016-04-01

    This work, on the example of the Siberian Federal District of the Russian Federation, presents a method for determining mass airbursts of combustion gaseous eco-toxicants, as a technique for assessing the contributory environmental load on the atmosphere. Potential environmental hazards are analyzed by mass of contaminated airbursts. A comparison of specific gross toxicants’ emissions in territorial entities of the Russian Federation is made.

  4. [Analysis of genetic diversity of Russian regional populations based on common STR markers used in DNA identification].

    PubMed

    Pesik, V Yu; Fedunin, A A; Agdzhoyan, A T; Utevska, O M; Chukhraeva, M I; Evseeva, I V; Churnosov, M I; Lependina, I N; Bogunov, Yu V; Bogunova, A A; Ignashkin, M A; Yankovsky, N K; Balanovska, E V; Orekhov, V A; Balanovsky, O P

    2014-06-01

    We conducted the first genetic analysis of a wide a range of rural Russian populations in European Russia with a panel of common DNA markers commonly used in criminalistics genetic identification. We examined a total of 647 samples from indigenous ethnic Russian populations in Arkhangelsk, Belgorod, Voronezh, Kursk, Rostov, Ryazan, and Orel regions. We employed a multiplex genotyping kit, COrDIS Plus, to genotype Short Tandem Repeat (STR) loci, which included the genetic marker panel officially recommended for DNA identification in the Russian Federation, the United States, and the European Union. In the course of our study, we created a database of allelic frequencies, examined the distribution of alleles and genotypes in seven rural Russian populations, and defined the genetic relationships between these populations. We found that, although multidimensional analysis indicated a difference between the Northern gene pool and the rest of the Russian European populations, a pairwise comparison using 19 STR markers among all populations did not reveal significant differences. This is in concordance with previous studies, which examined up to 12 STR markers of urban Russian populations. Therefore, the database of allelic frequencies created in this study can be applied for forensic examinations and DNA identification among the ethnic Russian population over European Russia. We also noted a decrease in the levels of heterozygosity in the northern Russian population compared to ethnic populations in southern and central Russia, which is consistent with trends identified previously using classical gene markers and analysis of mitochondrial DNA. PMID:25715463

  5. Peer Group Self-Identification in Samples of Russian and U.S. Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve; Sun, Ping; Gunning, Melissa; Moran, Meghan B.; Pokhrel, Pallav; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Kniazev, Vadim; Masagutov, Radik

    2010-01-01

    Most peer group self-identification research has been conducted in the United States. This article examined the generalizability of self-identified group name research among teens in Ufa, a city in the Russian Federation. A cross-sectional, anonymous collection of data on group self-identification, drug use, addiction concern, sensation seeking,…

  6. Concurrent Predictors of Cigarette and Alcohol Use among U.S. and Russian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunning, Melissa; Sussman, Steve; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Kniazev, Vadim; Masagutov, Radik

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we describe correlates of 30-day cigarette and alcohol use among two samples of high school students, one in the Russian Federation (n = 365), and one in the United States (n = 965). The correlates used in the analyses are based on the theory of triadic influence, which organizes predictors of adolescent substance use into…

  7. Application of the "best fit" pathotyping assay for evaluation of Russian isolates of Marek's disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the validity of the "best fit" pathotyping assay for testing of field isolates of Marek's disease (MD) virus. Twenty serotype 1 MD viruses were isolated from breeder and commercial flocks in 8 regions of the Russian Federation. These isolates were pat...

  8. Russian Science Teachers' Knowledge of HIV/AIDS: Implications for Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avina, Julie,; O'Connell, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    The Russian Federation has one of the fastest growing HIV epidemics in the world. Prevention efforts are still in the early stage, and to this date do not include a comprehensive, national HIV prevention education approach for direct application via the educational system. This study examined HIV/AIDS related knowledge of science teachers residing…

  9. Does Russia Need Sex Education? The Views of Stakeholders in Three Russian Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gevorgyan, Ruzanna; Schmidt, Elena; Wall, Martin; Garnett, Geoffrey; Atun, Rifat; Maksimova, Svetlana; Davidenko, Ludmila; Renton, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the attitudes of the main stakeholders towards the introduction of sex education in schools in Russia. Design: Qualitative semi-structured interview study. Setting: Altai Krai, Volgograd Oblast, Moscow, Russian Federation. Participants: One hundred and fifty-three interviews with Intersectoral HIV/AIDS Committee members,…

  10. ISS Update: Russian Spacesuits and Spacewalks

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Marc Ciupitu, EVA Flight and Increment Manager, about the Russian Orlan spacesuits that cosmonauts wear during spacewalks. Marc also discusses wha...

  11. Russian Scientific-Educational Project: Kazan-GeoNa-2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, A.; Alibekova, N.

    2012-09-01

    For the further successful development of educational and scientific - educational activity of the Russian Federation, the Republic Tatarstan, Kazan is offered the national project - the International Center of the Science and the Internet of Technologies. "GeoNa" (Geometry of Nature - "GeoNa" is developed - wisdom, enthusiasm, pride, grandeur), which includes a modern complex of conference halls (up to 4 thousand places), the Center the Internet of Technologies, 3D Planetarium - development of the Moon, PhysicsLand, an active museum of natural sciences, an oceanarium, training a complex «Spheres of Knowledge», botanical and landscape oases.

  12. Russian low-level waste disposal program

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, L.

    1993-03-01

    The strategy for disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Russia differs from that employed in the US. In Russia, there are separate authorities and facilities for wastes generated by nuclear power plants, defense wastes, and hospital/small generator/research wastes. The reactor wastes and the defense wastes are generally processed onsite and disposed of either onsite, or nearby. Treating these waste streams utilizes such volume reduction techniques as compaction and incineration. The Russians also employ methods such as bitumenization, cementation, and vitrification for waste treatment before burial. Shallow land trench burial is the most commonly used technique. Hospital and research waste is centrally regulated by the Moscow Council of Deputies. Plans are made in cooperation with the Ministry of Atomic Energy. Currently the former Soviet Union has a network of low-level disposal sites located near large cities. Fifteen disposal sites are located in the Federal Republic of Russia, six are in the Ukraine, and one is located in each of the remaining 13 republics. Like the US, each republic is in charge of management of the facilities within their borders. The sites are all similarly designed, being modeled after the RADON site near Moscow.

  13. Automated lithocell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englisch, Andreas; Deuter, Armin

    1990-06-01

    Integration and automation have gained more and more ground in modern IC-manufacturing. It is difficult to make a direct calculation of the profit these investments yield. On the other hand, the demands to man, machine and technology have increased enormously of late; it is not difficult to see that only by means of integration and automation can these demands be coped with. Here are some salient points: U the complexity and costs incurred by the equipment and processes have got significantly higher . owing to the reduction of all dimensions, the tolerances within which the various process steps have to be carried out have got smaller and smaller and the adherence to these tolerances more and more difficult U the cycle time has become more and more important both for the development and control of new processes and, to a great extent, for a rapid and reliable supply to the customer. In order that the products be competitive under these conditions, all sort of costs have to be reduced and the yield has to be maximized. Therefore, the computer-aided control of the equipment and the process combined with an automatic data collection and a real-time SPC (statistical process control) has become absolutely necessary for successful IC-manufacturing. Human errors must be eliminated from the execution of the various process steps by automation. The work time set free in this way makes it possible for the human creativity to be employed on a larger scale in stabilizing the processes. Besides, a computer-aided equipment control can ensure the optimal utilization of the equipment round the clock.

  14. Russian Emotion Vocabulary in American Learners' Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlenko, Aneta; Driagina, Viktoria

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the uses of emotion vocabulary in narratives elicited from monolingual speakers of Russian and English and advanced American learners of Russian. Monolingual speakers differed significantly in the distribution of emotion terms across morphosyntactic categories: English speakers favored an adjectival pattern of emotion…

  15. Russian Media Education Researches: 1950-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzed the development of Russian media education researches from 1950 to 2010 years. The list of theses of the Russian authors on the subject of Media Education is about 180 titles since 1950. Nearly 70 of them have been defended for the recent 10 years. From 1950 till 1959 six theses were defended, from 1960 till 1969--15; from…

  16. Russian Literature: A Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill Univ., Montreal (Quebec). McLennan Library.

    An annotated bibliography of general and specialized reference works for Russian and Soviet literature is intended for both students and researchers. English language and Russian language sources in the McGill University (Canada) libraries are included. Subject headings include guides (to the literature and to archival resources), encyclopedias,…

  17. Syllabus for Use in Russian Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cernonok, Jevgenij

    This syllabus outlines a two semester course to accompany the basic textbook: THE EPIC OF RUSSIAN LITERATURE by Marc Slonim. An introduction to the guide gives a brief summary of the history of Russian literature and objectives of the course are stated, defining concepts and understandings to be developed. In addition, teaching techniques are…

  18. Russian for Trade Negotiations with the USSR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, James S.

    The primary goal of this text is to present the vocabulary and phraseology used in Soviet-American trade and to provide the student with oral facility in business Russian. In order to bring together the vocabulary of the diverse fields which play a role in such trade, the student is presented with sufficient background information in Russian to…

  19. Syllabus for Use in Imperial Russian History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husum, Carol

    This syllabus is an outline of a one semester course in Imperial Russia designed to emphasize the relationship between Russia's past and her present. Course content begins with the founding of the first Russian state and continues to the fall of the Romanovs in 1917. In addition, some topics are suggested for investigation of Russian history in…

  20. Predicate Adjective Usage in Standard Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Morton

    1959-01-01

    This paper describes predicate adjective usage in modern standard Russian using a corpus of written Russian derived from "Pravda" (neutral literary style) and "Krokodil" (conversational material). The short, long nominative, and instrumental forms are examined in relation to the type of adjective, copulative verb, sentence subject, and other…

  1. The Structure of the Russian Proverb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Maurice I.

    Bipartite and tripartite Russian proverbs are analyzed in terms of devices of repetition. Major attention is given to formulaic devices, including correlative, contrastive, and conjunctive formulas. Grammatical and phonetic devices are also discussed. An argument is advanced for the basic binary division of the Russian proverb, since even…

  2. Russian "Defectology": Anticipating Perestroika in the Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigorenko, Elena L.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses both the background and the current state of treatment of children with disabilities in Russia. Describes the theoretical basis of the modern Russian approach to disability, the current population's needs, and the existing system for referral and rehabilitation. Identifies merging trends and new perspectives on the Russian treatment of…

  3. Russian-American tomography experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, J.C.; Buonsanto, M.J.; Holt, J.M.; Klobucha, J.A.; Fougere, P.

    1994-12-31

    To intercompare various techniques used in reconstructing tomographic images, and to benchmark those results with direct observations obtained by the incoherent scatter technique, an experimental campaign and subsequent analysis program, the Russian-American Tomography Experiment (RATE), was implemented in late 1993. Russian experimental teams from the Polar Geophysical Institute in Murmansk and Moscow State University joined with American investigators from the Phillips Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and an array of four receiving stations was set up in the northeastern United States and in eastern Canada to obtain data for the tomographic reconstructions. Phase-difference and total-phase tomographic reconstruction techniques have been employed and are intercompared. The spatial/altitude distribution of ionospheric electron content was observed by the MIT Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radar that scanned the ionosphere in a plane parallel to the satellite overflights. The authors present preliminary reconstructions of the ionospheric structure observed during a severe mid-latitude ionospheric storm that took place during the campaign. The drastic large-scale changes in the ionospheric structure that accompanied the November 1993 storm were well observed by the two diagnostic techniques.

  4. [The actual Russian legislation in sphere of turn-over of drug agents and psychotropic substances].

    PubMed

    Abramov, A Yu; Kosolapova, N V; Mikhaiylova, Yu V

    2014-01-01

    The drug abuse is a social occurrence. Hence, the social economic methods are the first of all means of combating this evil. At the same time, measures of especially juridical character possess significant value since they develop corresponding legal base for applying another measures. In the Russian Federation, during fifteen years the new policy of public regulation and normative legal base in the area of legal turn-over of drug agents, psychotropic substances and their precursors were developed factually from zero ground. However, the current national legislation is not deprived of some flaws and contradictions. Frequently a uniform practice of interpretation and application of legal rules regulating the controlled turn-over is lacking. On the one hand, this circumstance decreases effectiveness of action of such rules and on the other hand favors development of situations for outflow of pharmaceuticals from legal turn-over to illegal traffic. The becoming of the Russian legislation in the area of turn-over of drug agents, precursors and psychotropic substances relates to the period of late 1990s when the Federal Law No 3 FZ "On drug agents and psychotropic substances" of January 8 1998 was developed and passed by the State Duma of the Russian Federation. The given law completely conforms to principles of legal regulation of turn-over of drug agents and psychotropic substances determined by the Constitution of the Russian Federation (provisions 76, 90, 104, 105) and federal laws ("On the government of the Russian Federation" of December 17 1997, "On the ombudsman in the Russian Federation" of February 26 1997). The main characteristic of legal rules included into given group of sources of law is that they contain regulations of general disposition as basic ones for inferior sources of law. The analysis of basic Federal law No 3 FZ "On drug agents and psychotropic substances" of January 8 1998 makes it possible to conclude that in in Russia the international legal

  5. US-Russian collaboration in MPC & A enhancements at the Elektrostal Uranium Fuel-Fabrication Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.; Murray, W.; Whiteson, R.

    1997-11-01

    Enhancement of the nuclear materials protection, control, and accounting of (MPC&A) at the Elektrostal Machine-Building Plant (ELEMASH) has proceeded in two phases. Initially, Elektrostal served as the model facility at which to test US/Russian collaboration and to demonstrate MPC&A technologies available for safeguards enhancements at Russian facilities. This phase addressed material control and accounting (MC&A) in the low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel-fabrication processes and the physical protection (PP) of part of the (higher-enrichment) breeder-fuel process. The second phase, identified later in the broader US/Russian agreement for expanded MPC&A cooperation. includes implementation of appropriate MC&A and PP systems in the breeder-fuel fabrication processes. Within the past year, an automated physical protection system has been installed and demonstrated in building 274, and an automated MC&A system has been designed and is being installed and will be tested in the LEU process. Attention has now turned to assuring longterm sustainability for the first phase and beginning MPC&A upgrades for the second phase. Sustainability measures establish the infrastructure for operation, maintenance, and repair of the installed systems-with US support for the lifetime of the US/Russian Agreement, but evolving toward full Russian operation of the system over the long term. For phase 2, which will address higher enrichments, projects have been identified to characterize the facilities, design MPC&A systems, procure appropriate equipment, and install and test final systems. One goal in phase 2 will be to build on initial work to create shared, plant-wide MPC&A assets for operation, maintenance, and evaluation of all safeguards systems.

  6. Social and racial correlates of Russian roulette.

    PubMed

    Stack, Steven; Wasserman, Ira

    2008-08-01

    The epidemiology of a neglected form of suicidal behavior, Russian roulette, is addressed. Also tested is an explanation of racial differences based on the opportunity theory of deviant behavior related to the availability of revolvers, necessary weapons with which to play Russian roulette. Data refer to 15 cases of Russian roulette found through a search of the medical examiner's suicide files (N = 1,412) and 75 matched controls who suicided by a gunshot to the head. The results support an opportunity perspective: 80% of the Russian roulette victims were African American compared to 30.7% of the controls. Further, among the controls, Blacks were three times more likely than Whites to use revolvers in suicides, a pattern indicating Blacks' greater access to revolvers. Russian roulette victims were entirely male, significantly younger, and less apt to be married than the control group. PMID:18724791

  7. The Russian/American Fuel Cell Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Sylwester, A.; Baker, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1996-12-31

    The United States and Russia discovered a mutual interest in fuel cell development during a series of workshops designed to teach entrepreneurial skills to Russian nuclear weapon scientists and engineers to aid them in converting their skill to peaceful applications. The proposal for a Russian/American Fuel Cell Consortium was initiated at the third workshop held in Livermore, CA, in May 1994. Representatives from U.S. fuel cell industries, U.S. research institutes, Russian institutes and ministries, and U.S. national laboratories attended, including those from GAZPROM, the Russian natural gas company. GASPROM needs to provide power for telemetry, cathodic corrosion protection of gas lines, and gas line pumping power in remote areas, and estimates that it needs approximately seventy thousand 1.5 to 15 KW plants to do so. Since the workshop, several direct working relationships have developed between the Russian Nuclear Weapon Institutes and the U.S. fuel cell industry.

  8. Russian "defectology": anticipating Perestroika in the field.

    PubMed

    Grigorenko, E L

    1998-01-01

    Created as a part of the general Russian educational system, special education in Russia has mirrored all the good and bad qualities of that system. It was during the Soviet phase of its existence that Russian remedial education developed its specific and unique character, reflecting the structure and values of the global social environment. Despite the fact that Russian society realized the need to change its general educational system, remedial education remained untouched by reconstructive forces. This article discusses both the background and the current state of treatment of children with disabilities in Russia. The theoretical basis of the modern Russian approach to disability, the current needy population, and the existing system for referral and rehabilitation are described, and emerging trends and new perspectives on the Russian treatment of children with disabilities are presented. PMID:9529790

  9. A NEW RUSSIAN WASTE MANAGEMENT INSTALLATION

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, Andrew; Engxy, Thor; Endregard, Monica; Schwab, Patrick; Nazarian, Ashot; Krumrine, Paul; Backe, Steinar; Gorin, Stephen; Evans, Brent

    2003-02-27

    The Polyarninsky Shipyard (sometimes called Navy Yard No. 10 or the Shkval Shipyard) has been designated as the recipient for Solid Radioactive Waste (SRW) management facilities under the Arctic Military Environmental Cooperation (AMEC) Program. The existing SRW storage site at this shipyard is filled to capacity, which is forcing the shipyard to reduce its submarine dismantlement activities. The Polyarninsky Shipyard Waste Management Installation is planned as a combination of several AMEC projects. It will have several elements, including a set of hydraulic metal cutting tools, containers for transport and storage, the Mobile Pretreatment Facility (MPF) for Solid Radioactive Waste, the PICASSO system for radiation monitoring, and a Waste Storage Facility. Hydraulically operated cutting tools can cut many metal items via shearing so that dusts or particulates are not generated. The AMEC Program procured a cutting tool system, consisting of a motor and hydraulic pumping unit, a 38-mm conduit-cutting tool, a 100- mm pipe-cutting tool, and a spreading tool all mounted on a wheeled cart. The vendor modified the tool system for extremely cold conditions and Russian electrical standards, then delivered the tool system to the Polyarninsky shipyard. A new container for transportation and storage of SRW and been designed and fabricated. The first 400 of these containers have been delivered to the Northern Fleet of the Russian Navy for use at the Polyarninsky Shipyard Waste Management Installation. These containers are cylindrical in shape and can hold seven standard 200-liter drums. They are the first containers ever certified in Russia for the offsite transport of military SRW. These containers can be transported by truck, rail, barge, or ship. The MPF will be the focal point of the Polyarninsky Shipyard Waste Management Installation and a key element in meeting the nuclear submarine dismantlement and waste processing needs of the Russian Federation. It will receive raw

  10. Environmental assessment of the import of Russian plutonium-238

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The United States (U.S.) is proposing to purchase plutonium-238 (Pu-238) from the Russian Federation (Russia) for use in the Nations`s space program. The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended, requires the assessment of environmental consequences of all major Federal actions that may significantly affect the quality of the human environment. Accordingly, the US Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) to identify and evaluate the environmental consequences of importing Pu-238 fuel from Russia, and of the initial transport and processing of such fuel within the US., as necessary, to add the fuel to the existing US inventory. Since the proposed action involves ocean transport, DOE also considered the environmental consequences of this action on the global commons in accordance with Executive Order 12114 and DOE Guidelines for Compliance with Executive Order 12114. During the transportation sequence from point of origin in Russia to the US, and within the US from the port of entry to either SRS or LANL, various environments could be affected by the proposed action. These potentially affected environments include the Russian land and port environments, the marine environment, the US port locale, highway routes, LANL, and SRS. Each of these is discussed below the connection with the proposed action.

  11. Alcohol policy in a Russian region: a stakeholder analysis

    PubMed Central

    Polikina, Olga; Koroleva, Natalia; Leon, David A.; McKee, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Background: Male life expectancy in the Russian Federation, at 60 years, is the lowest in Europe. Several factors contribute to this situation, but hazardous consumption of alcohol is especially a key factor. Methods: We undertook a stakeholder analysis in a typical Russian region located on the western side of the Urals. Organizations with a stake in alcohol policy in the region were identified by snowball sampling and information on their position and influence on alcohol policy was elicited from interviews with key informants. Their interests and influence were mapped and their relationships plotted. Results: Twenty-nine stakeholder organizations were identified and 43 interviews were conducted with their staff. The most influential actors were the Federal and regional governments, large beer producers and manufacturers of strong alcohols. However, the majority of organizations that might be expected to play a role in developing or implementing alcohol control policies were almost entirely disengaged and fragmented. No evidence was found of an existing or emerging multi-sectoral coalition for developing alcohol policy to improve health. Organizations that might be expected to contribute to tackling hazardous drinking had little understanding of what might be effective. Conclusions: While stakeholders with an interest in maintaining or increasing alcohol consumption are engaged and influential, those who might seek to reduce it either take a very narrow perspective or are disengaged from the policy agenda. There is a need to mobilize actors who might contribute to effective policies while challenging those who can block them. PMID:20350932

  12. ARES (Automated Residential Energy Standard) 1.2: User`s guide, in support of proposed interim energy conservation voluntary performance standards for new non-federal residential buildings: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1989-09-01

    The ARES (Automated Residential Energy Standard) User`s Guide is designed to the user successfully operate the ARES computer program. This guide assumes that the user is familiar with basic PC skills such as using a keyboard and loading a disk drive. The ARES computer program was designed to assist building code officials in creating a residential energy standard based on local climate and costs.

  13. Russian Virtual Observatory: data sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, O.; Dluzhnevskaya, O.; Bakanas, E.; Kilpio, E.; Kniazev, A.; Kovaleva, D.; Mironov, A.; Pakhomov, Yu.; Ryabchikova, T.; Rykhlova, L.; Sachkov, M.; Sazonov, S.; Zhukov, A.

    The purpose of this review is to analyze main directions of creation and functioning of major data sources developed by Russian astronomers or with their participation and to compare them with the worldwide trends in these fields. We discuss astronomical space missions of the past, present, and future (Astron, INTEGRAL, WSO-UV, Spectrum Roentgen Gamma, Lyra-B), high-quality photometric atlases and catalogues, and spectroscopic data sources, primarily VALD and the global VAMDC framework for the maintenance and distribution of atomic and molecular data. We describe collection, analysis, and dissemination of astronomical data on minor bodies of the Solar System and on variable stars. Also described is the project joining data for all observational types of binary and multiple stars, Binary star DataBase (BDB).

  14. Biophysical Variables Retrieval Over Russian Winter Wheat Fields Using Medium Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Andrimont, Raphael; Waldner, Francois; Bartalev, Sergey; Plotnikov, Dmitry; Kleschenko, Alexander; Virchenko, Oleg; de Wit, Allard; Roerink, Gerbert; Defourny, Pierre

    2013-12-01

    Winter wheat production in the Russian Federation represents one of the sources of uncertainty for the international commodity market. In particular, adverse weather conditions may induce winter kill resulting in large yields' losses. Improving the monitoring of winter- wheat in Russia with a focus on winter-kill damage and its impacts on yield is thus a key challenge.This paper presents the methods and the results of the biophysical variables retrieval on a daily basis as an input for crop growth modeling at parcel level over a 10-years period (2003-2012) in the Russian context. The field campaigns carried out on 2 sites in the Tula region from 2010 to 2012 shows that it is possible to characterize the spatial and temporal variability at pixel, field and regional scale using medium resolution sensors (MODIS) over Russian fields.

  15. Violence on the Russian & American Media Screen and Youth Audience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    The comparison of the Russian and American experience regarding media violence, standards for rating Russian media programs, and a course of study on media violence for students will have a significant impact upon Russian society, will raise Russian societal and governmental attention to the infringement of the Rights of the Child on the Russian…

  16. Both Automation and Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Royal

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the concept of a paperless society and the current situation in library automation. Various applications of automation and telecommunications are addressed, and future library automation is considered. Automation at the Monroe County Public Library in Bloomington, Indiana, is described as an example. (MES)

  17. Russian Roulette: From Sputnik to Global Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrard, John C.

    1978-01-01

    Problems in the educational system involving poor verbal and mathematics skills of students are discussed. The "back to basics" movement is advocated. The Russian instructional program at the University of Virginia is described. (SW)

  18. CHALLENGES POSED BY RETIRED RUSSIAN NUCLEAR SUBMARINES

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, Dieter; Kroken, Ingjerd; Latyshev, Eduard; Griffith, Andrew

    2003-02-27

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the challenges posed by retired Russian nuclear submarines, review current U.S. and International efforts and provide an assessment of the success of these efforts.

  19. Comparison with Russian analyses of meteor impact

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-06-01

    The inversion model for meteor impacts is used to discuss Russian analyses and compare principal results. For common input parameters, the models produce consistent estimates of impactor parameters. Directions for future research are discussed and prioritized.

  20. Russian Fires and Pakistani Floods Linked

    NASA Video Gallery

    Beginning in mid-July and stretching through mid-August, a persistent Omega-shaped blocking high over western Russian and Kazakhstan produced abnormally warm temperatures (indicated by the yellow a...

  1. Genetic stock identification of Russian honey bees.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, Lelania; Sheppard, Walter S; Sylvester, H Allen; Rinderer, Thomas E

    2010-06-01

    A genetic stock certification assay was developed to distinguish Russian honey bees from other European (Apis mellifera L.) stocks that are commercially produced in the United States. In total, 11 microsatellite and five single-nucleotide polymorphism loci were used. Loci were selected for relatively high levels of homogeneity within each group and for differences in allele frequencies between groups. A baseline sample consisted of the 18 lines of Russian honey bees released to the Russian Bee Breeders Association and bees from 34 queen breeders representing commercially produced European honey bee stocks. Suitability tests of the baseline sample pool showed high levels of accuracy. The probability of correct assignment was 94.2% for non-Russian bees and 93.3% for Russian bees. A neighbor-joining phenogram representing genetic distance data showed clear distinction of Russian and non-Russian honey bee stocks. Furthermore, a test of appropriate sample size showed a sample of eight bees per colony maximizes accuracy and consistency of the results. An additional 34 samples were tested as blind samples (origin unknown to those collecting data) to determine accuracy of individual assignment tests. Only one of these samples was incorrectly assigned. The 18 current breeding lines were represented among the 2009 blind sampling, demonstrating temporal stability of the genetic stock identification assay. The certification assay will be used through services provided by a service laboratory, by the Russian Bee Breeders Association to genetically certify their stock. The genetic certification will be used in conjunction with continued selection for favorable traits, such as honey production and varroa and tracheal mite resistance. PMID:20568639

  2. 48 CFR 237.102-77 - Automated requirements roadmap tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Automated requirements... REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Service Contracts-General 237.102-77 Automated requirements roadmap tool. See PGI 237.102-77 for guidance on...

  3. 48 CFR 237.102-77 - Automated requirements roadmap tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Automated requirements... REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Service Contracts-General 237.102-77 Automated requirements roadmap tool. See PGI 237.102-77 for guidance on...

  4. 48 CFR 237.102-77 - Automated requirements roadmap tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Automated requirements... REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Service Contracts-General 237.102-77 Automated requirements roadmap tool. See PGI 237.102-77 for guidance on...

  5. 76 FR 34740 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Automated Clearinghouse

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Automated... approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Automated Clearinghouse (CBP Form 400). This is a... published in the Federal Register (76 FR 19121) on April 6, 2011, allowing for a 60-day comment period....

  6. Risk Assessment Update: Russian Segment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric; Lear, Dana; Hyde, James; Bjorkman, Michael; Hoffman, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    BUMPER-II version 1.95j source code was provided to RSC-E- and Khrunichev at January 2012 MMOD TIM in Moscow. MEMCxP and ORDEM 3.0 environments implemented as external data files. NASA provided a sample ORDEM 3.0 g."key" & "daf" environment file set for demonstration and benchmarking BUMPER -II v1.95j installation at the Jan-12 TIM. ORDEM 3.0 has been completed and is currently in beta testing. NASA will provide a preliminary set of ORDEM 3.0 ".key" & ".daf" environment files for the years 2012 through 2028. Bumper output files produced using the new ORDEM 3.0 data files are intended for internal use only, not for requirements verification. Output files will contain these words ORDEM FILE DESCRIPTION = PRELIMINARY VERSION: not for production. The projectile density term in many BUMPER-II ballistic limit equations will need to be updated. Cube demo scripts and output files delivered at the Jan-12 TIM have been updated for the new ORDEM 3.0 data files. Risk assessment results based on ORDEM 3.0 and MEM will be presented for the Russian Segment (RS) of ISS.

  7. Russian Docking Module is lowered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Russian-built Docking Module (DM) is lowered for installation into the payload bay of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis while the spaceplane is in Orbiter Processing Facility bay 2. The module will fly as a primary payload on the second Space Shuttle/Mir space station docking mission, STS-74, which is now scheduled for liftoff in the fall of 1995. During the mission, the module will first be attached with the orbiter's robot arm to the Orbiter Docking System (ODS) in the payload bay of the orbiter Atlantis and then be docked with the Mir. When Atlantis undocks from the Mir, it will leave the new docking module permanently attached to the space station for use during future Shuttle Mir docking missions. The new module will simplify future Shuttle linkups with Mir by improving orbiter clearances when it serves as a bridge between the two space vehicles. The white structures attached to the module's sides are solar panels that will be attached to the Mir after the conclusion of the STS-74 mission.

  8. Exobiological Investigations on Russian Spacecrafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzicheva, Evgenia A.; Gontareva, Natalia B.

    2003-06-01

    To investigate the possibility of prebiotic synthesis of organic molecules in open space, conditions involved irradiating nucleosides and inorganic phosphate during five Earth-orbiting Russian space missions that included Salut-7 (13- and 16-month missions), Mir, Bion-11, and Cosmos-2044. Dry films of samples were exposed from 2 weeks up to 16 months to the entire set of factors encountered in open space during Earth-orbiting missions. After each mission, products synthesized during flight and any compounds that remained undegraded were analyzed. The analyses demonstrated that increased flight duration led to the decay of both synthesized nucleotides and initial nucleosides. Corresponding laboratory experiments indicated that infrared radiation caused the greatest amount of decay to products of prebiotic reactions. Experiments revealed that 5'-mononucleotides were the main chemical products of the major derivatives synthesized of certain nucleosides. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) C145 was more effective than UVC254 in producing a comparatively higher yield of mononucleotides, while the energy flux of the latter was one order of magnitude less (10-7 as compared with 10-6 for UVC145). In the course of the laboratory simulation experiments the heating of solid samples yielded the greatest production amount (6.34% for adenosine derivatives).

  9. Microsoft Business Solutions-Axapta as a basis for automated monitoring of high technology products competitiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashchiyan, G. O.; Sushko, A. V.; Grichin, S. V.

    2015-09-01

    One of the conditions of normal performance of the Russian economy is the problem of high technology products competitiveness. Different tools of these products estimation are used nowadays, one of them is automated monitoring of the high technology products in mechanical engineering. This system is developed on the basis of “Innovator" software integrated in Microsoft Business Solutions-Axapta.

  10. Russian anthropogenic black carbon: Emission reconstruction and Arctic black carbon simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; Storey, John M.; Romanov, Alexander; Hodson, Elke L.; Cresko, Joe; Morozova, Irina; Ignatieva, Yulia; Cabaniss, John

    2015-11-01

    Development of reliable source emission inventories is particularly needed to advance the understanding of the origin of Arctic haze using chemical transport modeling. This study develops a regional anthropogenic black carbon (BC) emission inventory for the Russian Federation, the largest country by land area in the Arctic Council. Activity data from combination of local Russia information and international resources, emission factors based on either Russian documents or adjusted values for local conditions, and other emission source data are used to approximate the BC emissions. Emissions are gridded at a resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° and developed into a monthly temporal profile. Total anthropogenic BC emission of Russia in 2010 is estimated to be around 224 Gg. Gas flaring, a commonly ignored black carbon source, contributes a significant fraction of 36.2% to Russia's total anthropogenic BC emissions. Other sectors, i.e., residential, transportation, industry, and power plants, contribute 25.0%, 20.3%, 13.1%, and 5.4%, respectively. Three major BC hot spot regions are identified: the European part of Russia, the southern central part of Russia where human population densities are relatively high, and the Urals Federal District where Russia's major oil and gas fields are located but with sparse human population. BC simulations are conducted using the hemispheric version of Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model with emission inputs from a global emission database EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research)-HTAPv2 (Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution) and EDGAR-HTAPv2 with its Russian part replaced by the newly developed Russian BC emissions, respectively. The simulation using the new Russian BC emission inventory could improve 30-65% of absorption aerosol optical depth measured at the AERONET sites in Russia throughout the whole year as compared to that using the default HTAPv2 emissions. At the four ground monitoring sites (Zeppelin, Barrow

  11. Russian anthropogenic black carbon: Emission reconstruction and Arctic black carbon simulation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; Storey, John M.; Romanov, Alexander; Hodson, Elke L.; Cresko, Joe; Morozova, Irina; Ignatieva, Yulia; Cabaniss, John

    2015-10-02

    Development of reliable source emission inventories is needed to advance the understanding of the origin of Arctic haze using chemical transport modeling. This paper develops a regional anthropogenic black carbon (BC) emission inventory for the Russian Federation, the largest country by land area in the Arctic Council. Activity data from combination of local Russia information and international resources, emission factors based on either Russian documents or adjusted values for local conditions, and other emission source data are used to approximate the BC emissions. Emissions are gridded at a resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° and developed into a monthly temporal profile.more » Total anthropogenic BC emission of Russia in 2010 is estimated to be around 224 Gg. Gas flaring, a commonly ignored black carbon source, contributes a significant fraction of 36.2% to Russia's total anthropogenic BC emissions. Other sectors, i.e., residential, transportation, industry, and power plants, contribute 25.0%, 20.3%, 13.1%, and 5.4%, respectively. Three major BC hot spot regions are identified: the European part of Russia, the southern central part of Russia where human population densities are relatively high, and the Urals Federal District where Russia's major oil and gas fields are located but with sparse human population. BC simulations are conducted using the hemispheric version of Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model with emission inputs from a global emission database EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research)-HTAPv2 (Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution) and EDGAR-HTAPv2 with its Russian part replaced by the newly developed Russian BC emissions, respectively. The simulation using the new Russian BC emission inventory could improve 30–65% of absorption aerosol optical depth measured at the AERONET sites in Russia throughout the whole year as compared to that using the default HTAPv2 emissions. At the four ground monitoring sites (Zeppelin, Barrow, Alert

  12. Russian anthropogenic black carbon: Emission reconstruction and Arctic black carbon simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; Storey, John M.; Romanov, Alexander; Hodson, Elke L.; Cresko, Joe; Ignatieva, Yulia; Cabaniss, John

    2015-10-02

    Development of reliable source emission inventories is needed to advance the understanding of the origin of Arctic haze using chemical transport modeling. This paper develops a regional anthropogenic black carbon (BC) emission inventory for the Russian Federation, the largest country by land area in the Arctic Council. Activity data from combination of local Russia information and international resources, emission factors based on either Russian documents or adjusted values for local conditions, and other emission source data are used to approximate the BC emissions. Emissions are gridded at a resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° and developed into a monthly temporal profile. Total anthropogenic BC emission of Russia in 2010 is estimated to be around 224 Gg. Gas flaring, a commonly ignored black carbon source, contributes a significant fraction of 36.2% to Russia's total anthropogenic BC emissions. Other sectors, i.e., residential, transportation, industry, and power plants, contribute 25.0%, 20.3%, 13.1%, and 5.4%, respectively. Three major BC hot spot regions are identified: the European part of Russia, the southern central part of Russia where human population densities are relatively high, and the Urals Federal District where Russia's major oil and gas fields are located but with sparse human population. BC simulations are conducted using the hemispheric version of Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model with emission inputs from a global emission database EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research)-HTAPv2 (Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution) and EDGAR-HTAPv2 with its Russian part replaced by the newly developed Russian BC emissions, respectively. The simulation using the new Russian BC emission inventory could improve 30–65% of absorption aerosol optical depth measured at the AERONET sites in Russia throughout the whole year as compared to that using the default HTAPv2 emissions. At the four ground monitoring sites (Zeppelin, Barrow, Alert, and

  13. Russian plans for lunar investiagtions. Stage 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, L.; Mitrofanov, I.; Petrukovich, A.; Khartov, V.; Martynov, M.; Lukianchikov, A.

    2014-04-01

    Lunar Race of 60-ies and 70-ies between US and Soviet Union produced outstanding results for lunar science. For many technical reasons mostly near equatorial and mid-latitude Lunar regions were investigated at this glorious time. New epoch of Lunar investigations began at the late 90-ies. It gradually shaped the image of a new wet moon at least at the vicinity of its polar regions. Strong interest to the mechanisms of the formation of a near polar volatiles deposits, their migration and their composition (including the bisotope one) became the central theme of the Russian program of lunar investigations for next 10 years. Certainly the number of other outstanding scientific topics like the properties of Lunar dust, peculiarities of regolith interaction with the supersonic solar wind flow, characteristics of the Lunar magnetic and gravitational anomalies, etc., are planned to be studied both from the orbit and from the surface. First stage of the Russian Lunar Program consists of a four missions: Lunas 25, 26, 27, 28. (The numeration follows Lunar missions of a Soviet Epoch - last successful regolith sample delivery have been accomplished by Luna 24 in 1976). Luna 25 will land to the southern polar site, which would be the most suitable for engineering reasons and also interesting for the science. Second lander Luna 27 will have more sophisticated payload with the additional instruments in comparison with Luna 25. Luna 27 should be landed to the selected landing site at the vicinity of the South Pole, which could be the most promising for installation of the future Lunar Base. It is very important that Luna 27 will be equipped by the subsurface drill to get samples from the permafrost shallow subsurface (one attractive option now is that this drill will be provided by our ESA colleagues having the experience of designing and manufacturing of a similar drill for the Exomars project). The principal difference of the drilling at Luna 27 in comparison with the early

  14. Verbs of Motion in L1 Russian of Russian-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlenko, Aneta

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the motion lexicon in narratives elicited from Russian-English bilinguals. Lexical choices made by the participants are compared to those made by native speakers of Russian and English in narratives elicited by the same stimuli. The analysis of bilinguals' narratives shows that lexicalization of motion is not subject to L2…

  15. Russian Advanced Course: A Short History of the Development of Russian Language and Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    The purpose of this volume is to acquaint the student with the historical development of the Russian language and literature. Samples of the original works with English translations and lists of recommended readings are provided. Contents include a review of Russian literature by century, samples of the short story "Samizdat," and major…

  16. ENGLISH-RUSSIAN, RUSSIAN-ENGLISH GLOSSARY OF COAL CLEANING TERMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document is an English-Russian, Russian-English glossary of coal cleaning terms, compiled as a joint U.S./Soviet effort. The need for the glossary resulted from the growing number of language-specific terms used during information exchanges within the framework of the U.S./U....

  17. Reading L2 Russian: The Challenges of the Russian-English Dictionary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, William J.

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive study examines when and how students use Russian-English dictionaries while reading informational texts in Russian and what success they have with word lookup. The study uses introspective verbal protocols (i.e., think-alouds) to follow how readers construct meaning from two texts while reading them for a limited time first…

  18. Russian Dialect Project. Volume III: Bibliography of Russian Dialect Studies. Preliminary Version. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankiewicz, Edward; And Others

    Volume 3 of the Russian Dialect Studies is a bibliography listing Russian dialect studies published in the 19th and 20th centuries in Russia and abroad. The selection has been oriented primarily toward phonological and morphological studies of the dialects, and secondarily toward lexical, syntactic, and other studies. The bibliography is also…

  19. Russian Language Testing and Integrated Examination for Foreign Citizens in Russia: Legislation Background and Legal Regulation Specific Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolzhikova, Anzhela

    2015-01-01

    The Russian Federation faces active law-making and legislative activities aimed at providing legal grounds for qualifying educational level of foreign nationals entering the country with the purpose to work and apply for citizenship. The article deals with the current legislation and regulations in their relationship with each other, their impact…

  20. 76 FR 79023 - Determinations Under Section 1106(a) of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988Russian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    .... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, December 15, 2011 [FR Doc. 2011-32762 Filed 12-19-11; 11:15 am... Russian Federation (Russia) and goods that compete with imports into Russia. I further determine that such.... Russia is seeking to become a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO). The terms and conditions...

  1. Federal Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, George M.

    1976-01-01

    The status of two of life's necessities, air and water, is of crucial importance to the future of American parks and recreation programs, and continued cooperation among federal, state, local and private sectors is necessary to preserve them. (JD)

  2. 5 CFR 1630.17 - Federal agency requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal agency requests. 1630.17 Section 1630.17 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 1630.17 Federal agency requests. Employing agencies needing automated data processing services from...

  3. 5 CFR 1630.17 - Federal agency requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Federal agency requests. 1630.17 Section 1630.17 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 1630.17 Federal agency requests. Employing agencies needing automated data processing services from...

  4. 5 CFR 1630.17 - Federal agency requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal agency requests. 1630.17 Section 1630.17 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 1630.17 Federal agency requests. Employing agencies needing automated data processing services from...

  5. 5 CFR 1630.17 - Federal agency requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Federal agency requests. 1630.17 Section 1630.17 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 1630.17 Federal agency requests. Employing agencies needing automated data processing services from...

  6. 10 CFR 1017.28 - Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). 1017.28... UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.28 Processing on Automated... Circular No. A-130, Revised, Transmittal No. 4, Appendix III, “Security of Federal Automated...

  7. 48 CFR 2452.239-70 - Background investigations for sensitive automated systems/applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for sensitive automated systems/applications. 2452.239-70 Section 2452.239-70 Federal Acquisition... automated systems/applications. As prescribed in 2439.107(a), insert the following clause: Background Investigations for Sensitive Automated Systems/Applications (OCT 1999) (a) General. This contract involves...

  8. 10 CFR 1017.28 - Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). 1017.28... UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.28 Processing on Automated... Circular No. A-130, Revised, Transmittal No. 4, Appendix III, “Security of Federal Automated...

  9. 10 CFR 1017.28 - Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). 1017.28... UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.28 Processing on Automated... Circular No. A-130, Revised, Transmittal No. 4, Appendix III, “Security of Federal Automated...

  10. 48 CFR 2452.239-70 - Background investigations for sensitive automated systems/applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for sensitive automated systems/applications. 2452.239-70 Section 2452.239-70 Federal Acquisition... automated systems/applications. As prescribed in 2439.107(a), insert the following clause: Background Investigations for Sensitive Automated Systems/Applications (OCT 1999) (a) General. This contract involves...

  11. 10 CFR 1017.28 - Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). 1017.28... UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.28 Processing on Automated... Circular No. A-130, Revised, Transmittal No. 4, Appendix III, “Security of Federal Automated...

  12. 10 CFR 1017.28 - Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). 1017.28... UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.28 Processing on Automated... Circular No. A-130, Revised, Transmittal No. 4, Appendix III, “Security of Federal Automated...

  13. Contamination of sites formerly occupied by Russian troops in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Spychala, A.; Miksch, K.; Surmacz-Gorska, J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper summarizes an investigation carried out on Polish terrain occupied by Russian Federation military troops. The investigation identified natural environmental devastation, pollution, and contamination. Quantitative estimation of the devastation and its economic evaluation are provided. The results of the investigation are as follows: 406 ha have been contaminated by petrochemical products; 22.7 ha are chemically polluted; and 6,500 ha of underground water, as well as 17.5 ha of surface water, cannot be classified. On 15,300 ha the soil has been degraded, of which landfills comprise an area of 98 ha. No toxic warfare agents have been detected, nor any radioactivity levels exceeding those characteristic of the given region.

  14. Comparing English, Mandarin, and Russian Hydrographic and Terrain Categories

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Chen-Chieh; Sorokine, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    The paper compares hydrographic and terrain categories in the geospatial data standards of the US, Taiwan, and Russian Federation where the dominant languages used are from di erent language families. It aims to identify structural and semantic di erences between similar categories across three geospatial data standards. By formalizing the data standard structures and identifying the properties that di erentiate sibling categories in each geospatial data standard using well-known formal relations and quality universals, we develop a common basis on which hydrographic and terrain categories in the three data standards can be compared. The result suggests that all three data standards structure categories with a mixture of relations with di erent meaning even though most of them are well-known relations in top-level ontologies. Similar categories can be found across all three standards but exact match between similar categories are rare.

  15. Automated External Defibrillator

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is an Automated External Defibrillator? An automated external defibrillator (AED) is a portable device that ... Institutes of Health Department of Health and Human Services USA.gov

  16. Russian collaborations on lasers and advanced optics

    SciTech Connect

    Munroe, J.; Cooper, D.; Koym, V.; Salesky, E.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. There are several technological areas where the Russians appear to be well ahead of the West. Russian work in lasers and advanced optics, high power nonlinear optics, and optical phase conjugation in particular, are some of these areas. The objective of this project is to establish collaboration with key Russian scientists in this area to analytically and experimentally validate the technologies and identify potential applications. This technology has the potential to solve very important military, civil, and commercial problems. The emphasis of this project is on civil and commercial applications, but the technologies have dual-use applications.

  17. Workflow automation architecture standard

    SciTech Connect

    Moshofsky, R.P.; Rohen, W.T.

    1994-11-14

    This document presents an architectural standard for application of workflow automation technology. The standard includes a functional architecture, process for developing an automated workflow system for a work group, functional and collateral specifications for workflow automation, and results of a proof of concept prototype.

  18. Kurs po Stilistike Russkogo Jazyka (A Course on Russian Stylistics)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukanovich, E. P.

    1975-01-01

    Outlines basic goals, techniques, and materials for a college level course in Russian language stylistics. The use of literature readings, composition writing, stylistics levels of both spoken and written language, and synonym equivalence are discussed. (Text is in Russian.) (DH)

  19. Using SuperPILOT for Creating the Russian Characters Set.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamantova-Abbas, Vera

    1986-01-01

    Examines the possibility of creating the Russian character set using a "programerless" authoring language, SuperPILOT, which allows a teacher or a learner to produce and use the Russian alphabet with no programing skills. (Author/CB)

  20. Diamantane and 4-methyldiamantane in naphthalane and Russian crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Musayev, I.A.; Bagrii, Ye.I.; Kurashova, E.Kh.; Sanin, P.I.; Zaikin, V.G.

    1983-01-01

    Diamantane, 4-methyldiamantane, cyclopentano-adamantane and cyclohexanoadamantane were identified in naphthalane and Russian crude oils. The contents of these hydrocarbons identified in Russian crude oil exceeds considerably their content in naphthalane crude oil.

  1. Russian Soyuz Moves to Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Soyuz TM-31 launch vehicle, which carried the first resident crew to the International Space Station, moves toward the launch pad at the Baikonur complex in Kazakhstan. The Russian Soyuz launch vehicle is an expendable spacecraft that evolved out of the original Class A (Sputnik). From the early 1960' until today, the Soyuz launch vehicle has been the backbone of Russia's marned and unmanned space launch fleet. Today, the Soyuz launch vehicle is marketed internationally by a joint Russian/French consortium called STARSEM. As of August 2001, there have been ten Soyuz missions under the STARSEM banner.

  2. The geology and geochemistry of Russian coals

    SciTech Connect

    Povarennych, M.Y.; Pierce, B.S.

    1999-07-01

    Russia contains some of the largest deposits of coal in the world. There are more than 5.2 trillion tons of coal contained in just two basins - the Tungus and Ob'irtysh (Golitsyn and others, 1992) - in (the former) central USSR. Despite the significant resources and mining activity in the former Soviet Union and currently in Russia, relatively little information about Russian coals has appeared in the English literature. This paper presents a brief summary of the distribution, age, rank, and quality of the major Russian coal deposits.

  3. From assurance to insurance in Russian health care: the problematic transition.

    PubMed Central

    Burger, E J; Field, M G; Twigg, J L

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Given the declining health status of the Russian population and the negative social impact of ongoing economic reforms, it is important to understand the nature and scope of Russia's innovations in health care financing. METHODS: Data on Russian health care and its financing were gathered from Russian newspapers and journals. US government agency reports, recent press accounts, and the authors' observations and interviews in Russia. RESULTS: The 1991 statutory basis for the Russian mandatory medical insurance system replaced the traditional, state-funded medical care system with a regional system principally reliant on an enterprise-based with-holding tax plus supplementation by local government and, to a minor extent, federal funds. The regional agent for distribution and management of these funds is a series of Territorial Health Insurance Funds. Implementation thus far has been highly uneven among territories. CONCLUSIONS: An insurance model patterned after the Western example may not be the optimal solution to Russia's current health financing problems. Given the chaotic nature of political and economic reform, Russia may simply not be ready for market-based medical insurance. PMID:9585740

  4. Federal Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Annals of the Deaf, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This listing provides directory information for federal offices that provide educational and rehabilitation services information for individuals with disabilities, including those with hearing impairments. Information is provided on the Office of Special Education Programs, the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research, and the…

  5. Automation in Clinical Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Ledeboer, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the trend toward automation in clinical pathology laboratories has largely bypassed the clinical microbiology laboratory. In this article, we review the historical impediments to automation in the microbiology laboratory and offer insight into the reasons why we believe that we are on the cusp of a dramatic change that will sweep a wave of automation into clinical microbiology laboratories. We review the currently available specimen-processing instruments as well as the total laboratory automation solutions. Lastly, we outline the types of studies that will need to be performed to fully assess the benefits of automation in microbiology laboratories. PMID:23515547

  6. Automation of industrial bioprocesses.

    PubMed

    Beyeler, W; DaPra, E; Schneider, K

    2000-01-01

    The dramatic development of new electronic devices within the last 25 years has had a substantial influence on the control and automation of industrial bioprocesses. Within this short period of time the method of controlling industrial bioprocesses has changed completely. In this paper, the authors will use a practical approach focusing on the industrial applications of automation systems. From the early attempts to use computers for the automation of biotechnological processes up to the modern process automation systems some milestones are highlighted. Special attention is given to the influence of Standards and Guidelines on the development of automation systems. PMID:11092132

  7. Presence of Russian honey bee genotypes in swarms in Louisiana.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swarm traps were placed in an area around USDA, ARS apiaries near Baton Rouge, Louisiana, which had contained ARS Russian and other honey bees for several years. Eighty swarms were sampled and analyzed for their genotype (Russian, hybrid or non-Russian) and mite infestation percentages. Ten swarms...

  8. Russian Iconography: Russia's Contribution to the Art of Western Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagstaff, Jeri Lou

    This one- to three-week high school unit on Russian iconography was developed as part of a series by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. The unit can be incorporated into a larger unit on Russian literature, art, religion, or history. Four reasons for studying iconography are: 1) it is a splendid Russian art…

  9. Russian Language Study in Leningrad: the CIEE Semester Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikkelson, Gerald E.

    The CIEE Semester Advanced Russian Language Program for Americans at Leningrad State University is a 16-week program for thirty out-standing students with a minimum of three years' background in Russian. This report is addressed to American Slavicists and to younger American students of Russian, and describes the purpose, history, and present…

  10. Teachers' Language: L1 Attrition in Russian-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isurin, Ludmila

    2007-01-01

    The present study reports on the evidence of first language (L1) attrition in a population that may appear to be the most resistant to L1 changes. Russian monolinguals (n=3) and Russian-English bilinguals (n=10) participated in the study. The bilinguals were graduate students teaching Russian as a foreign language at a U.S. university. The data…

  11. Assessing grooming behavior of Russian honey bees toward Varroa destructor.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The grooming behavior of Russian bees was compared to Italian bees. Overall, Russian bees had significantly lower numbers of mites than the Italian bees with a mean of 1,937 ± 366 and 5,088 ± 733 mites, respectively. This low mite population in the Russian colonies was probably due to the increased ...

  12. On Acquisition of Russian Cases by American Classroom Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, George

    1995-01-01

    Examined the oral performance of midcourse and endcourse adult American learners of Russian to determine the accuracy order of Russian cases and demonstrated an order of accuracy common to both groups. According to decreasing accuracy, the Russian cases cluster in three rank orders: (1) prepositional and accusative; (2) genitive and instrumental;…

  13. Why Study Russian? The AATSEEL Answers the Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Teachers of Slavic and East European Languages.

    Seeking to provide information for students and teachers on reasons for studying Russian, this pamphlet discusses five major areas: (1) nature of the subject itself, (2) place of Russian in a liberal arts curriculum, (3) a history of Russian studies in the United States, (4) career opportunities, and (5) a brief survey of the teaching of Russian…

  14. German and Russian Adolescents' Environmental Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szagun, Gisela; Pavlov, Vladimir I.

    German (n=610) and Russian (n=610) adolescents in 3 age groups, 12, 15, and 18 years, were given a questionnaire assessing their feelings towards environmental destruction, their readiness for pro-environmental action, and their ethical attitude toward nature. In both nationalities anxiety, sadness, and anger about environmental destruction were…

  15. Russian for Business: Typewriting and Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Thomas E.

    This textbook was designed for undergraduate students who are interested in a basic study of Russian typewriting with particular emphasis on the following business documents: the memorandum, applications, statements, declarations, business letters, receipts, calculations, agreements, inquiries, references, certificates, basic documents used for…

  16. Employment Prospects for Speakers of Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabars, Zita D.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the job situation as it is at the present time for speakers of Russian and suggests ways in which increased trade activity between the United States and the Soviet Union will result in more job opportunities in the future. (Author/CLK)

  17. Genetic Stock Identification of Russian Honey Bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genetic stock certification assay was developed to distinguish Russian honey bees from other European stocks that are commercially produced in the United States. A total of 11 microsatellite and 5 SNP loci were used. Loci were selected for relatively high levels of homogeneity within each group an...

  18. Decomposition of Prefixed Words in Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanina, Nina

    2011-01-01

    I examined the nature of morphological decomposition in a series of masked-priming experiments with Russian prefixed nouns. In Experiments 1A and 1B, I tested 3 types of prime-target pairs in which the prime was a morphologically simple word, and a facilitation was found when the prime and the target were truly morphologically related (e.g.,…

  19. Russian Higher Education: Who Can Afford It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gounko, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    The article explores the issue of access and equity in the Russian higher education system by examining recent government initiatives. While recently introduced measures such as the Unified State Examination and student loan project are designed to aid students and expand participation, they alone cannot ensure equitable access to higher education…

  20. Development of Listening Proficiency in Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robin, Richard M.; Leaver, Betty Lou

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Listening Comprehension Exercise Network, a system that allows for the sharing of listening exercises in Russian via computer networks. The network, which could be emulated in other languages, alleviates the problem of time spent on developing essentially "throw-away" exercises. (21 references) (Author/CB)

  1. Russian Universities Educate World's Top Student Programmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Reports that student computer programmers from Russian universities, despite outdated equipment, poor facilities, and meager salaries, recently dominated the International Collegiate Programming Contest World Finals with the team from St. Petersburg State University winning first place. Western companies are developing arrangements with Russian…

  2. The New Generation Russian VLBI Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkelstein, Andrey; Ipatov, Alexander; Smolentsev, Sergey; Mardyshkin, Vyacheslav; Fedotov, Leonid; Surkis, Igor; Ivanov, Dmitrij; Gayazov, Iskander

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with a new project of the Russian VLBI Network dedicated for Universal Time determinations in quasi on-line mode. The basic principles of the network design and location of antennas are explained. Variants of constructing receiving devices, digital data acquisition system, and phase calibration system are specially considered. The frequency ranges and expected values of noise temperature are given.

  3. Family Planning: Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, Nuer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anoka County Community Health and Environmental Services, Coon Rapids, MN.

    This guide provides information in English, Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, and Nuer on family planning. Topics covered include a variety of birth control methods: abstinence, condoms, contraceptive foam, birth control pills, the Depo-Provera shot, the Norplant implant, diaphragms, intrauterine devices, natural family planning, sterilization, and the…

  4. Specific Extreme Behaviors of Postinstitutionalized Russian Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawk, Brandi N.; McCall, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Behavior problems reported by parents on the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001) were studied in 316 children adopted from social-emotionally depriving Russian institutions as a function of age at adoption (18-month cutoff), age at assessment (6-11 and 12-18 years), and gender. Children adopted after 18 months had higher problem…

  5. Biological Control of Russian thistle (tumbleweed)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We submitted a petition to the APHIS Technical Advisory Group (TAG) in December 2004 requesting permission to release the blister mite (Aceria salsolae) to control Russian thistle (Salsola tragus) and its close relatives. Host specificity experiments conducted in the USDA quarantine laboratory in ...

  6. A Program for Teaching Russian Verb Prefixation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schupbach, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    In this five- to ten-hour presentation, intermediate and advanced students of Russian learn how prefixation affects all types of motion in terms of displacement, transitivity, and perfectivity. The features of the prefix are detailed. Throughout, changes in government (subject, object, and prepositional complements) are explained in relation to…

  7. New Ideologies in Postcommunist Russian Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisovskaya, Elena; Karpov, Vyacheslav

    1999-01-01

    Explores patterns of recent ideological changes in the content of 12 Russian secondary school textbooks in the social sciences and humanities. Shows that textbook content has shifted from a consistent representation of key dogmas of Marxism-Leninism toward a contradictory combination of the ideological symbols of nationalism, Westernism, and…

  8. Russians and Americans Gather to Talk Psychobiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Constance

    1978-01-01

    Reports on the first Soviet-American meeting on psychology held in April, 1978 at the University of California at Irvine. The meeting was attended by 10 Soviets and about 30 Americans. The big difference between the two groups was that the Americans had small theories and lots of data, and the Russians had large theories and much less data. (BB)

  9. Transformation Analysis of Russian Instrumental Constructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worth, Dean Stoddard

    1958-01-01

    This comparative study of traditional and transformational approaches to the syntax of standard Russian proposes the superiority of analysis in terms of possible and impossible transformations, thereby revealing the existence of a level of linguistic form superior to that of simple morphophonemic description. Five classes of word-combinations of…

  10. On the Reform of Russian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mironov, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    The "modernization" of Russian education is linked to the functioning of the entire social system of Russia, and reforms are proving difficult and contradictory. The use of the Unified State Examination in Russia, plus participation in the Bologna process, is causing concern about the ability of education to meet the needs of the…

  11. Russian: United States Environmental Restoration Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Russian - United States Environmental Restoration Workshop, held in Washington, D.C., and Richland, Washington, from April 5 through 18, 1993, was the first extended collaborative information exchange between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Russian scientists at the site level. In addition to the Russian scientists, workshop participants included scientists and staff from DOE, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), the US Environmental Training Institute (USETI), universities, and the private sector. The first week (April 5 through 10) of the workshop took place in Washington, D.C., where the Russian and US participants were presented with a US perspective on environmental restoration and remediation issues from representatives in DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The second week (April 11 through 18) occurred in Richland, Washington, where the participants were presented with site-specific environmental restoration and remediation issues related to Hanford Site cleanup. This report is a compilation of the presentations, discussions, and experiences shared during the second week of the workshop in Richland, Washington.

  12. The Impact of Globalization on Russian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinagatullin Birsk, Ilghiz M.

    2003-01-01

    The notion of globalization, which Andrutchenko (2001) defines as a "consequence of the development of human civilization," and the way it is related to the issues of education are being discussed widely today among Russian educational and scientific circles, education policymakers, scholars, educators, as well as school and university students.…

  13. To the Project SAKHA - Russian Computer Translator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilevich, Migalkin Vasily

    The present work will be the first attempt of semantic translation in Russia from one of the Turkic languages to Russian, which is of itself represents a great interest for philology science and as well as for education process. Usage of benchmark language in the program of Russian language (possessing minimal number of homonyms and phrasal constructions) gives us belief in further translations from a fully synthetic language (Turkic) by means of Russian to fully synthetic languages (Turkic). The term - fully synthetic in this case is conditional and indicates the availability of Turkic language to use 3000 to 5000 affixes virtually to all words, which is impossible in Russian. Presence of great number of homonyms, imitative words, pair and phraseology words, absolute difference in grammatical structure of sentences, many incentive word forms in Yakut language do not allow to use word - by - word translation method of completed idea. (Yakut language in complete decomposition represents more than 45 million words though the number of root words is only about 15000). The only method that can be used here is semantic one. Thus, there is a task to encode meaning of the sentence in the form of invariant mathematical formulae (for concrete meaning) regardless of the method of presenting the sentence.

  14. Russian Science and Education: Problems and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebedev, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Higher education in Russia is not able to provide the science personnel and research that the country needs for its future economic well-being. Urgent changes are needed to improve the situation, not least among them being significant increases in the salaries of scientists, bringing Russian science into line with world standards of scientific…

  15. Word Order in Russian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmelman, Vadim

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the results of an investigation of word order in Russian Sign Language (RSL) are presented. A small corpus of narratives based on comic strips by nine native signers was analyzed and a picture-description experiment (based on Volterra et al. 1984) was conducted with six native signers. The results are the following: the most frequent…

  16. Welcome Aboard Starship MIR: Mission Is Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullickson, Janice

    2009-01-01

    Six years ago Project Starship MIR, the Russian language "shuttle," launched at Turnagain Elementary, one of the Anchorage School District's 65 elementary schools. The MIR "peace" mission originated with encouragement from the local business community to prepare students for Alaska's future economic, social and political ties with neighboring…

  17. Labor Migration by Russian Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Man'shin, R. V.; Timoshenko, O. V.; Pis'mennaia, E. E.

    2009-01-01

    Russia's young people have become active participants in processes of migration. After the fall of the USSR, young people began to travel outside Russia in substantially greater numbers. At the present time, young Russians can be found in all kinds of regions and countries of the world. They are getting an education in foreign universities and…

  18. Russian/Soviet weapons secrets revealed

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, R.S.

    1993-04-01

    Russia's Ministry of Atomic Energy has opened a museum at the Arzamas-16 nuclear weapon design laboratory with an exhibit on some early weapons. This exhibit and recent articles in the Russian press provide previously unknown details on the early Soviet nuclear program. This article compiles some of this information to provide a refined record of the development of the H-bomb.

  19. Russian Thistle (Salsola spp.) Biology and Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the major broadleaf weed species infesting the arid and semi-arid regions of the world is Russian thistle (Salsola spp.). It is found in more than 40 countries in the world, infests an estimated 41 million ha in the western United States, and 1.8 million ha of land in the winter wheat-summer ...

  20. English-Russian, Russian-English glossary of coal-cleaning terms

    SciTech Connect

    Pekar, J.

    1987-09-01

    The document is an English-Russian, Russian-English glossary of coal-cleaning terms, compiled as a joint U.S./Soviet effort. The need for the glossary resulted from the growing number of language-specific terms used during information exchanges within the framework of the U.S./U.S.S.R. Working Group on Stationary Source Air Pollution Control Technology, under the U.S./U.S.S.R. Agreement of Cooperation in the Field of Environmental Protection.

  1. Federated Giovanni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, C.

    2014-01-01

    Federated Giovanni is a NASA-funded ACCESS project to extend the scope of the GES DISC Giovanni online analysis tool to 4 other Distributed Active Archive Centers within EOSDIS: OBPG, LP-DAAC, MODAPS and PO.DAAC. As such, it represents a significant instance of sharing technology across the DAACs. We also touch on several sub-areas that are also sharable, such as Giovanni URLs, workflows and OGC-accessible services.

  2. 78 FR 53466 - Modification of Two National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) Tests Concerning Automated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... capability, known as the Simplified Entry (SE) test. 78 FR 44142. That document contained an error in Section... the DIS. Correction In the Federal Register of July 23, 2013, in the document at 78 FR 44142, on page...) Tests Concerning Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) Document Image System (DIS) and Simplified...

  3. Making the transition to automation

    SciTech Connect

    Christenson, D.J. )

    1992-10-01

    By 1995, the Bureau of Reclamation's hydropower plant near Hungry Horse, Montana, will be remotely operated from Grand Coulee dam (about 300 miles away) in Washington State. Automation at Hungry Horse will eliminate the need for four full-time power plant operators. Between now and then, a transition plan that offers employees choices for retraining, transferring, or taking early retirement will smooth the transition in reducing from five operators to one. The transition plan also includes the use of temporary employees to offset risks of reducing staff too soon. When completed in 1953, the Hungry Horse structure was the world's fourth largest and fourth highest concrete dam. The arch-gravity structure has a crest length of 2,115 feet; it is 3,565 feet above sea level. The four turbine-generator units in the powerhouse total 284 MW, and supply approximately 1 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity annually to the federal power grid managed by the Bonneville Power Administration. In 1988, Reclamation began to automate operations at many of its hydro plants, and to establish centralized control points. The control center concept will increase efficiency. It also will coordinate water movements and power supply throughout the West. In the Pacific Northwest, the Grand Coulee and Black Canyon plants are automated control centers. Several Reclamation-owned facilities in the Columbia River Basin, including Hungry Horse, will be connected to these centers via microwave and telephone lines. When automation is complete, constant monitoring by computer will replace hourly manual readings and equipment checks. Computers also are expected to increase water use efficiency by 1 to 2 percent by ensuring operation for maximum turbine efficiency. Unit efficiency curves for various heads will be programmed into the system.

  4. Automated DNA Sequencing System

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, G.A.; Ekkebus, C.P.; Hauser, L.J.; Kress, R.L.; Mural, R.J.

    1999-04-25

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing a core DNA sequencing facility to support biological research endeavors at ORNL and to conduct basic sequencing automation research. This facility is novel because its development is based on existing standard biology laboratory equipment; thus, the development process is of interest to the many small laboratories trying to use automation to control costs and increase throughput. Before automation, biology Laboratory personnel purified DNA, completed cycle sequencing, and prepared 96-well sample plates with commercially available hardware designed specifically for each step in the process. Following purification and thermal cycling, an automated sequencing machine was used for the sequencing. A technician handled all movement of the 96-well sample plates between machines. To automate the process, ORNL is adding a CRS Robotics A- 465 arm, ABI 377 sequencing machine, automated centrifuge, automated refrigerator, and possibly an automated SpeedVac. The entire system will be integrated with one central controller that will direct each machine and the robot. The goal of this system is to completely automate the sequencing procedure from bacterial cell samples through ready-to-be-sequenced DNA and ultimately to completed sequence. The system will be flexible and will accommodate different chemistries than existing automated sequencing lines. The system will be expanded in the future to include colony picking and/or actual sequencing. This discrete event, DNA sequencing system will demonstrate that smaller sequencing labs can achieve cost-effective the laboratory grow.

  5. Occupational accidents in Russia and the Russian Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Dudarev, Alexey A.; Karnachev, Igor P.; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2013-01-01

    Background According to official statistics, the rate of occupational accidents (OAs) and fatal injuries in Russia decreased about 5-fold and 2-fold, respectively, from 1975 to 2010, but working conditions during this period had the opposite trend; for example, the number of people who work in unfavourable and hazardous conditions (particularly since 1991) has increased significantly. Methods This review summarises the results of a search of the relevant peer-reviewed literature published in Russia and official statistics on OAs and occupational safety in Russia and the Russian Arctic in 1980–2010. Results The occupational safety system in Russia has severely deteriorated in the last 2 decades, with legislators tending to promote the interests of industry and business, resulting in the neglect of occupational safety and violation of workers’ rights. The majority of workers are employed in conditions that do not meet rules of safety and hygiene. More than 60% of OAs can be attributed to management practices – violation of safety regulations, poor organisation of work, deficiency of certified occupational safety specialists and inadequate personnel training. Research aimed at improving occupational safety and health is underfunded. There is evidence of widespread under-reporting of OAs, including fatal accidents. Three federal agencies are responsible for OAs recording; their data differ from each other as they use different methodologies. The rate of fatal OAs in Russia was 3–6 times higher than in Scandinavian countries and about 2 times higher compared to United States and Canada in 2001. In some Russian Arctic regions OAs levels are much higher. Conclusions Urgent improvement of occupational health and safety across Russia, especially in the Arctic regions, is needed. PMID:23519652

  6. US and Russian innovative technologies to process low-level liquid radioactive wastes: The Murmansk initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, R.S.; Penzin, R.; Duffey, R.B.; Sorlie, A.

    1996-12-31

    This paper documents the status of the technical design for the upgrade and expansion to the existing Low-level Liquid Radioactive Waste (LLLRW) treatment facility in Murmansk, the Russian Federation. This facility, owned by the Ministry of Transportation and operated by the Russian company RTP Atomflot in Murmansk, Russia, has been used by the Murmansk Shipping Company (MSCo) to process low-level liquid radioactive waste generated by the operation of its civilian icebreaker fleet. The purpose of the new design is to enable Russia to permanently cease the disposal at sea of LLLRW in the Arctic, and to treat liquid waste and high saline solutions from both the Civil and North Navy Fleet operations and decommissioning activities. Innovative treatments are to be used in the plant which are discussed in this paper.

  7. New seismicity map for the European sector of the Russian Arctic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogozhin, E. A.; Kapustian, N. K.; Antonovskaya, G. N.; Konechnaya, Ya. V.

    2016-05-01

    Based on seismological monitoring data specifying earthquake epicenters, a new map is made for the Western sector of the Russian Arctic region. The seismicity data is reworked in detail by specifying the epicentral positions of earthquakes and adding data on weak seismicity for areas which were earlier insufficiently studied, including those at the boundary of the Arctic Shelf of the Russian Federation. The fundamental possibility of applying seismological observations to construct a regional geodynamic map is discussed (in particular, the important role of island-based seismic stations). The possibility of specifying the nature of seismicity in terms of spectral-temporal analysis (STAN) of waveforms based on data from the new seismic station on the Franz Josef Land is considered. Possible application of the character of seismicity obtained from geophysical data to specify the geodynamic nature of events accompanying interaction of the ridge and shelf spreading is discussed.

  8. RUSSIAN-ORIGIN HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL SHIPMENT FROM BULGARIA

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly Cummins; Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Tihomir Apostolov; Ivaylo Dimitrov

    2009-07-01

    In July 2008, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative and the IRT 2000 research reactor in Sofia, Bulgaria, operated by the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), safely shipped 6.4 kilograms of Russian origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to the Russian Federation. The shipment, which resulted in the removal of all HEU from Bulgaria, was conducted by truck, barge, and rail modes of transport across two transit countries before reaching the final destination at the Production Association Mayak facility in Chelyabinsk, Russia. This paper describes the work, equipment, organizations, and approvals that were required to complete the spent fuel shipment and provides lessons learned that might assist other research reactor operators with their own spent nuclear fuel shipments.

  9. Geoinformatics and observations of the Earth's magnetic field: The Russian segment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvishiani, A. D.; Lukianova, R. Yu.

    2015-03-01

    The topical problems of the studies in geomagnetism are discussed. A brief outline of the internal and external magnetic field of the Earth is presented; the state of the art of the network magnetic observations including the ground- and space-based measurements is analyzed. The contribution of the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences (GC RAS) in the investigations of the Earth's magnetic field and development of the national observational segment complying with the highest international quality standards of INTERMAGNET network is demonstrated. The tasks solved by GC RAS in the collection, processing, and analysis of the geomagnetic data are listed. The proposals on updating and improving the system of geomagnetic observations in the Russian Federation are suggested.

  10. Application of Russian Thermo-Electric Devices (TEDS) for the US Microgravity Program Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aksamentov, Valery

    1996-01-01

    Changes in the former Soviet Union have opened the gate for the exchange of new technology. Interest in this work has been particularly related to Thermal Electric Cooling Devices (TED's) which have an application for the Thermal Enclosure System (TES) developed by NASA. Preliminary information received by NASA/MSFC indicates that Russian TED's have higher efficiency. Based on that assumption NASA/MSFC awarded a contract to the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) in order to study the Russian TED's technology. In order to fulfill this a few steps should be made: (1) potential specifications and configurations should be defined for use of TED's in Protein Crystal Growing (PCG) thermal control hardware; and (2) work closely with the identified Russian source to define and identify potential Russian TED's to exceed the performance of available domestic TED's. Based on the data from Russia, it is possible to make plans for further steps such as buying and testing high performance TED's. To accomplish this goal two subcontracts have been released. One subcontract to Automated Sciences Group (ASG) located in Huntsville, AL and one to the International Center for Advanced Studies 'Cosmos' located in Moscow, Russia.

  11. Laboratory Automation and Middleware.

    PubMed

    Riben, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The practice of surgical pathology is under constant pressure to deliver the highest quality of service, reduce errors, increase throughput, and decrease turnaround time while at the same time dealing with an aging workforce, increasing financial constraints, and economic uncertainty. Although not able to implement total laboratory automation, great progress continues to be made in workstation automation in all areas of the pathology laboratory. This report highlights the benefits and challenges of pathology automation, reviews middleware and its use to facilitate automation, and reviews the progress so far in the anatomic pathology laboratory. PMID:26065792

  12. Progress in Norwegian-Russian Regulatory Cooperation in Management of the Nuclear Legacy

    SciTech Connect

    Sneve, M.K.; Shandala, N.K.; Smith, G.M.

    2008-07-01

    The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) and the Federal Medical-Biological Agency (FMBA) of the Russian Federation have a collaboration programme which forms part of the Norwegian government's Plan of Action to improve radiation and nuclear safety in northwest Russia. The background to the NRPA-FMBA collaboration programme has been described in previous WM presentations. This paper presents the substantial progress made within that programme, describes ongoing progress within specific projects and sets out the value arising from wider involvement in the programme of other organisations such as NATO and the technical support derived from other national agencies such as the IAEA, and regulatory authorities from the USA, the UK and France. The main activities of the cooperation projects are concerned with the management of the nuclear legacy in northwest Russia, in particular the remediation of facilities, and related spent fuel and radioactive waste management, at the former Shore Technical Bases at Andreeva Bay and Gremikha Village. New regulatory guidance documents have been developed, necessary because of the special abnormal situation at these sites, now designated as Sites of Temporary Storage (STS), but also because of the transition from military to civilian regulatory supervision and the evolving regulatory system in the Russian Federation. The work has involved major technical inputs from the Russian Federation Institute of Biophysics, as well as review and advice on international recommendations and good practice in other countries provided by other technical support organisations. Projects on-going in 2007 are described which involve regulatory guidance on very Low-Level Waste management, specifically for the licensing and operation of new VLLW disposal facilities; optimisation of operational radiation protection, particularly in areas of high ambient radiation dose rate as are found in some parts of the STSs; determination of factors which can

  13. Management Planning for Workplace Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDole, Thomas L.

    Several factors must be considered when implementing office automation. Included among these are whether or not to automate at all, the effects of automation on employees, requirements imposed by automation on the physical environment, effects of automation on the total organization, and effects on clientele. The reasons behind the success or…

  14. Russian Earth Science Research Program on ISS

    SciTech Connect

    Armand, N. A.; Tishchenko, Yu. G.

    1999-01-22

    Version of the Russian Earth Science Research Program on the Russian segment of ISS is proposed. The favorite tasks are selected, which may be solved with the use of space remote sensing methods and tools and which are worthwhile for realization. For solving these tasks the specialized device sets (submodules), corresponding to the specific of solved tasks, are working out. They would be specialized modules, transported to the ISS. Earth remote sensing research and ecological monitoring (high rates and large bodies transmitted from spaceborne information, comparatively stringent requirements to the period of its processing, etc.) cause rather high requirements to the ground segment of receiving, processing, storing, and distribution of space information in the interests of the Earth natural resources investigation. Creation of the ground segment has required the development of the interdepartmental data receiving and processing center. Main directions of works within the framework of the ISS program are determined.

  15. ALL RUSSIAN INSTITUTE FOR SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION (VINITI) OF THE RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

    PubMed Central

    Markusova, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to overview the leading information processing domain in Russia and Eastern Europe, namely All Russian Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (VINITI ) of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Russian science structure is different from that in the Western Europe and the US. The main aim of VINITI is to collect, process and disseminate scientific information on various fields of science and technology, published in 70 countries in 40 languages, selected from books, journals, conference proceedings, and patents. A special attention is given to the journal selection and depositing manuscripts (a kind of grey literature), an important source for Russian research. VINITI has created the largest database containing about 30 million records dating back to 1980. About 80,000-100,000 new records are added monthly. VINITI publishes the Journal Abstract (JA) on 19 fields of science, including medicine, containing about a million publications annually. Two thirds of these records are foreign and 36.7% – Russian sources. PMID:23322964

  16. Russian-American venture designs new reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, P.

    1994-01-03

    Russian and American nuclear energy experts have completed a joint design study of a small, low-cost and demonstrably accident-proof reactor that they say could revolutionize the way conventional reactors are designed, marketed and operated. The joint design is helium-cooled and graphite-moderated and has a power density of 3 MWt/cubic meter, which is significantly less than the standard American reactor. A prototype of this design should be operating in Chelyabinsk by June 1996.

  17. Russian eruption warning systems for aviation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, C.; Girina, O.; Senyukov, S.; Rybin, A.; Osiensky, J.; Izbekov, P.; Ferguson, G.

    2009-01-01

    More than 65 potentially active volcanoes on the Kamchatka Peninsula and the Kurile Islands pose a substantial threat to aircraft on the Northern Pacific (NOPAC), Russian Trans-East (RTE), and Pacific Organized Track System (PACOTS) air routes. The Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) monitors and reports on volcanic hazards to aviation for Kamchatka and the north Kuriles. KVERT scientists utilize real-time seismic data, daily satellite views of the region, real-time video, and pilot and field reports of activity to track and alert the aviation industry of hazardous activity. Most Kurile Island volcanoes are monitored by the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT) based in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. SVERT uses daily moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images to look for volcanic activity along this 1,250-km chain of islands. Neither operation is staffed 24 h per day. In addition, the vast majority of Russian volcanoes are not monitored seismically in real-time. Other challenges include multiple time-zones and language differences that hamper communication among volcanologists and meteorologists in the US, Japan, and Russia who share the responsibility to issue official warnings. Rapid, consistent verification of explosive eruptions and determination of cloud heights remain significant technical challenges. Despite these difficulties, in more than a decade of frequent eruptive activity in Kamchatka and the northern Kuriles, no damaging encounters with volcanic ash from Russian eruptions have been recorded. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  18. Robotics Programming Competition Spheres, Russian Part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovski, Andrei; Kukushkina, Natalia; Biryukova, Natalia

    2016-07-01

    Spheres" such name was done to Russian part of the Zero Robotics project which is a student competition devoted to programming of SPHERES (SPHERES - Synchronized Position Hold Engage and Reorient Experimental Satellites are the experimental robotics devices which are capable of rotation and translation in all directions, http://ssl.mit.edu/spheres/), which perform different operations on the board of International Space Station. Competition takes place online on http://zerorobotics.mit.edu. The main goal is to develop a program for SPHERES to solve an annual challenge. The end of the tournament is the real competition in microgravity on the board of ISS with a live broadcast. The Russian part of the tournament has only two years history but the problems, organization and specific are useful for the other educational projects especially for the international ones. We introduce the history of the competition, its scientific and educational goals in Russia and describe the participation of Russian teams in 2014 and 2015 tournaments. Also we discuss the organizational problems.

  19. Federal Library Committee Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cylke, Frank Kurt

    The 1972 fiscal year activities of the Federal Library Committee (FLC) are reported upon under General and Work Group categories. Community Relationships and the Federal Library Advisory Service are discussed as General facets. The Work Groups reported upon are: Automation, Coordinated Collection Development, Education, Interlibrary Loan, Physical…

  20. Automated drilling draws interest

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    Interest in subsea technology includes recent purchase of both a British yard and Subsea Technology, a Houston-based BOP manufacturer. In France, key personnel from the former Comex Industries have been acquired and a base reinstalled in Marseille. ACB is also investing heavily, with the Norwegians, in automated drilling programs. These automated drilling programs are discussed.

  1. Library Automation Style Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord Bros., Liverpool, NY.

    This library automation style guide lists specific terms and names often used in the library automation industry. The terms and/or acronyms are listed alphabetically and each is followed by a brief definition. The guide refers to the "Chicago Manual of Style" for general rules, and a notes section is included for the convenience of individual…

  2. Automation and Cataloging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furuta, Kenneth; And Others

    1990-01-01

    These three articles address issues in library cataloging that are affected by automation: (1) the impact of automation and bibliographic utilities on professional catalogers; (2) the effect of the LASS microcomputer software on the cost of authority work in cataloging at the University of Arizona; and (3) online subject heading and classification…

  3. Planning for Office Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherron, Gene T.

    1982-01-01

    The steps taken toward office automation by the University of Maryland are described. Office automation is defined and some types of word processing systems are described. Policies developed in the writing of a campus plan are listed, followed by a section on procedures adopted to implement the plan. (Author/MLW)

  4. The Automated Office.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naclerio, Nick

    1979-01-01

    Clerical personnel may be able to climb career ladders as a result of office automation and expanded job opportunities in the word processing area. Suggests opportunities in an automated office system and lists books and periodicals on word processing for counselors and teachers. (MF)

  5. Work and Programmable Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVore, Paul W.

    A new industrial era based on electronics and the microprocessor has arrived, an era that is being called intelligent automation. Intelligent automation, in the form of robots, replaces workers, and the new products, using microelectronic devices, require significantly less labor to produce than the goods they replace. The microprocessor thus…

  6. Automation, Manpower, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Jerry M.

    Each group in our population will be affected by automation and other forms of technological advancement. This book seeks to identify the needs of these various groups, and to present ways in which educators can best meet them. The author corrects certain prevalent misconceptions concerning manpower utilization and automation. Based on the…

  7. Automation in Immunohematology

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Meenu; Kaur, Ravneet; Gupta, Ekta

    2012-01-01

    There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking in South Asian region over the past decade with an increasing emphasis on quality and safety of blood products. The conventional test tube technique has given way to newer techniques such as column agglutination technique, solid phase red cell adherence assay, and erythrocyte-magnetized technique. These new technologies are adaptable to automation and major manufacturers in this field have come up with semi and fully automated equipments for immunohematology tests in the blood bank. Automation improves the objectivity and reproducibility of tests. It reduces human errors in patient identification and transcription errors. Documentation and traceability of tests, reagents and processes and archiving of results is another major advantage of automation. Shifting from manual methods to automation is a major undertaking for any transfusion service to provide quality patient care with lesser turnaround time for their ever increasing workload. This article discusses the various issues involved in the process. PMID:22988378

  8. Advances in inspection automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Walter H.; Mair, H. Douglas; Jansen, Dion; Lombardi, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    This new session at QNDE reflects the growing interest in inspection automation. Our paper describes a newly developed platform that makes the complex NDE automation possible without the need for software programmers. Inspection tasks that are tedious, error-prone or impossible for humans to perform can now be automated using a form of drag and drop visual scripting. Our work attempts to rectify the problem that NDE is not keeping pace with the rest of factory automation. Outside of NDE, robots routinely and autonomously machine parts, assemble components, weld structures and report progress to corporate databases. By contrast, components arriving in the NDT department typically require manual part handling, calibrations and analysis. The automation examples in this paper cover the development of robotic thickness gauging and the use of adaptive contour following on the NRU reactor inspection at Chalk River.

  9. Federal Information Policies: Their Implementation and Implications for Information Access. A Summary of the Proceedings of the Annual Federal Library and Information Center Committee Forum on Federal Information Policies (3rd, Washington, DC, February 12, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Adrian T.

    This Federal Library and Information Center Committee (FLICC) Forum on Federal Information Policies focused on the impact of OMB (Office of Management and Budget) Circular A-130, which revises administration policy on information dissemination and the use of automated systems by federal agencies. Introductory remarks by James P. Riley, Kent A.…

  10. Western values and the Russian energy weapon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingues, Bennett K.

    This thesis explores the competition between Russia and the West for the oil and gas resources of the Caspian Sea region, an area where far more is at stake than simply acquisition of new energy supplies. Ultimately, the "winner" of the competition for Caspian Sea energy resources will determine whether Russia will become the primary energy supplier for Europe in the future, or whether there will be alternative, non-Russian energy routes from East to West. The thesis uses a qualitative approach, drawing on scholarly books and articles, current affairs publications, energy firm websites, and other sources to compare the ethical aspects of the strategies used by Russia and the West, to determine whose strategy has been more successful, and to analyze what this means for the political, economic, and security future of Europe. As this thesis demonstrates, Russia recognizes the importance of energy as both an economic and foreign policy tool. To secure access to the resources of the Caspian Sea region, Russia has used bribery and strongman tactics to secure arrangements and contracts favorable to Russian interests. When a country does not capitulate to these tactics, Russia applies other measures to influence these countries' policies. This thesis draws on two recent examples, Ukraine and Georgia, to demonstrate how Russia has used its position as a supplier of energy resources to influence countries to adopt policies complementary to Russian interests, or to punish them for failing to do so. The effectiveness of these Russian tactics is an important precedent for the countries of the Caspian Sea region to keep in mind as they make decisions that will determine their economic and political future for decades to come. In contrast, the western strategy of promoting quality products and services, while ensuring safety and conducting business according to western ethical norms, has been less successful than western firms originally envisioned. Undoubtedly western firms have

  11. Reading Russian-English Homographs in Sentence Contexts: Evidence from ERPs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jouravlev, Olessia; Jared, Debra

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated whether Russian--English bilinguals activate knowledge of Russian when reading English sentences. Russian and English share only a few letters, but there are some interlingual homographs (e.g., POT, which means "mouth" in Russian). Critical sentences were written such that the Russian meaning of the…

  12. (In)Complete Acquisition of Aspect in Second Language and Heritage Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikhaylova, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation compares the knowledge of Russian Verbal Aspect in two types of learners enrolled in college level Russian courses: foreign language learners of Russian whose native language is English and heritage language speakers of Russian whose dominant language at the time of study is English. Russian Aspect is known to be problematic both…

  13. Coverage of Russian psychological contributions in American psychology textbooks.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrova-Howell, Maria; Abramson, Charles I; Craig, David Philip Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Internationalizing psychology is an important component of current globalization trends. American textbooks on the history of psychology and introductory psychology were surveyed for the presence of historical and contemporary important Russian psychologists to assess the current status of Russian-American crossfertilization. Of a list of 97 important Russian psychologists, as determined by the editors of the Russian journal Methodology and History in Psychology, less than 22% are mentioned in the reviewed texts. The most common names were Pavlov, Luria, and Vygotsky. As the internet is arguably the single most important factor affecting the increase of international communication and dissemination of knowledge, we also searched for these 97 names on various websites, most notably Wikipedia and Google. Forty-one internet sites contained some amount of biographical information about Russian psychologists. On Wikipedia, 14 Russian psychologists had articles documenting biographical information. We also developed a rubric to determine the amount of information available on the internet for these psychologists and compared Wikipedia's mean score with various other websites. Wikipedia pages on average had a significantly higher score than the rest of the internet. Recommendations to improve Russian coverage in America are provided and include: (1) developing pages on Wikipedia and other virtual venues highlighting Russian contributions, (2) soliciting articles for US journals from Russian psychologists, and (3) incorporating Russian contributions in introductory and historical textbooks. We provide a partial bibliography of Russian contributions that can be used by authors of such textbooks. We would like to thank Dr Viktor Fedorovich Petrenko and Dr Igor Nikolaevich Karitsky from the journal Methodology and History of Psychology for supplying the names of the Russian psychologists. We would also like to express our appreciation to Robert García for reviewing and

  14. Proliferation concerns in the Russian closed nuclear weapons complex cities : a study of regional migration behavior.

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, Kristen Lee

    2004-07-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the legacy of the USSR weapons complex with an estimated 50 nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons cities containing facilities responsible for research, production, maintenance, and destruction of the weapons stockpile. The Russian Federation acquired ten such previously secret, closed nuclear weapons complex cities. Unfortunately, a lack of government funding to support these facilities resulted in non-payment of salaries to employees and even plant closures, which led to an international fear of weapons material and knowledge proliferation. This dissertation analyzes migration in 33 regions of the Russian Federation, six of which contain the ten closed nuclear weapons complex cities. This study finds that the presence of a closed nuclear city does not significantly influence migration. However, the factors that do influence migration are statistically different in regions containing closed nuclear cities compared to regions without closed nuclear cities. Further, these results show that the net rate of migration has changed across the years since the break up of the Soviet Union, and that the push and pull factors for migration have changed across time. Specifically, personal and residential factors had a significant impact on migration immediately following the collapse of the Soviet Union, but economic infrastructure and societal factors became significant in later years. Two significant policy conclusions are derived from this research. First, higher levels of income are found to increase outmigration from regions, implying that programs designed to prevent migration by increasing incomes for closed city residents may be counter-productive. Second, this study finds that programs designed to increase capital and build infrastructure in the new Russian Federation will be more effective for employing scientists and engineers from the weapons complex, and consequently reduce the potential for emigration of

  15. Climate change and zoonotic infections in the Russian Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Revich, Boris; Tokarevich, Nikolai; Parkinson, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change in the Russian Arctic is more pronounced than in any other part of the country. Between 1955 and 2000, the annual average air temperature in the Russian North increased by 1.2°C. During the same period, the mean temperature of upper layer of permafrost increased by 3°C. Climate change in Russian Arctic increases the risks of the emergence of zoonotic infectious diseases. This review presents data on morbidity rates among people, domestic animals and wildlife in the Russian Arctic, focusing on the potential climate related emergence of such diseases as tick-borne encephalitis, tularemia, brucellosis, leptospirosis, rabies, and anthrax. PMID:22868189

  16. Russian policy and the Korean crisis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, S.J.

    1994-09-30

    The author relates Russian policy to the broader struggle for power and coherence in Russian security policy generally, and in Russian policy towards Asia. He also explores the ambivalence of Russia's position, trying to maintain a foot in all camps on the Korean issue even as it asserts its opposition to nuclear proliferation and to any settlement from which it is excluded. The author concludes by expanding his frame of reference to use the Russian case as an example illustrating the difficulties inherent in moving to a new, broader Northeast Asian security system.

  17. [Analysis of the use of field medical units in the armies of NATO and Russian Armed Forces].

    PubMed

    Korniushko, I G; Iakovlev, S V; Murashev, I V; Sidorov, V A; Medvedev, V R; Matveev, A G

    2011-12-01

    An analysis of medical services of NATO and the Medical Service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation of modern technology deployment stages of medical evacuation (tents, inflatable structures, shelters, containers, medical armored vehicles, cars, etc.) is presented. Examples of their usage in isolated employment, usage in the group as a mobile medical stations and field hospitals in various conditions, the prospects and directions of development of technical means deployment of medical service are given. PMID:22448495

  18. Systematic review automation technologies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects. We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time. PMID:25005128

  19. The Russians Are Coming, the Russians are Dead: Myth and Historical Consciousness in Two Contact Narratives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruppert, James

    This research paper examines hidden cultural patterns establishing the expression of historical thought in Native Alaskan narratives which describe first contact with Russians. Historical consciousness in oral contact stories is always mythic in form, as well as in content. Native American oral cultures understood new events by "troping," or…

  20. On drug treatment and social control: Russian narcology's great leap backwards

    PubMed Central

    Elovich, Richard; Drucker, Ernest

    2008-01-01

    The medical discipline of narcology in Russia is a subspecialty of psychiatry from the Soviet era and it is given warrant to define the scope of health activities with regard to alcohol and other drug use, drug users, and related problems. Narcological practice is in turn constrained by the State. The emergence of widespread injection opiate use and associated HIV morbidities and mortalities during the first decade following the collapse of the Soviet Union has brought the contradictions in Russian narcological discourse into high relief. Narcology officials in the Russian Federation have consistently opposed substitution treatment for opiate dependence – the replacement of a short-acting illegal substance with a longer acting prescribed drug with similar pharmacological action but lower degree of risk. Thus, despite the addition of methadone and buprenorphine to WHO's list of essential medicines in 2005 and multiple position papers by international experts calling for substitution treatment as a critical element in the response to HIV (IOM, 2006; UNODC, UNAIDS, and WHO, 2005), methadone or buprenorphine remain prohibited by law in Russia. The authors detail Russian opposition to the prescription of methadone and buprenorphine, describing four phenomena: (1) the dominance of law enforcement and drug control policy over public health and medical ethics ; (2) the conflation of Soviet era alcoholism treatment with treatment for opiate dependence; (3) the near universal representation of detoxification from drugs as treatment for dependence; and (4) a framework for judging treatment efficacy that is restricted to "cure" versus "failure to cure," and does not admit its poor outcomes or recognize alternative frameworks for gauging treatment of opiate dependence. In keeping with this position, Russian narcology officials have taken an implacable ideological stance toward illicit drug use, the people who use drugs, and their treatment. By adopting policies and practices

  1. USF/Russian dosimetry on STS-57

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The major purpose of this experiment was to conduct an international comparison of passive dosimetry methods in space. Two APD's were flown in the charged particle directional spectrometer (CPDS)/tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) locker on the space shuttle during the STS-57 mission. Due to placement, the shielding and radiation environment of the APD's were nearly the same and the dosimeters distributed in the two boxes can be considered equally exposed. The dosimeter types included plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD's), thermoluminescent detectors (TLD), nuclear emulsions, and thermal/resonance neutron detectors (TRND's). The USF dosimeters included PNTD's, TLD's, and TRND's, while the Russian dosimeters included PNTD's, TLD's, and nuclear emulsions.

  2. US, Russian intelligence agencies offer proliferation assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfsthal, J.B.

    1993-03-01

    The CIA outlined for the Senate Governmental Affairs Committee (February 24, 1993) the prospects for the spread of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons and ballistic missiles in the aftermath of the Cold War. The testimony came less than one month after the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service released an 118-page report that also stressed the importance of preventing proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. CIA testimony and the FIS report both provided details on several states of proliferation concern, including North Korea, Iran, India, and Pakistan.

  3. Default contagion risks in Russian interbank market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonidov, A. V.; Rumyantsev, E. L.

    2016-06-01

    Systemic risks of default contagion in the Russian interbank market are investigated. The analysis is based on considering the bow-tie structure of the weighted oriented graph describing the structure of the interbank loans. A probabilistic model of interbank contagion explicitly taking into account the empirical bow-tie structure reflecting functionality of the corresponding nodes (borrowers, lenders, borrowers and lenders simultaneously), degree distributions and disassortativity of the interbank network under consideration based on empirical data is developed. The characteristics of contagion-related systemic risk calculated with this model are shown to be in agreement with those of explicit stress tests.

  4. Soviet/Russian-American space cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karash, Yuri Y.

    This dissertation seeks to answer two questions: (1) what are the necessary conditions for the emergence of meaningful space cooperation between Russia and the United States, and (2) might this cooperation continue developing on its own merit, contributing to the further rapprochement between the two countries, even if the conditions that originated the cooperation were to change? The study examines the entire space era up to this point, 1957 to 1997, from the first satellite launch through the joint U.S.-Russian work on the ISS project. It focuses on the analysis of three distinct periods of possible and real cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union/Russia. The first possibility for a limited Soviet-American cooperation in space emerged in the late 1950s, together with the space age, and continued until the mid-1960s. The major potential joint project of this period was a human expedition to the Moon. The global competition/confrontation between the two countries prevented actual cooperation. The second period was from the late 1960s until 1985 with consideration of experimental docking missions, including the docking of a reusable U.S. shuttle to a Soviet Salyut-type station. The global U.S.-Soviet competition still continued, but the confrontation was replaced by detente for a brief period of time lasting from the end of 1960s until mid-1970s. Detente gave the first example of U.S.-Soviet cooperation in space---the Apollo-Soyuz joint space flight (ASTP) which took place in 1975. However, the lack of interest of political leaderships in continuation of broad-scale cooperation between the two countries, and the end of detente, removed ASTP-like projects out of question at least until 1985. The third period started together with Mikhail Gorbachev's Perestroika in 1985 and continues until now. It involves almost a hundred of joint space projects both at the governmental and at the private sectors levels. The mainstream of the joint activities

  5. Understanding the Federal Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administrative Office of the United States Courts, Washington, DC.

    This booklet discusses the workings of the federal courts and supports six law-related lesson plans. It is divided into the following sections: "The Constitution and the Federal Judiciary"; "The Federal Courts in American Government" ("The Federal Courts and Congress"; "The Federal Courts and the Executive Branch"; "The Federal Courts and the…

  6. TRANSPARENCY: Tracking Uranium under the U.S. / Russian HEU Purchase Agreement

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, J B; Decman, D J; Leich, D A

    2005-10-19

    By the end of August, 2005, the Russia Federation delivered to the United States (U.S.) more than 7,000 metric tons (MT) of low enriched uranium (LEU) containing approximately 46 million SWU and 75,000 MT of natural uranium. This uranium was blended down from weapons-grade (nominally enriched to 90% {sup 235}U) highly enriched uranium (HEU) under the 1993 HEU Purchase Agreement that provides for the blend down of 500 MT HEU into LEU for use as fuel in commercial nuclear reactors. The HEU Transparency Program, under the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), monitored the conversion and blending of the more than 250 MT HEU used to produce this LEU. The HEU represents more than half of the 500 MT HEU scheduled to be blended down through the year 2013 and is equivalent to the elimination of more than 10,000 nuclear devices. The HEU Transparency Program has made considerable progress in its mission to develop and implement transparency measures necessary to assure that Russian HEU extracted from dismantled Russian nuclear weapons is blended down into LEU for delivery to the United States. U.S. monitor observations include the inventory of in process containers, observation of plant operations, nondestructive assay measurements to determine {sup 235}U enrichment, as well as the examination of Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) documents. During 2005, HEU Transparency Program personnel will conduct 24 Special Monitoring Visits (SMVs) to four Russian uranium processing plants, in addition to staffing a Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) at one Russian site.

  7. The Russian contribution in WDMAM-2011 magnetic anomalies and anomalies of satellite Champ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livinova, Tamara; Glebovsky, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    In VSEGEI is created the renovated digital cartographical model of an anomalous magnetic field (AMF) of territory of Russia and adjacent aquatory of scale 1:2 500000 on the basis of the available base summary digital materials prepared at various times by two organizations: VSEGEI and VNIIOkeangeologia. For this purpose uniform technological rules which have provided satisfactory synthesis of digital data files of an anomalous magnetic field in scale 1:2 500000 have been developed and realized. As a result of processing digital data file AMF the divergences reached 200 нТл, have been eliminated. For inclusion in WDMAM-2011 the Russian side the digital model counted on height 1 km on a grid 5х5км is offered. Anomalous values are designed from normal field VSEGEI of an epoch of 1965. The magnetic grid (5x5 km) within the Russian continental shelf compiled in VNIIOkeangeologia was leveled, adjusted and merged with those created in VSEGEI on shore of Russian Federation. Data processing is made by software Geosoft. Russian magnetic database in the Arctic Ocean was created as a result of adjusting of all historical and recent magnetic data sets, collected several organizations during the period about 40 years. Within the deep part of the Arctic Ocean this information was leveled, adjusted and combined with all available US magnetic data sets under cooperative project between and US Naval Research Laboratory. A result of this compilation is presented by grid of magnetic anomalies (5x5 km) that was used in the CAMP-GM project.

  8. Planning for Office Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Colin K.

    1983-01-01

    Outlines a practical approach to planning for office automation termed the "Focused Process Approach" (the "what" phase, "how" phase, "doing" phase) which is a synthesis of the problem-solving and participatory planning approaches. Thirteen references are provided. (EJS)

  9. Space station automation II

    SciTech Connect

    Chiou, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of a conference on space station automation. Topics include the following: distributed artificial intelligence for space station energy management systems and computer architecture for tolerobots in earth orbit.

  10. Automated data analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuber, D.

    Automated data analysis assists the astronomer in the decision making processes applied for extracting astronomical information from data. Automated data analysis is the step between image processing and model interpretation. Tools developed in AI are applied (classification, expert system). Programming languages and computers are chosen to fulfil the increasing requirements. Expert systems have begun in astronomy. Data banks permit the astronomical community to share the large body of resulting information.

  11. Automated Status Notification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Automated Status Notification System (ASNS) was born out of need. To prevent "hacker attacks," Lewis' telephone system needed to monitor communications activities 24 hr a day, 7 days a week. With decreasing staff resources, this continuous monitoring had to be automated. By utilizing existing communications hardware, a UNIX workstation, and NAWK (a pattern scanning and processing language), we implemented a continuous monitoring system.

  12. Automated Pilot Advisory System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, J. L., Jr.; Haidt, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    An Automated Pilot Advisory System (APAS) was developed and operationally tested to demonstrate the concept that low cost automated systems can provide air traffic and aviation weather advisory information at high density uncontrolled airports. The system was designed to enhance the see and be seen rule of flight, and pilots who used the system preferred it over the self announcement system presently used at uncontrolled airports.

  13. Automated Lattice Perturbation Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Monahan, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    I review recent developments in automated lattice perturbation theory. Starting with an overview of lattice perturbation theory, I focus on the three automation packages currently "on the market": HiPPy/HPsrc, Pastor and PhySyCAl. I highlight some recent applications of these methods, particularly in B physics. In the final section I briefly discuss the related, but distinct, approach of numerical stochastic perturbation theory.

  14. Shielded cells transfer automation

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, J J

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear waste from shielded cells is removed, packaged, and transferred manually in many nuclear facilities. Radiation exposure is absorbed by operators during these operations and limited only through procedural controls. Technological advances in automation using robotics have allowed a production waste removal operation to be automated to reduce radiation exposure. The robotic system bags waste containers out of glove box and transfers them to a shielded container. Operators control the system outside the system work area via television cameras. 9 figures.

  15. Automated imagery orthorectification pilot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Johnson, Brad; McMahon, Joe

    2009-10-01

    Automated orthorectification of raw image products is now possible based on the comprehensive metadata collected by Global Positioning Systems and Inertial Measurement Unit technology aboard aircraft and satellite digital imaging systems, and based on emerging pattern-matching and automated image-to-image and control point selection capabilities in many advanced image processing systems. Automated orthorectification of standard aerial photography is also possible if a camera calibration report and sufficient metadata is available. Orthorectification of historical imagery, for which only limited metadata was available, was also attempted and found to require some user input, creating a semi-automated process that still has significant potential to reduce processing time and expense for the conversion of archival historical imagery into geospatially enabled, digital formats, facilitating preservation and utilization of a vast archive of historical imagery. Over 90 percent of the frames of historical aerial photos used in this experiment were successfully orthorectified to the accuracy of the USGS 100K base map series utilized for the geospatial reference of the archive. The accuracy standard for the 100K series maps is approximately 167 feet (51 meters). The main problems associated with orthorectification failure were cloud cover, shadow and historical landscape change which confused automated image-to-image matching processes. Further research is recommended to optimize automated orthorectification methods and enable broad operational use, especially as related to historical imagery archives.

  16. Automated Groundwater Screening

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Glenn A.; Collard, Leonard, B.

    2005-10-31

    The Automated Intruder Analysis has been extended to include an Automated Ground Water Screening option. This option screens 825 radionuclides while rigorously applying the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) methodology. An extension to that methodology is presented to give a more realistic screening factor for those radionuclides which have significant daughters. The extension has the promise of reducing the number of radionuclides which must be tracked by the customer. By combining the Automated Intruder Analysis with the Automated Groundwater Screening a consistent set of assumptions and databases is used. A method is proposed to eliminate trigger values by performing rigorous calculation of the screening factor thereby reducing the number of radionuclides sent to further analysis. Using the same problem definitions as in previous groundwater screenings, the automated groundwater screening found one additional nuclide, Ge-68, which failed the screening. It also found that 18 of the 57 radionuclides contained in NCRP Table 3.1 failed the screening. This report describes the automated groundwater screening computer application.

  17. Russian Language Course for Peace Corps Trainees in Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobov, Valery A.; And Others

    This guide is designed for Russian language training of Peace Corps workers in Russia, and reflects daily communication needs in that context. It consists of seven instructional units. An introductory section gives an overview of the Russian language, Cyrillic alphabet, phonology, and morphology. The first instructional unit is intended as a…

  18. Cognitive Predictors of Generalization of Russian Grammatical Gender Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempe, Vera; Brooks, Patricia J.; Kharkhurin, Anatoliy

    2010-01-01

    This study explores how learners generalize grammatical categories such as noun gender. Adult native English speakers with no prior knowledge of Russian (N = 47, ages 17-55 years) were trained to categorize Russian masculine and feminine diminutive nouns according to gender. The training set was morphophonologically homogeneous due to similarities…

  19. The Russian University, Professors, and Students in 1910-1915

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ianitskii, O. N.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the scientific and social life of the Russian university at the beginning of the twentieth century. Higher education in Russia, having gone through the upheavals of the first Russian revolution, was experiencing a huge upsurge. Although professors and students had been subjected to police persecution, and despite the…

  20. Phonotactic Constraints: Implications for Models of Oral Reading in Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulicheva, Anastasia; Coltheart, Max; Saunders, Steven; Perry, Conrad

    2016-01-01

    The present article investigates how phonotactic rules constrain oral reading in the Russian language. The pronunciation of letters in Russian is regular and consistent, but it is subject to substantial phonotactic influence: the position of a phoneme and its phonological context within a word can alter its pronunciation. In Part 1 of the article,…

  1. Russian for Expository Prose. Volume 1: Introductory Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Ruth L.

    This Russian handbook is the first volume of a two-year course for college level students. The 10 units cover the linguistic information needed to read expository prose at the professional level, including grammatical structure. The Russian phonology, morphology, grammar, and vocabulary presented in this volume are intended to be studied over two…

  2. A New Approach to the Russian Verb System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grebenschikov, Vladimir

    1973-01-01

    Describes and advocates a different approach to teaching the Russian verbal system based on determination of a "full or basic stem" for each verb. Relates verb conjugation system and morphological classification of verbs to basic stem. (Text is in Russian.) (DH)

  3. Teaching Sport Education to Russian Students: An Ecological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinelnikov, Oleg; Hastie, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Given Russian students' general lack of group work and opportunities to develop student responsibility in their prior schooling experiences, the purpose of this study was to examine how a group of Russian high school students responds to novel demands of participation in a sport education season. Forty-two students from two ninth-grade physical…

  4. Theory vs. Taxonomy: On Teaching 'Syntactically Irregular' Verbs in Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plewes, S. Frank

    This paper suggests methods for teaching the Russian verbs that govern what are loosely termed "objects" in oblique cases. The case government of such verbs is not necessarily an individual irregularity. Definite patterns emerge, both morphological and semantic, to facilitate grouping these verbs into classes. Russian verbs requiring genitive…

  5. Codes of Ethics for Computing at Russian Institutions and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pourciau, Lester J.; Spain, Victoria, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    To determine the degree to which Russian institutions and universities have formulated and promulgated codes of ethics or policies for acceptable computer use, the author examined Russian institution and university home pages. Lists home pages examined, 10 commandments for computer ethics from the Computer Ethics Institute, and a policy statement…

  6. Analysis of the Russian Market for Building Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Lychuk, Taras; Evans, Meredydd; Halverson, Mark A.; Roshchanka, Volha

    2012-12-01

    This report provides analysis of the Russian energy efficiency market for the building sector from the perspective of U.S. businesses interested in exporting relevant technologies, products and experience to Russia. We aim to help U.S. energy efficiency and environmental technologies businesses to better understand the Russian building market to plan their market strategy.

  7. Russian Children: As Seen in Literature and Real Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dianne

    To know the culture of a nation one must try to understand the emotional side of a people's character. In considering Russian culture, a study of politics, economics, and geography is insufficient for even beginning to understand the subtleties of the national character. Despite 60 years of Soviet regime, traditional Russian values persist and are…

  8. Palatalization and Intrinsic Prosodic Vowel Features in Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordin, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    The presented study is aimed at investigating the interaction of palatalization and intrinsic prosodic features of the vowel in CVC (consonant+vowel+consonant) syllables in Russian. The universal nature of intrinsic prosodic vowel features was confirmed with the data from the Russian language. It was found that palatalization of the consonants…

  9. Intimate Partner Violence among Male and Female Russian University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysova, Aleksandra V.; Douglas, Emily M.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports data from three Russian sites of the International Dating Violence Study. Using a sample of 338 university students (54% female) from three Russian university sites, four different types of partner violence are examined: physical assault, physical injury, sexual coercion, and psychological aggression. High prevalence rates…

  10. Using the OPI to Place Heritage Speakers of Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Olga; Friedman, Debra

    2003-01-01

    This study explored the possibility of using an ACTFL oral proficiency interview (OPI) to assess the spoken proficiency of heritage language speakers of Russian for the purpose of placing them in Russian language classes. The authors also considered whether the norm of an educated native speaker could be used as a valid reference point for Russian…

  11. Russian Basic Course: Volume XVI, Lessons 72-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This volume, one of a series in a Russian course designed to train native English-language speakers to a level 3 proficiency in reading and writing Russian, contains seven units on the following topics: (1) forms and constructions, (2) basic reading texts, (3) grammar with written exercises, (4) oral exercises, (5) reading and translation…

  12. Russian: Advanced Course. Advanced Grammar, Lessons 1-24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This volume of an advanced Russian course designed by the Defense Language Institute seeks to develop a more comprehensive knowledge of the structural features of Russian and an enlarged vocabulary. The learning accomplished orally in class is reinforced in written exercises at home. Instructional materials concentrate on morphology, syntax, and…

  13. Russian Basic Course: Volume XVIII, Lessons 80-83.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This volume, one of a series in a Russian course designed to train native English- language speakers to a level 3 proficiency in reading and writing Russian, contains materials on the following topics: (1) forms and constructions, (2) basic reading texts, (3) grammar with written exercises, (4) oral exercises, (5) reading and translation…

  14. Russian Basic Course: Volume XVII, Lessons 76-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This volume, one of a series in a Russian course designed to train native English-language speakers to a level 3 proficiency in reading and writing Russian, contains materials on the following topics: (1) forms and constructions, (2) basic reading texts, (3) grammar with written exercises, (4) oral exercises, (5) reading and translation exercises,…

  15. The war of the mushrooms: A Russian folktale revisited

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are numerous versions of a Russian folktale, War of the Mushrooms. The tale is indexed in standard folkloristic references as tale type 297B. Unfortunately, it is not included in the best known collection of Russian folktales translated into English, that of Alexander Afanesiev. It was first r...

  16. Personality Development and Problem Behavior in Russian Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slobodskaya, Helena R.; Akhmetova, Olga A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore child and adolescent personality in the Russian culture, addressing gender and age differences, and to examine personality and family effects on children's Internalizing and Externalizing problems. Parents of 1,640 Russian children aged 3-18 years completed the Inventory of Child Individual Differences…

  17. The Sociocultural Factors of Russian Stagnation and Modernization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapin, N. I.

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the results of six Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Surveys, "The Values and Interests of the Population of Russia" (1990, 1994, 1998, 2002, 2006, and 2010), conducted by the Center for the Study of Sociocultural Changes at the Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences, provides evidence that two stages in the…

  18. Learning to Read in Russian: Effects of Orthographic Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerek, Eugenia; Niemi, Pekka

    2009-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the delay in writing acquisition caused by irregularities of Russian orthography, but little is known about their effect on reading acquisition. Results of the present longitudinal reading acquisition study of Russian first graders suggest that phonological recoding is the dominant strategy in the initial phase of…

  19. Language Use in a Bilingual Adyge-Russian Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalor, Olga; Blanc, M.

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of the speech patterns of Adyge school children and their families resettled in a Russian community indicated that: (1) the use of Adyge was a sensitive indicator of nationalistic feelings in the community, and (2) while Russian was displacing Adyge (especially among younger people), traditional Adyge values firmly held their ground.…

  20. Insects which challenge global wheat production: Russian wheat aphid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book chapter on Russian wheat aphid, (Diuraphis noxia (Mord.)), is one of several that addresses significant pests in the book entitled, Wheat Science and Trade. The chapter gives a detailed account of the history of the Russian wheat aphid as global pest, and its biology, ecology and managemen...