Science.gov

Sample records for russian highly enriched

  1. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Disposition of Russian Highly Enriched...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to the Disposition of Russian Highly Enriched Uranium Presidential Documents Other Presidential... Russian Highly Enriched Uranium On June 25, 2012, by Executive Order 13617, I declared a national...-usable fissile material in the territory of the Russian Federation. Full implementation of the Agreement...

  2. Accelerating the Reduction of Excess Russian Highly Enriched Uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, J; Wall, D; Parker, E; Rutkowski, E

    2004-02-18

    This paper presents the latest information on one of the Accelerated Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Disposition initiatives that resulted from the May 2002 Summit meeting between Presidents George W. Bush and Vladimir V. Putin. These initiatives are meant to strengthen nuclear nonproliferation objectives by accelerating the disposition of nuclear weapons-useable materials. The HEU Transparency Implementation Program (TIP), within the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is working to implement one of the selected initiatives that would purchase excess Russian HEU (93% 235U) for use as fuel in U.S. research reactors over the next ten years. This will parallel efforts to convert the reactors' fuel core from HEU to low enriched uranium (LEU) material, where feasible. The paper will examine important aspects associated with the U.S. research reactor HEU purchase. In particular: (1) the establishment of specifications for the Russian HEU, and (2) transportation safeguard considerations for moving the HEU from the Mayak Production Facility in Ozersk, Russia, to the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, TN.

  3. Implementation of the United States-Russian Highly Enriched Uranium Agreement: Current Status & Prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Rutkowski, E; Armantrout, G; Mastal, E; Glaser, J; Benton, J

    2004-07-27

    The National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Implementation Program (TIP) monitors and provides assurance that Russian weapons-grade HEU is processed into low enriched uranium (LEU) under the transparency provisions of the 1993 United States (U.S.)-Russian HEU Purchase Agreement. Meeting the Agreement's transparency provisions is not just a program requirement; it is a legal requirement. The HEU Purchase Agreement requires transparency measures to be established to provide assurance that the nonproliferation objectives of the Agreement are met. The Transparency concept has evolved into a viable program that consists of complimentary elements that provide necessary assurances. The key elements include: (1) monitoring by technical experts; (2) independent measurements of enrichment and flow; (3) nuclear material accountability documents from Russian plants; and (4) comparison of transparency data with declared processing data. In the interest of protecting sensitive information, the monitoring is neither full time nor invasive. Thus, an element of trust is required regarding declared operations that are not observed. U.S. transparency monitoring data and independent instrument measurements are compared with plant accountability records and other declared processing data to provide assurance that the nonproliferation objectives of the 1993 Agreement are being met. Similarly, Russian monitoring of U. S. storage and fuel fabrication operations provides assurance to the Russians that the derived LEU is being used in accordance with the Agreement. The successful implementation of the Transparency program enables the receipt of Russian origin LEU into the United States. Implementation of the 1993 Agreement is proceeding on schedule, with the permanent elimination of over 8,700 warhead equivalents of HEU. The successful implementation of the Transparency program has taken place over the last 10 years and has provided the

  4. Successful Completion of the Largest Shipment of Russian Research Reactor High-Enriched Uranium Spent Nuclear Fuel from Czech Republic to Russian Federation

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Tyacke; Dr. Igor Bolshinsky; Jeff Chamberlin

    2008-07-01

    On December 8, 2007, the largest shipment of high-enriched uranium spent nuclear fuel was successfully made from a Russian-designed nuclear research reactor in the Czech Republic to the Russian Federation. This accomplishment is the culmination of years of planning, negotiations, and hard work. The United States, Russian Federation, and the International Atomic Energy Agency have been working together on the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) Program in support of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative. In February 2003, RRRFR Program representatives met with the Nuclear Research Institute in Rež, Czech Republic, and discussed the return of their high-enriched uranium spent nuclear fuel to the Russian Federation for reprocessing. Nearly 5 years later, the shipment was made. This paper discusses the planning, preparations, coordination, and cooperation required to make this important international shipment.

  5. RUSSIAN-ORIGIN HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL SHIPMENT FROM BULGARIA

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly Cummins; Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Tihomir Apostolov; Ivaylo Dimitrov

    2009-07-01

    In July 2008, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative and the IRT 2000 research reactor in Sofia, Bulgaria, operated by the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), safely shipped 6.4 kilograms of Russian origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to the Russian Federation. The shipment, which resulted in the removal of all HEU from Bulgaria, was conducted by truck, barge, and rail modes of transport across two transit countries before reaching the final destination at the Production Association Mayak facility in Chelyabinsk, Russia. This paper describes the work, equipment, organizations, and approvals that were required to complete the spent fuel shipment and provides lessons learned that might assist other research reactor operators with their own spent nuclear fuel shipments.

  6. 78 FR 37925 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Disposition of Russian Highly Enriched...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 121 / Monday, June 14, 2013 / Presidential Documents#0;#0; ] Notice of June 20, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Disposition of Russian Highly Enriched Uranium On June 25, 2012, by...

  7. Planning, Preparation, and Transport of the High-Enriched Uranium Spent Nuclear Fuel from the Czech Republic to the Russian Federation

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Tyacke; I. Bolshinsky; Frantisek Svitak

    2007-10-01

    The United States, Russian Federation, and the International Atomic Energy Agency have been working together on a program called the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) Program, which is part of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative. The purpose of this program is to return Soviet or Russian-supplied high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel, currently stored at Russian-designed research reactors throughout the world, to Russia. In February 2003, the RRRFR Program began discussions with the Nuclear Research Institute (NRI) in Rež, Czech Republic, about returning their HEU spent nuclear fuel to the Russian Federation for reprocessing. In March 2005, the U.S. Department of Energy signed a contract with NRI to perform all activities needed for transporting their HEU spent nuclear fuel to Russia. After 2 years of intense planning, preparations, and coordination at NRI and with three other countries, numerous organizations and agencies, and a Russian facility, this shipment is scheduled for completion before the end of 2007. This paper will provide a summary of activities completed for making this international shipment. This paper contains an introduction and background of the RRRFR Program and the NRI shipment project. It summarizes activities completed in preparation for the shipment, including facility preparations at NRI in Rež and FSUE “Mayak” in Ozyorsk, Russia; a new transportation cask system; regulatory approvals; transportation planning and preparation in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation though completion of the Unified Project and Special Ecological Programs. The paper also describes fuel loading and cask preparations at NRI and final preparations/approvals for transporting the shipment across the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation to FSUE Mayak where the HEU spent nuclear fuel will be processed, the uranium will be downblended and made into low-enriched uranium fuel for commercial reactor

  8. Environmental Assessment for the Transportation of Highly Enriched Uranium from the Russian Federation for the Y-12 National Security Complex and Finding of No Significant Impact

    SciTech Connect

    2004-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to transport highly enriched uranium (HEU) from Russia to a secure storage facility in Oak Ridge, TN. This proposed action would allow the United States and Russia to accelerate the disposition of excess nuclear weapons materials in the interest of promoting nuclear disarmament, strengthening nonproliferation, and combating terrorism. The HEU would be used for a non-weapons purpose in the U.S. – as fuel in research reactors performing solely peaceful missions.

  9. The current state of the Russian reduced enrichment research reactors program

    SciTech Connect

    Aden, V.G.; Kartashov, E.F.; Lukichev, V.A.

    1997-08-01

    During the last year after the 16-th International Conference on Reducing Fuel Enrichment in Research Reactors held in October, 1993 in Oarai, Japan, the conclusive stage of the Program on reducing fuel enrichment (to 20% in U-235) in research reactors was finally made up in Russia. The Program was started late in 70th and the first stage of the Program was completed by 1986 which allowed to reduce fuel enrichment from 80-90% to 36%. The completion of the Program current stage, which is counted for 5-6 years, will exclude the use of the fuel enriched by more than 20% from RF to other countries such as: Poland, Czeck Republick, Hungary, Roumania, Bulgaria, Libya, Viet-Nam, North Korea, Egypt, Latvia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. In 1994 the Program, approved by RF Minatom authorities, has received the status of an inter-branch program since it was admitted by the RF Ministry for Science and Technical Policy. The Head of RF Minatom central administrative division N.I.Ermakov was nominated as the Head of the Russian Program, V.G.Aden, RDIPE Deputy Director, was nominated as the scientific leader. The Program was submitted to the Commission for Scientific, Technical and Economical Cooperation between USA and Russia headed by Vice-President A. Gore and Prime Minister V. Chemomyrdin and was given support also.

  10. Derived enriched uranium market

    SciTech Connect

    Rutkowski, E.

    1996-12-01

    The potential impact on the uranium market of highly enriched uranium from nuclear weapons dismantling in the Russian Federation and the USA is analyzed. Uranium supply, conversion, and enrichment factors are outlined for each country; inventories are also listed. The enrichment component and conversion components are expected to cause little disruption to uranium markets. The uranium component of Russian derived enriched uranium hexafluoride is unresolved; US legislation places constraints on its introduction into the US market.

  11. Glacier Changes in the Russian High Arctic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, M. E.; Willis, M. J.; Melkonian, A. K.; Golos, E. M.; Stewart, A.; Ornelas, G.; Ramage, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    We provide new surveys of ice speeds and surface elevation changes for ~40,000 km2 of glaciers and ice caps at the Novaya Zemlya (NovZ) and Severnaya Zemlya (SevZ) Archipelagoes in the Russian High Arctic. The contribution to sea level rise from this ice is expected to increase as the region continues to warm at above average rates. We derive ice speeds using pixel-tracking on radar and optical imagery, with additional information from InSAR. Ice speeds have generally increased at outlet glaciers compared to those measured using interferometry from the mid-1990s'. The most pronounced acceleration is at Inostrantseva Glacier, one of the northernmost glaciers draining into the Barents Sea on NovZ. Thinning rates over the last few decades are derived by regressing stacked elevations from multiple Digital Elevations Models (DEMs) sourced from ASTER and Worldview stereo-imagery and cartographically derived DEMs. DEMs are calibrated and co-registered using ICESat returns over bedrock. On NovZ thinning of between 60 and 100 meters since the 1950s' is common. Similar rates between the late 1980s' and the present are seen at SevZ. We examine in detail the response of the outlet glaciers of the Karpinsky and Russanov Ice Caps on SevZ to the rapid collapse of the Matusevich Ice Shelf in the late summer of 2012. We do not see a dynamic thinning response at the largest feeder glaciers. This may be due to the slow response of the cold polar glaciers to changing boundary conditions, or the glaciers may be grounded well above sea level. Speed increases in the interior are difficult to assess with optical imagery as there are few trackable features. We therefore use pixel tracking on Terra SARX acquisitions before and after the collapse of the ice shelf to compute rates of flow inland, at slow moving ice. Interior ice flow has not accelerated in response to the collapse of the ice shelf but interior rates at the Karpinsky Ice Cap have increased by about 50% on the largest outlet

  12. Environmental assessment for the purchase of Russian low enriched uranium derived from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the countries of the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The United States is proposing to purchase from the Russian Federation low enriched uranium (LEU) derived from highly enriched uranium (HEU) resulting from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the countries of the former Soviet Union. The purchase would be accomplished through a proposed contract requiring the United States to purchase 15,250 metric tons (tonnes) of LEU (or 22,550 tonnes of UF{sub 6}) derived from blending 500 metric tones uranium (MTU) of HEU from nuclear warheads. The LEU would be in the form of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) and would be converted from HEU in Russia. The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) is the entity proposing to undertake the contract for purchase, sale, and delivery of the LEU from the Russian Federation. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is negotiating the procedure for gaining confidence that the LEU is derived from HEU that is derived from dismantled nuclear weapons (referred to as ``transparency),`` and would administer the transparency measures for the contract. There are six environments that could potentially be affected by the proposed action; marine (ocean); US ports of entry; truck or rail transportation corridors; the Portsmouth GDP; the electric power industry; and the nuclear fuel cycle industry. These environmental impacts are discussed.

  13. Research Reactor Preparations for the Air Shipment of Highly Enriched Uranium from Romania

    SciTech Connect

    K. J. Allen; I. Bolshinsky; L. L. Biro; M. E. Budu; N. V. Zamfir; M. Dragusin; C. Paunoiu; M. Ciocanescu

    2010-03-01

    In June 2009 two air shipments transported both unirradiated (fresh) and irradiated (spent) Russian-origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) nuclear fuel from two research reactors in Romania to the Russian Federation for conversion to low enriched uranium. The Institute for Nuclear Research at Pitesti (SCN Pitesti) shipped 30.1 kg of HEU fresh fuel pellets to Dimitrovgrad, Russia and the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH) shipped 23.7 kilograms of HEU spent fuel assemblies from the VVR S research reactor at Magurele, Romania, to Chelyabinsk, Russia. Both HEU shipments were coordinated by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), were managed in Romania by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN), and were conducted in cooperation with the Russian Federation State Corporation Rosatom and the International Atomic Energy Agency. Both shipments were transported by truck to and from respective commercial airports in Romania and the Russian Federation and stored at secure nuclear facilities in Russia until the material is converted into low enriched uranium. These shipments resulted in Romania becoming the 3rd country under the RRRFR program and the 14th country under the GTRI program to remove all HEU. This paper describes the research reactor preparations and license approvals that were necessary to safely and securely complete these air shipments of nuclear fuel.

  14. Air Shipment of Highly Enriched Uranium Spent Nuclear Fuel from Romania

    SciTech Connect

    K. J. Allen; I. Bolshinsky; L. L. Biro; M. E. Budu; N. V. Zamfir; M. Dragusin

    2010-07-01

    Romania safely air shipped 23.7 kilograms of Russian origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel from the VVR S research reactor at Magurele, Romania, to the Russian Federation in June 2009. This was the world’s first air shipment of spent nuclear fuel transported in a Type B(U) cask under existing international laws without special exceptions for the air transport licenses. This shipment was coordinated by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR), part of the U.S. Department of Energy Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), in cooperation with the Romania National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN), the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), and the Russian Federation State Corporation Rosatom. The shipment was transported by truck to and from the respective commercial airports in Romania and the Russian Federation and stored at a secure nuclear facility in Russia where it will be converted into low enriched uranium. With this shipment, Romania became the 3rd country under the RRRFR program and the 14th country under the GTRI program to remove all HEU. This paper describes the work, equipment, and approvals that were required to complete this spent fuel air shipment.

  15. Criticality Safety of Low-Enriched Uranium and High-Enriched Uranium Fuel Elements in Heavy Water Lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Pesic, Milan P

    2003-10-15

    The RB reactor was designed as a natural-uranium, heavy water, nonreflected critical assembly in the Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Yugoslavia, in 1958. From 1962 until 2002, numerous critical experiments were carried out with low-enriched uranium and high-enriched uranium fuel elements of tubular shape, known as the Russian TVR-S fuel assembly type, placed in various heavy water square lattices within the RB cylindrical aluminum tank. Some of these well-documented experiments were selected, described, evaluated, and accepted for inclusion in the 'International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments', contributing to the preservation of a rather small number of heavy water benchmark critical experiments.

  16. The Effects of Pollen-Enriched Pollen Substitute on Winter Cluster Size and the Prevalence of Nosema ceranae in Russian Honey Bee Colonies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study determined the effects of feeding a pollen substitute enriched with pollen and feeding protein in plastic frames placed directly in the brood nest on the growth of Russian honey bee colonies through the winter. Colonies were fed: 1) a mixture of 1/2 pollen and 1/2 commercial pollen substi...

  17. HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS: CERN Link Breathes Life Into Russian Physics.

    PubMed

    Stone, R

    2000-10-13

    Without fanfare, 600 Russian scientists here at CERN, the European particle physics laboratory, are playing key roles in building the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a machine that will explore fundamental questions such as why particles have mass, as well as search for exotic new particles whose existence would confirm supersymmetry, a popular theory that aims to unify the four forces of nature. In fact, even though Russia is not one of CERN's 20 member states, most top high-energy physicists in Russia are working on the LHC. Some say their work could prove the salvation of high-energy physics back home.

  18. Results of Russian/US high performance DEMG experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Buyko, A.M.; Bidylo, N.P.; Chernyshev, V.K.; Demidov, V.A.

    1996-12-01

    In November 1992, the AU Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF), Arzamas-16, Russia and the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM, USA embarked on a historic effort to conduct a joint explosive pulse-power experiment. With the concurrence of the Ministry of Atomic Energy (Russia) and the Department of Energy (USA), the two laboratories, entered into a Laboratory-to-Laboratory collaboration in the areas of very high energy pulse-power and ultrahigh magnetic fields in order to explore problems of mutual scientific interest. The first experiment to be planned was an explosively powered, fast, high-current pulse-power system demonstration. The experiment used a flux compressor, inductive store, and high-current opening switch to demonstrate the feasibility of supplying many megajoules of electrical energy, on microsecond time scales, to high energy density physics experiments. The experiment was conducted in Arzamas-16 on September 22, 1993.

  19. Results of Russian/US high performance DEMG experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Buyko, A.M.; Bidylo, N.P.; Chernyshev, V.K.

    1995-08-01

    In November 1992, the All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF), Arzamas-16, Russia and the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM, USA embarked on a historic effort to conduct a joint explosive pulse-power experiment. With the concurrence of the Ministry of Atomic Energy (Russia) and the Department of Energy (USA), the two laboratories entered into a Laboratory-to-Laboratory collaboration in the areas of very high energy pulse power and ultrahigh magnetic fields in order to explore problems of mutual scientific interest. The first experiment was an explosively powered, fast, high-current pulse-power experiment. The experiment employed a flux compressor, inductive store, and opening switch to demonstrate the feasibility of supplying many megajoules of electrical energy on microsecond time scales, to high energy density physics experiments. The experiment was successfully conducted in Arzamas-16 on September 22, 1993.

  20. Active interrogation of highly enriched uranium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairrow, Nannette Lea

    Safeguarding special nuclear material (SNM) in the Department of Energy Complex is vital to the national security of the United States. Active and passive nondestructive assays are used to confirm the presence of SNM in various configurations ranging from waste to nuclear weapons. Confirmation measurements for nuclear weapons are more challenging because the design complicates the detection of a distinct signal for highly enriched uranium. The emphasis of this dissertation was to investigate a new nondestructive assay technique that provides an independent and distinct signal to confirm the presence of highly enriched uranium (HEU). Once completed and tested this assay method could be applied to confirmation measurements of nuclear weapons. The new system uses a 14-MeV neutron source for interrogation and records the arrival time of neutrons between the pulses with a high efficiency detection system. The data is then analyzed by the Feynman reduced variance method. The analysis determined the amount of correlation in the data and provided a unique signature of correlated fission neutrons. Measurements of HEU spheres were conducted at Los Alamos with the new system. Then, Monte Carlo calculations were performed to verify hypothesis made about the behavior of the neutrons in the experiment. Comparisons of calculated counting rates by the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) were made with the experimental data to confirm that the measured response reflected the desired behavior of neutron interactions in the highly enriched uranium. In addition, MCNP calculations of the delayed neutron build-up were compared with the measured data. Based on the results obtained from this dissertation, this measurement method has the potential to be expanded to include mass determinations of highly enriched uranium. Although many safeguards techniques exist for measuring special nuclear material, the number of assays that can be used to confirm HEU in shielded systems is

  1. Active interrogation of highly enriched uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, C. E.; Hollas, C. L.; Myers, W. L.

    2004-01-01

    Active interrogation techniques provide reliable detection of highly enriched uranium (HEU) even when passive detection is difficult. We use 50-Hz pulsed beams of bremsstrahlung photons from a 10-MeV linac or 14-MeV neutrons from a neutron generator for interrogation, thus activating the HEU. Detection of neutrons between pulses is a positive indicator of the presence of fissionable material. We detect the neutrons with three neutron detector designs based on {sup 3}He tubes. This report shows examples of the responses in these three detectors, for unshielded and shielded kilogram quantities of HEU, in containers as large as cargo containers.

  2. Ice Mass Changes in the Russian High Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, M. J.; Melkonian, A. K.; Pritchard, M. E.; Golos, E. M.

    2012-12-01

    The ~2000 glaciers and icecaps on the islands of the Russian High Arctic cover a total area of about 55,600 km2. Infrequent studies have indicated that these glaciers have lost a total of ~100 km3 of ice, equivalent to about 0.3 mm of sea level, since 1960. Recent GRACE observations suggest that the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago and Franz Josef Archipelago are approximately in balance, while the "Main Ice Sheet" of the Novaya Zemlya archipelago is losing mass at a small rate. This glacier complex, on the northern island of the archipelago is the largest ice mass in Europe (23,800 km2) and the third largest polar ice masses on the planet after the Antarctic and Greenland Ice sheets. The glaciers, ice caps and icefields of the Russian High Arctic are a major reservoir of fresh water and under climate scenarios that involve warming, a potentially increasing source of mass for sea level rise. We examine the response of the glaciers of the Russian High Arctic to recent, pronounced atmospheric warming. Digitized topographic maps, ASTER Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), cloud free ICESat returns and several DEMs calculated from recent high-resolution imagery pairs are used to provide a time-series and maps of ice surface elevation change rates between the mid-1980s' and 2012 for the "Main Ice Sheet" on Novaya Zemlya and the Franz Josef Land Archipelago. DEMs are co-registered to a common horizontal base and corrected for biases due to varying reference frames and datums. Elevation change rates are calculated on a pixel-by-pixel basis and are integrated over each ice complex to provide volume change rates. Volume rates are converted to mass rates assuming an ice density of 900 kg/m3. Glacier speeds are derived from pairs of ASTER images between 2000 and 2012 and from higher resolution imagery between 2010 and 2012. Cloudy conditions often hamper our ability to make good pairs and problems occur when there are no bedrock outcrops, which are typically used to check for

  3. 31 CFR 540.306 - Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). 540.306... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.306 Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The term highly...

  4. 31 CFR 540.306 - Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). 540...) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.306 Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The term...

  5. Systematic and biogeographical study of Protura (Hexapoda) in Russian Far East: new data on high endemism of the group.

    PubMed

    Bu, Yun; Potapov, Mikhail B; Yin, Wen Ying

    2014-01-01

    Proturan collections from Magadan Oblast, Khabarovsk Krai, Primorsky Krai, and Sakhalin Oblast are reported here. Twenty-five species are found of which 13 species are new records for Russian Far East which enrich the knowledge of Protura known for this area. Three new species Baculentulus krabbensis sp. n., Fjellbergella lazovskiensis sp. n. and Yichunentulus alpatovi sp. n. are illustrated and described. The new materials of Imadateiella sharovi (Martynova, 1977) are studied and described in details. Two new combinations, Yichunentulus borealis (Nakamura, 2004), comb. n. and Fjellbergella jilinensis (Wu & Yin, 2007), comb. n. are proposed as a result of morphological examination. Keys to species of the genera Fjellbergella and Yichunentulus are given. An annotated list of all species of Protura from Russian Far East is provided and discussed. Widely distributed species were not recorded in this area. This may be because of the high sensitivity of Protura to anthropogenic impact and low dispersal ability of the group.

  6. Systematic and biogeographical study of Protura (Hexapoda) in Russian Far East: new data on high endemism of the group

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Yun; Potapov, Mikhail B.; Yin, Wen Ying

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Proturan collections from Magadan Oblast, Khabarovsk Krai, Primorsky Krai, and Sakhalin Oblast are reported here. Twenty-five species are found of which 13 species are new records for Russian Far East which enrich the knowledge of Protura known for this area. Three new species Baculentulus krabbensis sp. n., Fjellbergella lazovskiensis sp. n. and Yichunentulus alpatovi sp. n. are illustrated and described. The new materials of Imadateiella sharovi (Martynova, 1977) are studied and described in details. Two new combinations, Yichunentulus borealis (Nakamura, 2004), comb. n. and Fjellbergella jilinensis (Wu & Yin, 2007), comb. n. are proposed as a result of morphological examination. Keys to species of the genera Fjellbergella and Yichunentulus are given. An annotated list of all species of Protura from Russian Far East is provided and discussed. Widely distributed species were not recorded in this area. This may be because of the high sensitivity of Protura to anthropogenic impact and low dispersal ability of the group. PMID:25061395

  7. Vugraphs from plutonium and highly enriched uranium 1996: World inventories, capabilities and policies

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, D.; Berkhout, F.; Walker, W.

    1997-03-01

    These vugraphs summarize the main findings of a three year study, Plutonium and Highly Enriched Uranium 1996: World Inventories, Capabilities and Policies. According to the three nuclear experts who co-wrote the book, tons of weapons grade plutonium and uranium produced over the last 50 years are inadequately monitored, risking misuse by rogue states and terrorists. The study concludes that there is too much nuclear material that`s too easily obtainable. The authors urged President Clinton and Russian President Yeltsin to launch an international initiative to strengthen controls on weapons grade plutonium and uranium.

  8. APFIM characterization of a high phosphorus Russian RPV weld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. K.; Russell, K. F.

    1996-03-01

    A microstructural characterization of a high phosphorus (0.035 wt% P) weld from the pressure vessel of a Russian VVER nuclear reactor has been performed. The microstructure of these steels consists of intragranular and intergranular vanadium carbonitride precipitates of average composition 51.3 ± 0.9 at% V, 18.8 ± 0.7 at% C, 22.1 ± 0.7 at% N, 4.9 ± 0.4 at% Cr, 2.4 ± 0.3 at% Mo, 0.36 ± 0.05 at% Fe, 0.07 ± 0.05 at% B and 0.03 ± 0.03 at% P. The lath and grain boundaries were also coated with a thin film of molybdenum carbonitride precipitates. The phosphorus coverage at the boundaries in the unirradiated material was ˜ 13% of a monolayer in agreement with predictions from the McLean model of equilibrium segregation. After neutron irradiation to a fluence of 1.15 × 10 20 n cm -2, the phosphorus coverage had increased significantly to up to ˜ 60% of a monolayer. This result indicates that neutron irradiation significantly enhanced the phosphorus segregation process. Phosphorus and copper clusters were also observed in the matrix of the neutron-irradiated material.

  9. High performance encapsulation structures utilizing Russian Doll architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granstrom, Jimmy; Villet, Michael; Chatterjee, Tirtha

    2010-03-01

    A Russian Doll encapsulation architecture utilizing pairs of free-standing barrier films and epoxy seals separated by nitrogen spacers is presented, enabling the use of low-cost epoxy to attach two or more free-standing barrier films to a substrate with improved barrier performance. The performance of various Russian Doll encapsulations was evaluated with the calcium thin film optical transmission test, showing improved performance of the Russian doll configuration relative to a non-nested barrier/spacer architecture, and demonstrating that water vapor transmission rates of 0.0021 g/(m^2, day) or below can be achieved with low-cost materials in this architecture. This WVTR correlates to a predicted lifetime of more than 10 years for inverted organic P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction solar cell modules fabricated and tested by Konarka Technologies (Lowell, MA, USA).

  10. High-purity, isotopically enriched bulk silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Ager III, J.W.; Beeman, J.W.; Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.; Sharp, I.D.; Liao, C.; Yang, A.; Thewalt, M.L.W.; Riemann, H.

    2004-11-17

    The synthesis and characterization of dislocation-free, undoped, single crystals of Si enriched in all 3 stable isotopes is reported: {sup 28}Si (99.92%), {sup 29}Si (91.37%), and {sup 30}Si (89.8%). A silane-based process compatible with the relatively small amounts of isotopically enriched precursors that are practically available was used. The silane is decomposed to silicon on a graphite starter rod heated to 700-750 C in a recirculating flow reactor. A typical run produces 35 gm of polycrystalline Si at a growth rates of 5 {micro}m/min and conversion efficiency >95%. Single crystals are grown by the floating zone method and characterized by electrical and optical measurements. Concentrations of shallow dopants (P and B) are as low as mid-10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}. Concentrations of C and O lie below 10{sup 16} and 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}, respectively.

  11. Uranium enrichment determination by high-energy photon interrogation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianyu; Zhang, Songbai; Wu, Jun

    2011-11-01

    Uranium enrichment determination by non-destructive assay is an important method in authenticating the nuclear warhead or uranium component in deep nuclear reduction verifications. In this paper, the feasibility of applying the high-energy photon interrogation to determine the uranium enrichment is studied. Simplified models are presented which were simulated by particle Monte Carlo transport code. The results indicate that the relation curves of the released neutrons and the enrichment of uranium objects are almost linear. For a uranium object of a given shape, the uranium enrichment can be obtained with the relation curves, which could be got in advance by calibration experiments or simulations.

  12. 77 FR 38457 - Blocking Property of the Government of the Russian Federation Relating to the Disposition of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... Russian Federation Relating to the Disposition of Highly Enriched Uranium Extracted From Nuclear Weapons... of June 25, 2012 Blocking Property of the Government of the Russian Federation Relating to the... a large volume of weapons-usable fissile material in the territory of the Russian Federation...

  13. 3 CFR 13617 - Executive Order 13617 of June 25, 2012. Blocking Property of the Government of the Russian...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Property of the Government of the Russian Federation Relating to the Disposition of Highly Enriched Uranium... 13617 of June 25, 2012 EO 13617 Blocking Property of the Government of the Russian Federation Relating... accumulation of a large volume of weapons-usable fissile material in the territory of the Russian Federation...

  14. Russian-Australian Partnerships Fostering High School Science Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Graham

    A group of students from Knox Grammar School and Ravenswood School for Girls have just completed phase one of an exciting science project. For three years we have been working closely with the Russian Space Institute as they built, tested and finally launched a microsatellite from the shuttle Progress in March, this year. Our task was to build ground stations and test equipment so that after launch we would be able to receive telemetry and navigational data from the satellite. Sounds easy! What transpired was a three year journey through basic electronics, amateur radio and rocket science. Communication with the Russians was difficult but effective and despite many frustrations and delays, the first contact with the satellite made it all worthwhile. We spent many early morning and late nights during the school holidays listening to the ghostly sounds from 400 Km above us. Students needed to communicate by e-mail with non-English speaking rocket scientists on a daily basis to receive updated programmes, new data and new instructions. We ultimately managed to download about 50 files from the satellite and phase two of the project involving e-mail communication between Australian and Russian students is underway. I expect the project to continue for months ahead as we unravel and make sense of the reams of data about fluctuations in the magnetosphere over Europe and Australia. The scientific impact of the data, however, is secondary to the experiences that we have enjoyed. Space is suddenly relevant and much closer for these lucky students who spanned Grade 6 - Year 12.

  15. High Accuracy U-235 Enrichment Verification Station for Low Enriched Uranium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Lillard, C. R.; Hayward, J. P.; Williamson, M. R.

    2012-06-07

    The Y-12 National Security Complex is playing a role in the U.S. High Performance Research Reactor (USHPRR) Conversion program sponsored by the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Global Threat Reduction. The USHPRR program has a goal of converting remaining U.S. reactors that continue to use highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The USHPRR program is currently developing a LEU Uranium-Molybdenum (U-Mo) monolithic fuel for use in the U.S. high performance research reactors.Y-12 is supporting both the fuel development and fuel fabrication efforts by fabricating low enriched U-Mo foils from its own source material for irradiation experiments and for optimizing the fabrication process in support of scaling up the process to a commercial production scale. Once the new fuel is qualified, Y-12 will produce and ship U-Mo coupons with verified 19.75% +0.2% - 0.3% U-235 enrichment to be fabricated into fuel elements for the USHPRRs. Considering this small enrichment tolerance and the transition into HEU being set strictly at 20% U-235, a characterization system with a measurement uncertainty of less than or equal to 0.1% in enrichment is desired to support customer requirements and minimize production costs. Typical uncertainty for most available characterization systems today is approximately 1-5%; therefore, a specialized system must be developed which results in a reduced measurement uncertainty. A potential system using a High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector has been procured, and tests have been conducted to verify its capabilities with regards to the requirements. Using four U-Mo enrichment standards fabricated with complete isotopic and chemical characterization, infinite thickness and peak-ratio enrichment measurement methods have been considered for use. As a result of inhomogeneity within the U-Mo samples, FRAM, an isotopic analysis software, has been selected for initial testing. A systematic approach

  16. An oxygen enrichment device for lowlanders ascending to high altitude

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background When ascending to the high altitude, people living in low altitude areas will suffer from acute mountain sickness. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that whether an oxygen concentration membrane can be made and used to construct a new portable oxygen enrichment device for individuals in acute exposure to the high altitude. Methods The membrane was fabricated using vinylsiloxane rubber, polyphenylene oxide hydrogen silicone polymers, chloroplatinic acid and isopropyl alcohol. The membrane was assembled in a frame and the performance was tested in terms of concentration of oxygen, flow rate of oxygen enriched air, pressure ratio across the membrane and ambient temperature. Furthermore, the oxygen concentration device was constructed using the membrane, a DC fan, vacuum pump and gas buffer. A nonrandomized preliminary field test was conducted, in which eight healthy male subjects were flown to Tibet (Lhasa, 3,700 m). First, subjects wore the oxygen enrichment device and performed an incremental exercise on cycle ergometer. The test included heart rate (HR), saturation of peripheral oxygen (SpO2) and physical work capacity (PWC). Then, after a rest period of 4 hours, the experimental protocol was repeated without oxygen enrichment device. Results The testing showed that the membrane could increase the oxygen concentration by up to 30%. Simulation test indicated that although the performance of the oxygen enrichment device decreased with altitudes, the oxygen concentration could still maintain 28% with flow rate of enriched air 110 cm3/s at 5000 m. The field test showed that higher SpO2, lower HR, and better PWC (measured by the PWC-170) were observed from all the subjects using oxygen enrichment device compared with non-using (P < 0.01). Conclusions We concluded that the new portable oxygen enrichment device would be effective in improving exercise performance when ascending to the high altitude. PMID:24103365

  17. Perovskite for the highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Shui; Chen, Xi; Sun, Huan; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2015-01-09

    Selective and effective enrichment of phosphopeptides from complex samples is essential in phosphoproteome study by mass spectrometry (MS). In this work, we compared perovskites (MgTiO3, CaTiO3, SrTiO3, BaTiO3 and CaZrO3) with metal oxides (ZrO2 and TiO2) in their capability for the selective enrichment of phosphopeptides. It was found here that perovskites exhibited higher selectivity towards phosphopeptides than commonly used ZrO2 and TiO2, even though they all have high affinity to phosphopeptides. As for perovskites, CaTiO3 exhibited better selectivity for enrichment of phosphopeptides than SrTiO3, MgTiO3, BaTiO3 and CaZrO3, which might be ascribed to their crystal structures and electrophilic abilities. Moreover, to further confirm the performance of CaTiO3, CaTiO3 and TiO2 were applied to the enrichment of phosphopeptides from tryptic digest of proteins of human Jurkat-T cell lysate, respectively. The results showed CaTiO3 has much higher selectivity than TiO2 in the enrichment of phosphopeptides from the complex biological sample. Taken together, here we show that CaTiO3 is an excellent material for the highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides and it could be potentially used in the large-scale phosphoproteome study.

  18. High-purity thermoacoustic isotope enrichment.

    PubMed

    Swift, G W; Geller, D A; Backhaus, S N

    2014-08-01

    In a tube many wavelengths long, thermoacoustic separation of a gas mixture can produce very high purities. A flexible wall allows a spatially continuous supply of acoustic power into such a long tube. Coiling the tube and immersing it in a fluid lets a single-wavelength, circulating, traveling pressure wave in the fluid drive all the wavelengths in the tube wall and gas. Preliminary measurements confirm many aspects of the concept with neon ((20)Ne and (22)Ne) and highlight some challenges of practical implementation.

  19. Aspectual Knowledge of High Proficiency L2 and Heritage Speakers of Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikhaylova, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the results of an interpretation task that captures whether high proficiency heritage language (HL) learners of Russian converge with monolingual (L1) speakers or proficiency-matched foreign language (L2) learners in their interpretation of aspectual pairs and whether the absence of convergence arises in the lexical component of…

  20. Ice Mass Changes in the Russian High Arctic from Repeat High Resolution Topography.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Michael; Zheng, Whyjay; Pritchard, Matthew; Melkonian, Andrew; Morin, Paul; Porter, Claire; Howat, Ian; Noh, Myoung-Jong; Jeong, Seongsu

    2016-04-01

    We use a combination of ASTER and cartographically derived Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) supplemented with WorldView DEMs, the ArcticDEM and ICESat lidar returns to produce a time-series of ice changes occurring in the Russian High Arctic between the mid-20th century and the present. Glaciers on the western, Barents Sea coast of Novaya Zemlya are in a state of general retreat and thinning, while those on the eastern, Kara Sea coast are retreating at a slower rate. Franz Josef Land has a complicated pattern of thinning and thickening, although almost all the thinning is associated with rapid outlet glaciers feeding ice shelves. Severnaya Zemlya is also thinning in a complicated manner. A very rapid surging glacier is transferring mass into the ocean from the western periphery of the Vavilov Ice Cap on October Revolution Island, while glaciers feeding the former Matusevich Ice Shelf continue to thin at rates that are faster than those observed during the operational period of ICESat, between 2003 and 2009. Passive microwave studies indicate the total number of melt days is increasing in the Russian Arctic, although much of the melt may refreeze within the firn. It is likely that ice dynamic changes will drive mass loss for the immediate future. The sub-marine basins beneath several of the ice caps in the region suggest the possibility that mass loss rates may accelerate in the future.

  1. Nickel container of highly-enriched uranium bodies and sodium

    DOEpatents

    Zinn, Walter H.

    1976-01-01

    A fuel element comprises highly a enriched uranium bodies coated with a nonfissionable, corrosion resistant material. A plurality of these bodies are disposed in layers, with sodium filling the interstices therebetween. The entire assembly is enclosed in a fluid-tight container of nickel.

  2. On the flexibility of high temperature reactor cores for high-and low-enriched fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Bzandes, S.; Lonhert, G.

    1982-07-01

    The operational flexibility of a high temperature reactor (HTR) is not restricted to either a low- or a high-enriched fuel cycle. Both fuel cycles are possible for the same core design. The fuel cycle cost is, however, penalized for low-enriched fuel; in addition, higher uranium consumption is required. Hence, an HTR is most economical to operate in the high-enriched thorium-uranium fuel cycle.

  3. Improving oxygenation at high altitude: acclimatization and O2 enrichment.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2003-01-01

    When lowlanders go to high altitude, the resulting oxygen deprivation impairs mental and physical performance, quality of sleep, and general well-being. This paper compares the effects of ventilatory acclimatization and oxygen enrichment of room air on the improvement of oxygenation as judged by the increase in the alveolar P(O2) and the reduction in equivalent altitude. The results show that, on the average, complete ventilatory acclimatization at an altitude of 5000 m increases the alveolar P(O2) by nearly 8 torr, which corresponds to a reduction in equivalent altitude of about 1000 m, although there is considerable individual variability. By comparison, oxygen enrichment to 27% at 5000 m can easily reduce the equivalent altitude to 3200 m, which is generally well tolerated. Because full ventilatory acclimatization at altitudes up to about 3600 m reduces the equivalent altitude to about 3000 m, oxygen enrichment is not justified for well-acclimatized persons. At an altitude of 4200 m, where several telescopes are located on the summit of Mauna Kea, full acclimatization reduces the equivalent altitude to about 3400 m, but the pattern of commuting probably would not allow this. Therefore, at this altitude, oxygen enrichment would be beneficial but is not essential. At higher altitudes such as 5050 m, where other telescopes are located or planned, the gain in oxygenation from acclimatization is insufficient to produce an adequate mental or physical performance for most work, and oxygen enrichment is highly desirable. Full ventilatory acclimatization requires at least a week of continuous exposure, although much of the improvement is seen in the first 2 days.

  4. [Psychoeducational intervention in high ability: intellectual functioning and extracurricular enrichment].

    PubMed

    Sastre-Riba, Sylvia

    2014-02-24

    The 'new paradigm' defines the high intellectual ability as a potential that should crystallize progressively throughout development. Its main feature is a high intellectual initial multidimensional potential, which is transformed so that, being a person with high intellectual ability is the result of a developmental process from a neurobiological substrate and the incidence of variables (psychosocial and education) which determines its manifestation more or less stable and optimal to excellence. It is interesting to know the effectiveness of psychoeducational intervention of the extracurricular enrichment programs and their effects on the expression of differential functioning and the optimization of the management of cognitive resources that lead to excellence. An extracurricular enrichment program is described and evaluated through: 1) the stability of the intellectual measures; 2) the satisfaction level of participants and families. Participants are 58 high ability students on the enrichment program and 25 parents. Intellectual profiles are obtained on T1-T2 and calculated their stability by regression analysis, the CSA and CSA-P questionnaires were applied in order to know the participants and families' satisfaction measure. Results show the basic stability of intellectual profiles with five cases of instability among the 58 profiles obtained, and a high satisfaction with the results obtained in the domain of cognitive and personal management among the participants.

  5. Realities of verifying the absence of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in gas centrifuge enrichment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Swindle, D.W.

    1990-03-01

    Over a two and one-half year period beginning in 1981, representatives of six countries (United States, United Kingdom, Federal Republic of Germany, Australia, The Netherlands, and Japan) and the inspectorate organizations of the International Atomic Energy Agency and EURATOM developed and agreed to a technically sound approach for verifying the absence of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in gas centrifuge enrichment plants. This effort, known as the Hexapartite Safeguards Project (HSP), led to the first international concensus on techniques and requirements for effective verification of the absence of weapons-grade nuclear materials production. Since that agreement, research and development has continued on the radiation detection technology-based technique that technically confirms the HSP goal is achievable. However, the realities of achieving the HSP goal of effective technical verification have not yet been fully attained. Issues such as design and operating conditions unique to each gas centrifuge plant, concern about the potential for sensitive technology disclosures, and on-site support requirements have hindered full implementation and operator support of the HSP agreement. In future arms control treaties that may limit or monitor fissile material production, the negotiators must recognize and account for the realities and practicalities in verifying the absence of HEU production. This paper will describe the experiences and realities of trying to achieve the goal of developing and implementing an effective approach for verifying the absence of HEU production. 3 figs.

  6. Initial report on characterization of excess highly enriched uranium

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    DOE`s Office of Fissile Materials Disposition assigned to this Y-12 division the task of preparing a report on the 174.4 metric tons of excess highly enriched U. Characterization included identification by category, gathering existing data (assay), defining the likely needed processing steps for prepping for transfer to a blending site, and developing a range of preliminary cost estimates for those steps. Focus is on making commercial reactor fuel as a final disposition path.

  7. AIR SHIPMENT OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL FROM ROMANIA AND LIBYA

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Landers; Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Stanley Moses

    2010-07-01

    In June 2009 Romania successfully completed the world’s first air shipment of highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel transported in Type B(U) casks under existing international laws and without special exceptions for the air transport licenses. Special 20-foot ISO shipping containers and cask tiedown supports were designed to transport Russian TUK 19 shipping casks for the Romanian air shipment and the equipment was certified for all modes of transport, including road, rail, water, and air. In December 2009 Libya successfully used this same equipment for a second air shipment of HEU spent nuclear fuel. Both spent fuel shipments were transported by truck from the originating nuclear facilities to nearby commercial airports, were flown by commercial cargo aircraft to a commercial airport in Yekaterinburg, Russia, and then transported by truck to their final destinations at the Production Association Mayak facility in Chelyabinsk, Russia. Both air shipments were performed under the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) as part of the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI). The Romania air shipment of 23.7 kg of HEU spent fuel from the VVR S research reactor was the last of three HEU fresh and spent fuel shipments under RRRFR that resulted in Romania becoming the 3rd RRRFR participating country to remove all HEU. Libya had previously completed two RRRFR shipments of HEU fresh fuel so the 5.2 kg of HEU spent fuel air shipped from the IRT 1 research reactor in December made Libya the 4th RRRFR participating country to remove all HEU. This paper describes the equipment, preparations, and license approvals required to safely and securely complete these two air shipments of spent nuclear fuel.

  8. High Pressure and High Temperature State of Oxygen Enriched Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LI, M.; Zhang, S.; Jeanloz, R.; Militzer, B.

    2016-12-01

    Interior models for Uranus and Neptune include a hydrogen/helium/water outer envelope and a core of rock and metal at the center, with superionic water-rich ice proposed as comprising an intermediate layer. Here we consider an oxygen-enriched ice, such as H2O2 hydrogen peroxide (± water), that could form through chemical reaction between water-rich and underlying rocky (i.e., oxygen-rich) layers. As oxygen and its compounds (e.g., H2O, SiO2) form metallic fluids at pressures above 100-150 GPa, the problem amounts to considering oxygen alloying of semiconducting or metallic water. The density of H2O2 is 1.45 g/cc at ambient pressure and 0° C, increasing to 1.71 g/cc in the solid state at about -20° C. There are no Hugoniot data beyond 30 GPa, so we estimated Hugoniots for H2O2 with different initial densities, using both a mixing model based on Hugoniot data for H2O2 and 1/2 O2 (molar volume summation under pressure) and ab initio calculations for unreacted H2O2. The results agree with each other to pressures of about 200 GPa, and the ab initio calculations show evidence of a superionic state at temperatures as low as 500 K, much lower than for water ice. Hydrogen peroxide is expected to be liquid along planetary isentropes for Uranus and Neptune, suggesting that H2O2 may not be present as a pure compound in these planets. Instead, oxygen-enriched H2O ice may be the relevant form of water and oxygen, and might be produced in the laboratory by way of dynamic compression of H2O2 or laser-heating of statically compressed H2O + O2 and/or H2O2.

  9. [HIGH FREQUENCY OF CYP2C19 ULTRARAPID METABOLIZERS IN RUSSIAN PATIENTS WITH PEPTIC ULCER].

    PubMed

    Denisenko, N P; Sychev D A; Sizova, Zh M; Grachev, A V; Velikolug, K A

    2015-01-01

    The main enzyme responsible for metabolism of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) is cytochrome P-4502C19 (CYP2C19). Among all CYP2C19 polymorphisms ulrarapid CYP2C19*17 allele plays an important role in clinical practice as in CYP2C19*17 allele carriers acid suppression achieved with PPI including eradication regimens may be insufficient. To find the frequency of CYP2C19 ultrarapid metabolizers in Russian patients with peptic ulcer We retrospectively reviewed the results of pharmacogenetic tests of 971 Russian patients with endoscopically and histologically proven ulcers, 428 male (44%) and 543 female (56%). The mean age was 44.6 ± 11.9 years (range 15-88 years). DNA was extracted from EDTA whole blood samples (10 mL). The polymorphisms CYP2C19 *2, *3 *17 were evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We found that among 971 peptic ulcer patients ultrarapid metabolizers (CYP2C19*1/*17, CYP2C19*17/*17) were the most frequent genotype--39.75%. Extensive metabolizers with CYP2C19*1/*1 genotype were less frequent--32.65%. Frequency of poor and intermediate metabolizers was found to be 1.5% and 25.85% respectively. We were the first to investigate CYP2C19*17 allele frequency in Russian patients with peptic ulcer which was found to be 27.4%. High frequency of CYP2C19 ultrarapid metabolizers in Russian patients with peptic ulcer may be associated with insufficient response to proton pump inhibitors.

  10. Infrared spectrometric measurement of impurities in highly enriched 'Si28'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakel, S.; Wundrack, S.; Niemann, H.; Rienitz, O.; Schiel, D.

    2011-04-01

    Within the scope of re-determining the Avogadro constant, the content of impurities in ultra-pure, mono-isotopically enriched silicon 'Si28' was measured by infrared spectrometry. The calibration factors required for the calculation of the concentrations from the maximum absorption coefficients had to be determined in this context for the isotopically enriched material. For this purpose a model was prepared, which enables conversion of the factors for Si with natural isotopic abundance. On the basis of these results, the concentrations of the three most decisive impurities in the enriched material were determined. These are oxygen atoms on interstitial sites and substituting carbon and boron atoms which occupy silicon sites. Whereas carbon and oxygen were measured in accordance with standardized procedures modified for the particular metrological use, the absorption measurement of the boron was carried out differently to the conventional standard. The concentrations determined for the three types of crystal impurities are high enough to make a correction of the lattice parameter for the 'Si28' material necessary.

  11. Establishing a Cost Basis for Converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor from High Enriched to Low Enriched Uranium Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Primm, Trent; Guida, Tracey

    2010-02-01

    Under the auspices of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors Program, the National Nuclear Security Administration /Department of Energy (NNSA/DOE) has, as a goal, to convert research reactors worldwide from weapons grade to non-weapons grade uranium. The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) is one of the candidates for conversion of fuel from high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU). A well documented business model, including tasks, costs, and schedules was developed to plan the conversion of HFIR. Using Microsoft Project, a detailed outline of the conversion program was established and consists of LEU fuel design activities, a fresh fuel shipping cask, improvements to the HFIR reactor building, and spent fuel operations. Current-value costs total $76 million dollars, include over 100 subtasks, and will take over 10 years to complete. The model and schedule follows the path of the fuel from receipt from fuel fabricator to delivery to spent fuel storage and illustrates the duration, start, and completion dates of each subtask to be completed. Assumptions that form the basis of the cost estimate have significant impact on cost and schedule.

  12. Photon and neutron active interrogation of highly enriched uranium.

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, W. L.; Goulding, C. A.; Hollas, C. L.; Moss, C. E.

    2004-01-01

    The physics of photon and neutron active interrogation of highly enriched uranium (HEU) using the delayed neutron reinterrogation method is described in this paper. Two sets of active interrogation experiments were performed using a set of subcritical configurations of cocentric HEU metal hemishells. One set of measurements utilized a pulsed 14-MeV neutron generator as the active source. The second set of measurements utilized a linear accelerator-based bremsstrahlung photon source as an active interrogation source. The neutron responses were measured for both sets of experiments. The operational details and results for both measurement sets are described.

  13. Ewing's sarcoma precursors are highly enriched in embryonic osteochondrogenic progenitors.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Miwa; Yamazaki, Yukari; Kanno, Yohei; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Aisaki, Ken-ichi; Kanno, Jun; Nakamura, Takuro

    2014-07-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is a highly malignant bone tumor found in children and adolescents, and the origin of this malignancy is not well understood. Here, we introduced a Ewing's sarcoma-associated genetic fusion of the genes encoding the RNA-binding protein EWS and the transcription factor ETS (EWS-ETS) into a fraction of cells enriched for osteochondrogenic progenitors derived from the embryonic superficial zone (eSZ) of long bones collected from late gestational murine embryos. EWS-ETS fusions efficiently induced Ewing's sarcoma-like small round cell sarcoma formation by these cells. Analysis of the eSZ revealed a fraction of a precursor cells that express growth/differentiation factor 5 (Gdf5), the transcription factor Erg, and parathyroid hormone-like hormone (Pthlh), and selection of the Pthlh-positive fraction alone further enhanced EWS-ETS-dependent tumor induction. Genes downstream of the EWS-ETS fusion protein were quite transcriptionally active in eSZ cells, especially in regions in which the chromatin structure of the ETS-responsive locus was open. Inhibition of β-catenin, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), or enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) suppressed cell growth in a murine model of Ewing's sarcoma, suggesting the utility of the current system as a preclinical model. These results indicate that eSZ cells are highly enriched in precursors to Ewing's sarcoma and provide clues to the histogenesis of Ewing's sarcoma in bone.

  14. Analysis of High Enriched Uranyl Nitrate Solution Containing Cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    S. S. Kim

    2006-09-01

    A benchmark evaluation has been performed for a set of twenty-one critical experiments involving high enriched uranyl nitrate solution with and without cadmium nitrate as a soluble neutron absorber. The critical experiments analyzed include two types of cylindrical vessels with 24.18 and 29.16 cm in diameters. The vessels were reflected with water and in some cases with water containing dissolved cadmium nitrate. The uranium concentration ranged from 482 to 529 g/l, and cadmium concentration in the uranyl nitrate solution ranged from 0.0 to 11.31 g/l. The cadmium concentration in the reflector solution ranged from 0.0 to 15.16 g/l. Using MCNP and KENO-V.a, complete three-dimensional models were created for the two vessels filled with the uranyl nitrate solution and reflector solution. A series of criticality calculations were performed with KENO-V.a, MCNP4b, and MCNP5. In general, good agreement between KENO-V.a and MCNP4b was observed. However, MCNP5 results show consistently lower values compared with MCNP4b results with the maximum difference of 1.2 %. This ICSBEP supported evaluation provides valuable data for the effect of soluble neutron absorber (cadmium nitrate) on the criticality safety of high-enriched uranyl nitrate solution. These data can also be used in determining critical controls and for validation of the calculation methods.

  15. The coefficient of thermal expansion of highly enriched 28Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartl, Guido; Nicolaus, Arnold; Kessler, Ernest; Schödel, René; Becker, Peter

    2009-10-01

    For the new definition of the SI unit of mass based on a fundamental constant, a redetermination of Avogadro's constant is the goal of an international collaboration of numerous national laboratories and universities. Since a relative uncertainty of about 2 × 10-8 is aimed at, the macroscopic density, the isotopic composition and the volume of the unit cell of a silicon single crystal have to be measured with high precision. One step to improve the precision was the production of a silicon crystal of highly enriched 28Si. This paper addresses the effect of thermal expansion of that material in order to account for a possible discrepancy between the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of natural silicon and that of 28Si. The results of two independent CTE measuring methods are presented and compared in this paper.

  16. Analysis of High Throughput Screening Assays using Cluster Enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Minya; Hayashi, Tomoko; Cottam, Howard; Mulvaney, Joseph; Arkin, Michelle; Corr, Maripat; Carson, Dennis; Messer, Karen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe implementation and evaluation of a cluster-based enrichment strategy to call hits from a high-throughput screen (HTS), using a typical cell-based assay of 160,000 chemical compounds. Our focus is on statistical properties of the prospective design choices throughout the analysis, including how to choose the number of clusters for optimal power, the choice of test statistic, the significance thresholds for clusters and the activity threshold for candidate hits, how to rank selected hits for carry-forward to the confirmation screen, and how to identify confirmed hits in a data-driven manner. While previously the literature has focused on choice of test statistic or chemical descriptors, our studies suggest cluster size is the more important design choice. We recommend clusters be ranked by enrichment odds ratio, not p-value. Our conceptually simple test statistic is seen to identify the same set of hits as more complex scoring methods proposed in the literature. We prospectively confirm that such a cluster-based approach can outperform the naive top X approach, and estimate that we improved confirmation rates by about 31.5%, from 813 using the Top X approach to 1187 using our cluster-based method. PMID:22763983

  17. Analysis of high-throughput screening assays using cluster enrichment.

    PubMed

    Pu, Minya; Hayashi, Tomoko; Cottam, Howard; Mulvaney, Joseph; Arkin, Michelle; Corr, Maripat; Carson, Dennis; Messer, Karen

    2012-12-30

    In this paper, we describe the implementation and evaluation of a cluster-based enrichment strategy to call hits from a high-throughput screen using a typical cell-based assay of 160,000 chemical compounds. Our focus is on statistical properties of the prospective design choices throughout the analysis, including how to choose the number of clusters for optimal power, the choice of test statistic, the significance thresholds for clusters and the activity threshold for candidate hits, how to rank selected hits for carry-forward to the confirmation screen, and how to identify confirmed hits in a data-driven manner. Whereas previously the literature has focused on choice of test statistic or chemical descriptors, our studies suggest that cluster size is the more important design choice. We recommend clusters to be ranked by enrichment odds ratio, not by p-value. Our conceptually simple test statistic is seen to identify the same set of hits as more complex scoring methods proposed in the literature do. We prospectively confirm that such a cluster-based approach can outperform the naive top X approach and estimate that we improved confirmation rates by about 31.5% from 813 using the top X approach to 1187 using our cluster-based method. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Aronia-enriched lemon juice: a new highly antioxidant beverage.

    PubMed

    González-Molina, Elena; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2008-12-10

    Lemon juice (LJ) was enriched with aronia concentrate (AC) in two different proportions (2.5 and 5%, v/v) to design new beverages rich in bioactive ingredients. The phytochemical composition (anthocyanins, flavanones, flavones, flavonols, and hydroxycinnamic acids) and stability of the beverages were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD), as well as color alterations and in vitro antioxidant activity (DPPH(*) assay). Results showed that, although anthocyanin degradation was higher than 90% after 60 days of storage, the new beverages retained an attractive red color. Also, the in vitro antioxidant activity of the new mixtures was 2-fold higher when 5% AC was added compared to pure LJ. Thus, an addition of only 5% AC could effectively increase the antioxidant properties of LJ, as well as improving certain organoleptic characteristics, rendering an interesting beverage in the growing market of food for health.

  19. Highly enriched uranium (HEU) storage and disposition program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Arms, W.M.; Everitt, D.A.; O`Dell, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    Recent changes in international relations and other changes in national priorities have profoundly affected the management of weapons-usable fissile materials within the United States (US). The nuclear weapon stockpile reductions agreed to by the US and Russia have reduced the national security requirements for these fissile materials. National policies outlined by the US President seek to prevent the accumulation of nuclear weapon stockpiles of plutonium (Pu) and HEU, and to ensure that these materials are subjected to the highest standards of safety, security and international accountability. The purpose of the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Storage and Disposition Program Plan is to define and establish a planned approach for storage of all HEU and disposition of surplus HEU in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Material Disposition Program. Elements Of this Plan, which are specific to HEU storage and disposition, include program requirements, roles and responsibilities, program activities (action plans), milestone schedules, and deliverables.

  20. Health-as-a-value, spirituality, and cigarette and alcohol use among Russian high school students.

    PubMed

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Masagutov, Radik; Kniazev, Vadim; Sussman, Steve

    2012-12-01

    National estimates suggest that the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use is higher among adolescents in Russia than among adolescents in the United States and other European countries. However, research on the psychosocial correlates of, as well as protective factors for, tobacco and alcohol use among Russian adolescents has been relatively limited. Research conducted primarily in the United States has shown that spirituality and health-as-a-value are plausible predictors of adolescent substance use. However, these constructs have not been extensively studied in regions outside the United States. In this study, we tested whether spirituality and heath-as-a-value had protective effects on past-month cigarette and alcohol use behaviors and next-year cigarette and alcohol use intentions among Russian high school students (N = 354, mean age = 15.7 years), after controlling for known predictors of adolescent substance use such as age, gender, socioeconomic status, peer substance use, and sensation seeking. We found a significant inverse relationship between health-as-a-value and recent cigarette and alcohol use as well as future cigarette use intentions. However, we did not find a significant relationship between spirituality and any substance use variables. Implications of these findings for school-based substance use prevention are discussed.

  1. Gravimetric enrichment of high lipid and starch accumulating microalgae.

    PubMed

    Hassanpour, Morteza; Abbasabadi, Mahsa; Ebrahimi, Sirous; Hosseini, Maryam; Sheikhbaglou, Ahmad

    2015-11-01

    This study presents gravimetric enrichment of mixed culture to screen starch and lipid producing species separately in a sequencing batch reactor. In the enriched starch-producing mixed culture photobioreactor, the starch content at the end of steady state batch became 3.42 times the beginning of depletion. Whereas in the enriched lipid-producing photobioreactor, the lipid content at the end of steady state batch became 3 times the beginning of famine phase. The obtained results revealed that the gravimetric enrichment is a suitable screening method for specific production of storage compounds in none-sterile large-scaled condition.

  2. Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as oxide. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-05

    This Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will have two missions: (1) convert HEU materials into pure HEU oxide and (2) blend the pure HEU oxide with depleted and natural uranium oxide to produce an LWR grade LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. To the extent practical, the chemical and isotopic concentrations of blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. Such blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry. Otherwise, blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

  3. Conversion and Blending Facility Highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as uranium hexafluoride. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-05

    This report describes the Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) which will have two missions: (1) convert surplus HEU materials to pure HEU UF{sub 6} and a (2) blend the pure HEU UF{sub 6} with diluent UF{sub 6} to produce LWR grade LEU-UF{sub 6}. The primary emphasis of this blending be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The chemical and isotopic concentrations of the blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. The blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry.

  4. Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as metal. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-05

    The mission of this Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will be to blend surplus HEU metal and alloy with depleted uranium metal to produce an LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

  5. Russian Translatology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porozinskaya, Galina

    1994-01-01

    Discusses Russian translatology after 1950. Introduces in chronological order some of the most important Russian works and discusses their main points. Deals with Russian approaches to key problems in translation such as equivalence, pragmatic relations, audience orientation, and problems of cultural transfer. (SR)

  6. Slow recovery of High Arctic heath communities from nitrogen enrichment.

    PubMed

    Street, Lorna E; Burns, Nancy R; Woodin, Sarah J

    2015-04-01

    Arctic ecosystems are strongly nutrient limited and exhibit dramatic responses to nitrogen (N) enrichment, the reversibility of which is unknown. This study uniquely assesses the potential for tundra heath to recover from N deposition and the influence of phosphorus (P) availability on recovery. We revisited an experiment in Svalbard, established in 1991, in which N was applied at rates representing atmospheric N deposition in Europe (10 and 50 kg N ha(-1)  yr(-1) ; 'low' and 'high', respectively) for 3-8 yr. We investigated whether significant effects on vegetation composition and ecosystem nutrient status persisted up to 18 yr post-treatment. Although the tundra heath is no longer N saturated, N treatment effects persist and are strongly P-dependent. Vegetation was more resilient to N where no P was added, although shrub cover is still reduced in low-N plots. Where P was also added (5 kg P ha(-1)  yr(-1) ), there are still effects of low N on community composition and nutrient dynamics. High N, with and without P, has many lasting impacts. Importantly, N + P has caused dramatically increased moss abundance, which influences nutrient dynamics. Our key finding is that Arctic ecosystems are slow to recover from even small N inputs, particularly where P is not limiting.

  7. Critical masses of highly enriched uranium diluted with matrix material

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, R.; Kimpland, R.; Jaegers, P.; Butterfield, K.; Casson, W.; Bounds, J.; Myers, W.; Densmore, J. Rendon, G.

    2000-07-01

    Radioactive waste containing fissile material is frequently encountered in decontamination and decommissioning activities. Most of this waste is placed in containers or drums and stored in storage facilities. The amount of fissile material in each drum is generally small because criticality safety limits have been calculated with computer transport codes utilizing cross-section sections with large uncertainties. To the best of their knowledge, no experimental critical mass data are available to ensure the correctness of these calculations or any calculations for systems containing fissile material ({sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu, or {sup 233}U) in contact with matrix material such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, SiO{sub 2}, Al, MgO, etc. The experiments discussed in this paper establish the critical masses of highly enriched uranium foils diluted in various X/{sup 235}U ratios with polyethylene and SiO{sub 2}, polyethylene and aluminum, and polyethylene and MgO. In addition, these critical mass experimental data will be used to validate computer transport codes and cross-section data.

  8. Direction discovery: A science enrichment program for high school students.

    PubMed

    Sikes, Suzanne S; Schwartz-Bloom, Rochelle D

    2009-03-01

    Launch into education about pharmacology (LEAP) is an inquiry-based science enrichment program designed to enhance competence in biology and chemistry and foster interest in science careers especially among under-represented minorities. The study of how drugs work, how they enter cells, alter body chemistry, and exit the body engages students to conceptualize fundamental precepts in biology, chemistry, and math. Students complete an intensive three-week course in the fundamentals of pharmacology during the summer followed by a mentored research component during the school year. Following a 5E learning paradigm, the summer course captures student interest by introducing controversial topics in pharmacology and provides a framework that guides them to explore topics in greater detail. The 5E learning cycle is recapitulated as students extend their knowledge to design and to test an original research question in pharmacology. LEAP students demonstrated significant gains in biology and chemistry knowledge and interests in pursuing science. Several students earned honors for the presentation of their research in regional and state science fairs. Success of the LEAP model in its initial 2 years argues that coupling college-level coursework of interest to teens with an authentic research experience enhances high school student success in and enthusiasm for science.

  9. Removal of trichlorobenzene using 'oxygen-enriched' highly active absorbent.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yi; He, Peng; Zhang, Yu-Hai; Ma, Shuangchen

    2011-01-01

    Fly ash, industry lime and an additive, Ca(ClO2)2 (C) were used to prepare the 'oxygen-enriched' highly active absorbent (HAA). The influencing factors for removal of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) using this absorbent such as reaction temperature, simulating gas flow rate, oxygen content, etc. were studied in a self-designed reactor. The optimum experimental conditions of removing 1,2,4-TCB are that the content of an oxidizing additive in the absorbent is 3% (wt), simulating gas flow rate is 100 mL/min, reaction temperature is 250 degrees C, and the content of oxygen in simulating gas is 6%. The maximum removal efficiency is 81.71% in 10 mins. The absorption capacity of the absorbent is 0.000111 g/g. The reaction products were determined by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/ MS), 2,6-Bis-[1,1-Dimethylethyl]-4-methyl-Phenol is considered to be the major intermediate product. The reaction route was revealed.

  10. Global threat reduction initiative Russian nuclear material removal progress

    SciTech Connect

    Cummins, Kelly

    2008-07-15

    In December 1999 representatives from the United States, the Russian Federation, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started discussing a program to return to Russia Soviet- or Russian-supplied highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel stored at the Russian-designed research reactors outside Russia. Trilateral discussions among the United States, Russian Federation, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have identified more than 20 research reactors in 17 countries that have Soviet- or Russian-supplied HEU fuel. The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program is an important aspect of the U.S. Government's commitment to cooperate with the other nations to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons and weapons-usable proliferation-attractive nuclear materials. To date, 496 kilograms of Russian-origin HEU have been shipped to Russia from Serbia, Latvia, Libya, Uzbekistan, Romania, Bulgaria, Poland, Germany, and the Czech Republic. The pilot spent fuel shipment from Uzbekistan to Russia was completed in April 2006. (author)

  11. Unallocated Off-Specification Highly Enriched Uranium: Recommendations for Disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, D. N.; Boeke, S. G.; Tousley, D. R.; Bickford, W.; Goergen, C.; Williams, W.; Hassler, M.; Nelson, T.; Keck, R.; Arbital, J.

    2002-02-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has made significant progress with regard to disposition planning for 174 metric tons (MTU) of surplus Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). Approximately 55 MTU of this 174 MTU are ''offspec'' HEU. (''Off-spec'' signifies that the isotopic or chemical content of the material does not meet the American Society for Testing and Materials standards for commercial nuclear reactor fuel.) Approximately 33 of the 55 MTU have been allocated to off-spec commercial reactor fuel per an Interagency Agreement between DOE and the Tennessee Valley Authority (1). To determine disposition plans for the remaining {approx}22 MTU, the DOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) and the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) co-sponsored this technical study. This paper represents a synopsis of the formal technical report (NNSA/NN-0014). The {approx} 22 MTU of off-spec HEU inventory in this study were divided into two main groupings: one grouping with plutonium (Pu) contamination and one grouping without plutonium. This study identified and evaluated 26 potential paths for the disposition of this HEU using proven decision analysis tools. This selection process resulted in recommended and alternative disposition paths for each group of HEU. The evaluation and selection of these paths considered criteria such as technical maturity, programmatic issues, cost, schedule, and environment, safety and health compliance. The primary recommendations from the analysis are comprised of 7 different disposition paths. The study recommendations will serve as a technical basis for subsequent programmatic decisions as disposition of this HEU moves into the implementation phase.

  12. Black Carbon Sources Constrained by Observations in the Russian High Arctic.

    PubMed

    Popovicheva, Olga B; Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Kalogridis, Athina C; Sitnikov, Nikolay; Eckhardt, Sabine; Stohl, Andreas

    2017-04-04

    Understanding the role of short-lived climate forcers such as black carbon (BC) at high northern latitudes in climate change is hampered by the scarcity of surface observations in the Russian Arctic. In this study, highly time-resolved Equivalent BC (EBC) measurements during a ship campaign in the White, Barents, and Kara Seas in October 2015 are presented. The measured EBC concentrations are compared with BC concentrations simulated with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model coupled with a recently completed global emission inventory to quantify the origin of the Arctic BC. EBC showed increased values (100-400 ng m(-3)) in the Kara Strait, Kara Sea, and Kola Peninsula and an extremely high concentration (1000 ng m(-3)) in the White Sea. Assessment of BC origin throughout the expedition showed that gas-flaring emissions from the Yamal-Khanty-Mansiysk and Nenets-Komi regions contributed the most when the ship was close to the Kara Strait, north of 70° N. Near Arkhangelsk (White Sea), biomass burning in mid-latitudes, surface transportation, and residential and commercial combustion from Central and Eastern Europe were found to be important BC sources. The model reproduced observed EBC concentrations efficiently, building credibility in the emission inventory for BC emissions at high northern latitudes.

  13. Direction Discovery: A Science Enrichment Program for High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikes, Suzanne S.; Schwartz-Bloom, Rochelle D.

    2009-01-01

    Launch into education about pharmacology (LEAP) is an inquiry-based science enrichment program designed to enhance competence in biology and chemistry and foster interest in science careers especially among under-represented minorities. The study of how drugs work, how they enter cells, alter body chemistry, and exit the body engages students to…

  14. Direction Discovery: A Science Enrichment Program for High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikes, Suzanne S.; Schwartz-Bloom, Rochelle D.

    2009-01-01

    Launch into education about pharmacology (LEAP) is an inquiry-based science enrichment program designed to enhance competence in biology and chemistry and foster interest in science careers especially among under-represented minorities. The study of how drugs work, how they enter cells, alter body chemistry, and exit the body engages students to…

  15. International Atomic Energy Agency support of research reactor highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium fuel conversion projects

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.; Adelfang, P.; Goldman, I.N.

    2008-07-15

    The IAEA has been involved for more than twenty years in supporting international nuclear non- proliferation efforts associated with reducing the amount of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in international commerce. IAEA projects and activities have directly supported the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) programme, as well as directly assisted efforts to convert research reactors from HEU to LEU fuel. HEU to LEU fuel conversion projects differ significantly depending on several factors including the design of the reactor and fuel, technical needs of the member state, local nuclear infrastructure, and available resources. To support such diverse endeavours, the IAEA tailors each project to address the relevant constraints. This paper presents the different approaches taken by the IAEA to address the diverse challenges involved in research reactor HEU to LEU fuel conversion projects. Examples of conversion related projects in different Member States are fully detailed. (author)

  16. A Virtual Learning Application of the Schoolwide Enrichment Model and High-End Learning Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renzulli, Joseph S.; Reis, Sally M.

    2012-01-01

    Remarkable advances in instructional communication technology (ICT) have now made it possible to provide high levels of enrichment services to students online. This paper describes an Internet-based enrichment program based on a high-end learning theory that focuses on the development of creative productivity through the "application" of knowledge…

  17. A Virtual Learning Application of the Schoolwide Enrichment Model and High-End Learning Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renzulli, Joseph S.; Reis, Sally M.

    2012-01-01

    Remarkable advances in instructional communication technology (ICT) have now made it possible to provide high levels of enrichment services to students online. This paper describes an Internet-based enrichment program based on a high-end learning theory that focuses on the development of creative productivity through the "application" of knowledge…

  18. 76 FR 72984 - Revised Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... COMMISSION Revised Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium The application for a license to export high-enriched Uranium has been revised as noted below. Notice of this application was previously... kilograms To fabricate fuel France. Security Complex; October 18, Uranium (93.35%). uranium (174.0...

  19. 77 FR 51579 - Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... COMMISSION Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public... kilograms For the export of Canada. Complex, July 30, 2012, August Uranium (93.35%). uranium-235 high-enriched 1, 2012, XSNM3726, 11006037. contained in 7.5 uranium in the kilograms uranium. form of...

  20. The development of a Russian communication satellite of small class, operating in the geostationary and high-elliptical orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukhabin, Yu.; Asiushkin, V.; Karutin, N.; Serebrennikov, V.

    In 1994-1995 Lavochkin Association (Russia) together with the other enterprises in accordance with technical requirements of the Russian Space agency, developed a new Russian communication satellite of a small class that will operate in both the geostationary (GSO) and high-elliptical (HEO) orbits. This satellite may be injected into operational orbits using a SOYUZ-2 launch vehicle (LV) and a FREGAT upper stage (US) from Plesetsk and Baykonur space launch sites (SLS). The main reason for creating such a satellite was to decrease the cost of the support and development of the Russian communication geostationary satellites group. Russian satellites Horizont, Express, Ekran and Gals, which operate in GSO, are the basis of the space segment for communications, radio and TV broadcasting. All of these satellites are injected into GSO by the PROTON LV. PROTON is a launch vehicle of a heavy class. The use of a middle class LV instead of a heavy class will allow to reduce considerably the launch cost. The change of a heavy class LV to a LV of middle class determined one economic reason for this project. Besides, the opportunity to launch S/C into GSO from Russian Plesetsk SLS increases the independence of Russia in the domain of space communications, despite the presence of the contract with Kazachstan about the rent of Baykonur SLS. Finally, use of small satellites with a rather small number of transponders is more effective than the use of big satellites. It will allow also to increase a satellite group (by the launch of additional satellites) precisely in accordance to the development of the ground segment.

  1. Ethanol enrichment from ethanol-water mixtures using high frequency ultrasonic atomization.

    PubMed

    Kirpalani, D M; Suzuki, K

    2011-09-01

    The influence of high frequency ultrasound on the enrichment of ethanol from ethanol-water mixtures was investigated. Experiments performed in a continuous enrichment system showed that the generated atomized mist was at a higher ethanol concentration than the feed and the enrichment ratio was higher than the vapor liquid equilibrium curve for ethanol-water above 40 mol%. Well-controlled experiments were performed to analyze the effect of physical parameters; temperature, carrier gas flow and collection height on the enrichment. Droplet size measurements of the atomized mist and visualization of the oscillating fountain jet formed during sonication were made to understand the separation mechanism.

  2. ACCELERATION AND ENRICHMENT IN THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL. A FOLLOW-UP STUDY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ARENDS, RICHARD H.; FORD, PAUL M.

    THE 1963-64 STUDY INVOLVED AN INVESTIGATION OF ACCELERATION IN MATHEMATICS AND ENRICHMENT IN READING AND SCIENCE IN THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL. BUT THE RESEARCH WAS BROADENED AND, UNLIKE THE 1962-63 STUDY, EXPLORED MORE DEEPLY THE EFFECTS OF ACCELERATION AND ENRICHMENT. A NUMBER OF SCHOOLS OUTSIDE OF WALLA WALLA WAS USED. PROBLEMS CONSIDERED WERE--(1)…

  3. High tech cognitive and acoustic enrichment for captive elephants.

    PubMed

    French, Fiona; Mancini, Clara; Sharp, Helen

    2017-09-23

    This paper investigates the potential for using technology to support the development of sensory and cognitive enrichment activities for captive elephants. It explores the usefulness of applying conceptual frameworks from interaction design and game design to the problem of developing species-specific smart toys that promote natural behaviours and provide stimulation. We adopted a Research through Design approach, and describe how scientific inquiry supported our design process, while the creation of artefacts guided our investigations into possible future solutions. Our fieldwork resulted in the development of an interactive prototype of an acoustic toy that elephants are able to control using interface elements constructed from a range of natural materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Activities for Teaching Russian and Soviet Studies in the High School. Updated Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Robert A., Ed.; Vaillant, Janet G., Ed.

    These teacher-developed activities help the student to gain a greater awareness of the richness of Russian history and the Soviet past. New materials have been added from the original version and much has been updated. The volume is not a full curriculum but can be integrated into existing study of the world region. The book is divided into five…

  5. Health-as-a-Value, Spirituality, and Cigarette and Alcohol Use among Russian High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Masagutov, Radik; Kniazev, Vadim; Sussman, Steve

    2012-01-01

    National estimates suggest that the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use is higher among adolescents in Russia than among adolescents in the United States and other European countries. However, research on the psychosocial correlates of, as well as protective factors for, tobacco and alcohol use among Russian adolescents has been relatively…

  6. Activities for Teaching Russian and Soviet Studies in the High School. Updated Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Robert A., Ed.; Vaillant, Janet G., Ed.

    These teacher-developed activities help the student to gain a greater awareness of the richness of Russian history and the Soviet past. New materials have been added from the original version and much has been updated. The volume is not a full curriculum but can be integrated into existing study of the world region. The book is divided into five…

  7. Health-as-a-Value, Spirituality, and Cigarette and Alcohol Use among Russian High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Masagutov, Radik; Kniazev, Vadim; Sussman, Steve

    2012-01-01

    National estimates suggest that the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use is higher among adolescents in Russia than among adolescents in the United States and other European countries. However, research on the psychosocial correlates of, as well as protective factors for, tobacco and alcohol use among Russian adolescents has been relatively…

  8. Russian translations for Cochrane.

    PubMed

    Yudina, E V; Ziganshina, L E

    2015-01-01

    Cochrane collaboration has made a huge contribution to the development of evidence-based medicine; Cochrane work is the international gold standard of independent, credible and reliable high-quality information in medicine. Over the past 20 years the Cochrane Collaboration helped transforming decision-making in health and reforming it significantly, saving lives and contributing to longevity [1]. Until recently, Cochrane evidence were available only in English, which represents a significant barrier to their wider use in non-English speaking countries. To provide access to evidence, obtained from Cochrane Reviews, for health professionals and general public (from non-English-speaking countries), bypassing language barriers, Cochrane collaboration in 2014 initiated an international project of translating Plain language summaries of Cochrane Reviews into other languages [2, 3]. Russian translations of Plain language summaries were started in May 2014 by the team from Kazan Federal University (Department of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology; 2014-2015 as an Affiliated Centre in Tatarstan of the Nordic Cochrane Centre, since August 2015 as Cochrane Russia, a Russian branch of Cochrane Nordic, Head - Liliya Eugenevna Ziganshina) on a voluntary basis. To assess the quality of Russian translations of Cochrane Plain Language Summaries (PLS) and their potential impact on the Russian speaking community through user feedback with the overarching aim of furthering the translations project. We conducted the continuous online survey via Google Docs. We invited respondents through the electronic Russian language discussion forum on Essential Medicines (E-lek), links to survey on the Russian Cochrane.org website, invitations to Cochrane contributors registered in Archie from potential Russian-speaking countries. We set up the survey in Russian and English. The respondents were asked to respond to the questionnaire regarding the relevance and potential impact of the Cochrane Russian

  9. Prolonging charge separation in P3HT-SWNT composites using highly enriched semiconducting nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Holt, Josh M; Ferguson, Andrew J; Kopidakis, Nikos; Larsen, Brian A; Bult, Justin; Rumbles, Garry; Blackburn, Jeffrey L

    2010-11-10

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have potential as electron acceptors in organic photovoltaics (OPVs), but the currently low-power conversion efficiencies of devices remain largely unexplained. We demonstrate effective redispersion of isolated, highly enriched semiconducting and metallic SWNTs into poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). We use these enriched blends to provide the first experimental evidence of the negative impact of metallic nanotubes. Time-resolved microwave conductivity reveals that the long-lived carrier population can be significantly increased by incorporating highly enriched semiconducting SWNTs into semiconducting polymer composites.

  10. Monitoring Glacier change at the Academy of Sciences Icecap, Severnaya Zemlya, Russian High Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ornelas, G.; Willis, M. J.; Pritchard, M. E.; Melkonian, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    The 2200 km3 Academy of Sciences ice cap, located on Komsomolets Island in the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago, is the largest ice cap by volume in the Russian High Arctic (Dowdeswell et al., 2002). We use remote sensing observations to examine velocity and elevation changes at its five major outlet glaciers over the past few decades. We obtain glacier velocities by applying pixel-tracking (normalized amplitude cross-correlation) to orthorectified, high-resolution image pairs acquired by WorldView 1 and 2 with an ideal time separation of 1-3 months. We select imagery from the spring and summer periods where crevasses are clearly observed. We estimate uncertainties by examining apparent motion at bedrock outcrops adjacent to the glaciers, and use these off-ice offsets to correct for elevation-dependent errors. We compare our observations of velocities from high-resolution optical imagery between 2011 and 2014 with rates of motions measured in the 1990's and 2000's by Landsat, ASTER and SAR (Moholdt et al., 2012; Stewart, 2014) to determine if the velocities have changed. Ice streams B, C, and D have maximum velocities of 2.8 m/day, 2.5 m/day and 2.3 m/day, respectively. Our velocities are similar to observations from 2009-2012 (Stewart, 2014), and higher than 1995 velocities (Moholdt et al.). We provide constraints on seasonal velocity variations at Ice Streams B, C and D. Ice elevation change rates (determined using Worldview DEMs compared to a cartographically produced DEM) are consistent with those measured over the ICESat era between 2003 and 2009. In general the south and east of the ice cap is thinning, while the north and west is thickening. The main body of the land terminating Icestream A is continuing to slowly thicken, while thinning rates of more than 1-2 m/yr are occurring at the remaining marine terminating ice streams. Thinning extends to the highest altitude of the ice cap and crosses ice stream catchments boundaries.

  11. High-solids enrichment of thermophilic microbial communities and their enzymes on bioenergy feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, A. P.; Allgaier, M.; Singer, S.W.; Hazen, T.C.; Simmons, B.A.; Hugenholtz, P.; VanderGheynst, J.S.

    2011-04-01

    Thermophilic microbial communities that are active in a high-solids environment offer great potential for the discovery of industrially relevant enzymes that efficiently deconstruct bioenergy feedstocks. In this study, finished green waste compost was used as an inoculum source to enrich microbial communities and associated enzymes that hydrolyze cellulose and hemicellulose during thermophilic high-solids fermentation of the bioenergy feedstocks switchgrass and corn stover. Methods involving the disruption of enzyme and plant cell wall polysaccharide interactions were developed to recover xylanase and endoglucanase activity from deconstructed solids. Xylanase and endoglucanase activity increased by more than a factor of 5, upon four successive enrichments on switchgrass. Overall, the changes for switchgrass were more pronounced than for corn stover; solids reduction between the first and second enrichments increased by a factor of four for switchgrass while solids reduction remained relatively constant for corn stover. Amplicon pyrosequencing analysis of small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes recovered from enriched samples indicated rapid changes in the microbial communities between the first and second enrichment with the simplified communities achieved by the third enrichment. The results demonstrate a successful approach for enrichment of unique microbial communities and enzymes active in a thermophilic high-solids environment.

  12. Highly Selective Enrichment of Glycopeptides Based on Zwitterionically Functionalized Soluble Nanopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Weiqian; Huang, Jiangming; Jiang, Biyun; Gao, Xing; Yang, Pengyuan

    2016-07-01

    Efficient glycopeptides enrichment prior to mass spectrometry analysis is essential for glycoproteome study. ZIC-HILIC (zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography) based glycopeptides enrichment approaches have been attracting more attention for several benefits like easy operating, high enrichment specificity and intact glycopeptide retained. In this study, Poly (amidoamine) dendrimer (PAMAM) was adopted for the synthesis of zwitterionically functionalized (ZICF) materials for glycopeptide enrichment. The multiple branched structure and good solubility of ZICF-PAMAM enables a sufficient interaction with glycopeptides. The ZICF-PAMAM combined with the FASP-mode enrichment strategy exhibits more superior performance compared with the existing methods. It has the minimum detectable concentration of femtomolar level and high recovery rate of over 90.01%, and can efficiently enrich glycopeptides from complex biological samples even for merely 0.1 μL human serum. The remarkable glycopeptides enrichment capacity of ZICF-PAMAM highlights the potential application in in-depth glycoproteome research, which may open up new opportunities for the development of glycoproteomics.

  13. Highly Selective Enrichment of Glycopeptides Based on Zwitterionically Functionalized Soluble Nanopolymers

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Weiqian; Huang, Jiangming; Jiang, Biyun; Gao, Xing; Yang, Pengyuan

    2016-01-01

    Efficient glycopeptides enrichment prior to mass spectrometry analysis is essential for glycoproteome study. ZIC-HILIC (zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography) based glycopeptides enrichment approaches have been attracting more attention for several benefits like easy operating, high enrichment specificity and intact glycopeptide retained. In this study, Poly (amidoamine) dendrimer (PAMAM) was adopted for the synthesis of zwitterionically functionalized (ZICF) materials for glycopeptide enrichment. The multiple branched structure and good solubility of ZICF-PAMAM enables a sufficient interaction with glycopeptides. The ZICF-PAMAM combined with the FASP-mode enrichment strategy exhibits more superior performance compared with the existing methods. It has the minimum detectable concentration of femtomolar level and high recovery rate of over 90.01%, and can efficiently enrich glycopeptides from complex biological samples even for merely 0.1 μL human serum. The remarkable glycopeptides enrichment capacity of ZICF-PAMAM highlights the potential application in in-depth glycoproteome research, which may open up new opportunities for the development of glycoproteomics. PMID:27412817

  14. Environmental security benefits arising from Russian/Norwegian/US cooperation in the high Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, R.S.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Czajkowski, C.J.

    1997-05-01

    Past practices associated with the civilian and military use of nuclear power in NW Russia present large environmental security risks of international concern. These risks arise from a variety of practices associated with weapons production, testing, power production and waste management. The threats presented by these activities are multimedia in nature, span political boundaries and cannot be simply or inexpensively remediated. Today, cooperative efforts are being undertaken to improve environmental security by remediating existing and potential emission sources. Initial efforts focused on the upgrade and expansion of the Murmansk Low-level Liquid Waste Treatment Facility, Murmansk, Russia. This facility handles wastes generated during the decommissioning of Russian Nuclear Navy submarines and from the operation of the Russian commercial nuclear-powered icebreaker fleet. This upgraded facility is now being constructed and is expected to be completed by March 1998. Completion of this facility will result in the cessation of any future dumping of liquid radioactive wastes into the Barents and Kara Seas. Another large environmental security risk is the LEPSE. The LEPSE is a ship docked in Murmansk, Russia, that contains {approximately}650 spent fuel elements as well as other solid and liquid wastes from Russian nuclear vessels. International efforts are now being mounted to remove the spent and damaged fuel from this ship, including the safe removal and storage/disposal of the fuel elements. This paper will summarize the environmental security problems presented by these different sources and the likely environmental security benefits associated with their remediation. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Preservation of microbial communities enriched on lignocellulose under thermophilic and high-solid conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Chaowei; Reddy, Amitha P.; Simmons, Christopher W.; Simmons, Blake A.; Singer, Steven W.; VanderGheynst, Jean S.

    2015-12-02

    Microbial communities enriched from diverse environments have shown considerable promise for the targeted discovery of microorganisms and enzymes for bioconversion of lignocellulose to liquid fuels. While preservation of microbial communities is important for commercialization and research, few studies have examined storage conditions ideal for preservation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of preservation method on composition of microbial communities enriched on switchgrass before and after storage. The enrichments were completed in a high-solid and aerobic environment at 55 °C. Community composition was examined for each enrichment to determine when a stable community was achieved. Preservation methods included cryopreservation with the cryoprotective agents DMSO and glycerol, and cryopreservation without cryoprotective agents. Revived communities were examined for their ability to decompose switchgrass under high-solid and thermophilic conditions. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted from enrichment samples showed that the majority of the shift in composition of the switchgrass-degrading community occurred during the initial three 2-week enrichments. Shifts in community structure upon storage occurred in all cryopreserved samples. Storage in liquid nitrogen in the absence of cryoprotectant resulted in variable preservation of dominant microorganisms in enriched samples. Cryopreservation with either DMSO or glycerol provided consistent and equivalent preservation of dominant organisms. In conclusion, a stable switchgrass-degrading microbial community was achieved after three 2-week enrichments. Dominant microorganisms were preserved equally well with DMSO and glycerol. DMSO-preserved communities required more incubation time upon revival to achieve pre-storage activity levels during high-solid thermophilic cultivation on switchgrass. Despite shifts in the community with storage, the samples were active upon revival under

  16. Preservation of microbial communities enriched on lignocellulose under thermophilic and high-solid conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Yu, Chaowei; Reddy, Amitha P.; Simmons, Christopher W.; ...

    2015-12-02

    Microbial communities enriched from diverse environments have shown considerable promise for the targeted discovery of microorganisms and enzymes for bioconversion of lignocellulose to liquid fuels. While preservation of microbial communities is important for commercialization and research, few studies have examined storage conditions ideal for preservation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of preservation method on composition of microbial communities enriched on switchgrass before and after storage. The enrichments were completed in a high-solid and aerobic environment at 55 °C. Community composition was examined for each enrichment to determine when a stable community was achieved. Preservation methodsmore » included cryopreservation with the cryoprotective agents DMSO and glycerol, and cryopreservation without cryoprotective agents. Revived communities were examined for their ability to decompose switchgrass under high-solid and thermophilic conditions. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted from enrichment samples showed that the majority of the shift in composition of the switchgrass-degrading community occurred during the initial three 2-week enrichments. Shifts in community structure upon storage occurred in all cryopreserved samples. Storage in liquid nitrogen in the absence of cryoprotectant resulted in variable preservation of dominant microorganisms in enriched samples. Cryopreservation with either DMSO or glycerol provided consistent and equivalent preservation of dominant organisms. In conclusion, a stable switchgrass-degrading microbial community was achieved after three 2-week enrichments. Dominant microorganisms were preserved equally well with DMSO and glycerol. DMSO-preserved communities required more incubation time upon revival to achieve pre-storage activity levels during high-solid thermophilic cultivation on switchgrass. Despite shifts in the community with storage, the samples were active upon revival

  17. Collisionless dissociation and isotopic enrichment of SF6 using high-powered CO2 laser radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gower, M. C.; Billman, K. W.

    1977-01-01

    Dissociation of S-32F6 and the resultant isotopic enrichment of S-34F6 using high-powered CO2 laser radiation has been studied with higher experimental sensitivity than previously reported. Enrichment factors have been measured as a function of laser pulse number, wavelength, energy and time duration. A geometry independent dissociation cross section is introduced and measured values are presented. Threshold energy densities, below which no dissociation was observed, were also determined.

  18. Collisionless dissociation and isotopic enrichment of SF6 using high-powered CO2 laser radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gower, M. C.; Billman, K. W.

    1977-01-01

    Dissociation of S-32F6 and the resultant isotopic enrichment of S-34F6 using high-powered CO2 laser radiation has been studied with higher experimental sensitivity than previously reported. Enrichment factors have been measured as a function of laser pulse number, wavelength, energy and time duration. A geometry independent dissociation cross section is introduced and measured values are presented. Threshold energy densities, below which no dissociation was observed, were also determined.

  19. Development of Hf(4+)-immobilized polydopamine-coated magnetic graphene for highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Lin, Haizhu; Deng, Chunhui

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we first designed and synthesized an IMAC material with Hf(4+) immobilized on polydopamine-coated magnetic graphene and applied it to phosphopeptides enrichment successfully. The newly prepared material gathered the advantages of large specific surface area of graphene, good hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of polydopamine and superparamagnetism of Fe3O4. We investigated the performance of Hf(4+)-immobilized polydopamine-coated magnetic graphene (denoted as magG@PDA-Hf(4+)) in phosphopeptides enrichment and the results showed high selectivity and sensitivity of the new material. Finally, we successfully applied magG@PDA-Hf(4+) to phosphopeptides enrichment from non-fat milk digests and human serum, further demonstrating excellent performance of this new material in phosphopeptides enrichment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. College Summer Programs for High School Students: Outreach, Recruitment, Enrichment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nusbaum, Kenneth E.

    1998-01-01

    Describes an Auburn University (Alabama) summer program that brings high school students into the veterinary medicine and molecular biology programs, focusing on recruitment and selection of students, aspects of faculty participation, parent involvement, orientation, laboratory work, and student grouping and mentoring. Results of the program to…

  1. College Summer Programs for High School Students: Outreach, Recruitment, Enrichment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nusbaum, Kenneth E.

    1998-01-01

    Describes an Auburn University (Alabama) summer program that brings high school students into the veterinary medicine and molecular biology programs, focusing on recruitment and selection of students, aspects of faculty participation, parent involvement, orientation, laboratory work, and student grouping and mentoring. Results of the program to…

  2. "Digging" for Understanding and Significance: A High School Enrichment Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsley, Ronald F.

    1986-01-01

    Project DIG (Discovering Industries in the Ground) was a pilot program in Portage County, Ohio, involving gifted/talented high school students who gathered information from guest speakers, participated in field trips and an onsite archaeological excavation, wrote research papers, and shared experiences with gifted elementary students and the…

  3. Preliminary Accident Analyses for Conversion of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (MITR) from Highly Enriched to Low Enriched Uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Floyd E.; Olson, Arne P.; Wilson, Erik H.; Sun, Kaichao S.; Newton, Jr., Thomas H.; Hu, Lin-wen

    2013-09-30

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (MITR-II) is a research reactor in Cambridge, Massachusetts designed primarily for experiments using neutron beam and in-core irradiation facilities. It delivers a neutron flux comparable to current LWR power reactors in a compact 6 MW core using Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel. In the framework of its non-proliferation policies, the international community presently aims to minimize the amount of nuclear material available that could be used for nuclear weapons. In this geopolitical context most research and test reactors, both domestic and international, have started a program of conversion to the use of LEU fuel. A new type of LEU fuel based on an alloy of uranium and molybdenum (U-Mo) is expected to allow the conversion of U.S. domestic high performance reactors like MITR. This report presents the preliminary accident analyses for MITR cores fueled with LEU monolithic U-Mo alloy fuel with 10 wt% Mo. Preliminary results demonstrate adequate performance, including thermal margin to expected safety limits, for the LEU accident scenarios analyzed.

  4. Elucidating high-dimensional cancer hallmark annotation via enriched ontology.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shankai; Wong, Ka-Chun

    2017-09-01

    Cancer hallmark annotation is a promising technique that could discover novel knowledge about cancer from the biomedical literature. The automated annotation of cancer hallmarks could reveal relevant cancer transformation processes in the literature or extract the articles that correspond to the cancer hallmark of interest. It acts as a complementary approach that can retrieve knowledge from massive text information, advancing numerous focused studies in cancer research. Nonetheless, the high-dimensional nature of cancer hallmark annotation imposes a unique challenge. To address the curse of dimensionality, we compared multiple cancer hallmark annotation methods on 1580 PubMed abstracts. Based on the insights, a novel approach, UDT-RF, which makes use of ontological features is proposed. It expands the feature space via the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ontology graph and utilizes novel feature selections for elucidating the high-dimensional cancer hallmark annotation space. To demonstrate its effectiveness, state-of-the-art methods are compared and evaluated by a multitude of performance metrics, revealing the full performance spectrum on the full set of cancer hallmarks. Several case studies are conducted, demonstrating how the proposed approach could reveal novel insights into cancers. https://github.com/cskyan/chmannot. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Current status of the development of high density LEU fuel for Russian research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Vatulin, A.; Dobrikova, I.; Suprun, V.; Trifonov, Y.; Kartashev, E.; Lukichev, V.

    2008-07-15

    One of the main directions of the Russian RERTR program is to develop U-Mo fuel and fuel elements/FA with this fuel. The development is carried out both for existing reactors, and for new advanced designs of reactors. Many organizations in Russia, i.e. 'TVEL', RDIPE, RIAR, IRM, NPCC participate in the work. Two fuels are under development: dispersion and monolithic U-Mo fuel, as well two types of FA to use the dispersion U-Mo fuel: with tubular type fuel elements and with pin type fuel elements. The first stage of works was successfully completed. This stage included out-pile, in-pile and post irradiation examinations of U-Mo dispersion fuel in experimental tubular and pin fuel elements under parameters similar to operation conditions of Russian design pool-type research reactors. The results received both in Russia and abroad enabled to go on to the next stage of development which includes irradiation tests both of full-scale IRT pin-type and tube-type fuel assemblies with U-Mo dispersion fuel and of mini-fuel elements with modified U-Mo dispersion fuel and monolithic fuel. The paper gives a generalized review of the results of U-Mo fuel development accomplished by now. (author)

  6. A confirmatory measurement technique for HEU (highly enriched uranium)

    SciTech Connect

    Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Goldman, A.; Russo, P.A.; Stovall, L.; Brumfield, T.L.; Gunn, C.S.; Watson, D.R.; Beedgen, R.

    1987-01-01

    Precise measurements of the special nuclear material (SNM) in an item can be used to confirm that the item has not been tampered with. These measurements do not require a highly accurate calibration, but they should be based on an attribute that is unique to the SNM. We describe an instrument that performs gamma-ray measurements at three energies: 185.7 keV, 1001 keV, and 2614 keV. This instrument collects data for 200 s from shipping containers (208-l barrels). These measurements help to distinguish the issue of material control - Has any material been diverted. - from the issue of measurement control - Is there a measurement bias.

  7. Technical basis in support of the conversion of the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) core from highly-enriched to low-enriched uranium - core neutron physics

    SciTech Connect

    Stillman, J.; Feldman, E.; Foyto, L; Kutikkad, K; McKibben, J C; Peters, N.; Stevens, J.

    2012-09-01

    This report contains the results of reactor design and performance for conversion of the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) from the use of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to the use of low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The analyses were performed by staff members of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Reactor Conversion Program at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the MURR Facility. The core conversion to LEU is being performed with financial support of the U. S. government.

  8. Highly enriched multiply-labeled stable isotopic compounds as atmospheric tracers

    DOEpatents

    Goldblatt, M.; McInteer, B.B.

    1974-01-29

    Compounds multiply-labeled with stable isotopes and highly enriched in these isotopes are readily capable of detection in tracer experiments involving high dilutions. Thus, for example, /sup 13/C/sup 18/O/sub 2/ provides a useful tracer for following atmospheric pol lution produced as a result of fossil fuel burning. (Official Gazette)

  9. Formation conditions of high-grade gold-silver ore of epithermal Tikhoe deposit, Russian Northeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, A. V.; Kolova, E. E.; Savva, N. E.; Sidorov, A. A.; Prokof'ev, V. Yu.; Ali, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    The Tikhoe epithermal deposit is located in the Okhotsk-Chukotka volcanic belt (OChVB) 250 km northeast of Magadan. Like other deposits belonging to the Ivan'insky volcanic-plutonic depression (VTD), the Tikhoe deposit is characterized by high-grade Au-Ag ore with an average Au grade of 23.13 gpt Au and Au/Ag ratio varying from 1: 1 to 1: 10. The detailed explored Tikhoe-1 orebody is accompanied by a thick (20 m) aureole of argillic alteration. Pyrite is predominant among ore minerals; galena, arsenopyrite, sphalerite, Ag sulfosalts, fahlore, electrum, and küstelite are less abundant. The ore is characterized by abundant Sebearing minerals. Cu-As geochemical specialization is noted for silver minerals. Elevated Se and Fe molar fractions of the main ore minerals are caused by their formation in the near-surface argillic alteration zone. The veins and veinlets of the Tikhoe-1 ore zone formed stepwise at a temperature of 230 to 105°C from Nachloride solution enriched in Mg and Ca cations with increasing salinity. The parameters of the ore-forming fluid correspond to those of epithermal low-sulfidation deposits and assume the formation of high-grade ore under a screening unit of volcanic rocks. In general, the composition of the ore-forming fluid fits the mineralogy and geochemistry of ore at this deposit. The similarity of the ore composition and parameters of the ore-forming fluid between the Tikhoe and Julietta deposits is noteworthy. Meanwhile, differences are mainly related to the lower temperature and fluid salinity at the Julietta deposit with respect to the Tikhoe deposit. The fluid at the Julietta deposit is depleted in most components compared with that at the Tikhoe deposit except for Sb, Cd, and Ag. The results testify to a different erosion level at the deposits as derivatives of the same ore-forming system. The large scale of the latter allows us to predict the discovery of new high-grade objects, including hidden mineralization, which is not exposed at

  10. Dry Blending to Achieve Isotopic Dilution of Highly Enriched Uranium Oxide Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Roger Neil; Chipman, Nathan Alan; Rajamani, R. K.

    2001-04-01

    The end of the cold war produced large amounts of excess fissile materials in the United States and Russia. The Department of Energy has initiated numerous activities to focus on identifying material management strategies for disposition of these excess materials. To date, many of these planning strategies have included isotopic dilution of highly enriched uranium as a means of reducing the proliferation and safety risks. Isotopic dilution by dry blending highly enriched uranium with natural and/or depleted uranium has been identified as one non-aqueous method to achieve these risk (proliferation and criticality safety) reductions. This paper reviews the technology of dry blending as applied to free flowing oxide materials.

  11. From Swords to Plowshares: The US/Russian Collaboration in High Energy Density Physics Using Pulsed Power

    SciTech Connect

    Younger, S.M.; Fowler, C.M.; Lindemuth, I.; Chernyshev, V.K.; Mokhov, V.N.; Pavlovskii, A.I.

    1999-03-15

    Since 1992, the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics and the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the institutes that designed the first nuclear weapons of the Soviet Union and the US, respectively, have been working together in fundamental research related to pulsed power and high energy density science. This collaboration has enabled scientists formerly engaged in weapons activities to redirect their attention to peaceful pursuits of wide benefit to the technical community. More than thirty joint experiments have been performed at Sarov and Los Alamos in areas as diverse as solid state physics in high magnetic fields, fusion plasma formation, isentropic compression of noble gases, and explosively driven-high current generation technology. Expanding on the introductory comments of the conference plenary presentation, this paper traces the origins of this collaboration and briefly reviews the scientific accomplishments. Detailed reports of the scientific accomplishments can be found in other papers in these proceedings and in other publications.

  12. Isotopically-enriched gadolinium-157 oxysulfide scintillator screens for the high-resolution neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trtik, Pavel; Lehmann, Eberhard H.

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of the production of isotopically-enriched gadolinium oxysulfide scintillator screens for the high spatial-resolution neutron imaging. Approximately 10 g of 157Gd2O2S:Tb was produced in the form of fine powder (particle size approximately 2 μm). The level of 157Gd enrichment was above 88%. Approximately 2.5 μm thick 157Gd2O2S:Tb scintillator screens were produced and tested for the absorption power and the light output. The results are compared to the reference screens based on natGd2O2S:Tb. The isotopically enriched screens provided increase by a factor of 3.8 and 3.6 for the absorption power and the light output, respectively. The potential of the scintillator screens based on 157Gd2O2S phosphor for the purpose of the (high-resolution) neutron imaging is discussed.

  13. Candidate processes for diluting the {sup 235}U isotope in weapons-capable highly enriched uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Snider, J.D.

    1996-02-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is evaluating options for rendering its surplus inventories of highly enriched uranium (HEU) incapable of being used to produce nuclear weapons. Weapons-capable HEU was earlier produced by enriching uranium in the fissile {sup 235}U isotope from its natural occurring 0.71 percent isotopic concentration to at least 20 percent isotopic concentration. Now, by diluting its concentration of the fissile {sup 235}U isotope in a uranium blending process, the weapons capability of HEU can be eliminated in a manner that is reversible only through isotope enrichment, and therefore, highly resistant to proliferation. To the extent that can be economically and technically justified, the down-blended uranium product will be made suitable for use as commercial reactor fuel. Such down-blended uranium product can also be disposed of as waste if chemical or isotopic impurities preclude its use as reactor fuel.

  14. High-strength fibrous concrete of Russian Far East natural materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fediuk, R.

    2016-02-01

    Fiber-reinforced concrete is designed on composite binder. At 1.6% of reinforcing steel anchoring fiber maximum physical and mechanical properties (Rcompr = 100.9 MPa) can be obtained. It was found that the combined effect of mechanical and chemical activation (the presence of limestone particles) increases the pozzolanic activity of acidic ashes. It has a catalytic effect on the reaction activity of the surface of ash and sand during machining in vario-planetary mill. Furthermore, the addition of limestone increases the alkalinity of the concrete, which leads to the formation of greater hydration products of cement per unit of time. Theoretical and experimental results can be recommended for expanded implementation of the construction in various regions of the Russian Federation, taking into account the availability of raw materials.

  15. Melting of cognetic depleted and enriched reservoirs and the production of high Ti Mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Halliday, Alex N.

    1992-01-01

    Implicit in current understanding of the location of terrestrial enriched and depleted reservoirs is the notion that they are spatially separated. The depleted reservoir on Earth is situated in the upper mantle, and the complementary enriched reservoir is located in the crust. However, Earth reservoirs are continually being modified by recycling driven by mantle convection. The Moon is demonstrably different from Earth in that its evolution was arrested relatively early - effectively with 1.5 Ga of its formation. It is possible that crystallized trapped liquids (from the late stages of a magma ocean) have been preserved as LILE-enriched portions of the lunar mantle. This would lead to depleted (cumulate) and enriched (magma ocean residual liquid) reservoirs in the lunar upper mantle. There is no evidence for significant recycling from the highland crust back into the mantle. Therefore, reservoirs created at the Moon's inception may have remained intact for over 4.0 Ga. The topics discussed include the following: (1) radiogenic isotopes in high-Ti mare basalts; (2) formation of cogenetic depleted and enriched reservoirs; and (3) melting of the source to achieve high-Ti mare basalts.

  16. Two-dimensional enrichment analysis for mining high-level imaging genetic associations.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiaohui; Yan, Jingwen; Kim, Sungeun; Nho, Kwangsik; Risacher, Shannon L; Inlow, Mark; Moore, Jason H; Saykin, Andrew J; Shen, Li

    2017-03-01

    Enrichment analysis has been widely applied in the genome-wide association studies, where gene sets corresponding to biological pathways are examined for significant associations with a phenotype to help increase statistical power and improve biological interpretation. In this work, we expand the scope of enrichment analysis into brain imaging genetics, an emerging field that studies how genetic variation influences brain structure and function measured by neuroimaging quantitative traits (QT). Given the high dimensionality of both imaging and genetic data, we propose to study Imaging Genetic Enrichment Analysis (IGEA), a new enrichment analysis paradigm that jointly considers meaningful gene sets (GS) and brain circuits (BC) and examines whether any given GS-BC pair is enriched in a list of gene-QT findings. Using gene expression data from Allen Human Brain Atlas and imaging genetics data from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative as test beds, we present an IGEA framework and conduct a proof-of-concept study. This empirical study identifies 25 significant high-level two-dimensional imaging genetics modules. Many of these modules are relevant to a variety of neurobiological pathways or neurodegenerative diseases, showing the promise of the proposal framework for providing insight into the mechanism of complex diseases.

  17. Magnetic nanoparticles coated with maltose-functionalized polyethyleneimine for highly efficient enrichment of N-glycopeptides.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinan; Wang, Fangjun; Wan, Hao; Liu, Jing; Liu, Zheyi; Cheng, Kai; Zou, Hanfa

    2015-12-18

    Hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) adsorbents have drawn increasing attention in recent years due to their high efficiency in N-glycopeptides enrichment. The hydrophilicity and binding capacity of HILIC adsorbents are crucial to the enrichment efficiency and mass spectrometry (MS) detection sensitivity of N-glycopeptides. Herein, magnetic nanoparticles coated with maltose-functionalized polyethyleneimine (Fe3O4-PEI-Maltose MNPs) were prepared by one-pot solvothermal reaction coupled with "click chemistry" and utilized for N-glycopeptides enrichment. Owing to the presence of hydrophilic and branched polyethyleneimine, the amount of immobilized disaccharide units was improved about four times. The N-glycopeptides capturing capacity was about 150mg/g (IgG/MNPs) and the MS detection limitation as low as 0.5fmol for IgG and 85% average enrichment recovery were feasibly achieved by using this hybrid magnetic adsorbent. Finally, 1237 unique N-glycosylation sites and 1567 unique N-glycopeptides from 684 N-glycoproteins were reliably characterized from 60μg protein sample extracted from mouse liver. Therefore, this maltose-functionalized polyethyleneimine coated adsorbent can play a promising role in highly efficient N-glycopeptides enrichment for glycoproteomic analyses of complex protein samples.

  18. Using University and Community Resources in the Teaching of Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bustin, Ronald W.

    Activities that have helped to make the Watervliet (New York) High School Russian language education program highly successful involve return visits by former students who are using their Russian language skills in various ways after graduation. These graduates include student teachers of Russian, college students taking Russian to satisfy a…

  19. Differential Response of High-Elevation Planktonic Bacterial Community Structure and Metabolism to Experimental Nutrient Enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Craig E.; Carlson, Craig A.

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment of high-elevation freshwater ecosystems by atmospheric deposition is increasing worldwide, and bacteria are a key conduit for the metabolism of organic matter in these oligotrophic environments. We conducted two distinct in situ microcosm experiments in a high-elevation lake (Emerald Lake, Sierra Nevada, California, USA) to evaluate responses in bacterioplankton growth, carbon utilization, and community structure to short-term enrichment by nitrate and phosphate. The first experiment, conducted just following ice-off, employed dark dilution culture to directly assess the impact of nutrients on bacterioplankton growth and consumption of terrigenous dissolved organic matter during snowmelt. The second experiment, conducted in transparent microcosms during autumn overturn, examined how bacterioplankton in unmanipulated microbial communities responded to nutrients concomitant with increasing phytoplankton-derived organic matter. In both experiments, phosphate enrichment (but not nitrate) caused significant increases in bacterioplankton growth, changed particulate organic stoichiometry, and induced shifts in bacterial community composition, including consistent declines in the relative abundance of Actinobacteria. The dark dilution culture showed a significant increase in dissolved organic carbon removal in response to phosphate enrichment. In transparent microcosms nutrient enrichment had no effect on concentrations of chlorophyll, carbon, or the fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter, suggesting that bacterioplankton responses were independent of phytoplankton responses. These results demonstrate that bacterioplankton communities in unproductive high-elevation habitats can rapidly alter their taxonomic composition and metabolism in response to short-term phosphate enrichment. Our results reinforce the key role that phosphorus plays in oligotrophic lake ecosystems, clarify the nature of bacterioplankton nutrient limitation, and

  20. The reduction and distillation of isotopically enriched zinc oxides under high vacuum conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, C.; Zevenbergen, L. A.

    1999-12-01

    Historically, enriched zinc (Zn) metal was produced at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Isotope Enrichment Facility (IEF) by either electrodeposition, followed by melting to produce a metal ingot, or purified by hydrogen reduction and distillation at atmospheric pressure in a tube furnace as a prelude to electroplating. Electroplated material was generally poor in quality, and losses were high during subsequent melting. Adapting the distillation purifying technique as an ultimate means of recovery of Zn metal proved to be difficult and inefficient. To resolve these problems, the well-established vacuum reduction/distillation process was adapted for the conversion of Zn oxide to metal.

  1. Scaling deterministic lateral displacement arrays for high throughput and dilution-free enrichment of leukocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inglis, David W.; Lord, Megan; Nordon, Robert E.

    2011-05-01

    A disposable device for fractionation of blood into its components that is simple to operate and provides throughput of greater than 1 mL min-1 is highly sought after in medical diagnostics and therapies. This paper describes a device with parallel deterministic lateral displacement devices for enrichment of leukocytes from blood. We show capture of 98% and approximately ten-fold enrichment of leukocytes in whole blood. We demonstrate scaling up through the integration of six parallel devices to achieve a flow rate of 115 µL of undiluted blood per minute per atmosphere of applied pressure.

  2. 78 FR 60928 - Request To Amend a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    .... U.S. Department of Energy, High-Enriched 18.4 kilograms To manufacture HEU The Netherlands. National... Netherlands. Amend to: 1) increase the quantity of HEU authorized for export from 9.4 kg of U-235 contained in...

  3. SPERT Destructive Test - I on Aluminum, Highly Enriched Plate Type Core

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    SPERT - Special Power Excursion Reactor Tests Destructive Test number 1 On Aluminum, Highly Enriched Plate Type Core. A test studying the behavior of the reactor under destructive conditions on a light water moderated pool-type reactor with a plate-type core.

  4. High shear enrichment improves the performance of the anodophilic microbial consortium in a microbial fuel cell

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Hai The; Boon, Nico; Aelterman, Peter; Clauwaert, Peter; De Schamphelaire, Liesje; Van Oostveldt, Patrick; Verbeken, Kim; Rabaey, Korneel; Verstraete, Willy

    2008-01-01

    Summary In many microbial bioreactors, high shear rates result in strong attachment of microbes and dense biofilms. In this study, high shear rates were applied to enrich an anodophilic microbial consortium in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). Enrichment at a shear rate of about 120 s−1 resulted in the production of a current and power output two to three times higher than those in the case of low shear rates (around 0.3 s−1). Biomass and biofilm analyses showed that the anodic biofilm from the MFC enriched under high shear rate conditions, in comparison with that under low shear rate conditions, had a doubled average thickness and the biomass density increased with a factor 5. The microbial community of the former, as analysed by DGGE, was significantly different from that of the latter. The results showed that enrichment by applying high shear rates in an MFC can result in a specific electrochemically active biofilm that is thicker and denser and attaches better, and hence has a better performance. PMID:21261869

  5. Sociocultural Variations in Competence Development among High School Students Educationally Enriched during Infancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, William; And Others

    This Canadian study examined the later development (in high school and college) of two groups of children who had received an early enrichment intervention, comparing them with a limited control group and with each other. Experimental subjects were grouped into those (N=40) from families with some college and those (N=14) from families with high…

  6. Nitrogen enriched mesoporous carbon as a high capacity cathode in lithium-oxygen batteries.

    PubMed

    Nie, Hongjiao; Zhang, Huamin; Zhang, Yining; Liu, Tao; Li, Jing; Lai, Qinzhi

    2013-09-21

    Nitrogen enriched mesoporous carbon (N-MCS) with extremely high mesopore volume and nitrogen content is prepared through a one-step hard template method. The N-MCS cathode shows excellent discharge performance in lithium-oxygen batteries. The pore space is better utilized due to its optimized pore structure and uniformly incorporated N.

  7. 78 FR 33448 - Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... COMMISSION Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public... targets Canada. Security Complex, May 13, Uranium (93.35%). uranium-235 at the National 2013, May 21, 2013, XSNM3745, contained in 7.5 Research Universal 11006098. kilograms reactor in Canada for uranium....

  8. 75 FR 15743 - Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70(c) ``Public... fabricate fuel France. Complex, March 3, 2010. Uranium (93.35%). uranium (149.36 elements in March 9,...

  9. 75 FR 6223 - Application For a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Application For a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70(c) ``Public... fabricate Canada. Complex December 21, 2009, Uranium (93.35%). uranium (16.3 targets for December 28,...

  10. 77 FR 73055 - Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... COMMISSION Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public... kilograms To fabricate targets The Netherlands. Security Complex. Uranium uranium-235 at CERCA AREVA October... XSNM3730 uranium. targets at the HFR 11006054 Research Reactor in the Netherlands, the BR-2 Reactor...

  11. SPERT Destructive Test - I on Aluminum, Highly Enriched Plate Type Core

    SciTech Connect

    2011-04-05

    SPERT - Special Power Excursion Reactor Tests Destructive Test number 1 On Aluminum, Highly Enriched Plate Type Core. A test studying the behavior of the reactor under destructive conditions on a light water moderated pool-type reactor with a plate-type core.

  12. Criticality safety evaluation for Portsmouth X-345 High-Enriched-Uranium storage area

    SciTech Connect

    Koponen, B.L.

    1993-09-20

    This report evaluates nuclear criticality safety for the High-Enriched Uranium storage area of the X-345 building of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The effects of loss of moderation or mass control are examined for storage units in or out of the storage receptacles. Recommendations are made for decreasing criticality hazards under some conditions of storage or handling considered to be hazardous.

  13. Health and safety considerations for U. S. monitors in the Russian transparency program.

    SciTech Connect

    Boggs, C. J.

    1998-10-22

    In 1993 the US and the Russian Federation signed an agreement allowing the US to purchase highly enriched uranium (HEU) from Russia over a 20-year period. This Highly Enriched Uranium Purchase Agreement permits the purchase of 500 metric tons of HEU from dismantled Russian nuclear weapons in the form of low-enriched uranium (LEU) for use as power reactor fuel in the US. Under the HEU Agreement, the US and Russia are cooperating in a ''Transparency Program'' to ensure that arms control and nonproliferation objectives are being met. The Transparency Program measures, which are a departure from traditional, intrusive measures of verification, include sending individuals from the US to Russia to monitor the processing of the HEU.

  14. Highly enriched uranium (HEU) politics: An enigma wrapped up in a warhead and boxed in political chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    It could be fairly said that while the Cold War arose in an atmosphere of mutual mistrust and hostility, it is ending with an equal amount of confusion and uncertainty. More than a year has passed since the US and Russia signed a tentative HEU agreement in August 1992. Many of the details have been worked out, but major questions remain. And they're not just on the Russian side. The fine points of President Clinton's overall nuclear policy are only now beginning to emerge. In his first major foreign policy address, before the United Nations in late September, Clinton called for a worldwide ban on the production of plutonium and HEU for nuclear weapons. [open quotes]Growing global stockpiles of plutonium and highly enriched uranium are raising the danger of nuclear terrorism for all nations,[close quotes] said Clinton before the UN. [open quotes]We will press for an international agreement that would ban production of these materials for weapons forever.[close quotes] As the veil lifts from Clinton's nuclear policy, it appears the Administration realizes that Russia may have more HEU than originally thought. That possibility has been confirmed by Minatom Minister Mikhailov's disclosures to the NUKEM Market Report, which brought a greater degree of certainty to estimates that had been floating around for some time. When the Bush Administration signed the HEU pact, it apparently thought the 500 metric tons comprised most of the former Soviet Union's nuclear arsenal. Now that the number appears higher, Clinton may propose to accelerate and enlarge the HEU deal. He is due to summit with Yeltsin, if Yeltsin survives, next spring. The 500-metric-ton deal may only be the first step.

  15. Half a century of continuous shock interaction investigations in the Joint Institute for High Temperatures of Russian Academy of Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazhenova, T. V.; Golub, V. V.; Gvozdeva, L. G.; Kotelnikov, A. L.

    2014-07-01

    This article describes the history of the investigations of shock wave interactions at the Physical Gasdynamic Department, starting from the early 50s of the last century, when the first research related to missile reentry was made. The review focuses on a number of topics studied over more than 50 years and includes the study of strong shock waves, where it is necessary to take into account the physicochemical transformations in gases, shock wave reflection, diffraction, interaction with the boundary layer and with the nozzle, as well as detonation wave formation and interactions. The investigation of shock wave interactions is a current topic at the Joint Institute for High Temperatures of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Some new results are observed: the formation of impulse jets and the self-ignition of a cold hydrogen jet, diffraction of 3D shock waves, and the effect of an impulse jet and diffracted shock wave on an obstacle.

  16. Facile synthesis of boronic acid-functionalized magnetic carbon nanotubes for highly specific enrichment of glycopeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Rongna; Hu, Junjie; Cai, Zongwei; Ju, Huangxian

    2014-02-01

    A stepwise strategy was developed to synthesize boronic acid functionalized magnetic carbon nanotubes (MCNTs) for highly specific enrichment of glycopeptides. The MCNTs were synthesized by a solvothermal reaction of Fe3+ loaded on the acid-treated CNTs and modified with 1-pyrenebutanoic acid N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester (PASE) to bind aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) via an amide reaction. The introduction of PASE could bridge the MCNT and APBA, suppress the nonspecific adsorption and reduce the steric hindrance among the bound molecules. Due to the excellent structure of the MCNTs, the functionalization of PASE and then APBA on MCNTs was quite simple, specific and effective. The glycopeptides enrichment and separation with a magnetic field could be achieved by their reversible covalent binding with the boronic group of APBA-MCNTs. The exceptionally large specific surface area and the high density of boronic acid groups of APBA-MCNTs resulted in rapid and highly efficient enrichment of glycopeptides, even in the presence of large amounts of interfering nonglycopeptides. The functional MCNTs possessed high selectivity for enrichment of 21 glycopeptides from the digest of horseradish peroxidase demonstrated by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis showing more glycopeptides detected than the usual 9 glycopeptides with commercially available APBA-agarose. The proposed system showed better specificity for glycopeptides even in the presence of non-glycopeptides with 50 times higher concentration. The boronic acid functionalized MCNTs provide a promising selective enrichment platform for precise glycoproteomic analysis.A stepwise strategy was developed to synthesize boronic acid functionalized magnetic carbon nanotubes (MCNTs) for highly specific enrichment of glycopeptides. The MCNTs were synthesized by a solvothermal reaction of Fe3+ loaded on the acid-treated CNTs and modified with 1-pyrenebutanoic acid N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester (PASE) to bind aminophenylboronic acid

  17. Enrichment and isolation of Flavobacterium strains with tolerance to high concentrations of cesium ion.

    PubMed

    Kato, Souichiro; Goya, Eri; Tanaka, Michiko; Kitagawa, Wataru; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Asano, Kozo; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2016-02-17

    Interest in the interaction of microorganisms with cesium ions (Cs(+)) has arisen, especially in terms of their potent ability for radiocesium bioaccumulation and their important roles in biogeochemical cycling. Although high concentrations of Cs(+) display toxic effects on microorganisms, there have been only limited reports for Cs(+)-tolerant microorganisms. Here we report enrichment and isolation of Cs(+)-tolerant microorganisms from soil microbiota. Microbial community analysis revealed that bacteria within the phylum Bacteroidetes, especially Flavobacterium spp., dominated in enrichment cultures in the medium supplemented with 50 or 200 mM Cs(+), while Gammaproteobacteria was dominant in the control enrichment cultures (in the presence of 50 and 200 mM K(+) instead of Cs(+)). The dominant Flavobacterium sp. was successfully isolated from the enrichment culture and was closely related to Flavobacterium chungbukense with 99.5% identity. Growth experiments clearly demonstrated that the isolate has significantly higher tolerance to Cs(+) compared to its close relatives, suggesting the Cs(+)-tolerance is a specific trait of this strain, but not a universal trait in the genus Flavobacterium. Measurement of intracellular K(+) and Cs(+) concentrations of the Cs(+)-tolerant isolate and its close relatives suggested that the ability to maintain low intracellular Cs(+) concentration confers the tolerance against high concentrations of external Cs(+).

  18. Development of immobilized Sn(4+) affinity chromatography material for highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Lin, Haizhu; Deng, Chunhui

    2016-11-01

    In this work, we first immobilized tin(IV) ion on polydopamine-coated magnetic graphene (magG@PDA) to synthesize Sn(4+) -immobilized magG@PDA (magG@PDA-Sn(4+) ) and successfully applied the material to highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides. The material gathered the advantages of large surface area of graphene, superparamagnetism of Fe3 O4 , good hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of polydopamine, and strong interaction between Sn(4+) and phosphopeptides. The enrichment performance of magG@PDA-Sn(4+) toward phosphopeptides from digested β-casein at different concentrations, with and without added digested BSA was investigated and compared with magG@PDA-Ti(4+) . The results showed high selectivity and sensitivity of the Sn(4+) -IMAC material toward phosphopeptides, as good as the Ti(4+) -IMAC material. Finally, magG@PDA-Sn(4+) was applied to the analysis of endogenous phosphopeptides from a real sample, human saliva, with both MALDI-TOF MS and nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS. The results indicated that the as-synthesized Sn(4+) -IMAC material not only has good enrichment performance, but also could serve as a supplement to the Ti(4+) -IMAC material and expand the phosphopeptide coverage enriched by the single Ti(4+) -IMAC material, demonstrating the broad application prospects of magG@PDA-Sn(4+) in phosphoproteome research.

  19. Tracing Supernova Enrichment of the Nearest Young Star Forming Complex with High Resolution Stellar Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubar, Eric Joseph; Mamajek, Eric E.; Pecaut, Mark

    2010-02-01

    The chemical evolution of the galaxy can be examined on a small scale locally by searching for evidence of enrichment by core collapse (type II) supernova explosions among stars belonging to the same star- forming complex. We propose to obtain high resolution spectroscopy of a sample of slowly rotating members of nearby, young stellar groups associated with the nearest star-forming complex: Scorpius-Centaurus. These spectra will be used to perform a precise spectroscopic abundance analysis to test for enrichment of the ~5 Myr-old Upper Scorpius region and neighboring regions by supernova explosions in the neighboring ~ 15 Myr-old Upper Centaurus Lupus and Lower Centaurus Crux subgroups. Enrichment by core-collapse supernovae can be traced by enhancements in oxygen and other alpha- element abundances compared to Fe-peak elements. These abundances can also be used for constraining the chemical homogeneity of members of Upper-Sco. This study will allow us to explore the processes of Galactic chemical evolution and SN enrichment on a small scale (< 0.1 kpc, <10-20 SN) in a complex with a relatively well constrained star formation history and high mass stellar membership.

  20. Enrichment and isolation of Flavobacterium strains with tolerance to high concentrations of cesium ion

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Souichiro; Goya, Eri; Tanaka, Michiko; Kitagawa, Wataru; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Asano, Kozo; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Interest in the interaction of microorganisms with cesium ions (Cs+) has arisen, especially in terms of their potent ability for radiocesium bioaccumulation and their important roles in biogeochemical cycling. Although high concentrations of Cs+ display toxic effects on microorganisms, there have been only limited reports for Cs+-tolerant microorganisms. Here we report enrichment and isolation of Cs+-tolerant microorganisms from soil microbiota. Microbial community analysis revealed that bacteria within the phylum Bacteroidetes, especially Flavobacterium spp., dominated in enrichment cultures in the medium supplemented with 50 or 200 mM Cs+, while Gammaproteobacteria was dominant in the control enrichment cultures (in the presence of 50 and 200 mM K+ instead of Cs+). The dominant Flavobacterium sp. was successfully isolated from the enrichment culture and was closely related to Flavobacterium chungbukense with 99.5% identity. Growth experiments clearly demonstrated that the isolate has significantly higher tolerance to Cs+ compared to its close relatives, suggesting the Cs+-tolerance is a specific trait of this strain, but not a universal trait in the genus Flavobacterium. Measurement of intracellular K+ and Cs+ concentrations of the Cs+-tolerant isolate and its close relatives suggested that the ability to maintain low intracellular Cs+ concentration confers the tolerance against high concentrations of external Cs+. PMID:26883718

  1. Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as uranyl nitrate hexahydrate. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-05

    This Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will have two missions: (1) convert HEU materials to pure HEU uranyl nitrate (UNH) and (2) blend pure HEU UNH with depleted and natural UNH to produce HEU UNH crystals. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. To the extent practical, the chemical and isotopic concentrations of blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. Such blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry. Otherwise, blended LEU Will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

  2. Hydrazide functionalized core-shell magnetic nanocomposites for highly specific enrichment of N-glycopeptides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liting; Yu, Meng; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Changchun; Lu, Haojie

    2014-05-28

    In view of the biological significance of glycosylation for human health, profiling of glycoproteome from complex biological samples is highly inclined toward the discovery of disease biomarkers and clinical diagnosis. Nevertheless, because of the existence of glycopeptides at relatively low abundances compared with nonglycosylated peptides and glycan microheterogeneity, glycopeptides need to be highly selectively enriched from complex biological samples for mass spectrometry analysis. Herein, a new type of hydrazide functionalized core-shell magnetic nanocomposite has been synthesized for highly specific enrichment of N-glycopeptides. The nanocomposites with both the magnetic core and the polymer shell hanging high density of hydrazide groups were prepared by first functionalization of the magnetic core with polymethacrylic acid by reflux precipitation polymerization to obtain the Fe3O4@poly(methacrylic acid) (Fe3O4@PMAA) and then modification of the surface of Fe3O4@PMAA with adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) to obtain Fe3O4@poly(methacrylic hydrazide) (Fe3O4@PMAH). The abundant hydrazide groups toward highly specific enrichment of glycopeptides and the magnetic core make it suitable for large-scale, high-throughput, and automated sample processing. In addition, the hydrophilic polymer surface can provide low nonspecific adsorption of other peptides. Compared to commercially available hydrazide resin, Fe3O4@PMAH improved more than 5 times the signal-to-noise ratio of standard glycopeptides. Finally, this nanocomposite was applied in the profiling of N-glycoproteome from the colorectal cancer patient serum. In total, 175 unique glycopeptides and 181 glycosylation sites corresponding to 63 unique glycoproteins were identified in three repeated experiments, with the specificities of the enriched glycopeptides and corresponding glycoproteins of 69.6% and 80.9%, respectively. Because of all these attractive features, we believe that this novel hydrazide functionalized

  3. R and D of crystal scintillators from enriched isotopes for high sensitivity double β decay experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Danevich, F. A.

    2013-12-30

    Experiments to search for neutrinoless double beta decay enters to a new phase when a sensitivity on the level of T{sub 1/2}∼10{sup 26}−10{sup 28} yr is required. Scintillating low temperature detectors possess important properties required for high-sensitivity double beta decay experiments: presence of elements of interest, high energy resolution and detection efficiency, low level of background thanks to excellent particle discrimination ability. High concentration of isotope of interest and as low as possible radioactive contamination are important requirements to crystal scintillators. Other crucial issues are maximal output of detectors and minimal loss of enriched materials. Prospects of several scintillation materials, enriched in isotopes promising for double beta decay experiments, are discussed.

  4. Outcomes of Cryoballoon Ablation in High- and Low-Volume Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Centres: A Russian Pilot Survey

    PubMed Central

    Mikhaylov, Evgeny N.; Lebedev, Dmitry S.; Pokushalov, Evgeny A.; Davtyan, Karapet V.; Ivanitskii, Eduard A.; Nechepurenko, Anatoly A.; Kosonogov, Alexey Ya.; Kolunin, Grigory V.; Morozov, Igor A.; Termosesov, Sergey A.; Maykov, Evgeny B.; Khomutinin, Dmitry N.; Eremin, Sergey A.; Mayorov, Igor M.; Romanov, Alexander B.; Shabanov, Vitaliy V.; Shatakhtsyan, Victoria; Tsivkovskii, Viktor; Revishvili, Amiran Sh.; Shlyakhto, Evgeny V.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The results of cryoballoon ablation (CBA) procedure have been mainly derived from studies conducted in experienced atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation centres. Here, we report on CBA efficacy and complications resulting from real practice of this procedure at both high- and low-volume centres. Methods. Among 62 Russian centres performing AF ablation, 15 (24%) used CBA technology for pulmonary vein isolation. The centres were asked to provide a detailed description of all CBA procedures performed and complications, if encountered. Results. Thirteen sites completed interviews on all CBAs in their centres (>95% of CBAs in Russia). Six sites were high-volume AF ablation (>100 AF cases/year) centres, and 7 were low-volume AF ablation. There was no statistical difference in arrhythmia-free rates between high- and low-volume centres (64.6 versus 60.8% at 6 months). Major complications developed in 1.5% of patients and were equally distributed between high- and low-volume centres. Minor procedure-related events were encountered in 8% of patients and were more prevalent in high-volume centres. Total event and vascular access site event rates were higher in women than in men. Conclusions. CBA has an acceptable efficacy profile in real practice. In less experienced AF ablation centres, the major complication rate is equal to that in high-volume centres. PMID:26640789

  5. Cooperative MPC&A Enhancements at Russian Navy Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, N N; O'Shell, P; Hendrickson, S; Sukhoruchkin, V; Antipov, S; Melkhov, E; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N; Yurasov, N

    2001-05-30

    U.S. MPC&A cooperation with the Russian Federation (RF) Navy is based on a Joint Statement signed in 1996 to protect Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) fresh fuel used for nuclear propulsion. The Russian Federation Navy is the largest owner in Russia of highly enriched uranium, both in the form of fresh nuclear fuel, and in the form of slightly irradiated fuel with a long cooling time after irradiation. As a result of this agreement, projects began at the Northern Fleet Fresh Fuel Storage Facility (Site 49) and Refueling Ship PM-63. Initial projects provided upgrades for RF Navy HEU fresh fuel storage facilities, beginning with a land-based facility near Murmansk and later adding other land-based and ship-based fresh fuel storage facilities. Additional protocols (December 1997, January 1999, and March 2000) significantly expanded cooperation to include all HEU fuel under RF Navy control. To date, it is estimated that tens of metric tons of HEU have been secured - enough to construct hundreds of nuclear devices. It was determined that the cooperation would be coordinated by the Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute. This paper describes the history of the Program development, its stages, current status, scale of the work and prospects.

  6. The Use of a Quantitative Cysteinyl-peptide Enrichment Technology for High-Throughput Quantitative Proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Tao; Qian, Weijun; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

    2007-01-02

    Quantitative proteomic measurements are of significant interest in studies aimed at discovering disease biomarkers and providing new insights into biological pathways. A quantitative cysteinyl-peptide enrichment technology (QCET) can be employed to achieve higher efficiency, greater dynamic range, and higher throughput in quantitative proteomic studies that utilize stable-isotope labeling techniques combined with high-resolution liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry (MS) measurements. The QCET approach involves specific 16O/18O labeling of tryptic peptides, high-efficiency enrichment of cysteinyl-peptides, and confident protein identification and quantification from high resolution LC-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR) measurements and a previously established database of accurate mass and elution time information. This methodology is demonstrated by using proteome profiling of naïve and in vitro-differentiated human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) as an example, which initially resulted in the identification and quantification of 603 proteins in a single LC-FTICR analysis. QCET provides not only highly efficient enrichment of cysteinyl-peptides for more extensive proteome coverage and improved labeling efficiency for better quantitative measurements, but more importantly, a high-throughput strategy suitable for quantitative proteome analysis where extensive or parallel proteomic measurements are required, such as in time course studies of specific pathways and clinical sample analyses for biomarker discovery.

  7. HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM BLEND DOWN PROGRAM AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE PRESENT AND FUTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Magoulas, V; Charles Goergen, C; Ronald Oprea, R

    2008-06-05

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) entered into an Interagency Agreement to transfer approximately 40 metric tons of highly enriched uranium (HEU) to TVA for conversion to fuel for the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant. Savannah River Site (SRS) inventories included a significant amount of this material, which resulted from processing spent fuel and surplus materials. The HEU is blended with natural uranium (NU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) with a 4.95% 235U isotopic content and shipped as solution to the TVA vendor. The HEU Blend Down Project provided the upgrades needed to achieve the product throughput and purity required and provided loading facilities. The first blending to low enriched uranium (LEU) took place in March 2003 with the initial shipment to the TVA vendor in July 2003. The SRS Shipments have continued on a regular schedule without any major issues for the past 5 years and are due to complete in September 2008. The HEU Blend program is now looking to continue its success by dispositioning an additional approximately 21 MTU of HEU material as part of the SRS Enriched Uranium Disposition Project.

  8. Constraints on the Parental Melts of Enriched Shergottites from Image Analysis and High Pressure Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collinet, M.; Medard, E.; Devouard, B.; Peslier, A.

    2012-01-01

    Martian basalts can be classified in at least two geochemically different families: enriched and depleted shergottites. Enriched shergottites are characterized by higher incompatible element concentrations and initial Sr-87/Sr-86 and lower initial Nd-143/Nd-144 and Hf-176/Hf-177 than depleted shergottites [e.g. 1, 2]. It is now generally admitted that shergottites result from the melting of at least two distinct mantle reservoirs [e.g. 2, 3]. Some of the olivine-phyric shergottites (either depleted or enriched), the most magnesian Martian basalts, could represent primitive melts, which are of considerable interest to constrain mantle sources. Two depleted olivine-phyric shergottites, Yamato (Y) 980459 and Northwest Africa (NWA) 5789, are in equilibrium with their most magnesian olivine (Fig. 1) and their bulk rock compositions are inferred to represent primitive melts [4, 5]. Larkman Nunatak (LAR) 06319 [3, 6, 7] and NWA 1068 [8], the most magnesian enriched basalts, have bulk Mg# that are too high to be in equilibrium with their olivine megacryst cores. Parental melt compositions have been estimated by subtracting the most magnesian olivine from the bulk rock composition, assuming that olivine megacrysts have partially accumulated [3, 9]. However, because this technique does not account for the actual petrography of these meteorites, we used image analysis to study these rocks history, reconstruct their parent magma and understand the nature of olivine megacrysts.

  9. Conversion and Evaluation of the University of Massachusetts Lowell Research Reactor From High-Enriched To Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Leo M. Bobek

    2003-11-19

    The process for converting the University of Massachusetts Lowell Research Reactor (UMLRR) from high-enrichment uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enrichment uranium (LEU) fuel began in 1988. Several years of design reviews, computational modeling, and thermal hydraulic analyses resulted in a preliminary reference core design and configuration based on 20 standard, MTR-type, flat-plate, 19.75% enriched, uranium silicide (u3Si2) fuel elements. A final safety analysis for the fuel conversion was submitted to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 1993. The NRC made two additional requests for additional information and supplements were submitted in 1994 and 1997. The new UMLRR Reactor Supervisor initiated an effort to change the LEU reference core configuration to eliminate a complicated control rod modification needed for the smaller core.

  10. The impact of STEM enrichment programs on California's high school Latino/a seniors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrotzki, Gretchen

    This study seeks to determine if Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) enrichment programs, such as summer camp programs, after-school programs, or STEM-based high schools motivate Latino high school graduates to enter into STEM bachelor programs in college as compared to those students enrolled in non-STEM enrichment programs. A mixed-methods approach consisting of pre- and post- surveys and focus group interviews were used to determine students' level of interest in STEM, confidence in their ability to do well in STEM subjects, consideration to pursue advanced courses in STEM, and consideration to pursue a job in STEM. An average change (Post-Pre) across survey questions was calculated for each student. This provided an overall change across all variables and allowed for one variable called "Total Interest" to be derived.

  11. Establishing Specifications for Low Enriched Uranium Fuel Operations Conducted Outside the High Flux Isotope Reactor Site

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkston, Daniel; Primm, Trent; Renfro, David G; Sease, John D

    2010-10-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has funded staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to study the conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from the current, high enriched uranium fuel to low enriched uranium fuel. The LEU fuel form is a metal alloy that has never been used in HFIR or any HFIR-like reactor. This report provides documentation of a process for the creation of a fuel specification that will meet all applicable regulations and guidelines to which UT-Battelle, LLC (UTB) the operating contractor for ORNL - must adhere. This process will allow UTB to purchase LEU fuel for HFIR and be assured of the quality of the fuel being procured.

  12. Extremely high electron mobility in isotopically-enriched 28Si two-dimensional electron gases grown by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiun-Yun; Huang, Chiao-Ti; Rokhinson, Leonid P.; Sturm, James C.

    2013-10-01

    Both depletion-mode and enhancement-mode two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) in isotopically enriched 28Si with extremely high mobility (522 000 cm2/V s) are presented. The samples were grown by chemical vapor deposition using enriched silane. The fraction of the spin-carrying isotope 29Si was reduced to the level of 800 ppm by 28Si enrichment, with the electron spin dephasing time expected to be as long as 2 μs. Remote impurity charges from ionized dopants and the Si/Al2O3 interface were suggested to be the dominant source for electron scattering in the enriched 28Si 2DEGs.

  13. Russians as People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Wright

    This analysis of the Russian character in various aspects of Soviet society in its daily activities focuses on the cultural rather than the political. Included in the study are sections on: (1) hibernation and awakening; (2) the Russian scene; (3) being a Russian; (4) Russian society--mass and minority; (5) manners, morals, and taste; and (6)…

  14. Russians as People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Wright

    This analysis of the Russian character in various aspects of Soviet society in its daily activities focuses on the cultural rather than the political. Included in the study are sections on: (1) hibernation and awakening; (2) the Russian scene; (3) being a Russian; (4) Russian society--mass and minority; (5) manners, morals, and taste; and (6)…

  15. Double-beta decay investigation with highly pure enriched ^{82}Se for the LUCIFER experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeman, J. W.; Bellini, F.; Benetti, P.; Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Chiesa, D.; Clemenza, M.; Dafinei, I.; Domizio, S. Di; Ferroni, F.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gotti, C.; Laubenstein, M.; Maino, M.; Nagorny, S.; Nisi, S.; Nones, C.; Orio, F.; Pagnanini, L.; Pattavina, L.; Pessina, G.; Piperno, G.; Pirro, S.; Previtali, E.; Rusconi, C.; Schäffner, K.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M.

    2015-12-01

    The LUCIFER project aims at deploying the first array of enriched scintillating bolometers for the investigation of neutrinoless double-beta decay of ^{82}Se. The matrix which embeds the source is an array of ZnSe crystals, where enriched ^{82}Se is used as decay isotope. The radiopurity of the initial components employed for manufacturing crystals, that can be operated as bolometers, is crucial for achieving a null background level in the region of interest for double-beta decay investigations. In this work, we evaluated the radioactive content in 2.5 kg of 96.3 % enriched ^{82}Se metal, measured with a high-purity germanium detector at the Gran Sasso deep underground laboratory. The limits on internal contaminations of primordial decay chain elements of ^{232}Th, ^{238}U and ^{235}U are respectively: <61, <110 and <74 μ Bq/kg at 90 % C.L. The extremely low-background conditions in which the measurement was carried out and the high radiopurity of the ^{82}Se allowed us to establish the most stringent lower limits on the half-lives of the double-beta decay of ^{82}Se to 0^+_1, 2^+_2 and 2^+_1 excited states of ^{82}Kr of 3.4\\cdot 10^{22}, 1.3\\cdot 10^{22} and 1.0\\cdot 10^{22} y, respectively, with a 90 % C.L.

  16. The efficacy of high-throughput sequencing and target enrichment on charred archaeobotanical remains

    PubMed Central

    Nistelberger, H. M.; Smith, O.; Wales, N.; Star, B.; Boessenkool, S.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of archaeological plant material is preserved in a charred state. Obtaining reliable ancient DNA data from these remains has presented challenges due to high rates of nucleotide damage, short DNA fragment lengths, low endogenous DNA content and the potential for modern contamination. It has been suggested that high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies coupled with DNA enrichment techniques may overcome some of these limitations. Here we report the findings of HTS and target enrichment on four important archaeological crops (barley, grape, maize and rice) performed in three different laboratories, presenting the largest HTS assessment of charred archaeobotanical specimens to date. Rigorous analysis of our data – excluding false-positives due to background contamination or incorrect index assignments – indicated a lack of endogenous DNA in nearly all samples, except for one lightly-charred maize cob. Even with target enrichment, this sample failed to yield adequate data required to address fundamental questions in archaeology and biology. We further reanalysed part of an existing dataset on charred plant material, and found all purported endogenous DNA sequences were likely to be spurious. We suggest these technologies are not suitable for use with charred archaeobotanicals and urge great caution when interpreting data obtained by HTS of these remains. PMID:27881876

  17. Uranium series disequilibrium and high thorium and radium enrichments in Karst formations

    SciTech Connect

    Gunten, H.R. von; Roessler, E.; Surbeck, H.

    1996-04-01

    We found, in limestone Karst soils of the Jura Mountains and of the mountains in the central part of Switzerland, an enrichment up to a factor 20 of {sup 230}Th and {sup 226}Ra with respect to the activities of their progenitors, {sup 234}U and {sup 238}U. Thus, a significant radioactive disequilibrium exists between {sup 238/234}U and {sup 230}Th and {sup 226}Ra. The enrichment of {sup 226}Ra leads to locally high concentrations of its decay product, the noble gas {sup 222}Rn. We propose continuous chemical weathering of limestone (calcite) fragments within the soil column as a plausible cause for the high {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 222}Rn activities. Uranium, contained within calcite, is released during weathering and migrates as stable uranyl carbonate complexes through the soil column. In contrast, its decay products ({sup 230}Th and {sup 226}Ra) hydrolyze, are strongly sorbed to soil particles, and/or form insoluble compounds that become more and more enriched in the soil as this process continues in time. 39 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Highly Reproducible Ag NPs/CNT-Intercalated GO Membranes for Enrichment and SERS Detection of Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Qu, Lu Lu; Liu, Ying-Ya; Liu, Ming-Kai; Yang, Guo-Hai; Li, Da-Wei; Li, Hai-Tao

    2016-10-05

    The increasing pollution of aquatic environments by antibiotics makes it necessary to develop efficient enrichment and sensitive detection methods for environmental antibiotics monitoring. In this work, silver nanoparticles and carbon nanotube-intercalated graphene oxide laminar membranes (Ag NPs/CNT-GO membranes) were successfully prepared for enrichment and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection of antibiotics. The prepared Ag NPs/CNT-GO membranes exhibited a high enrichment ability because of the π-π stacking and electrostatic interactions of GO toward antibiotic molecules, which enhanced the sensitivity of SERS measurements and enabled the antibiotics to be determined at sub-nM concentrations. In addition, the nanochannels created by the intercalation of CNTs into GO layers resulted in an 8-fold enhancement in the water permeance of Ag NPs/CNT-GO membranes compared to that of pure GO membranes. More importantly, the Ag NPs/CNT-GO membranes exhibited high reproducibility and long-term stability. The spot-to-spot variation in SERS intensity was less than 15%, and the SERS performance was maintained for at least 70 days. The Ag NPs/CNT-GO membranes were also used for SERS detection of antibiotics in real samples; the results showed that the characteristic peaks of antibiotics were obviously recognizable. Thus, the sensitive SERS detection of antibiotics based on Ag NPs/CNT-GO offers great potential for practical applications in environmental analysis.

  19. Highly enriched isotopes of uranium and transuranium elements for scientific investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesnovskii, Stanislav P.; Polynov, Vladimir N.

    1992-08-01

    The paper describes the production of highly enriched isotopes of uranium, plutonium, americium and curium by means of electromagnetic separation for scientific and applied research in physics, chemistry, geology and other fields. The equipment and radiochemical methods used allows to provide the isotopic pure samples in quantities sufficient to set up nuclear physics experiments, to produce reference materials and standard sources for calibration of radiometrical and mass spectrometrical equipment and for use in radionuclear metrology. For a series of nuclei unique characteristics of isotopic enrichment and radiochemical and chemical purity were achieved: 233U: 99.97%; 235U: 99.97%; 236U: 98.0%; 238U: 99.997%; 238Pu: 99.6%; 239Pu: 99.9977%; 240Pu: 99.9-100%; 241Pu: 96.998%; 242Pu: 97.8-99.96%; 244Pu: 96.7%; 241Am: 99.6%; 242mAm: 85.6%; 243Am: 99.2-99.94%; 243Cm: 99.99%; 245Cm: 99.998%; 246Cm: 99.8%; 247Cm: 90%; 248Cm: 97%. Methods of radiochemical and chemical separation, product certification, fabrication of special sources or targets and layers of highly enriched isotopes on various substrates are presented.

  20. Highly efficient enrichment of N-linked glycopeptides using a hydrophilic covalent-organic framework.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yu-Fang; Yuan, Fang; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Zhou, Ying-Lin; Zhang, Xin-Xiang

    2017-08-21

    The enrichment of glycopeptides plays an important role in glycoproteomics. In this paper, a covalent-organic framework called TpPa-1, synthesized by the Schiff base reaction of 1,3,5-triformylphloroglucinol and paraphenylenediamine, was first successfully utilized as a hydrophilic porous material for N-linked glycopeptide enrichment. Using this material, interference from non-glycopeptides could be efficiently eliminated, which facilitated the mass spectrometry detection of glycopeptides. By capturing N-linked glycopeptides from tryptic digests of human IgG, our method was proved to have high sensitivity at the femtomole level. And it showed superior selectivity for glycopeptides even when non-glycopeptides were 1000 times more concentrated. Due to the strong covalent bonds, this material possessed good stability and could be repeatedly used for at least 10 times. The ultra-low mass density and abundant binding sites also provided it with high binding capacity (178 mg g(-1), IgG/TpPa-1). Moreover, N-linked glycopeptides were easily enriched by this material from only 10 μL human serum, which demonstrated its potential in pretreatment of complex biological samples.

  1. A high boronate avidity monolithic capillary for the selective enrichment of trace glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Daojin; Li, Yang; Li, Xinglin; Bie, Zijun; Pan, Xianghua; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Zhen

    2015-03-06

    Boronate affinity materials, as effective sample enrichment sorbents for glycoproteomic analysis, have attracted increasing attention in recent years. However, most of boronate affinity materials suffer from an apparent limitation, limited binding strength. As a result, extraction of glycoproteins of trace concentration is rather difficult or impossible. In this study, we present a high boronate avidity monolithic capillary. Branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) was used as a scaffold to amplify the number of boronic acid moieties. While 2,4-difluoro-3-formyl-phenylboronic acid (DFFPBA), which exhibited ultrahigh affinity toward cis-diol-containing compounds, was employed as an affinity ligand. Due to the PEI-assisted synergistic multivalent binding, the monolithic column exhibited high boronate avidity toward glycoproteins, with binding constants of 10(-6)-10(-7)M. Such binding strength was the highest among already reported boronic acid-functionalized materials that can be used for glycoproteomic analysis. Besides, the boronate avidity monolithic column exhibited one additional beneficial feature, lowered binding pH (≥6.5). These features greatly favored the selective enrichment of trace glycoproteins from real samples. The feasibility for practical applications was demonstrated with the selective enrichment of trace glycoproteins in human saliva. As compared with other boronate avidity/affinity materials, the boronate avidity monolithic capillary exhibited the best performance.

  2. A simple method for the absolute determination of uranium enrichment by high-resolution gamma spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Korob, R O; Blasiyh Nuño, G A

    2006-05-01

    A simple method for the determination of uranium enrichment using high-resolution gamma spectrometry is presented in this paper. The method relies solely on the gamma-ray emission probabilities of 235U and 234mPa, and an iterative procedure for the least squares fit of a polynomial to a set of experimentally determined data. To ensure the reliability of the 234mPa gamma-ray emission probabilities employed, a new determination of these probabilities was carried out using a combination of gamma spectrometry and Cerenkov counting of a purified 234Th solution. Using these new data, a maximum difference of approximately 5% has been found between the experimental and declared uranium enrichment in a set of solid and liquid samples containing uranium compounds.

  3. Seismic stratigraphy of sedimentary cover in Amerasian Basin based on the results of Russian High Arctic expeditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poselov, Viktor; Kireev, Artem; Smirnov, Oleg; Butsenko, Viktor; Zholondz, Sergey; Savin, Vasily

    2016-04-01

    Massive amount of multichannel seismic (MCS) data were obtained by Russian High Arct ic expeditions "Arctica-2011", "Acrtica-2012" and "Arctica-2014". More than 40 MCS lines are located in the Amerasian basin and help to substantiate the seismic stratigraphy model of its sedimentary cover. The proposed seismic stratigraphy model was successively determined for the Cenozoic and pre-Cenozoic parts of the sedimentary section and was based on correlation of the Russian MCS data and seismic data documented by boreholes. Cenozoic part of the sedimentary cover is based on correlation of the Russian MCS data and AWI91090 section calibrated by ACEX-2004 boreholes on the Lomonosov Ridge. Two major unconformities are traced. The upper regional unconformity (RU) is associated with a major pre-Miocene hiatus. Another major hiatus is recorded in the borehole section between the Campanian and the Upper Paleocene units. It is recognized as the post-Campanian unconformity (pCU) in the seismic sections. Formation of the regional unconformities is associated with a fundamental change in depositional environment. Formation of RU was initiated by opening of the Fram Strait gateway at the Paleogene/Neogene boundary. Post-Campanian unconformity is linked with the initial stage of the Eurasian Basin opening between the Cretaceous and the Paleogene. Cenozoic sedimentary units are continuously traced from the East-Siberian and Chukchi sea shelves across the transit zone to the Amerasian basin. Paleogene unit (between pCU and RU) is formed under the neritic depositional environment and it is characterized by an extremely small thickness on the Lomonosov Ridge (less than 200 m), on the Mendeleev Rise and in the Podvodnikov Basin (not more than 300-400 m). Neogene unit (above RU) consists of hemipelagic deposits and occupies the essential part of thickness of the Cenozoic section in Podvodnikov and Makarov Basins. Interval velocities in the Paleogene unit vary within 2.8-3.2 km/s, in the

  4. Louis D. Brandeis High School, Demonstration Bilingual Enrichment College Preparatory Program. O.E.E. Evaluation Report, 1982-1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Effie Papatzikou; Collins, Carla

    The Enrichment College Preparatory Program, an Elementary and Secondary Education Act, Title VII bilingual demonstration project at a Manhattan, New York City, high school, completed the final year of a two-year funding cycle in June 1983. The program, which provided cultural enrichment and advanced academic experiences to 160 intellectually…

  5. Low-enriched uranium high-density target project. Compendium report

    SciTech Connect

    Vandegrift, George; Brown, M. Alex; Jerden, James L.; Gelis, Artem V.; Stepinski, Dominique C.; Wiedmeyer, Stanley; Youker, Amanda; Hebden, Andrew; Solbrekken, Gary; Allen, Charlie; Robertson, David; El-Gizawy, Sherif; Govindarajan, Srisharan; Hoyer, Annemarie; Makarewicz, Philip; Harris, Jacob; Graybill, Brian; Gunn, Andy; Berlin, James; Bryan, Chris; Carbajo, Juan; Freels, Jim; Sherman, Steven; Hobbs, Randy; Griffin, Fred P.; Chandler, David; Hurt, C. J.; Williams, Paul; Creasy, John; Tjader, Barak; McFall, Danielle; Longmire, Hollie

    2016-09-01

    At present, most 99Mo is produced in research, test, or isotope production reactors by irradiation of highly enriched uranium targets. To achieve the denser form of uranium needed for switching from high to low enriched uranium (LEU), targets in the form of a metal foil (~125-150 µm thick) are being developed. The LEU High Density Target Project successfully demonstrated several iterations of an LEU-fission-based Mo-99 technology that has the potential to provide the world’s supply of Mo-99, should major producers choose to utilize the technology. Over 50 annular high density targets have been successfully tested, and the assembly and disassembly of targets have been improved and optimized. Two target front-end processes (acidic and electrochemical) have been scaled up and demonstrated to allow for the high-density target technology to mate up to the existing producer technology for target processing. In the event that a new target processing line is started, the chemical processing of the targets is greatly simplified. Extensive modeling and safety analysis has been conducted, and the target has been qualified to be inserted into the High Flux Isotope Reactor, which is considered above and beyond the requirements for the typical use of this target due to high fluence and irradiation duration.

  6. Age determination of highly enriched uranium: separation and analysis of 231Pa.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, A; Apostolidis, C; Mayer, K

    2002-11-01

    An analytical procedure has been developed for the age determination of highly enriched uranium samples exploiting the mother/daughter pair 235U/231Pa. Protactinium is separated from bulk uranium through highly selective sorption to silica gel and is subsequently quantified using alpha-spectrometry. The method has been validated using uranium standard reference materials of known ages. It affords decontamination factors exceeding 2.5 x 10(7), overall recoveries in the range of 80-85%, and a combined uncertainty below 5%.

  7. Low-Enriched Fuel Design Concept for the Prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor Core

    SciTech Connect

    Sterbentz, James W

    2007-05-01

    A new non-TRISO fuel and clad design concept is proposed for the prismatic, heliumcooled Very High Temperature Reactor core. The new concept could substantially reduce the current 10-20 wt% TRISO uranium enrichments down to 4-6 wt% for both initial and reload cores. The proposed fuel form would be a high-temperature, high-density uranium ceramic, for example UO2, configured into very small diameter cylindrical rods. The small diameter fuel rods significantly increase core reactivity through improved neutron moderation and fuel lumping. Although a high-temperature clad system for the concept remains to be developed, recent success in tube fabrication and preliminary irradiation testing of silicon carbide (SiC) cladding for light water reactor applications offers good potential for this application, and for future development of other carbide clad designs. A high-temperature ceramic fuel, together with a high-temperature clad material, could also lead to higher thermal safety margins during both normal and transient reactor conditions relative to TRISO fuel. The calculated neutronic results show that the lowenrichment, small diameter fuel rods and low thermal neutron absorbing clad retain the strong negative Doppler fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity that ensures inherent safe operation of the VHTR, and depletion studies demonstrate that an 18-month power cycle can be achieved with the lower enrichment fuel.

  8. Enriched environment effects on behavior, memory and BDNF in low and high exploratory mice.

    PubMed

    Kazlauckas, Vanessa; Pagnussat, Natalia; Mioranzza, Sabrina; Kalinine, Eduardo; Nunes, Fernanda; Pettenuzzo, Leticia; Souza, Diogo O; Portela, Luis V; Porciúncula, Lisiane O; Lara, Diogo R

    2011-03-28

    Environmental enrichment (EE) has been largely used to investigate behavioral modifications and neuroplasticity in the adult brain both in normal and pathological conditions. The interaction between individual behavioral traits with EE responsiveness has not been investigated within the same strain. By using two extremes of CF1 mice that differ by their exploratory behavior in the Open Field (OF) task (Kazlauckas V, 2005), denominated as Low (LE) and High (HE) Exploratory Mice, the present study evaluated if EE during adulthood could modify the putative differences between LE and HE mice on exploratory behavior, memory performance and hippocampal BDNF levels. To this end, we investigated the effect of adult LE and HE mice after 2 months of enriched or standard housing conditions on the open field, on novel object recognition, on the inhibitory avoidance task and on hippocampal BDNF immunocontent. LE showed low exploratory behavior, less retention in the inhibitory avoidance and lower hippocampal BDNF levels. EE enhanced exploratory behavior, memory performance and hippocampal BDNF levels both in LE and HE mice. Importantly, the general profile of LE mice submitted to EE was similar to HE mice housed in standard conditions. These results show that internalized behavior of LE mice can be significantly modified by exposure to an enriched environment even during adulthood. These observations may contribute to investigate biological mechanisms and therapeutical interventions for individuals with internalized psychiatric disorders.

  9. A rapid, highly sensitive and culture-free detection of pathogens from blood by positive enrichment.

    PubMed

    Vutukuru, Manjula Ramya; Sharma, Divya Khandige; Ragavendar, M S; Schmolke, Susanne; Huang, Yiwei; Gumbrecht, Walter; Mitra, Nivedita

    2016-12-01

    Molecular diagnostics is a promising alternative to culture based methods for the detection of bloodstream infections, notably due to its overall lower turnaround time when starting directly from patient samples. Whole blood is usually the starting diagnostic sample in suspected bloodstream infections. The detection of low concentrations of pathogens in blood using a molecular assay necessitates a fairly high starting volume of blood sample in the range of 5-10mL. This large volume of blood sample has a substantial accompanying human genomic content that interferes with pathogen detection. In this study, we have established a workflow using magnetic beads coated with Apolipoprotein H that makes it possible to concentrate pathogens from a 5.0mL whole blood sample, thereby enriching pathogens from whole blood background and also reducing the sample volume to ~200μL or less. We have also demonstrated that this method of enrichment allows detection of 1CFU/mL of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus gallinarum and Candida tropicalis from 5mL blood using quantitative PCR; a detection limit that is not possible in unenriched samples. The enrichment method demonstrated here took 30min to complete and can be easily integrated with various downstream molecular and microbiological techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Is the Donggou Porphyry Mo deposit in East Qinling Mo Belt, China Highly Enriched in Fluorine?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Ping; Friehauf, Kurt; Wang, Wei; Yang, Guoliang; Yun, Long

    2013-04-01

    The Donggou porphyry Mo deposit is the third largest Mo producer after the Jinduicheng and Nannihu deposits in the East Qinling Molybdenum Belt (EQMB), China. Surrounded by a series of hydrothermal vein type deposits (Pb, Zn, Cu and Ag) (Mao et al., 2008, 2009), the deposit has a current proven reserve of 0.717 million tons of molybdenum metal with an average grading of 0.12%. The previous published data show that the Cretaceous Donggou molybdenum deposit and the genetically related porphyry stock formed around the same time period; the alumina saturation index diagram suggests that these intrusions belong to metaluminous to weak peralumnious granitiods; REE chondrite patter of the Donggou porphyry stock shows that they are more enriched in light incompatible elements than the heavy incompatible elements, indicating obvious fractionation between the light incompatible elements and heavy incompatible elements, and moderate to strong Eu anomaly; the trace elements spider diagram demonstrates that the Donggou porphyry stock are enriched in Large-ion lithophile elements (Rb, K, U, Th etc.) and High field strength elements (Zr, Nb, Ta etc.), but depleted in Sr, Ba and P. Three main stages were determined during the mineralization: Early (Pre-molybdenum) Mineralization, Molybdenum Mineralization, and Post-molybdenum Mineralization. Accompanied by hydrothermal biotite alteration activities, the thin and discontinuous K-feldspar-Quartz veins characterize the early molybdenite-barren stages. The molybdenum mineralization stage has two mineralization processes, separated by molybdenite-barren, apatite-rich veins. Microphotographic study shows that the mineralization stage was enriched in fluorine, which is reflected by abundance of fluorite in the Mo-bearing veins and in molybdenite-barren blue apatite veins. Following the molybdenum-bearing stage and apatite-rich veins, K-feldspar-Chlorite-Quartz-Pyrite veins occur, indicating the end of the entire mineralization. The

  11. Mesoscale high-resolution modeling of extreme wind speeds over western water areas of the Russian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platonov, Vladimir S.; Kislov, Alexander V.

    2016-11-01

    A statistical analysis of extreme weather events over coastal areas of the Russian Arctic based on observational data has revealed many interesting features of wind velocity distributions. It has been shown that the extremes contain data belonging to two different statistical populations. Each of them is reliably described by a Weibull distribution. According to the standard terminology, these sets of extremes are named ‘black swans’ and ‘dragons’. The ‘dragons’ are responsible for most extremes, surpassing the ‘black swans’ by 10 - 30 %. Since the data of the global climate model INM-CM4 do not contain ‘dragons’, the wind speed extremes are investigated on the mesoscale using the COSMO-CLM model. The modelling results reveal no differences between the ‘swans’ and ‘dragons’ situations. It could be associated with the poor sample data used. However, according to many case studies and modeling results we assume that it is caused by a rare superposition of large-scale synoptic factors and many local meso- and microscale factors (surface, coastline configuration, etc.). Further studies of extreme wind speeds in the Arctic, such as ‘black swans’ and ‘dragons’, are necessary to focus on non-hydrostatic high-resolution atmospheric modelling using downscaling techniques.

  12. Recent ice cap snowmelt in Russian High Arctic and anti-correlation with late summer sea ice extent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Meng; Ramage, Joan; Semmens, Kathryn; Obleitner, Friedrich

    2014-04-01

    Glacier surface melt dynamics throughout Novaya Zemlya (NovZ) and Severnaya Zemlya (SevZ) serve as a good indicator of ice mass ablation and regional climate change in the Russian High Arctic. Here we report trends of surface melt onset date (MOD) and total melt days (TMD) by combining multiple resolution-enhanced active and passive microwave satellite datasets and analyze the TMD correlations with local temperature and regional sea ice extent. The glacier surface snowpack on SevZ melted significantly earlier (-7.3 days/decade) from 1992 to 2012 and significantly longer (7.7 days/decade) from 1995 to 2011. NovZ experienced large interannual variability in MOD, but its annual mean TMD increased. The snowpack melt on NovZ is more sensitive to temperature fluctuations than SevZ in recent decades. After ruling out the regional temperature influence using partial correlation analysis, the TMD on both archipelagoes is statistically anti-correlated with regional late summer sea ice extent, linking land ice snowmelt dynamics to regional sea ice extent variations.

  13. Selective enrichment and production of highly urease active bacteria by non-sterile (open) chemostat culture.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2013-10-01

    In general, bioprocesses can be subdivided into naturally occurring processes, not requiring sterility (e.g., beer brewing, wine making, lactic acid fermentation, or biogas digestion) and other processes (e.g., the production of enzymes and antibiotics) that typically require a high level of sterility to avoid contaminant microbes overgrowing the production strain. The current paper describes the sustainable, non-sterile production of an industrial enzyme using activated sludge as inoculum. By using selective conditions (high pH, high ammonia concentration, and presence of urea) for the target bacterium, highly active ureolytic bacteria, physiologically resembling Sporosarcina pasteurii were reproducibly enriched and then continuously produced via chemostat operation of the bioreactor. When using a pH of 10 and about 0.2 M urea in a yeast extract-based medium, ureolytic bacteria developed under aerobic chemostat operation at hydraulic retention times of about 10 h with urease levels of about 60 μmol min⁻¹ ml⁻¹ culture. For cost minimization at an industrial scale the costly protein-rich yeast extract medium could be replaced by commercial milk powder or by lysed activated sludge. Glutamate, molasses, or glucose-based media did not result in the enrichment of ureolytic bacteria by the chemostat. The concentration of intracellular urease was sufficiently high such that the produced raw effluent from the reactor could be used directly for biocementation in the field.

  14. TIME BEHAVIOR OF CHARGED PARTICLES INJECTED BY 1962 HIGH ALTITUDE RUSSIAN NUCLEAR TESTS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CHARGED PARTICLES, FALLOUT, GEOPHYSICS, HIGH ALTITUDE , USSR, NUCLEAR RADIATION SPECTROMETERS, RADIATION MEASURING INSTRUMENTS, SCIENTIFIC SATELLITES, GEOMAGNETISM, BETA PARTICLES, RADIOACTIVE DECAY, SCINTILLATION COUNTERS.

  15. Detection of thermal-induced prompt fission neutrons of highly-enriched uranium: A position sensitive technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartaglione, A.; Di Lorenzo, F.; Mayer, R. E.

    2009-07-01

    Cargo interrogation in search for special nuclear materials like highly-enriched uranium or 239Pu is a first priority issue of international borders security. In this work we present a thermal-pulsed neutron-based approach to a technique which combines the time-of-flight method and demonstrates a capability to detect small quantities of highly-enriched uranium shielded with high or low Z materials providing, in addition, a manner to know the approximate position of the searched material.

  16. Accident Analyses for Conversion of the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) from Highly-Enriched to Low-Enriched Uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Stillman, J. A.; Feldman, E. E.; Wilson, E. H.; Foyto, L. P.; Kutikkad, K.; McKibben, J. C.; Peters, N. J.; Cowherd, W. M.; Rickman, B.

    2014-12-01

    This report contains the results of reactor accident analyses for the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR). The calculations were performed as part of the conversion from the use of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to the use of low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The analyses were performed by staff members of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Reactor Conversion Program at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), the MURR Facility, and the Nuclear Engineering Program – College of Engineering, University of Missouri-Columbia. The core conversion to LEU is being performed with financial support from the U. S. government. This report contains the results of reactor accident analyses for the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR). The calculations were performed as part of the conversion from the use of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to the use of low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The analyses were performed by staff members of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Reactor Conversion Program at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), the MURR Facility, and the Nuclear Engineering Program – College of Engineering, University of Missouri-Columbia. The core conversion to LEU is being performed with financial support from the U. S. government. In the framework of non-proliferation policies, the international community presently aims to minimize the amount of nuclear material available that could be used for nuclear weapons. In this geopolitical context most research and test reactors, both domestic and international, have started a program of conversion to the use of LEU fuel. A new type of LEU fuel based on an alloy of uranium and molybdenum (U-Mo) is expected to allow the conversion of U.S. domestic high performance reactors like MURR. This report presents the results of a study of core behavior under a set of accident conditions for MURR cores fueled with HEU U-Alx dispersion fuel or LEU monolithic U-Mo alloy fuel with 10 wt% Mo

  17. Anaerobic biotransformation of high concentrations of chloroform by an enrichment culture and two bacterial isolates.

    PubMed

    Shan, Huifeng; Kurtz, Harry D; Mykytczuk, Nadia; Trevors, Jack T; Freedman, David L

    2010-10-01

    A fermentative enrichment culture (designated DHM-1) was developed that is capable of cometabolically biotransforming high concentrations of chloroform (CF) to nontoxic end products. Two Pantoea spp. were isolated from DHM-1 that also possess this dechlorination capability. Following acclimation to increasing levels of CF, corn syrup-grown DHM-1 was able to transform over 500 mg/liter CF in the presence of vitamin B(12) (approximately 3% of CF on a molar basis) at a rate as high as 22 mg/liter/day in a mineral salts medium. CO, CO(2), and organic acids were the predominant biodegradation products, suggesting that hydrolytic reactions predominate during CF transformation. DHM-1 was capable of growing on corn syrup in the presence of high concentrations of CF (as may be present near contaminant source zones in groundwater), which makes it a promising culture for bioaugmentation. Strains DHM-1B and DHM-1T transform CF at rates similar to that of the DHM-1 enrichment culture. The ability of these strains to grow in the presence of high concentrations of CF appears to be related to alteration of membrane fluidity or homeoviscous and homeophasic adaptation.

  18. Survey on Russian Society: Discover Russian and the Russians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Written primarily for the non-Russian speaking student, this course is designed to demonstrate how simple and interesting Russian studies can be. Performance objectives are presented in two categories: language and culture. After the statement of each language objective, letters indicate the language skills to which the objective is directed. The…

  19. NPC1 is enriched in unexplained early onset ataxia: a targeted high-throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Synofzik, Matthis; Harmuth, Florian; Stampfer, Miriam; Müller Vom Hagen, Jennifer; Schöls, Ludger; Bauer, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a rare autosomal-recessive neurodegenerative disease featuring pleiotropic neurological, psychiatric and visceral manifestations. Since many of the adult manifestations can be non-specific or missed, NP-C often goes undetected in adult-onset patients. Here we hypothesized that targeted high-throughput sequencing allows identifying NP-C patients among subjects with unexplained early-onset ataxia (EOA) and, moreover, that this population is enriched for NPC1 mutations. From 204 consecutive EOA patients, all 108 subjects with an established diagnosis were removed (including 4 NPC1 patients), yielding a target cohort of 96 subjects with unexplained EOA, but without primary suspicion of NP-C. This cohort was investigated for NPC1/NPC2 mutations using a high-coverage HaloPlex gene panel including 122 ataxia genes. Among 96 samples, we identified 4 known NPC1 mutations, 3 novel NPC1 missense variants of uncertain significance (VUS) and 1 novel NPC2 missense VUS. The total mutant allele frequency (8/192 = 4.17 %) was significantly enriched compared with control population data (1.57 %; p = 0.011). Two NPC1-positive patients were identified (both with non-specific incipient clinical features), giving a NPC1 patient frequency of 2/96 = 2.1 % in unexplained EOA and of 6/204 = 2.9 % in the total EOA series. NPC1 mutations are substantially enriched in unexplained EOA, demonstrating EOA as a risk-group for NP-C disease. Targeted high-throughput sequencing allows to identify also those NP-C patients with non-specific conditions where the diagnosis has initially been missed. This method does not require having considered NP-C during differential diagnosis, but allows identification of NP-C as part of the default analysis.

  20. Trenholm State (AL) Technical College High School Science Enrichment Program 1996-1997 Evaluation Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Elizabeth G.

    1997-01-01

    This document presents findings based on a third-year evaluation of Trenholm State (AL) Technical College's National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) - supported High School Science Enrichment Program (HSSEP). HSSEP is an external (to school) program for area students from groups that are underrepresented in the mathematics, science, engineering and technology (MSET) professions. In addition to gaining insight into scientific careers, HSSEP participants learn about and deliver presentations that focus on mathematics applications, scientific problem-solving and computer programming during a seven-week summer or 10-week Academic-Year Saturday session.

  1. Nonproliferation analysis of the reduction of excess separated plutonium and high-enriched uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Persiani, P.J.

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this preliminary investigation is to explore alternatives and strategies aimed at the gradual reduction of the excess inventories of separated plutonium and high-enriched uranium (HEU) in the civilian nuclear power industry. The study attempts to establish a technical and economic basis to assist in the formation of alternative approaches consistent with nonproliferation and safeguards concerns. The analysis addresses several options in reducing the excess separated plutonium and HEU, and the consequences on nonproliferation and safeguards policy assessments resulting from the interacting synergistic effects between fuel cycle processes and isotopic signatures of nuclear materials.

  2. Analysis of civilian processing programs in reduction of excess separated plutonium and high-enriched uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Persiani, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this preliminary investigation is to explore alternatives and strategies aimed at the gradual reduction of the excess inventories of separated plutonium and high-enriched uranium (HEU) in the civilian nuclear power industry. The study attempts to establish a technical and economic basis to assist in the formation of alternative approaches consistent with nonproliferation and safeguards concerns. The analysis addresses several options in reducing the excess separated plutonium and HEU, and the consequences on nonproliferation and safeguards policy assessments resulting from the interacting synergistic effects between fuel cycle processes and isotopic signatures of nuclear materials.

  3. Evaluation of a uranium zirconium hydride fuel rod option for conversion of the MIT research reactor (MITR) from highly-enriched uranium to low-enriched uranium

    DOE PAGES

    Dunn, F. E.; Wilson, E. H.; Feldman, E. E.; ...

    2017-03-23

    The conversion of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (MITR) from the use of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel-plate assemblies to low-enriched uranium (LEU) by replacing the HEU fuel plates with specially designed General Atomics (GA) uranium zirconium hydride (UZrH) LEU fuel rods is evaluated in this paper. The margin to critical heat flux (CHF) in the core, which is cooled by light water at low pressure, is evaluated analytically for steady-state operation. A form of the Groeneveld CHF lookup table method is used and described in detail. A CHF ratio of 1.41 was found in the present analysis at 10more » MW with engineering hot channel factors included. Therefore, the nominal reactor core power, and neutron flux performance, would need to be reduced by at least 25% in order to meet the regulatory requirement of a minimum CHF ratio of 2.0.« less

  4. Preparation of highly fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles for analytes-enrichment and subsequent biodetection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bingbo; Chen, Bingdi; Wang, Yilong; Guo, Fangfang; Li, Zhuoquan; Shi, Donglu

    2011-01-15

    Bifunctional nanoparticles with highly fluorescence and decent magnetic properties have been widely used in biomedical application. In this study, highly fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles (FMNPs) with uniform size of ca. 40 nm are prepared by encapsulation of both magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and shell/core quantum dots (QDs) with well-designed shell structure/compositions into silica matrix via a one-pot reverse microemulsion approach. The spectral analysis shows that the FMNPs hold high fluorescent quantum yield (QY). The QYs and saturation magnetization of the FMNPs can be regulated by varying the ratio of the encapsulated QDs to MNPs. Moreover, the surface of the FMNPs can be modified to offer chemical groups for antibody conjugation for following use in target-enrichment and subsequent fluorescent detection. The in vitro immunofluorescence assay and flow cytometric analysis indicate that the bifunctional FMNPs-antibody bioconjugates are capable of target-enrichment, magnetic separation and can also be used as alternative fluorescent probes on flow cytometry for biodetection.

  5. Russian Translation.

    PubMed

    O'dette, R E

    1957-03-29

    This discussion has described the status of the large United States program for translation from the Russian. A partial description of what is being done or planned, and by whom, has been provided as a guide for those who wish to follow the subject further. The urge to pass on useful information has necessarily restricted the space which might also have been profitably devoted to the philosophic aspects of the problem. Although it is not said with any sense of pride in achievement-because much more remains to be done than has been done-it would seem fair to describe the current national translation activity, including all contributions to it, as a phenomenon. Phenomena in scientific communication are not common: a full appreciation of their significance requires more analysis than results from a simple listing of their outward characteristics. But a few observations might be made in conclusion. Most United States scientists probably feel that, as a nation, we are and should be world leaders in science, even though this feeling is neither nurtured nor expressed in a spirit of violent competition. If this assumption is allowed, the point which seems to remain is that the United States will not retain its position casually. Our scientists expect to maintain an awareness of the scientific achievements and failures of the other nations of the world. But we must especially become more aware of the advances of Soviet science, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The evidence points toward this last conclusion, regardless of whether one is concerned with the production of ideas or things, increase in man's knowledge of himself and his environment, conflict between idealisms, or simply the national security.

  6. Highly enriched isotope samples of uranium and transuranium elements for scientific investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesnovskii, Stanislav P.; Polynov, Vladimir N.; Danilin, Lev. D.

    1992-02-01

    The paper describes the production of highly enriched isotopes of uranium, plutonium, americium and curium by electromagnetic separation for scientific and applied researches in physics, chemistry, geology, medicine, biology and other fields. Using the equipment described, the isotopes are produced in quantities sufficient to set up nuclear physical experiments, to produce nuclear reference materials and standard sources for calibration of radiometrical and mass spectrometrical equipment, in radionuclide metrology, etc. For the following isotopes the indicated degrees of isotopic enrichment were achieved: 233U - 99.97%; 235U - 99.97%; 236U - 98.0%; 238U - 99.997%; 238Pu - 99.6%; 239Pu - 99.9977%; 240Pu - 99.9-100%; 241Pu - 96.998%; 242Pu - 97.8-99.96%; 244Pu - 96.7%; 241Am - 99.6%; 242Am - 73.6%; 243Am - 99.2-99.94%; 243Cm - 99.99%; 245Cm - 99.998%; 246Cm - 99.8%; 247Cm - 90%; 248Cm - 97%. Methods for preparing layers of highly enriched isotopes on various substances are presented: - electrochemical deposition of transuranic elements from aqueous-organic and organic media and vacuum spraying: - the method of foil and coating formation via compounds in the vapour phase; - the method of fabrication of layers of transuranic elements on superthin (1-2 μm) metal substrates with additional isolating polymer-metal coatings (0.2-0.4 μm), that substantially decrease material transfer from the active layer and increase safety of product handling.

  7. Partial Safety Analysis for a Reduced Uranium Enrichment Core for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Primm, Trent; Gehin, Jess C

    2009-04-01

    A computational model of the reactor core of the High Flux Isotope Rector (HFIR) was developed in order to analyze non-destructive accidents caused by transients during reactor operation. The reactor model was built for the latest version of the nuclear analysis software package called Program for the Analysis of Reactor Transients (PARET). Analyses performed with the model constructed were compared with previous data obtained with other tools in order to benchmark the code. Finally, the model was used to analyze the behavior of the reactor under transients using a different nuclear fuel with lower enrichment of uranium (LEU) than the fuel currently used, which has a high enrichment of uranium (HEU). The study shows that the presence of fertile isotopes in LEU fuel, which increases the neutron resonance absorption, reduces the impact of transients on the fuel and enhances the negative reactivity feedback, thus, within the limitations of this study, making LEU fuel appear to be a safe alternative fuel for the reactor core.

  8. High-density reduced-enrichment fuels for Research and Test Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Snelgrove, J.L.; Hofman, G.L.; Copeland, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    Development and irradiation testing of high-density fuels have been conducted by the US RERTR Program in order to provide the technical means to reduce the enrichment of fuels for research and test reactors. The traditional aluminum dispersion fuel technology has been extended to include the highest practical loadings of uranium-aluminide (UAl/sub x/, 2.3 MgU/m/sup 3/), uranium-oxide (U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, 3.2 MgU/m/sup 3/), and uranium-silicide (U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/, 5.5 MgU/m/sup 3/; U/sub 3/Si, 7.0 MgU/m/sup 3/) fuels. A third uranium-silicide alloy, U/sub 3/SiAl (U + 3.5 wt % Si + 1.5 wt % Al) has been found to perform poorly at high burnup. Testing of miniature fuel plates and full-sized fuel elements is at an advanced stage for the highest loadings of the aluminide and oxide fuels and intermediate loadings of the silicide fuels, and good results have been obtained for low-enriched uranium. The data obtained to date are discussed. 1 reference, 3 figures, 1 table.

  9. Compact reaction cell for homogenizing and down-blanding highly enriched uranium metal

    DOEpatents

    McLean, II, William; Miller, Philip E.; Horton, James A.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a specialized reaction cell for converting uranium metal to uranium oxide. In a preferred form, the reaction cell comprises a reaction chamber with increasing diameter along its length (e.g. a cylindrical chamber having a diameter of about 2 inches in a lower portion and having a diameter of from about 4 to about 12 inches in an upper portion). Such dimensions are important to achieve the necessary conversion while at the same time affording criticality control and transportability of the cell and product. The reaction chamber further comprises an upper port and a lower port, the lower port allowing for the entry of reactant gasses into the reaction chamber, the upper port allowing for the exit of gasses from the reaction chamber. A diffuser plate is attached to the lower port of the reaction chamber and serves to shape the flow of gas into the reaction chamber. The reaction cell further comprises means for introducing gasses into the reaction chamber and a heating means capable of heating the contents of the reaction chamber. The present invention also relates to a method for converting uranium metal to uranium oxide in the reaction cell of the present invention. The invention is useful for down-blending highly enriched uranium metal by the simultaneous conversion of highly enriched uranium metal and natural or depleted uranium metal to uranium oxide within the reaction cell.

  10. Compact reaction cell for homogenizing and down-blending highly enriched uranium metal

    DOEpatents

    McLean, W. II; Miller, P.E.; Horton, J.A.

    1995-05-02

    The invention is a specialized reaction cell for converting uranium metal to uranium oxide. In a preferred form, the reaction cell comprises a reaction chamber with increasing diameter along its length (e.g. a cylindrical chamber having a diameter of about 2 inches in a lower portion and having a diameter of from about 4 to about 12 inches in an upper portion). Such dimensions are important to achieve the necessary conversion while at the same time affording criticality control and transportability of the cell and product. The reaction chamber further comprises an upper port and a lower port, the lower port allowing for the entry of reactant gases into the reaction chamber, the upper port allowing for the exit of gases from the reaction chamber. A diffuser plate is attached to the lower port of the reaction chamber and serves to shape the flow of gas into the reaction chamber. The reaction cell further comprises means for introducing gases into the reaction chamber and a heating means capable of heating the contents of the reaction chamber. The present invention also relates to a method for converting uranium metal to uranium oxide in the reaction cell of the present invention. The invention is useful for down-blending highly enriched uranium metal by the simultaneous conversion of highly enriched uranium metal and natural or depleted uranium metal to uranium oxide within the reaction cell. 4 figs.

  11. Fast critical assembly safeguards: NDA methods for highly enriched uranium. Summary report, October 1978-September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Bellinger, F.O.; Winslow, G.H.

    1980-12-01

    Nondestructive assay (NDA) methods, principally passive gamma measurements and active neutron interrogation, have been studied for their safeguards effectiveness and programmatic impact as tools for making inventories of highly enriched uranium fast critical assembly fuel plates. It was concluded that no NDA method is the sole answer to the safeguards problem, that each of those emphasized here has its place in an integrated safeguards system, and that each has minimum facility impact. It was found that the 185-keV area, as determined with a NaI detector, was independent of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) plate irradiation history, though the random neutron driver methods used here did not permit accurate assay of irradiated plates. Containment procedures most effective for accurate assaying were considered, and a particular geometry is recommended for active interrogation by a random driver. A model, pertinent to that geometry, which relates the effects of multiplication and self-absorption, is described. Probabilities of failing to detect that plates are missing are examined.

  12. Optimized gene synthesis, high level expression, isotopic enrichment, and refolding of human interleukin-5.

    PubMed

    Mehta, D V; DiGate, R J; Banville, D L; Guiles, R D

    1997-10-01

    Structural studies on soluble proteins using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and other structural methods in general require large quantities of isotopically enriched proteins. Human interleukin-5 is a disulfide-linked homodimeric cytokine implicated in asthmatic response. The development of a high yield overexpression system for human interleukin-5 is an important prerequisite to using modern multidimensional NMR in the characterization of the solution structure of the protein and to characterize interactions with a soluble receptor domain. Significant amounts of the protein were expressed using an optimized synthetic gene in a high yield expression system. Gene synthesis was accomplished through the ligation of six oligonucleotides composed of optimized codons. The ligated fragments were further amplified by a polymerase chain reaction and then subcloned into the T7 RNA polymerase based overexpression vector pET11a. However, the induced protein accumulated in the form of inclusion bodies. Initially, the protein was solubilized under denaturing conditions and purified in these denaturing conditions by passage through a single S-200 HR sizing column. Finally, protein refolding was initiated in the presence of 2 M urea followed by dialysis. This protocol yielded 40 mg of biologically active, isotope-enriched protein from 4 liters of minimal medium thus facilitating structural studies by NMR. The strategy described may be of immense value in the production of significant quantities of recombinant, eukaryotic proteins for structural and other studies.

  13. Use of Savannah River Site facilities for blend down of highly enriched uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, W.E.; McKibben, J.M.

    1994-02-01

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company was asked to assess the use of existing Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities for the conversion of highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU). The purpose was to eliminate the weapons potential for such material. Blending HEU with existing supplies of depleted uranium (DU) would produce material with less than 5% U-235 content for use in commercial nuclear reactors. The request indicated that as much as 500 to 1,000 MT of HEU would be available for conversion over a 20-year period. Existing facilities at the SRS are capable of producing LEU in the form of uranium trioxide (UO{sub 3}) powder, uranyl nitrate [UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}] solution, or metal. Additional processing, and additional facilities, would be required to convert the LEU to uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) or uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 3}), the normal inputs for commercial fuel fabrication. This study`s scope does not include the cost for new conversion facilities. However, the low estimated cost per kilogram of blending HEU to LEU in SRS facilities indicates that even with fees for any additional conversion to UO{sub 2} or UF{sub 6}, blend-down would still provide a product significantly below the spot market price for LEU from traditional enrichment services. The body of the report develops a number of possible facility/process combinations for SRS. The primary conclusion of this study is that SRS has facilities available that are capable of satisfying the goals of a national program to blend HEU to below 5% U-235. This preliminary assessment concludes that several facility/process options appear cost-effective. Finally, SRS is a secure DOE site with all requisite security and safeguard programs, personnel skills, nuclear criticality safety controls, accountability programs, and supporting infrastructure to handle large quantities of special nuclear materials (SNM).

  14. Russian EVA 33

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    View of Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin (bottom center), Expedition 36 flight engineer, participating in Russian extravehicular activity (EVA) 33. Also visible are the Progress spacecraft docked to the Pirs Docking Compartment (DC1) with the Service Module (SM) .

  15. Nitrogen-enriched carbon with extremely high mesoporosity and tunable mesopore size for high-performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoqing; Li, Chengfei; Fu, Ruowen

    2016-07-01

    As one of the most potential electrode materials for supercapacitors, nitrogen-enriched nanocarbons are still facing challenge of constructing developed mesoporosity for rapid mass transportation and tailoring their pore size for performance optimization and expanding their application scopes. Herein we develop a series of nitrogen-enriched mesoporous carbon (NMC) with extremely high mesoporosity and tunable mesopore size by a two-step method using silica gel as template. In our approach, mesopore size can be easily tailored from 4.7 to 35 nm by increasing the HF/TEOS volume ratio from 1/100 to 1/4. The NMC with mesopores of 6.2 nm presents the largest mesopore volume, surface area and mesopore ratio of 2.56 cm3 g-1, 1003 m2 g-1 and 97.7%, respectively. As a result, the highest specific capacitance of 325 F g-1 can be obtained at the current density of 0.1 A g-1, which can stay over 88% (286 F g-1) as the current density increases by 100 times (10 A g-1). This approach may open the doors for preparation of nitrogen-enriched nanocarbons with desired nanostructure for numerous applications.

  16. Russian EVA 34

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-16

    ISS036-E-033402 (16 Aug. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin (lower left), Expedition 36 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the seven-hour, 29-minute spacewalk ? the longest ever conducted by a pair of Russian cosmonauts ? Misurkin and Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame) rigged cables for the future arrival of a Russian laboratory module and installed an experiment panel.

  17. Russian EVA 34

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-16

    ISS036-E-033400 (16 Aug. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin (lower left), Expedition 36 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the seven-hour, 29-minute spacewalk ? the longest ever conducted by a pair of Russian cosmonauts ? Misurkin and Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame) rigged cables for the future arrival of a Russian laboratory module and installed an experiment panel.

  18. Geology of the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago and the North Kara Terrane in the Russian high Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Henning; Männik, Peep; Gee, David; Proskurnin, Vasilij

    2008-05-01

    The Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago is located at 80°N near the continental shelf break, between the Kara and Laptev seas. Sedimentary successions of Neoproterozoic and Palaeozoic age dominate the bedrock geology. Together with Northern Tajmyr, Severnaya Zemlya constitutes the main land areas of the North Kara Terrane (NKT), which is inferred here to have been a part of the Timanide margin of Baltica, i.e. an integral part of Baltica at least since the Vendian. Vendian turbidites derived from the Timanide Orogen are inferred to have been deposited on Neoproterozoic greenschist facies, granite-intruded basement. Shallow-water siliclastic deposition in the Early to Mid-Cambrian was followed by highly organic-rich shales in the Late Cambrian and influx of more turbidites. An episode of folding, the Kan’on River deformation, separates these formations from the overlying Tremadocian conglomerates and sandstones. In the Early Ordovician, rift-related magmatic rocks accompanied the deposition of variegated marls, sandstones, carbonates and evaporites. Dark shales and gypsiferous limestones characterise the Mid-Ordovician. Late Ordovician quartz-sandstones mark a hiatus, followed by carbonate rocks that extend up into and through most of the Silurian. The latter give way upwards into Old Red Sandstones, which are inferred to have been deposited in a Caledonian foreland basin. Deformation, reaching the area in the latest Devonian or earliest Carboniferous and referred to as the Severnaya Zemlya episode, is thought to be Caledonian-related. The dominating E-vergent structure was controlled by décollement zones in Ordovician evaporite-bearing strata; detachment folds and thrusts developed in the west and were apparently impeded by a barrier of Ordovician igneous rocks in the east. Below the décollement zones, the Neoproterozoic to Early Ordovician succession was deformed into open to close folds. The exposed strata in the lower structural level have been juxtaposed with

  19. Cell Sorting Enriches Escherichia coli Mutants That Rely on Peptidoglycan Endopeptidases To Suppress Highly Aberrant Morphologies

    PubMed Central

    Laubacher, Mary E.; Melquist, Amy L.; Chandramohan, Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial morphology imparts physiological advantages to cells in different environments and, judging by the fidelity with which shape is passed to daughter cells, is a tightly regulated characteristic. Surprisingly, only in the past 10 to 15 years has significant headway been made in identifying the mechanisms by which cells create and maintain particular shapes. One reason for this is that the relevant discoveries have relied heavily on the arduous, somewhat subjective process of manual microscopy. Here, we show that flow cytometry, coupled with the sorting capability of fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), can detect, quantify, and enrich bacteria with morphological alterations. The light scattering properties of several highly aberrant morphological mutants of Escherichia coli were characterized by flow cytometry. Cells from a region that overlapped the distribution of normal rod-shaped cells were collected by FACS and reincubated. After 4 to 15 iterations of this enrichment process, suppressor mutants were isolated that returned almost all the population to a near-normal shape. Suppressors were successfully isolated from strains lacking three or four penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) but not from a mutant lacking a total of seven PBPs. The peptidoglycan endopeptidase, AmpH, was identified as being important for the suppression process, as was a related endopeptidase, MepA. The results validate the use of cell sorting as a means for studying bacterial morphology and identify at least one new class of enzymes required for the suppression of cell shape defects. PMID:23243305

  20. Increased functional protein expression using nucleotide sequence features enriched in highly expressed genes in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Horstick, Eric J; Jordan, Diana C; Bergeron, Sadie A; Tabor, Kathryn M; Serpe, Mihaela; Feldman, Benjamin; Burgess, Harold A

    2015-04-20

    Many genetic manipulations are limited by difficulty in obtaining adequate levels of protein expression. Bioinformatic and experimental studies have identified nucleotide sequence features that may increase expression, however it is difficult to assess the relative influence of these features. Zebrafish embryos are rapidly injected with calibrated doses of mRNA, enabling the effects of multiple sequence changes to be compared in vivo. Using RNAseq and microarray data, we identified a set of genes that are highly expressed in zebrafish embryos and systematically analyzed for enrichment of sequence features correlated with levels of protein expression. We then tested enriched features by embryo microinjection and functional tests of multiple protein reporters. Codon selection, releasing factor recognition sequence and specific introns and 3' untranslated regions each increased protein expression between 1.5- and 3-fold. These results suggested principles for increasing protein yield in zebrafish through biomolecular engineering. We implemented these principles for rational gene design in software for codon selection (CodonZ) and plasmid vectors incorporating the most active non-coding elements. Rational gene design thus significantly boosts expression in zebrafish, and a similar approach will likely elevate expression in other animal models.

  1. Zirconium oxide aerogel for effective enrichment of phosphopeptides with high binding capacity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liyuan; Xu, Jin; Sun, Liangliang; Ma, Junfeng; Yang, Kaiguang; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2011-04-01

    In this study, zirconium oxide (ZrO(2)) aerogel was synthesized via a green sol-gel approach, with zirconium oxychloride, instead of the commonly used alkoxide with high toxicity, as the precursor. With such material, phosphopeptides from the digests of 4 pmol of β-casein with the coexistence of 100 times (mol ratio) BSA could be selectively captured, and identified by MALDI-TOF MS. Due to the large surface area (416.0 m(2) g(-1)) and the mesoporous structure (the average pore size of 10.2 nm) of ZrO(2) aerogel, a 20-fold higher loading capacity for phosphopeptide, YKVPQLEIVPN[pS]AEER (MW 1952.12), was obtained compared to that of commercial ZrO(2) microspheres (341.5 vs. 17.87 mg g(-1)). The metal oxide aerogel was further applied in the enrichment of phosphopeptides from 100 ng nonfat milk, and 17 phosphopeptides were positively identified, with a 1.5-fold improvement in phosphopeptide detection compared with previously reported results. These results demonstrate that ZrO(2) aerogel can be a powerful enrichment material for phosphoproteome study.

  2. Reactor Physics Measurements and Benchmark Specifications for Oak Ridge Highly Enriched Uranium Sphere (ORSphere)

    DOE PAGES

    Marshall, Margaret A.

    2014-11-04

    In the early 1970s Dr. John T. Mihalczo (team leader), J.J. Lynn, and J.R. Taylor performed experiments at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) with highly enriched uranium (HEU) metal (called Oak Ridge Alloy or ORALLOY) in an effort to recreate GODIVA I results with greater accuracy than those performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the 1950s. The purpose of the Oak Ridge ORALLOY Sphere (ORSphere) experiments was to estimate the unreflected and unmoderated critical mass of an idealized sphere of uranium metal corrected to a density, purity, and enrichment such that it could be compared with themore » GODIVA I experiments. Additionally, various material reactivity worths, the surface material worth coefficient, the delayed neutron fraction, the prompt neutron decay constant, relative fission density, and relative neutron importance were all measured. The critical assembly, material reactivity worths, the surface material worth coefficient, and the delayed neutron fraction were all evaluated as benchmark experiment measurements. The reactor physics measurements are the focus of this paper; although for clarity the critical assembly benchmark specifications are briefly discussed.« less

  3. Preparation of hydrazine functionalized polymer brushes hybrid magnetic nanoparticles for highly specific enrichment of glycopeptides.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guang; Sun, Zhen; Qin, Hongqiang; Zhao, Liang; Xiong, Zhichao; Peng, Xiaojun; Ou, Junjie; Zou, Hanfa

    2014-05-07

    Hydrazide chemistry is a powerful technique in glycopeptides enrichment. However, the low density of the monolayer hydrazine groups on the conventional hydrazine-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles limits the efficiency of glycopeptides enrichment. Herein, a novel magnetic nanoparticle grafted with poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (GMA) brushes was fabricated via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization, and a large amount of hydrazine groups were further introduced to the GMA brushes by ring-opening the epoxy groups with hydrazine hydrate. The resulting magnetic nanoparticles (denoted as Fe3O4@SiO2@GMA-NHNH2) demonstrated the high specificity of capturing glycopeptides from a tryptic digest of the sample comprising a standard non-glycosylated protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) and four standard glycoproteins with a weight ratio of 50 : 1, and the detection limit was as low as 130 fmol. In the analysis of a real complex biological sample, the tryptic digest of hepatocellular carcinoma, 179 glycosites were identified by the Fe3O4@SiO2@GMA-NHNH2 nanoparticles, surpassing that of 68 glycosites by Fe3O4@SiO2-single-NHNH2 (with monolayer hydrazine groups on the surface). It can be expected that the magnetic nanoparticles modified with hydrazine functionalized polymer brushes via RAFT technique will improve the specificity and the binding capacity of glycopeptides from complex samples, and show great potential in the analysis of protein glycosylation in biological samples.

  4. Inquiry into disintegration control of irradiated low enrichment uranium for high temperature gas cooled reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitsamer, G.; Stolba, G.; Falta, G.; Strigl, A.; Zeger, J.; Maly, V.

    1984-07-01

    The PyC-coatings of irradiated high temperature reactor (HTR) fuel particles from AVR fuel elements were burnt off by air and oxygen at 1120K (comparable to the current HTR head-end). Experiments on the solubility of this low enrichment uranium fuel prove that 99.93% of the uranium and 99.84% of the plutonium can be dissolved by 7n HNO3. After additional treatment with 7n HNO3/0.01 n NaF, only 0.01% of the original amount of uranium and 0.01% of the original amount of plutonium remain undissolved. Neither the insoluble residues nor the very small amounts of solids formed on standing (before and after concentrating the solution up to 200 g U/1 and acidity of 3 n HNO3) show any enrichment of plutonium compared with the nitric acid solution. Results indicate that LWR-PUREX-technology can be used for reprocessing HTR-LEU-fuel.

  5. Reactor Physics Measurements and Benchmark Specifications for Oak Ridge Highly Enriched Uranium Sphere (ORSphere)

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Margaret A.

    2014-11-04

    In the early 1970s Dr. John T. Mihalczo (team leader), J.J. Lynn, and J.R. Taylor performed experiments at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) with highly enriched uranium (HEU) metal (called Oak Ridge Alloy or ORALLOY) in an effort to recreate GODIVA I results with greater accuracy than those performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the 1950s. The purpose of the Oak Ridge ORALLOY Sphere (ORSphere) experiments was to estimate the unreflected and unmoderated critical mass of an idealized sphere of uranium metal corrected to a density, purity, and enrichment such that it could be compared with the GODIVA I experiments. Additionally, various material reactivity worths, the surface material worth coefficient, the delayed neutron fraction, the prompt neutron decay constant, relative fission density, and relative neutron importance were all measured. The critical assembly, material reactivity worths, the surface material worth coefficient, and the delayed neutron fraction were all evaluated as benchmark experiment measurements. The reactor physics measurements are the focus of this paper; although for clarity the critical assembly benchmark specifications are briefly discussed.

  6. Dissolution of Highly Enriched Uranium from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.S.

    2004-01-14

    Since the capability to purify uranium (U) was terminated at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in the early 1990's, excess highly enriched uranium (HEU) from the cleanout of uranium trioxide (UO3) production equipment will be shipped to the Savannah River Site (SRS) for disposition. The excess material will be dissolved in Phase I of HB-Line, purified by solvent extraction, and blended with normal U to an enrichment which can be used to fabricate fuel for Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) reactors. The proposed HB-Line processing strategy is to dissolve up to 3 kg of material per 18 L dissolver batch. To demonstrate the proposed processing strategy, two samples of the HEU were shipped to the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). The material was used in a series of small-scale experiments in which prototypical amounts were dissolved to characterize the offgas and measure the dissolution time under varying process conditions. Complete dissolution of the U was obtained in 15-30 min for experiments performed at 23-60 degrees Celsius. The HEU was dissolved in 3.5M HNO3 using the solids to liquid ratio proposed for use in HB-Line. The experiment performed at 23 degrees Celsius demonstrated that rapid heat generation during the dissolution is not a concern.

  7. Epitaxial deposition of highly enriched 28Si films with <1 nm roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, K. J.; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Ramanayaka, A. N.; Simons, D. S.; Oleshko, Vladimir; Pomeroy, J. M.

    Low temperature epitaxial deposition of thin films with less than 1 nm rms roughness is achieved using a 28Si ion beam deposition source. These films are enriched in situ to <140 ppb 29Si isotope fraction for quantum computing devices. Removal of the 4.7 % 29Si nuclear spins in natural silicon allows for exceedingly long coherence (T2) times of qubits, making incorporation of highly enriched 28Si into devices critical for solid state quantum information. Low roughness epitaxial 28Si thin films are achieved by depositing in an island growth mode at temperatures of 300 °C to 400 °C, and the morphology is verified using scanning tunneling microscopy. Further, the crystalline quality of the films is shown using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. Finally, the chemical purity and broader electrical properties of the 28Si films are assessed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy as well as capacitance-voltage profiling, schottky diode measurements, and hall measurements.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of a novel boronic acid-functionalized chitosan polymeric nanosphere for highly specific enrichment of glycopeptides.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiajuan; Liu, Dan; Zhong, Lijun; Yang, Bin; Lou, Yaxin; Yin, Yuxin

    2012-10-01

    In this study we describe a method for highly specific enrichment of glycopeptides with boronic acid-functionalized chitosan polymeric nanospheres and matrix assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). This is the first time chitosan has been used to create nanosphere support material for selective enrichment of glycopeptides by modification with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and derivatization with 3-aminophenylboronic acid (APB). Due to their multifunctional chemical moieties, these 20-100 nm chitosan-GMA-APB nanospheres have unique properties, such as good dispersibility, good biocompatibility and chemical stability, as well as augmented specificity with glycopeptides. Enrichment conditions were optimized by using trypsin digested glycoprotein horseradish peroxidase. The high specificity of chitosan-GMA-APB nanospheres was demonstrated by effectively enriching glycopeptides from a digest mixture of horseradish peroxidase and nonglycoproteins (bovine serum albumin (BSA)).

  9. High-Fidelity Modelng and Simulation for a High Flux Isotope Reactor Low-Enriched Uranium Core Design

    DOE PAGES

    Betzler, Benjamin R.; Chandler, David; Davidson, Eva E.; ...

    2017-05-08

    A high-fidelity model of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) with a low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel design and a representative experiment loading has been developed to serve as a new reference model for LEU conversion studies. With the exception of the fuel elements, this HFIR LEU model is completely consistent with the current highly enriched uranium HFIR model. Results obtained with the new LEU model provide a baseline for analysis of alternate LEU fuel designs and further optimization studies. The newly developed HFIR LEU model has an explicit representation of the HFIR-specific involute fuel plate geometry, including the within-plate fuelmore » meat contouring, and a detailed geometry model of the fuel element side plates. Such high-fidelity models are necessary to accurately account for the self-shielding from 238U and the depletion of absorber materials present in the side plates. In addition, a method was developed to account for fuel swelling in the high-density LEU fuel plates during the depletion simulation. In conclusion, calculated time-dependent metrics for the HFIR LEU model include fission rate and cumulative fission density distributions, flux and reaction rates for relevant experiment locations, point kinetics data, and reactivity coefficients.« less

  10. Russian Flight Control Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-20

    NASA Deputy Administrator Fred Gregory, left, joins Russian Federal Space Agency Deputy General-Director Nikolai Moiseev, Wednesday, April 21, 2004, at the Russian Mission Control Center outside Moscow to view the docking of the Expedition 9 crew to the International Space Station in a Russian Soyuz spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. A Teacher's Notebook: Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Independent Schools, Boston, MA.

    Articles written by teachers of Russian for their peers in similar classroom environments are intended to aid in the development of curricular innovation. The articles, all based on practical and direct experience, include: (1) "Direct Methods for Teaching Russian," (2) "The Eclectic Approach to Teaching Russian," (3) "So-Called Linguistic…

  12. Highly 15N-Enriched Chondritic Clasts in the Isheyevo Meteorite

    SciTech Connect

    Bonal, L; Huss, G R; Krot, A N; Nagashima, K; Ishii, H A; Bradley, J P; Hutcheon, I D

    2009-01-14

    The metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites (CB and CH) have the highest whole-rock {sup 15}N enrichment ({delta}{sup 15}N up to +1500{per_thousand}), similar to {delta}{sup 15}N values reported in micron-sized regions (hotspots) of Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) of possibly cometary origin and fine-grained matrices of unmetamorphosed chondrites. These {sup 15}N-rich hotspots are commonly attributed to low-temperature ion-molecule reactions in the protosolar molecular cloud or in the outer part of the protoplanetary disk. The nature of the whole-rock {sup 15}N enrichment of the metal-rich chondrites is not understood. We report a discovery of a unique type of primitive chondritic clasts in the CH/CB-like meteorite Isheyevo, which provides important constraints on the origin of {sup 15}N anomaly in metal-rich chondrites and nitrogen-isotope fractionation in the Solar System. These clasts contain tiny chondrules and refractory inclusions (5-15 {micro}m in size), and abundant ferromagnesian chondrule fragments (1-50 {micro}m in size) embedded in the partly hydrated, fine-grained matrix material composed of olivines, pyroxenes, poorly-organized aromatic organics, phyllosilicates and other hydrous phases. The mineralogy and oxygen isotope compositions of chondrules and refractory inclusions in the clasts are similar to those in the Isheyevo host, suggesting formation at similar heliocentric distances. In contrast to the previously known extraterrestrial samples, the fine-grained material in the clasts is highly and rather uniformly enriched in {sup 15}N, with bulk {delta}{sup 15}N values ranging between +1000 and +1300{per_thousand}; the {delta}{sup 15}N values in rare hotspots range from +1400 to +4000{per_thousand}. Since fine-grained matrices in the lithic clasts are the only component containing thermally unprocessed (during CAI and chondrule formation or during impact melting) materials that accreted into the metal rich chondrite parent body(ies), the {sup 15}N-enriched

  13. The Russian Novel, Literature: 5113.88.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Developed for a high school quinmester unit on the Russian novel, this guide is designed to give students the opportunity to become familiar with the major works of Leo Tolstoy and Fyodor Dostoevski. Performance objectives for the course include studying the general facets of 19th century Russian culture and history, analyzing the novels of…

  14. My Russian Program is Alive and Growing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Henry P.

    The decision on the part of students regarding what language to take often depends on the tradition of good teaching that has been established in a school. Three factors have been involved in establishing such a tradition in Russian at Princeton High School in Columbus, Ohio. These are: (1) accepting the students who sign up for Russian as they…

  15. My Russian Program is Alive and Growing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Henry P.

    The decision on the part of students regarding what language to take often depends on the tradition of good teaching that has been established in a school. Three factors have been involved in establishing such a tradition in Russian at Princeton High School in Columbus, Ohio. These are: (1) accepting the students who sign up for Russian as they…

  16. Volume determination of the Avogadro spheres of highly enriched 28Si with a spherical Fizeau interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartl, Guido; Bettin, Horst; Krystek, Michael; Mai, Torsten; Nicolaus, Arnold; Peter, Andreas

    2011-04-01

    Within the scope of the efforts concerning the redefinition of the SI base unit 'kilogram' the final results of the international research project aiming at the redetermination of the Avogadro constant are ready to be announced. Among other quantities the volume of two spheres which are made of a highly enriched 28Si single crystal had to be determined. For this purpose a special Fizeau interferometer for the measurement of the spheres' diameters has been developed at PTB. This paper reports the final results of the volumes, the uncertainties and also the latest findings regarding systematic corrections including the effects of surface layers on the pure silicon core. The results are confirmed by density comparison measurements.

  17. Why is weapons grade plutonium more hazardous to work with than highly enriched uranium?

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Costigan, Stephen A.; Schake, Bradley S.

    2015-08-01

    Highly Enriched Uranium and Weapons grade plutonium have assumed positions of dominant importance among the actinide elements because of their successful uses as explosive ingredients in nuclear weapons and the place they hold as key materials in the development of industrial use of nuclear power. While most chemists are familiar with the practical interest concerning HEU and WG Pu, fewer know the subtleties among their hazards. In this study, a primer is provided regarding the hazards associated with working with HEU and WG Pu metals and oxides. The care that must be taken to safely handle these materials is emphasized and the extent of the hazards is described. The controls needed to work with HEU and WG Pu metals and oxides are differentiated. Given the choice, one would rather work with HEU metal and oxides than WG Pu metal and oxides.

  18. Why is weapons grade plutonium more hazardous to work with than highly enriched uranium?

    DOE PAGES

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Costigan, Stephen A.; Schake, Bradley S.

    2015-08-01

    Highly Enriched Uranium and Weapons grade plutonium have assumed positions of dominant importance among the actinide elements because of their successful uses as explosive ingredients in nuclear weapons and the place they hold as key materials in the development of industrial use of nuclear power. While most chemists are familiar with the practical interest concerning HEU and WG Pu, fewer know the subtleties among their hazards. In this study, a primer is provided regarding the hazards associated with working with HEU and WG Pu metals and oxides. The care that must be taken to safely handle these materials is emphasizedmore » and the extent of the hazards is described. The controls needed to work with HEU and WG Pu metals and oxides are differentiated. Given the choice, one would rather work with HEU metal and oxides than WG Pu metal and oxides.« less

  19. Heterogeneity of high-mobility-group protein 2. Enrichment of a rapidly migrating form in testis.

    PubMed Central

    Bucci, L R; Brock, W A; Meistrich, M L

    1985-01-01

    A determination of the absolute amounts of high-mobility-group proteins 1 and 2 (HMG1 and HMG2) in rat tissues demonstrated that amounts of HMG2 were low in non-proliferating tissues, somewhat higher in proliferating and lymphoid tissues, but were extremely elevated in the testis. This increase was due to a germ-cell-specific form of HMG2 with increased mobility relative to somatic HMG2 on acid/urea/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. To determine if the findings in the rat were a general feature of spermatogenesis, testis (germinal), spleen (lymphoid), and liver (non-proliferating) tissues from various vertebrate species were examined for their relative amounts of HMG1 and HMG2, and for HMG2 heterogeneity. Bull, chimpanzee, cynomologus monkey, dog, gopher, guinea pig, hamster, mouse, opossum, rabbit, rat, rhesus monkey, squirrel and toad (Xenopus) tissues were analysed. Nearly all species showed relatively high contents of HMG2 in testis tissue, whereas HMG1 contents were similar in all species and tissues. Ten of thirteen species showed a rapidly migrating HMG2 subtype in testis tissue, separable by acid/urea/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Xenopus, which lacks HMG2 in somatic tissues, showed an HMG2-like protein in testis tissue. Although the rapidly migrating HMG2 subtype in species other than rat was not testis-specific, it was always enriched in the testis. This study indicates that increased amounts of HMG2 and the enrichment of a rapidly migrating HMG2 subtype are general features of spermatogenic cells. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:4038257

  20. High-efficiency hydrogen production by an anaerobic, thermophilic enrichment culture from an Icelandic hot spring.

    PubMed

    Koskinen, Perttu E P; Lay, Chyi-How; Puhakka, Jaakko A; Lin, Ping-Jei; Wu, Shu-Yii; Orlygsson, Jóhann; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2008-11-01

    Dark fermentative hydrogen production from glucose by a thermophilic culture (33HL), enriched from an Icelandic hot spring sediment sample, was studied in two continuous-flow, completely stirred tank reactors (CSTR1, CSTR2) and in one semi-continuous, anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) at 58 degrees C. The 33HL produced H2 yield (HY) of up to 3.2 mol-H2/mol-glucose along with acetate in batch assay. In the CSTR1 with 33HL inoculum, H2 production was unstable. In the ASBR, maintained with 33HL, the H2 production enhanced after the addition of 6 mg/L of FeSO4 x H2O resulting in HY up to 2.51 mol-H2/mol-glucose (H2 production rate (HPR) of 7.85 mmol/h/L). The H2 production increase was associated with an increase in butyrate production. In the CSTR2, with ASBR inoculum and FeSO4 supplementation, stable, high-rate H2 production was obtained with HPR up to 45.8 mmol/h/L (1.1 L/h/L) and HY of 1.54 mol-H2/mol-glucose. The 33HL batch enrichment was dominated by bacterial strains closely affiliated with Thermobrachium celere (99.8-100%). T. celere affiliated strains, however, did not thrive in the three open system bioreactors. Instead, Thermoanaerobacterium aotearoense (98.5-99.6%) affiliated strains, producing H2 along with butyrate and acetate, dominated the reactor cultures. This culture had higher H2 production efficiency (HY and specific HPR) than reported for mesophilic mixed cultures. Further, the thermophilic culture readily formed granules in CSTR and ASBR systems. In summary, the thermophilic culture as characterized by high H2 production efficiency and ready granulation is considered very promising for H2 fermentation from carbohydrates.

  1. TRANSPARENCY: Tracking Uranium under the U.S. / Russian HEU Purchase Agreement

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, J B; Decman, D J; Leich, D A

    2005-10-19

    By the end of August, 2005, the Russia Federation delivered to the United States (U.S.) more than 7,000 metric tons (MT) of low enriched uranium (LEU) containing approximately 46 million SWU and 75,000 MT of natural uranium. This uranium was blended down from weapons-grade (nominally enriched to 90% {sup 235}U) highly enriched uranium (HEU) under the 1993 HEU Purchase Agreement that provides for the blend down of 500 MT HEU into LEU for use as fuel in commercial nuclear reactors. The HEU Transparency Program, under the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), monitored the conversion and blending of the more than 250 MT HEU used to produce this LEU. The HEU represents more than half of the 500 MT HEU scheduled to be blended down through the year 2013 and is equivalent to the elimination of more than 10,000 nuclear devices. The HEU Transparency Program has made considerable progress in its mission to develop and implement transparency measures necessary to assure that Russian HEU extracted from dismantled Russian nuclear weapons is blended down into LEU for delivery to the United States. U.S. monitor observations include the inventory of in process containers, observation of plant operations, nondestructive assay measurements to determine {sup 235}U enrichment, as well as the examination of Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) documents. During 2005, HEU Transparency Program personnel will conduct 24 Special Monitoring Visits (SMVs) to four Russian uranium processing plants, in addition to staffing a Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) at one Russian site.

  2. Russian Iconography: Russia's Contribution to the Art of Western Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagstaff, Jeri Lou

    This one- to three-week high school unit on Russian iconography was developed as part of a series by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. The unit can be incorporated into a larger unit on Russian literature, art, religion, or history. Four reasons for studying iconography are: 1) it is a splendid Russian art…

  3. Enrichment of large-diameter semiconducting SWCNTs by polyfluorene extraction for high network density thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jianfu; Li, Zhao; Lefebvre, Jacques; Cheng, Fuyong; Dubey, Girjesh; Zou, Shan; Finnie, Paul; Hrdina, Amy; Scoles, Ludmila; Lopinski, Gregory P.; Kingston, Christopher T.; Simard, Benoit; Malenfant, Patrick R. L.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study on the use of 9,9-dialkylfluorene homopolymers (PFs) for large-diameter semiconducting (sc-) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) enrichment is the focus of this report. The enrichment is based on a simple three-step extraction process: (1) dispersion of as-produced SWCNTs in a PF solution; (2) centrifugation at a low speed to separate the enriched sc-tubes; (3) filtration to collect the enriched sc-SWCNTs and remove excess polymer. The effect of the extraction conditions on the purity and yield including molecular weight and alkyl side-chain length of the polymers, SWCNT concentration, and polymer/SWCNT ratio have been examined. It was observed that PFs with alkyl chain lengths of C10, C12, C14, and C18, all have an excellent capability to enrich laser-ablation sc-SWCNTs when their molecular weight is larger than ~10 000 Da. More detailed studies were therefore carried out with the C12 polymer, poly(9,9-di-n-dodecylfluorene), PFDD. It was found that a high polymer/SWCNT ratio leads to an enhanced yield but a reduced sc-purity. A ratio of 0.5-1.0 gives an excellent sc-purity and a yield of 5-10% in a single extraction as assessed by UV-vis-NIR absorption spectra. The yield can also be promoted by multiple extractions while maintaining high sc-purity. Mechanistic experiments involving time-lapse dispersion studies reveal that m-SWCNTs have a lower propensity to be dispersed, yielding a sc-SWCNT enriched material in the supernatant. Dispersion stability studies with partially enriched sc-SWCNT material further reveal that m-SWCNTs : PFDD complexes will re-aggregate faster than sc-SWCNTs : PFDD complexes, providing further sc-SWCNT enrichment. This result confirms that the enrichment was due to the much tighter bundles in raw materials and the more rapid bundling in dispersion of the m-SWCNTs. The sc-purity is also confirmed by Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence excitation (PLE) mapping. The latter shows that the enriched sc-SWCNT sample has

  4. Program to enrich science and mathematics experiences of high school students through interactive museum internships

    SciTech Connect

    Reif, R.J.; Lock, C.R.

    1998-11-01

    This project addressed the problem of female and minority representation in science and mathematics education and in related fields. It was designed to recruit high school students from under-represented groups into a program that provided significant, meaningful experiences to encourage those young people to pursue careers in science and science teaching. It provided role models for those students. It provided experiences outside of the normal school environment, experiences that put the participants in the position to serve as role models themselves for disadvantaged young people. It also provided encouragement to pursue careers in science and mathematics teaching and related careers. In these respects, it complemented other successful programs to encourage participation in science. And, it differed in that it provided incentives at a crucial time, when career decisions are being made during the high school years. Further, it encouraged the pursuit of careers in science teaching. The objectives of this project were to: (1) provide enrichment instruction in basic concepts in the life, earth, space, physical sciences and mathematics to selected high school students participating in the program; (2) provide instruction in teaching methods or processes, including verbal communication skills and the use of questioning; (3) provide opportunities for participants, as paid student interns, to transfer knowledge to other peers and adults; (4) encourage minority and female students with high academic potential to pursue careers in science teaching.

  5. Oxygen enrichment and its application to life support systems for workers in high-altitude areas

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongling; Liu, Yingshu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Workers coming from lowland regions are at risk of developing acute mountain sickness (AMS) when working in low oxygen high-altitude areas. Objectives: The aim of this study was to improve the conditions that lead to hypoxia and ensure the safety of the high-altitude workers. We analyzed the influence of low atmospheric pressure on the oxygen enrichment process in high-altitude areas using an engineering method called low-pressure swing adsorption (LPSA). Methods: Fourteen male subjects were screened and divided into three groups by type of oxygen supply system used: (1) oxygen cylinder group; (2) LPSA oxygen dispersal group; and (3) control group. These tests included arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), pulse rate (PR), breaths per minute (BPM), and blood pressure (BP). Results: The results showed that after supplying oxygen using the LPSA method at the tunnel face, the SaO2 of workers increased; the incidence of acute mountain sickness, PR, and BPM significantly decreased. Conclusions: The LPSA life support system was found to be a simple, convenient, efficient, reliable, and applicable approach to ensure proper working conditions at construction sites in high-altitude areas. PMID:25000108

  6. Oxygen enrichment and its application to life support systems for workers in high-altitude areas.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongling; Liu, Yingshu

    2014-01-01

    Workers coming from lowland regions are at risk of developing acute mountain sickness (AMS) when working in low oxygen high-altitude areas. The aim of this study was to improve the conditions that lead to hypoxia and ensure the safety of the high-altitude workers. We analyzed the influence of low atmospheric pressure on the oxygen enrichment process in high-altitude areas using an engineering method called low-pressure swing adsorption (LPSA). Fourteen male subjects were screened and divided into three groups by type of oxygen supply system used: (1) oxygen cylinder group; (2) LPSA oxygen dispersal group; and (3) control group. These tests included arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), pulse rate (PR), breaths per minute (BPM), and blood pressure (BP). The results showed that after supplying oxygen using the LPSA method at the tunnel face, the SaO2 of workers increased; the incidence of acute mountain sickness, PR, and BPM significantly decreased. The LPSA life support system was found to be a simple, convenient, efficient, reliable, and applicable approach to ensure proper working conditions at construction sites in high-altitude areas.

  7. 2D quasi-ordered nitrogen-enriched porous carbon nanohybrids for high energy density supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Kan, Kan; Wang, Lei; Yu, Peng; Jiang, Baojiang; Shi, Keying; Fu, Honggang

    2016-05-21

    Two-dimensional (2D) quasi-ordered nitrogen-enriched porous carbon (QNPC) nanohybrids, with the characteristics of an ultrathin graphite nanosheet framework and thick quasi-ordered nitrogen-doped carbon cladding with a porous texture, have been synthesized via an in situ polymerization assembly method. In the synthesis, the expandable graphite (EG) is enlarged by an intermittent microwave method, and then aniline monomers are intercalated into the interlayers of the expanded EG with the assistance of a vacuum. Subsequently, the intercalated aniline monomers could assemble on the interlayer surface of the expanded EG, accompanied by the in situ polymerization from aniline monomers to polyaniline. Meanwhile, the expanded EG could be exfoliated to graphite nanosheets. By subsequent pyrolysis and activation processes, the QNPC nanohybrids could be prepared. As supercapacitor electrodes, a typical QNPC12-700 sample derived from the precursor containing an EG content of 12%, with a high level of nitrogen doping of 5.22 at%, offers a high specific capacitance of 305.7 F g(-1) (1 A g(-1)), excellent rate-capability and long-term stability. Notably, an extremely high energy density of 95.7 Wh kg(-1) at a power density of 449.7 W kg(-1) in an ionic liquid electrolyte can be achieved. The unique structural features and moderate heteroatom doping of the QNPC nanohybrids combines electrochemical double layer and faradaic capacitance contributions, which make these nanohybrids ideal candidates as electrode materials for high-performance energy storage devices.

  8. High molecular weight dissolved organic matter enrichment selects for methylotrophs in dilution to extinction cultures

    PubMed Central

    Sosa, Oscar A; Gifford, Scott M; Repeta, Daniel J; DeLong, Edward F

    2015-01-01

    The role of bacterioplankton in the cycling of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is central to the carbon and energy balance in the ocean, yet there are few model organisms available to investigate the genes, metabolic pathways, and biochemical mechanisms involved in the degradation of this globally important carbon pool. To obtain microbial isolates capable of degrading semi-labile DOM for growth, we conducted dilution to extinction cultivation experiments using seawater enriched with high molecular weight (HMW) DOM. In total, 93 isolates were obtained. Amendments using HMW DOM to increase the dissolved organic carbon concentration 4x (280 μM) or 10x (700 μM) the ocean surface water concentrations yielded positive growth in 4–6% of replicate dilutions, whereas <1% scored positive for growth in non-DOM-amended controls. The majority (71%) of isolates displayed a distinct increase in cell yields when grown in increasing concentrations of HMW DOM. Whole-genome sequencing was used to screen the culture collection for purity and to determine the phylogenetic identity of the isolates. Eleven percent of the isolates belonged to the gammaproteobacteria including Alteromonadales (the SAR92 clade) and Vibrio. Surprisingly, 85% of isolates belonged to the methylotrophic OM43 clade of betaproteobacteria, bacteria thought to metabolically specialize in degrading C1 compounds. Growth of these isolates on methanol confirmed their methylotrophic phenotype. Our results indicate that dilution to extinction cultivation enriched with natural sources of organic substrates has a potential to reveal the previously unsuspected relationships between naturally occurring organic nutrients and the microorganisms that consume them. PMID:25978545

  9. High molecular weight dissolved organic matter enrichment selects for methylotrophs in dilution to extinction cultures.

    PubMed

    Sosa, Oscar A; Gifford, Scott M; Repeta, Daniel J; DeLong, Edward F

    2015-12-01

    The role of bacterioplankton in the cycling of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is central to the carbon and energy balance in the ocean, yet there are few model organisms available to investigate the genes, metabolic pathways, and biochemical mechanisms involved in the degradation of this globally important carbon pool. To obtain microbial isolates capable of degrading semi-labile DOM for growth, we conducted dilution to extinction cultivation experiments using seawater enriched with high molecular weight (HMW) DOM. In total, 93 isolates were obtained. Amendments using HMW DOM to increase the dissolved organic carbon concentration 4x (280 μM) or 10x (700 μM) the ocean surface water concentrations yielded positive growth in 4-6% of replicate dilutions, whereas <1% scored positive for growth in non-DOM-amended controls. The majority (71%) of isolates displayed a distinct increase in cell yields when grown in increasing concentrations of HMW DOM. Whole-genome sequencing was used to screen the culture collection for purity and to determine the phylogenetic identity of the isolates. Eleven percent of the isolates belonged to the gammaproteobacteria including Alteromonadales (the SAR92 clade) and Vibrio. Surprisingly, 85% of isolates belonged to the methylotrophic OM43 clade of betaproteobacteria, bacteria thought to metabolically specialize in degrading C1 compounds. Growth of these isolates on methanol confirmed their methylotrophic phenotype. Our results indicate that dilution to extinction cultivation enriched with natural sources of organic substrates has a potential to reveal the previously unsuspected relationships between naturally occurring organic nutrients and the microorganisms that consume them.

  10. Flexible micro spring array device for high-throughput enrichment of viable circulating tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Harouaka, Ramdane A; Zhou, Ming-Da; Yeh, Yin-Ting; Khan, Waleed J; Das, Avisnata; Liu, Xin; Christ, Christine C; Dicker, David T; Baney, Tara S; Kaifi, Jussuf T; Belani, Chandra P; Truica, Cristina I; El-Deiry, Wafik S; Allerton, Jeffrey P; Zheng, Si-Yang

    2014-02-01

    The dissemination of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) that cause metastases in distant organs accounts for the majority of cancer-related deaths. CTCs have been established as a cancer biomarker of known prognostic value. The enrichment of viable CTCs for ex vivo analysis could further improve cancer diagnosis and guide treatment selection. We designed a new flexible micro spring array (FMSA) device for the enrichment of viable CTCs independent of antigen expression. Unlike previous microfiltration devices, flexible structures at the micro scale minimize cell damage to preserve viability, while maximizing throughput to allow rapid enrichment directly from whole blood with no need for sample preprocessing. Device performance with respect to capture efficiency, enrichment against leukocytes, viability, and proliferability was characterized. CTCs and CTC microclusters were enriched from clinical samples obtained from breast, lung, and colorectal cancer patients. The FMSA device enriched tumor cells with 90% capture efficiency, higher than 10(4) enrichment, and better than 80% viability from 7.5-mL whole blood samples in <10 min on a 0.5-cm(2) device. The FMSA detected at least 1 CTC in 16 out of 21 clinical samples (approximately 76%) compared to 4 out of 18 (approximately 22%) detected with the commercial CellSearch® system. There was no incidence of clogging in over 100 tested fresh whole blood samples. The FMSA device provides a versatile platform capable of viable enrichment and analysis of CTCs from clinically relevant volumes of whole blood.

  11. Edge-enriched, porous carbon-based, high energy density supercapacitors for hybrid electric vehicles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Jung; Yang, Cheol-Min; Park, Ki Chul; Kaneko, Katsumi; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Noguchi, Minoru; Fujino, Takeshi; Oyama, Shigeki; Endo, Morinobu

    2012-03-12

    Supercapacitors can store and deliver energy by a simple charge separation, and thus they could be an attractive option to meet transient high energy density in operating fuel cells and in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. To achieve such requirements, intensive studies have been carried out to improve the volumetric capacitance in supercapacitors using various types and forms of carbons including carbon nanotubes and graphenes. However, conventional porous carbons are not suitable for use as electrode material in supercapacitors for such high energy density applications. Here, we show that edge-enriched porous carbons are the best electrode material for high energy density supercapacitors to be used in vehicles as an auxiliary powertrain. Molten potassium hydroxide penetrates well-aligned graphene layers vertically and consequently generates both suitable pores that are easily accessible to the electrolyte and a large fraction of electrochemically active edge sites. We expect that our findings will motivate further research related to energy storage devices and also environmentally friendly electric vehicles. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Melting Alpine glaciers enrich high-elevation lakes with reactive nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Saros, Jasmine E; Rose, Kevin C; Clow, David W; Stephens, Verlin C; Nurse, Andrea B; Arnett, Heather A; Stone, Jeffery R; Williamson, Craig E; Wolfe, Alexander P

    2010-07-01

    Alpine glaciers have receded substantially over the last century in many regions of the world. Resulting changes in glacial runoff not only affect the hydrological cycle, but can also alter the physical (i.e., turbidity from glacial flour) and biogeochemical properties of downstream ecosystems. Here we compare nutrient concentrations, transparency gradients, algal biomass, and fossil diatom species richness in two sets of high-elevation lakes: those fed by snowpack melt alone (SF lakes) and those fed by both glacial and snowpack meltwaters (GSF lakes). We found that nitrate (NO(3)(-)) concentrations in the GSF lakes were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than in SF lakes. Although nitrogen (N) limitation is common in alpine lakes, algal biomass was lower in highly N-enriched GSF lakes than in the N-poor SF lakes. Contrary to expectations, GSF lakes were more transparent than SF lakes to ultraviolet and equally transparent to photosynthetically active radiation. Sediment diatom assemblages had lower taxonomic richness in the GSF lakes, a feature that has persisted over the last century. Our results demonstrate that the presence of glaciers on alpine watersheds more strongly influences NO(3)(-)concentrations in high-elevation lake ecosystems than any other geomorphic or biogeographic characteristic.

  13. Highly sensitive and rapid detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa based on magnetic enrichment and magnetic separation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yongjun; Zou, Jun; Ma, Chao; Ali, Zeeshan; Li, Zhiyang; Li, Xiaolong; Ma, Ninging; Mou, Xianbo; Deng, Yan; Zhang, Liming; Li, Kai; Lu, Guangming; Yang, Haowen; He, Nongyue

    2013-01-01

    A method for highly sensitive and rapid detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, based on magnetic enrichment and magnetic separation, is described in this paper. The magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were applied to adsorb genome DNA after the sample was lysed. The DNA binding MNPs were directly subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify gyrB specific sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The biotin labeled PCR products were detected by chemiluminescence when they were successively incubated with the probes-modified MNPs and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) labeled streptavidin (SA). Agarose gel electrophoresis analyses approved the method of in situ PCR to be highly reliable. The factors which could affect the chemiluminiscence were studied in detail. The results showed that the MNPs of 400 nm in diameter are beneficial to the detection. The sequence length and the binding site of the probe with a target sequence have obvious effects on the detection. The optimal concentration of the probes, hybridization temperature and hybridization time were 10 μM, 60 ºC and 60 mins, respectively. The method of in situ PCR based on MNPs can greatly improve the utilization rate of the DNA template ultimately enhancing the detection sensitivity. Experiment results proved that the primer and probe had high specificity, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was successfully detected with detection limits as low as 10 cfu/mL by this method, while the detection of a single Pseudomonas aeruginosa can also be achieved.

  14. Preparation of Highly Porous Coordination Polymer Coatings on Macroporous Polymer Monoliths for Enhanced Enrichment of Phosphopeptides

    PubMed Central

    Lamprou, Alexandros; Wang, Hongxia; Saeed, Adeela; Svec, Frantisek; Britt, David; Maya, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    We describe a protocol for the preparation of hybrid materials based on highly porous coordination polymer coatings on the internal surface of macroporous polymer monoliths. The developed approach is based on the preparation of a macroporous polymer containing carboxylic acid functional groups and the subsequent step-by-step solution-based controlled growth of a layer of a porous coordination polymer on the surface of the pores of the polymer monolith. The prepared metal-organic polymer hybrid has a high specific micropore surface area. The amount of iron(III) sites is enhanced through metal-organic coordination on the surface of the pores of the functional polymer support. The increase of metal sites is related to the number of iterations of the coating process. The developed preparation scheme is easily adapted to a capillary column format. The functional porous polymer is prepared as a self-contained single-block porous monolith within the capillary, yielding a flow-through separation device with excellent flow permeability and modest back-pressure. The metal-organic polymer hybrid column showed excellent performance for the enrichment of phosphopeptides from digested proteins and their subsequent detection using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The presented experimental protocol is highly versatile, and can be easily implemented to different organic polymer supports and coatings with a plethora of porous coordination polymers and metal-organic frameworks for multiple purification and/or separation applications. PMID:26273850

  15. Germanium-vacancy color center in isotopically enriched diamonds synthesized at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekimov, E. A.; Lyapin, S. G.; Boldyrev, K. N.; Kondrin, M. V.; Khmelnitskiy, R.; Gavva, V. A.; Kotereva, T. V.; Popova, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    We report on the high-pressure synthesis of novel nano- and microcrystalline diamonds with germanium-vacancy (Ge-V) color centers emitting at 602 nm. The synthesis was carried out in non-metallic growth systems C-H-Ge and C-H-O-Ge enriched with germanium and carbon isotopes. We demonstrate germanium and carbon isotope shifts in the fine structure of the luminescence, which allows us to unambiguously associate the center with the germanium impurity entering into the diamond lattice. We show that there are two ground-state energy levels with the separation of 0.7 meV and two excited-state levels separated by 4.6 meV in the electronic structure of the center and suggest a split-vacancy structure of this center. High-intensity and narrow-line emission of high-pressure synthesized small diamonds with Ge-V centers makes them promising candidates for single-photon emitters.

  16. Preparation of Highly Porous Coordination Polymer Coatings on Macroporous Polymer Monoliths for Enhanced Enrichment of Phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Lamprou, Alexandros; Wang, Hongxia; Saeed, Adeela; Svec, Frantisek; Britt, David; Maya, Fernando

    2015-07-14

    We describe a protocol for the preparation of hybrid materials based on highly porous coordination polymer coatings on the internal surface of macroporous polymer monoliths. The developed approach is based on the preparation of a macroporous polymer containing carboxylic acid functional groups and the subsequent step-by-step solution-based controlled growth of a layer of a porous coordination polymer on the surface of the pores of the polymer monolith. The prepared metal-organic polymer hybrid has a high specific micropore surface area. The amount of iron(III) sites is enhanced through metal-organic coordination on the surface of the pores of the functional polymer support. The increase of metal sites is related to the number of iterations of the coating process. The developed preparation scheme is easily adapted to a capillary column format. The functional porous polymer is prepared as a self-contained single-block porous monolith within the capillary, yielding a flow-through separation device with excellent flow permeability and modest back-pressure. The metal-organic polymer hybrid column showed excellent performance for the enrichment of phosphopeptides from digested proteins and their subsequent detection using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The presented experimental protocol is highly versatile, and can be easily implemented to different organic polymer supports and coatings with a plethora of porous coordination polymers and metal-organic frameworks for multiple purification and/or separation applications.

  17. Economic Factors of Russian Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobkov, Vyacheslav N.; Vakhtina, Margarita A.; Simonova, Marina V.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the researched problem is connected with the high level of economic inequality in Russia. The article goal is to show that the current Russian institutional system is not directed to decrease the economic inequality but on the contrary it continues to make and deepen it. The leading approach to study of this problem is the…

  18. Fully automated high-quality NMR structure determination of small (2)H-enriched proteins.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuefeng; Schneider, William M; Shen, Yang; Raman, Srivatsan; Inouye, Masayori; Baker, David; Roth, Monica J; Montelione, Gaetano T

    2010-12-01

    Determination of high-quality small protein structures by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods generally requires acquisition and analysis of an extensive set of structural constraints. The process generally demands extensive backbone and sidechain resonance assignments, and weeks or even months of data collection and interpretation. Here we demonstrate rapid and high-quality protein NMR structure generation using CS-Rosetta with a perdeuterated protein sample made at a significantly reduced cost using new bacterial culture condensation methods. Our strategy provides the basis for a high-throughput approach for routine, rapid, high-quality structure determination of small proteins. As an example, we demonstrate the determination of a high-quality 3D structure of a small 8 kDa protein, E. coli cold shock protein A (CspA), using <4 days of data collection and fully automated data analysis methods together with CS-Rosetta. The resulting CspA structure is highly converged and in excellent agreement with the published crystal structure, with a backbone RMSD value of 0.5 Å, an all atom RMSD value of 1.2 Å to the crystal structure for well-defined regions, and RMSD value of 1.1 Å to crystal structure for core, non-solvent exposed sidechain atoms. Cross validation of the structure with (15)N- and (13)C-edited NOESY data obtained with a perdeuterated (15)N, (13)C-enriched (13)CH(3) methyl protonated CspA sample confirms that essentially all of these independently-interpreted NOE-based constraints are already satisfied in each of the 10 CS-Rosetta structures. By these criteria, the CS-Rosetta structure generated by fully automated analysis of data for a perdeuterated sample provides an accurate structure of CspA. This represents a general approach for rapid, automated structure determination of small proteins by NMR.

  19. Probing Pre-Galactic Metal Enrichment with High-Redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, F. Y.; Bromm, Volker; Greif, Thomas H.; Stacy, Athena; Dai, Z. G.; Loeb, Abraham; Cheng, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    We explore high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) as promising tools to probe pre-galactic metal enrichment. We utilize the bright afterglow of a Population III (Pop III) GRB exploding in a primordial dwarf galaxy as a luminous background source, and calculate the strength of metal absorption lines that are imprinted by the first heavy elements in the intergalactic medium (IGM). To derive the GRB absorption line diagnostics, we use an existing highly resolved simulation of the formation of a first galaxy which is characterized by the onset of atomic hydrogen cooling in a halo with virial temperature approximately greater than10(exp 4) K.We explore the unusual circumburst environment inside the systems that hosted Pop III stars, modeling the density evolution with the self-similar solution for a champagne flow. For minihalos close to the cooling threshold, the circumburst density is roughly proportional to (1 + z) with values of about a few cm(exp -3). In more massive halos, corresponding to the first galaxies, the density may be larger, n approximately greater than100 cm(exp -3). The resulting afterglow fluxes are weakly dependent on redshift at a fixed observed time, and may be detectable with the James Webb Space Telescope and Very Large Array in the near-IR and radio wavebands, respectively, out to redshift z approximately greater than 20. We predict that the maximum of the afterglow emission shifts from near-IR to millimeter bands with peak fluxes from mJy to Jy at different observed times. The metal absorption line signature is expected to be detectable in the near future. GRBs are ideal tools for probing the metal enrichment in the early IGM, due to their high luminosities and featureless power-law spectra. The metals in the first galaxies produced by the first supernova (SN) explosions are likely to reside in low-ionization stages (C II, O I, Si II and Fe II). We show that, if the afterglow can be observed sufficiently early, analysis of the metal lines may

  20. PROBING PRE-GALACTIC METAL ENRICHMENT WITH HIGH-REDSHIFT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, F. Y.; Dai, Z. G.; Bromm, Volker; Greif, Thomas H.; Stacy, Athena; Loeb, Abraham; Cheng, K. S.

    2012-11-20

    We explore high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) as promising tools to probe pre-galactic metal enrichment. We utilize the bright afterglow of a Population III (Pop III) GRB exploding in a primordial dwarf galaxy as a luminous background source, and calculate the strength of metal absorption lines that are imprinted by the first heavy elements in the intergalactic medium (IGM). To derive the GRB absorption line diagnostics, we use an existing highly resolved simulation of the formation of a first galaxy which is characterized by the onset of atomic hydrogen cooling in a halo with virial temperature {approx}> 10{sup 4} K. We explore the unusual circumburst environment inside the systems that hosted Pop III stars, modeling the density evolution with the self-similar solution for a champagne flow. For minihalos close to the cooling threshold, the circumburst density is roughly proportional to (1 + z) with values of about a few cm{sup -3}. In more massive halos, corresponding to the first galaxies, the density may be larger, n {approx}> 100 cm{sup -3}. The resulting afterglow fluxes are weakly dependent on redshift at a fixed observed time, and may be detectable with the James Webb Space Telescope and Very Large Array in the near-IR and radio wavebands, respectively, out to redshift z {approx}> 20. We predict that the maximum of the afterglow emission shifts from near-IR to millimeter bands with peak fluxes from mJy to Jy at different observed times. The metal absorption line signature is expected to be detectable in the near future. GRBs are ideal tools for probing the metal enrichment in the early IGM, due to their high luminosities and featureless power-law spectra. The metals in the first galaxies produced by the first supernova (SN) explosions are likely to reside in low-ionization stages (C II, O I, Si II and Fe II). We show that, if the afterglow can be observed sufficiently early, analysis of the metal lines may distinguish whether the first heavy elements were

  1. High Biofilm Conductivity Maintained Despite Anode Potential Changes in a Geobacter-Enriched Biofilm.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Bipro Ranjan; Ryu, Hodon; Ren, Hao; Domingo, Jorge W Santo; Chae, Junkseck; Lee, Hyung-Sool

    2016-12-20

    This study systematically assessed intracellular electron transfer (IET) and extracellular electron transfer (EET) kinetics with respect to anode potential (Eanode ) in a mixed-culture biofilm anode enriched with Geobacter spp. High biofilm conductivity (0.96-1.24 mS cm(-1) ) was maintained during Eanode changes from -0.2 to +0.2 V versus the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE), although the steady-state current density significantly decreased from 2.05 to 0.35 A m(-2) in a microbial electrochemical cell. Substantial increase of the Treponema population was observed in the biofilm anode at Eanode =+0.2 V, which reduced intracellular electron-transfer kinetics associated with the maximum specific substrate-utilization rate by a factor of ten. This result suggests that fast EET kinetics can be maintained under dynamic Eanode conditions in a highly conductive biofilm anode as a result of shift of main EET players in the biofilm anode, although Eanode changes can influence IET kinetics. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Molar mass of silicon highly enriched in 28Si determined by IDMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramann, Axel; Rienitz, Olaf; Schiel, Detlef; Schlote, Jan; Güttler, Bernd; Valkiers, Staf

    2011-04-01

    The molar mass of a new silicon crystal material highly enriched in 28Si ('Si28', x(28Si) >99.99%) has been measured for the first time using a combination of a modified isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) technique and a high resolution multicollector-ICP-mass spectrometer. This work is related to the redetermination of the Avogadro constant NA with an intended relative measurement uncertainty urel(NA) <= 2 × 10-8. The corresponding experimental investigations of the International Avogadro Coordination (IAC) were performed using this novel 'Si28' material. One prerequisite of the redetermination of NA is the determination of the isotopic composition and thus molar mass of 'Si28' with urel(M('Si28')) <= 1 × 10-8. At PTB, a molar mass M('Si28') = 27.976 970 27(23) g mol-1 has been determined with an associated relative uncertainty urel(M('Si28')) = 8.2 × 10-9, opening the opportunity to reach the target uncertainty of NA.

  3. High-resolution synchrotron X-ray analysis of bioglass-enriched hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Gorodzha, Svetlana; Douglas, Timothy E L; Samal, Sangram K; Detsch, Rainer; Cholewa-Kowalska, Katarzyna; Braeckmans, Kevin; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Skirtach, Andre G; Weinhardt, Venera; Baumbach, Tilo; Surmeneva, Maria A; Surmenev, Roman A

    2016-05-01

    Enrichment of hydrogels with inorganic particles improves their suitability for bone regeneration by enhancing their mechanical properties, mineralizability, and bioactivity as well as adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of bone-forming cells, while maintaining injectability. Low aggregation and homogeneous distribution maximize particle surface area, promoting mineralization, cell-particle interactions, and homogenous tissue regeneration. Hence, determination of the size and distribution of particles/particle agglomerates in the hydrogel is desirable. Commonly used techniques have drawbacks. High-resolution techniques (e.g., SEM) require drying. Distribution in the dry state is not representative of the wet state. Techniques in the wet state (histology, µCT) are of lower resolution. Here, self-gelling, injectable composites of Gellan Gum (GG) hydrogel and two different types of sol-gel-derived bioactive glass (bioglass) particles were analyzed in the wet state using Synchrotron X-ray radiation, enabling high-resolution determination of particle size and spatial distribution. The lower detection limit volume was 9 × 10(-5) mm(3) . Bioglass particle suspensions were also studied using zeta potential measurements and Coulter analysis. Aggregation of bioglass particles in the GG hydrogels occurred and aggregate distribution was inhomogeneous. Bioglass promoted attachment of rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSC) and mineralization.

  4. Active neutron and gamma-ray imaging of highly enriched uranium for treaty verification.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Michael C; Polack, J Kyle; Ruch, Marc L; Marcath, Matthew J; Clarke, Shaun D; Pozzi, Sara A

    2017-08-11

    The detection and characterization of highly enriched uranium (HEU) presents a large challenge in the non-proliferation field. HEU has a low neutron emission rate and most gamma rays are low energy and easily shielded. To address this challenge, an instrument known as the dual-particle imager (DPI) was used with a portable deuterium-tritium (DT) neutron generator to detect neutrons and gamma rays from induced fission in HEU. We evaluated system response using a 13.7-kg HEU sphere in several configurations with no moderation, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) moderation, and tungsten moderation. A hollow tungsten sphere was interrogated to evaluate the response to a possible hoax item. First, localization capabilities were demonstrated by reconstructing neutron and gamma-ray images. Once localized, additional properties such as fast neutron energy spectra and time-dependent neutron count rates were attributed to the items. For the interrogated configurations containing HEU, the reconstructed neutron spectra resembled Watt spectra, which gave confidence that the interrogated items were undergoing induced fission. The time-dependent neutron count rate was also compared for each configuration and shown to be dependent on the neutron multiplication of the item. This result showed that the DPI is a viable tool for localizing and confirming fissile mass and multiplication.

  5. Iron enrichment stimulates toxic diatom production in high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll areas

    PubMed Central

    Trick, Charles G.; Bill, Brian D.; Cochlan, William P.; Wells, Mark L.; Trainer, Vera L.; Pickell, Lisa D.

    2010-01-01

    Oceanic high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll environments have been highlighted for potential large-scale iron fertilizations to help mitigate global climate change. Controversy surrounds these initiatives, both in the degree of carbon removal and magnitude of ecosystem impacts. Previous open ocean enrichment experiments have shown that iron additions stimulate growth of the toxigenic diatom genus Pseudonitzschia. Most Pseudonitzschia species in coastal waters produce the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA), with their blooms causing detrimental marine ecosystem impacts, but oceanic Pseudonitzschia species are considered nontoxic. Here we demonstrate that the sparse oceanic Pseudonitzschia community at the high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll Ocean Station PAPA (50° N, 145° W) produces approximately 200 pg DA L−1 in response to iron addition, that DA alters phytoplankton community structure to benefit Pseudonitzschia, and that oceanic cell isolates are toxic. Given the negative effects of DA in coastal food webs, these findings raise serious concern over the net benefit and sustainability of large-scale iron fertilizations. PMID:20231473

  6. The EnRiCH Community Resilience Framework for High-Risk Populations

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, Tracey L.; Kuziemsky, Craig E.; Corneil, Wayne; Lemyre, Louise; Franco, Zeno

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Resilience has been described in many ways and is inherently complex. In essence, it refers to the capacity to face and do well when adversity is encountered. There is a need for empirical research on community level initiatives designed to enhance resilience for high-risk groups as part of an upstream approach to disaster management. In this study, we address this issue, presenting the EnRiCH Community Resilience Framework for High-Risk Populations. Methods: The framework presented in this paper is empirically-based, using qualitative data from focus groups conducted as part of an asset-mapping intervention in five communities in Canada, and builds on extant literature in the fields of disaster and emergency management, health promotion, and community development. Results: Adaptive capacity is placed at the centre of the framework as a focal point, surrounded by four strategic areas for intervention (awareness/communication, asset/resource management, upstream-oriented leadership, and connectedness/engagement). Three drivers of adaptive capacity (empowerment, innovation, and collaboration) cross-cut the strategic areas and represent levers for action which can influence systems, people and institutions through expansion of asset literacy. Each component of the framework is embedded within the complexity and culture of a community. Discussion: We present recommendations for how this framework can be used to guide the design of future resilience-oriented initiatives with particular emphasis on inclusive engagement across a range of functional capabilities. PMID:25642373

  7. ES-3100: A New Generation Shipping Container for Bulk Highly Enriched Uranium and Other Fissile Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Arbital, J.G.; Byington, G.A.; Tousley, D.R.

    2004-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is shipping bulk quantities of surplus fissile materials, primarily highly enriched uranium (HEU), over the next 15 to 20 years for disposition purposes. The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) specification 6M container is the package of choice for most of these shipments. However, the 6M does not conform to the Type B packaging requirements in the ''Code of Federal Regulations'' (10CFR71) and, for that reason, is being phased out for use in the secure transportation system of DOE. BWXT Y-12 is currently developing a package to replace the DOT 6M container for HEU disposition shipping campaigns. The new package is based on state-of-the-art, proven, and patented insulation technologies that have been successfully applied in the design of other packages. The new package, designated the ES-3100, will have a 50% greater capacity for HEU than the 6M and will be easier to use. Engineering analysis on the new package includes detailed dynamic impact finite element analysis (FEA). This analysis gives the ES-3100 a high probability of complying with regulatory requirements.

  8. Odontella aurita-enriched diet prevents high fat diet-induced liver insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Amine, Hamza; Benomar, Yacir; Haimeur, Adil; Messaouri, Hafida; Meskini, Nadia; Taouis, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial effect of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid (w-3 FA) consumption regarding cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance and inflammation has been widely reported. Fish oil is considered as the main source of commercialized w-3 FAs, and other alternative sources have been reported such as linseed or microalgae. However, despite numerous reports, the underlying mechanisms of action of w-3 FAs on insulin resistance are still not clearly established, especially those from microalgae. Here, we report that Odontella aurita, a microalga rich in w-3 FAs eicosapentaenoic acid, prevents high fat diet-induced insulin resistance and inflammation in the liver of Wistar rats. Indeed, a high fat diet (HFD) increased plasma insulin levels associated with the impairment of insulin receptor signaling and the up-regulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expressions. Importantly, Odontella aurita-enriched HFD (HFOA) reduces body weight and plasma insulin levels and maintains normal insulin receptor expression and responsiveness. Furthermore, HFOA decreased TLR4 expression, JNK/p38 phosphorylation and pro-inflammatory factors. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that diet supplementation with whole Ondontella aurita overcomes HFD-induced insulin resistance through the inhibition of TLR4/JNK/p38 MAP kinase signaling pathways.

  9. Iron enrichment stimulates toxic diatom production in high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll areas.

    PubMed

    Trick, Charles G; Bill, Brian D; Cochlan, William P; Wells, Mark L; Trainer, Vera L; Pickell, Lisa D

    2010-03-30

    Oceanic high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll environments have been highlighted for potential large-scale iron fertilizations to help mitigate global climate change. Controversy surrounds these initiatives, both in the degree of carbon removal and magnitude of ecosystem impacts. Previous open ocean enrichment experiments have shown that iron additions stimulate growth of the toxigenic diatom genus Pseudonitzschia. Most Pseudonitzschia species in coastal waters produce the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA), with their blooms causing detrimental marine ecosystem impacts, but oceanic Pseudonitzschia species are considered nontoxic. Here we demonstrate that the sparse oceanic Pseudonitzschia community at the high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll Ocean Station PAPA (50 degrees N, 145 degrees W) produces approximately 200 pg DA L(-1) in response to iron addition, that DA alters phytoplankton community structure to benefit Pseudonitzschia, and that oceanic cell isolates are toxic. Given the negative effects of DA in coastal food webs, these findings raise serious concern over the net benefit and sustainability of large-scale iron fertilizations.

  10. Calcium impregnation of coal enriched in CO.sub.2 using high-pressure techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Pramod K. (Inventor); Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor); Gavalas, George R. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Methods are described for impregnating coal with calcium carbonate by utilizing an aqueous phase ionic reaction between calcium acetate, calcium hydroxide, and water with CO.sub.2 contained within the coal. The coal is enriched in CO.sub.2 by contacting it with CO.sub.2 at high pressure, in either a continuous or pulsed mode. The inclusion of CO.sub.2 in the coal during the process does not involve evacuating the coal and subsequently absorbing CO.sub.2 onto the coal as in prior methods. Rather, the coal is treated with carbon dioxide at high pressure in a practical and viable approach. The impregnation of coal by calcium compounds not only reduces sulfur emissions by effectively tying up the sulfur as calcium sulfide or sulfate, but also increases the gasification or combustion rate. The invention also encompasses the use of other Group IIA elements, as well as the coal products resulting from the methods of treatment described.

  11. 2D quasi-ordered nitrogen-enriched porous carbon nanohybrids for high energy density supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Kan; Wang, Lei; Yu, Peng; Jiang, Baojiang; Shi, Keying; Fu, Honggang

    2016-05-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) quasi-ordered nitrogen-enriched porous carbon (QNPC) nanohybrids, with the characteristics of an ultrathin graphite nanosheet framework and thick quasi-ordered nitrogen-doped carbon cladding with a porous texture, have been synthesized via an in situ polymerization assembly method. In the synthesis, the expandable graphite (EG) is enlarged by an intermittent microwave method, and then aniline monomers are intercalated into the interlayers of the expanded EG with the assistance of a vacuum. Subsequently, the intercalated aniline monomers could assemble on the interlayer surface of the expanded EG, accompanied by the in situ polymerization from aniline monomers to polyaniline. Meanwhile, the expanded EG could be exfoliated to graphite nanosheets. By subsequent pyrolysis and activation processes, the QNPC nanohybrids could be prepared. As supercapacitor electrodes, a typical QNPC12-700 sample derived from the precursor containing an EG content of 12%, with a high level of nitrogen doping of 5.22 at%, offers a high specific capacitance of 305.7 F g-1 (1 A g-1), excellent rate-capability and long-term stability. Notably, an extremely high energy density of 95.7 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 449.7 W kg-1 in an ionic liquid electrolyte can be achieved. The unique structural features and moderate heteroatom doping of the QNPC nanohybrids combines electrochemical double layer and faradaic capacitance contributions, which make these nanohybrids ideal candidates as electrode materials for high-performance energy storage devices.Two-dimensional (2D) quasi-ordered nitrogen-enriched porous carbon (QNPC) nanohybrids, with the characteristics of an ultrathin graphite nanosheet framework and thick quasi-ordered nitrogen-doped carbon cladding with a porous texture, have been synthesized via an in situ polymerization assembly method. In the synthesis, the expandable graphite (EG) is enlarged by an intermittent microwave method, and then aniline monomers are

  12. Russian EVA 36.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-09

    ISS037-E-028082 (9 Nov. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Sergey Ryazanskiy, Expedition 37 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) in support of assembly and maintenance on the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 50-minute spacewalk, Ryazanskiy and Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov (out of frame) continued the setup of a combination EVA workstation and biaxial pointing platform that was installed during an Expedition 36 spacewalk on Aug. 22.

  13. Russian EVA 35

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-22

    ISS036-E-035204 (22 Aug. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 58-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame) completed the replacement of a laser communications experiment with a new platform for a small optical camera system, the installation of new spacewalk aids and an inspection of antenna covers.

  14. Russian EVA 35

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-22

    ISS036-E-035205 (22 Aug. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 58-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame) completed the replacement of a laser communications experiment with a new platform for a small optical camera system, the installation of new spacewalk aids and an inspection of antenna covers.

  15. Russian EVA 36.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-09

    ISS037-E-028094 (9 Nov. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov, Expedition 37 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) in support of assembly and maintenance on the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 50-minute spacewalk, Kotov and Russian cosmonaut Sergey Ryazanskiy (out of frame) continued the setup of a combination EVA workstation and biaxial pointing platform that was installed during an Expedition 36 spacewalk on Aug. 22.

  16. Russian EVA 35

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-22

    ISS036-E-035126 (22 Aug. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 58-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame) completed the replacement of a laser communications experiment with a new platform for a small optical camera system, the installation of new spacewalk aids and an inspection of antenna covers.

  17. Russian EVA 35

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-22

    ISS036-E-035130 (22 Aug. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 58-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame) completed the replacement of a laser communications experiment with a new platform for a small optical camera system, the installation of new spacewalk aids and an inspection of antenna covers.

  18. Russian EVA 35

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-22

    ISS036-E-035133 (22 Aug. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 58-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame) completed the replacement of a laser communications experiment with a new platform for a small optical camera system, the installation of new spacewalk aids and an inspection of antenna covers.

  19. Russian EVA 35

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-22

    ISS036-E-035124 (22 Aug. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 58-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame) completed the replacement of a laser communications experiment with a new platform for a small optical camera system, the installation of new spacewalk aids and an inspection of antenna covers.

  20. Russian EVA 35

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-22

    ISS036-E-035129 (22 Aug. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 58-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame) completed the replacement of a laser communications experiment with a new platform for a small optical camera system, the installation of new spacewalk aids and an inspection of antenna covers.

  1. Russian EVA 36.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-09

    ISS037-E-028101 (9 Nov. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov, Expedition 37 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) in support of assembly and maintenance on the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 50-minute spacewalk, Kotov and Russian cosmonaut Sergey Ryazanskiy (out of frame) continued the setup of a combination EVA workstation and biaxial pointing platform that was installed during an Expedition 36 spacewalk on Aug. 22.

  2. Russian EVA 36.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-09

    ISS037-E-028107 (9 Nov. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov, Expedition 37 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) in support of assembly and maintenance on the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 50-minute spacewalk, Kotov and Russian cosmonaut Sergey Ryazanskiy (out of frame) continued the setup of a combination EVA workstation and biaxial pointing platform that was installed during an Expedition 36 spacewalk on Aug. 22.

  3. Russian EVA 36.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-09

    ISS037-E-028067 (9 Nov. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov, Expedition 37 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) in support of assembly and maintenance on the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 50-minute spacewalk, Kotov and Russian cosmonaut Sergey Ryazanskiy (out of frame) continued the setup of a combination EVA workstation and biaxial pointing platform that was installed during an Expedition 36 spacewalk on Aug. 22.

  4. Russian EVA 36.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-09

    ISS037-E-028102 (9 Nov. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov, Expedition 37 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) in support of assembly and maintenance on the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 50-minute spacewalk, Kotov and Russian cosmonaut Sergey Ryazanskiy (out of frame) continued the setup of a combination EVA workstation and biaxial pointing platform that was installed during an Expedition 36 spacewalk on Aug. 22.

  5. Russian EVA 35

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-22

    ISS036-E-035163 (22 Aug. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 58-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame) completed the replacement of a laser communications experiment with a new platform for a small optical camera system, the installation of new spacewalk aids and an inspection of antenna covers.

  6. Russian EVA 36

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-09

    ISS037-E-028569 (9 Nov. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov, Expedition 37 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, uses a still camera during a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) in support of assembly and maintenance on the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 50-minute spacewalk, Kotov and Russian cosmonaut Sergey Ryazanskiy (out of frame) continued the setup of a combination EVA workstation and biaxial pointing platform that was installed during an Expedition 36 spacewalk on Aug. 22.

  7. Russian EVA fit check

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-21

    ISS036-E-009793 (21 June 2013) --- Russian cosmonauts Fyodor Yurchikhin (left) and Alexander Misurkin, both Expedition 36 flight engineers, participate in a suited exercise dry run in preparation for a spacewalk in their Russian Orlan spacesuits, which is scheduled for June 24 from the International Space Station’s Pirs docking compartment. Russian cosmonaut Pavel Vinogradov (mostly out of frame at right), Expedition 36 commander, assists Yurchikhin and Misurkin.

  8. Enrichment of acetogenic bacteria in high rate anaerobic reactors under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions.

    PubMed

    Ryan, P; Forbes, C; McHugh, S; O'Reilly, C; Fleming, G T A; Colleran, E

    2010-07-01

    The objective of the current study was to expand the knowledge of the role of acetogenic Bacteria in high rate anaerobic digesters. To this end, acetogens were enriched by supplying a variety of acetogenic growth supportive substrates to two laboratory scale high rate upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors operated at 37 degrees C (R1) and 55 degrees C (R2). The reactors were initially fed a glucose/acetate influent. Having achieved high operational performance and granular sludge development and activity, both reactors were changed to homoacetogenic bacterial substrates on day 373 of the trial. The reactors were initially fed with sodium vanillate as a sole substrate. Although % COD removal indicated that the 55 degrees C reactor out performed the 37 degrees C reactor, effluent acetate levels from R2 were generally higher than from R1, reaching values as high as 5023 mg l(-1). Homoacetogenic activity in both reactors was confirmed on day 419 by specific acetogenic activity (SAA) measurement, with higher values obtained for R2 than R1. Sodium formate was introduced as sole substrate to both reactors on day 464. It was found that formate supported acetogenic activity at both temperatures. By the end of the trial, no specific methanogenic activity (SMA) was observed against acetate and propionate indicating that the methane produced was solely by hydrogenotrophic Archaea. Higher SMA and SAA values against H(2)/CO(2) suggested development of a formate utilising acetogenic population growing in syntrophy with hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Throughout the formate trial, the mesophilic reactor performed better overall than the thermophilic reactor.

  9. REMOVAL OF SOLIDS FROM HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM SOLUTIONS USING THE H-CANYON CENTRIFUGE

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T; Fernando Fondeur, F

    2009-01-15

    Prior to the dissolution of Pu-containing materials in HB-Line, highly enriched uranium (HEU) solutions stored in Tanks 11.1 and 12.2 of H-Canyon must be transferred to provide storage space. The proposed plan is to centrifuge the solutions to remove solids which may present downstream criticality concerns or cause operational problems with the 1st Cycle solvent extraction due to the formation of stable emulsions. An evaluation of the efficiency of the H-Canyon centrifuge concluded that a sufficient amount (> 90%) of the solids in the Tank 11.1 and 12.2 solutions will be removed to prevent any problems. We based this conclusion on the particle size distribution of the solids isolated from samples of the solutions and the calculation of particle settling times in the centrifuge. The particle size distributions were calculated from images generated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mean particle diameters for the distributions were 1-3 {micro}m. A significant fraction (30-50%) of the particles had diameters which were < 1 {micro}m; however, the mass of these solids is insignificant (< 1% of the total solids mass) when compared to particles with larger diameters. It is also probable that the number of submicron particles was overestimated by the software used to generate the particle distribution due to the morphology of the filter paper used to isolate the solids. The settling times calculated for the H-Canyon centrifuge showed that particles with diameters less than 1 to 0.5 {micro}m will not have sufficient time to settle. For this reason, we recommend the use of a gelatin strike to coagulate the submicron particles and facilitate their removal from the solution; although we have no experimental basis to estimate the level of improvement. Incomplete removal of particles with diameters < 1 {micro}m should not cause problems during purification of the HEU in the 1st Cycle solvent extraction. Particles with diameters > 1 {micro}m account for > 99% of the

  10. Avian hepatitis E virus identified in Russian chicken flocks exhibits high genetic divergence based on the ORF2 capsid gene.

    PubMed

    Sprygin, A V; Nikonova, Z B; Zinyakov, N G

    2012-10-01

    A total of 79 liver samples from clinically sick and asymptomatic chickens were tested for avian hepatitis E virus (aHEV). Samples were received from 19 farms, five of which tested positive with primers targeting the ORF2 capsid gene. The phylogenetic analysis of a 242-base-pair fragment demonstrated that the Russian aHEV isolates share between 78.2 and 96.2% over the fragment sequenced, whereas the nucleotide sequence identities between the Russian isolates and the other representatives from GeneBank varied from 76.3 to 96.2%. The homology between the studied hepatitis E viruses and swine hepatitis E virus varied between 46.9 to 48.1%. The most divergent isolate aHEV16050 showed homology of 82.6% as compared with the strains in the dendrogram. The three positive hepatitis E virus samples (aHEV16279, aHEV16050 and aHEV18196) did not cluster with the European genotype 3 as expected due to the close location of Russia to Europe, nor did they with the other two genotypes, separating to a distinct branch. The aHEV16211 grouped together with European and Chinese isolates, and the aHEV18198 with Canadian ones.

  11. Criticality of a Neptunium-237 sphere surrounded with highly enriched uranium shells and an iron reflector

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, R. G.; Loaiza, D. J.; Hayes, D. K.; Kimpland, R. H.

    2004-01-01

    An additional experiment has been performed using the recently cast 6-kg {sup 237}Np sphere. The experiment consisted of surrounding the neptunium sphere with highly enriched uranium and an iron reflector. The purpose of the critical experiment is to provide additional criticality data that can be used to validate criticality safety evaluations involving the deposition of neptunium. It is well known that {sup 237}Np is primarily produced by successive neutron capture events in {sup 235}U or through the (n, 2n) reaction in {sup 238}U. These nuclear reactions lead to the production of {sup 237}U, which decays by beta emission into {sup 237}Np. In addition, in the spent fuel, {sup 241}Am decays by alpha emission into {sup 237}Np. Because {sup 237}Np is a threshold fissioner, the best reflectors for critical systems containing neptunium are those materials that exhibit good neutron scattering properties such as low carbon steel (99 wt % Fe). In this experiment, the iron reflector reduced the amount of uranium used in the critical experiment and increased the importance of the neptunium sphere.

  12. Consideration of critically when directly disposing highly enriched spent nuclear fuel in unsaturated tuff: Bounding estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P.; Tierney, M.S.; Sanchez, L.C.; Martell, M.-A.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents one of 2 approaches (bounding calculations) which were used in a 1994 study to examine the possibility of a criticality in a repository. Bounding probabilities, although rough, point to the difficulty of creating conditions under which a critical mass could be assembled (container corrosion, separation of neutron absorbers from fissile material, collapse or precipitation of fissile material) and how significant the geochemical and hydrologic phenomena are. The study could not conceive of a mechanism consistent with conditions under which an atomic explosion could occur. Should a criticality occur in or near a container in the future, boundary consequence calculations showed that fissions from one critical event (<10{sup 20} fissions, if similar to aqueous and metal accidents and experiments) are quite small compared to the amount of fissions represented by the spent fuel itself. If it is assumed that the containers necessary to hold the highly enriched spent fuel went critical once per day for 1 million years, creating an energy release of about 10{sup 20} fissions, the number of fissions equals about 10{sup 28}, which corresponds to only 1% of the fission inventory in a repository containing 70,000 metric tons of heavy metal, the expected size for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  13. Modeling of Fission Neutrons as a Signature for Detection of Highly Enriched Uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Wolford, J K; Frank, M I; Descalle, M

    2004-03-09

    We present the results of modeling intended to evaluate the feasibility of using neutrons from induced fission in highly enriched uranium (HEU) as a means of detecting clandestine HEU, even when it is embedded in absorbing surroundings, such as commercial cargo. We characterized radiation from induced fission in HEU, which consisted of delayed neutrons at all energies and prompt neutrons at energies above a threshold. We found that for the candidate detector and for the conditions we considered, a distinctive HEU signature should be detectable, given sufficient detector size, and should be robust over a range of cargo content. In the modeled scenario, an intense neutron source was used to induce fissions in a spherical shell of HEU. To absorb, scatter, and moderate the neutrons, we place one layer of simulated cargo between the source and target and an identical layer between the target and detector. The resulting neutrons and gamma rays are resolved in both time and energy to reveal the portion arising from fission. We predicted the dominant reaction rates within calcium fluoride and liquid organic scintillators. Finally, we assessed the relative effectiveness of two common neutron source energies.

  14. Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acid-Enriched High Fat Diet Delays Skeletal Muscle Degradation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Nikul K.; Ross, Alastair B.; Scheers, Nathalie; Savolainen, Otto I; Nookaew, Intawat; Gabrielsson, Britt G.; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie

    2016-01-01

    Low-grade chronic inflammatory conditions such as ageing, obesity and related metabolic disorders are associated with deterioration of skeletal muscle (SkM). Human studies have shown that marine fatty acids influence SkM function, though the underlying mechanisms of action are unknown. As a model of diet-induced obesity, we fed C57BL/6J mice either a high fat diet (HFD) with purified marine fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (HFD-ED), a HFD with corn oil, or normal mouse chow for 8 weeks; and used transcriptomics to identify the molecular effects of EPA and DHA on SkM. Consumption of ED-enriched HFD modulated SkM metabolism through increased gene expression of mitochondrial β-oxidation and slow-fiber type genes compared with HFD-corn oil fed mice. Furthermore, HFD-ED intake increased nuclear localization of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (Nfatc4) protein, which controls fiber-type composition. This data suggests a role for EPA and DHA in mitigating some of the molecular responses due to a HFD in SkM. Overall, the results suggest that increased consumption of the marine fatty acids EPA and DHA may aid in the prevention of molecular processes that lead to muscle deterioration commonly associated with obesity-induced low-grade inflammation. PMID:27598198

  15. Targeted enrichment and high-resolution digital profiling of mitochondrial DNA deletions in human brain.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sean D; Ericson, Nolan G; Burton, Joshua N; Prolla, Tomas A; Silber, John R; Shendure, Jay; Bielas, Jason H

    2014-02-01

    Due largely to the inability to accurately quantify and characterize de novo deletion events, the mechanisms underpinning the pathogenic expansion of mtDNA deletions in aging and neuromuscular disorders remain poorly understood. Here, we outline and validate a new tool termed 'Digital Deletion Detection' (3D) that allows for high-resolution analysis of rare deletions occurring at frequencies as low as 1 × 10(-8) . 3D is a three-step process that includes targeted enrichment for deletion-bearing molecules, single-molecule partitioning of genomes into thousands of droplets for direct quantification via droplet digital PCR, and breakpoint characterization using massively parallel sequencing. Using 3D, we interrogated over 8 billion mitochondrial genomes to analyze the age-related dynamics of mtDNA deletions in human brain tissue. We demonstrate that the total deletion load increases with age, while the total number and diversity of unique deletions remain constant. Our data provide support for the hypothesis that expansion of pre-existing mutations is the primary factor contributing to age-related accumulation of mtDNA deletions.

  16. Fission Yield Measurements from Highly Enriched Uranium Irradiated Inside a Boron Carbide Capsule

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, Lori A.; Friese, Judah I.; Finn, Erin C.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Rosara F.; Hines, Corey C.; King, Matthew D.; Henry, Kelley; Wall, Donald E.

    2013-05-01

    A boron carbide capsule was previously designed and tested by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Washington State University (WSU) for spectral-tailoring in mixed spectrum reactors. The presented work used this B4C capsule to create a fission product sample from the irradiation of highly enriched uranium (HEU) with a fast fission neutron spectrum. An HEU foil was irradiated inside of the capsule in WSU’s 1 MW TRIGA reactor at full power for 200 min to produce 5.8 × 1013 fissions. After three days of cooling, the sample was shipped to PNNL for radiochemical separations and analysis by gamma and beta spectroscopy. Fission yields for products were calculated from the radiometric measurements and compared to measurements from thermal neutron induced fission (analyzed in parallel with the non-thermal sample at PNNL) and published evaluated fast-pooled and thermal nuclear data. Reactor dosimetry measurements were also completed to fully characterize the neutron spectrum and total fluence of the irradiation.

  17. Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acid-Enriched High Fat Diet Delays Skeletal Muscle Degradation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Soni, Nikul K; Ross, Alastair B; Scheers, Nathalie; Savolainen, Otto I; Nookaew, Intawat; Gabrielsson, Britt G; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie

    2016-09-03

    Low-grade chronic inflammatory conditions such as ageing, obesity and related metabolic disorders are associated with deterioration of skeletal muscle (SkM). Human studies have shown that marine fatty acids influence SkM function, though the underlying mechanisms of action are unknown. As a model of diet-induced obesity, we fed C57BL/6J mice either a high fat diet (HFD) with purified marine fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (HFD-ED), a HFD with corn oil, or normal mouse chow for 8 weeks; and used transcriptomics to identify the molecular effects of EPA and DHA on SkM. Consumption of ED-enriched HFD modulated SkM metabolism through increased gene expression of mitochondrial β-oxidation and slow-fiber type genes compared with HFD-corn oil fed mice. Furthermore, HFD-ED intake increased nuclear localization of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (Nfatc4) protein, which controls fiber-type composition. This data suggests a role for EPA and DHA in mitigating some of the molecular responses due to a HFD in SkM. Overall, the results suggest that increased consumption of the marine fatty acids EPA and DHA may aid in the prevention of molecular processes that lead to muscle deterioration commonly associated with obesity-induced low-grade inflammation.

  18. Isolation of microorganisms from CO2 sequestration sites through enrichments under high pCO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peet, K. C.; Freedman, A. J.; Boreham, C.; Thompson, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) in geologic formations has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel processing and combustion. However, little is known about the effects that CO2 may have on biological activity in deep earth environments. To understand microorganisms associated with these environments, we have developed a simple high-pressure enrichment methodology to cultivate organisms capable of growth under supercritical CO2 (scCO2). Growth media targeting different subsurface functional metabolic groups is added to sterilized 316 stainless steel tubing sealed with quarter turn plug valves values and pressurized to 120-136 atm using a helium-padded CO2 tank, followed by incubation at 37 °C to achieve the scCO2 state. Repeated passages of crushed subsurface rock samples and growth media under supercritical CO2 headspaces are assessed for growth via microscopic enumeration. We have utilized this method to survey sandstone cores for microbes capable of growth under scCO2 from two different geologic sites targeted for carbon sequestration activities. Reproducible growth of microbial biomass under high pCO2 has been sustained from each site. Cell morphologies consist of primarily 1-2 μm rods and oval spores, with densities from 1E5-1E7 cells per ml of culture. We have purified and characterized a bacterial strain most closely related to Bacillus subterraneus (99% 16S rRNA identity) capable of growth under scCO2. Preliminary physiological characterization of this strain indicates it is a spore-forming facultative anaerobe able to grow in 0.5 to 50 ppt salinity. Genome sequencing and analysis currently in progress will help reveal genetic mechanisms of acclimation to high pCO2 conditions associated with geologic carbon sequestration.

  19. A facilely synthesized amino-functionalized metal-organic framework for highly specific and efficient enrichment of glycopeptides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Wei; Li, Ze; Zhao, Qiang; Zhou, Ying-Lin; Liu, Hu-Wei; Zhang, Xin-Xiang

    2014-10-09

    A facilely synthesized amino-functionalized metal-organic framework (MOF) MIL-101(Cr)-NH2 was first applied for highly specific glycopeptide enrichment based on the hydrophilic interactions. With the special characteristics of the MOF, the material performed well in selectivity and sensitivity for both standard glycoprotein samples and complex biological samples.

  20. Innovative method for the enrichment of high-polarity bioactive molecules present at low concentrations in complex matrices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing-Shan; He, Jie; Zhou, Wen-Bin; Gu, Yu-Long; Huang, Huoqiang; Li, Ke-Qin; Yin, Xiao-Ying

    2017-02-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1 is a valuable bioactive molecule but its high polarity and low concentration in complex mixtures makes it a challenge to separate Ginsenoside Rg1 from other saponins with similar structures, resulting in low extraction efficiency. The successful development of effective Rg1 molecularly imprinted polymers that exhibit high selectivity and adsorption may offer an improved method for the enrichment of active compounds. In this work, molecularly imprinted polymers were prepared with two different methods, precipitation polymerization or surface imprinted polymerization. Comparison of the adsorption abilities showed higher adsorption of the surface molecularly imprinted polymers prepared by surface imprinted polymerization, 46.80 mg/g, compared to the 27.74 mg/g observed for the molecularly imprinted polymers prepared by precipitation polymerization. Therefore, for higher adsorption of the highly polar Rg1, surface imprinted polymerization is a superior technique to make Rg1 molecularly imprinted polymers. The prepared surface molecularly imprinted polymers were tested as a solid-phase extraction column to directionally enrich Rg1 and its analogues from ginseng tea and total ginseng extracts. The column with surface molecularly imprinted polymers showed higher enrichment efficiency and better selectivity than a C18 solid-phase extraction column. Overall, a new, innovative method was developed to efficiently enrich high-polarity bioactive molecules present at low concentrations in complex matrices.

  1. Heat capacity of high-purity isotope-enriched germanium-76 in the temperature range of 2-15 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, A. V.; Gibin, A. M.; Andryushchenko, I. A.; Gavva, V. A.; Kozyrev, E. A.

    2015-09-01

    The heat capacity of high-purity isotopically-enriched germanium Ge-76 has been measured in the range of 2.5-15 K. In this range, the heat capacity of Ge-76 is 6-15% higher than the heat capacity of germanium of the natural isotopic composition, which is determined by a change in the average mass.

  2. Russian Fires and Pakistani Floods Linked

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Beginning in mid-July and stretching through mid-August, a persistent Omega-shaped blocking high over western Russian and Kazakhstan produced abnormally warm temperatures (indicated by the yellow a...

  3. A Convenient and Efficient Method to Enrich and Maintain Highly Proliferative Human Fetal Liver Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuan; Wang, Shu; Dou, Ya-ling; Guo, Xiang-fei; Chen, Zhao-li; Wang, Xin-wei; Shen, Zhi-qiang; Qiu, Zhi-gang; Jin, Min; Li, Jun-wen

    2015-06-01

    Pluripotent human hepatic stem cells have broad research and clinical applications, which are, however, restricted by both limited resources and technical difficulties with respect to isolation of stem cells from the adult or fetal liver. In this study, we developed a convenient and efficient method involving a two-step in situ collagenase perfusion, gravity sedimentation, and Percoll density gradient centrifugation to enrich and maintain highly proliferative human fetal liver stem cells (hFLSCs). Using this method, the isolated hFLSCs entered into the exponential growth phase within 10 days and maintained sufficient proliferative activity to permit subculture for at least 20 passages without differentiation. Immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence, and flow cytometry results showed that these cells expressed stem cell markers, such as c-kit, CD44, epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), oval cell marker-6 (OV-6), epithelial marker cytokeratin 18 (CK18), biliary ductal marker CK19, and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Gene expression analysis showed that these cells had stable mRNA expression of c-Kit, EpCAM, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), CK19, CK18, AFP, and claudin 3 (CLDN-3) throughout each passage while maintaining low levels of ALB, but with complete absence of cytochrome P450 3A4 (C3A4), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), telomeric repeat binding factor (TRF), and connexin 26 (CX26) expression. When grown in appropriate medium, these isolated liver stem cells could differentiate into hepatocytes, cholangiocytes, osteoblasts, adipocytes, or endothelial cells. Thus, we have demonstrated a more economical and efficient method to isolate hFLSCs than magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS). This novel approach may provide an excellent tool to isolate highly proliferative hFLSCs for tissue engineering and regenerative therapies.

  4. Russian EVA 39

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-18

    ISS040E099874 (08/18/2014) --- Cosmonauts Alexander Skvortsov (red stripe - foreground) and Oleg Artemyev (blue stripe - background), Expedition 40 flight engineers, move to the Russian Service Module for repairs during International Space Station Russian EVA 39 on Aug. 18, 2014.

  5. Russian EVA no. 39.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-18

    ISS040E099355 (08/18/2014) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Skvortsov (red stripes), Expedition 40 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit outside the International Space Station, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) number 39 in support of science and maintenance. The Solar array is visible in the background.

  6. Russian Space Suits ready

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-17

    ISS040-E-095619 (17 Aug. 2014) --- Unoccupied Russian Orlan spacesuits for Russian cosmonauts Oleg Artemyev (blue stripes) and Alexander Skvortsov (red stripes), both Expedition 40 flight engineers, are pictured in the Pirs Docking Compartment of the International Space Station on the eve of the spacewalk scheduled for Aug. 18, 2014.

  7. Russian Space Suits ready

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-17

    ISS040-E-095617 (17 Aug. 2014) --- Unoccupied Russian Orlan spacesuits for Russian cosmonauts Oleg Artemyev (blue stripes) and Alexander Skvortsov (red stripes), both Expedition 40 flight engineers, are pictured in the Pirs Docking Compartment of the International Space Station on the eve of the spacewalk scheduled for Aug. 18, 2014.

  8. Russian Space Suits ready

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-17

    ISS040-E-095612 (17 Aug. 2014) --- Unoccupied Russian Orlan spacesuits for Russian cosmonauts Oleg Artemyev (blue stripes) and Alexander Skvortsov (red stripes), both Expedition 40 flight engineers, are pictured in the Pirs Docking Compartment of the International Space Station on the eve of the spacewalk scheduled for Aug. 18, 2014.

  9. Russian Space Suits ready

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-17

    ISS040-E-095609 (17 Aug. 2014) --- Unoccupied Russian Orlan spacesuits for Russian cosmonauts Oleg Artemyev (blue stripes) and Alexander Skvortsov (red stripes), both Expedition 40 flight engineers, are pictured in the Pirs Docking Compartment of the International Space Station on the eve of the spacewalk scheduled for Aug. 18, 2014.

  10. Russian EVA 39.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-18

    ISS040E099104 (08/18/2014) --- View of Cosmonaut Oleg Artemyev (blue stripe), Expedition 40 flight engineer outside the International Space Station, taken while performing maintenance work on the Russian segment during the Russian EVA 39 on Aug 18 2014.

  11. Russian Space Suits ready

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-17

    ISS040-E-095615 (17 Aug. 2014) --- Unoccupied Russian Orlan spacesuits for Russian cosmonauts Oleg Artemyev (blue stripes) and Alexander Skvortsov (red stripes), both Expedition 40 flight engineers, are pictured in the Pirs Docking Compartment of the International Space Station on the eve of the spacewalk scheduled for Aug. 18, 2014.

  12. Russian EVA 35

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-22

    ISS036-E-035256 (22 Aug. 2013) --- Russian cosmonauts Alexander Misurkin (top) and Fyodor Yurchikhin, both Expedition 36 flight engineers, are pictured in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station following a session of extravehicular activity (EVA). Misurkin and Yurchikhin are wearing blue thermal undergarments that complement the Russian Orlan spacesuit.

  13. Russian EVA fit check

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-21

    ISS036-E-009797 (21 June 2013) --- Russian cosmonauts Fyodor Yurchikhin (left) and Alexander Misurkin, both Expedition 36 flight engineers, participate in a suited exercise dry run in preparation for a spacewalk in their Russian Orlan spacesuits, which is scheduled for June 24 from the International Space Station’s Pirs docking compartment.

  14. Russian Language Analysis Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serianni, Barbara; Rethwisch, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the result of a language analysis research project focused on the Russian Language. The study included a diverse literature review that included published materials as well as online sources in addition to an interview with a native Russian speaker residing in the United States. Areas of study include the origin and history of the…

  15. Russian Supplementary Dialogues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Ashgabat (Turkmenistan).

    This manual is designed for the Russian language training of Peace Corps volunteers serving in Turkmenistan, and focuses on daily communication skills needed in that context. It consists of nine topical lessons, each containing several brief dialogues targeting specific language competencies, and exercises. Text is entirely in Russian, except for…

  16. Russian Astronomical Data Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, O. Yu.; Kovaleva, D. A.; Kilpio, E. Yu.

    2006-08-01

    The ultimate goal of the RVO initiative is to integrate resources of astronomical data accumulated in Russian observatories and institutions, and to provide Russian data to the rest of the world. We collect information about all available Russian and some former Soviet Union (fSU) astronomical data resources, classify them and register them in the registries of other VO projects. A new version of the list of Russian and fSU astronomical resources is recently compiled and presented here. The original resources that contain astronomical data obtained by Russian and fSU astronomers are listed by kind of object they treat (Sun, Solar System, Stars, Stellar Systems, Radioastronomy, Cosmic Rays, Mixed Data Archives). This list of resources (as well as other information on RVO) can be found on the RVO web page.

  17. High resolution satellite microwave record of Russian High Arctic snowmelt timing, duration, and relation to late summer sea ice extent (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramage, J. M.; Zhao, M.; Semmens, K. A.; Obleitner, F.

    2013-12-01

    Passive and active microwave observations provide a decadal record of snowmelt timing, duration, and characteristics even in clouds and darkness. Nominal Equal-Area Scalable Earth Grid (EASE-Grid) resolutions are coarse, creating a challenge in heterogeneous environments such as coastlines, mountains, or glacier margins. For remote, topographically complex, arctic regions, there are major advantages to be gained by developing these long records into higher resolution gridded and intercalibrated datasets for characterizing and understanding the snow melt record consistently. New reprocessing efforts at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) will extend the passive microwave record back to the earliest Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) data and the preceding Scanning Multi-channel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) record, providing a record from 1978 - present (35 years). Resulting enhanced-resolution Earth Science Data Records (ESDR) will be key to a wide variety of longterm analyses of snow properties that will improve the ability to understand regions such as the icecaps in the Russian High Arctic. Glacier surface melt dynamics throughout Novaya Zemlya (NovZ) and Severnaya Zemlya (SevZ) serves as a good indicator of ice mass ablation and regional climate change in the Russian High Arctic. We present the most recent two decade record (1992-2012) of the icecap melt relationship to regional temperature and sea ice extent using enhanced resolution data for active sensors Advanced Microwave Instrument (AMI), Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT), and Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) and passive sensors Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) processed by the Brigham Young University - Microwave Earth Remote Sensing (BYU - MERS) Laboratory. Nominal enhanced resolutions are ~4.5 and 8.9 km. We report trends of surface melt onset date (MOD) and total melt days (TMD) by combining multiple resolution-enhanced active

  18. Differences in nitrite-oxidizing communities and kinetics in a brackish environment after enrichment at low and high nitrite concentrations.

    PubMed

    Tangkitjawisut, Wipasanee; Limpiyakorn, Tawan; Powtongsook, Sorawit; Pornkulwat, Preeyaporn; Suwannasilp, Benjaporn Boonchayaanant

    2016-04-01

    Nitrite accumulation in shrimp ponds can pose serious adverse effects to shrimp production and the environment. This study aims to develop an effective process for the enrichment of ready-to-use nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) inocula that would be appropriate for nitrite removal in brackish shrimp ponds. To achieve this objective, the effects of nitrite concentrations on NOB communities and nitrite oxidation kinetics in a brackish environment were investigated. Moving-bed biofilm sequencing batch reactors and continuous moving-bed biofilm reactors were used for the enrichment of NOB at various nitrite concentrations, using sediment from brackish shrimp ponds as seed inoculum. The results from NOB population analysis with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) show that only Nitrospira were detected in the sediment from the shrimp ponds. After the enrichment, both Nitrospira and Nitrobacter coexisted in the reactors controlling effluent nitrite at 0.1 and 0.5 mg-NO2(-)-N/L. On the other hand, in the reactors controlling effluent nitrite at 3, 20, and 100 mg-NO2(-)-N/L, Nitrobacter outcompeted Nitrospira in many orders of magnitude. The half saturation coefficients (Ks) for nitrite oxidation of the enrichments at low nitrite concentrations (0.1 and 0.5 mg-NO2(-)-N/L) were in the range of 0.71-0.98 mg-NO2(-)-N/L. In contrast, the K(s) values of NOB enriched at high nitrite concentrations (3, 20, and 100 mg-NO2(-)-N/L) were much higher (8.36-12.20 mg-NO2(-)-N/L). The results suggest that the selection of nitrite concentrations for the enrichment of NOB inocula can significantly influence NOB populations and kinetics, which could affect the effectiveness of their applications in brackish shrimp ponds.

  19. Biodegradation of high concentrations of halomethanes by a fermentative enrichment culture

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A fermentative enrichment culture (designated DHM-1) that grows on corn syrup was evaluated for its ability to cometabolically biodegrade high concentrations of chloroform (CF), carbon tetrachloride (CT), and trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11). When provided with corn syrup and vitamin B12 (0.03 mol B12 per mol CF), DHM-1 grew and biodegraded up to 2,000 mg/L of CF in 180 days, with only minor transient accumulation of dichloromethane and chloromethane. CT (15 mg/L) and CFC-11 (25 mg/L) were also biodegraded without significant accumulation of halomethane daughter products. The rate of CF biodegradation followed a Michaelis-Menten-like pattern with respect to the B12 concentration; one-half the maximum rate (66 mg CF/L/d) occurred at 0.005 mol B12 per mol CF. DHM-1 was able to biodegrade 500 mg/L of CF at an inoculum level as low as 10−8 mg protein/L. The highest rate of CF biodegradation occurred at pH 7.7; activity decreased substantially below pH 6.0. DHM-1 biodegraded mixtures of CT, CFC-11, and CF, although CFC-11 inhibited CF biodegradation. Evidence for compete defluorination of CFC-11 was obtained based on a fluoride mass balance. Overall, the results suggest that DHM-1 may be effective for bioaugmentation in source zones contaminated with thousands of milligrams per liter of CF and tens of milligrams per liter of CT and CFC-11. PMID:25401061

  20. Transmutation Analysis of Enriched Uranium and Deep Burn High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Michael A. Pope

    2012-07-01

    High temperature reactors (HTRs) have been under consideration for production of electricity, process heat, and for destruction of transuranics for decades. As part of the transmutation analysis efforts within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) campaign, a need was identified for detailed discharge isotopics from HTRs for use in the VISION code. A conventional HTR using enriched uranium in UCO fuel was modeled having discharge burnup of 120 GWd/MTiHM. Also, a deep burn HTR (DB-HTR) was modeled burning transuranic (TRU)-only TRU-O2 fuel to a discharge burnup of 648 GWd/MTiHM. For each of these cases, unit cell depletion calculations were performed with SCALE/TRITON. Unit cells were used to perform this analysis using SCALE 6.1. Because of the long mean free paths (and migration lengths) of neutrons in HTRs, using a unit cell to represent a whole core can be non-trivial. The sizes of these cells were first set by using Serpent calculations to match a spectral index between unit cell and whole core domains. In the case of the DB-HTR, the unit cell which was arrived at in this way conserved the ratio of fuel to moderator found in a single block of fuel. In the conventional HTR case, a larger moderator-to-fuel ratio than that of a single block was needed to simulate the whole core spectrum. Discharge isotopics (for 500 nuclides) and one-group cross-sections (for 1022 nuclides) were delivered to the transmutation analysis team. This report provides documentation for these calculations. In addition to the discharge isotopics, one-group cross-sections were provided for the full list of 1022 nuclides tracked in the transmutation library.

  1. Investigation of a Quadruplex-Forming Repeat Sequence Highly Enriched in Xanthomonas and Nostoc sp.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Charlotte; Wurmthaler, Lena A; Li, Yuanhao; Frickey, Tancred; Hartig, Jörg S

    2015-01-01

    In prokaryotes simple sequence repeats (SSRs) with unit sizes of 1-5 nucleotides (nt) are causative for phase and antigenic variation. Although an increased abundance of heptameric repeats was noticed in bacteria, reports about SSRs of 6-9 nt are rare. In particular G-rich repeat sequences with the propensity to fold into G-quadruplex (G4) structures have received little attention. In silico analysis of prokaryotic genomes show putative G4 forming sequences to be abundant. This report focuses on a surprisingly enriched G-rich repeat of the type GGGNATC in Xanthomonas and cyanobacteria such as Nostoc. We studied in detail the genomes of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris ATCC 33913 (Xcc), Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri str. 306 (Xac), and Nostoc sp. strain PCC7120 (Ana). In all three organisms repeats are spread all over the genome with an over-representation in non-coding regions. Extensive variation of the number of repetitive units was observed with repeat numbers ranging from two up to 26 units. However a clear preference for four units was detected. The strong bias for four units coincides with the requirement of four consecutive G-tracts for G4 formation. Evidence for G4 formation of the consensus repeat sequences was found in biophysical studies utilizing CD spectroscopy. The G-rich repeats are preferably located between aligned open reading frames (ORFs) and are under-represented in coding regions or between divergent ORFs. The G-rich repeats are preferentially located within a distance of 50 bp upstream of an ORF on the anti-sense strand or within 50 bp from the stop codon on the sense strand. Analysis of whole transcriptome sequence data showed that the majority of repeat sequences are transcribed. The genetic loci in the vicinity of repeat regions show increased genomic stability. In conclusion, we introduce and characterize a special class of highly abundant and wide-spread quadruplex-forming repeat sequences in bacteria.

  2. Investigation of a Quadruplex-Forming Repeat Sequence Highly Enriched in Xanthomonas and Nostoc sp.

    PubMed Central

    Rehm, Charlotte; Wurmthaler, Lena A.; Li, Yuanhao; Frickey, Tancred; Hartig, Jörg S.

    2015-01-01

    In prokaryotes simple sequence repeats (SSRs) with unit sizes of 1–5 nucleotides (nt) are causative for phase and antigenic variation. Although an increased abundance of heptameric repeats was noticed in bacteria, reports about SSRs of 6–9 nt are rare. In particular G-rich repeat sequences with the propensity to fold into G-quadruplex (G4) structures have received little attention. In silico analysis of prokaryotic genomes show putative G4 forming sequences to be abundant. This report focuses on a surprisingly enriched G-rich repeat of the type GGGNATC in Xanthomonas and cyanobacteria such as Nostoc. We studied in detail the genomes of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris ATCC 33913 (Xcc), Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri str. 306 (Xac), and Nostoc sp. strain PCC7120 (Ana). In all three organisms repeats are spread all over the genome with an over-representation in non-coding regions. Extensive variation of the number of repetitive units was observed with repeat numbers ranging from two up to 26 units. However a clear preference for four units was detected. The strong bias for four units coincides with the requirement of four consecutive G-tracts for G4 formation. Evidence for G4 formation of the consensus repeat sequences was found in biophysical studies utilizing CD spectroscopy. The G-rich repeats are preferably located between aligned open reading frames (ORFs) and are under-represented in coding regions or between divergent ORFs. The G-rich repeats are preferentially located within a distance of 50 bp upstream of an ORF on the anti-sense strand or within 50 bp from the stop codon on the sense strand. Analysis of whole transcriptome sequence data showed that the majority of repeat sequences are transcribed. The genetic loci in the vicinity of repeat regions show increased genomic stability. In conclusion, we introduce and characterize a special class of highly abundant and wide-spread quadruplex-forming repeat sequences in bacteria. PMID:26695179

  3. Pyrosequencing reveals high-temperature cellulolytic microbial consortia in Great Boiling Spring after in situ lignocellulose enrichment.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Joseph P; Cole, Jessica K; Murugapiran, Senthil K; Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Fisher, Jenny C; Moser, Duane P; Hedlund, Brian P

    2013-01-01

    To characterize high-temperature cellulolytic microbial communities, two lignocellulosic substrates, ammonia fiber-explosion-treated corn stover and aspen shavings, were incubated at average temperatures of 77 and 85°C in the sediment and water column of Great Boiling Spring, Nevada. Comparison of 109,941 quality-filtered 16S rRNA gene pyrosequences (pyrotags) from eight enrichments to 37,057 quality-filtered pyrotags from corresponding natural samples revealed distinct enriched communities dominated by phylotypes related to cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic Thermotoga and Dictyoglomus, cellulolytic and sugar-fermenting Desulfurococcales, and sugar-fermenting and hydrogenotrophic Archaeoglobales. Minor enriched populations included close relatives of hydrogenotrophic Thermodesulfobacteria, the candidate bacterial phylum OP9, and candidate archaeal groups C2 and DHVE3. Enrichment temperature was the major factor influencing community composition, with a negative correlation between temperature and richness, followed by lignocellulosic substrate composition. This study establishes the importance of these groups in the natural degradation of lignocellulose at high temperatures and suggests that a substantial portion of the diversity of thermophiles contributing to consortial cellulolysis may be contained within lineages that have representatives in pure culture.

  4. Pyrosequencing Reveals High-Temperature Cellulolytic Microbial Consortia in Great Boiling Spring after In Situ Lignocellulose Enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, Joseph P.; Cole, Jessica K.; Murugapiran, Senthil K.; Dodsworth, Jeremy A.; Fisher, Jenny C.; Moser, Duane P.; Hedlund, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    To characterize high-temperature cellulolytic microbial communities, two lignocellulosic substrates, ammonia fiber-explosion-treated corn stover and aspen shavings, were incubated at average temperatures of 77 and 85°C in the sediment and water column of Great Boiling Spring, Nevada. Comparison of 109,941 quality-filtered 16S rRNA gene pyrosequences (pyrotags) from eight enrichments to 37,057 quality-filtered pyrotags from corresponding natural samples revealed distinct enriched communities dominated by phylotypes related to cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic Thermotoga and Dictyoglomus, cellulolytic and sugar-fermenting Desulfurococcales, and sugar-fermenting and hydrogenotrophic Archaeoglobales. Minor enriched populations included close relatives of hydrogenotrophic Thermodesulfobacteria, the candidate bacterial phylum OP9, and candidate archaeal groups C2 and DHVE3. Enrichment temperature was the major factor influencing community composition, with a negative correlation between temperature and richness, followed by lignocellulosic substrate composition. This study establishes the importance of these groups in the natural degradation of lignocellulose at high temperatures and suggests that a substantial portion of the diversity of thermophiles contributing to consortial cellulolysis may be contained within lineages that have representatives in pure culture. PMID:23555835

  5. Highly efficient and selective enrichment of glycopeptides using easily synthesized magG/PDA/Au/l-Cys composites.

    PubMed

    Wu, Runqing; Li, Lanting; Deng, Chunhui

    2016-05-01

    Highly selective and efficient enrichment of glycopeptides from complex biological samples is necessary. In this study, novel zwitterionic hydrophilic polydopamine-coated magnetic graphene composites (magG/PDA/Au/l-Cys) were synthesized and applied to the enrichment of glycopeptides. The size, morphology, and composition of magG/PDA/Au/l-Cys composites were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, FT-infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The composites possessed a number of desirable characteristics, including good biocompatibility easy separation property and excellent hydrophilicity. By virtue of the features contributed by different ingredients, the prepared composites demonstrated superior performance for glycopeptide enrichment with high sensitivity (0.1 fmol), efficiency, selectivity (1:100), and repeatability (at least ten times). In addition, the composites were successfully applied to the enrichment of glycopeptides from human serum and 40 unique N-glycosylation peptides from 31 different N-linked glycoproteins were identified. The superior hydrophilic material is of great potential for the analysis of glycoproteins. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Methane-bearing fluid inclusions as evidence of the collisional nature of high-alumina granites, northern Sikhote-Alin, Russian Far East

    SciTech Connect

    Berdnikov, N.V.; Karsakov, L.P.

    1999-07-01

    The Khungariisk high-alumina S-type granites (northern Sikhote-Alin fold system, Russian Far East) have been formed as a result of anatectic melting during collision of the Anyuy sialic block with the continental margin in the Early Cretaceous. Methane-rich fluid inclusions are characteristic of these granites. The CH{sub 4}-H{sub 2}O fluid composition is explained by the release of water and methane from the sedimentary units residing on the oceanic plate, as it was subducted beneath sialic block. This fluid seeped into the heated and deformed metamorphic rocks of the overlying block and initiated partial fusion of the granites. A comparison of the new data with the results of fluid-inclusion studies of high-alumina collisional granites from the Pamir Mountains and Japan reveals similarities. Thus, methane-bearing fluid is probably one of the general features of this granite type, reflecting its anatectic origin.

  7. Fuel handling accident analysis for the University of Missouri Research Reactor's High Enriched Uranium to Low Enriched Uranium fuel conversion initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rickman, Benjamin

    In accordance with the 1986 amendment concerning licenses for research and test reactors, the MU Research Reactor (MURR) is planning to convert from using High-Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel to the use of Low-Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel. Since the approval of a new LEU fuel that could meet the MURR's performance demands, the next phase of action for the fuel conversion process is to create a new Safety Analysis Report (SAR) with respect to the LEU fuel. A component of the SAR includes the Maximum Hypothetical Accident (MHA) and accidents that qualify under the class of Fuel Handling Accidents (FHA). In this work, the dose to occupational staff at the MURR is calculated for the FHAs. The radionuclide inventory for the proposed LEU fuel was calculated using the ORIGEN2 point-depletion code linked to the MURR neutron spectrum. The MURR spectrum was generated from a Monte Carlo Neutron transPort (MCNP) simulation. The coupling of these codes create MONTEBURNS, a time-dependent burnup code. The release fraction from each FHA within this analysis was established by the methodology of the 2006 HEU SAR, which was accepted by the NRC. The actual dose methodology was not recorded in the HEU SAR, so a conservative path was chosen. In compliance to NUREG 1537, when new methodology is used in a HEU to LEU analysis, it is necessary to re-evaluate the HEU accident. The Total Effective Dose Equivalent (TEDE) values were calculated in addition to the whole body dose and thyroid dose to operation personnel. The LEU FHA occupational TEDE dose was 349 mrem which is under the NRC regulatory occupational dose limit of 5 rem TEDE, and under the LEU MHA limit of 403 mrem. The re-evaluated HEU FHA occupational TEDE dose was 235 mrem, which is above the HEU MHA TEDE dose of 132 mrem. Since the new methodology produces a dose that is larger than the HEU MHA, we can safely assume that it is more conservative than the previous, unspecified dose.

  8. High sensitivity measurement of amino acid isotope enrichment using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    van Eijk, Hans M H; Wijnands, Karolina A P; Bessems, Babs A F M; Olde Damink, Steven W; Dejong, Cornelis H C; Poeze, Martijn

    2012-09-15

    Measurement of the incorporation or conversion of infused stable isotope enriched metabolites in vivo such as amino acids plays a key role in metabolic research. Specific routes are frequently probed in knockout mouse models limiting the available amount of sample. Although less precise as compared to combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (C-IRMS), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) techniques are therefore often the method of choice to measure isotopic enrichment of target metabolites. However, under conditions of metabolic depletion, the precision of these systems becomes limiting. In this paper, studies were performed to enhance the sensitivity and precision of isotope enrichment measurements using LC-MS. Ion-statistics and resolution were identified as critical factors for this application when using a linear trap mass spectrometer. The combination with an automated pre-column derivatization and a carefully selected solvent mix allowed us to measure isotopic enrichments down to 0.005% at plasma concentrations as low as 5 μmol/l, an improvement by a factor of 100 compared to alternative methods. The resulting method now allowed measurement of the in vivo conversion of the amino acid arginine into citrulline as a marker for the production of nitric oxide in an in vivo murine endotoxemia model with depleted plasma levels of arginine and citrulline.

  9. R&D of crystal scintillators from enriched isotopes for high sensitivity double β decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danevich, F. A.

    2013-12-01

    Experiments to search for neutrinoless double beta decay enters to a new phase when a sensitivity on the level of T1/2˜1026-1028 yr is required. Scintillating low temperature detectors possess important properties required for high-sensitivity double beta decay experiments: presence of elements of interest, high energy resolution and detection efficiency, low level of background thanks to excellent particle discrimination ability. High concentration of isotope of interest and as low as possible radioactive contamination are important requirements to crystal scintillators. Other crucial issues are maximal output of detectors and minimal loss of enriched materials. Prospects of several scintillation materials, enriched in isotopes promising for double beta decay experiments, are discussed.

  10. Targeted gene enrichment and high-throughput sequencing for environmental biomonitoring: a case study using freshwater macroinvertebrates.

    PubMed

    Dowle, Eddy J; Pochon, Xavier; C Banks, Jonathan; Shearer, Karen; Wood, Susanna A

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have advocated biomonitoring using DNA techniques. In this study, two high-throughput sequencing (HTS)-based methods were evaluated: amplicon metabarcoding of the cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI) mitochondrial gene and gene enrichment using MYbaits (targeting nine different genes including COI). The gene-enrichment method does not require PCR amplification and thus avoids biases associated with universal primers. Macroinvertebrate samples were collected from 12 New Zealand rivers. Macroinvertebrates were morphologically identified and enumerated, and their biomass determined. DNA was extracted from all macroinvertebrate samples and HTS undertaken using the illumina miseq platform. Macroinvertebrate communities were characterized from sequence data using either six genes (three of the original nine were not used) or just the COI gene in isolation. The gene-enrichment method (all genes) detected the highest number of taxa and obtained the strongest Spearman rank correlations between the number of sequence reads, abundance and biomass in 67% of the samples. Median detection rates across rare (<1% of the total abundance or biomass), moderately abundant (1-5%) and highly abundant (>5%) taxa were highest using the gene-enrichment method (all genes). Our data indicated primer biases occurred during amplicon metabarcoding with greater than 80% of sequence reads originating from one taxon in several samples. The accuracy and sensitivity of both HTS methods would be improved with more comprehensive reference sequence databases. The data from this study illustrate the challenges of using PCR amplification-based methods for biomonitoring and highlight the potential benefits of using approaches, such as gene enrichment, which circumvent the need for an initial PCR step. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate mediated preparation of immobilized metal affinity material for highly selective and sensitive enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; He, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Xi; Zhu, Gang-Tian; Wang, Ren-Qi; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2017-04-01

    Phosphorylation is a crucial post-translational modification, which plays pivotal roles in various biological processes. Analysis of phosphopeptides by mass spectrometry (MS) is intractable on account of their low stoichiometry and the ion suppression from non-phosphopeptides. Thus, enrichment of phosphopeptides before MS analysis is indispensable. In this work, we employed pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), as an immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) ligand for the enrichment of phosphopeptides. PLP was grafted onto several substrates such as silica (SiO2), oxidized carbon nanotube (OCNT) and silica coated magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@SiO2). Then the metal ions Fe(3+), Ga(3+) and Ti(4+) were incorporated for the selective enrichment of phosphopeptides. It is indicated that Fe3O4@SiO2-PLP-Ti(4+) has a superior selectivity towards phosphopeptides under as much as 1000-fold interferences of non-phosphopeptides. Further, Fe3O4@SiO2-PLP-Ti(4+) exhibited high efficiency in selective enrichments of phosphopeptides from complex biological samples, including human serum and tryptic digested non-fat milk. Finally, Fe3O4@SiO2-PLP-Ti(4+) was successfully employed in the sample pretreatment for profiling phosphopeptides in a tryptic digest of rat brain proteins. Our experimental results evidenced a great potential of this new chelator-based material in phosphoproteomics study.

  12. Russian EVA 28

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-16

    ISS026-E-027391 (16 Feb. 2011) --- Russian cosmonaut Dmitry Kondratyev, Expedition 26 flight engineer, wearing a Russian Orlan-MK spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) focused on the installation of two scientific experiments outside the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station. During the four-hour, 51-minute spacewalk, Kondratyev and Russian cosmonaut Oleg Skripochka (out of frame), flight engineer, installed a pair of earthquake and lightning sensing experiments and retrieved a pair of spacecraft material evaluation panels.

  13. Russian EVA-31 spacewalk

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-20

    ISS032-E-021080 (20 Aug. 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka, Expedition 32 commander, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 51-minute spacewalk, Padalka and Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko (out of frame), flight engineer, moved the Strela-2 cargo boom from the Pirs docking compartment to the Zarya module to prepare Pirs for its eventual replacement with a new Russian multipurpose laboratory module. The two spacewalking cosmonauts also installed micrometeoroid debris shields on the exterior of the Zvezda service module and deployed a small science satellite.

  14. Russian EVA 26

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-15

    ISS025-E-015238 (15 Nov. 2010) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Skripochka, Expedition 25 flight engineer, wearing a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 27-minute spacewalk, Skripochka and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame), flight engineer, installed a multipurpose workstation on the starboard side of the Zvezda Service Module’s large-diameter section and relocated a television camera from one end of the Rassvet docking compartment to the other.

  15. Russian EVA-31 spacewalk

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-20

    ISS032-E-021293 (20 Aug. 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko, Expedition 32 flight engineer, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 51-minute spacewalk, Malenchenko and Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka (out of frame), commander, moved the Strela-2 cargo boom from the Pirs docking compartment to the Zarya module to prepare Pirs for its eventual replacement with a new Russian multipurpose laboratory module. The two spacewalking cosmonauts also installed micrometeoroid debris shields on the exterior of the Zvezda service module and deployed a small science satellite.

  16. Russian EVA-31 spacewalk

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-20

    ISS032-E-020892 (20 Aug. 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko, Expedition 32 flight engineer, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 51-minute spacewalk, Malenchenko and Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka (out of frame), commander, moved the Strela-2 cargo boom from the Pirs docking compartment to the Zarya module to prepare Pirs for its eventual replacement with a new Russian multipurpose laboratory module. The two spacewalking cosmonauts also installed micrometeoroid debris shields on the exterior of the Zvezda service module and deployed a small science satellite.

  17. Russian EVA-31 spacewalk

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-20

    ISS032-E-020576 (20 Aug. 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka, Expedition 32 commander, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 51-minute spacewalk, Padalka and Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko (out of frame), flight engineer, moved the Strela-2 cargo boom from the Pirs docking compartment to the Zarya module to prepare Pirs for its eventual replacement with a new Russian multipurpose laboratory module. The two spacewalking cosmonauts also installed micrometeoroid debris shields on the exterior of the Zvezda service module and deployed a small science satellite.

  18. Russian EVA-31 spacewalk

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-20

    ISS032-E-021028 (20 Aug. 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka, Expedition 32 commander, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 51-minute spacewalk, Padalka and Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko (out of frame), flight engineer, moved the Strela-2 cargo boom from the Pirs docking compartment to the Zarya module to prepare Pirs for its eventual replacement with a new Russian multipurpose laboratory module. The two spacewalking cosmonauts also installed micrometeoroid debris shields on the exterior of the Zvezda service module and deployed a small science satellite.

  19. Russian EVA-31 spacewalk

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-20

    ISS032-E-021024 (20 Aug. 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka, Expedition 32 commander, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 51-minute spacewalk, Padalka and Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko (out of frame), flight engineer, moved the Strela-2 cargo boom from the Pirs docking compartment to the Zarya module to prepare Pirs for its eventual replacement with a new Russian multipurpose laboratory module. The two spacewalking cosmonauts also installed micrometeoroid debris shields on the exterior of the Zvezda service module and deployed a small science satellite.

  20. Russian EVA 26

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-15

    ISS025-E-015066 (15 Nov. 2010) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Skripochka, Expedition 25 flight engineer, wearing a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 27-minute spacewalk, Skripochka and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame), flight engineer, installed a multipurpose workstation on the starboard side of the Zvezda Service Module’s large-diameter section and relocated a television camera from one end of the Rassvet docking compartment to the other.

  1. Russian EVA 36.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-09

    ISS037-E-028076 (9 Nov. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Sergey Ryazanskiy, Expedition 37 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, uses a digital still camera to expose a photo of his helmet visor during a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as work continues on the International Space Station. Also visible in the reflections in the visor are Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov, flight engineer, and various components of the space station and a blue and white portion of Earth. During the five-hour, 50-minute spacewalk, Kotov and Ryazanskiy continued the setup of a combination EVA workstation and biaxial pointing platform that was installed during an Expedition 36 spacewalk on Aug. 22.

  2. Russian EVA 26

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-15

    ISS025-E-015217 (15 Nov. 2010) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Skripochka, Expedition 25 flight engineer, wearing a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 27-minute spacewalk, Skripochka and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame), flight engineer, installed a multipurpose workstation on the starboard side of the Zvezda Service Module’s large-diameter section and relocated a television camera from one end of the Rassvet docking compartment to the other.

  3. Russian EVA-31 spacewalk

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-20

    ISS032-E-020884 (20 Aug. 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko, Expedition 32 flight engineer, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 51-minute spacewalk, Malenchenko and Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka (out of frame), commander, moved the Strela-2 cargo boom from the Pirs docking compartment to the Zarya module to prepare Pirs for its eventual replacement with a new Russian multipurpose laboratory module. The two spacewalking cosmonauts also installed micrometeoroid debris shields on the exterior of the Zvezda service module and deployed a small science satellite.

  4. Russian EVA 35

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-22

    ISS036-E-035200 (22 Aug. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 58-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame) completed the replacement of a laser communications experiment with a new platform for a small optical camera system, the installation of new spacewalk aids and an inspection of antenna covers. A section of the space station is visible in the reflections in his helmet visor.

  5. Russian EVA 26

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-15

    ISS025-E-015071 (15 Nov. 2010) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Skripochka, Expedition 25 flight engineer, wearing a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 27-minute spacewalk, Skripochka and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame), flight engineer, installed a multipurpose workstation on the starboard side of the Zvezda Service Module’s large-diameter section and relocated a television camera from one end of the Rassvet docking compartment to the other.

  6. Russian EVA 36

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-09

    ISS037-E-028789 (9 Nov. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Sergey Ryazanskiy, Expedition 37 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, is pictured during a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) in support of assembly and maintenance on the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 50-minute spacewalk, Ryazanskiy and Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov (out of frame) continued the setup of a combination EVA workstation and biaxial pointing platform that was installed during an Expedition 36 spacewalk on Aug. 22. Earth’s horizon and the blackness of space provide the backdrop for the scene.

  7. Russian EVA 35

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-22

    ISS036-E-035177 (22 Aug. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 58-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame) completed the replacement of a laser communications experiment with a new platform for a small optical camera system, the installation of new spacewalk aids and an inspection of antenna covers. Parts of solar array panels on the orbital outpost are visible in the background,

  8. Russian EVA 35

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-22

    ISS036-E-035198 (22 Aug. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 58-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame) completed the replacement of a laser communications experiment with a new platform for a small optical camera system, the installation of new spacewalk aids and an inspection of antenna covers. A section of the space station is visible in the reflections in his helmet visor.

  9. Research on Russian National Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Na, Zhuo

    2008-01-01

    The special geographical location Russia lies in creates the unique character of the Russian nation. Based on the dual nature of the Russian national character, the Russian geographical environment and the analysis of its social structure, this text tries to explore the reasons of the dual nature of Russian national character.

  10. High-performance composite membrane with enriched CO2-philic groups and improved adhesion at the interface.

    PubMed

    Li, Yifan; Wang, Shaofei; Wu, Hong; Guo, Ruili; Liu, Ye; Jiang, Zhongyi; Tian, Zhizhang; Zhang, Peng; Cao, Xingzhong; Wang, Baoyi

    2014-05-14

    A novel strategy to design a high-performance composite membrane for CO2 capture via coating a thin layer of water-swellable polymers (WSPs) onto a porous support with enriched CO2-philic groups is demonstrated in this study. First, by employing a versatile platform technique combining non-solvent-induced phase separation and surface segregation, porous support membranes with abundant CO2-philic ethylene oxide (EO) groups at the surface are successfully prepared. Second, a thin selective layer composed of Pebax MH 1657 is deposited onto the support membranes via dip coating. Because of the water-swellable characteristic of Pebax and the enriched EO groups at the interface, the composite membranes exhibit high CO2 permeance above 1000 GPU with CO2/N2 selectivity above 40 at a humidified state (25 °C and 3 bar). By tuning the content of the PEO segment at the interface, the composite membranes can show either high CO2 permeance up to 2420 GPU with moderate selectivity of 46.0 or high selectivity up to 109.6 with fairly good CO2 permeance of 1275 GPU. Moreover, enrichment of the PEO segment at the interface significantly improves interfacial adhesion, as revealed by the T-peel test and positron annihilation spectroscopy measurement. In this way, the feasibility of designing WSP-based composite membranes by enriching CO2-philic groups at the interface is validated. We hope our findings may pave a generic way to fabricate high-performance composite membranes for CO2 capture using cost-effective materials and facile methods.

  11. EVALUATION OF FLOWSHEET CHANGES FOR THE HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM BLENDDOWN PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, M.; Rudisill, T.; Laurinat, J.; Mickalonis, J.

    2007-10-22

    H Canyon is considering a flowsheet change for Plutonium (Pu) Contaminated Scrap (PuCS) material. The proposed change is to route dissolved PuCS material directly to a uranium (U) storage tank. As a result, the PuCS solution will bypass Head End and First U Cycle, and will be purified by solvent extraction in Second U Cycle. The PuCS solution contains appreciable amounts of boron (B) and fluoride (F{sup -}), which are currently at trace levels in the U storage tank. Though unlikely, if the B concentration in the U storage tank were to reach 1.8 g B/g U, the entire contents of the U storage tank would likely require a second pass through Second U Cycle to provide sufficient decontamination to meet the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Blend Grade Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) specification for B, which is 30 {micro}g/g U. In addition, Second U Cycle is expected to provide sufficient decontamination of F{sup -} and Pu regardless of the amount of PuCS solution sent to the storage tank. Though aluminum (Al) is not present in the PuCS solution, B can be credited as a complexant of F{sup -}. Both stability constants from the literature and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) corrosion studies were documented to demonstrate that B complexation of F{sup -} in nitric acid solutions is sufficient to prevent excessive corrosion. Though B and Al complex F{sup -} to a similar degree, neither completely eliminates the presence of free F{sup -} in solution. Therefore, a limited amount of corrosion is expected even with complexed F{sup -} solutions. Tanks maintained at ambient temperature are not expected to experience significant corrosion. However, the Low Activity Waste (LAW) evaporators may be subjected to a corrosion rate of about 25 mils per year (mpy) as they reach their highest F{sup -} concentrations. The feed adjustment evaporator would only be subjected to the corrosion rate of about 25 mpy in the latter stages of the PuCS campaign. An issue that must be addressed

  12. The Planning, Licensing, Modifications, and Use of a Russian Vessel for Shipping Spent Nuclear Fuel by Sea in Support of the DOE RRRFR Program

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Tyacke; Dr. Igor Bolshinsky; Wlodzimierz Tomczak; Sergey Naletov; Oleg Pichugin

    2001-10-01

    The Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) Program, under the U.S. Department of Energy’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative, began returning Russian-supplied high-enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF), stored at Russian-designed research reactors throughout the world, to Russia in January 2006. During the first years of making HEU SNF shipments, it became clear that the modes of transportation needed to be expanded from highway and railroad to include sea and air to meet the extremely aggressive commitment of completing the first series of shipments by the end of 2010. The first shipment using sea transport was made in October 2008 and used a non-Russian flagged vessel. The Russian government reluctantly allowed a one-time use of the foreign-owned vessel into their highly secured seaport, with the understanding that any future shipments would be made using a vessel owned and operated by a Russian company. ASPOL-Baltic of St. Petersburg, Russia, owns and operates a small fleet of vessels and has a history of shipping nuclear materials. ASPOL-Baltic’s vessels were licensed for shipping nuclear materials; however, they were not licensed to transport SNF materials. After a thorough review of ASPOL Baltic’s capabilities and detailed negotiations, it was agreed that a contract would be let with ASPOL-Baltic to license and refit their MCL Trader vessel for hauling SNF in support of the RRRFR Program. This effort was funded through a contract between the RRRFR Program, Idaho National Laboratory, and Radioactive Waste Management Plant of Swierk, Poland. This paper discusses planning, Russian and international maritime regulations and requirements, Russian authorities’ reviews and approvals, licensing, design, and modifications made to the vessel in preparation for SNF shipments. A brief summary of actual shipments using this vessel, experiences, and lessons learned also are described.

  13. DESIGN STUDY FOR A LOW-ENRICHED URANIUM CORE FOR THE HIGH FLUX ISOTOPE REACTOR, ANNUAL REPORT FOR FY 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, David Howard; Freels, James D; Ilas, Germina; Jolly, Brian C; Miller, James Henry; Primm, Trent; Renfro, David G; Sease, John D; Pinkston, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    This report documents progress made during FY 2010 in studies of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum alloy. With axial and radial grading of the fuel foil and an increase in reactor power to 100 MW, calculations indicate that the HFIR can be operated with LEU fuel with no degradation in performance to users from the current level. Studies are reported of support to a thermal hydraulic test loop design, the implementation of finite element, thermal hydraulic analysis capability, and infrastructure tasks at HFIR to upgrade the facility for operation at 100 MW. A discussion of difficulties with preparing a fuel specification for the uranium-molybdenum alloy is provided. Continuing development in the definition of the fuel fabrication process is described.

  14. Design Study for a Low-Enriched Uranium Core for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual report for FY 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, David; Freels, James D; Ilas, Germina; Miller, James Henry; Primm, Trent; Sease, John D; Guida, Tracey; Jolly, Brian C

    2010-02-01

    This report documents progress made during FY 2009 in studies of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum alloy. With axial and radial grading of the fuel foil and an increase in reactor power to 100 MW, calculations indicate that the HFIR can be operated with LEU fuel with no degradation in reactor performance from the current level. Results of selected benchmark studies imply that calculations of LEU performance are accurate. Studies are reported of the application of a silicon coating to surrogates for spheres of uranium-molybdenum alloy. A discussion of difficulties with preparing a fuel specification for the uranium-molybdenum alloy is provided. A description of the progress in developing a finite element thermal hydraulics model of the LEU core is provided.

  15. Design Study for a Low-Enriched Uranium Core for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual Report for FY 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Primm, Trent; Chandler, David; Ilas, Germina; Miller, James Henry; Sease, John D; Jolly, Brian C

    2009-03-01

    This report documents progress made during FY 2008 in studies of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum alloy. With axial and radial grading of the fuel foil and an increase in reactor power to 100 MW, calculations indicate that the HFIR can be operated with LEU fuel with no degradation in reactor performance from the current level. Results of selected benchmark studies imply that calculations of LEU performance are accurate. Scoping experiments with various manufacturing methods for forming the LEU alloy profile are presented.

  16. Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Design with Two-Dimensional Grading for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ilas, Germina; Primm, Trent

    2011-05-01

    An engineering design study of the conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel is ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The computational models developed during fiscal year 2010 to search for an LEU fuel design that would meet the requirements for the conversion and the results obtained with these models are documented and discussed in this report. Estimates of relevant reactor performance parameters for the LEU fuel core are presented and compared with the corresponding data for the currently operating HEU fuel core. The results obtained indicate that the LEU fuel design would maintain the current performance of the HFIR with respect to the neutron flux to the central target region, reflector, and beam tube locations under the assumption that the operating power for the reactor fueled with LEU can be increased from the current value of 85 MW to 100 MW.

  17. Proposal for broader United States-Russian transparency of nuclear arms reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Percival, C.M.; Ingle, T.H.; Bieniawski, A.J.

    1995-07-01

    During the January 1994 Summit Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin agreed on the goal of ensuring the ``transparency and irreversibility`` of the nuclear arms reduction process. As a result, negotiations are presently underway between the United States Government and the Russian Federation to confirm the stockpiles of plutonium and highly enriched uranium removed from nuclear weapons. In December 1994 the United States presented a paper to the Russian Federation proposing additional measures to provide broader transparency of nuclear arms reduction. The US Department of Energy is studying the implementation of these broader transparency measures at appropriate DOE facilities. The results of the studies include draft protocols for implementation, assessments of the implementation procedures and the impacts on the facilities and estimates of the cost to implement these measures at various facilities.

  18. Large-scale production of highly enriched 28Si for the precise determination of the Avogadro constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, P.; Schiel, D.; Pohl, H.-J.; Kaliteevski, A. K.; Godisov, O. N.; Churbanov, M. F.; Devyatykh, G. G.; Gusev, A. V.; Bulanov, A. D.; Adamchik, S. A.; Gavva, V. A.; Kovalev, I. D.; Abrosimov, N. V.; Hallmann-Seiffert, B.; Riemann, H.; Valkiers, S.; Taylor, P.; DeBièvre, P.; Dianov, E. M.

    2006-07-01

    An attempt is described to replace the present definition of the kilogram with the mass of a certain number of silicon atoms. A prerequisite for this is that the Avogadro constant, NA, is determined with a relative uncertainty of better than 2 × 10-8. For the determination, silicon crystals are used. However, the difficulty arising thereby is the measurement of the average molar mass of natural Si. Consequently, a worldwide collaboration has been launched to produce approximately a 5 kg 28Si single crystal with an enrichment factor greater than 99.985% and of sufficient chemical purity so that it can be used to determine NA with the targeted relative measurement uncertainty mentioned above. In the following, the first successful tests of all technological steps will be reported (enrichment of SiF4, distillation into silane and chemical purification, chemical vapour deposition of polycrystalline 28Si, floating zone growth of a dislocation-free single crystal) and new equipment for the production of high-purity 28Si with an enrichment of not less than 99.99% will be described. All steps are well defined by a Technical Road Map (TRM28) and all key results are measured by new mass spectrometric, IR spectroscopic and other chemical and physical methods, such as Hall effect, photoluminescence, laser scattering and x-ray topographic methods (TRM for Analytical Monitoring and Certification, TRM28-AMC). The initial enrichment of the gas is >0.999 95 and the depletion during the entire process is <0.000 05. The isotopic homogeneity is checked by natural Si crystal growth and does, in the enriched sphere, not exceed 5 × 10-10, relatively. The C content of the final material is less than 1015 atoms cm-3 and the specific resistance is 400-1000 Ω cm.

  19. U.S. transparency monitoring of HEU oxide conversion and blending to LEU hexafluoride at three Russian blending plants

    SciTech Connect

    Leich, D., LLNL

    1998-07-27

    The down-blending of Russian highly enriched uranium (HEU) takes place at three Russian gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants. The fluorination of HEU oxide and down-blending of HEU hexafluoride began in 1994, and shipments of low enriched uranium (LEU) hexafluoride product to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) began in 1995 US transparency monitoring under the HEU Purchase Agreement began in 1996 and includes a permanent monitoring presence US transparency monitoring at these facilities is intended to provide confidence that HEU is received and down-blended to LEU for shipment to USEC The monitoring begins with observation of the receipt of HEU oxide shipments, including confirmation of enrichment using US nondestructive assay equipment The feeding of HEU oxide to the fluorination process and the withdrawal of HEU hexafluoride are monitored Monitoring is also conducted where the blending takes place and where shipping cylinders are filled with LEU product. A series of process and material accountancy documents are provided to US monitors.

  20. Enrichment of genomic DNA for polymorphism detection in a non-model highly polyploid crop plant.

    PubMed

    Bundock, Peter C; Casu, Rosanne E; Henry, Robert J

    2012-08-01

    Large polyploid genomes of non-model species remain challenging targets for DNA polymorphism discovery despite the increasing throughput and continued reductions in cost of sequencing with new technologies. For these species especially, there remains a requirement to enrich genomic DNA to discover polymorphisms in regions of interest because of large genome size and to provide the sequence depth to enable estimation of copy number. Various methods of enriching DNA have been utilised, but some recent methods enable the efficient sampling of large regions (e.g. the exome). We have utilised one of these methods, solution-based hybridization (Agilent SureSelect), to capture regions of the genome of two sugarcane genotypes (one Saccharum officinarum and one Saccharum hybrid) based mainly on gene sequences from the close relative Sorghum bicolor. The capture probes span approximately 5.8 megabases (Mb). The enrichment over whole-genome shotgun sequencing was 10-11-fold for the two genotypes tested. This level of enrichment has important consequences for detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from a single lane of Illumina (Genome Analyzer) sequence reads. The detection of polymorphisms was enabled by the depth of sequence at or near probe sites and enabled the detection of 270 000-280 000 SNPs within each genotype from a single lane of sequence using stringent detection parameters. The SNPs were present in 13 000-16 000 targeted genes, which would enable mapping of a large number of these chosen genes. SNP validation from 454 sequencing and between-genotype confirmations gave an 87%-91% validation rate.

  1. High-affinity methane oxidation by a soil enrichment culture containing a type II methanotroph

    SciTech Connect

    Dunfield, P.F. |; Liesack, W.; Henckel, T.; Conrad, R.; Knowles, R.

    1999-03-01

    Methanotrophic bacteria in an organic soil were enriched on gaseous mixing ratios of <275 parts per million of volume (ppmv) of methane (CH{sub 4}). After 4 years of growth and periodic dilution, a mixed culture was obtained which displayed an apparent half-saturation constant [K{sub m(app)}] for CH{sub 4} of 56 to 186 nM (40 to 132 ppmv). This value was the same as that measured in the soil itself and about 1 order of magnitude lower than reported values for pure cultures of methane oxidizers. However, the K{sub m(app)} increased when the culture was transferred to higher mixing ratios of CH{sub 4}. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the enrichment grown on <275 ppmv of CH{sub 4} revealed a single gene product of pmoA, which codes for a subunit of particulate methane monooxygenase. This suggested that only one methanotroph species was present. This organism was isolated from a sample of the enrichment culture grown on 1% CH{sub 4} and phylogenetically positioned based on its 16S rRNA, pmoA, and mxaF gene sequences as a type II strain of the Methlocystis/Methylosinus group. A coculture of this strain with a Variovorax sp., when grown on <275 ppmv of CH{sub 4}, had a K{sub m(app)} similar to that of the initial enrichment culture. The data suggest that the affinity of methanotrophic bacteria for CH{sub 4} varies with growth conditions and that the oxidation of atmospheric CH{sub 4} observed in this soil is carried out by type II methanotrophic bacteria which are similar to characterized species.

  2. Final report on the project entitled: Highly Preheated Combustion Air System with/without Oxygen Enrichment for Metal Processing Furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Arvind Atreya

    2007-02-16

    This work develops and demonstrates a laboratory-scale high temperature natural gas furnace that can operate with/without oxygen enrichment to significantly improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions. The laboratory-scale is 5ft in diameter & 8ft tall. This furnace was constructed and tested. This report demonstrates the efficiency and pollutant prevention capabilities of this test furnace. The project also developed optical detection technology to control the furnace output.

  3. High-throughput simultaneous determination of plasma water deuterium and 18-oxygen enrichment using a high-temperature conversion elemental analyzer with isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Richelle, M; Darimont, C; Piguet-Welsch, C; Fay, L B

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a high-throughput method for the simultaneous determination of deuterium and oxygen-18 (18O) enrichment of water samples isolated from blood. This analytical method enables rapid and simple determination of these enrichments of microgram quantities of water. Water is converted into hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases by the use of a high-temperature conversion elemental analyzer (TC-EA), that are then transferred on-line into the isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Accuracy determined with the standard light Antartic precipitation (SLAP) and Greenland ice sheet precipitation (GISP) is reliable for deuterium and 18O enrichments. The range of linearity is from 0 up to 0.09 atom percent excess (APE, i.e. -78 up to 5725 delta per mil (dpm)) for deuterium enrichment and from 0 up to 0.17 APE (-11 up to 890 dpm) for 18O enrichment. Memory effects do exist but can be avoided by analyzing the biological samples in quintuplet. This method allows the determination of 1440 samples per week, i.e. 288 biological samples per week.

  4. Russian EVA 33

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-011440 (24 June 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as work continues on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 34-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame), Expedition 36 flight engineer, replaced an aging fluid flow control panel on the station's Zarya module as preventative maintenance on the cooling system for the Russian segment of the station. They also installed clamps for future power cables as an early step toward swapping the Pirs airlock with a new multipurpose laboratory module. The Russian Federal Space Agency plans to launch a combination research facility, airlock and docking port late this year on a Proton rocket. Yurchikhin and Misurkin also retrieved two science experiments and installed one new one.

  5. Russian EVA 33

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-011439 (24 June 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as work continues on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 34-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame), Expedition 36 flight engineer, replaced an aging fluid flow control panel on the station's Zarya module as preventative maintenance on the cooling system for the Russian segment of the station. They also installed clamps for future power cables as an early step toward swapping the Pirs airlock with a new multipurpose laboratory module. The Russian Federal Space Agency plans to launch a combination research facility, airlock and docking port late this year on a Proton rocket. Yurchikhin and Misurkin also retrieved two science experiments and installed one new one.

  6. Russian EVA 33

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-011480 (24 June 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as work continues on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 34-minute spacewalk, Yurchikhin and Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin (out of frame), Expedition 36 flight engineer, replaced an aging fluid flow control panel on the station's Zarya module as preventative maintenance on the cooling system for the Russian segment of the station. They also installed clamps for future power cables as an early step toward swapping the Pirs airlock with a new multipurpose laboratory module. The Russian Federal Space Agency plans to launch a combination research facility, airlock and docking port late this year on a Proton rocket. Yurchikhin and Misurkin also retrieved two science experiments and installed a new one.

  7. Russian EVA 33

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-011747 (24 June 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin (bottom center), Expedition 36 flight engineer, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as work continues on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 34-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame), Expedition 36 flight engineer, replaced an aging fluid flow control panel on the station's Zarya module as preventative maintenance on the cooling system for the Russian segment of the station. They also installed clamps for future power cables as an early step toward swapping the Pirs airlock with a new multipurpose laboratory module. The Russian Federal Space Agency plans to launch a combination research facility, airlock and docking port late this year on a Proton rocket. Yurchikhin and Misurkin also retrieved two science experiments and installed a new one.

  8. Russian EVA 33

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-011459 (24 June 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as work continues on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 34-minute spacewalk, Yurchikhin and Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin (out of frame), Expedition 36 flight engineer, replaced an aging fluid flow control panel on the station's Zarya module as preventative maintenance on the cooling system for the Russian segment of the station. They also installed clamps for future power cables as an early step toward swapping the Pirs airlock with a new multipurpose laboratory module. The Russian Federal Space Agency plans to launch a combination research facility, airlock and docking port late this year on a Proton rocket. Yurchikhin and Misurkin also retrieved two science experiments and installed a new one.

  9. Russian EVA 33

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-011479 (24 June 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as work continues on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 34-minute spacewalk, Yurchikhin and Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin (out of frame), Expedition 36 flight engineer, replaced an aging fluid flow control panel on the station's Zarya module as preventative maintenance on the cooling system for the Russian segment of the station. They also installed clamps for future power cables as an early step toward swapping the Pirs airlock with a new multipurpose laboratory module. The Russian Federal Space Agency plans to launch a combination research facility, airlock and docking port late this year on a Proton rocket. Yurchikhin and Misurkin also retrieved two science experiments and installed a new one.

  10. Russian EVA 33

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-011642 (24 June 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as work continues on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 34-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame), Expedition 36 flight engineer, replaced an aging fluid flow control panel on the station's Zarya module as preventative maintenance on the cooling system for the Russian segment of the station. They also installed clamps for future power cables as an early step toward swapping the Pirs airlock with a new multipurpose laboratory module. The Russian Federal Space Agency plans to launch a combination research facility, airlock and docking port late this year on a Proton rocket. Yurchikhin and Misurkin also retrieved two science experiments and installed a new one.

  11. Russian EVA 33

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-011640 (24 June 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as work continues on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 34-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame), Expedition 36 flight engineer, replaced an aging fluid flow control panel on the station's Zarya module as preventative maintenance on the cooling system for the Russian segment of the station. They also installed clamps for future power cables as an early step toward swapping the Pirs airlock with a new multipurpose laboratory module. The Russian Federal Space Agency plans to launch a combination research facility, airlock and docking port late this year on a Proton rocket. Yurchikhin and Misurkin also retrieved two science experiments and installed a new one.

  12. Russian EVA 33

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-011481 (24 June 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as work continues on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 34-minute spacewalk, Yurchikhin and Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin (out of frame), Expedition 36 flight engineer, replaced an aging fluid flow control panel on the station's Zarya module as preventative maintenance on the cooling system for the Russian segment of the station. They also installed clamps for future power cables as an early step toward swapping the Pirs airlock with a new multipurpose laboratory module. The Russian Federal Space Agency plans to launch a combination research facility, airlock and docking port late this year on a Proton rocket. Yurchikhin and Misurkin also retrieved two science experiments and installed a new one.

  13. Russian EVA 33

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-011477 (24 June 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as work continues on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 34-minute spacewalk, Yurchikhin and Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin (out of frame), Expedition 36 flight engineer, replaced an aging fluid flow control panel on the station's Zarya module as preventative maintenance on the cooling system for the Russian segment of the station. They also installed clamps for future power cables as an early step toward swapping the Pirs airlock with a new multipurpose laboratory module. The Russian Federal Space Agency plans to launch a combination research facility, airlock and docking port late this year on a Proton rocket. Yurchikhin and Misurkin also retrieved two science experiments and installed a new one.

  14. Russian EVA 33

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-011608 (24 June 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as work continues on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 34-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame), Expedition 36 flight engineer, replaced an aging fluid flow control panel on the station's Zarya module as preventative maintenance on the cooling system for the Russian segment of the station. They also installed clamps for future power cables as an early step toward swapping the Pirs airlock with a new multipurpose laboratory module. The Russian Federal Space Agency plans to launch a combination research facility, airlock and docking port late this year on a Proton rocket. Yurchikhin and Misurkin also retrieved two science experiments and installed a new one.

  15. Russian EVA 33

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-011598 (24 June 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as work continues on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 34-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame), Expedition 36 flight engineer, replaced an aging fluid flow control panel on the station's Zarya module as preventative maintenance on the cooling system for the Russian segment of the station. They also installed clamps for future power cables as an early step toward swapping the Pirs airlock with a new multipurpose laboratory module. The Russian Federal Space Agency plans to launch a combination research facility, airlock and docking port late this year on a Proton rocket. Yurchikhin and Misurkin also retrieved two science experiments and installed one new one.

  16. Russian EVA 33

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-011441 (24 June 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as work continues on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 34-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame), Expedition 36 flight engineer, replaced an aging fluid flow control panel on the station's Zarya module as preventative maintenance on the cooling system for the Russian segment of the station. They also installed clamps for future power cables as an early step toward swapping the Pirs airlock with a new multipurpose laboratory module. The Russian Federal Space Agency plans to launch a combination research facility, airlock and docking port late this year on a Proton rocket. Yurchikhin and Misurkin also retrieved two science experiments and installed a new one.

  17. Russian EVA 33

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-011745 (24 June 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin (bottom center), Expedition 36 flight engineer, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as work continues on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 34-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame), Expedition 36 flight engineer, replaced an aging fluid flow control panel on the station's Zarya module as preventative maintenance on the cooling system for the Russian segment of the station. They also installed clamps for future power cables as an early step toward swapping the Pirs airlock with a new multipurpose laboratory module. The Russian Federal Space Agency plans to launch a combination research facility, airlock and docking port late this year on a Proton rocket. Yurchikhin and Misurkin also retrieved two science experiments and installed a new one.

  18. Russian Contract Procurement Document

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J G

    2010-03-29

    This contract supports the enhancement of physical protection or nuclear material control and accounting systems at institutes or enterprises of the newly independent states under the material protection control and accounting (MPC&A) program. The contract is entered into pursuant to the MPC&A Program, a gratuitous technical assistance program, in accordance with the bilateral Agreements between the Russian Federation and the United States of America concerning the Safe and Secure Transportation, Storage and Destruction of Weapons and the Prevention of Weapons Proliferation of June 1992, as extended and amended by Protocol signed of June 1999, Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation regarding Cooperation in the Area of Nuclear Materials Physical Protection, Control and Accounting of October 1999 and the Russian Federation law of May 1999 on the taxation exemption of gratuitous technical assistance with Russian Federation under registration No.DOE001000.

  19. Station Tour: Russian Segment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams concludes her tour of the International Space Station with a visit to the Russian segment, which includes Zarya, the first segment of the station launched in 1...

  20. Russian Education: Historical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, John C.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the evaluation of Russian educational concepts through six historical periods; stresses the significance of social, philosophical, political, and psychological factors that have affected Soviet educational policies used to instill Communist values. (JD)

  1. Genetic stock identification of Russian honey bees.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, Lelania; Sheppard, Walter S; Sylvester, H Allen; Rinderer, Thomas E

    2010-06-01

    A genetic stock certification assay was developed to distinguish Russian honey bees from other European (Apis mellifera L.) stocks that are commercially produced in the United States. In total, 11 microsatellite and five single-nucleotide polymorphism loci were used. Loci were selected for relatively high levels of homogeneity within each group and for differences in allele frequencies between groups. A baseline sample consisted of the 18 lines of Russian honey bees released to the Russian Bee Breeders Association and bees from 34 queen breeders representing commercially produced European honey bee stocks. Suitability tests of the baseline sample pool showed high levels of accuracy. The probability of correct assignment was 94.2% for non-Russian bees and 93.3% for Russian bees. A neighbor-joining phenogram representing genetic distance data showed clear distinction of Russian and non-Russian honey bee stocks. Furthermore, a test of appropriate sample size showed a sample of eight bees per colony maximizes accuracy and consistency of the results. An additional 34 samples were tested as blind samples (origin unknown to those collecting data) to determine accuracy of individual assignment tests. Only one of these samples was incorrectly assigned. The 18 current breeding lines were represented among the 2009 blind sampling, demonstrating temporal stability of the genetic stock identification assay. The certification assay will be used through services provided by a service laboratory, by the Russian Bee Breeders Association to genetically certify their stock. The genetic certification will be used in conjunction with continued selection for favorable traits, such as honey production and varroa and tracheal mite resistance.

  2. Multiplex enrichment quantitative PCR (ME-qPCR): a high-throughput, highly sensitive detection method for GMO identification.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wei; Zhu, Pengyu; Wei, Shuang; Zhixin, Du; Wang, Chenguang; Wu, Xiyang; Li, Feiwu; Zhu, Shuifang

    2017-04-01

    Among all of the high-throughput detection methods, PCR-based methodologies are regarded as the most cost-efficient and feasible methodologies compared with the next-generation sequencing or ChIP-based methods. However, the PCR-based methods can only achieve multiplex detection up to 15-plex due to limitations imposed by the multiplex primer interactions. The detection throughput cannot meet the demands of high-throughput detection, such as SNP or gene expression analysis. Therefore, in our study, we have developed a new high-throughput PCR-based detection method, multiplex enrichment quantitative PCR (ME-qPCR), which is a combination of qPCR and nested PCR. The GMO content detection results in our study showed that ME-qPCR could achieve high-throughput detection up to 26-plex. Compared to the original qPCR, the Ct values of ME-qPCR were lower for the same group, which showed that ME-qPCR sensitivity is higher than the original qPCR. The absolute limit of detection for ME-qPCR could achieve levels as low as a single copy of the plant genome. Moreover, the specificity results showed that no cross-amplification occurred for irrelevant GMO events. After evaluation of all of the parameters, a practical evaluation was performed with different foods. The more stable amplification results, compared to qPCR, showed that ME-qPCR was suitable for GMO detection in foods. In conclusion, ME-qPCR achieved sensitive, high-throughput GMO detection in complex substrates, such as crops or food samples. In the future, ME-qPCR-based GMO content identification may positively impact SNP analysis or multiplex gene expression of food or agricultural samples. Graphical abstract For the first-step amplification, four primers (A, B, C, and D) have been added into the reaction volume. In this manner, four kinds of amplicons have been generated. All of these four amplicons could be regarded as the target of second-step PCR. For the second-step amplification, three parallels have been taken for

  3. Enrichment increases hippocampal neurogenesis independent of blood monocyte-derived microglia presence following high-dose total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Ruitenberg, Marc J; Wells, Julia; Bartlett, Perry F; Harvey, Alan R; Vukovic, Jana

    2017-06-01

    Birth of new neurons in the hippocampus persists in the brain of adult mammals and critically underpins optimal learning and memory. The process of adult neurogenesis is significantly reduced following brain irradiation and this correlates with impaired cognitive function. In this study, we aimed to compare the long-term effects of two environmental paradigms (i.e. enriched environment and exercise) on adult neurogenesis following high-dose (10Gy) total body irradiation. When housed in standard (sedentary) conditions, irradiated mice revealed a long-lasting (up to 4 months) deficit in neurogenesis in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus, the region that harbors the neurogenic niche. This depressive effect of total body irradiation on adult neurogenesis was partially alleviated by exposure to enriched environment but not voluntary exercise, where mice were single-housed with unlimited access to a running wheel. Exposure to voluntary exercise, but not enriched environment, did lead to significant increases in microglia density in the granule cell layer of the hippocampus; our study shows that these changes result from local microglia proliferation rather than recruitment and infiltration of circulating Cx3cr1(+/gfp) blood monocytes that subsequently differentiate into microglia-like cells. In summary, latent neural precursor cells remain present in the neurogenic niche of the adult hippocampus up to 8 weeks following high-dose total body irradiation. Environmental enrichment can partially restore the adult neurogenic process in this part of the brain following high-dose irradiation, and this was found to be independent of blood monocyte-derived microglia presence. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Laser and gas centrifuge enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Heinonen, Olli

    2014-05-09

    Principles of uranium isotope enrichment using various laser and gas centrifuge techniques are briefly discussed. Examples on production of high enriched uranium are given. Concerns regarding the possibility of using low end technologies to produce weapons grade uranium are explained. Based on current assessments commercial enrichment services are able to cover the global needs of enriched uranium in the foreseeable future.

  5. Laser and gas centrifuge enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Olli

    2014-05-01

    Principles of uranium isotope enrichment using various laser and gas centrifuge techniques are briefly discussed. Examples on production of high enriched uranium are given. Concerns regarding the possibility of using low end technologies to produce weapons grade uranium are explained. Based on current assessments commercial enrichment services are able to cover the global needs of enriched uranium in the foreseeable future.

  6. Candidate gene analysis of BRCA1/2 mutation-negative high-risk Russian breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Sokolenko, Anna P; Preobrazhenskaya, Elena V; Aleksakhina, Svetlana N; Iyevleva, Aglaya G; Mitiushkina, Natalia V; Zaitseva, Olga A; Yatsuk, Olga S; Tiurin, Vladislav I; Strelkova, Tatiana N; Togo, Alexandr V; Imyanitov, Evgeny N

    2015-04-10

    Twenty one DNA repair genes were analyzed in a group of 95 BC patients, who displayed clinical features of hereditary disease predisposition but turned out to be negative for mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 entire coding region as well as for founder disease-predisposing alleles in CHEK2, NBN/NBS1 and ATM genes. Full-length sequencing of CHEK2 and NBN/NBS1 failed to identify non-founder mutations. The analysis of TP53 revealed a woman carrying the R282W allele; further testing of additional 108 BC patients characterized by a very young age at onset (35 years or earlier) detected one more carrier of the TP53 germ-line defect. In addition, this study confirmed non-random occurrence of PALB2 truncating mutations in Russian hereditary BC patients. None of the studied cases carried germ-line defects in recently discovered hereditary BC genes, BRIP1, FANCC, MRE11A and RAD51C. The analysis of genes with yet unproven BC-predisposing significance (BARD1, BRD7, CHEK1, DDB2, ERCC1, EXO1, FANCG, PARP1, PARP2, RAD51, RNF8, WRN) identified single women carrying a protein-truncating allele, WRN R1406X. DNA sequencing of another set of 95 hereditary BC cases failed to reveal additional WRN heterozygous genotypes. Since WRN is functionally similar to the known BC-predisposing gene, BLM, it deserves to be analyzed in future hereditary BC studies. Furthermore, this investigation revealed a number of rare missense germ-line variants, which are classified as probably protein-damaging by online in silico tools and therefore may require further consideration.

  7. Synthesis of Zwitterionic Polymer Particles via Combined Distillation Precipitation Polymerization and Click Chemistry for Highly Efficient Enrichment of Glycopeptide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianxi; Yang, Kaiguang; Shao, Wenya; Li, Senwu; Wu, Qi; Zhang, Shen; Qu, Yanyan; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2016-08-31

    Because of the low abundance of glycopeptide in natural biological samples, methods for efficient and selective enrichment of glycopeptides play a significant role in mass spectrometry (MS)-based glycoproteomics. In this study, a novel kind of zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction chromatography polymer particles, namely, poly(N,N-methylenebisacrylamide-co-methacrylic acid)@l-Cys (poly(MBAAm-co-MAA)@l-Cys), for the enrichment of glycopeptides was synthesized by a facile and efficient approach that combined distillation precipitation polymerization (DPP) and "thiol-ene" click reaction. In the DPP approach, residual vinyl groups explored outside the core with high density, then the functional ligand cysteine was immobilized onto the surface of core particles by highly efficient thiol-ene click reaction. Taking advantage of the unique structure of poly(MBAAm-co-MAA)@l-Cys, the resulting particles possess remarkable enrichment selectivity for glycopeptides from the tryptic digested human immunoglobulin G. The polymer particles were successfully employed for the analysis of human plasma, and 208 unique glycopeptides corresponding to 121 glycoproteins were reliably identified in triple independent nano-LC-MS/MS runs. The selectivity toward glycopeptides of these particles poly(MBAAm-co-MAA)@l-Cys is ∼2 times than that of the commercial beads. These results demonstrated that these particles had great potential for large-scale glycoproteomics research. Moreover, the strategy with the combination of DPP and thiol-ene click chemistry might be a facile method to produce functional polymer particles for bioenrichment application.

  8. (30)Si mole fraction of a silicon material highly enriched in (28)Si determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, Giancarlo; Di Luzio, Marco; Mana, Giovanni; Oddone, Massimo; Pramann, Axel; Prata, Michele

    2015-06-02

    The latest determination of the Avogadro constant, carried out by counting the atoms in a pure silicon crystal highly enriched in (28)Si, reached the target 2 × 10(-8) relative uncertainty required for the redefinition of the kilogram based on the Planck constant. The knowledge of the isotopic composition of the enriched silicon material is central; it is measured by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. In this work, an independent estimate of the (30)Si mole fraction was obtained by applying a relative measurement protocol based on Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The amount of (30)Si isotope was determined by counting the 1266.1 keV γ-photons emitted during the radioactive decay of the radioisotope (31)Si produced via the neutron capture reaction (30)Si(n,γ)(31)Si. The x((30)Si) = 1.043(19) × 10(-6) mol mol(-1) is consistent with the value currently adopted by the International Avogadro Coordination.

  9. ZPR-3 Assembly 12 : A cylindrical assembly of highly enriched uranium, depleted uranium and graphite with an average {sup 235}U enrichment of 21 atom %.

    SciTech Connect

    Lell, R. M.; McKnight, R. D.; Perel, R. L.; Wagschal, J. J.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Racah Inst. of Physics

    2010-09-30

    and has historically been used as a data validation benchmark assembly. Loading of ZPR-3 Assembly 12 began in late Jan. 1958, and the Assembly 12 program ended in Feb. 1958. The core consisted of highly enriched uranium (HEU) plates, depleted uranium plates and graphite plates loaded into stainless steel drawers which were inserted into the central square stainless steel tubes of a 31 x 31 matrix on a split table machine. The core unit cell consisted of two columns of 0.125 in.-wide (3.175 mm) HEU plates, seven columns of 0.125 in.-wide depleted uranium plates and seven columns of 0.125 in.-wide graphite plates. The length of each column was 9 in. (228.6 mm) in each half of the core. The graphite plates were included to produce a softer neutron spectrum that would be more characteristic of a large power reactor. The axial blanket consisted of 12 in. (304.8 mm) of depleted uranium behind the core. The thickness of the radial blanket was approximately 12 in. and the length of the radial blanket in each half of the matrix was 21 in. (533.4 mm). The assembly geometry approximated a right circular cylinder as closely as the square matrix tubes allowed. According to the logbook and loading records for ZPR-3/12, the reference critical configuration was loading 10 which was critical on Feb. 5, 1958. The subsequent loadings were very similar but less clean for criticality because there were modifications made to accommodate reactor physics measurements other than criticality. Accordingly, ZPR-3/12 loading 10 was selected as the only configuration for this benchmark. As documented below, it was determined to be acceptable as a criticality safety benchmark experiment. An accurate transformation to a simplified model is needed to make any ZPR assembly a practical criticality-safety benchmark. There is simply too much geometric detail in an exact (as-built) model of a ZPR assembly, even a clean core such as ZPR-3/12 loading 10. The transformation must reduce the detail to a

  10. ZPR-3 Assembly 6F : A spherical assembly of highly enriched uranium, depleted uranium, aluminum and steel with an average {sup 235}U enrichment of 47 atom %.

    SciTech Connect

    Lell, R. M.; McKnight, R. D; Schaefer, R. W.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-09-30

    Assembly 6F (ZPR-3/6F), the final phase of the Assembly 6 program, simulated a spherical core with a thick depleted uranium reflector. ZPR-3/6F was designed as a fast reactor physics benchmark experiment with an average core {sup 235}U enrichment of approximately 47 at.%. Approximately 81.4% of the total fissions in this assembly occur above 100 keV, approximately 18.6% occur below 100 keV, and essentially none below 0.625 eV - thus the classification as a 'fast' assembly. This assembly is Fast Reactor Benchmark No. 7 in the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) Benchmark Specifications and has historically been used as a data validation benchmark assembly. Loading of ZPR-3/6F began in late December 1956, and the experimental measurements were performed in January 1957. The core consisted of highly enriched uranium (HEU) plates, depleted uranium plates, perforated aluminum plates and stainless steel plates loaded into aluminum drawers, which were inserted into the central square stainless steel tubes of a 31 x 31 matrix on a split table machine. The core unit cell consisted of three columns of 0.125 in.-wide (3.175 mm) HEU plates, three columns of 0.125 in.-wide depleted uranium plates, nine columns of 0.125 in.-wide perforated aluminum plates and one column of stainless steel plates. The maximum length of each column of core material in a drawer was 9 in. (228.6 mm). Because of the goal to produce an approximately spherical core, core fuel and diluent column lengths generally varied between adjacent drawers and frequently within an individual drawer. The axial reflector consisted of depleted uranium plates and blocks loaded in the available space in the front (core) drawers, with the remainder loaded into back drawers behind the front drawers. The radial reflector consisted of blocks of depleted uranium loaded directly into the matrix tubes. The assembly geometry approximated a reflected sphere as closely as the square matrix tubes, the drawers and the shapes of

  11. Decay chains and photofission investigation based on nuclear spectroscopy of highly enriched uranium sample.

    PubMed

    Sibczynski, P; Kownacki, J; Syntfeld-Kazuch, A; Moszynski, M; Kisielinski, M; Czarnacki, W; Kosinski, K; Matusiak, M; Klimasz, M; Kowalczyk, M; Abraham, T; Mierzejewski, J; Srebrny, J

    2013-12-01

    Nuclear spectroscopy experiments were performed for 100g metallic uranium rod enriched to 93% (235)U, in order to establish and characterize the most prominent γ-rays in the natural decay series and photofission reaction. Single γ-ray spectra and γ-γ coincidences measurements were conducted before irradiation. The uranium sample was subsequently irradiated with 15 MeV bremsstrahlung photons. Relative intensities of γ-lines and several values of half-lives of the fission fragments decays were determined. The obtained information can be utilized in detection of smuggled nuclear materials and characterization of bulky nuclear waste packages. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Disposition of highly enriched uranium obtained from the Republic of Kazakhstan. Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This EA assesses the potential environmental impacts associated with DOE`s proposal to transport 600 kg of Kazakhstand-origin HEU from Y-12 to a blending site (B&W Lynchburg or NFS Erwin), transport low-enriched UF6 blending stock from a gaseous diffusion plant to GE Wilmington and U oxide blending stock to the blending site, blending the HEU and uranium oxide blending stock to produce LEU in the form of uranyl nitrate, and transport the uranyl nitrate from the blending site to USEC Portsmouth.

  13. Portable NDA equipment for enrichment measurements for the HEU transparency program

    SciTech Connect

    Decman, D J; Glaser, J; Hernandez, J M; Luke, S J

    1999-07-20

    In October 1996, the Department of Energy (DOE) and MINATOM agreed to use portable non-destructive assay (NDA) equipment to measure the {sup 235}U enrichment of material subject to the HEU Transparency agreement. A system based on the ''enrichment meter'' method and high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors had been previously developed for this application. Instead, sodium iodide (NaI) detectors were chosen to measure {sup 235}U enrichment because HPGe systems might reveal sensitive information. Although the accuracy of the NaI systems is less than an HPGe system, it still satisfies the transparency requirements. The equipment consists of a collimated NaI detector, a Canberra Inspector Multi-channel Analyzer, and a laptop computer. The units have been used to confirm the enrichment of material at Russian facilities since January 1997. This paper compares the performance of the NaI systems with the HPGe system and discusses some significant differences.

  14. The Melt-Dilute Treatment of Al-Base Highly Enriched DOE Spent Nuclear Fuels: Principles and Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T.M.

    1998-11-25

    The melt-dilute treatment technology program is focused on the development and implementation of a treatment technology for diluting highly enriched (>20 percent 235U) aluminum spent nuclear fuel to low enriched levels (<20 percent 235U) and qualifying the LEU Al-SNF form for geologic repository storage. In order to reduce the enrichment of these assemblies prior to ultimate geologic repository disposal, the melt-dilute technology proposes to melt these SNF assemblies and then dilute with additions of depleted uranium. The benefits accrued from this treatment process include the potential for significant volume reduction, reduced criticality potential, and the potential for enhanced SNF form characteristics. The emphasis within the development program to date has been on determining the process metallurgy and off-gas system design for the treatment of all types of Al SNF (UAlx, Al-U3O8, and Al-U3Si2). In determining the process metallurgy a wide range of alloys, representative of those expected in the Al-SNF form, have been fabricated and their product characteristics, namely microstructure, homogeneity, phase composition, and "ternary" constituent effects have been analyzed. As a result of the presence of species within the melt which will possess significant vapor pressures in the desired operating temperature range an off-gas system is necessary. Of the volitile species the one of greatest concern is 137Cs.

  15. Design, construction, and operation of a laboratory scale reactorfor the production of high-purity, isotopically enriched bulksilicon

    SciTech Connect

    Ager III, J.W.; Beeman, J.W.; Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.

    2004-12-20

    The design and operation of a recirculating flow reactor designed to convert isotopically enriched silane to polycrystalline Si with high efficiency and chemical purity is described. The starting material is SiF{sub 4}, which is enriched in the desired isotope by a centrifuge method and subsequently converted to silane. In the reactor, the silane is decomposed to silicon on the surface of a graphite starter rod (3 mm diameter) heated to 700-750 C. Flow and gas composition (0.3-0.5% silane in hydrogen) are chosen to minimize the generation of particles by homogeneous nucleation of silane and to attain uniform deposition along the length of the rod. Growth rates are 5 {micro}m/min, and the conversion efficiency is greater than 95%. A typical run produces 35 gm of polycrystalline Si deposited along a 150 mm length of the rod. After removal of the starter rod, dislocation-free single crystals are formed by the floating zone method. Crystals enriched in all 3 stable isotopes of Si have been made: {sup 28}Si (99.92%), {sup 29}Si (91.37%), and {sup 30}Si (88.25%). Concentrations of electrically active impurities (P and B) are as low as mid-10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}. Concentrations of C and O lie below 10{sup 16} and 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}, respectively.

  16. Assessing the effects of salmon farming seabed enrichment using bacterial community diversity and high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Dowle, Eddy; Pochon, Xavier; Keeley, Nigel; Wood, Susanna A

    2015-08-01

    Aquaculture is an extremely valuable and rapidly expanding sector of the seafood industry. The sediment below active aquaculture farms receives inputs of organic matter from uneaten food and faecal material and this has led to concerns related to environmental sustainability. The impacts of organic enrichment on macrobenthic infauna are well characterized; however, much less is known about effect on bacterial communities. In this study, sediment, macrobenthic infauna samples and environmental data were collected along an enrichment gradient radiating out from a Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) farm (Marlborough Sounds; New Zealand). DNA and RNA were extracted and 16S rRNA metabarcodes from bacterial communities characterized using high-throughput sequencing. Desulfobacterales dominated at the cage (DNA and RNA), and at sites 50 m (DNA and RNA) and 150 m (RNA) from the farm. In contrast, unclassified bacteria from the class Gammaproteobacteria were the most abundant taxa at control sites (625 and 4000 m). Pronounced differences among DNA and RNA samples occurred at the cage site where Desulfobacterales abundance was markedly higher in RNA samples. There were strong correlations between shifts in bacterial communities and total organic matter and redox. This suggests that bacterial composition is strongly influenced by organic enrichment, a trait that may make them useful for assessing impacts associated with aquaculture farms. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Fission products measured from highly-enriched uranium irradiated under 10B4C in a research reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, Lori A.; Friese, Judah I.; Finn, Erin C.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Hines, Corey C.; King, Matthew D.; Wall, Donald E.

    2016-03-01

    Critical assemblies provide one method of achieving a fast neutron spectrum that is close to a 235U fission-energy neutron spectrum for nuclear data measurements. Previous work has demonstrated the use of a natural boron carbide capsule for spectral-tailoring in a mixed spectrum reactor as an alternate and complementary method for performing fission-energy neutron experiments. Previous fission products measurements showed that the neutron spectrum achievable with natural boron carbide was not as hard as what can be achieved with critical assemblies. New measurements performed with the Washington State University TRIGA reactor using a boron carbide capsule 96% enriched in 10B for irradiations resulted in a neutron spectrum very similar to a critical assembly and a pure 235U fission spectrum. The current work describes an experiment involving a highly-enriched uranium target irradiated under the new 10B4C capsule. Fission product yields were measured following radiochemical separations and are presented here. Reactor dosimetry measurements for characterizing neutron spectra and fluence for the enriched boron carbide capsule and critical assemblies are also discussed.

  18. Effect of atmospheric CO 2 enrichment on rubisco content in herbaceous species from high and low altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sage, Rowan F.; Schäppi, Bernd; Körner, Christian

    Atmospheric CO 2 enrichment reduces Rubisco content in many species grown in controlled environments; however, relatively few studies have examined CO 2 effects on Rubisco content of plants grown in their natural habitat. We examined the response of Rubisco content to atmospheric CO 2 enrichment (600-680 μmol mol -1 in place of ppm) in 5 herbaceous species growing in a low altitude grassland (550 m) near Basel, Switzerland, and 3 herbaceous species from Swiss alpine grassland at 2470 m. At low elevation, the dominant grass Bromus erectus and the subdominant dicot Sanquisorba minor exhibited 20% to 25% reduction of Rubisco content following high CO 2 exposure; no CO 2 effect was observed in the subdominants Carex flacca, Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium repens. At the Alpine site, the subdominant grass Poa alpina maintained 27% less Rubisco content when grown at high CO 2 while the co-dominant forb Leontodon helveticus had 19% less Rubisco in high CO 2. Rubisco content was unaffected in the tundra dominant Carex curvula. Because the degree of Rubisco modulation was similar between high and low elevation sites, it does not appear that differences in local partial pressure of CO 2 (altitude) or differences in stress in general induce different patterns of modulation of photosynthetic capacity in response to high CO 2. In addition, the degree of Rubisco reduction (<30%) was less than might be indicated by the low biomass response to CO 2 enrichment previously observed at these sites. Thus, plants in Swiss lowland and alpine grassland appear to maintain greater Rubisco concentration and photosynthetic capacity than whole plants can effectively exploit in terms of harvestable biomass.

  19. Preparation of sequence-controlled triblock copolymer-grafted silica microparticles by sequential-ATRP for highly efficient glycopeptides enrichment.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yiting; Ma, Cheng; Tong, Wei; Fan, Chao; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Wanjun; Tian, Fang; Peng, Bo; Qin, Weijie; Qian, Xiaohong

    2015-01-06

    As one of the most important subproteomes in eukaryote cells, N-glycoproteins play crucial roles in various of biological processes and have long been considered closely correlated with the occurrence, progression, and metastasis of cancer. Comprehensive characterization of protein N-glycosylation and association of their aberrant patterns to the corresponding cancer stage may provide a unique way to discover new diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic drug targets. However, the extremely complex nature of biological samples and relatively low abundance of N-glycosylated proteins makes the enrichment of glycoprotein/glycopeptide a prerequisite for large scale N-glycosylation identification. In this work, we prepared sequence controlled triblock copolymer grafted silica-microparticles (TCP-SMs) by sequential atom transfer radical polymerization (sequential-ATRP) of monosaccharides and zwitterionic-ion monomers for highly efficient and selective glycopeptides enrichment. The triblock copolymer is composed of sequence defined poly zwitterionic-ion, poly-N-acetylglucosamine and poly mannose blocks. The glycopolymer blocks carrying densely packed pendent sugars are excellent mimics of the natural carbohydrate clusters and may induce multivalent carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction (CCI) with the target glycopeptides. Therefore, increased retention of glycopeptides can be expected by the combination of CCI and zwitterionic-HILIC interaction. As a result, 1244 glycopeptides were identified after TCP-SMs enrichment from mouse liver, which are 65-120% higher than that obtained by homoglycopolymer or random-copolymer grafted silica microparticles prepared using the conventional free radical polymerization. These results demonstrate the critical role of sequence-defined block copolymer of TCP-SMs for obtaining enhanced affinity toward glycopeptides and the potential of this sequential-ATRP strategy to integrate different affinity moieties into one enrichment material to

  20. The Russian Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dluzhnevskaya, O. B.; Malkov, O. Yu.; Kilpio, A. A.; Kilpio, E. Yu.; Kovaleva, D. A.; Sat, L. A.

    The Russian Virtual Observatory (RVO) will be an integral component of the International Virtual Observatory (IVO). The RVO has the main goal of integrating resources of astronomical data accumulated in Russian observatories and institutions (databases, archives, digitized glass libraries, bibliographic data, a remote access system to information and technical resources of telescopes etc.), and providing transparent access for scientific and educational purposes to the distributed information and data services that comprise its content. Another goal of the RVO is to provide Russian astronomers with on-line access to the rich volumes of data and metadata that have been, and will continue to be, produced by astronomical survey projects. Centre for Astronomical Data (CAD), among other Russian institutions, has had the greatest experience in collecting and distributing astronomical data for more than 20 years. Some hundreds of catalogs and journal tables are currently available from the CAD repository. More recently, mirrors of main astronomical data resources (VizieR, ADS, etc) are now maintained in CAD. Besides, CAD accumulates and makes available for the astronomical community information on principal Russian astronomical resources.

  1. Chia Oil-Enriched Restructured Pork Effects on Oxidative and Inflammatory Status of Aged Rats Fed High Cholesterol/High Fat Diets.

    PubMed

    Santos-López, Jorge Arturo; Garcimartín, Alba; López-Oliva, María Elvira; Bautista-Ávila, Mirandeli; González-Muñoz, María José; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco José

    2017-05-01

    Chia oil has the highest recognized α-linolenic acid (ALA) content. ALA is associated with beneficial changes in plasma lipids and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Present article aims to analyze the effect of Chia oil-enriched restructured pork (RP) on aged rats in a nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model. Groups of six male Wistar rats (1-year old) were fed the experimental diets: control RP diet (C) noncholesterol high saturated; cholesterol-enriched high-saturated fat/high-cholesterol control RP diet (HC) with added cholesterol and cholic acid; and Chia oil- or Hydroxytyrosol RP cholesterol-enriched high-saturated fat/high cholesterol (CHIA and HxT). Total cholesterol, hepatosomatic index, Nrf2, antioxidant, and inflammation markers were determined. CHIA reduced the hypercholesterolemic effect by lowering levels similar to C; also, ameliorated redox index. CHIA, despite high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) content, reduced thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and induced the lowest SOD protein synthesis but not a reduction on its activity. Chia oil activated the Nrf2 to arrest the pro-oxidative response to cholesterol and aging. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) system was lower in HxT than in CHIA, suggesting its antiatherogenic activity and related protective effect against high PUFA. Increase in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) was partially blocked by CHIA. Chia oil has the ability to prevent oxidative damage and modify the inflammatory response, suggesting adequate regulation of the antioxidant system. Results stress the importance of incorporating ALA into the diet.

  2. High-Precision Nd Isotopes in Picrites from Hawaii and Iceland - No Evidence for an Early-Formed Enriched Reservoir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, A. D.; Norman, M. D.; Debaille, V.

    2007-01-01

    New high-precision Nd isotope measurements have shown that the present-day Nd-142/Nd-144 for average chondrites is approximately 20 ppm lower than that for the terrestrial standard and all recent mantle-derived samples measured to date. One explanation for these differences is that an enriched missing reservoir with lower Nd-142/Nd-144 resides in the mantle to balance the bulk Earth to chondritic. Data from Archean Greenland rocks show anomalies in Nd-142/Nd-144 of up to 40 ppm higher than the proposed average for chondrites. This difference between the Archean Greenland rocks and present-day mantle-derived samples has been interpreted to result from remixing of an early-formed enriched reservoir into the convecting mantle during the Archean. If so, the implication from this is that remixing of the enriched reservoir largely shut down some time in the past such that it must at present reside in a region in the mantle that infrequently participates dynamically and leading to volcanism at the surface. Several studies have suggested that the missing reservoir may be present just above the coremantle boundary (CMB). Depending on the size of this reservoir it could potentially make up all of D or exist as distinct domains within it. If such a reservoir does exist, then mantle-derived samples from plume systems that are thought to come from the CMB may be the best opportunity to identify this component using high-precision Nd isotope measurements. To test this, picrites from Hawaii with coupled enrichments in Os-186-Os-187 that has been proposed to be a signature of core-mantle interaction were measured on the JSC Triton for high-precision Nd-142/Nd-144. For comparison, picrites from Hawaii and Iceland that do not show coupled enrichments in Os-186-Os-187 were measured. We have established an external precision for Nd-142/Nd-144 of 3.6 ppm (2 sigma) during the analytical campaign. The Iceland (n=5) and Hawaiian data (n=9) have Nd-142 ranging from -0.01 plus or minus 0

  3. High-Precision Nd Isotopes in Picrites from Hawaii and Iceland - No Evidence for an Early-Formed Enriched Reservoir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, A. D.; Norman, M. D.; Debaille, V.

    2007-01-01

    New high-precision Nd isotope measurements have shown that the present-day Nd-142/Nd-144 for average chondrites is approximately 20 ppm lower than that for the terrestrial standard and all recent mantle-derived samples measured to date. One explanation for these differences is that an enriched missing reservoir with lower Nd-142/Nd-144 resides in the mantle to balance the bulk Earth to chondritic. Data from Archean Greenland rocks show anomalies in Nd-142/Nd-144 of up to 40 ppm higher than the proposed average for chondrites. This difference between the Archean Greenland rocks and present-day mantle-derived samples has been interpreted to result from remixing of an early-formed enriched reservoir into the convecting mantle during the Archean. If so, the implication from this is that remixing of the enriched reservoir largely shut down some time in the past such that it must at present reside in a region in the mantle that infrequently participates dynamically and leading to volcanism at the surface. Several studies have suggested that the missing reservoir may be present just above the coremantle boundary (CMB). Depending on the size of this reservoir it could potentially make up all of D or exist as distinct domains within it. If such a reservoir does exist, then mantle-derived samples from plume systems that are thought to come from the CMB may be the best opportunity to identify this component using high-precision Nd isotope measurements. To test this, picrites from Hawaii with coupled enrichments in Os-186-Os-187 that has been proposed to be a signature of core-mantle interaction were measured on the JSC Triton for high-precision Nd-142/Nd-144. For comparison, picrites from Hawaii and Iceland that do not show coupled enrichments in Os-186-Os-187 were measured. We have established an external precision for Nd-142/Nd-144 of 3.6 ppm (2 sigma) during the analytical campaign. The Iceland (n=5) and Hawaiian data (n=9) have Nd-142 ranging from -0.01 plus or minus 0

  4. Kapok Fiber: A Natural Biomaterial for Highly Specific and Efficient Enrichment of Sialoglycopeptides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yujie; Liu, Yuanjun; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Ruiqing; Li, Zhili

    2016-01-19

    Cancer development and chronic diseases are associated with the overexpression of sialoglycans terminated to the surface proteins and lipids of cancer cells compared with normal cells. The isolation and detection of sialoglycopeptides from complex peptides mixture still remain challenges due to their low abundance, low ionization, and losses of sialic acid residues and water molecule during analytical processes. In this study, kapok fiber, a natural fiber derived from the kapok tree (Bombax ceiba L.), has shown excellent capability to specifically and efficiently enrich sialoglycopeptides, without losses of sialic acid residues and water molecule from sialoglycans. The main components on the surface of kapok fiber are syringyl and guaiacyl lignins which play an important role in isolating sialoglycopeptides from complex peptide mixtures.

  5. Anaerobic Biotransformation of High Concentrations of Chloroform by an Enrichment Culture and Two Bacterial Isolates ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Huifeng; Kurtz, Harry D.; Mykytczuk, Nadia; Trevors, Jack T.; Freedman, David L.

    2010-01-01

    A fermentative enrichment culture (designated DHM-1) was developed that is capable of cometabolically biotransforming high concentrations of chloroform (CF) to nontoxic end products. Two Pantoea spp. were isolated from DHM-1 that also possess this dechlorination capability. Following acclimation to increasing levels of CF, corn syrup-grown DHM-1 was able to transform over 500 mg/liter CF in the presence of vitamin B12 (approximately 3% of CF on a molar basis) at a rate as high as 22 mg/liter/day in a mineral salts medium. CO, CO2, and organic acids were the predominant biodegradation products, suggesting that hydrolytic reactions predominate during CF transformation. DHM-1 was capable of growing on corn syrup in the presence of high concentrations of CF (as may be present near contaminant source zones in groundwater), which makes it a promising culture for bioaugmentation. Strains DHM-1B and DHM-1T transform CF at rates similar to that of the DHM-1 enrichment culture. The ability of these strains to grow in the presence of high concentrations of CF appears to be related to alteration of membrane fluidity or homeoviscous and homeophasic adaptation. PMID:20693443

  6. Highly Enriched Uranyl Nitrate in Annular Tanks with Concrete Reflection: 1 x 3 Line Array of Nested Pairs of Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    James Cleaver; John D. Bess; Nathan Devine; Fitz Trumble

    2009-09-01

    A series of seven experiments were performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory beginning in August, 1980 (References 1 and 2). Highly enriched uranyl nitrate solution was introduced into a 1-3 linear array of nested stainless steel annular tanks. The tanks were inside a concrete enclosure, with various moderator and absorber materials placed inside and/or between the tanks. These moderators and absorbers included boron-free concrete, borated concrete, borated plaster, and cadmium. Two configurations included placing bottles of highly enriched uranyl nitrate between tanks externally. Another experiment involved nested hemispheres of highly enriched uranium placed between tanks externally. These three configurations are not evaluated in this report. The experiments evaluated here are part of a series of experiments, one set of which is evaluated in HEU-SOL-THERM-033. The experiments in this and HEU-SOL-THERM-033 were performed similarly. They took place in the same room and used the same tanks, some of the same moderators and absorbers, some of the same reflector panels, and uranyl nitrate solution from the same location. There are probably additional similarities that existed that are not identified here. Thus, many of the descriptions in this report are either the same or similar to those in the HEU-SOL-THERM-033 report. Seventeen configurations (sixteen of which were critical) were performed during seven experiments; six of those experiments are evaluated here with thirteen configurations. Two configurations were identical, except for solution height, and were conducted to test repeatability. The solution heights were averaged and the two were evaluated as one configuration, which gives a total of twelve evaluated configurations. One of the seventeen configurations was subcritical. Of the twelve critical configurations evaluated, nine were judged as acceptable as benchmarks.

  7. Russian EVA 33

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-011593 (24 June 2013) --- Russian cosmonauts Alexander Misurkin (left) and Fyodor Yurchikhin, both Expedition 36 flight engineers, participate in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as work continues on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 34-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Yurchikhin replaced an aging fluid flow control panel on the station's Zarya module as preventative maintenance on the cooling system for the Russian segment of the station. They also installed clamps for future power cables as an early step toward swapping the Pirs airlock with a new multipurpose laboratory module. The Russian Federal Space Agency plans to launch a combination research facility, airlock and docking port late this year on a Proton rocket. Yurchikhin and Misurkin also retrieved two science experiments and installed one new one.

  8. Russian EVA 33

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-011590 (24 June 2013) --- Russian cosmonauts Alexander Misurkin (left) and Fyodor Yurchikhin, both Expedition 36 flight engineers, participate in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as work continues on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 34-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Yurchikhin replaced an aging fluid flow control panel on the station's Zarya module as preventative maintenance on the cooling system for the Russian segment of the station. They also installed clamps for future power cables as an early step toward swapping the Pirs airlock with a new multipurpose laboratory module. The Russian Federal Space Agency plans to launch a combination research facility, airlock and docking port late this year on a Proton rocket. Yurchikhin and Misurkin also retrieved two science experiments and installed a new one.

  9. Implementation of the United States/Russian HEU Agreement: Current Status and Prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Rutkowski, E

    2003-11-19

    During Calendar Year (CY) 2002, the Russian Federation (R.F.) delivered low enriched uranium (LEU) from the conversion and processing of 30 metric tons (MT) of weapons-grade (90% {sup 235}U assay) uranium. Through July 2003, the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Implementation Program (TIP) will have monitored the conversion of over 190 MT HEU into LEU. This total represents about 38 percent of the projected 500 MT HEU scheduled to be blended down through the year 2013 and is equivalent to the destruction of 7,600 nuclear devices. The National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) HEU-TIP monitors the processing of this HEU at four Russian uranium-processing plants. During CY 2002, United States (U.S.) personnel monitored this process for a total of 194 monitor-weeks by staffing a Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) located in Novouralsk, and through a series of five-day Special Monitoring Visits (SMV) to the four plants. U.S. monitor observations include the inventory of in-process containers, the observation of operations and non-destructive assay measurements (NDA) to determine {sup 235}U enrichment, as well as the examination and validation of Russian Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) documents. In addition, the U.S. designed Blend Down Monitoring System (BDMS) installed at the Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP) in January 1999 monitored all HEU blended at that facility, which is about 50 percent of the HEU blended into LEU during CY 2002. Recently we installed a BDMS at the Electrochemical Plant (ECP) in Zelenogorsk and plans are underway to install a BDMS at the Siberian Chemical Enterprise (SChE) in Seversk in late 2004. On a very positive note, interpersonal interactions between U.S. and Russian technical experts continues to expand and have proven to be an important element of the transparency regime. On the tenth anniversary of the HEU Purchase Agreement, the Ministry of the R.F. for Atomic Energy (Minatom) also saluted the

  10. Russian BAR/EXPERT experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-28

    ISS020-E-035017 (27 Aug. 2009) --- Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka, Expedition 20 commander, uses the Russian BAR/EXPERT science payload to take various environmental measurements in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station.

  11. Russian BAR/EXPERT experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-28

    ISS020-E-035016 (27 Aug. 2009) --- Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka, Expedition 20 commander, uses the Russian BAR/EXPERT science payload to take various environmental measurements in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station.

  12. Russian BAR/EXPERT experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-28

    ISS020-E-035022 (27 Aug. 2009) --- Russian cosmonaut Roman Romanenko, Expedition 20 flight engineer, uses the Russian BAR/EXPERT science payload to take various environmental measurements in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station.

  13. Russian EVA 36

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-09

    ISS037-E-028788 (9 Nov. 2013) --- Russian cosmonauts Oleg Kotov and Sergey Ryazanskiy (mostly out of frame at bottom right), both Expedition 37 flight engineers, attired in Russian Orlan spacesuits, participate in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) in support of assembly and maintenance on the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 50-minute spacewalk, Kotov and Ryazanskiy continued the setup of a combination EVA workstation and biaxial pointing platform that was installed during an Expedition 36 spacewalk on Aug. 22. Earth’s horizon and the blackness of space provide the backdrop for the scene.

  14. Russian EVA 36

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-09

    ISS037-E-028787 (9 Nov. 2013) --- Russian cosmonauts Oleg Kotov (left) and Sergey Ryazanskiy, both Expedition 37 flight engineers, attired in Russian Orlan spacesuits, participate in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) in support of assembly and maintenance on the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 50-minute spacewalk, Kotov and Ryazanskiy continued the setup of a combination EVA workstation and biaxial pointing platform that was installed during an Expedition 36 spacewalk on Aug. 22. Earth’s horizon and the blackness of space provide the backdrop for the scene.

  15. Preclinical evaluation of single-cell oils that are highly enriched with arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Boswell, K; Koskelo, E K; Carl, L; Glaza, S; Hensen, D J; Williams, K D; Kyle, D J

    1996-07-01

    Arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are important in human brain and retina development, and there is growing evidence showing the importance of these fatty acids in infant nutrition. Triglyceride oils, highly enriched in ARA (ARASCO) and DHA (DHASCO), were evaluated using very high dose acute (20 g/kg) and 4-wk subchronic gavage feedings in weanling Sprague-Dawley rats. The combination of these oils, Formulaid, was also tested in the 4-wk subchronic study, ARASCO, DHASCO and Formulaid were found to have a no-observable-adverse-effect level of more than 2.5 g/ kg/day, 1.25 g/kg/day and 3.75 g/kg/day, respectively. This represents a 50-fold safety margin over the intended use of Formulaid in infant formula. Survival, clinical signs, body weight gain, food consumption, haematology, clinical chemistry and histopathological evaluations failed to show any significant differences in animals administered ARASCO, DHASCO or Formulaid compared with that in control animals administered equal amounts of high oleic sunflower oil. The bioavailability of ARASCO, DHASCO and Formulaid was verified by increases in DHA and ARA levels in heart and liver tissues in these animals. Because these oils are enriched in only a single bioactive fatty acid, and they have been shown to be safe, they may offer a new source of these fatty acids in speciality foods such as infant formula.

  16. Importance of open marine waters to the enrichment of total mercury and monomethylmercury in lichens in the Canadian High Arctic.

    PubMed

    St Pierre, K A; St Louis, V L; Kirk, J L; Lehnherr, I; Wang, S; La Farge, C

    2015-05-19

    Caribou, which rely on lichens as forage, are a dietary source of monomethylmercury (MMHg) to many of Canada's Arctic Aboriginal people. However, little is understood about the sources of MMHg to lichens in the High Arctic. We quantified MMHg, total mercury (THg) and other chemical parameters (e.g., marine and crustal elements, δ(13)C, δ(15)N, organic carbon, calcium carbonate) in lichen and soil samples collected along transects extending from the coast on Bathurst and Devon islands, Nunavut, to determine factors driving lichen MMHg and THg concentrations in the High Arctic. Lichen MMHg and THg concentrations ranged from 1.41 to 17.1 ng g(-1) and from 36.0 to 361 ng g(-1), respectively. Both were highly enriched over concentrations in underlying soils, indicating a predominately atmospheric source of Hg in lichens. However, MMHg and THg enrichment at coastal sites on Bathurst Island was far greater than on Devon Island. We suggest that this variability can be explained by the proximity of the Bathurst Island transect to several polynyas, which promote enhanced Hg deposition to adjacent landscapes through various biogeochemical processes. This study is the first to clearly show a strong marine influence on MMHg inputs to coastal terrestrial food webs with implications for MMHg accumulation in caribou and the health of the people who depend on them as part of a traditional diet.

  17. Expedition 9 Russian News Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-20

    NASA Deputy Administrator Fred Gregory, second from right, and Russian Federal Space Agency Deputy General-Director Nikolai Moiseev, center, answer questions from reporters along with other Russian space officials at a news conference, Wednesday, April 21, 2004, at the Russian Mission Control Center outside Moscow following the docking of the Expedition 9 crew and a European Space Agency astronaut to the International Space Station in a Russian Soyuz spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Expedition 9 Russian News Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-20

    NASA Deputy Administrator Fred Gregory, far right, and Russian Federal Space Agency Deputy General-Director Nikolai Moiseev, second from right, answer questions from reporters along with other Russian space officials at a news conference, Wednesday, April 21, 2004, at the Russian Mission Control Center outside Moscow following the docking of the Expedition 9 crew and a European Space Agency astronaut to the International Space Station in a Russian Soyuz spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Roots of Russian Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    is the Russians.13 Although students of Russian (or French) military history know about Russia’s scorched earth policy—leaving no resources for the...7 6. Russians in the Caucasus Russia has a long history in the Caucasus going back centuries. During the “First” Chechen war, Russia fought an...Russian irregular warfare in previous wars. Although history is an imperfect teacher, in that events will never repeat exactly as they once occurred, it

  20. Double-beta decay investigation with highly pure enriched [Formula: see text]Se for the LUCIFER experiment.

    PubMed

    Beeman, J W; Bellini, F; Benetti, P; Cardani, L; Casali, N; Chiesa, D; Clemenza, M; Dafinei, I; Domizio, S Di; Ferroni, F; Gironi, L; Giuliani, A; Gotti, C; Laubenstein, M; Maino, M; Nagorny, S; Nisi, S; Nones, C; Orio, F; Pagnanini, L; Pattavina, L; Pessina, G; Piperno, G; Pirro, S; Previtali, E; Rusconi, C; Schäffner, K; Tomei, C; Vignati, M

    The LUCIFER project aims at deploying the first array of enriched scintillating bolometers for the investigation of neutrinoless double-beta decay of [Formula: see text]Se. The matrix which embeds the source is an array of ZnSe crystals, where enriched [Formula: see text]Se is used as decay isotope. The radiopurity of the initial components employed for manufacturing crystals, that can be operated as bolometers, is crucial for achieving a null background level in the region of interest for double-beta decay investigations. In this work, we evaluated the radioactive content in 2.5 kg of 96.3 % enriched [Formula: see text]Se metal, measured with a high-purity germanium detector at the Gran Sasso deep underground laboratory. The limits on internal contaminations of primordial decay chain elements of [Formula: see text]Th, [Formula: see text]U and [Formula: see text]U are respectively: [Formula: see text]61, [Formula: see text]110 and [Formula: see text]74 [Formula: see text]Bq/kg at 90 % C.L. The extremely low-background conditions in which the measurement was carried out and the high radiopurity of the [Formula: see text]Se allowed us to establish the most stringent lower limits on the half-lives of the double-beta decay of [Formula: see text]Se to 0[Formula: see text], 2[Formula: see text] and 2[Formula: see text] excited states of [Formula: see text]Kr of 3.4[Formula: see text]10[Formula: see text], 1.3[Formula: see text]10[Formula: see text] and 1.0[Formula: see text]10[Formula: see text] y, respectively, with a 90 % C.L.

  1. Mineralogy and crystallization history of a highly differentiated REE-enriched hypabyssal rhyolite: Round Top laccolith, Trans-Pecos, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, L. Christine; Elliott, Brent A.; Kyle, J. Richard

    2017-09-01

    The Round Top hypabyssal rhyolite laccolith is a highly evolved magmatic system, enriched in incompatible elements including REE [Rare Earth Element(s)], U, Be, and F. The Round Top intrusion is part of a series of Paleogene intrusions emplaced as the Sierra Blanca Complex. These intrusions are situated within long-lived, complex tectonic regimes that have been subjected to regional compression and subduction, punctuated by extensional bimodal volcanism. The enrichment in the rhyolite that comprises Round Top is the result of the prolonged removal of compatible elements from the source magma chamber through the emplacement of earlier magmatic events. With the emplacement of each sequential laccolith, the F-rich source magma became more enriched in incompatible elements, with increasing HREE [Heavy Rare Earth Elements(s)] concentrations. The emplacement of Round Top as a laccolith (versus that of an extrusive rhyolitic flow) facilitated the retention of the volatile-rich vapor phase within the magma, forming ubiquitous REE-bearing minerals, mainly yttrofluorite and yttrocerite. The high temperature mineral-vapor phase alteration of the feldspar groundmass was essential to the formation of REE minerals, where the pervasive open pore space was occupied by the late-crystallizing minerals. These late-forming REE-bearing minerals also occur as crystals associated with other accessory and trace phases, as inclusions within other phases, along grain boundaries, and along fractures and within voids. The rhyolite at Round Top and other laccolith intrusions in the Sierra Blanca Complex represent a new sub-type of magmatic rare earth element hosting system.

  2. Photopatterning of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) membranes for a high level of enrichment and cleanup of nucleic acids in microfluidic chips.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Meng; Hao, Nan; Yu, Tao; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2014-09-14

    An ideal nanoporous poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) membrane has been fabricated in glass microchannels by means of spatially controlled photopatterning technology for a high level of enrichment and cleanup of nucleic acids.

  3. Composition of chemical species of selenium contained in selenium-enriched shiitake mushroom and vegetables determined by high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Munehiro; Sugihara, Satoru; Inoue, Yuki; Chihara, Yûko; Kondô, Mariko; Miyamoto, Saori; Sukcharoen, Benjama

    2005-06-01

    Selenium (Se) species in Se-enriched shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) were identified and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICPMS). Two types of Se-enriched shiitake obtained from selenite- or selenate-fertilized mushroom beds were used. More than 80% of Se in both shiitake samples could not be extracted with 0.2 M HCl. Protease digestion released a large amount of selenomethionine from the shiitake enriched with selenite. However, most of the Se in the shiitake enriched with selenate was not released by protease but was released by a cell wall digestive enzyme and most of the Se released was identified as selenate. These results indicate that the main Se species in the shiitake enriched with selenite or selenate is selenomethionine bound to protein or selenate bound to polysaccharides in the cell wall, respectively. Several Se-enriched vegetables grown on a soil fertilized with selenate were also analyzed by HPLC-ICPMS. Four Se species, selenate, Se-methylselenocysteine, selenomethionine, gamma-glutamyl-Se-methylselenocysteine, and an unknown Se compound were detected in the vegetables. The composition of Se species varied with the kinds or parts of vegetables. The main Se species in bulbs, leaves or flowers of the Se-enriched garlic, onions, cabbage and ashitaba were selenate, Se-methylselenocysteine or gamma-glutamyl-Se-methylselenocysteine, while those in fruit bodies of the peppers and pumpkin were selenomethionine bound to protein. Bioavailabilities of Se in the shiitake mushroom enriched with selenite and the vegetables enriched with selenate are expected to be high, but that in shiitake enriched with selenate may be low.

  4. Oxygen- and Nitrogen-Enriched 3D Porous Carbon for Supercapacitors of High Volumetric Capacity.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Liu, Kang; Gao, Xiang; Yao, Bin; Huo, Kaifu; Cheng, Yongliang; Cheng, Xiaofeng; Chen, Dongchang; Wang, Bo; Sun, Wanmei; Ding, Dong; Liu, Meilin; Huang, Liang

    2015-11-11

    Efficient utilization and broader commercialization of alternative energies (e.g., solar, wind, and geothermal) hinges on the performance and cost of energy storage and conversion systems. For now and in the foreseeable future, the combination of rechargeable batteries and electrochemical capacitors remains the most promising option for many energy storage applications. Porous carbonaceous materials have been widely used as an electrode for batteries and supercapacitors. To date, however, the highest specific capacitance of an electrochemical double layer capacitor is only ∼200 F/g, although a wide variety of synthetic approaches have been explored in creating optimized porous structures. Here, we report our findings in the synthesis of porous carbon through a simple, one-step process: direct carbonization of kelp in an NH3 atmosphere at 700 °C. The resulting oxygen- and nitrogen-enriched carbon has a three-dimensional structure with specific surface area greater than 1000 m(2)/g. When evaluated as an electrode for electrochemical double layer capacitors, the porous carbon structure demonstrated excellent volumetric capacitance (>360 F/cm(3)) with excellent cycling stability. This simple approach to low-cost carbonaceous materials with unique architecture and functionality could be a promising alternative to fabrication of porous carbon structures for many practical applications, including batteries and fuel cells.

  5. Studying Russian and Soviet History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Abraham, Ed.

    These essays were written to assist teachers in the task of making Russian history intelligible to young U.S. students. In "An Approach to Russian History," Edward Keenan proposes that students need to gain a better understanding of how Russians perceive themselves and their history. In "Pre-Petrine Russia," Andrzej S. Kaminski…

  6. High-oleic canola oil consumption enriches LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content and reduces LDL proteoglycan binding in humans

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Peter J. H.; MacKay, Dylan. S.; Senanayake, Vijitha K.; Pu, Shuaihua; Jenkins, David J. A.; Connelly, Philip W.; Lamarche, Benoît; Couture, Patrick; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; West, Sheila G.; Liu, Xiaoran; Fleming, Jennifer A.; Hantgan, Roy R.; Rudel, Lawrence L.

    2015-01-01

    Oleic acid consumption is considered cardio-protective according to studies conducted examining effects of the Mediterranean diet. However, animal models have shown that oleic acid consumption increases LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content which is associated with increased LDL-proteoglycan binding and atherosclerosis. The objective was to examine effects of varying oleic, linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid consumption on human LDL-proteoglycan binding in a non-random subset of the Canola Oil Multi-center Intervention Trial (COMIT) participants. COMIT employed a randomized, double-blind, five-period, cross-over trial design. Three of the treatment oil diets; 1) a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75); 2) high oleic canola oil; and 3) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil were selected for analysis of LDL-proteoglycan binding in 50 participants exhibiting good compliance. LDL particles were isolated from frozen plasma by gel filtration chromatography and LDL cholesteryl esters quantified by mass-spectrometry. LDL-proteoglycan binding was assessed using surface plasmon resonance. LDL particle cholesterol ester fatty acid composition was sensitive to the treatment fatty acid compositions, with the main fatty acids in the treatments increasing in the LDL cholesterol esters. The corn/safflower oil and high-oleic canola oil diets lowered LDL-proteoglycan binding relative to their baseline values (p=0.0005 and p=0.0012, respectively). At endpoint, high-oleic canola oil feeding resulted in lower LDL-proteoglycan binding than corn/safflower oil (p=0.0243) and DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (p=0.0249), although high-oleic canola oil had the lowest binding at baseline (p=0.0344). Our findings suggest that high-oleic canola oil consumption in humans increases cholesteryl oleate percentage in LDL, but in a manner not associated with a rise in LDL-proteoglycan binding. PMID:25528432

  7. High-oleic canola oil consumption enriches LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content and reduces LDL proteoglycan binding in humans.

    PubMed

    Jones, Peter J H; MacKay, Dylan S; Senanayake, Vijitha K; Pu, Shuaihua; Jenkins, David J A; Connelly, Philip W; Lamarche, Benoît; Couture, Patrick; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; West, Sheila G; Liu, Xiaoran; Fleming, Jennifer A; Hantgan, Roy R; Rudel, Lawrence L

    2015-02-01

    Oleic acid consumption is considered cardio-protective according to studies conducted examining effects of the Mediterranean diet. However, animal models have shown that oleic acid consumption increases LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content which is associated with increased LDL-proteoglycan binding and atherosclerosis. The objective was to examine effects of varying oleic, linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid consumption on human LDL-proteoglycan binding in a non-random subset of the Canola Oil Multi-center Intervention Trial (COMIT) participants. COMIT employed a randomized, double-blind, five-period, cross-over trial design. Three of the treatment oil diets: 1) a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75); 2) high oleic canola oil; and 3) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil were selected for analysis of LDL-proteoglycan binding in 50 participants exhibiting good compliance. LDL particles were isolated from frozen plasma by gel filtration chromatography and LDL cholesteryl esters quantified by mass-spectrometry. LDL-proteoglycan binding was assessed using surface plasmon resonance. LDL particle cholesterol ester fatty acid composition was sensitive to the treatment fatty acid compositions, with the main fatty acids in the treatments increasing in the LDL cholesterol esters. The corn/safflower oil and high-oleic canola oil diets lowered LDL-proteoglycan binding relative to their baseline values (p = 0.0005 and p = 0.0012, respectively). At endpoint, high-oleic canola oil feeding resulted in lower LDL-proteoglycan binding than corn/safflower oil (p = 0.0243) and DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (p = 0.0249), although high-oleic canola oil had the lowest binding at baseline (p = 0.0344). Our findings suggest that high-oleic canola oil consumption in humans increases cholesteryl oleate percentage in LDL, but in a manner not associated with a rise in LDL-proteoglycan binding.

  8. The Role of COMSOL Toward a Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Design for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Freels, James D; Arimilli, Rao V; Lowe, Kirk T; Bodey, Isaac T

    2009-01-01

    Design and safety analyses are underway to convert the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from a high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to a low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The primary constraint for the project is that the overall fuel plate dimensions and the current neutron flux performance must remain unchanged. This allows minimal impact on the facility and cost for the conversion, and provides transparency to the HFIR customer base and research projects that depend on the facility for isotopes and neutron flux. As a consequence, the LEU design demands more accuracy and less margin in the analysis efforts than the original design. Several technical disciplines are required to complete this conversion including nuclear reactor physics, heat transfer, fluid dynamics, structural mechanics, fuel fabrication, and engineering design. The role of COMSOL is to provide the fully-coupled 3D multi-physics analysis for heat transfer, turbulent flow, and structural mechanics of the fuel plates and flow channels. A goal is for COMSOL to simulate the entire fuel element array of fuel plates (171 inner, 369 outer). This paper describes the progress that has been made toward development of benchmark validation models of the existing HEU inner-element fuel plates.

  9. Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Conversion Activities for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual Report for FY 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Renfro, David G; Cook, David Howard; Freels, James D; Griffin, Frederick P; Ilas, Germina; Sease, John D; Chandler, David

    2012-03-01

    This report describes progress made during FY11 in ORNL activities to support converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum (UMo) alloy. With both radial and axial contouring of the fuel foil and an increase in reactor power to 100 MW, calculations indicate that the HFIR can be operated with LEU fuel with no degradation in performance to users from the current levels achieved with HEU fuel. Studies are continuing to demonstrate that the fuel thermal safety margins can be preserved following conversion. Studies are also continuing to update other aspects of the reactor steady state operation and accident response for the effects of fuel conversion. Technical input has been provided to Oregon State University in support of their hydraulic testing program. The HFIR conversion schedule was revised and provided to the GTRI program. In addition to HFIR conversion activities, technical support was provided directly to the Fuel Fabrication Capability program manager.

  10. Modern information and telecommunication technologies in educational process as the element of ongoing personnel training for high-tech Russian industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyatina, A. N.; Isaev, A. A.; Samovarschikov, Y. V.

    2017-01-01

    In the current work the issues of staffing high-tech sectors of Russian industry are considered in the context of global geopolitical instability, the comparative analysis of the age structure of domestic companies with the leading Western industrial organizations was conducted, "growth points" of human resources development were defined. For the purpose of informational and telecommunicational implementation in the educational process the analysis of normative-legal documents regulating the requirements to the electronic educational environment and distance learning technologies is presented. The basic models of distance learning technologies and remote resources as part of teaching materials are used. Taking into account the specifics and requirements of industrial enterprises a number of tools and methodology of e-learning based on the identified needs of the industrial sector were offered. The basis of the proposed model is built on one-parameter model through a three-tier learning: kindergarten - secondary - higher education (professional) where the lifecycle of parameter is a list of the industrial enterprises demands to the educational process.

  11. On Lying in Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondry, Henrietta; Taylor, John R.

    1992-01-01

    It is argued that any attempt to explicate the notion of lying can proceed only on a prior understanding of the notion of truth. Two Russian words for "truth" and two for "lie" are examined, and various dimensions of meanings of the pairs are discussed. (17 references) (LB)

  12. The Overeducated Russian?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binyon, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Despite its planned, centrally directed economy, Russia has not been able to tailor its university system to its manpower needs. Peculiarities in the Russian system, including the method for planning enrollments, stiff competition for university acceptance, and application regulations, are discussed. (JMD)

  13. English Loanwords in Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Morton

    1959-01-01

    This introductory survey describes the English contribution to the vocabulary of modern Russian. The author presents an analysis of English loanwords based on the etymologies of Vasmer and Lexin, by subject classification (amusements, clothing, economics, food, nautical terminology, and technology). Separate commentary on sporting terms, where…

  14. Teaching Russian Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vakar, Nicholas

    1949-01-01

    Prior to World War Two, Slavic studies in America treated history, literature, and language as isolated disciplines and often neglected the study of Russian literature written after 1917. The pragmatic necessities of the war questioned the relevance of this traditional approach and specialists appeared, concentrating their efforts on the recent…

  15. Russian Resource Materials Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Viveca

    This guide provides the teacher of Russian with helpful background material and activities on the geography of the Soviet Union and the history of Russia as well as its customs, traditions, literary selections, songs, foods, and festivals. In addition to these topics, the introductory chapter outlines a philosophy for teaching and learning Russian…

  16. Spoken Russian; Book Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomfield, Leonard; Petrova, Luba

    This course in spoken Russian is intended for use in introductory conversational classes. Book II in the two volume series is divided into three major parts, each containing five learning units and one unit devoted to review. Each unit contains sections including (1) basic sentences, (2) word study and review of basic sentences, (3) listening…

  17. Russian Librarianship after Perestroika.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Boris

    1995-01-01

    Provides historical background and describes the change in the role of Russian libraries from conduits for party propaganda to organizations designed to serve the needs of their users. Considers problems for library educators in providing librarians with the skills needed in the new political and technological environment of post-Communist Russia.…

  18. Russian Resource Materials Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Viveca

    This guide provides the teacher of Russian with helpful background material and activities on the geography of the Soviet Union and the history of Russia as well as its customs, traditions, literary selections, songs, foods, and festivals. In addition to these topics, the introductory chapter outlines a philosophy for teaching and learning Russian…

  19. Intimate Partner Violence among Male and Female Russian University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysova, Aleksandra V.; Douglas, Emily M.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports data from three Russian sites of the International Dating Violence Study. Using a sample of 338 university students (54% female) from three Russian university sites, four different types of partner violence are examined: physical assault, physical injury, sexual coercion, and psychological aggression. High prevalence rates…

  20. Comprehensive Russian Instructional Program, 1983-1984: OEA Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    In 1983-84, the second and final year of funding, Project CRIP (Comprehensive Russian Instructional Program) provided career orientation and support services to 430 Russian-speaking student of limited English proficiency (LEP) at three public and four private high schools in Brooklyn and Queens, New York. All of the students were foreign-born and…

  1. Teaching Sport Education to Russian Students: An Ecological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinelnikov, Oleg; Hastie, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Given Russian students' general lack of group work and opportunities to develop student responsibility in their prior schooling experiences, the purpose of this study was to examine how a group of Russian high school students responds to novel demands of participation in a sport education season. Forty-two students from two ninth-grade physical…

  2. Comprehensive Russian Instructional Program, 1983-1984: OEA Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    In 1983-84, the second and final year of funding, Project CRIP (Comprehensive Russian Instructional Program) provided career orientation and support services to 430 Russian-speaking student of limited English proficiency (LEP) at three public and four private high schools in Brooklyn and Queens, New York. All of the students were foreign-born and…

  3. Enrichment of highly settleable microalgal consortia in mixed cultures for effluent polishing and low-cost biomass production.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuansheng; Hao, Xiaodi; van Loosdrecht, Mark; Chen, Huiqin

    2017-08-15

    Microalgae cultivation is a promising technology for integrated effluent polishing and biofuel production, but poor separability of microalgal cells hinders its industrial application. This study intended to selectively enrich settleable microalgal consortia in mixed culture by applying "wash-out" pressure, which was realized by controlling settling time (ST) and volume exchange ratio (VER) in photo-SBRs. The results demonstrated that highly settleable microalgal consortia (settling efficiency>97%; SVI = 17-50 mL/g) could be enriched from indigenous algal cultures developed in WWTP's effluent. High VER was the key factor for the fast development of settleable microalgae. VER was also a controlling factor of the algal community structure. High VERs (0.5 and 0.7) resulted in the dominance of diatom, while low VER (0.2) facilitated the dominance of cyanobacteria. The settleable microalgal consortia were very efficient in phosphorus removal (effluent PO4(3-)-P<0.1 mg/L; removal efficiency>99%), which was largely attributed to intensive chemical precipitation of phosphate induced by high pH (8.5-10). However, the high pH decreased the bioavailable inorganic carbon, resulting in incomplete nitrate removal (effluent NO3(-)-N = 2.2-4 mg/L; removal efficiency = 61-79%) under high VERs and low lipid content (up to 10%) in the settleable microalgae. This problem could be resolved by sparging CO2 or controlling pH. Overall, this study demonstrated a simple and effective method to overcome the separation challenge in scale-up of microalgae biotechnology for advanced wastewater purification and biofuel production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of a New Transportation/Storage Cask System for Use by the DOE Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Tyacke; Frantisek Svitak; Jiri Rychecky; Miroslav Picek; Alexey Smirnov; Sergey Komarov; Edward Bradley; Alexander Dudchenko; Konstantin Golubkin

    2007-10-01

    The United States, the Russian Federation, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have been working together on a program called the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) Program. The purpose of this program is to return Soviet or Russian-supplied high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel, currently stored at Russian-designed research reactors throughout the world, to Russia. To accommodate transport of the HEU spent nuclear fuel (SNF), a new large-capacity transport/storage cask system was specially designed for handling and operations under the unique conditions at these research reactor facilities. This new cask system is named the ŠKODA VPVR/M cask. The design, licensing, testing, and delivery of this new cask system result from a significant international cooperative effort by several countries and involved numerous private and governmental organizations. This paper contains the following sections: 1) Introduction; 2) VPVR/M Cask Description; 3) Ancillary Equipment, 4) Cask Licensing; 5) Cask Demonstration and Operations; 6) IAEA Procurement, Quality Assurance Inspections, Fabrication, and Delivery; and, 7) Conclusions.

  5. Effects of Silicon vs. Hydroxytyrosol-Enriched Restructured Pork on Liver Oxidation Status of Aged Rats Fed High-Saturated/High-Cholesterol Diets

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Pinar; López-Oliva, M. Elvira; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pork is an essential component of the diet that has been linked with major degenerative diseases and development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Previous studies have. Previous studies have demonstrated the in vitro antioxidant activity of silicon (Si). Furthermore, when Si is added to restructured pork (RP) strongly counterbalances the negative effect of high-cholesterol-ingestion, acting as an active hypocholesterolemic and hypolipemic dietary ingredient in aged rats. Objective This study was designed to evaluate the effects of Si vs hydroxytyrosol (HxT) RP on liver antioxidant defense in aged rats fed cholesterol-enriched high saturated/high cholesterol diets as a NASH model. Methods Four diets were prepared: Control RP diet (C) with non-added cholesterol; Cholesterol-enriched high-saturated/high-cholesterol control RP diet (CHOL-C) with added cholesterol and cholic acid; Si- or HxT-RP cholesterol-enriched high-saturated/high-cholesterol diets (CHOL-Si and CHOL-HxT). Groups of six male Wistar rats (1-yr old) were fed these modified diets for eight weeks. Total cholesterol, hepatosomatic index, liver Nrf2 and antioxidant (CAT, SOD, GSH, GSSG, GR, GPx) markers were determined. Results Both CHOL-Si and CHOL-HxT diets enhanced the liver antioxidant status, reduced hepatosomatic index and increased SOD actvity. Hydrogen peroxide removal seemed to be involved, explaining that the value of redox index was even lower than C without changing the CAT activity. CHOL-Si results were quite better than CHOL-HxT in most measured parameters. Conclusions Our study suggests that Si incorporated into RP matrix was able to counterbalance, more efficiently than HxT, the deleterious effect of consuming a high-saturated/high-cholesterol diet, by improving the liver antioxidant defenses in the context of NASH. PMID:26807847

  6. Gamma/neutron time-correlation for special nuclear material detection – Active stimulation of highly enriched uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Paff, Marc G.; Monterial, Mateusz; Marleau, Peter; Kiff, Scott; Nowack, Aaron; Clarke, Shaun D.; Pozzi, Sara A.

    2014-06-21

    A series of simulations and experiments were undertaken to explore and evaluate the potential for a novel new technique for fissile material detection and characterization, the timecorrelated pulse-height (TCPH) method, to be used concurrent with active stimulation of potential nuclear materials. In previous work TCPH has been established as a highly sensitive method for the detection and characterization of configurations of fissile material containing Plutonium in passive measurements. By actively stimulating fission with the introduction of an external radiation source, we have shown that TCPH is also an effective method of detecting and characterizing configurations of fissile material containing Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The TCPH method is shown to be robust in the presence of the proper choice of external radiation source. An evaluation of potential interrogation sources is presented.

  7. Human Milk Plasmalogens Are Highly Enriched in Long-Chain PUFAs.

    PubMed

    Moukarzel, Sara; Dyer, Roger A; Keller, Bernd O; Elango, Rajavel; Innis, Sheila M

    2016-11-01

    Human milk contains unique glycerophospholipids, including ethanolamine-containing plasmalogens (Pls-PEs) in the milk fat globule membrane, which have been implicated in infant brain development. Brain Pls-PEs accumulate postnatally and are enriched in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Fatty acid (FA) composition of Pls-PEs in milk is poorly understood because of the analytical challenges in separating Pls-PEs from other phospholipids in the predominating presence of triacylglycerols. The variability of Pls-PE FAs and the potential role of maternal diet remain unknown. Our primary objectives were to establish improved methodology for extracting Pls-PEs from human milk, enabling FA analysis, and to compare FA composition between Pls-PEs and 2 major milk phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Our secondary objective was to explore associations between maternal DHA intake and DHA in milk phospholipids and variability in phospholipid-DHA within a woman. Mature milk was collected from 25 women, with 4 providing 3 milk samples on 3 separate days. Lipids were extracted, and phospholipids were removed by solid phase extraction. Pls-PEs were separated by using normal-phase HPLC, recovered and analyzed for FAs by GLC. Diet was assessed by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Pls-PE concentration in human milk was significantly higher in LC-PUFAs than phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine, including arachidonic acid (AA) and DHA. The mean ± SD concentration of AAs in Pls-PEs was ∼2.5-fold higher than in phosphatidylethanolamine (10.5 ± 1.71 and 3.82 ± 0.92 g/100 g, respectively). DHA in Pls-PEs varied across women (0.95-6.51 g/100 g), likely independent of maternal DHA intake. Pls-PE DHA also varied within a woman across days (CV ranged from 9.8% to 28%). Human milk provides the infant with LC-PUFAs from multiple lipid pools, including a source from Pls-PEs. The

  8. Analysis of HO-PCBs and PCP in blood plasma from individuals with high PCB exposure living on the Chukotka Peninsula in the Russian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Sandanger, Torkjel M; Dumas, Pierre; Berger, Urs; Burkow, Ivan C

    2004-09-01

    A trace analytical method is presented for the analysis of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl metabolites (HO-PCBs) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) in human plasma. The described methodology is a modification of a previously validated method used for PCB and organochlorine pesticide analysis. The modified method enables the combined analysis of phenolic and neutral halogenated compounds. A tandem Florisil column is used for separating the HO-PCBs and PCP from the neutral fraction, instead of the more common chemical partitioning. In the same step the neutral fraction is purified for GC analysis. The extraction of the HO-PCBs and PCP was found to be highly dependent on sufficient acidification of the sample and the polarity of the extracting solvent. Analysis of plasma samples gave recovery rates for (13)C(6)-PCP and (13)C(12)-4-HO-CB 187 of 64 and 72%, respectively. The limit of detection ranged between 2-20 pg g(-1) plasma for the HO-PCBs and 5 pg g(-1) plasma for PCP. No matrix interferences were observed in the chromatograms. In plasma samples (n = 15) from the native Chukchi people in Uelen (Russian Arctic), a population with high PCB exposure, the median ratio of sum HO-PCBs to sum PCBs was as high as 0.4 and the sum HO-PCBs and PCBs were significantly correlated (r(2) > 0.7, p < 0.01). The median sum HO-PCBs (10 congeners) was 5920 pg g(-1) plasma with 4-HO-CB 107 as the dominating congener (median: 1670 pg g(-1) plasma). The median PCP level was measured at 642 pg g(-1) plasma.

  9. Dietary silicon-enriched spirulina improves early atherosclerosis markers in hamsters on a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Vidé, Joris; Virsolvy, Anne; Romain, Cindy; Ramos, Jeanne; Jouy, Nicolas; Richard, Sylvain; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Gaillet, Sylvie; Rouanet, Jean-Max

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary silicon-enriched spirulina (SES) on atherosclerosis. Hamsters (six per group) on a high-fat (HF) diet received SES or non-enriched spirulina (both at 57 mg/kg body weight) daily. This corresponded to 0.57 mg silicon/kg body weight daily. The HF diet induced dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and vascular dysfunction. Compared with the HF group, SES attenuated increases of lipemia and prevented insulin resistance (IR) (P = 0.001). SES protected against oxidative stress through a reduction of heart (P = 0.006) and liver (P < 0.0001) nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase activity and by sparing the activity of superoxide dismutase (P = 0.0017) and glutathione peroxidase (P = 0.01861). SES decreased inflammation, lowering tumor necrosis factor-α (P = 0.0006) and interleukin-6 levels (P = 0.0112), decreasing polymorphonuclear cells and preventing nuclear factor-κB activity (P = 0.0259). SES corrected plasma level of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (P = 0.0380), which was increased by the HF diet. Finally, SES supplementation prevented vascular and endothelial functions assessed respectively by the contractile response to the agonist phenylephrine and the relaxation induced by acetylcholine. SES protects against metabolic imbalance, inflammation, oxidative stress, and vascular dysfunction induced by an HF diet, and could prevent the atherogenic processes. Synergistic effects between spirulina and silicon were observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Production of highly-enriched 134Ba for a reference material for isotope dilution mass spectrometry measurements

    SciTech Connect

    J.J. Horkley; K.P E.M. Gantz; J.E. Davis; R.R. Lewis; J.P. Crow; C.A. Poole; T.S. Grimes; J.J. Giglio

    2015-03-01

    t Isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) is an analytical technique capable of providing accurate and precise quantitation of trace isotope abundance and assay providing measurement uncertainties below 1 %. To achieve these low uncertainties, the IDMS method ideally utilizes chemically pure ‘‘spike’’ solutions that consist of a single highly enriched isotope that is well-characterized relating to the abundance of companion isotopes and concentration in solution. To address a current demand for accurate 137Cs/137Ba ratio measurements for ‘‘age’’ determination of radioactive 137Cs sources, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is producing enriched 134Ba isotopes that are tobe used for IDMS spikes to accurately determine 137Ba accumulation from the decay of 137Cs. The final objective of this work it to provide a homogenous set of reference materials that the National Institute of Standards and Technology can certify as standard reference materials used for IDMS. The process that was developed at INL for the separation and isolation of Ba isotopes, chemical purification of the isotopes in solution,

  11. Production of highly-enriched 134Ba for a reference material for isotope dilution mass spectrometry measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Horkley, J. J.; Carney, K. P.; Gantz, E. M.; ...

    2015-03-17

    Isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) is an analytical technique capable of providing accurate and precise quantitation of trace isotope abundance and assay providing measurement uncertainties below 1 %. To achieve these low uncertainties, the IDMS method ideally utilizes chemically pure “spike” solutions that consist of a single highly enriched isotope that is well-characterized relating to the abundance of companion isotopes and concentration in solution. To address a current demand for accurate 137Cs/137Ba ratio measurements for “age” determination of radioactive 137Cs sources, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is producing enriched 134Ba isotopes that are tobe used for IDMS spikes to accurately determinemore » 137Ba accumulation from the decay of 137Cs. The final objective of this work it to provide a homogenous set of reference materials that the National Institute of Standards and Technology can certify as standard reference materials used for IDMS. The process that was developed at INL for the separation and isolation of Ba isotopes, chemical purification of the isotopes in solution, and the encapsulation of the materials will be described.« less

  12. Production of highly-enriched 134Ba for a reference material for isotope dilution mass spectrometry measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Horkley, J. J.; Carney, K. P.; Gantz, E. M.; Davies, J. E.; Lewis, R. R.; Crow, J. P.; Poole, C. A.; Grimes, T. S.; Giglio, J. J.

    2015-03-17

    Isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) is an analytical technique capable of providing accurate and precise quantitation of trace isotope abundance and assay providing measurement uncertainties below 1 %. To achieve these low uncertainties, the IDMS method ideally utilizes chemically pure “spike” solutions that consist of a single highly enriched isotope that is well-characterized relating to the abundance of companion isotopes and concentration in solution. To address a current demand for accurate 137Cs/137Ba ratio measurements for “age” determination of radioactive 137Cs sources, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is producing enriched 134Ba isotopes that are tobe used for IDMS spikes to accurately determine 137Ba accumulation from the decay of 137Cs. The final objective of this work it to provide a homogenous set of reference materials that the National Institute of Standards and Technology can certify as standard reference materials used for IDMS. The process that was developed at INL for the separation and isolation of Ba isotopes, chemical purification of the isotopes in solution, and the encapsulation of the materials will be described.

  13. Single blind randomised controlled trial of GAME (Goals - Activity - Motor Enrichment) in infants at high risk of cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Catherine; Novak, Iona; Dale, Russell C; Guzzetta, Andrea; Badawi, Nadia

    2016-08-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is caused by a lesion in the developing infant brain. Recent neuroplasticity literature suggests that intensive, task-specific intervention ought to commence early, during the critical period of neural development. To determine whether "GAME" (Goals - Activity - Motor Enrichment), a motor learning, environmental enrichment intervention, is effective for improving motor skills in infants at high risk of CP. Single blind randomised controlled trial of GAME versus standard care. Primary outcome was motor skills on the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 (PDMS-2). Secondary outcomes included Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID-III) and Gross Motor Function Measure-66 (GMFM-66). Outcome assessors were masked to group allocation and data analyzed with multiple regression. All n=30 infants enrolled received the assigned intervention until 16 weeks post enrolment. At 12 months of age, n=26 completed assessments. Significant between group differences were found in raw scores on the PDMS-2 in favour of GAME (B=20.71, 95%CI 1.66-39.76, p=0. 03) and at 12 months on the total motor quotient (B=8.29, 95%CI 0.13-16.45,p =0.05). Significant between group differences favored GAME participants at 12 months on the cognitive scale of the BSID-III and satisfaction scores on the COPM. GAME intervention resulted in advanced motor and cognitive outcomes when compared with standard care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Russian Federation. Health system review.

    PubMed

    Popovich, Larisa; Potapchik, Elena; Shishkin, Sergey; Richardson, Erica; Vacroux, Alexandra; Mathivet, Benoit

    2011-01-01

    The HiT reviews are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. At independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, the Russian health system inherited an extensive, centralized Semashko system, but was quick to reform health financing by adopting a mandatory health insurance (MHI) model in 1993. MHI was introduced in order to open up an earmarked stream of funding for health care in the face of severe fiscal constraints. While the health system has evolved and changed significantly since the early 1990 s, the legacy of having been a highly centralized system focused on universal access to basic care remains. High energy prices on world markets have ensured greater macroeconomic stability, a budget surplus and improvements in living standards for most of the Russian population. However, despite an overall reduction in the poverty rate, there is a marked urban rural split and rural populations have worse health and poorer access to health services than urban populations. The increase in budgetary resources available to policy-makers have led to a number of recent federal-level health programmes that have focused on the delivery of services and increasing funding for priority areas including primary care provision in rural areas. Nevertheless, public health spending in the Russian Federation remains relatively low given the resources available. However, it is also clear that, even with the current level of financing, the performance of the health system could be improved. Provider payment mechanisms are the main obstacle to improving technical efficiency in

  15. Association of Normative Beliefs and Anger with Aggression and Antisocial Behavior in Russian Male Juvenile Offenders and High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Ruchkin, Vladislav V.

    2004-01-01

    Examined the association of anger experience and two types of normative beliefs with physical aggression and nonaggressive antisocial behavior in 361 juvenile offenders and 206 high school students in Russia. All participants were male and ranged in age from 14 to 18 years. Higher frequency of aggressive acts was significantly associated with…

  16. NUCLEAR ISOTOPIC DILUTION OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM BY DRY BLENDING VIA THE RM-2 MILL TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Raj K. Rajamani; Sanjeeva Latchireddi; Vikas Devrani; Harappan Sethi; Roger Henry; Nate Chipman

    2003-08-01

    DOE has initiated numerous activities to focus on identifying material management strategies to disposition various excess fissile materials. In particular the INEEL has stored 1,700 Kg of offspec HEU at INTEC in CPP-651 vault facility. Currently, the proposed strategies for dispositioning are (a) aqueous dissolution and down blending to LEU via facilities at SRS followed by shipment of the liquid LEU to NFS for fabrication into LWR fuel for the TVA reactors and (b) dilution of the HEU to 0.9% for discard as a waste stream that would no longer have a criticality or proliferation risk without being processed through some type of enrichment system. Dispositioning this inventory as a waste stream via aqueous processing at SRS has been determined to be too costly. Thus, dry blending is the only proposed disposal process for the uranium oxide materials in the CPP-651 vault. Isotopic dilution of HEU to typically less than 20% by dry blending is the key to solving the dispositioning issue (i.e., proliferation) posed by HEU stored at INEEL. RM-2 mill is a technology developed and successfully tested for producing ultra-fine particles by dry grinding. Grinding action in RM-2 mill produces a two million-fold increase in the number of particles being blended in a centrifugal field. In a previous study, the concept of achieving complete and adequate blending and mixing (i.e., no methods were identified to easily separate and concentrate one titanium compound from the other) in remarkably short processing times was successfully tested with surrogate materials (titanium dioxide and titanium mono-oxide) with different particle sizes, hardness and densities. In the current project, the RM-2 milling technology was thoroughly tested with mixtures of natural uranium oxide (NU) and depleted uranium oxide (DU) stock to prove its performance. The effects of mill operating and design variables on the blending of NU/DU oxides were evaluated. First, NU and DU both made of the same oxide

  17. Surface Elevation Changes and Velocities from Remote-Sensing Data at Vil'kitskogo, Inostranzeva and Bunge Glaciers on the Novaya Zemlya Icefield in the Russian High Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melkonian, A. K.; Willis, M. J.; Pritchard, M. E.; Stewart, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Northern Ice Cap of Novaya Zemlya is the largest (22,000 km2) and most rapidly changing ice cap in the Russian High Arctic, accounting for 80% of the region's estimated 0.025 mm/yr contribution to sea level rise between 2003-2009 (Moholdt et al., 2012). We use several remote sensing instruments to extend this time series forward and instead of computing a regional average, we seek a detailed glacier-by-glacier inventory of elevation and velocity changes. Here, we focus on three glaciers along the Barents Sea coast of the ice cap: Vil'kitskogo, Inostranzeva and Bunge, all of which experienced area reduction at an average rate of roughly 1 sq. km/yr from 1990 to 2000 (Kouraev, Legrésy and Remy, 2006). Our estimates of the current surface elevation change rates (dh/dt) and velocities at these glaciers will allow us to determine the connections between thinning, dynamics and the documented climatic changes -- 2004-2009 mean summer temperatures in Novaya Zemlya were anomalously high, +0.50×0.28C greater than mean summer temperatures from 1980-2009 (Moholdt et al., 2012), while Meng (2013) found that melt duration increased by 1.3 days/yr from 1996 to 2011. Based on warming and increased melt in the region, we expect to find a seasonally-related increase in velocity. Comparing acceleration (or the lack thereof) with thinning rates and combining both with existing bathymetry to calculate flux will enable us to estimate the contribution of dynamics to mass change at these glaciers relative to melt. We estimate dh/dt by applying a weighted linear regression to time series of ASTER DEMs acquired between 2003/07/29 to 2013/07/27 and Russian cartographic DEMs issued in 1970/71. Glacier velocities are calculated using automated normalized cross correlation, or 'pixel-tracking', applied to ASTER image pairs from 2003 to 2013. We supplement our ASTER time series with velocities and DEMs from very high-resolution (0.5-2 m/pixel) imagery acquired by QuickBird, WorldView and

  18. High conjugated linoleic acid enriched ghee (clarified butter) increases the antioxidant and antiatherogenic potency in female Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypercholesterolemia and oxidative stress are the main stimulating factors responsible for coronary artery disease and progression of atherosclerosis. Dairy food products are rich in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) which is considered as an important component due to its potential health benefits such as anticarcinogenic, antiatherogenic, antidiabetic and antiadipogenic properties. In the present study, the effect of CLA enriched ghee on the antioxidant enzyme system and antiatherogenic properties in Wistar rats has been studied. Methods Female Wistar rats of 21 days were taken for the study and fed with soybean diet (Control diet), low CLA diet and high CLA ghee diet (treatments) for thirty five days for studying antioxidative enzymes and sixteen weeks in case of antiatherogenic studies. Results Feeding of high CLA enhanced ghee during pubescent period in rats lead to an increase in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activities in blood and increased CAT, SOD and glutathione transferase (GST) enzymes activities in liver by 27, 130 and 168 percent, respectively. Plasma nitrate concentration and Haemoglobin levels remained the same in all the treatments. Feeding of high CLA ghee resulted in lower (P < 0.01) plasma cholesterol & triglyceride level (52.17 and 30.27%), and higher high density lipoproteins (33.26%) than feeding of soybean oil (control group) and thus manifested in decreased (P < 0.05) atherogenic index (from 0.472 to 0.244). Lesser cholesterol and triglyceride levels were observed in the liver and aorta of high CLA fed rats than in those of the other groups. Histopathological studies of liver showed normal hepatic cords with portal triad in the high CLA ghee fed rats whereas fatty degeneration of hepatocytes containing fat vacuoles was observed in the liver of the other groups. Conclusion This paper is the first report of the antioxidant and antiatherogenic properties of the high CLA enriched ghee suggesting that

  19. Russian Rocket Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA engineers successfully tested a Russian-built rocket engine on November 4, 1998 at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Engine Test Facility, which had been used for testing the Saturn V F-1 engines and Space Shuttle Main engines. The MSFC was under a Space Act Agreement with Lockheed Martin Astronautics of Denver to provide a series of test firings of the Atlas III propulsion system configured with the Russian-designed RD-180 engine. The tests were designed to measure the performance of the Atlas III propulsion system, which included avionics and propellant tanks and lines, and how these components interacted with the RD-180 engine. The RD-180 is powered by kerosene and liquid oxygen, the same fuel mix used in Saturn rockets. The RD-180, the most powerful rocket engine tested at the MSFC since Saturn rocket tests in the 1960s, generated 860,000 pounds of thrust.

  20. Parametric Evaluation of Active Neutron Interrogation for the Detection of Shielded Highly-Enriched Uranium in the Field

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chcihester; E. H. Seabury; S. J. Thompson; R. R. C. Clement

    2011-10-01

    Parametric studies using numerical simulations are being performed to assess the performance capabilities and limits of active neutron interrogation for detecting shielded highly enriched uranium (HEU). Varying the shield material, HEU mass, HEU depth inside the shield, and interrogating neutron source energy, the simulations account for both neutron and photon emission signatures from the HEU with resolution in both energy and time. The results are processed to represent different irradiation timing schemes and several different classes of radiation detectors, and evaluated using a statistical approach considering signal intensity over background. This paper describes the details of the modeling campaign and some preliminary results, weighing the strengths of alternative measurement approaches for the different irradiation scenarios.

  1. Gamma/neutron time-correlation for special nuclear material detection – Active stimulation of highly enriched uranium

    DOE PAGES

    Paff, Marc G.; Monterial, Mateusz; Marleau, Peter; ...

    2014-06-21

    A series of simulations and experiments were undertaken to explore and evaluate the potential for a novel new technique for fissile material detection and characterization, the timecorrelated pulse-height (TCPH) method, to be used concurrent with active stimulation of potential nuclear materials. In previous work TCPH has been established as a highly sensitive method for the detection and characterization of configurations of fissile material containing Plutonium in passive measurements. By actively stimulating fission with the introduction of an external radiation source, we have shown that TCPH is also an effective method of detecting and characterizing configurations of fissile material containing Highlymore » Enriched Uranium (HEU). The TCPH method is shown to be robust in the presence of the proper choice of external radiation source. An evaluation of potential interrogation sources is presented.« less

  2. Conceptual Process for the Manufacture of Low-Enriched Uranium/Molybdenum Fuel for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sease, J.D.; Primm, R.T. III; Miller, J.H.

    2007-09-30

    The U.S. nonproliferation policy 'to minimize, and to the extent possible, eliminate the use of HEU in civil nuclear programs throughout the world' has resulted in the conversion (or scheduled conversion) of many of the U.S. research reactors from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU). A foil fuel appears to offer the best option for using a LEU fuel in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) without degrading the performance of the reactor. The purpose of this document is to outline a proposed conceptual fabrication process flow sheet for a new, foil-type, 19.75%-enriched fuel for HFIR. The preparation of the flow sheet allows a better understanding of the costs of infrastructure modifications, operating costs, and implementation schedule issues associated with the fabrication of LEU fuel for HFIR. Preparation of a reference flow sheet is one of the first planning steps needed in the development of a new manufacturing capacity for low enriched fuels for U.S. research and test reactors. The flow sheet can be used to develop a work breakdown structure (WBS), a critical path schedule, and identify development needs. The reference flow sheet presented in this report is specifically for production of LEU foil fuel for the HFIR. The need for an overall reference flow sheet for production of fuel for all High Performance Research Reactors (HPRR) has been identified by the national program office. This report could provide a starting point for the development of such a reference flow sheet for a foil-based fuel for all HPRRs. The reference flow sheet presented is based on processes currently being developed by the national program for the LEU foil fuel when available, processes used historically in the manufacture of other nuclear fuels and materials, and processes used in other manufacturing industries producing a product configuration similar to the form required in manufacturing a foil fuel. The processes in the reference flow sheet are within the

  3. Effective DNA fragmentation technique for simple sequence repeat detection with a microsatellite-enriched library and high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Keisuke; Ohtake, Rumi; Yoshida, Saki; Shinohara, Takashi

    2017-04-01

    Two different techniques for genomic DNA fragmentation before microsatellite-enriched library construction-restriction enzyme (NlaIII and MseI) digestion and sonication-were compared to examine their effects on simple sequence repeat (SSR) detection using high-throughput sequencing. Tens of thousands of SSR regions from 5 species of the plant family Myrtaceae were detected when the output of individual samples was >1 million paired-end reads. Comparison of the two DNA fragmentation techniques showed that restriction enzyme digestion was superior to sonication for identification of heterozygous genotypes, whereas sonication was superior for detection of various SSR flanking regions with both species-specific and common characteristics. Therefore, choosing the most suitable DNA fragmentation method depends on the type of analysis that is planned.

  4. Reactive trace element enrichment in a highly modified, tidally inundated acid sulfate soil wetland: East Trinity, Australia.

    PubMed

    Keene, Annabelle F; Johnston, Scott G; Bush, Richard T; Burton, Edward D; Sullivan, Leigh A

    2010-04-01

    This study examines the abundance of trace elements in surface sediments of a former acid sulfate soil (ASS) wetland subjected to marine tidal inundation. Sediment properties of this highly modified study site are compared with those of an adjacent unmodified, intertidal mangrove forest. Whilst some trace elements (Al, Cd, Mn, Ni and Zn) were clearly depleted due to mobilisation and leaching in the previous oxic-acidic phase, other trace elements (As and Cr) displayed significant enrichment in the tidally inundated ASS. Many trace elements were strongly associated with the reactive Fe and acid volatile sulfide (AVS) fractions, suggesting that trace elements may be adsorbed to abundant reactive Fe phases or sequestered as sulfide minerals. These findings provide an important understanding of the fate and mobility of reactive iron, AVS and trace elements during tidal remediation of a formerly acidified Great Barrier Reef (GBR) catchment.

  5. Computational investigation on the new high energy density material of aluminum enriched 1, 1-diamino-2, 2-dinitroethylene.

    PubMed

    Bian, Liang; Shu, Yuanjie; Xu, Jinbao; Wang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum enriched 1, 1-diamino-2, 2-dinitroethylene (Al-FOX-7) crystal, as a new high energy density material (HEDM), was designed and investigated using grand canonical monte carlo (GCMC), NVT+NPT-molecular dynamics (MD) and GGA-PBE-density functional theory (DFT) methods. The results show that, Al atoms break out H-bond of functional group of FOX-7 crystal, and form new Al-H and Al-O bonds. Their atomic content (x) influences the surface electronic states, friction sensitivities and cj detonation properties of Al-FOX-7 crystals. While x is 4 atoms, the crystal has the highest friction sensitivities and cj detonation temperatures, which are about 1.5 times to that of FOX-7 crystal.

  6. An integrated video- and weight-monitoring system for the surveillance of highly enriched uranium blend down operations

    SciTech Connect

    Lenarduzzi, R.; Castleberry, K.; Whitaker, M.; Martinez, R.

    1998-11-01

    An integrated video-surveillance and weight-monitoring system has been designed and constructed for tracking the blending down of weapons-grade uranium by the US Department of Energy. The instrumentation is being used by the International Atomic Energy Agency in its task of tracking and verifying the blended material at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth, Ohio. The weight instrumentation developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory monitors and records the weight of cylinders of the highly enriched uranium as their contents are fed into the blending facility while the video equipment provided by Sandia National Laboratory records periodic and event triggered images of the blending area. A secure data network between the scales, cameras, and computers insures data integrity and eliminates the possibility of tampering. The details of the weight monitoring instrumentation, video- and weight-system interaction, and the secure data network is discussed.

  7. Automated instruments for in-line accounting of highly enriched uranium at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, P.A.; Strittmatter, R.B.; Sandford, E.L.; Stephens, M.M.; Brumfield, T.L.; Smith, S.E.; McCullough, E.E.; Jeter, I.W.; Bowers, G.L.

    1985-02-01

    Two automated nondestructive assay instruments developed at Los Alamos in support of nuclear materials accounting needs are currently operating in-line at the Oak Ridge Y-12 facility for recovery of highly enriched uranium (HEU). One instrument provides the HEU inventory in the secondary solvent extraction system, and the other monitors HEU concentration in the secondary intermediate evaporator. Both instruments were installed in December 1982. Operational evaluation of these instruments was a joint effort of Y-12 and Los Alamos personnel. This evaluation included comparison of the solvent extraction system inventories with direct measurements performed on the dumped solution components of the solvent extraction system and comparison of concentration assay results with the external assays of samples withdrawn from the process. The function and design of the instruments and detailed results of the operational evaluation are reported.

  8. Radiation and criticality safety analyses for the highly-enriched uranium core removal from a research reactor.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Haile; Grant, Charles; Preston, John

    2017-11-01

    Analysis was performed to estimate radiation levels during removal and packaging of the highly-enriched uranium core of the JM-1 SLOWPOKE-2 research reactor. Due to severe limitations of space in and around the reactor pool, the core could not be removed in the conventional manner as was done for previous SLOWPOKE defuelling operations. A transfer shield, with a balance between shielding efficacy, volume and weight was designed. Fuel depletion, Monte Carlo shielding and criticality calculations were performed. Comparisons of measured and calculated dose rates as well as results of the criticality safety assessment are presented. The designed transfer shield reduced the calculated unshielded dose rate from 29Sv/h to 8mSv/h. The maximum calculated effective neutron multiplication factor of approximately 0.89 was below the 0.91 upper subricital limit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Freestanding highly defect nitrogen-enriched carbon nanofibers for lithium ion battery thin-film anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Guoqiang; Bao, Wurigumula; Yuan, Yifei; Liu, Zhun; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Wu, Feng; Amine, Khalil; Wang, Jing; Lu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    To spread lithium ion batteries into large-scale energy storage technologies, high ener-gy/power densities and long cycling life of carbon-based anodes must be achieved. This re-quires revolutionary design of the anode’s architectures that can facilitate the fast electronic and ionic transport, as well as accommodate the electrode structural instability. Here we re-port a thin-film electrode design and demonstrate its use in flexible, and large-area carbon-based anode assemblies. The fabrication of electrodes is realized by sputtering a graphite tar-get in the high-purity nitrogen atmosphere, then highly-defect nitrogen-doped carbon nano-fibers are deposited vertically onto copper substrates with a thin film configuration. The high-ly-defect nitrogen-doping enhances the lithium storage and transport, the orientation grown mechanism improves the charge transfer, and the compact configuration makes the high tap density possible. As a result, the thin films exhibit high specific capacities of ~ 500 mAh g−1, namely a volume capacity of ~ 100 mAh cm−3. They also exhibit stable cycle performance (400 mAh g−1 after 200 cycles) and good rate capability (450 mAh g−1 at 1 A g−1 rate). This work opens up a new carbon-based anode design by using sputtering technology for effec-tively incorporating high content nitrogen into carbon matrices. Such electrode architecture significantly improves the electrochemical performance of carbon-based materials.

  10. Russian EVA 38.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-19

    Cosmonaut Oleg Artemyev (EV2),in the blue striped Orlan suit,and Cosmonaut Alexander Skvortsov,in the red striped Orlan suit,are photographed at work during Russian EVA 38 by Expedition 40 crewmembers aboard the ISS. They are working to Installed the AFAR (Automatic Phased Array Antenna) Unit of the [EKTC] (Integrated Command and Telemetry System) external FU (Feeder Unit) between PI.II-III on Service Module (SM) circumferential handrails.

  11. Genetic Stock Identification of Russian Honey Bees

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A genetic stock certification assay was developed to distinguish Russian honey bees from other European stocks that are commercially produced in the United States. A total of 11 microsatellite and 5 SNP loci were used. Loci were selected for relatively high levels of homogeneity within each group an...

  12. Design Study for a Low-Enriched Uranium Core for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual Report for FY 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Primm, R. T.; Ellis, R. J.; Gehin, J. C.; Clarno, K. T.; Williams, K. A.; Moses, D. L.

    2006-11-01

    Neutronics and thermal-hydraulics studies show that, for equivalent operating power [85 MW(t)], a low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel cycle based on uranium-10 wt % molybdenum (U-10Mo) metal foil with radially, “continuously graded” fuel meat thickness results in a 15% reduction in peak thermal flux in the beryllium reflector of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) as compared to the current highly enriched uranium (HEU) cycle. The uranium-235 content of the LEU core is almost twice the amount of the HEU core when the length of the fuel cycle is kept the same for both fuels. Because the uranium-238 content of an LEU core is a factor of 4 greater than the uranium-235 content, the LEU HFIR core would weigh 30% more than the HEU core. A minimum U-10Mo foil thickness of 84 μm is required to compensate for power peaking in the LEU core although this value could be increased significantly without much penalty. The maximum U-10Mo foil thickness is 457μm. Annual plutonium production from fueling the HFIR with LEU is predicted to be 2 kg. For dispersion fuels, the operating power for HFIR would be reduced considerably below 85 MW due to thermal considerations and due to the requirement of a 26-d fuel cycle. If an acceptable fuel can be developed, it is estimated that $140 M would be required to implement the conversion of the HFIR site at Oak Ridge National Laboratory from an HEU fuel cycle to an LEU fuel cycle. To complete the conversion by fiscal year 2014 would require that all fuel development and qualification be completed by the end of fiscal year 2009. Technological development areas that could increase the operating power of HFIR are identified as areas for study in the future.

  13. Globular Cluster Formation at High Density: A Model for Elemental Enrichment with Fast Recycling of Massive-star Debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.

    2017-02-01

    The self-enrichment of massive star clusters by p-processed elements is shown to increase significantly with increasing gas density as a result of enhanced star formation rates and stellar scatterings compared to the lifetime of a massive star. Considering the type of cloud core where a globular cluster (GC) might have formed, we follow the evolution and enrichment of the gas and the time dependence of stellar mass. A key assumption is that interactions between massive stars are important at high density, including interactions between massive stars and massive-star binaries that can shred stellar envelopes. Massive-star interactions should also scatter low-mass stars out of the cluster. Reasonable agreement with the observations is obtained for a cloud-core mass of ∼4 × 106 M ⊙ and a density of ∼2 × 106 cm‑3. The results depend primarily on a few dimensionless parameters, including, most importantly, the ratio of the gas consumption time to the lifetime of a massive star, which has to be low, ∼10%, and the efficiency of scattering low-mass stars per unit dynamical time, which has to be relatively large, such as a few percent. Also for these conditions, the velocity dispersions of embedded GCs should be comparable to the high gas dispersions of galaxies at that time, so that stellar ejection by multistar interactions could cause low-mass stars to leave a dwarf galaxy host altogether. This could solve the problem of missing first-generation stars in the halos of Fornax and WLM.

  14. Russian Rocket Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA engineers successfully tested a Russian-built rocket engine on November 4, 1998 at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Engine Test Facility, which had been used for testing the Saturn V F-1 engines and Space Shuttle Main engines. The MSFC was under a Space Act Agreement with Lockheed Martin Astronautics of Denver to provide a series of test firings of the Atlas III propulsion system configured with the Russian-designed RD-180 engine. The tests were designed to measure the performance of the Atlas III propulsion system, which included avionics and propellant tanks and lines, and how these components interacted with the RD-180 engine. The RD-180 is powered by kerosene and liquid oxygen, the same fuel mix used in Saturn rockets. The RD-180, the most powerful rocket engine tested at the MSFC since Saturn rocket tests in the 1960s, generated 860,000 pounds of thrust. The test was the first test ever anywhere outside Russia of a Russian designed and built engine.

  15. High spectral and spatial resolution hyperspectral imagery for quantifying Russian wheat aphid infestation in wheat using the constrained energy minimization classifier

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of insect infestation in agricultural crops are of major ecological and economic interest because of reduced yield, increased cost of pest control, and increased risk of environmental contamination from insecticide application. The Russian wheat aphid (RWA, Diuraphis noxia) is an insect...

  16. Efficient ozone generator for ozone layer enrichment from high altitude balloon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filiouguine, Igor V.; Kostiouchenko, Sergey V.; Koudriavtsev, Nikolay N.; Starikovskaya, Svetlana M.

    1994-01-01

    The possibilities of ozone production at low gas pressures by nanosecond high voltage discharge has been investigated. The measurements of ozone synthesis in N2-O2 mixtures have been performed. The explanation of experimental results is suggested. The possible ways of ozone yield growth are analyzed.

  17. Results of Summer Enrichment Program to Promote High School Students' Interest in Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Brenda; McAnulty, Kate

    2014-01-01

    For more than thirty years, personnel from the University of Louisville J.B. Speed School of Engineering have presented a summer program targeting high school students historically underrepresented in engineering fields. INSPIRE provides these students with an introduction to careers in engineering and assists the students in planning their…

  18. From Skeletons to Bridges & Other STEM Enrichment Exercises for High School Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riechert, Susan E.; Post, Brian K.

    2010-01-01

    The national Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) Education Initiative favors a curriculum shift from the compartmentalization of math and science classes into discrete subject areas to an integrated, multidisciplinary experience. Many states are currently implementing programs in high schools that provide greater integration of math,…

  19. From Skeletons to Bridges & Other STEM Enrichment Exercises for High School Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riechert, Susan E.; Post, Brian K.

    2010-01-01

    The national Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) Education Initiative favors a curriculum shift from the compartmentalization of math and science classes into discrete subject areas to an integrated, multidisciplinary experience. Many states are currently implementing programs in high schools that provide greater integration of math,…

  20. Development of high internal phase emulsion polymeric monoliths for highly efficient enrichment of trace polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from large-volume water samples.

    PubMed

    Su, Rihui; Ruan, Guihua; Nie, Honggang; Xie, Ting; Zheng, Yanjie; Du, Fuyou; Li, Jianping

    2015-07-31

    In this work, polymerized high internal phase emulsion (polyHIPE) monoliths were prepared and applied as monolithic adsorbent materials for proconcentration of trace polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from large-volume water samples. The monolithic polyHIPE columns were prepared by in situ polymerization of the continuous phase of a high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) containing styrene (STY), divinylbenzene (DVB) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) in pipette tips, and the resulting STY/DVB/GMA polyHIPE monoliths exhibited highly interconnected porosity and large surface areas, making them excellent candidates as adsorbents for enrichment of trace aromatic compounds. The prepared STY/DVB/GMA polyHIPE monoliths were applied to the determination of trace PAHs in environmental water samples by combing with high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). Under the optimized experimental conditions, the polyHIPE monoliths could effectively enrich trace 13 PAHs from 500mL of water samples, the mean recoveries at four spiked levels were ranged from 80.7% to 115.0% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 14%, and the detection limits (LODs) were ranged from 4.0 to 228pg/L. In addition, the prepared polyHIPE monolith was stable enough for more than 200 replicate extraction cycles without measurable loss of performance on the enrichment of PAHs, and good column-to-column repeatability was obtained with RSD less than 13%. The proposed method was applied to simultaneous analysis of 13 PAHs in water samples with satisfactory recoveries.

  1. Isotopically enriched ammonium shows high nitrogen transformation in the pile top zone of dairy manure compost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Koki; Toyoda, Sakae; Yano, Midori; Hattori, Shohei; Fukasawa, Makoto; Nakajima, Keiichi; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2016-03-01

    Nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) of NH4+ in dairy manure compost piles with and without bulking agent (10 % w/w) were compared to understand the effects of the use of bulking agent on nitrogen conversion during manure composting. The δ15N-NH4+ values in each of three pile zones (top, side and core) were also compared. At the end of the process, piles with bulking agent showed significantly higher δ15N values (17.7 ± 1.3 ‰) than piles without bulking agent (11.8 ± 0.9 ‰), reflecting the significantly higher nitrogen conversion and NH3 loss in the former. The samples from the top zone, especially in the piles with bulking agent, showed very high NH4+ concentrations with significantly high 15N (δ15N: 12.7-29.8 ‰) values, indicating that extremely high nitrogen conversion, nitrification-denitrification activity of the microbes and NH3 volatilization occurred in this zone.

  2. Enrichment of a microbial community performing anaerobic oxidation of methane in a continuous high-pressure bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled to sulphate reduction (SR-AOM) prevents more than 90% of the oceanic methane emission to the atmosphere. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the high methane pressure (1, 4.5, and 8 MPa) stimulated in vitro SR-AOM activity. However, the information on the effect of high-pressure on the microbial community structure and architecture was still lacking. Results In this study we analysed the long-term enrichment (286 days) of this microbial community, which was mediating SR-AOM in a continuous high-pressure bioreactor. 99.7% of the total biovolume represented cells in the form of small aggregates (diameter less then 15 μm). An increase of the total biovolume was observed (2.5 times). After 286 days, the ANME-2 (anaerobic methanotrophic archaea subgroup 2) and SRB (sulphate reducing bacteria) increased with a factor 12.5 and 8.4, respectively. Conclusion This paper reports a net biomass growth of communities involved in SR-AOM, incubated at high-pressure. PMID:21676272

  3. Combining lectin microcolumns with high-resolution separation techniques for enrichment of glycoproteins and glycopeptides.

    PubMed

    Madera, Milan; Mechref, Yehia; Novotny, Milos V

    2005-07-01

    Silica-based lectin microcolumns are described in this study together with the chemical procedures necessary for their preparation. The analytical merits of Canavalia ensiformis and Sambucus nigra lectins, [immobilized on activated macroporous silica], such as binding capacity, trapping reproducibility, and substrate selectivity, have been evaluated using model glycoproteins. The described microcolumns are applicable to high-pressure analytical schemes utilizing microvalving procedures, washing steps, and quantitative desorption for LC/MS analysis. The described analytical systems are amenable to the applications aiming at fractionation of complex glycopeptide mixtures and determination of the sites of glycosylation.

  4. Calcifying invertebrates succeed in a naturally CO2 enriched coastal habitat but are threatened by high levels of future acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, J.; Gutowska, M. A.; Saphörster, J.; Heinemann, A.; Trübenbach, K.; Fietzke, J.; Hiebenthal, C.; Eisenhauer, A.; Körtzinger, A.; Wahl, M.; Melzner, F.

    2010-07-01

    CO2 emissions are leading to an acidification of the oceans. Predicting marine community vulnerability towards acidification is difficult, as adaptation processes cannot be accounted for in most experimental studies. Naturally CO2 enriched sites thus can serve as valuable proxies for future changes in community structure. Here we describe a natural analogue site in the Western Baltic Sea. Seawater pCO2 in Kiel Fjord is elevated for large parts of the year due to upwelling of CO2 rich waters. Peak pCO2 values of >230 Pa (>2300 μatm) and pH values of <7.5 are encountered during summer and autumn, average pCO2 values are ~70 Pa (~700 μatm). In contrast to previously described naturally CO2 enriched sites that have suggested a progressive displacement of calcifying auto- and heterotrophic species, the macrobenthic community in Kiel Fjord is dominated by calcifying invertebrates. We show that blue mussels from Kiel Fjord can maintain control rates of somatic and shell growth at a pCO2 of 142 Pa (1400 μatm, pH=7.7). Juvenile mussel recruitment peaks during the summer months, when high water pCO2 values of ~100 Pa (~1000 μatm) prevail. Our findings indicate that calcifying keystone species may be able to cope with surface ocean pH values projected for the end of this century. However, owing to non-linear synergistic effects of future acidification and upwelling of corrosive water, peak seawater pCO2 in Kiel Fjord and many other productive estuarine habitats could increase to values >400 Pa (>4000 μatm). These changes will most likely affect calcification and recruitment, and increase external shell dissolution.

  5. Thermoelectric Transport Properties of Fe-Enriched ZnO with High-Temperature Nanostructure Refinement.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xin

    2015-04-22

    Thermoelectric properties of Fe-doped ZnO materials are investigated and correlated with the phase and microstructural evolution. Both a ZnO solid solution phase and a ZnFe2O4 spinel phase are observed. Analysis was made of temperature measurements of Seebeck coefficients as combined with the law of mixture to estimate the Fermi level in the constituent phases, which are further correlated with the Fe solute concentration in ZnO lattices and the overall electrical conductivity. In addition, the thermoelectric figure of merit is found to increase with the actual Fe content in ZnO lattices, due to the reduced thermal conductivity by point defect scattering of phonons and enhanced electrical transport via electron doping. The maximum achievable power factor of Fe-doped ZnO material is found to be similar to that of the ZnO-In2O3 system. Another important finding of the present work is the significant nanostructure refinement in 18 month old FeO1.5-doped ZnO after high-temperature thermal treatment, leading to further reduced thermal conductivity, which is beneficial and promising for high-temperature thermoelectric performance.

  6. High specific activity enantiomerically enriched juvenile hormones: synthesis and binding assay

    SciTech Connect

    Prestwich, G.D.; Wawrzenczyk, C.

    1985-08-01

    A stereoselective total synthesis of chiral juvenile hormone I is described that allows stoichiometric introduction of two tritium atoms in the final step. Both optical antipodes of the pivotal epoxy alcohol intermediate were prepared in 95% enantiomeric excess by the Sharpless epoxidation of a (Z)-allylic alcohol. Elaboration of the hydroxy-methyl group to a vinyl group followed by selective homogeneous tritiation affords optically active juvenile hormone I analogs at 58 Ci/mmol. Competitive binding of the labeled 10R, 11S and 10S,11R enantiomers with unlabeled enantiomers to the hemolymph binding protein of Manduca sexta larvae was determined by using a dextran-coated charcoal assay. The natural 10R,11S enantiomer has twice the relative binding affinity of the 10S,11R enantiomer. The availability of such high specific activity optically pure hormones will contribute substantially to the search for high-affinity receptors for juvenile hormones in the nuclei of cells. Moreover, the chiral 12-hydroxy-(10R,11S)-epoxy intermediate allows modification of juvenile hormone for solid-phase biochemical and radioimmunochemical work without altering either the biologically important carbomethoxy or epoxy recognition sites.

  7. Performance evaluation and bacteria analysis of AFB-MFC enriched with high-strength synthetic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian-sheng; Guo, Yong; Yang, Ping; Li, Chong-ming; Gao, Hui; Feng, Li; Zhang, Yun

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the performance and bacterial communities of an anaerobic fluidized bed microbial fuel cell (AFB-MFC) system, the 16S rDNA gene sequencing was applied, and high-strength synthetic wastewater was treated by the AFB-MFC system. The high-strength synthetic wastewater, in which the concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrite nitrogen, and nitrate nitrogen were above 19,000, 2,516-3,871 and 927-1,427 mg/L, was treated by the AFB-MFC system. The removal efficiency of COD, nitrite nitrogen, and nitrate nitrogen reached 70-89, 98 and 98%, while the maximum voltage was 394 mV. The bacteria analysis revealed the presence of Alistipes putredinis, Carnobacterium sp., Victivallis vadensis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Thauera sp., Parabacteroides merdae, Parvimonas micra, Parabacteroides sp., and Desulfomicrobium baculatum in the anode chamber. In addition, the Klebsiella pneumoniae was observed to have the capability of organic degradation and electricity generation, while the Thauera sp. has the capability of denitrification.

  8. High specific activity enantiomerically enriched juvenile hormones: synthesis and binding assay.

    PubMed Central

    Prestwich, G D; Wawrzeńczyk, C

    1985-01-01

    A stereoselective total synthesis of chiral juvenile hormone I is described that allows stoichiometric introduction of two tritium atoms in the final step. Both optical antipodes of the pivotal epoxy alcohol intermediate were prepared in 95% enantiomeric excess by the Sharpless epoxidation of a (Z)-allylic alcohol. Elaboration of the hydroxy-methyl group to a vinyl group followed by selective homogeneous tritiation affords optically active juvenile hormone I analogs at 58 Ci/mmol. Competitive binding of the labeled 10R, 11S and 10S,11R enantiomers with unlabeled enantiomers to the hemolymph binding protein of Manduca sexta larvae was determined by using a dextran-coated charcoal assay. The natural 10R,11S enantiomer has twice the relative binding affinity of the 10S,11R enantiomer. The availability of such high specific activity optically pure hormones will contribute substantially to the search for high-affinity receptors for juvenile hormones in the nuclei of cells. Moreover, the chiral 12-hydroxy-(10R,11S)-epoxy intermediate allows modification of juvenile hormone for solid-phase biochemical and radioimmunochemical work without altering either the biologically important carbomethoxy or epoxy recognition sites. PMID:3860862

  9. High specific activity enantiomerically enriched juvenile hormones: synthesis and binding assay.

    PubMed

    Prestwich, G D; Wawrzeńczyk, C

    1985-08-01

    A stereoselective total synthesis of chiral juvenile hormone I is described that allows stoichiometric introduction of two tritium atoms in the final step. Both optical antipodes of the pivotal epoxy alcohol intermediate were prepared in 95% enantiomeric excess by the Sharpless epoxidation of a (Z)-allylic alcohol. Elaboration of the hydroxy-methyl group to a vinyl group followed by selective homogeneous tritiation affords optically active juvenile hormone I analogs at 58 Ci/mmol. Competitive binding of the labeled 10R, 11S and 10S,11R enantiomers with unlabeled enantiomers to the hemolymph binding protein of Manduca sexta larvae was determined by using a dextran-coated charcoal assay. The natural 10R,11S enantiomer has twice the relative binding affinity of the 10S,11R enantiomer. The availability of such high specific activity optically pure hormones will contribute substantially to the search for high-affinity receptors for juvenile hormones in the nuclei of cells. Moreover, the chiral 12-hydroxy-(10R,11S)-epoxy intermediate allows modification of juvenile hormone for solid-phase biochemical and radioimmunochemical work without altering either the biologically important carbomethoxy or epoxy recognition sites.

  10. Russian electrometallurgy: Achievements, problems, prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utochkin, Yu. I.; Semin, A. E.

    2011-12-01

    The changes in the Russian metallurgy, in particular, electric furnace steelmaking, having occurred in the recent years are analyzed. The main increase in the steelmaking output is due to putting into operation of new electric furnaces in new miniworks and enterprises equipped earlier with open-hearth furnaces. Reaching the rated capacity of a furnace in Russia substantially lags behind foreign enterprises. Only 30-35% of the Russian market of corrosion-resistant steel are provided by Russian metal.

  11. Russian expats seek research reforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Over 170 Russian researchers working abroad have signed a letter addressed to the Russian president, Dmitry Medvedev, and prime minister Vladimir Putin raising concerns about "the catastrophic state of basic science" in the country. The letter, which appeared last month in the Moscow business paper Vedomosti, warns Russian leaders that unless urgent measures are implemented by the government, then science in the country may collapse.

  12. Project ENRICH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwaley, Elizabeth; And Others

    Project ENRICH was conceived in Beaver County, Pennsylvania, to: (1) identify preschool children with learning disabilities, and (2) to develop a program geared to the remediation of the learning disabilities within a school year, while allowing the child to be enrolled in a regular class situation for the following school year. Through…

  13. Job Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Rick

    1970-01-01

    Job enrichment means giving people more decision-making power, more responsibility, more grasp of the totality of the job, and a sense of their own importance in the company. This article presents evidence of the successful working of this approach (Donnelly Mirrors), and the lack of success with an opposing approach (General Motors). (NL)

  14. An ultra-high-throughput spiral microfluidic biochip for the enrichment of circulating tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi; Khoo, Bee Luan; Tan, Daniel Shao-Weng; Bhagat, Ali Asgar S; Lim, Wan-Teck; Yap, Yoon Sim; Lee, Soo Chin; Soo, Ross A; Han, Jongyoon; Lim, Chwee Teck

    2014-07-07

    The detection and characterization of rare circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from the blood of cancer patients can potentially provide critical insights into tumor biology and hold great promise for cancer management. The ability to collect a large number of viable CTCs for various downstream assays such as quantitative measurements of specific biomarkers or targeted somatic mutation analysis is increasingly important in medical oncology. Here, we present a simple yet reliable microfluidic device for the ultra-high-throughput, label-free, size-based isolation of CTCs from clinically relevant blood volumes. The fast processing time of the technique (7.5 mL blood in less than 10 min) and the ability to collect more CTCs from larger blood volumes lends itself to a broad range of potential genomic and transcriptomic applications. A critical advantage of this protocol is the ability to return all fractions of blood (i.e., plasma (centrifugation), CTCs and white blood cells (WBCs) (size-based sorting)) that can be utilized for diverse biomarker studies or time-sensitive molecular assays such as RT-PCR. The clinical use of this biochip was demonstrated by detecting CTCs from 100% (10/10) of blood samples collected from patients with advanced-stage metastatic breast and lung cancers. The CTC recovery rate ranged from 20 to 135 CTCs mL(-1) and obtained under high purity (of 1 CTC out of every 30-100 WBCs which gives ∼4 log depletion of WBCs). They were identified with immunofluorescence assays (pan-cytokeratin+/CD45-) and molecular probes such as HER2/neu.

  15. Evaluation of performance of some enrichment designs dealing with high placebo response in psychiatric clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yeh-Fong; Yang, Yang; Hung, H M James; Wang, Sue-Jane

    2011-07-01

    Dealing with high placebo response remains a big challenge to conventional clinical trials for psychiatric disorders. A widely-used design strategy is to implement a placebo lead-in phase prior to randomization. The sequentially parallel design (SPD) proposed by Fava et al., which contains two consecutive double-blind treatment stages, has recently been promoted to reduce both the high placebo response and the required sample size in clinical trials for psychiatric disorders. Our work aims to study these two design strategies and evaluate the relevant statistical approaches for continuous measures under SPD in the presence of missing data. Based on the FDA archived database, we found that a longer placebo lead-in period seemed to help in identifying more placebo responders and thus increase the chance to detect a drug-placebo difference on continuous efficacy endpoint. Using a simple weighted ordinary least square test statistic Z(OLS), we analytically showed that, under the SPD with re-randomization of placebo non-responders at the second stage (SPD-ReR), Z(OLS) can be used as a viable alternative to the weighted test statistic based on seemingly unrelated regression estimate Z(SUR) proposed by Tamura and Huang to assess treatment efficacy. Results from simulation study comparing three imputation methods (last-observation-carried-forward approach, multiple imputation, and mixed-effects model for repeated measures (MMRM)) demonstrate that, when data are missing-at-random under SPD-ReR and the dropout rate is moderate, the weighted test statistic based on MMRM estimates appears to be the most robust test statistic for SPD-ReR in terms of type I error control, power performance, and estimation accuracy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Design Study for a Low-enriched Uranium Core for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual Report for FY 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Primm, Trent; Ellis, Ronald James; Gehin, Jess C; Ilas, Germina; Miller, James Henry; Sease, John D

    2007-11-01

    This report documents progress made during fiscal year 2007 in studies of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium fuel (LEU). Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum alloy. A high volume fraction U/Mo-in-Al fuel could attain the same neutron flux performance as with the current, HEU fuel but materials considerations appear to preclude production and irradiation of such a fuel. A diffusion barrier would be required if Al is to be retained as the interstitial medium and the additional volume required for this barrier would degrade performance. Attaining the high volume fraction (55 wt. %) of U/Mo assumed in the computational study while maintaining the current fuel plate acceptance level at the fuel manufacturer is unlikely, i.e. no increase in the percentage of plates rejected for non-compliance with the fuel specification. Substitution of a zirconium alloy for Al would significantly increase the weight of the fuel element, the cost of the fuel element, and introduce an as-yet untried manufacturing process. A monolithic U-10Mo foil is the choice of LEU fuel for HFIR. Preliminary calculations indicate that with a modest increase in reactor power, the flux performance of the reactor can be maintained at the current level. A linearly-graded, radial fuel thickness profile is preferred to the arched profile currently used in HEU fuel because the LEU fuel media is a metal alloy foil rather than a powder. Developments in analysis capability and nuclear data processing techniques are underway with the goal of verifying the preliminary calculations of LEU flux performance. A conceptual study of the operational cost of an LEU fuel fabrication facility yielded the conclusion that the annual fuel cost to the HFIR would increase significantly from the current, HEU fuel cycle. Though manufacturing can be accomplished with existing technology

  17. High arsenic concentrations and enriched sulfur and oxygen isotopes in a fractured-bedrock ground-water system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipfert, G.; Sidle, W.C.; Reeve, A.S.; Ayuso, R.A.; Boyce, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Ground water with high arsenic concentrations (up to 26.6????mol L- 1) has sulfate enriched in 34S and 18O in the fractured-bedrock, ground-water system of the Kelly's Cove watershed, Northport, Maine, USA. The ranges of sulfur and oxygen isotope values in aqueous sulfate, ??34S[SO4] and ??18O[SO4], at the Kelly's Cove watershed are + 3.4 to + 4.9??? and - 2.0 to + 6.7???, respectively. These isotope values are strikingly similar to those of the Goose River, Maine watershed which has ??34S[SO4] and ??18O[SO4] ranges of + 3.7 to + 4.6 ??? and - 2.6 to + 7.5???, respectively. In both systems, high arsenic concentrations occur with high ??34S[SO4] and ??18O[SO4] values, yet redox conditions and underlying rock types are quite different. The isotope values of sulfide minerals, ??34S[min], from four bedrock cores vary over short distances and range from - 5.1 to + 7.5???. The ??34S[SO4] values are controlled by the ??34S[min] values with minor input of atmospheric SO4. The much narrower range in ??34S[SO4] values than ??34S[min] values is probably due to sufficient ground-water mixing at a scale greater than the ??34S[min] variability. The ??34S[SO4] values are about 2??? higher than the average ??34S[min] value and fall within the range of ??34S[min] values, indicating only minor fractionation due to bacterial reduction of SO4. The highest ??18O[SO4] values were measured in the downgradient, confined, arsenic-rich ground water. High ??18O[SO4] values there cannot be due to aeration by atmospheric oxygen, but may arise from reoxidation of reduced SO4 products. The enrichment factors of ??18O in SO4 compared to H2O, + 7.2 to + 15.5???, in the Kelly's Cove ground water and the negligible 34S enrichment is very similar to those derived from experimental data of anaerobic sulfide oxidation in the presence of Mn and Fe oxides. Sea level at the Kelly's Cove watershed was approximately 80??m above present sea level about 13 000??years before present, imposing reducing

  18. Glacier surface melt characterization and trend analysis (1992-2011) in the Russian High Arctic from combined resolution-enhanced scatterometer and passive microwave data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, M.; Ramage, J. M.; Semmens, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Global warming has been pronounced in the remote glacierized archipelagoes (Severnaya Zemlya, Novaya Zemlya and Franz Josef Land) of the Russian High Arctic (RHA) and its effect on the low altitude, high latitude small ice caps needs examination. The timing and spatial variability of snow melt onset, duration and intensity are key factors influencing mass balance and the ice marginal hydrological system as well as important indicators of glacial response to anthropogenic and natural forcings. Characterization and trend analysis of RHA glacier melt behaviors provide insight about assessing the mass loss rate under recent Arctic climate change. However, due to the harsh environment, long term records of glaciological data for RHA are limited, necessitating the application of remotely sensed data to accomplish the research. The high sensitivity to liquid water and the ability to penetrate non-precipitating clouds enables microwave remote sensing to detect glacier surface melt. The appearance of melt water in snow dramatically decreases the returned scatterometer radar signal from active microwave sensors and sharply augments passive microwave emission. Based on this feature, we combined resolution-enhanced ERS-1/2 C-band (1992-2000), QuickSCAT Ku-band (2000-2009), ASCAT C-band (2009-2011) scatterometer data and SSMI 37 GHz (1995-2007) vertically polarized passive microwave products from Brigham Young University and analyzed glacier surface melt trends from 1992 to 2011 with a spatial resolution downscaled to 4.45km. We concatenated scatterometer derived melt behaviors by overlapping years and refined the results based on passive microwave data. Cross-validation shows that melt timing to be consistent between the active and passive sensors. Trend analysis (α < 0.005) reveals that the average glacier surface melt onset date occurs earlier by approximately 0.85 days/year in Severnaya Zemlya which outpaced the mean advancing rate in the pan-Arctic. Surrounded by ocean

  19. Oceanic lavas sampling the high 3He/4He mantle reservoir: Primitive, depleted, or re-enriched?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garapic, G.; Mallik, A.; Dasgupta, R.; Jackson, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Helium isotopes are used as a tracer for primitive reservoirs that have persisted in the Earth's mantle. Basalts erupted at several intraplate oceanic islands, including Hawaii, Iceland, Galapagos and Samoa, have hosted the highest 3He/4He ratios (> 30 Ra, where Ra is atmospheric 3He/4He ratio) globally that are far in excess of the 3He/4He typical of the upper mantle sampled at mid-ocean ridges (8 Ra). These lavas have been suggested to be melts of a primitive, or possibly slightly depleted, mantle reservoir, i.e., either fertile or a depleted peridotite. We report evidence for geochemical enrichment in the high 3He/4He mantle sampled by lavas with the highest 3He/4He from Hawaii, Samoa and possibly Galapagos. The titanium concentrations in high 3He/4He lavas from Samoa are too high to be explained by melts of a mantle peridotite, even at infinitesimally small degrees of melting, and the elevated Ti corresponds to elevated Pb-isotopic ratios. The highest 3He/4He lavas from Loihi, Hawaii have Ti concentrations that are too high to be melts of primitive mantle peridotite at the degrees of melt extraction proposed for those ocean islands. Thus, Ti-rich material must have been added to the high 3He/4He mantle reservoir, and this material is likely to be recycled mafic crust similar to MORB-like eclogite, which is consistent with the elevated Pb-isotopic ratios. We show that fractionation corrected, major element compositions of high 3He/4He alkalic lavas can be satisfactorily modeled by melting and melt-rock interaction scenario in a fertile peridotite-MORB-eclogite hybrid system. Primitive peridotitic and recycled eclogitic reservoirs are suggested to be intimately associated in the deepest mantle and far from being primitive, the high 3He/4He lavas may sample a mantle source that hosts a component of recycled oceanic crust.

  20. Investigation of Human Cancers for Retrovirus by Low-Stringency Target Enrichment and High-Throughput Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Vinner, Lasse; Mourier, Tobias; Friis-Nielsen, Jens; Gniadecki, Robert; Dybkaer, Karen; Rosenberg, Jacob; Langhoff, Jill Levin; Cruz, David Flores Santa; Fonager, Jannik; Izarzugaza, Jose M G; Gupta, Ramneek; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Brunak, Søren; Willerslev, Eske; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Hansen, Anders Johannes

    2015-08-19

    Although nearly one fifth of all human cancers have an infectious aetiology, the causes for the majority of cancers remain unexplained. Despite the enormous data output from high-throughput shotgun sequencing, viral DNA in a clinical sample typically constitutes a proportion of host DNA that is too small to be detected. Sequence variation among virus genomes complicates application of sequence-specific, and highly sensitive, PCR methods. Therefore, we aimed to develop and characterize a method that permits sensitive detection of sequences despite considerable variation. We demonstrate that our low-stringency in-solution hybridization method enables detection of <100 viral copies. Furthermore, distantly related proviral sequences may be enriched by orders of magnitude, enabling discovery of hitherto unknown viral sequences by high-throughput sequencing. The sensitivity was sufficient to detect retroviral sequences in clinical samples. We used this method to conduct an investigation for novel retrovirus in samples from three cancer types. In accordance with recent studies our investigation revealed no retroviral infections in human B-cell lymphoma cells, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma or colorectal cancer biopsies. Nonetheless, our generally applicable method makes sensitive detection possible and permits sequencing of distantly related sequences from complex material.

  1. Development of gel-filter method for high enrichment of low-molecular weight proteins from serum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lingsheng; Zhai, Linhui; Li, Yanchang; Li, Ning; Zhang, Chengpu; Ping, Lingyan; Chang, Lei; Wu, Junzhu; Li, Xiangping; Shi, Deshun; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The human serum proteome has been extensively screened for biomarkers. However, the large dynamic range of protein concentrations in serum and the presence of highly abundant and large molecular weight proteins, make identification and detection changes in the amount of low-molecular weight proteins (LMW, molecular weight ≤ 30kDa) difficult. Here, we developed a gel-filter method including four layers of different concentration of tricine SDS-PAGE-based gels to block high-molecular weight proteins and enrich LMW proteins. By utilizing this method, we identified 1,576 proteins (n = 2) from 10 μL serum. Among them, 559 (n = 2) proteins belonged to LMW proteins. Furthermore, this gel-filter method could identify 67.4% and 39.8% more LMW proteins than that in representative methods of glycine SDS-PAGE and optimized-DS, respectively. By utilizing SILAC-AQUA approach with labeled recombinant protein as internal standard, the recovery rate for GST spiked in serum during the treatment of gel-filter, optimized-DS, and ProteoMiner was 33.1 ± 0.01%, 18.7 ± 0.01% and 9.6 ± 0.03%, respectively. These results demonstrate that the gel-filter method offers a rapid, highly reproducible and efficient approach for screening biomarkers from serum through proteomic analyses.

  2. Investigation of Human Cancers for Retrovirus by Low-Stringency Target Enrichment and High-Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Vinner, Lasse; Mourier, Tobias; Friis-Nielsen, Jens; Gniadecki, Robert; Dybkaer, Karen; Rosenberg, Jacob; Langhoff, Jill Levin; Cruz, David Flores Santa; Fonager, Jannik; Izarzugaza, Jose M. G.; Gupta, Ramneek; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Brunak, Søren; Willerslev, Eske; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Hansen, Anders Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Although nearly one fifth of all human cancers have an infectious aetiology, the causes for the majority of cancers remain unexplained. Despite the enormous data output from high-throughput shotgun sequencing, viral DNA in a clinical sample typically constitutes a proportion of host DNA that is too small to be detected. Sequence variation among virus genomes complicates application of sequence-specific, and highly sensitive, PCR methods. Therefore, we aimed to develop and characterize a method that permits sensitive detection of sequences despite considerable variation. We demonstrate that our low-stringency in-solution hybridization method enables detection of <100 viral copies. Furthermore, distantly related proviral sequences may be enriched by orders of magnitude, enabling discovery of hitherto unknown viral sequences by high-throughput sequencing. The sensitivity was sufficient to detect retroviral sequences in clinical samples. We used this method to conduct an investigation for novel retrovirus in samples from three cancer types. In accordance with recent studies our investigation revealed no retroviral infections in human B-cell lymphoma cells, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma or colorectal cancer biopsies. Nonetheless, our generally applicable method makes sensitive detection possible and permits sequencing of distantly related sequences from complex material. PMID:26285800

  3. Development of Gel-Filter Method for High Enrichment of Low-Molecular Weight Proteins from Serum

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lingsheng; Zhai, Linhui; Li, Yanchang; Li, Ning; Zhang, Chengpu; Ping, Lingyan; Chang, Lei; Wu, Junzhu; Li, Xiangping; Shi, Deshun; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The human serum proteome has been extensively screened for biomarkers. However, the large dynamic range of protein concentrations in serum and the presence of highly abundant and large molecular weight proteins, make identification and detection changes in the amount of low-molecular weight proteins (LMW, molecular weight ≤ 30kDa) difficult. Here, we developed a gel-filter method including four layers of different concentration of tricine SDS-PAGE-based gels to block high-molecular weight proteins and enrich LMW proteins. By utilizing this method, we identified 1,576 proteins (n = 2) from 10 μL serum. Among them, 559 (n = 2) proteins belonged to LMW proteins. Furthermore, this gel-filter method could identify 67.4% and 39.8% more LMW proteins than that in representative methods of glycine SDS-PAGE and optimized-DS, respectively. By utilizing SILAC-AQUA approach with labeled recombinant protein as internal standard, the recovery rate for GST spiked in serum during the treatment of gel-filter, optimized-DS, and ProteoMiner was 33.1 ± 0.01%, 18.7 ± 0.01% and 9.6 ± 0.03%, respectively. These results demonstrate that the gel-filter method offers a rapid, highly reproducible and efficient approach for screening biomarkers from serum through proteomic analyses. PMID:25723528

  4. Direct renal effects of a fructose-enriched diet: interaction with high salt intake.

    PubMed

    Ares, Gustavo R; Ortiz, Pablo A

    2015-11-01

    Consumption of fructose has increased during the last 50 years. Excessive fructose consumption has a detrimental effect on mammalian health but the mechanisms remain unclear. In humans, a direct relationship exists between dietary intake of added sugars and increased risk for cardiovascular disease mortality (52). While the causes for this are unclear, we recently showed that fructose provided in the drinking water induces a salt-dependent increase in blood pressure in Sprague-Dawley rats in a matter of days (6). However, little is known about the effects of fructose in renal salt handling and whether combined intake of high fructose and salt can lead to salt-sensitive hypertension before the development of metabolic abnormalities. The long-term (more than 4 wk) adverse effects of fructose intake on renal function are not just due to fructose but are also secondary to alterations in metabolism which may have an impact on renal function. This minireview focuses on the acute effect of fructose intake and its effect on salt regulation, as they affect blood pressure. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Direct renal effects of a fructose-enriched diet: interaction with high salt intake

    PubMed Central

    Ares, Gustavo R.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of fructose has increased during the last 50 years. Excessive fructose consumption has a detrimental effect on mammalian health but the mechanisms remain unclear. In humans, a direct relationship exists between dietary intake of added sugars and increased risk for cardiovascular disease mortality (52). While the causes for this are unclear, we recently showed that fructose provided in the drinking water induces a salt-dependent increase in blood pressure in Sprague-Dawley rats in a matter of days (6). However, little is known about the effects of fructose in renal salt handling and whether combined intake of high fructose and salt can lead to salt-sensitive hypertension before the development of metabolic abnormalities. The long-term (more than 4 wk) adverse effects of fructose intake on renal function are not just due to fructose but are also secondary to alterations in metabolism which may have an impact on renal function. This minireview focuses on the acute effect of fructose intake and its effect on salt regulation, as they affect blood pressure. PMID:26447210

  6. High CO2 subsurface environment enriches for novel microbial lineages capable of autotrophic carbon fixation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Probst, A. J.; Jerett, J.; Castelle, C. J.; Thomas, B. C.; Sharon, I.; Brown, C. T.; Anantharaman, K.; Emerson, J. B.; Hernsdorf, A. W.; Amano, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Tringe, S. G.; Woyke, T.; Banfield, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Subsurface environments span the planet but remain little understood from the perspective of the capacity of the resident organisms to fix CO2. Here we investigated the autotrophic capacity of microbial communities in range of a high-CO2 subsurface environments via analysis of 250 near-complete microbial genomes (151 of them from distinct species) that represent the most abundant organisms over a subsurface depth transect. More than one third of the genomes belonged to the so-called candidate phyla radiation (CPR), which have limited metabolic capabilities. Approximately 30% of the community members are autotrophs that comprise 70% of the microbiome with metabolism likely supported by sulfur and nitrogen respiration. Of the carbon fixation pathways, the Calvin Benson Basham Cycle was most common, but the Wood-Ljungdhal pathway was present in the greatest phylogenetic diversity of organisms. Unexpectedly, one organism from a novel phylum sibling to the CPR is predicted to fix carbon by the reverse TCA cycle. The genome of the most abundant organism, an archaeon designated "Candidatus Altiarchaeum hamiconexum", was also found in subsurface samples from other continents including Europe and Asia. The archaeon was proven to be a carbon fixer using a novel reductive acetyl-CoA pathway. These results provide evidence that carbon dioxide is the major carbon source in these environments and suggest that autotrophy in the subsurface represents a substantial carbon dioxide sink affecting the global carbon cycle.

  7. Direct-scanning alpha spectrometer for americium and plutonium contamination on highly-enriched uranium surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, W.C.; Martinez, H.E.; Abeyta, C.L.; Morgan, A.N.; Nelson, T.O.

    1997-04-02

    Trace Pu{sup 239} and Am{sup 241} contamination on a surface whose alpha count is dominated by U{sup 235} and U{sup 234} decay has been successfully quantified by counting swipes in external alpha spectroscopy chambers. The swipe process, however, is labor intensive and subject to uncertainties in the swiping process as well as degraded spectral resolution due to the presence of the swipe material. A multichannel instrument for automated in situ measurements of interior and exterior contamination has been developed which incorporates a rotary table, 13 fixed ion-implanted silicon detectors, and spectroscopy electronics. Custom software was written to allow alpha spectrometer to function as a virtual instrument in the LabView environment. This system gives improved speed and resolution as well as a complete log of the location of areas of high surface contamination, a feature not practical to obtain by other methods, and one which opens the possibility of long term studies such as Pu outgrowth evaluation employing the instrument. The authors present performance data as well as system integration, calibration, control, and dynamic geometric efficiency calculations related to the design of this and next generation systems.

  8. Highly enriched CD133(+)CD44(+) stem-like cells with CD133(+)CD44(high) metastatic subset in HCT116 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke-li; Pan, Feng; Jiang, Heng; Chen, Jian-fang; Pei, Li; Xie, Fang-wei; Liang, Hou-jie

    2011-12-01

    Stem-like cancer cells (SLCCs) are distinct cellular subpopulation in colon cancer that is essential for tumor maintenance. Previous studies indicated that SLCCs accounted for only a minor subset in a given cancer model. However, we found that SLCCs frequency varied among a panel of colon cancer cell lines, with HCT116 cells composed mainly of SLCCs, as demonstrated by colonosphere forming capability and CD133 expression. Indeed, flow cytometric analysis revealed more than 60% HCT116 cells co-expressed the putative SLCCs markers CD133 and CD44. Compared with non-CD133(+)CD44(+) cells, FACS sorted CD133(+)CD44(+) cells were undifferentiated, endowed with extensive self-renewal and epithelial lineage differentiation capacity in vitro. CD133(+)CD44(+) exhibited enhanced tumorigeneicity in NOD/SCID mice. One thousand CD133(+)CD44(+) cells initiated xenograft tumors efficiently (3/6) while 1 × 10(5) non-CD133(+)CD44(+) cells could only form palpable nodule with much slower growth rate (1/6). More interestingly, long-term cultured self-renewing CD133(+)CD44(+) cells enriched CD133(+)CD44(high) subset, which expressed epithelial to mesenchymal transition marker, were more invasive in vitro and responsible solely for liver metastasis in vivo. In conclusion, these data demonstrated for the first time that CD133(+)CD44(+) SLCCs were highly enriched in HCT116 cells and that metastatic SLCCs resided exclusively in a CD133(+)CD44(high) subpopulation.

  9. A High Temperature, non-TRISO Fuel and Clad Design with Commercial-Grade Enrichment for the Prismatic Block Very High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    James W. Sterbentz

    2005-11-01

    The prismatic block Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is a leading Generation IV reactor concept. This reactor with its relatively low core power density and large graphite mass currently satisfies the fundamental goals of the Generation IV charter. However, modifications can be made to the fuel and clad design, such that (1) VHTR uranium enrichment can be lowered to near commercial-grade pressurized water reactor (PWR) enrichments, (2) fuel burnups are extended, and (3) the thermal safety margin under transient conditions is increased. This paper outlines a possible fuel and clad design concept for use in a VHTR prismatic block core which could lead to substantial improvements in overall VHTR economics and sustainability. The results of depletion calculations here will demonstrate comparable burnup between the new fuel and clad design with only 4-6 wt% enriched uranium and the current higher enriched 10-20 wt% VHTR fuel design. In addition, the new fuel and clad design concept uses high-temperature ceramic fuel and clad materials that have the potential to significantly increase the thermal margin under VHTR transient conditions. The current fuel block design for the VHTR is the hexagonal Fort Saint Vrain (FSV) fuel block with 108 coolant channels, 210 fuel rods, and six burnable poison holes drilled axially in the block. This basic FSV block is also part of the new design concept here. The basic hexagonal block dimensions remain fixed with only the fuel pellet and clad materials and radii changed. Further optimizations of the fuel block are in progress. Currently, the proposed nuclear fuel for the prismatic VHTR is the well-known TRISO-coated particle fuel. The TRISO-coated particle offers a nice spherical, high-integrity pressure vessel containment for the fission gases (SiC layer). However, due to the multiple particle coating layers, the fuel kernel represents only 9.4% of the total particle volume (350 {micro}m kernel diameter particle) and together with

  10. High-Ability Students' Perspectives on an Affective Curriculum in a Diverse, University-Based Summer Residential Enrichment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jen, Enyi; Gentry, Marcia; Moon, Sidney M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how high-ability students experienced their participation in an affective curriculum through small-group discussions in a diverse, university-based, summer enrichment program for talented youth. The investigation included two closely related studies. The first study included 77 high-ability students…

  11. U.S. Transparency monitoring under the U.S./Russian HEU purchase agreement

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, J; Dougherth, D R; Glaser, J W; Thomas, D C

    1999-07-27

    The conversion of Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) metal to low enriched uranium (LEU) takes place at four Russian sites. HEU metal to oxide processing began in 1994 with shipments of HEU oxide from the Siberian Chemical Enterprise (SChE) to the Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP) fluorination and blending facility. U.S. transparency monitoring at these facilities began in February 1996. In 1996, fluorination and blending operations began at the Electrochemical Plant (ECP). In 1997, additional HEU metal to oxide was added at the Mayak Production Association (MPA), and additional fluorination and blending operations have been performed at SChE. U.S. transparency monitoring at these facilities is intended to provide confidence that HEU weapons components are received, that the HEU metal is converted to HEU oxide, and that the HEU is blended to LEU prior to shipment to the U.S. Enrichment Corporation (USEC). The monitoring begins with observation of HEU weapon components in sealed containers, including confirmation of the {sup 235}U enrichment using U.S. nondestructive assay (NDA) equipment. The feeding of HEU metal shavings to the oxidation process and the subsequent packaging of the HEU oxide for shipment to the fluorination and blending facilities are then monitored. At those facilities, monitors are allowed to witness the fluorination and blending of the HEU into LEU. Monitors are allowed to use the NDA instrumentation to confirm that HEU is being processed. A series of process and material accountancy documents are provided to U.S. monitors.

  12. Essential amino acid enriched high-protein enteral nutrition modulates insulin-like growth factor-1 system function in a rat model of trauma-hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xianfeng; Wang, Xinying; Li, Qiurong; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition support for critically ill patients supplemented with additional modular protein may promote skeletal muscle protein anabolism in addition to counteracting acute nitrogen loss. The present study was designed to investigate whether the essential amino acid (EAA) enriched high-protein enteral nutrition (EN) modulates the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) system and activates the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) anabolic signaling pathway in a trauma-hemorrhagic shock (T-HS) rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 90, 278.18 ± 0.94 g) were randomly assigned to 5 groups: (1) normal control, (2) pair-fed, (3) T-HS, (4) T-HS and standard EN, and (5) T-HS and EAA enriched high-protein EN. Six animals from each group were harvested on days 2, 4, and 6 for serum, gastrocnemius, soleus, and extensor digitorum longus sample collection. T-HS significantly reduced muscle mass. Nutrition support maintained muscle mass, especially the EAA enriched high-protein EN. Meanwhile, a pronounced derangement in IGF-1-IGFBPs axis as well as impaired mTOR transduction was observed in the T-HS group. Compared with animals receiving standard EN, those receiving EAA enriched high-protein EN presented 18% higher serum free IGF-1 levels following 3 days of nutrition support and 22% higher after 5 days. These changes were consistent with the concomitant elevation in serum insulin and reduction in corticosterone levels. In addition, phosphorylations of downstream anabolic signaling effectors - including protein kinase B, mTOR, and ribosomal protein S6 kinase1 - increased significantly in rats receiving EAA enriched high-protein EN. Our findings firstly demonstrate the beneficial effect of EAA enriched high-protein EN on the metabolic modulation of skeletal muscle protein anabolism by regulating the IGF-1 system and downstream anabolic signaling transduction.

  13. Russian Mission Control Center

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-20

    Helen Conijn, fiancée of European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers of the Netherlands, far right, joins Renita Fincke, second from right, wife of Expedition 9 Flight Engineer and NASA International Space Station Science Officer Michael Fincke, along with family members at the Russian Mission Control Center outside Moscow, Wednesday, April 21, 2004 to view the docking of the Soyuz capsule to the International Space Station that brought Kuipers, Fincke and Expedition 9 Commander Gennady Padalka to the complex following their launch Monday from Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Thermal breeder fuel enrichment zoning

    DOEpatents

    Capossela, Harry J.; Dwyer, Joseph R.; Luce, Robert G.; McCoy, Daniel F.; Merriman, Floyd C.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the performance of a thermal breeder reactor having regions of higher than average moderator concentration are disclosed. The fuel modules of the reactor core contain at least two different types of fuel elements, a high enrichment fuel element and a low enrichment fuel element. The two types of fuel elements are arranged in the fuel module with the low enrichment fuel elements located between the high moderator regions and the high enrichment fuel elements. Preferably, shim rods made of a fertile material are provided in selective regions for controlling the reactivity of the reactor by movement of the shim rods into and out of the reactor core. The moderation of neutrons adjacent the high enrichment fuel elements is preferably minimized as by reducing the spacing of the high enrichment fuel elements and/or using a moderator having a reduced moderating effect.

  15. The Hsp90-Dependent Proteome Is Conserved and Enriched for Hub Proteins with High Levels of Protein–Protein Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Swamy, Krishna B.S.; Yu, Jau-Song; Schuyler, Scott C.; Leu, Jun-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Hsp90 is one of the most abundant and conserved proteins in the cell. Reduced levels or activity of Hsp90 causes defects in many cellular processes and also reveals genetic and nongenetic variation within a population. Despite information about Hsp90 protein–protein interactions, a global view of the Hsp90-regulated proteome in yeast is unavailable. To investigate the degree of dependency of individual yeast proteins on Hsp90, we used the “stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture” method coupled with mass spectrometry to quantify around 4,000 proteins in low-Hsp90 cells. We observed that 904 proteins changed in their abundance by more than 1.5-fold. When compared with the transcriptome of the same population of cells, two-thirds of the misregulated proteins were observed to be affected posttranscriptionally, of which the majority were downregulated. Further analyses indicated that the downregulated proteins are highly conserved and assume central roles in cellular networks with a high number of protein interacting partners, suggesting that Hsp90 buffers genetic and nongenetic variation through regulating protein network hubs. The downregulated proteins were enriched for essential proteins previously not known to be Hsp90-dependent. Finally, we observed that downregulation of transcription factors and mating pathway components by attenuating Hsp90 function led to decreased target gene expression and pheromone response, respectively, providing a direct link between observed proteome regulation and cellular phenotypes. PMID:25316598

  16. Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO from flue gas using 'oxygen-enriched' highly reactive absorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Y.; Sun, X.J.; Fang, H.; Liu, F.

    2007-04-15

    Fly ash, industry-grade lime, and an additive, MnO{sub 2} (M), were used to prepare an 'oxygen-enriched' highly reactive absorbent. Experiments of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification were carried in a flue gas circulating fluidized bed (CFB). The effects of influencing factors were also investigated on the removal efficiencies of desulfurization and denitrification. Removal efficiencies of 95.5% for SO{sub 2} and 64.8% for NO were obtained respectively under the optimal experimental conditions. The component of the spent absorbent was analyzed with chemical analysis methods. The results indicated that more nitrogen species appeared in the spent absorbent except sulfur species. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an accessory X-ray energy spectrometer (EDS) were used to observe microproperties of the samples, including fly ash, oxidizing highly reactive absorbent, and spent absorbent. The simultaneous removal mechanism of SO{sub 2} and NO based on this absorbent was proposed according to the experimental results.

  17. Effect of calcium-enriched high-fat diet on calcium, magnesium and zinc retention in mice.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gallardo, Lucía; Gómez, Marta; Parra, Pilar; Sánchez, Juana; Palou, Andreu; Serra, Francisca

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the effects of a high-fat diet enriched in Ca, which accompanies lower body fat deposition, on mineral depots, as well as to assess the potential role of adaptive thermogenesis in mice. Male mice were fed ad libitum a high-fat (43 %) diet with a Ca content of 4 g/kg from calcium carbonate (control group) or 12 g/kg (42 % from milk powder and the rest from calcium carbonate) (Ca group) for 56 d. Body weight, food intake and urine were periodically collected. Tissue samples were collected when the mice were killed and the composition was determined. Expression of uncoupling proteins was determined by Western blotting. Mineral content was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Lower body weight gain and fat accretion was found in the Ca group. This could not be attributable to lower gross energy intake or to activation of adaptive thermogenesis. Although significant urine mineral loss was found in the Ca group, preservation of mineral depots in bone was observed. Our data support the fact that adding more Ca to the diet, using a combination of calcium carbonate plus milk powder containing among other things higher Zn and Mg, contributes to counteracting obesity and improving lipid metabolism.

  18. Selenium-enriched probiotics improve antioxidant status, immune function, and selenoprotein gene expression of piglets raised under high ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Gan, Fang; Chen, Xingxiang; Liao, Shengfa F; Lv, Chenhui; Ren, Fei; Ye, Gengping; Pan, Cuiling; Huang, Da; Shi, Jun; Shi, Xiuli; Zhou, Hong; Huang, Kehe

    2014-05-21

    This research was conducted to evaluate the effects of selenium-enriched probiotics (SP) on growth performance, antioxidant status, immune function, and selenoprotein gene expression of piglets under natural high ambient temperature in summer. Forty-eight crossbred weanling piglets randomly allocated to four groups were fed for 42 days ad libitum a basal diet without (Con, 0.16 mg Se/kg) and with supplementation of probiotics (P, 0.16 mg Se/kg), sodium selenite (SS, 0.46 mg Se/kg), and SP (0.46 mg Se/kg). From each group, three piglets were randomly selected for blood collection on days 0, 14, 28, and 42 and tissue collection on day 42. The SP improved growth performance of piglets. Both SS and SP increased blood glutathione peroxidase activity and tissue thioredoxin reductase 1 mRNA expression, with SP being higher than SS. All P, SS, and SP supplementation increased the superoxide dismutase activity (40.1, 53.0, and 64.5%), glutathione content (84.6, 104, and 165%), TCR-induced T lymphocyte proliferation (20.8, 26.4, and 50.0%), and IL-2 concentration (24.9, 27.2, and 46.2%) and decreased malondialdehyde content (25.1, 26.3, and 49.3%), respectively. The greatest effects of SP supplementation suggest that SP may serve as a better feed additive than P or SS for piglets under high-temperature environments.

  19. Highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides by on-chip indium oxide functionalized magnetic nanoparticles coupled with MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dandan; Song, Naizhong; Li, Xiqian; Ma, Jiutong; Jia, Qiong

    2017-09-01

    Selective and efficient preconcentration is indispensable for low concentration of phosphopeptides in phosphorylated protein-related samples prior to MS-based analysis. Herein, an on-chip system coupled magnetic SPE with MALDI-TOF MS was designed. A metal oxide affinity chromatography material, indium oxide, was coated on the surface of Fe3 O4 magnetic nanoparticles to prepare the adsorbent, spatially confined with an applied magnetic field. The adsorbent exhibited high selectivity for phosphopeptides in tryptic digests of the mixture of β-casein and BSA (1:1000) and the mixture of β-casein, BSA, and ovalbumin (1:100:100). Thanking to the enrichment ability and specificity for phosphopeptides with the adsorbent, the on-chip magnetic SPE-MALDI-TOF MS approach showed high sensitivity with a low detection limit of 4 fmol. In addition, the developed approach was used to analyze phosphopetides in non-fat milk digests and human serum successfully. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Preventive effect of Monascus-fermented products enriched with ubiquinones on type 2 diabetic rats induced by a high-fructose plus high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Pyo, Young-Hee; Lee, Kyung-Won

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the aqueous extract of Monascus-fermented grains (MFGEs) enriched with ubiquinones (Coenzyme Qs, CoQ9+CoQ10) alleviates high-fructose (60%) plus high-fat (20%) diet (HFD)-induced hyperglycemia and hepatic oxidative stress in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were fed HFD for 16 weeks and orally administered with MFGEs (300 mg/kg/day) or atorvastatin (20 mg/kg/day) for the last 4 weeks of the study. HFD-fed rats exhibited hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and impaired insulin sensitivity. MFGE treatment prevented the increase in glucose levels and index of insulin resistance in the HFD-induced diabetic rats. A significant decrease in hepatic lipid peroxidation and significant increases in hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were observed in the MFGE supplemented group. The results suggest that dietary supplementation with MFGEs enriched with CoQs exerts an antidiabetic effect in type 2 diabetic rats by improving insulin resistance and hepatic antioxidant enzymes.