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Sample records for russian pesticide producers

  1. Predictors of Serum Chlorinated Pesticide Concentrations among Prepubertal Russian Boys

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Paige L.; Burns, Jane S.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Korrick, Susan A.; Lee, Mary M.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Revich, Boris; Altshul, Larisa M.; Patterson, Donald G.; Turner, Wayman E.; Hauser, Russ

    2013-01-01

    Background: Few studies have evaluated predictors of childhood exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), a class of lipophilic persistent chemicals. Objectives: Our goal was to identify predictors of serum OCP concentrations—hexachlorobenzene (HCB), β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), and p,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE)—among boys in Chapaevsk, Russia. Methods: Between 2003 and 2005, 499 boys 8–9 years of age were recruited in a prospective cohort. The initial study visit included a physical examination; blood collection; health, lifestyle, and food-frequency questionnaires; and determination of residential distance from a local factory complex that produced HCB and β-HCH. Fasting serum samples were analyzed for OCPs at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. General linear regression models were used to identify predictors of the boys’ serum HCB, β-HCH, and p,p´-DDE concentrations. Results: Among 355 boys with OCP measurements, median serum HCB, β-HCH, and p,p´-DDE concentrations were 158, 167, and 284 ng/g lipid, respectively. Lower body mass index, longer breastfeeding duration, and local dairy consumption were associated with higher concentrations of OCPs. Boys who lived < 2 km from the factory complex had 64% (95% CI: 37, 96) and 57% (95% CI: 32, 87) higher mean HCB and β-HCH concentrations, respectively, than boys who lived ≥ 5 km away. Living > 3 years in Chapaevsk predicted higher β-HCH concentrations, and having parents who lacked a high school education predicted higher p,p´-DDE concentrations. Conclusions: Among this cohort of prepubertal Russian boys, predictors of serum OCPs included consumption of local dairy products, longer local residence, and residential proximity to the local factory complex. Citation: Lam T, Williams PL, Burns JS, Sergeyev O, Korrick SA, Lee MM, Birnbaum LS, Revich B, Altshul LM, Patterson DG Jr, Turner WE, Hauser R. 2013. Predictors of serum chlorinated pesticide concentrations

  2. Presence of pesticide residues on produce cultivated in Suriname.

    PubMed

    Abdoel Wahid, F; Wickliffe, J; Wilson, M; Van Sauers, A; Bond, N; Hawkins, W; Mans, D; Lichtveld, M

    2017-06-01

    Agricultural pesticides are widely used in Suriname, an upper middle-income Caribbean country located in South America. Suriname imported 1.8 million kg of agricultural pesticides in 2015. So far, however, national monitoring of pesticides in crops is absent. Reports from the Netherlands on imported Surinamese produce from 2010 to 2015 consistently showed that samples exceeded plant-specific pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) of the European Union (EU). Consumption of produce containing unsafe levels of pesticide residues can cause neurological disorders, and particularly, pregnant women and children may be vulnerable. This pilot study assessed the presence of pesticide residues in commonly consumed produce items cultivated in Suriname. Thirty-two insecticides (organophosphates, organochlorines, carbamates, and pyrethroids) and 12 fungicides were evaluated for their levels in nine types of produce. Pesticide residue levels exceeding MRLs in this study regarded cypermethrin (0.32 μg/g) in tomatoes (USA MRL 0.20 μg/g), lambda-cyhalothrin (1.08 μg/g) in Chinese cabbage (USA MRL 0.40 μg/g), endosulfan (0.07 μg/g) in tannia (EU MRL 0.05 μg/g), and lindane (0.02 and 0.03 μg/g, respectively) in tannia (EU MRL 0.01 μg/g). While only a few pesticide residues were detected in this small pilot study, these residues included two widely banned pesticides (endosulfan and lindane). There is a need to address environmental policy gaps. A more comprehensive sampling and analysis of produce from Suriname is warranted to better understand the scope of the problem. Preliminary assessments, using intake rate, hazard quotient, and level of concern showed that it is unlikely that daily consumption of tannia leads to adverse health effects.

  3. Dolichospermum and Aphanizomenon as neurotoxins producers in some Russian freshwaters.

    PubMed

    Chernova, Ekaterina; Sidelev, Sergey; Russkikh, Iana; Voyakina, Ekaterina; Babanazarova, Olga; Romanov, Roman; Kotovshchikov, Anton; Mazur-Marzec, Hanna

    2017-05-01

    Last decades, cyanobacterial blooms have been commonly reported in Russia. Among the boom-forming species, potential toxin producers have been identified. The aim of this paper was to study the presence of neurotoxic compounds - saxitoxins and anatoxin-a - in water bodies from different regions of Russia. We also made attempts to identify the neurotoxin-producing genera. The good convergence of the results obtained by light microscopy, PCR and LC-MS/MS analyses indicated the presence of active neurotoxin producing species in all investigated water bodies. Saxitoxin was detected in phytoplankton from 4 water bodies in Central European Russia and West Siberia, including lake and reservoirs used as a source for potable water. The water bodies differed with the respect of saxitoxin producers which belonged to Aphanizomenon and/or Dolichospermum genera. For the first time, we obtained quantitative data on the intracellular saxitoxin concentration in Russian freshwaters using LC-MS/MS. Anatoxin-a was detected only in lakes of Northwestern Russia. In the eutrophic shallow Lower Suzdal Lake, Aphanizomenon was the stated anatoxin-a-producing genus. In the large shallow artificial hypertrophic Sestroretskij Razliv Lake, it was very likely that both dominant species - Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Dolichospermum planctonicum - were anatoxin-a producers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reduction of pesticide residues in tomatoes and other produce.

    PubMed

    Al-Taher, Fadwa; Chen, Yang; Wylie, Philip; Cappozzo, Jack

    2013-03-01

    There is interest in reducing pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables in order to minimize human exposure. The objectives of this study were to (i) determine the effect of various washing treatments with and without sonication on pesticide removal from tomatoes and (ii) assess the effectiveness of a water wash on select samples using a produce-washing flume. In the first set of experiments, tomatoes were contaminated with acephate, malathion, carbaryl, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, permethrin, cyhalothrin, chlorothalonil, and imidacloprid and were dried overnight. Subsets of the tomatoes were then washed (10°C, 1 min) with one of the following: water, sodium hypochlorite (80 μg/ml, pH 7), peroxyacetic acid (80 μg/ml), or Tween 20 (0.1%) with and without sonication. In general, the effect of sonication depended on the washing treatment and on the pesticide. A separate experiment measured pesticide residues in contaminated samples before and after being washed in a flume (22°C, 1 min). Pesticide residues in contaminated produce were reduced from about 40 to 90% when washed for 1 min in the flume.

  5. [Levels of polychlorinated bifenilis and organochlorine in pesticides in chicken eggs from different Russian regions].

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Chicken eggs are recognized as a useful matrix for international comparison of accumulation levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in foodstuffs. The paper contains results of detection of 17 congeners of PCB, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexane, DDT and its metabolites in chicken eggs, collected near the former PCB-containing producing plant (Novomoskovsk), the plant earlier produced organochlorine pesticides and hexachlorobenzene (Chapaevsk) and from several areas of the Saratov region. Comparison of obtained results with data from IPEN international study has shown that PCBs levels in chicken eggs from the town of Novomoskovsk and from Chapaevsk local farms is significantly higher than for the most polluted territories in different countries of the world. Chicken eggs' pollution by DDT and HCCH is less expressed than by PCBs. Analysis of these matters' content in chicken egg samples, collected in five poultry farms in different regions of Russia has not revealed a remarkable level of chlorinated pesticide pollution.

  6. Prepubertal Serum Concentrations of Organochlorine Pesticides and Age at Sexual Maturity in Russian Boys.

    PubMed

    Lam, Thuy; Williams, Paige L; Lee, Mary M; Korrick, Susan A; Birnbaum, Linda S; Burns, Jane S; Sergeyev, Oleg; Revich, Boris; Altshul, Larisa M; Patterson, Donald G; Hauser, Russ

    2015-11-01

    concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and age at sexual maturity in Russian boys. Environ Health Perspect 123:1216-1221; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409022.

  7. Prepubertal Serum Concentrations of Organochlorine Pesticides and Age at Sexual Maturity in Russian Boys

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Thuy; Williams, Paige L.; Lee, Mary M.; Korrick, Susan A.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Burns, Jane S.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Revich, Boris; Altshul, Larisa M.; Patterson, Donald G.

    2015-01-01

    , Revich B, Altshul LM, Patterson DG Jr, Hauser R. 2015. Prepubertal serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and age at sexual maturity in Russian boys. Environ Health Perspect 123:1216–1221; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409022 PMID:26009253

  8. Geographical distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Norwegian and Russian Arctic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lie, E.; Bernhoft, A.; Riget, F.; Belikov, Stanislav; Boltunov, Andrei N.; Derocher, A.E.; Garner, G.W.; Wiig, O.; Skaare, J.U.

    2003-01-01

    Geographical variation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was studied in blood samples from 90 adult female polar bear (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Kara Sea, East-Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea. In all regions, oxychlordane was the dominant OCP. Regional differences in mean levels of HCB, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, ??-HCH, ??-HCH and p,p???-DDE were found. The highest levels of oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and DDE were found in polar bears from Franz Josef Land and Kara Sea. HCB level was lowest in polar bears from Svalbard. Polar bears from Chukchi Sea had the highest level of ??- and ??-HCH. The lowest ??-HCH concentration was found in bears from Kara Sea. In all the bears, ???HCHs was dominated by ??-HCH. The geographical variation in OCP levels and pattern may suggest regional differences in pollution sources and different feeding habits in the different regions. Polar bears from the Western Russian Arctic were exposed to higher levels of chlordanes and p,p???-DDE than polar bears from locations westwards and eastwards from this region. This may imply the presence of a significant pollution source in the Russian Arctic area. The study suggests that the western Russian Arctic is the most contaminated region of the Arctic and warrants further research. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Geographical distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Norwegian and Russian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Lie, E; Bernhoft, A; Riget, F; Belikov, S E; Boltunov, A N; Derocher, A E; Garner, G W; Wiig, Ø; Skaare, J U

    2003-05-01

    Geographical variation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was studied in blood samples from 90 adult female polar bear (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Kara Sea, East-Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea. In all regions, oxychlordane was the dominant OCP. Regional differences in mean levels of HCB, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH and p,p'-DDE were found. The highest levels of oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and DDE were found in polar bears from Franz Josef Land and Kara Sea. HCB level was lowest in polar bears from Svalbard. Polar bears from Chukchi Sea had the highest level of alpha- and beta-HCH. The lowest alpha-HCH concentration was found in bears from Kara Sea. In all the bears, summation operator HCHs was dominated by beta-HCH. The geographical variation in OCP levels and pattern may suggest regional differences in pollution sources and different feeding habits in the different regions. Polar bears from the Western Russian Arctic were exposed to higher levels of chlordanes and p,p'-DDE than polar bears from locations westwards and eastwards from this region. This may imply the presence of a significant pollution source in the Russian Arctic area. The study suggests that the western Russian Arctic is the most contaminated region of the Arctic and warrants further research.

  10. Persistence of human norovirus in reconstituted pesticides--pesticide application as a possible source of viruses in fresh produce chains.

    PubMed

    Verhaelen, Katharina; Bouwknegt, Martijn; Rutjes, Saskia A; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of fresh produce is frequently associated with outbreaks of human norovirus (hNoV) disease. To prevent the contamination of fresh produce with hNoV, knowledge of the possible introduction sources of the viruses, such as water, is needed to be able to implement appropriate and efficient preventive measures. Contaminated water used to reconstitute pesticides could be a relevant source of infectious hNoV, determined by the initial level of virus contamination and the persistence of these viruses in reconstituted pesticides. We studied the persistence of hNoV GI.4, hNoV GII.4 and murine norovirus (MNV-1), the only culturable norovirus, in eight different pesticides after 0 and 2h. Virus concentrations were determined by reverse transcriptase PCR, and infectivity of MNV-1 was determined by endpoint dilutions followed by maximum likelihood estimations. MNV-1 was found to remain infectious in seven of the eight tested pesticides at the highest concentration applied in practice. In the presence of the insecticide Vertimec, MNV-1 infectivity decreased rapidly with a 1.9 log(10)-unit reduction at timepoint T(0). Also, the concentration of NoV GI.4 RNA decreased considerably with a 1.7 log(10)-unit reduction; whereas the detected PCR fragment of hNoV GII.4 remained stable. Assuming a similar persistence of infectious MNV-1 and hNoV we can conclude that water containing hNoV used to dilute pesticides may be an important source of infectious hNoV in fresh produce chains. The application of pesticides may therefore not only be a chemical hazard, but also a microbiological hazard for public health. The inclusion of antiviral substances in reconstituted pesticides may be appropriate to reduce the virological health risk posed by the application of pesticides.

  11. Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherma, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    This review is devoted to methods for the determination of residues of pesticides and some related industrial chemicals. Topics include: residue methods, sampling, chromatography, organochlorine pesticides, organophosphorus pesticides, carbamate insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, pyrethrins, fumigants, and related chemicals. (MVL)

  12. Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherma, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    This review is devoted to methods for the determination of residues of pesticides and some related industrial chemicals. Topics include: residue methods, sampling, chromatography, organochlorine pesticides, organophosphorus pesticides, carbamate insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, pyrethrins, fumigants, and related chemicals. (MVL)

  13. Organochlorine pesticide and trace metal monitoring of Russian rivers flowing to the Arctic Ocean: 1990-1996.

    PubMed

    Alexeeva, L B; Strachan, W M; Shlychkova, V V; Nazarova, A A; Nikanorov, A M; Korotova, L G; Koreneva, V I

    2001-01-01

    Information is presented on the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (HCHs and DDT residues) and trace metals (Fe, Cu, Zn and Ni) in waters of 15 large Russian rivers flowing to the Arctic Ocean during 1990-1996. Estimates of the corresponding annual fluxes are made. Other contaminants (Hg, Pb, Cr, Mn, beta-HCH and dihydroheptachlor) were examined briefly. Concentration data are presented as averaged annual means for each of the seven years with the ranges, standard deviations and numbers of samples. Also given are data on locations, the methods of analysis and limited quality assurance data. Data on discharges to the Northern Seas for the more frequently monitored contaminants are given for rivers accounting for >70% of the total northerly flows. Scaled-up fluxes to account for unmonitored rivers as well are given for each sea; totals over the period were: Fe, 1452; Cu, 15; Zn, 59 (x 10(3) t yr(-1)); alpha-HCH, 25; gamma-HCH, 44 (t yr(-1)). Ni was monitored at too few rivers to estimate its total Russian flux. The fluxes for the HCHs considerably exceed previous estimates and indicate that the Arctic Ocean is not in balance as much as was previously believed.

  14. Evaluation of potency of known oximes (pralidoxime, trimedoxime, HI-6, methoxime, obidoxime) to in vitro reactivate acetylcholinesterase inhibited by pesticides (chlorpyrifos and methylchlorpyrifos) and nerve agent (Russian VX).

    PubMed

    Musílek, Kamil; Kuca, Kamil; Jun, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Nerve agents and pesticides belong to the group of organophosphates. They are able to inhibit irreversibly the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Acetylcholinesterase reactivators were designed for the treatment of nerve agent intoxications. Their potency to reactivate pesticide-inhibited AChE was many times evaluated. In this study, five commonly used AChE reactivators (pralidoxime, methoxime, HI-6, obidoxime, trimedoxime) for the reactivation of AChE inhibited by two pesticides (chlorpyrifos and methylchlorpyrifos) were used. Russian VX (nerve agent) as a member of nerve agents' family was taken for comparison. Obtained results show that oximes developed against nerve agent intoxication are less effective for intoxication with organophosphorus pesticides. Especially, methylchlorpyrifos-inhibited AChE was found to be poorly reactivated by the compounds used.

  15. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cause harm to crops, people, or animals. Pesticides can help get rid of them. Pesticides are not just insect killers. They also include ... mildew, germs, and more. Many household products contain pesticides. Pesticides can protect your health by killing germs, ...

  16. A comparative study of allowable pesticide residue levels on produce in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The U.S. imports a substantial and increasing portion of its fruits and vegetables. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration currently inspects less than one percent of import shipments. While countries exporting to the U.S. are expected to comply with U.S. tolerances, including allowable pesticide residue levels, there is a low rate of import inspections and few other incentives for compliance. Methods This analysis estimates the quantity of excess pesticide residue that could enter the U.S. if exporters followed originating country requirements but not U.S. pesticide tolerances, for the top 20 imported produce items based on quantities imported and U.S. consumption levels. Pesticide health effects data are also shown. Results The model estimates that for the identified items, 120 439 kg of pesticides in excess of U.S. tolerances could potentially be imported to the U.S., in cases where U.S. regulations are more protective than those of originating countries. This figure is in addition to residues allowed on domestic produce. In the modeling, the top produce item, market, and pesticide of concern were oranges, Chile, and Zeta-Cypermethrin. Pesticides in this review are associated with health effects on 13 body systems, and some are associated with carcinogenic effects. Conclusions There is a critical information gap regarding pesticide residues on produce imported to the U.S. Without a more thorough sampling program, it is not possible accurately to characterize risks introduced by produce importation. The scenario presented herein relies on assumptions, and should be considered illustrative. The analysis highlights the need for additional investigation and resources for monitoring, enforcement, and other interventions, to improve import food safety and reduce pesticide exposures in originating countries. PMID:22293037

  17. Pesticide Residue Monitoring on South African Fresh Produce Exported over a 6-Year Period.

    PubMed

    Mutengwe, M T; Chidamba, L; Korsten, L

    2016-10-01

    Six years of pesticide residue data from fresh produce destined for the export market were analyzed for the period 2009 to 2014. A total of 37,838 fruit (99.27%) and vegetable (0.73%) data sets analyzed for the presence of 73 pesticides were compared. Pesticides were detected on 56.46% of samples, of which 0.78% had multiple residues. Noncompliances detected were because of the use of unregistered pesticides (0.73%), values that exceeded established maximum residue levels (MRLs) (0.32%), or the combination of values that exceeded MRLs and the use of unregistered pesticide residues (0.003%). The most commonly detected pesticides that exceeded established MRLs were imazalil (37.71%), prochloraz (28.69%), and iprodione (5.74%). The unregistered pesticide most often found on grapes and avocados was also imazalil (62.23%) and, on nectarines and avocados, diphenylamine (11.15%). Exceedances of MRL values were mostly associated with oranges (43.44%), avocados (27.87%), grapefruits (7.38%), and lemons (6.56%). Residual pesticide monitoring on fruits and vegetables is a key tool to ensure conformity with regulatory requirements and compliance with good agricultural practices and the trade requirements set by the importing country.

  18. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... This agency determines how pesticides are applied during farming and how much pesticide residue can remain in ... al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap ...

  19. Preformed biomarkers including dialkylphosphates (DAPs) in produce may confound biomonitoring in pesticide exposure and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Zhao, Taifeng; Pan, Canping; Ross, John H; Krieger, Robert I

    2012-09-12

    Low levels of pesticides and their metabolites/degradates occur in produce when pesticides are used in conventional or organic crop protection. Human dietary and nonoccupational urine biomonitoring studies may be confounded by preformed pesticide biomarkers in the diet. The extent of formation of putative urine biomarkers, including malathion specific (MMA, MDA; malathion mono- and diacids), organophosphorus generic (DMP, DMTP, DMDTP; dimethyl-, dimethylthio-, and dimethydithiophosphate), pyrethroid generic (3-PBA; 3-phenoxybenzoic acid), and captan-specific metabolites (THPI; tetrahydrophthalimide), was measured in produce samples containing the parent pesticide. Every produce sample of 19 types of fruits and vegetables contained biomarkers of potential human exposure. A total of 134 of 157 (85%) samples contained more molar equivalent biomarkers than parent pesticide. Malathion and fenpropathrin were sprayed (1 lb/A), and the time-dependent formation of pesticide biomarkers in strawberries was investigated under field conditions typical of commercial production in California. Malathion and fenpropathrin residues were always below established residue tolerances. Malathion, MMA, and MDA dissipated, while DMP, DMTP, and DMDTP increased, during a 20 day study period following the preharvest interval. The mole ratios of biomarkers/(malathion + malaoxon) were always greater than 1 and increased from day 4 to day 23 postapplication. Fenpropathrin and 3-PBA also dissipated in strawberries during each monitoring period. The mole ratios of 3-PBA/fenpropathrin were always less than 1 and decreased from day 4 to day 14. The absorption of pesticide biomarkers in produce and excretion in urine would falsely indicate consumer pesticide exposure if used to reconstruct dose for risk characterization.

  20. Evaluation of the Penetration of Multiple Classes of Pesticides in Fresh Produce Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Mapping.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tianxi; Zhao, Bin; Hou, Ruyan; Zhang, Zhiyun; Kinchla, Amanda J; Clark, John M; He, Lili

    2016-10-06

    Understanding pesticide penetration is important for effectively applying pesticides and in reducing pesticide exposures from food. This study aims to evaluate multiclass systemic and nonsystemic pesticide penetration in 3 representative fresh produce (apples, grapes, and spinach leaves). Surface-enhanced Raman scattering mapping was applied for in situ and real-time tracking of pesticide penetration over time. The results show that 100 mg/L of systemic pesticides, thiabendazole and acetamiprid, penetrated more rapidly and deeply with maximum depth around 220 μm after 48-h exposure into the tested fresh produce than 100 mg/L of nonsystemic pesticides, ferbam and phosmet, with maximum depth about 80 μm. The fact that 2 nonsystemic pesticides were also able to penetrate over time into all 3 fresh produce tested may raise additional food safety concerns. Comparatively, grapes were generally more resistant for pesticide penetration with all pesticides penetration depth below 80 μm compared to apples and spinach leaves. The information obtained here could provide technical support and guidance for accurate, effective, and safe application of pesticides and for the reduction of pesticide exposure from fresh produce.

  1. In-package nonthermal plasma degradation of pesticides on fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Misra, N N; Pankaj, S K; Walsh, Tony; O'Regan, Finbarr; Bourke, Paula; Cullen, P J

    2014-04-30

    In-package nonthermal plasma (NTP) technology is a novel technology for the decontamination of foods and biological materials. This study presents the first report on the potential of the technology for the degradation of pesticide residues on fresh produce. A cocktail of pesticides, namely azoxystrobin, cyprodinil, fludioxonil and pyriproxyfen was tested on strawberries. The concentrations of these pesticides were monitored in priori and post-plasma treatment using GC-MS/MS. An applied voltage and time dependent degradation of the pesticides was observed for treatment voltages of 60, 70 and 80 kV and treatment durations ranging from 1 to 5 min, followed by 24h in-pack storage. The electrical characterisation revealed the operation of the discharge in a stable filamentary regime. The discharge was found to generate reactive oxygen and excited nitrogen species as observed by optical emission spectroscopy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Prepubertal Organochlorine Pesticide Concentrations and Age of Pubertal Onset Among Russian Boys

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Thuy; Williams, Paige L.; Lee, Mary M.; Korrick, Susan A.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Burns, Jane S.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Revich, Boris; Altshul, Larisa M.; Patterson, Donald G.; Turner, Wayman E.; Hauser, Russ

    2014-01-01

    Background In animal studies, organochlorine pesticide (OCP) exposure alters pubertal development, however, epidemiological data are limited and inconsistent. Objective To evaluate the associations of serum OCP concentrations [hexachlorobenzene (HCB), β-hexachlorocylohexane (β-HCH), and p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE)] with male pubertal onset. Methods In Chapaevsk, Russia, a town environmentally contaminated with OCPs, 350 8–9 year old boys with measured OCPs were enrolled during 2003–2005 and were followed annually for eight years. We evaluated three measures of pubertal onset: testicular volume (TV) > 3 mL in either testis, or stage 2 or greater for genitalia (G2+), or pubic hair (P2+). We used multivariable interval-censored models to evaluate associations of OCPs (quartiles) with physician-assessed pubertal onset. Results In adjusted models, boys with higher HCB concentrations had later mean ages of TV > 3 mL and P2+ (but not G2+). Mean age at attaining TV > 3 mL was delayed 3.6 (95% CI: −2.6, 9.7), 7.9 (95% CI: 1.7, 14.0), and 4.7 months (95% CI: −1.4, 10.9) for HCB Q2, Q3, and Q4, respectively, compared to Q1 (trend p: 0.06). Boys with higher HCB concentrations reached P2+ 0.1 months earlier (95% CI: −5.8, 5.6) for Q2, 4.7 months later (95% CI: −1.0, 10.3) for Q3 and 4.6 months later (95% CI: −1.1, 10.3) for Q4 compared to Q1 (trend p: 0.04). There were no associations of serum β-HCH and p,p′-DDE concentrations with age of pubertal onset. Conclusion Higher prepubertal serum HCB concentrations were associated with later age of gonadarche and pubarche. PMID:25118086

  3. Association between chlorinated pesticides in the serum of prepubertal Russian boys and longitudinal biomarkers of metabolic function.

    PubMed

    Burns, Jane S; Williams, Paige L; Korrick, Susan A; Hauser, Russ; Sergeyev, Oleg; Revich, Boris; Lam, Thuy; Lee, Mary M

    2014-11-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been linked to adult metabolic disorders; however, few studies have examined these associations in childhood. We prospectively evaluated the associations of baseline serum OCPs (hexachlorobenzene, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) in Russian boys with subsequent repeated measurements of serum glucose, insulin, lipids, leptin, and calculated homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (IR). During 2003-2005, we enrolled 499 boys aged 8-9 years in a prospective cohort; 318 had baseline serum OCPs and serum biomarkers measured at ages 10-13 years. Multivariable generalized estimating equation and mediation regression models were used to examine associations and direct and indirect (via body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m)(2))) effects of prepubertal OCP tertiles and quintiles with biomarkers. In multivariable models, higher p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (quintile 5 vs. quintile 1) was associated with lower leptin, with relative mean decreases of 61.8% (95% confidence interval: 48.4%, 71.7%) in models unadjusted for BMI and 22.2% (95% confidence interval: 7.1%, 34.9%) in models adjusted for BMI; the direct effect of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene on leptin accounted for 27% of the total effect. IR prevalence was 6.6% at ages 12-13 years. Higher hexachlorobenzene (tertile 3 vs. tertile 1) was associated with higher odds of IR in models adjusted for BMI (odds ratio = 4.37, 95% confidence interval: 1.44, 13.28). These results suggest that childhood OCPs may be associated with IR and lower leptin.

  4. PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO THE PESTICIDE HEPTACHLOR PRODUCES ALTERATIONS IN IMMUNE FUNCTION PARAMETERS IN SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO THE PESTICIDE HEPTACHLOR PRODUCES ALTERATIONS IN IMMUNE FUNCTION PARAMETERS IN SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS. R A Matulka1, AA Rooney3, W Williams2, CB Copeland2, and R J Smialowicz2. 1Curriculum in Toxicology, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 2US EPA, ITB, ETD, NHEERL, RT...

  5. Pesticides in Produce. What Can We Do to Protect Our Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elderkin, Susan L.

    1994-01-01

    After discussing three recent reports that examined the effects on child health of using pesticides in produce, the article suggests effective measures for parents, schools, and communities to follow to provide families with safe food and a safe living environment. (SM)

  6. PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO THE PESTICIDE HEPTACHLOR PRODUCES ALTERATIONS IN IMMUNE FUNCTION PARAMETERS IN SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO THE PESTICIDE HEPTACHLOR PRODUCES ALTERATIONS IN IMMUNE FUNCTION PARAMETERS IN SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS. R A Matulka1, AA Rooney3, W Williams2, CB Copeland2, and R J Smialowicz2. 1Curriculum in Toxicology, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 2US EPA, ITB, ETD, NHEERL, RT...

  7. Pesticides in Produce. What Can We Do to Protect Our Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elderkin, Susan L.

    1994-01-01

    After discussing three recent reports that examined the effects on child health of using pesticides in produce, the article suggests effective measures for parents, schools, and communities to follow to provide families with safe food and a safe living environment. (SM)

  8. Population Genetics of the Rubber-Producing Russian Dandelion (Taraxacum kok-saghyz)

    PubMed Central

    McAssey, Edward V.; Gudger, Ethan G.; Zuellig, Matthew P.; Burke, John M.

    2016-01-01

    The Russian dandelion, Taraxacum kok-saghyz (TKS), is a perennial species native to Central Asia that produces high quality, natural rubber. Despite its potential to help maintain a stable worldwide rubber supply, little is known about genetic variation in this species. To facilitate future germplasm improvement efforts, we developed simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers from available expressed-sequence tag (EST) data and used them to investigate patterns of population genetic diversity in this nascent crop species. We identified numerous SSRs (1,510 total) in 1,248 unigenes from a larger set of 6,960 unigenes (derived from 16,441 ESTs) and designed PCR primers targeting 767 of these loci. Screening of a subset of 192 of these primer pairs resulted in the identification of 48 pairs that appeared to produce single-locus polymorphisms. We then used the most reliable 17 of these primer pairs to genotype 176 individuals from 17 natural TKS populations. We observed an average of 4.8 alleles per locus with population-level expected heterozygosities ranging from 0.28 to 0.50. An average pairwise FST of 0.11 indicated moderate but statistically significant levels of genetic differentiation, though there was no clear geographic patterning to this differentiation. We also tested these 17 primer pairs in the widespread common dandelion, T. officinale, and a majority successfully produced apparently single-locus amplicons. This result demonstrates the potential utility of these markers for genetic analyses in other species in the genus. PMID:26727474

  9. Pesticides.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Laura Y

    2017-10-01

    There is growing evidence about the influence of chemical exposures on specific molecular systems and mechanisms involved in cognitive and mental function. Evidence is also emerging about the negative impact of these chemical exposures on mental health, including depression, suicide, and other risks. Despite the growing appreciation of these factors, however, little attention has been paid to the ethical and social implications of their interactions. Drawing on recent work that argues for an environmental neuroethics approach that explicitly brings together ethics, environment, and conditions of the central nervous system, this article focuses on these critical issues for pesticides specifically.

  10. [Russian oxygen generation system "Elektron-VM": hydrogen content in electrolytically produced oxygen for breathing by International Space Station crews].

    PubMed

    Proshkin, V Yu; Kurmazenko, E A

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the particulars of hydrogen content in electrolysis oxygen produced aboard the ISS Russian segment by oxygen generator "Elektron-VM" (SGK) for crew breathing. Hydrogen content was estimated as in the course of SGK operation in the ISS RS, so during the ground life tests. According to the investigation of hydrogen sources, the primary path of H2 appearance in oxygen is its diffusion through the porous diaphragm separating the electrolytic-cell cathode and anode chambers. Effectiveness of hydrogen oxidation in the SGK reheating unit was evaluated.

  11. Treatment and resource recovery from inorganic fluoride-containing waste produced by the pesticide industry.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Zhiqi; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2015-05-01

    The rapid development of the fluorinated pesticide industry has produced a large amount of fluorine-containing hazardous waste, especially inorganic fluoride-containing waste (IFCW). A two-step process, including extraction and recovery, was developed to recover fluorine as synthetic cryolite from IFCW produced by the pesticide industry. The optimum conditions for extraction were found to be a temperature of 75°C, an initial pH (pHi) of 12, a 4-hr incubation time and a liquid-to-solid ratio of 40mL/g; these conditions resulted in a fluorine extraction ratio of 99.0%. The effects of pH and the F/Al molar ratio on fluorine recovery and the compositional, mineralogical and morphological characteristics of the cryolite products were investigated. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy of recovered precipitates showed changes in morphology with the F/Al molar ratio. Coupling Fourier transform and infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction indicated that the formation of AlF6(3-) was restricted as increasing pH. Both the amount of fluorine recovered and the quality of the cryolite were optimized at initial pH=3 and a F/Al molar ratio 5.75. This study proposed a reliable and environmentally friendly method for the treatment of fluoride-containing wastes, which could be suitable for industrial applications. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Monitoring Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables at Two of the Biggest Fresh Produce Markets in Africa.

    PubMed

    Mutengwe, Mbulaheni T; Chidamba, Lizyben; Korsten, Lise

    2016-11-01

    In most countries, fresh produce sold at local markets is usually not analyzed for agricultural chemical residues as export products are, which raises concerns about the perceived safety levels of local food supplies in contrast with exported products. The aim of this study was to determine pesticide residue levels in fruits and vegetables sold at two of the biggest fresh produce markets in Africa. A total of 199 fruit and vegetable samples were collected between 2012 and 2014 and analyzed for 74 pesticides commonly used in the horticultural sector. Of the samples analyzed, 91% were compliant with set maximum residue levels (MRLs). The remaining samples either contained unregistered chemicals (8%) or exceeded set MRL values (1%). Products containing more than one pesticide residue constituted 4.02% of all samples tested. Imazalil and iprodione were found to be the most frequently detected pesticides (12 samples each). Boscalid, endosulfan, profenofos, and procymidone were associated with the most noncompliance, including exceeding MRL values or being unregistered for the specific crop. The establishment of a national pesticide monitoring program is essential for the country and would ensure that pesticides are used in accordance with good agricultural practices.

  13. Pesticide residues and estrogenic activity in fruit and vegetables sampled from major fresh produce markets in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mutengwe, Mbulaheni Thomas; Aneck-Hahn, Natalie Hildegard; Korsten, Lise; Van Zijl, Magdalena Catherina; De Jager, Christiaan

    2016-01-01

    Food is likely to be one of the major pathways through which people are exposed to endocrine-disrupting chemicals. With the exception of residual effects, there are concerns that a number of naturally occurring and synthetic chemicals exert adverse effects upon endocrine systems in wildlife and humans. The current study reports selected pesticide concentrations and the total estrogenic activity of fruit and vegetables using the recombinant yeast oestrogen screen (YES) and T47D-KBluc reporter gene assays. A total of 53 food samples (27 fruit and 26 vegetables) from Johannesburg and Tshwane fresh produce markets (in South Africa) were analysed. Of these, 17 contained one to three different pesticide residues with concentrations ranging between 0.01 and 0.68 mg kg(-1), whereas in the rest of the samples no residues were detected. All pesticides detected except in one sample were below the maximum residue level (MRL), but others were unauthorised for use in specified fruit and vegetables. Estrogenic activity was detected in 26.4% (14 samples) of the samples tested, and the estradiol equivalents ranged from 0.007 to 2 pg g(-1). Although the estrogenic activity was low, it may contribute to adverse health effects. Continuous monitoring for pesticides in fruit and vegetables is important in view of the unauthorised pesticides detected in produce from South Africa and the endocrine-disrupting chemical activity found.

  14. PR notice 86-2. Notice to manufacturers, formulators, producers and registrants of pesticides

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    The document is one in the series of Pesticide Regulatory Notices, usually called PR Notices, which supplement the laws and regulations governing pesticide regulation in the US. These notices clarify, interpret and explain regulatory requirements and policies. They are directed at pesticide registrants and other parties interested in detailed procedures of regulation. The purpose of this PR Notice is to draw attention to and summarize the requirements to maintain records imposed under section 8 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), sections 408 and 409 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), and regulations thereunder (40 C.F.R. 169.2 and 160.195).

  15. PR notice 86-1. Notice to manufacturers, formulators, producers and registrants of pesticides

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    The document is one in the series of Pesticide Regulatory Notices, usually called PR Notices, which supplement the laws and regulations governing pesticide regulation in the US. These notices clarify, interpret and explain regulatory requirements and policies. They are directed at pesticide registrants and other parties interested in detailed procedures of regulation. Under Section 408 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), fees may be charged to cover the cost of processing tolerance petitions. The purpose of this PR Notice is to announce new Agency procedures regarding the submission of fees associated with tolerance petitions.

  16. PRN 2008-1: Notice to Manufacturers, Producers, Formulators, and Registrants of Pesticide Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Notice presents EPA's guidance on optional environmental hazard label language for certain non-restricted use pesticide products intended for outdoor residential use. It clarifies language on how the user can avoid environmental contamination.

  17. Age-related differences in neurotoxicity produced by organophosphorus and N-methyl carbamate pesticides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Potential pesticide effects in infants and toddlers have received much attention in the scientific literature and the public media, including the concern for increased response to acute or shortterm exposures. Age-related differences in the acute neurotoxicity of acetylcholinest...

  18. Age-related differences in neurotoxicity produced by organophosphorus and N-methyl carbamate pesticides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Potential pesticide effects in infants and toddlers have received much attention in the scientific literature and the public media, including the concern for increased response to acute or shortterm exposures. Age-related differences in the acute neurotoxicity of acetylcholinest...

  19. PR notice 87-1. Notice to manufacturers, formulators, producers and registrants of pesticide products

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    The notice describes the label improvement program for pesticides registered under Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and applied through irrigation systems (also known as chemigation). The notice explains the program, defines who and what the notice applies to, and details about how the labeling is to be done. These label changes are necessary to prevent unnecessary human or animal exposure to the pesticide.

  20. Age-related differences in acetylcholinesterase inhibition produced by organophosphorus and N-methyl carbamate pesticides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction The concern that infants and children may be more susceptible to the toxic effects of chemicals, including pesticides, has received much attention in the scientific literature and the public media. Greater toxicity may be evident as long-term adverse outcomes, e.g.,...

  1. Age-related differences in acetylcholinesterase inhibition produced by organophosphorus and N-methyl carbamate pesticides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction The concern that infants and children may be more susceptible to the toxic effects of chemicals, including pesticides, has received much attention in the scientific literature and the public media. Greater toxicity may be evident as long-term adverse outcomes, e.g.,...

  2. Modification and re-validation of the ethyl acetate-based multi-residue method for pesticides in produce

    PubMed Central

    Rooseboom, Astrid; van Dam, Ruud; Roding, Marleen; Arondeus, Karin; Sunarto, Suryati

    2007-01-01

    The ethyl acetate-based multi-residue method for determination of pesticide residues in produce has been modified for gas chromatographic (GC) analysis by implementation of dispersive solid-phase extraction (using primary–secondary amine and graphitized carbon black) and large-volume (20 μL) injection. The same extract, before clean-up and after a change of solvent, was also analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS–MS). All aspects related to sample preparation were re-assessed with regard to ease and speed of the analysis. The principle of the extraction procedure (solvent, salt) was not changed, to avoid the possibility invalidating data acquired over past decades. The modifications were made with techniques currently commonly applied in routine laboratories, GC–MS and LC–MS–MS, in mind. The modified method enables processing (from homogenization until final extracts for both GC and LC) of 30 samples per eight hours per person. Limits of quantification (LOQs) of 0.01 mg kg−1 were achieved with both GC–MS (full-scan acquisition, 10 mg matrix equivalent injected) and LC–MS–MS (2 mg injected) for most of the pesticides. Validation data for 341 pesticides and degradation products are presented. A compilation of analytical quality-control data for pesticides routinely analyzed by GC–MS (135 compounds) and LC–MS–MS (136 compounds) in over 100 different matrices, obtained over a period of 15 months, are also presented and discussed. At the 0.05 mg kg−1 level acceptable recoveries were obtained for 93% (GC–MS) and 92% (LC–MS–MS) of pesticide–matrix combinations. PMID:17563885

  3. High serum organochlorine pesticide concentrations in diabetics of a cotton producing area of the Benin Republic (West Africa).

    PubMed

    Azandjeme, Colette S; Delisle, Hélène; Fayomi, Benjamin; Ayotte, Pierre; Djrolo, Francois; Houinato, Dismand; Bouchard, Michèle

    2014-08-01

    The Borgou region of northern Benin is a major cotton producing area and consistently uses higher amounts of pesticides than other areas of the country. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), poorly handled, have been widely used and are still illegally present. We therefore hypothesized that serum OCP levels would be high in Borgou. As part of a case-control study on diabetes status and pesticide exposure, we measured the distribution of serum concentrations of 14 OCPs by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. A sample of 118 diabetic subjects was selected using a four-stage cluster sampling with 54.2% of men and 45.8% of women; 43% lived in urban areas, 14.4% were obese and 39.8% had high economic status. The four detected OCPs were p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, β-HCH and trans-nonachlor with respective geometric means (geometric standard deviation) of 497.1 (4.5), 20.6 (7.9), 2.9 (3.4), and 2.0 (2.3) ng/g of total serum lipids. OCP levels were significantly higher in obese, wealthier and more educated subjects and in those living in urban areas as compared to the other groups, particularly for p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT and β-HCH. Levels of DDT and DDE were higher than reported in other countries where DDT is no longer permitted. The low DDT/DDE ratio of 0.05 suggests past human exposure through food contamination. There is thus a need to reinforce governmental regulations for a more responsible use of pesticides in the country, in order to reduce health risks associated with persistent organic pollutants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Monitoring of pesticide residues in fresh peaches produced under conventional and integrated crop management cultivation.

    PubMed

    Tsakiris, I N; Danis, T G; Stratis, I A; Nikitovic, D; Dialyna, I A; Alegakis, A K; Tsatsakis, A M

    2004-07-01

    The frequency and severity of crop protection product (pesticide) contamination of peaches grown conventionally were compared with those of peaches grown by integrated crop management (ICM). The peach samples (n = 150) were collected preharvest (June-August 2001) from both conventional (n = 55) and ICM (n = 95) cultivations from the Pella and Imathia districts of Macedonia, Northern Greece. The residue levels of selected insecticides, fungicides and acaricides in peach samples were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following solid-phase extraction. The concentrations of all detected pesticides were lower than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) in all peach samples grown with the ICM system (p<0.001). However, chlorpyrifos residues at levels higher than the MRLs were detected in four peach samples (i.e. 7% of the total samples) grown by the conventional system. Comparing the results for both cultivation methods with the reported average percentage (3.6%) of fruit samples with pesticide residues above the MRLs (European Union report for Greece in 2001), it was concluded that the initial implementation of the ICM in Greece was successful. The present study indicates that ICM cultivation has a higher efficiency in terms of product safety and quality. Furthermore, the results suggest that the application of conventional cultivation requires continuous monitoring of various crop protection product levels.

  5. Feasibility study for producing a carrot/potato matrix reference material for 11 selected pesticides at EU MRL level: material processing, homogeneity and stability assessment.

    PubMed

    Saldanha, Helena; Sejerøe-Olsen, Berit; Ulberth, Franz; Emons, Hendrik; Zeleny, Reinhard

    2012-05-01

    The feasibility for producing a matrix reference material for selected pesticides in a carrot/potato matrix was investigated. A commercially available baby food (carrot/potato-based mash) was spiked with 11 pesticides at the respective EU maximum residue limits (MRLs), and further processed by either freezing or freeze-drying. Batches of some 150 units were produced per material type. First, the materials were assessed for the relative amount of pesticide recovered after processing (ratio of pesticide concentration in the processed material to the initially spiked pesticide concentration). In addition, the materials' homogeneity (bottle-to-bottle variation), and the short-term (1 month) and mid-term (5 months) stability at different temperatures were assessed. For this, an in-house validated GC-EI-MS method operated in the SIM mode with a sample preparation procedure based on the QuEChERS ("quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe") principle was applied. Measurements on the frozen material provided the most promising results (smallest analyte losses during production), and also freeze-drying proved to be a suitable alternative processing technique for most of the investigated pesticides. Both the frozen and the freeze-dried material showed to be sufficiently homogeneous for the intended use, and storage at -20°C for 5 months did not reveal any detectable material degradation. The results constitute an important step towards the development of a pesticide matrix reference material. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pesticides and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... To minimize your exposure to pesticides found on food, thoroughly wash produce and your hands before eating. What if I am exposed to pesticides while breastfeeding? Pesticides may be found in breast milk, but studies on the effects of these pesticides have not been done. When ...

  7. Utilization of inorganic industrial wastes in producing construction ceramics. Review of Russian experience for the years 2000-2015.

    PubMed

    Boltakova, N V; Faseeva, G R; Kabirov, R R; Nafikov, R M; Zakharov, Yu A

    2017-02-01

    This paper analyzes the significant scientific publications worldwide for the last 15years concerning construction ceramics (predominantly brick) made with various inorganic industrial wastes added to the ceramic raw material for the improvement of properties and for eco-friendly disposal. The information gap resulting from the lack of mentions of the Russian publications on this subject in English-language reviews is filled. The paper includes brief summaries of 34 dissertations and 29 patents issued in Russia since 2000. The waste additives described in these summaries are grouped by origin type (mining industry waste, ore enrichment waste, metallurgical waste, sludge, ashes, cullet, large-capacity building wastes and waste from various chemical production processes) with the ceramic mixture compositions, molding and firing conditions, final strength, water absorption and other parameters of the final ceramic samples reported. Russian scientists have expanded the nomenclature of each group of wastes significantly upon addition to the list described in English-language reviews for 2000-2015. References to the recent Russian developments in the field of ecological management in ceramic industry are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of Electroencephalography (EEG) to Assess CNS Changes Produced by Pesticides with different Modes of Action: Effects of Permethrin, Deltamethrin, Fipronil, Imidacloprid, Carbaryl, and Triadimefon

    EPA Science Inventory

    The electroencephalogram (EEG) is an apical measure, capable of detecting changes in brain neuronal activity produced by internal or external stimuli. We assessed whether pesticides with different modes of action produced different changes in the EEG of adult male Long-Evans rats...

  9. Use of Electroencephalography (EEG) to Assess CNS Changes Produced by Pesticides with different Modes of Action: Effects of Permethrin, Deltamethrin, Fipronil, Imidacloprid, Carbaryl, and Triadimefon

    EPA Science Inventory

    The electroencephalogram (EEG) is an apical measure, capable of detecting changes in brain neuronal activity produced by internal or external stimuli. We assessed whether pesticides with different modes of action produced different changes in the EEG of adult male Long-Evans rats...

  10. Russian Translatology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porozinskaya, Galina

    1994-01-01

    Discusses Russian translatology after 1950. Introduces in chronological order some of the most important Russian works and discusses their main points. Deals with Russian approaches to key problems in translation such as equivalence, pragmatic relations, audience orientation, and problems of cultural transfer. (SR)

  11. Monitoring and risk assessment of 74 pesticide residues in Pu-erh tea produced in Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongping; Wang, Qinghua; Jiang, Ying; Wang, Chuanpi; Yin, Peng; Liu, Xin; Lu, Chengyin

    2015-01-01

    A number of 100 Pu-erh tea samples from the 2013 harvest in Yunnan Province (China) were analysed for 74 pesticides. A total of 11 pesticides were detected. At least one pesticide was detected in 56% of the samples. None of these samples contained the 74 monitored pesticides at concentrations above the Chinese maximum residual levels. Imidacloprid, bifenthrin and acetamiprid were most frequently found, with percentages of 53%, 46% and 31%, respectively. These were also the top three pesticides with maximum concentrations of 140, 246 and 672 μg kg⁻¹, respectively. Residual levels of the monitored pesticides showed no significant correlation with the production time or area of Pu-erh tea. Whereas a high incidence of pesticide residues was detected in Pu-erh tea, the contamination levels observed do not pose any serious health risks.

  12. Use of cholinesterase activity in monitoring organophosphate pesticide exposure of cattle produced in tropical areas.

    PubMed

    Pardío, V T; Ibarra, N; Rodríguez, M A; Waliszewski, K N

    2001-12-01

    The use of cholinesterase activity as a biochemical method for monitoring organophosphate pesticide exposure in cattle is described herein. Determination of cholinesterase activity of whole blood, erythrocyte, and plasma was carried out according to the Ellman modified kinetic method. The mean baseline acetylcholinesterase activities of 9.549 +/- 3.619 IU/mL in whole blood, 9.444 +/- 3.006 IU/mL in erythrocytes, and 0.149 +/- 0.063 IU/mL in plasma were estimated for steers from the control group. Results of multivariate analysis showed that the general responses between the control and experimental groups (in vivo, monitoring and case studies) treated with Coumaphos and Fenthion were statistically different, and the general responses of these experimental groups were statistically different over time as well. Among the fractions that were analyzed, the erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activity could be adequate for the diagnosis of exposure or acute poisoning in cattle as it showed a good within-run and between-run precision with CVs <10% better than those in plasma.

  13. Study on the impact of lead acetate pollutant on immunotoxicity produced by thiamethoxam pesticide.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Suprita; Thaker, A M

    2014-01-01

    The curtailed knowledge about neonicotinoids that it has low affinity for vertebrate relative to insect nicotinic receptors is a major factor for its widespread use assuming that it is much safer than the previous generation insecticides. But literature regarding effect of thiamethoxam (second generation neonicotinoid)on immune system is not available. Also, there might be chances of interaction of heavy persistent metals in the water table with these pesticides. So, this study was undertaken with the objective to find immunotoxic alterations of lead acetate after exposure with thiamethoxam in animal model. For this albino mice were randomly divided into 6 groups (numbered I to VI) each containing 6 mice. Animals of groups I and II were administered 87.1 mg/kg b.w.(body weight) and 43.5 mg/kg b.w. respectively of thiamethoxam. Group III animals, lead acetate was administered orally and IV and V mice were administered combination of lead acetate and thiamethoxam at higher and lower dose level for 28 days. The group VI was control group. On 29(th) day and humoral and cell mediated immune responses, TLC (Total leukocyte count), DLC (Differential leukocyte count), serum total protein, globulin and albumin, and histopathological studies were conducted. The result obtained clearly indicated that on oral administration of thiamethoxam immunotoxicity was induced in mice in dose related manner. Lead acetate when administered for 28 days showed immunotoxic potential. Thiamethoxam and lead acetate when administered together did not lead to any new altered immunotoxic response but additive toxic effects of both were observed.

  14. DDT Vertical Migration and Formation of Accumulation Layer in Pesticide-Producing Sites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Bai, Liping; Man, Changgeng; Liang, Wuhong; Li, Fasheng; Meng, Xiaoguang

    2015-08-04

    Soil samples were collected at various depths (0.5-21.5 m) from ten boreholes that were drilled with a SH-30 Model Rig, four of which were at a dicofol production site while six were at a dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) production site. In industrial sites, the shallow soils at depths of 0-2 m were mostly backfill soils, which cannot represent the contamination situation of the sites. The contaminated levels in the deep original soil can represent the situation in contaminated sites. All the soil samples investigated at the DDT and dicofol production sites were found to be seriously polluted. The contents of both DDT (0.6-6071 mg/kg) and dicofol (0.5-1440 mg/kg) were much higher at the dicofol production site than at the DDT production site (DDTs, 0.01-664.6 mg/kg; dicofol, <0.1 mg/kg), even in the deep soil. DDTs had a different distribution in the soil of the pesticide production site from that in the soil outside the sites and that in agricultural soils. The results of the investigation revealed that DDTs were easily enriched in cohesive soil and in the bottom zone of aquifers, where the concentration was higher than in above the layers. DDTs were found to be hard to degrade, and their degradation speed was slower than their vertical migration, despite the fact that hydrophobic DDTs did not migrate easily in soils. In the dicofol production site, the value of DDE/DDD cannot indicate the degradation condition of DDTs, nor can the value of (DDE + DDD)/DDT identify how long DDTs have remained in the soil. It is debatable that the half-life of DDT inputted to soils is about 20-30 years, maybe longer than the generally recognized time.

  15. Study on the impact of lead acetate pollutant on immunotoxicity produced by thiamethoxam pesticide

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Suprita; Thaker, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The curtailed knowledge about neonicotinoids that it has low affinity for vertebrate relative to insect nicotinic receptors is a major factor for its widespread use assuming that it is much safer than the previous generation insecticides. But literature regarding effect of thiamethoxam (second generation neonicotinoid)on immune system is not available. Also, there might be chances of interaction of heavy persistent metals in the water table with these pesticides. So, this study was undertaken with the objective to find immunotoxic alterations of lead acetate after exposure with thiamethoxam in animal model. Materials and Methods: For this albino mice were randomly divided into 6 groups (numbered I to VI) each containing 6 mice. Animals of groups I and II were administered 87.1 mg/kg b.w.(body weight) and 43.5 mg/kg b.w. respectively of thiamethoxam. Group III animals, lead acetate was administered orally and IV and V mice were administered combination of lead acetate and thiamethoxam at higher and lower dose level for 28 days. The group VI was control group. On 29th day and humoral and cell mediated immune responses, TLC (Total leukocyte count), DLC (Differential leukocyte count), serum total protein, globulin and albumin, and histopathological studies were conducted. Result: The result obtained clearly indicated that on oral administration of thiamethoxam immunotoxicity was induced in mice in dose related manner. Lead acetate when administered for 28 days showed immunotoxic potential. Thiamethoxam and lead acetate when administered together did not lead to any new altered immunotoxic response but additive toxic effects of both were observed. PMID:25538329

  16. Formaldehyde vapor produced from hexamethylenetetramine and pesticide: Simultaneous monitoring of formaldehyde and ozone in chamber experiments by flow-based hybrid micro-gas analyzer.

    PubMed

    Yanaga, Akira; Hozumi, Naruto; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Hasegawa, Asako; Toda, Kei

    2016-02-01

    Simultaneous analysis of HCHO and O3 was performed by the developed flow analysis system to prove that HCHO vapor is produced from solid pesticide in the presence of O3. HCHO is produced in many ways, including as primary emissions from fuel combustion and in secondary production from anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds by photochemical reactions. In this work, HCHO production from pesticides was investigated for the first time. Commonly pesticide contains surfactant such as hexamethylenetetramine (HMT), which is a heterocyclic compound formed from six molecules of HCHO and four molecules of NH3. HMT can react with gaseous oxidants such as ozone (O3) to produce HCHO. In the present study, a flow analysis system was developed for simultaneous analysis of HCHO and O3, and this system was used to determine if solid pesticides produced HCHO vapor in the presence of O3. HMT or the pesticide jimandaisen, which contains mancozeb as the active ingradient and HMT as a stabilizer was placed at the bottom of a 20-L stainless steel chamber. Air in the chamber was monitored using the developed flow system. Analyte gases were collected into an absorbing solution by a honeycomb-patterned microchannel scrubber that was previously developed for a micro gas analysis system (μGAS). Subsequently, indigotrisulfonate, a blue dye, was added to the absorbing solution to detect O3, which discolored the solution. HCHO was detected after mixing with the Hantzsch reaction reagent. Both gases could be detected at concentrations ranging from parts per billion by volume (ppbv) to 1000 ppbv with good linearity. Both HMT and jimandaisen emitted large amount of HCHO in the presence of O3.

  17. Evaluation of hydromatrix and magnesium sulfate drying agents for supercritical fluid extraction of multiple pesticides in produce.

    PubMed

    Eller, K I; Lehotay, S J

    1997-05-01

    The simultaneous extraction of relatively polar and nonpolar pesticides has been problematic in multiresidue analysis using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with carbon dioxide. In fruit and vegetable samples, which typically contain 80-95% water, moisture acts to increase SFE recoveries of many polar pesticides, but a drying agent should be used to control water in SFE. Hydromatrix, a prevalent drying agent, has many desirable characteristics, but it reduces recovery of certain important pesticides, such as methamidophos, acephate, and omethoate. MgSO4 has been shown previously to be applicable for the extraction of methamidophos and six other pesticides, but MgSO4 has practical disadvantages in its use. In this study, properties and SFE results with the individual drying agents and their combination were evaluated. Simultaneous recoveries for polar and nonpolar pesticides were achieved for 71 pesticides fortified in apple using a mixture of 2 + 1 + 2 MgSO4-H2O-Hydromatrix-sample for extraction. The advantages of each drying agent were maintained by their combination. The analysis of real samples, however, showed that more study was needed to improve recoveries of nonpolar pesticides.

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis var. thuringiensis Strain T01-328, a Brazilian Isolate That Produces a Soluble Pesticide Protein, Cry1Ia

    PubMed Central

    Varani, Alessandro M.; Fernandes, Camila C.; Lemos, Eliana G. M.; Alves, Eliane C. C.; Desidério, Janete A.

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis var. thuringiensis strain T01-328, isolated from Cubatão county (São Paulo State, Brazil), produces a soluble pesticide protein, Cry1Ia, during vegetative growth. Here, we report the 7.089-Mbp draft genome sequence, composed of a 5.5-Mb chromosome and 14 plasmids, which is the largest B. thuringiensis genome sequenced to date. PMID:24115545

  19. Antimicrobial Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Pesticides Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Antimicrobial Pesticides EPA regulates pesticides under the statutory authority of ...

  20. Pesticide Devices: A Guide for Consumers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guide for consumers explains key facts about pesticide devices and how they differ from registered pesticide products. Device producers or registrants should see our Pesticide Registration Manual, Chapter 13 for information.

  1. 75 FR 22240 - Cyprodinil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Cyprodinil; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...) 305-5805. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lisa Jones, Registration Division, Office of Pesticide... agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. Potentially affected entities may...

  2. 77 FR 23625 - Quizalofop Ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Quizalofop Ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20460-0001... are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. Potentially...

  3. The Russian Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dluzhnevskaya, O. B.; Malkov, O. Yu.; Kilpio, A. A.; Kilpio, E. Yu.; Kovaleva, D. A.; Sat, L. A.

    The Russian Virtual Observatory (RVO) will be an integral component of the International Virtual Observatory (IVO). The RVO has the main goal of integrating resources of astronomical data accumulated in Russian observatories and institutions (databases, archives, digitized glass libraries, bibliographic data, a remote access system to information and technical resources of telescopes etc.), and providing transparent access for scientific and educational purposes to the distributed information and data services that comprise its content. Another goal of the RVO is to provide Russian astronomers with on-line access to the rich volumes of data and metadata that have been, and will continue to be, produced by astronomical survey projects. Centre for Astronomical Data (CAD), among other Russian institutions, has had the greatest experience in collecting and distributing astronomical data for more than 20 years. Some hundreds of catalogs and journal tables are currently available from the CAD repository. More recently, mirrors of main astronomical data resources (VizieR, ADS, etc) are now maintained in CAD. Besides, CAD accumulates and makes available for the astronomical community information on principal Russian astronomical resources.

  4. Micronuclei and pesticide exposure.

    PubMed

    Bolognesi, Claudia; Creus, Amadeu; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia; Marcos, Ricard

    2011-01-01

    Micronucleus (MN) is a biomarker widely used in biomonitoring studies carried out to determine the genetic risk associated to pesticide exposure. Many in vitro and in vivo studies, as well as epidemiological approaches, have demonstrated the ability of certain chemical pesticides to produce genetic effects including cancer and other chronic pathologies in humans; thus, biomonitoring studies have been carried out to characterise the genetic risk associated to pesticide exposure. It must be noted that 'pesticide exposure' is a broad term covering complex mixtures of chemicals and many variables that can reduce or potentiate their risk. In addition, there are large differences in pesticides used in the different parts of the world. Although pesticides constitute a wide group of environmental pollutants, the main focus on their risk has been addressed to people using pesticides in their working places, at the chemical industry or in the crop fields. Here, we present a brief review of biomonitoring studies carried out in people occupationally exposed to pesticides and that use MN in lymphocytes or buccal cells as a target to determine the induction of genotoxic damage. Thus, people working in the chemical industry producing pesticides, people spraying pesticides and people dedicated to floriculture or agricultural works in general are the subject of specific sections. MN is a valuable genotoxic end point when clear exposure conditions exist like in pesticide production workers; nevertheless, better study designs are needed to overcome the uncertainty in exposure, genetic susceptibility and statistical power in the studies of sprayers and floriculture or agricultural workers.

  5. Use of electroencephalography (EEG) to assess CNS changes produced by pesticides with different modes of action: effects of permethrin, deltamethrin, fipronil, imidacloprid, carbaryl, and triadimefon.

    PubMed

    Freeborn, Danielle L; McDaniel, Katherine L; Moser, Virginia C; Herr, David W

    2015-01-15

    The electroencephalogram (EEG) is an apical measure, capable of detecting changes in brain neuronal activity produced by internal or external stimuli. We assessed whether pesticides with different modes of action produced different changes in the EEG of adult male Long-Evans rats. The EEG was recorded using two montages (visual cortex referenced to the cerebellum and to the frontal cortex) in unrestrained rats at the time of peak behavioral effects. Pesticides included: permethrin and deltamethrin (Type I and Type II pyrethroids; 2 h), fipronil (single and repeated doses; phenylpyrazole; 6 h), imidacloprid (neonicotinoid; 2 h), carbaryl (carbamate; 0.5 h), and triadimefon (triazole; 1 h), using dosages that produced approximately an ED30 or an ED50-ED80 change in motor activity. Permethrin (43, 100 mg/kg) increased amplitudes or areas (delta, alpha, or gamma bands) in the EEG. Deltamethrin (2.5, 5.5 mg/kg) reduced the amplitudes or areas of the delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma bands, but the changes were not dose-related. A single treatment with fipronil (25, 50 mg/kg, but not 5, 10 mg/kg) decreased gamma band area. Additional changes in the delta, theta, and gamma bands were observed when fipronil (5, 10 mg/kg) was administered for 14 days. Imidacloprid (50, 100 mg/kg) did not alter the EEG. Carbaryl (10, 50 mg/kg) decreased theta area, and decreased delta and increased beta frequency. Triadimefon (75, 150 mg/kg) produced minimal changes in the EEG. The results show that the EEG is affected differently by approximately equipotent doses of pesticides with different modes of action.

  6. Current Status of the Russian Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, Oleg Y.; Dluzhnevskaya, Olga B.; Kilpio, Elena Y.; Kilpio, Alexander A.; Kovaleva, Dana A.

    The Russian Virtual Observatory (RVO) has been officially recognized as one of the key projects of the Scientific Council on Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences since December 2001. The ultimate goal of the RVO initiative is to integrate resources of astronomical data accumulated in Russian observatories and institutions and to provide Russian data to the rest of the world. One of the principal goals of the project is to provide Russian researchers with on-line access to the rich volumes of data and metadata that have been and will continue to be produced by astronomical survey projects. RVO architecture main tasks and roadmap are discussed in the presentation.

  7. Use of electroencephalography (EEG) to assess CNS changes produced by pesticides with different modes of action: Effects of permethrin, deltamethrin, fipronil, imidacloprid, carbaryl, and triadimefon

    SciTech Connect

    Freeborn, Danielle L. McDaniel, Katherine L. Moser, Virginia C. Herr, David W.

    2015-01-15

    The electroencephalogram (EEG) is an apical measure, capable of detecting changes in brain neuronal activity produced by internal or external stimuli. We assessed whether pesticides with different modes of action produced different changes in the EEG of adult male Long–Evans rats. The EEG was recorded using two montages (visual cortex referenced to the cerebellum and to the frontal cortex) in unrestrained rats at the time of peak behavioral effects. Pesticides included: permethrin and deltamethrin (Type I and Type II pyrethroids; 2 h), fipronil (single and repeated doses; phenylpyrazole; 6 h), imidacloprid (neonicotinoid; 2 h), carbaryl (carbamate; 0.5 h), and triadimefon (triazole; 1 h), using dosages that produced approximately an ED{sub 30} or an ED{sub 50}–ED{sub 80} change in motor activity. Permethrin (43, 100 mg/kg) increased amplitudes or areas (delta, alpha, or gamma bands) in the EEG. Deltamethrin (2.5, 5.5 mg/kg) reduced the amplitudes or areas of the delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma bands, but the changes were not dose-related. A single treatment with fipronil (25, 50 mg/kg, but not 5, 10 mg/kg) decreased gamma band area. Additional changes in the delta, theta, and gamma bands were observed when fipronil (5, 10 mg/kg) was administered for 14 days. Imidacloprid (50, 100 mg/kg) did not alter the EEG. Carbaryl (10, 50 mg/kg) decreased theta area, and decreased delta and increased beta frequency. Triadimefon (75, 150 mg/kg) produced minimal changes in the EEG. The results show that the EEG is affected differently by approximately equipotent doses of pesticides with different modes of action. - Highlights: • Pesticides with different modes of action have different effects on in vivo rodent EEG. • The EEG was also changed differently after single vs. repeated treatment with fipronil. • The data suggest that EEG may be used as an apical measure for detecting chemical effects on the central nervous system.

  8. Pesticide Registration

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site provides resources for an individual or company wanting to register a pesticide active ingredient or pesticide product in the United States. Features: a manual (blue book), other guidance, and coordinated lists of requirements by pesticide type.

  9. Assessment of health risk from organochlorine pesticides residues in high-fat spreadable foods produced in Poland.

    PubMed

    Witczak, Agata; Abdel-Gawad, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Currently, butter and margarine are food products attracting wide customer interest. Every day, consumers around the world buy these products for human consumption. Butter is obtained from milk fat, while margarine is derived from vegetable oils. The content of organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues was examined in both types of these high fatty products. A gas chromatograph with MSD (HP 5973) detector was used for the determination of pesticides such as α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, DDT, DDD, DDE, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide. The examined products had diverse concentrations of the analyzed compounds. Visible was the division based on the origin of the product, which might be composed of animal or vegetable fats. The research has revealed the presence of OCP residues in all examined spreads. Quantities of organochlorine compounds did not pose an immediate danger to the consumers' health. Human and environmental health risk assessment was carried out by the estimation of lifetime average daily dose (LADD) and non-carcinogenic health hazard quotient (HQ). Total estimated LADD ranged between 1.3 × 10(-5) and 3.1 × 10(-5) mg kg(-1) d(-1) for butter, and 1.9 × 10(-6) and 4.6 × 10(-6) mg kg(-1) d(-1) for margarine and mix spread. The HQ ranged between 1.1 × 10(-4) and 3.7 × 10(-4) for butter, and 1.4 × 10(-5) and 9.0 × 10(-6) for margarine and mix spread for adults. These estimated HQs were within the safe acceptable limits, indicating a negligible risk to the residents of the study area.

  10. Using SuperPILOT for Creating the Russian Characters Set.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamantova-Abbas, Vera

    1986-01-01

    Examines the possibility of creating the Russian character set using a "programerless" authoring language, SuperPILOT, which allows a teacher or a learner to produce and use the Russian alphabet with no programing skills. (Author/CB)

  11. Accurate mass fragment library for rapid analysis of pesticides on produce using ambient pressure desorption ionization with high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kern, Sara E; Lin, Lora A; Fricke, Frederick L

    2014-08-01

    U.S. food imports have been increasing steadily for decades, intensifying the need for a rapid and sensitive screening technique. A method has been developed that uses foam disks to sample the surface of incoming produce. This work provides complimentary information to the extensive amount of published pesticide fragmentation data collected using LCMS systems (Sack et al. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59, 6383-6411, 2011; Mol et al. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 403, 2891-2908, 2012). The disks are directly analyzed using transmission-mode direct analysis in real time (DART) ambient pressure desorption ionization coupled to a high resolution accurate mass-mass spectrometer (HRAM-MS). In order to provide more certainty in the identification of the pesticides detected, a library of accurate mass fragments and isotopes of the protonated parent molecular ion (the [M+H]⁺) has been developed. The HRAM-MS is equipped with a quadrupole mass filter, providing the capability of "data-dependent" fragmentation, as opposed to "all -ion" fragmentation (where all of the ions enter a collision chamber and are fragmented at once). A temperature gradient for the DART helium stream and multiple collision energies were employed to detect and fragment 164 pesticides of varying chemical classes, sizes, and polarities. The accurate mass information of precursor ([M+H]⁺ ion) and fragment ions is essential in correctly identifying chemical contaminants on the surface of imported produce. Additionally, the inclusion of isotopes of the [M+H]⁺ in the database adds another metric to the confirmation process. The fragmentation data were collected using a Q-Exactive mass spectrometer and were added to a database used to process data collected with an Exactive mass spectrometer, an instrument that is more readily available for this screening application. The commodities investigated range from smooth-skinned produce such as apples to rougher surfaces like broccoli

  12. Accurate Mass Fragment Library for Rapid Analysis of Pesticides on Produce Using Ambient Pressure Desorption Ionization with High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Sara E.; Lin, Lora A.; Fricke, Frederick L.

    2014-08-01

    U.S. food imports have been increasing steadily for decades, intensifying the need for a rapid and sensitive screening technique. A method has been developed that uses foam disks to sample the surface of incoming produce. This work provides complimentary information to the extensive amount of published pesticide fragmentation data collected using LCMS systems (Sack et al. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59, 6383-6411, 2011; Mol et al. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 403, 2891-2908, 2012). The disks are directly analyzed using transmission-mode direct analysis in real time (DART) ambient pressure desorption ionization coupled to a high resolution accurate mass-mass spectrometer (HRAM-MS). In order to provide more certainty in the identification of the pesticides detected, a library of accurate mass fragments and isotopes of the protonated parent molecular ion (the [M+H]+) has been developed. The HRAM-MS is equipped with a quadrupole mass filter, providing the capability of "data-dependent" fragmentation, as opposed to "all -ion" fragmentation (where all of the ions enter a collision chamber and are fragmented at once). A temperature gradient for the DART helium stream and multiple collision energies were employed to detect and fragment 164 pesticides of varying chemical classes, sizes, and polarities. The accurate mass information of precursor ([M+H]+ ion) and fragment ions is essential in correctly identifying chemical contaminants on the surface of imported produce. Additionally, the inclusion of isotopes of the [M+H]+ in the database adds another metric to the confirmation process. The fragmentation data were collected using a Q-Exactive mass spectrometer and were added to a database used to process data collected with an Exactive mass spectrometer, an instrument that is more readily available for this screening application. The commodities investigated range from smooth-skinned produce such as apples to rougher surfaces like broccoli. The

  13. Russians as People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Wright

    This analysis of the Russian character in various aspects of Soviet society in its daily activities focuses on the cultural rather than the political. Included in the study are sections on: (1) hibernation and awakening; (2) the Russian scene; (3) being a Russian; (4) Russian society--mass and minority; (5) manners, morals, and taste; and (6)…

  14. Russians as People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Wright

    This analysis of the Russian character in various aspects of Soviet society in its daily activities focuses on the cultural rather than the political. Included in the study are sections on: (1) hibernation and awakening; (2) the Russian scene; (3) being a Russian; (4) Russian society--mass and minority; (5) manners, morals, and taste; and (6)…

  15. 77 FR 12740 - Trinexapac-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Trinexapac-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bethany Benbow, Registration Division (7505P), Office of Pesticide... agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. Potentially affected entities may include...

  16. Survey on Russian Society: Discover Russian and the Russians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Written primarily for the non-Russian speaking student, this course is designed to demonstrate how simple and interesting Russian studies can be. Performance objectives are presented in two categories: language and culture. After the statement of each language objective, letters indicate the language skills to which the objective is directed. The…

  17. Modeling spatial variation of Russian wheat aphid overwintering population densities in Colorado winter wheat.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Scott C; Holtzer, Thomas O; Peairs, Frank B; Lester, Philip J

    2009-04-01

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov), is a pest of small grain crops that has caused hundreds of millions of dollars of damage since it was first reported in the United States in 1986. Much is known about D. noxia population dynamics during the spring and early summer when most of the crop damage occurs, whereas little is known about the system during the overwintering period. Using a spatially explicit model developed from field observations in a wheat/fallow agro-ecosystem, we sought for predictable variation in overwintering success of D. noxia based on environmental factors such as topography and soil type. Successful modeling of densities of D. noxia would facilitate early control efforts targeting locations where D. noxia successfully overwintered. D. noxia density data were collected over 3 yr at two sites in eastern Colorado. The model incorporates georeferenced data from soil surveys, topography, and satellite imagery as predictor variables. Our approach links an information theoretic approach for model inference and model selection to landscape ecology, allowing for the examination of multiple candidate models and variables within each of the candidate models. Results were used to create trend surface models for D. noxia density in winter wheat agroecosystems. The model has the potential for use in site specific pesticide applications. Using site specific pesticide applications, pesticide inputs could be reduced by an estimated 30%, reducing input costs to the producer, increasing natural enemy refuges, reducing environmental contamination, augmenting pesticide resistance management practices, and reducing exposure of agricultural workers.

  18. Pesticide Volatilization

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We consider the risks posed when pesticides volatilize during or after application. The movement of vapors through the air is not the same as pesticide movement by spray drift, erosion, or windblown soil particles.

  19. Russian Translation.

    PubMed

    O'dette, R E

    1957-03-29

    This discussion has described the status of the large United States program for translation from the Russian. A partial description of what is being done or planned, and by whom, has been provided as a guide for those who wish to follow the subject further. The urge to pass on useful information has necessarily restricted the space which might also have been profitably devoted to the philosophic aspects of the problem. Although it is not said with any sense of pride in achievement-because much more remains to be done than has been done-it would seem fair to describe the current national translation activity, including all contributions to it, as a phenomenon. Phenomena in scientific communication are not common: a full appreciation of their significance requires more analysis than results from a simple listing of their outward characteristics. But a few observations might be made in conclusion. Most United States scientists probably feel that, as a nation, we are and should be world leaders in science, even though this feeling is neither nurtured nor expressed in a spirit of violent competition. If this assumption is allowed, the point which seems to remain is that the United States will not retain its position casually. Our scientists expect to maintain an awareness of the scientific achievements and failures of the other nations of the world. But we must especially become more aware of the advances of Soviet science, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The evidence points toward this last conclusion, regardless of whether one is concerned with the production of ideas or things, increase in man's knowledge of himself and his environment, conflict between idealisms, or simply the national security.

  20. Microbial pesticides

    Treesearch

    Michael L. McManus

    1991-01-01

    Interest in the use of microbial pesticides has intensified because of public concern about the safety of chemical pesticides and their impact in the environment. Characteristics of the five groups of entomopathogens that have potential as microbial pesticides are briefly discussed and an update is provided on research and development activities underway to enhance the...

  1. Pesticide Tolerances

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA regulates pesticides used to protect crops and sets limits on the amount of pesticide remaining in or on foods in the U.S. The limits on pesticides on foods are called tolerances in the U.S. (maximum residue limits (MRLs) in many other countries).

  2. Russian Fires and Pakistani Floods Linked

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Beginning in mid-July and stretching through mid-August, a persistent Omega-shaped blocking high over western Russian and Kazakhstan produced abnormally warm temperatures (indicated by the yellow a...

  3. Comparison with Russian analyses of meteor impact

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-06-01

    The inversion model for meteor impacts is used to discuss Russian analyses and compare principal results. For common input parameters, the models produce consistent estimates of impactor parameters. Directions for future research are discussed and prioritized.

  4. Russian EVA 33

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    View of Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin (bottom center), Expedition 36 flight engineer, participating in Russian extravehicular activity (EVA) 33. Also visible are the Progress spacecraft docked to the Pirs Docking Compartment (DC1) with the Service Module (SM) .

  5. Russian EVA 34

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-16

    ISS036-E-033402 (16 Aug. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin (lower left), Expedition 36 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the seven-hour, 29-minute spacewalk ? the longest ever conducted by a pair of Russian cosmonauts ? Misurkin and Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame) rigged cables for the future arrival of a Russian laboratory module and installed an experiment panel.

  6. Russian EVA 34

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-16

    ISS036-E-033400 (16 Aug. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin (lower left), Expedition 36 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the seven-hour, 29-minute spacewalk ? the longest ever conducted by a pair of Russian cosmonauts ? Misurkin and Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame) rigged cables for the future arrival of a Russian laboratory module and installed an experiment panel.

  7. Russian Flight Control Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-20

    NASA Deputy Administrator Fred Gregory, left, joins Russian Federal Space Agency Deputy General-Director Nikolai Moiseev, Wednesday, April 21, 2004, at the Russian Mission Control Center outside Moscow to view the docking of the Expedition 9 crew to the International Space Station in a Russian Soyuz spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. A Teacher's Notebook: Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Independent Schools, Boston, MA.

    Articles written by teachers of Russian for their peers in similar classroom environments are intended to aid in the development of curricular innovation. The articles, all based on practical and direct experience, include: (1) "Direct Methods for Teaching Russian," (2) "The Eclectic Approach to Teaching Russian," (3) "So-Called Linguistic…

  9. Pesticide use and application: an Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Abhilash, P C; Singh, Nandita

    2009-06-15

    Agricultural development continues to remain the most important objective of Indian planning and policy. In the process of development of agriculture, pesticides have become an important tool as a plant protection agent for boosting food production. Further, pesticides play a significant role by keeping many dreadful diseases. However, exposure to pesticides both occupationally and environmentally causes a range of human health problems. It has been observed that the pesticides exposures are increasingly linked to immune suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities and cancer. Currently, India is the largest producer of pesticides in Asia and ranks twelfth in the world for the use of pesticides. A vast majority of the population in India is engaged in agriculture and is therefore exposed to the pesticides used in agriculture. Although Indian average consumption of pesticide is far lower than many other developed economies, the problem of pesticide residue is very high in India. Pesticide residue in several crops has also affected the export of agricultural commodities in the last few years. In this context, pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, proper application technologies, and integrated pest management are some of the key strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides. There is a dearth of studies related to these issues in India. Therefore, the thrust of this paper was to review the technology of application of pesticides in India and recommend future strategies for the rational use of pesticides and minimizing the problems related to health and environment.

  10. CHIRAL PESTICIDES: OCCURRENCE AND SIGNIFICANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Like amino acids, certain pesticides exist in "left-handed" and "right-handed" (chiral) forms. Commercially available chiral pesticides are produced as racemic mixtures in which the ratio of the two forms (or enantiomers) is 1:1. Enantiomers have the same ...

  11. CHIRAL PESTICIDES: OCCURRENCE AND SIGNIFICANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Like amino acids, certain pesticides exist in "left-handed" and "right-handed" (chiral) forms. Commercially available chiral pesticides are produced as racemic mixtures in which the ratio of the two forms (or enantiomers) is 1:1. Enantiomers have the same ...

  12. Pesticide Residues in Food: Your Daily Dose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mott, Lawrie

    1985-01-01

    Extensive use of pesticides during food production has created concerns for certain involuntary risks. Examines these concerns: government role in control and monitoring pesticide use, proposals for reform, and how consumer awareness might be an effective pressure for finding remedies. A table listing produce and pesticide residues is included.…

  13. Pesticide Residues in Food: Your Daily Dose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mott, Lawrie

    1985-01-01

    Extensive use of pesticides during food production has created concerns for certain involuntary risks. Examines these concerns: government role in control and monitoring pesticide use, proposals for reform, and how consumer awareness might be an effective pressure for finding remedies. A table listing produce and pesticide residues is included.…

  14. 78 FR 42736 - Spirotetramat; Proposed Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... affected by this action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer... (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532). B... to establish a tolerance (the legal limit for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food) only if...

  15. 78 FR 75257 - Flutriafol; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... affected by this action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer... (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532). B. How... pesticide chemical residue in or on a food) only if EPA determines that the tolerance is ``safe.'' Section...

  16. 75 FR 42324 - Pyraclostrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. Potentially affected entities may include, but are... production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532... pesticide chemical residue in or on a food) only if EPA determines that the tolerance is ``safe.'' Section...

  17. 78 FR 60715 - Sedaxane; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... food-use pesticide, if a toxicological study has indicated the possibility of an effect of concern... action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. The following...). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532). B. How can I get...

  18. 78 FR 67048 - Prothioconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... performed for a food-use pesticide, if a toxicological study has indicated the possibility of an effect of... action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. The following...). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532). B. How can I get...

  19. 77 FR 72232 - Dodine; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... potentially affected by this action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide... production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532... establish a tolerance (the legal limit for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food) only if EPA...

  20. 77 FR 14291 - Penthiopyrad; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... food-use pesticide, if a toxicological study has indicated the possibility of an effect of concern... are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. Potentially affected... (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide...

  1. Pesticides and Human Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Control a pest Integrated Pest Management What are pesticides? Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides ... Rodenticides Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Pesticides and Human Health Pesticides have a specific purpose ...

  2. Organic Pesticide Ingredients

    MedlinePlus

    ... Control a pest Integrated Pest Management What are pesticides? Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides ... Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Organic Pesticide Ingredients Organic foods are not necessarily pesticide-free. ...

  3. Information Hub of the Russian Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, Oleg; Dluzhnevskaya, Olga; Kilpio, Elena; Kilpio, Alexander; Kovaleva, Dana

    The ultimate goal of the Russian Virtual Observatory (RVO) initiative is to provide every astronomer with on-line access to the rich volumes of data and metadata that have been and will continue to be produced by astronomical survey projects. The information hub of the RVO has a main goal of integrating resources of astronomical data accumulated in Russian observatories and institutions, and providing transparent access for scientific and educational purposes to the distributed information and data services that comprise its content.

  4. Pesticide Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Kevin P.

    1976-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency chose the American Society of Testing and Materials to develop standardized guidelines for pesticide registration. Since the numbers and uses of pesticides is so wide, establishing ecological and public health guidelines may be difficult. Strong industry and government representation might also hamper the…

  5. Pesticide Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Kevin P.

    1976-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency chose the American Society of Testing and Materials to develop standardized guidelines for pesticide registration. Since the numbers and uses of pesticides is so wide, establishing ecological and public health guidelines may be difficult. Strong industry and government representation might also hamper the…

  6. Russian EVA 36.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-09

    ISS037-E-028082 (9 Nov. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Sergey Ryazanskiy, Expedition 37 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) in support of assembly and maintenance on the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 50-minute spacewalk, Ryazanskiy and Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov (out of frame) continued the setup of a combination EVA workstation and biaxial pointing platform that was installed during an Expedition 36 spacewalk on Aug. 22.

  7. Russian EVA 35

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-22

    ISS036-E-035204 (22 Aug. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 58-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame) completed the replacement of a laser communications experiment with a new platform for a small optical camera system, the installation of new spacewalk aids and an inspection of antenna covers.

  8. Russian EVA 35

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-22

    ISS036-E-035205 (22 Aug. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 58-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame) completed the replacement of a laser communications experiment with a new platform for a small optical camera system, the installation of new spacewalk aids and an inspection of antenna covers.

  9. Russian EVA 36.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-09

    ISS037-E-028094 (9 Nov. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov, Expedition 37 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) in support of assembly and maintenance on the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 50-minute spacewalk, Kotov and Russian cosmonaut Sergey Ryazanskiy (out of frame) continued the setup of a combination EVA workstation and biaxial pointing platform that was installed during an Expedition 36 spacewalk on Aug. 22.

  10. Russian EVA 35

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-22

    ISS036-E-035126 (22 Aug. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 58-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame) completed the replacement of a laser communications experiment with a new platform for a small optical camera system, the installation of new spacewalk aids and an inspection of antenna covers.

  11. Russian EVA 35

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-22

    ISS036-E-035130 (22 Aug. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 58-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame) completed the replacement of a laser communications experiment with a new platform for a small optical camera system, the installation of new spacewalk aids and an inspection of antenna covers.

  12. Russian EVA 35

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-22

    ISS036-E-035133 (22 Aug. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 58-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame) completed the replacement of a laser communications experiment with a new platform for a small optical camera system, the installation of new spacewalk aids and an inspection of antenna covers.

  13. Russian EVA 35

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-22

    ISS036-E-035124 (22 Aug. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 58-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame) completed the replacement of a laser communications experiment with a new platform for a small optical camera system, the installation of new spacewalk aids and an inspection of antenna covers.

  14. Russian EVA 35

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-22

    ISS036-E-035129 (22 Aug. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 58-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame) completed the replacement of a laser communications experiment with a new platform for a small optical camera system, the installation of new spacewalk aids and an inspection of antenna covers.

  15. Russian EVA 36.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-09

    ISS037-E-028101 (9 Nov. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov, Expedition 37 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) in support of assembly and maintenance on the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 50-minute spacewalk, Kotov and Russian cosmonaut Sergey Ryazanskiy (out of frame) continued the setup of a combination EVA workstation and biaxial pointing platform that was installed during an Expedition 36 spacewalk on Aug. 22.

  16. Russian EVA 36.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-09

    ISS037-E-028107 (9 Nov. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov, Expedition 37 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) in support of assembly and maintenance on the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 50-minute spacewalk, Kotov and Russian cosmonaut Sergey Ryazanskiy (out of frame) continued the setup of a combination EVA workstation and biaxial pointing platform that was installed during an Expedition 36 spacewalk on Aug. 22.

  17. Russian EVA 36.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-09

    ISS037-E-028067 (9 Nov. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov, Expedition 37 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) in support of assembly and maintenance on the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 50-minute spacewalk, Kotov and Russian cosmonaut Sergey Ryazanskiy (out of frame) continued the setup of a combination EVA workstation and biaxial pointing platform that was installed during an Expedition 36 spacewalk on Aug. 22.

  18. Russian EVA 36.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-09

    ISS037-E-028102 (9 Nov. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov, Expedition 37 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) in support of assembly and maintenance on the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 50-minute spacewalk, Kotov and Russian cosmonaut Sergey Ryazanskiy (out of frame) continued the setup of a combination EVA workstation and biaxial pointing platform that was installed during an Expedition 36 spacewalk on Aug. 22.

  19. Russian EVA 35

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-22

    ISS036-E-035163 (22 Aug. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 58-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame) completed the replacement of a laser communications experiment with a new platform for a small optical camera system, the installation of new spacewalk aids and an inspection of antenna covers.

  20. Russian EVA 36

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-09

    ISS037-E-028569 (9 Nov. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov, Expedition 37 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, uses a still camera during a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) in support of assembly and maintenance on the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 50-minute spacewalk, Kotov and Russian cosmonaut Sergey Ryazanskiy (out of frame) continued the setup of a combination EVA workstation and biaxial pointing platform that was installed during an Expedition 36 spacewalk on Aug. 22.

  1. Russian EVA fit check

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-21

    ISS036-E-009793 (21 June 2013) --- Russian cosmonauts Fyodor Yurchikhin (left) and Alexander Misurkin, both Expedition 36 flight engineers, participate in a suited exercise dry run in preparation for a spacewalk in their Russian Orlan spacesuits, which is scheduled for June 24 from the International Space Station’s Pirs docking compartment. Russian cosmonaut Pavel Vinogradov (mostly out of frame at right), Expedition 36 commander, assists Yurchikhin and Misurkin.

  2. Pesticide reregistration progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The report is produced by the Special Review and Reregistration Division (SRRD), Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), on progress towards pesticide reregistration as mandated under 1988 amendments to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. The report shows the status of reregistration through the first quarter of the 1993 fiscal year. SRRD is in the process of re-evaluating the format and information in the Progress Report, as a result of the October 1992 Customer Survey sent to the recipients of the report. Results of the survey will be incorporated in the April 1993 issue of the report.

  3. (Pesticide chemistry)

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.

    1990-09-04

    This report summarizes a trip by L. W. Barnthouse of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), to Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), where he participated in the 7th International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry. He chaired a workshop on experimental systems for determining effects of pesticides on nontarget organisms and gave an oral presentation at a symposium on pesticide risk assessment. Before returning to the United States, Dr. Barnthouse visited the Netherlands Institute for Sea Research in Texel, the Netherlands.

  4. Genetic stock identification of Russian honey bees.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, Lelania; Sheppard, Walter S; Sylvester, H Allen; Rinderer, Thomas E

    2010-06-01

    A genetic stock certification assay was developed to distinguish Russian honey bees from other European (Apis mellifera L.) stocks that are commercially produced in the United States. In total, 11 microsatellite and five single-nucleotide polymorphism loci were used. Loci were selected for relatively high levels of homogeneity within each group and for differences in allele frequencies between groups. A baseline sample consisted of the 18 lines of Russian honey bees released to the Russian Bee Breeders Association and bees from 34 queen breeders representing commercially produced European honey bee stocks. Suitability tests of the baseline sample pool showed high levels of accuracy. The probability of correct assignment was 94.2% for non-Russian bees and 93.3% for Russian bees. A neighbor-joining phenogram representing genetic distance data showed clear distinction of Russian and non-Russian honey bee stocks. Furthermore, a test of appropriate sample size showed a sample of eight bees per colony maximizes accuracy and consistency of the results. An additional 34 samples were tested as blind samples (origin unknown to those collecting data) to determine accuracy of individual assignment tests. Only one of these samples was incorrectly assigned. The 18 current breeding lines were represented among the 2009 blind sampling, demonstrating temporal stability of the genetic stock identification assay. The certification assay will be used through services provided by a service laboratory, by the Russian Bee Breeders Association to genetically certify their stock. The genetic certification will be used in conjunction with continued selection for favorable traits, such as honey production and varroa and tracheal mite resistance.

  5. Russian EVA 39

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-18

    ISS040E099874 (08/18/2014) --- Cosmonauts Alexander Skvortsov (red stripe - foreground) and Oleg Artemyev (blue stripe - background), Expedition 40 flight engineers, move to the Russian Service Module for repairs during International Space Station Russian EVA 39 on Aug. 18, 2014.

  6. Russian EVA no. 39.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-18

    ISS040E099355 (08/18/2014) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Skvortsov (red stripes), Expedition 40 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit outside the International Space Station, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) number 39 in support of science and maintenance. The Solar array is visible in the background.

  7. Russian Space Suits ready

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-17

    ISS040-E-095619 (17 Aug. 2014) --- Unoccupied Russian Orlan spacesuits for Russian cosmonauts Oleg Artemyev (blue stripes) and Alexander Skvortsov (red stripes), both Expedition 40 flight engineers, are pictured in the Pirs Docking Compartment of the International Space Station on the eve of the spacewalk scheduled for Aug. 18, 2014.

  8. Russian Space Suits ready

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-17

    ISS040-E-095617 (17 Aug. 2014) --- Unoccupied Russian Orlan spacesuits for Russian cosmonauts Oleg Artemyev (blue stripes) and Alexander Skvortsov (red stripes), both Expedition 40 flight engineers, are pictured in the Pirs Docking Compartment of the International Space Station on the eve of the spacewalk scheduled for Aug. 18, 2014.

  9. Russian Space Suits ready

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-17

    ISS040-E-095612 (17 Aug. 2014) --- Unoccupied Russian Orlan spacesuits for Russian cosmonauts Oleg Artemyev (blue stripes) and Alexander Skvortsov (red stripes), both Expedition 40 flight engineers, are pictured in the Pirs Docking Compartment of the International Space Station on the eve of the spacewalk scheduled for Aug. 18, 2014.

  10. Russian Space Suits ready

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-17

    ISS040-E-095609 (17 Aug. 2014) --- Unoccupied Russian Orlan spacesuits for Russian cosmonauts Oleg Artemyev (blue stripes) and Alexander Skvortsov (red stripes), both Expedition 40 flight engineers, are pictured in the Pirs Docking Compartment of the International Space Station on the eve of the spacewalk scheduled for Aug. 18, 2014.

  11. Russian EVA 39.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-18

    ISS040E099104 (08/18/2014) --- View of Cosmonaut Oleg Artemyev (blue stripe), Expedition 40 flight engineer outside the International Space Station, taken while performing maintenance work on the Russian segment during the Russian EVA 39 on Aug 18 2014.

  12. Russian Space Suits ready

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-17

    ISS040-E-095615 (17 Aug. 2014) --- Unoccupied Russian Orlan spacesuits for Russian cosmonauts Oleg Artemyev (blue stripes) and Alexander Skvortsov (red stripes), both Expedition 40 flight engineers, are pictured in the Pirs Docking Compartment of the International Space Station on the eve of the spacewalk scheduled for Aug. 18, 2014.

  13. Russian EVA 35

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-22

    ISS036-E-035256 (22 Aug. 2013) --- Russian cosmonauts Alexander Misurkin (top) and Fyodor Yurchikhin, both Expedition 36 flight engineers, are pictured in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station following a session of extravehicular activity (EVA). Misurkin and Yurchikhin are wearing blue thermal undergarments that complement the Russian Orlan spacesuit.

  14. Russian EVA fit check

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-21

    ISS036-E-009797 (21 June 2013) --- Russian cosmonauts Fyodor Yurchikhin (left) and Alexander Misurkin, both Expedition 36 flight engineers, participate in a suited exercise dry run in preparation for a spacewalk in their Russian Orlan spacesuits, which is scheduled for June 24 from the International Space Station’s Pirs docking compartment.

  15. Russian Language Analysis Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serianni, Barbara; Rethwisch, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the result of a language analysis research project focused on the Russian Language. The study included a diverse literature review that included published materials as well as online sources in addition to an interview with a native Russian speaker residing in the United States. Areas of study include the origin and history of the…

  16. Russian Supplementary Dialogues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Ashgabat (Turkmenistan).

    This manual is designed for the Russian language training of Peace Corps volunteers serving in Turkmenistan, and focuses on daily communication skills needed in that context. It consists of nine topical lessons, each containing several brief dialogues targeting specific language competencies, and exercises. Text is entirely in Russian, except for…

  17. Russian Astronomical Data Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, O. Yu.; Kovaleva, D. A.; Kilpio, E. Yu.

    2006-08-01

    The ultimate goal of the RVO initiative is to integrate resources of astronomical data accumulated in Russian observatories and institutions, and to provide Russian data to the rest of the world. We collect information about all available Russian and some former Soviet Union (fSU) astronomical data resources, classify them and register them in the registries of other VO projects. A new version of the list of Russian and fSU astronomical resources is recently compiled and presented here. The original resources that contain astronomical data obtained by Russian and fSU astronomers are listed by kind of object they treat (Sun, Solar System, Stars, Stellar Systems, Radioastronomy, Cosmic Rays, Mixed Data Archives). This list of resources (as well as other information on RVO) can be found on the RVO web page.

  18. 77 FR 8755 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Temporary Tolerance Exemption for Residues of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. Potentially affected... code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532). This... environmental effects from exposure to the pesticides discussed in this document, compared to the general...

  19. Pesticide Use Site Index

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pesticide Use Site Index will help a company (or other applicant) identify which data requirements are needed to register a pesticide product. It provides information on pesticide use sites and pesticide major use patterns.

  20. Introduction to Pesticide Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide product labels provide critical information about how to safely and legally handle and use pesticide products. Unlike most other types of product labels, pesticide labels are legally enforceable. Learn about pesticide product labels.

  1. Russian EVA 28

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-16

    ISS026-E-027391 (16 Feb. 2011) --- Russian cosmonaut Dmitry Kondratyev, Expedition 26 flight engineer, wearing a Russian Orlan-MK spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) focused on the installation of two scientific experiments outside the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station. During the four-hour, 51-minute spacewalk, Kondratyev and Russian cosmonaut Oleg Skripochka (out of frame), flight engineer, installed a pair of earthquake and lightning sensing experiments and retrieved a pair of spacecraft material evaluation panels.

  2. Russian EVA-31 spacewalk

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-20

    ISS032-E-021080 (20 Aug. 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka, Expedition 32 commander, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 51-minute spacewalk, Padalka and Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko (out of frame), flight engineer, moved the Strela-2 cargo boom from the Pirs docking compartment to the Zarya module to prepare Pirs for its eventual replacement with a new Russian multipurpose laboratory module. The two spacewalking cosmonauts also installed micrometeoroid debris shields on the exterior of the Zvezda service module and deployed a small science satellite.

  3. Russian EVA 26

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-15

    ISS025-E-015238 (15 Nov. 2010) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Skripochka, Expedition 25 flight engineer, wearing a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 27-minute spacewalk, Skripochka and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame), flight engineer, installed a multipurpose workstation on the starboard side of the Zvezda Service Module’s large-diameter section and relocated a television camera from one end of the Rassvet docking compartment to the other.

  4. Russian EVA-31 spacewalk

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-20

    ISS032-E-021293 (20 Aug. 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko, Expedition 32 flight engineer, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 51-minute spacewalk, Malenchenko and Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka (out of frame), commander, moved the Strela-2 cargo boom from the Pirs docking compartment to the Zarya module to prepare Pirs for its eventual replacement with a new Russian multipurpose laboratory module. The two spacewalking cosmonauts also installed micrometeoroid debris shields on the exterior of the Zvezda service module and deployed a small science satellite.

  5. Russian EVA-31 spacewalk

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-20

    ISS032-E-020892 (20 Aug. 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko, Expedition 32 flight engineer, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 51-minute spacewalk, Malenchenko and Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka (out of frame), commander, moved the Strela-2 cargo boom from the Pirs docking compartment to the Zarya module to prepare Pirs for its eventual replacement with a new Russian multipurpose laboratory module. The two spacewalking cosmonauts also installed micrometeoroid debris shields on the exterior of the Zvezda service module and deployed a small science satellite.

  6. Russian EVA-31 spacewalk

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-20

    ISS032-E-020576 (20 Aug. 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka, Expedition 32 commander, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 51-minute spacewalk, Padalka and Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko (out of frame), flight engineer, moved the Strela-2 cargo boom from the Pirs docking compartment to the Zarya module to prepare Pirs for its eventual replacement with a new Russian multipurpose laboratory module. The two spacewalking cosmonauts also installed micrometeoroid debris shields on the exterior of the Zvezda service module and deployed a small science satellite.

  7. Russian EVA-31 spacewalk

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-20

    ISS032-E-021028 (20 Aug. 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka, Expedition 32 commander, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 51-minute spacewalk, Padalka and Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko (out of frame), flight engineer, moved the Strela-2 cargo boom from the Pirs docking compartment to the Zarya module to prepare Pirs for its eventual replacement with a new Russian multipurpose laboratory module. The two spacewalking cosmonauts also installed micrometeoroid debris shields on the exterior of the Zvezda service module and deployed a small science satellite.

  8. Russian EVA-31 spacewalk

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-20

    ISS032-E-021024 (20 Aug. 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka, Expedition 32 commander, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 51-minute spacewalk, Padalka and Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko (out of frame), flight engineer, moved the Strela-2 cargo boom from the Pirs docking compartment to the Zarya module to prepare Pirs for its eventual replacement with a new Russian multipurpose laboratory module. The two spacewalking cosmonauts also installed micrometeoroid debris shields on the exterior of the Zvezda service module and deployed a small science satellite.

  9. Russian EVA 26

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-15

    ISS025-E-015066 (15 Nov. 2010) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Skripochka, Expedition 25 flight engineer, wearing a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 27-minute spacewalk, Skripochka and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame), flight engineer, installed a multipurpose workstation on the starboard side of the Zvezda Service Module’s large-diameter section and relocated a television camera from one end of the Rassvet docking compartment to the other.

  10. Russian EVA 36.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-09

    ISS037-E-028076 (9 Nov. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Sergey Ryazanskiy, Expedition 37 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, uses a digital still camera to expose a photo of his helmet visor during a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as work continues on the International Space Station. Also visible in the reflections in the visor are Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov, flight engineer, and various components of the space station and a blue and white portion of Earth. During the five-hour, 50-minute spacewalk, Kotov and Ryazanskiy continued the setup of a combination EVA workstation and biaxial pointing platform that was installed during an Expedition 36 spacewalk on Aug. 22.

  11. Russian EVA 26

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-15

    ISS025-E-015217 (15 Nov. 2010) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Skripochka, Expedition 25 flight engineer, wearing a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 27-minute spacewalk, Skripochka and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame), flight engineer, installed a multipurpose workstation on the starboard side of the Zvezda Service Module’s large-diameter section and relocated a television camera from one end of the Rassvet docking compartment to the other.

  12. Russian EVA-31 spacewalk

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-20

    ISS032-E-020884 (20 Aug. 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko, Expedition 32 flight engineer, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 51-minute spacewalk, Malenchenko and Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka (out of frame), commander, moved the Strela-2 cargo boom from the Pirs docking compartment to the Zarya module to prepare Pirs for its eventual replacement with a new Russian multipurpose laboratory module. The two spacewalking cosmonauts also installed micrometeoroid debris shields on the exterior of the Zvezda service module and deployed a small science satellite.

  13. Russian EVA 35

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-22

    ISS036-E-035200 (22 Aug. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 58-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame) completed the replacement of a laser communications experiment with a new platform for a small optical camera system, the installation of new spacewalk aids and an inspection of antenna covers. A section of the space station is visible in the reflections in his helmet visor.

  14. Russian EVA 26

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-15

    ISS025-E-015071 (15 Nov. 2010) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Skripochka, Expedition 25 flight engineer, wearing a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 27-minute spacewalk, Skripochka and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame), flight engineer, installed a multipurpose workstation on the starboard side of the Zvezda Service Module’s large-diameter section and relocated a television camera from one end of the Rassvet docking compartment to the other.

  15. Russian EVA 36

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-09

    ISS037-E-028789 (9 Nov. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Sergey Ryazanskiy, Expedition 37 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, is pictured during a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) in support of assembly and maintenance on the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 50-minute spacewalk, Ryazanskiy and Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov (out of frame) continued the setup of a combination EVA workstation and biaxial pointing platform that was installed during an Expedition 36 spacewalk on Aug. 22. Earth’s horizon and the blackness of space provide the backdrop for the scene.

  16. Russian EVA 35

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-22

    ISS036-E-035177 (22 Aug. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 58-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame) completed the replacement of a laser communications experiment with a new platform for a small optical camera system, the installation of new spacewalk aids and an inspection of antenna covers. Parts of solar array panels on the orbital outpost are visible in the background,

  17. Russian EVA 35

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-22

    ISS036-E-035198 (22 Aug. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 58-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame) completed the replacement of a laser communications experiment with a new platform for a small optical camera system, the installation of new spacewalk aids and an inspection of antenna covers. A section of the space station is visible in the reflections in his helmet visor.

  18. Research on Russian National Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Na, Zhuo

    2008-01-01

    The special geographical location Russia lies in creates the unique character of the Russian nation. Based on the dual nature of the Russian national character, the Russian geographical environment and the analysis of its social structure, this text tries to explore the reasons of the dual nature of Russian national character.

  19. Russian translations for Cochrane.

    PubMed

    Yudina, E V; Ziganshina, L E

    2015-01-01

    Cochrane collaboration has made a huge contribution to the development of evidence-based medicine; Cochrane work is the international gold standard of independent, credible and reliable high-quality information in medicine. Over the past 20 years the Cochrane Collaboration helped transforming decision-making in health and reforming it significantly, saving lives and contributing to longevity [1]. Until recently, Cochrane evidence were available only in English, which represents a significant barrier to their wider use in non-English speaking countries. To provide access to evidence, obtained from Cochrane Reviews, for health professionals and general public (from non-English-speaking countries), bypassing language barriers, Cochrane collaboration in 2014 initiated an international project of translating Plain language summaries of Cochrane Reviews into other languages [2, 3]. Russian translations of Plain language summaries were started in May 2014 by the team from Kazan Federal University (Department of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology; 2014-2015 as an Affiliated Centre in Tatarstan of the Nordic Cochrane Centre, since August 2015 as Cochrane Russia, a Russian branch of Cochrane Nordic, Head - Liliya Eugenevna Ziganshina) on a voluntary basis. To assess the quality of Russian translations of Cochrane Plain Language Summaries (PLS) and their potential impact on the Russian speaking community through user feedback with the overarching aim of furthering the translations project. We conducted the continuous online survey via Google Docs. We invited respondents through the electronic Russian language discussion forum on Essential Medicines (E-lek), links to survey on the Russian Cochrane.org website, invitations to Cochrane contributors registered in Archie from potential Russian-speaking countries. We set up the survey in Russian and English. The respondents were asked to respond to the questionnaire regarding the relevance and potential impact of the Cochrane Russian

  20. Russian EVA 33

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-011440 (24 June 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as work continues on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 34-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame), Expedition 36 flight engineer, replaced an aging fluid flow control panel on the station's Zarya module as preventative maintenance on the cooling system for the Russian segment of the station. They also installed clamps for future power cables as an early step toward swapping the Pirs airlock with a new multipurpose laboratory module. The Russian Federal Space Agency plans to launch a combination research facility, airlock and docking port late this year on a Proton rocket. Yurchikhin and Misurkin also retrieved two science experiments and installed one new one.

  1. Russian EVA 33

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-011439 (24 June 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as work continues on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 34-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame), Expedition 36 flight engineer, replaced an aging fluid flow control panel on the station's Zarya module as preventative maintenance on the cooling system for the Russian segment of the station. They also installed clamps for future power cables as an early step toward swapping the Pirs airlock with a new multipurpose laboratory module. The Russian Federal Space Agency plans to launch a combination research facility, airlock and docking port late this year on a Proton rocket. Yurchikhin and Misurkin also retrieved two science experiments and installed one new one.

  2. Russian EVA 33

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-011480 (24 June 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as work continues on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 34-minute spacewalk, Yurchikhin and Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin (out of frame), Expedition 36 flight engineer, replaced an aging fluid flow control panel on the station's Zarya module as preventative maintenance on the cooling system for the Russian segment of the station. They also installed clamps for future power cables as an early step toward swapping the Pirs airlock with a new multipurpose laboratory module. The Russian Federal Space Agency plans to launch a combination research facility, airlock and docking port late this year on a Proton rocket. Yurchikhin and Misurkin also retrieved two science experiments and installed a new one.

  3. Russian EVA 33

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-011747 (24 June 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin (bottom center), Expedition 36 flight engineer, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as work continues on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 34-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame), Expedition 36 flight engineer, replaced an aging fluid flow control panel on the station's Zarya module as preventative maintenance on the cooling system for the Russian segment of the station. They also installed clamps for future power cables as an early step toward swapping the Pirs airlock with a new multipurpose laboratory module. The Russian Federal Space Agency plans to launch a combination research facility, airlock and docking port late this year on a Proton rocket. Yurchikhin and Misurkin also retrieved two science experiments and installed a new one.

  4. Russian EVA 33

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-011459 (24 June 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as work continues on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 34-minute spacewalk, Yurchikhin and Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin (out of frame), Expedition 36 flight engineer, replaced an aging fluid flow control panel on the station's Zarya module as preventative maintenance on the cooling system for the Russian segment of the station. They also installed clamps for future power cables as an early step toward swapping the Pirs airlock with a new multipurpose laboratory module. The Russian Federal Space Agency plans to launch a combination research facility, airlock and docking port late this year on a Proton rocket. Yurchikhin and Misurkin also retrieved two science experiments and installed a new one.

  5. Russian EVA 33

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-011479 (24 June 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as work continues on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 34-minute spacewalk, Yurchikhin and Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin (out of frame), Expedition 36 flight engineer, replaced an aging fluid flow control panel on the station's Zarya module as preventative maintenance on the cooling system for the Russian segment of the station. They also installed clamps for future power cables as an early step toward swapping the Pirs airlock with a new multipurpose laboratory module. The Russian Federal Space Agency plans to launch a combination research facility, airlock and docking port late this year on a Proton rocket. Yurchikhin and Misurkin also retrieved two science experiments and installed a new one.

  6. Russian EVA 33

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-011642 (24 June 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as work continues on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 34-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame), Expedition 36 flight engineer, replaced an aging fluid flow control panel on the station's Zarya module as preventative maintenance on the cooling system for the Russian segment of the station. They also installed clamps for future power cables as an early step toward swapping the Pirs airlock with a new multipurpose laboratory module. The Russian Federal Space Agency plans to launch a combination research facility, airlock and docking port late this year on a Proton rocket. Yurchikhin and Misurkin also retrieved two science experiments and installed a new one.

  7. Russian EVA 33

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-011640 (24 June 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as work continues on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 34-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame), Expedition 36 flight engineer, replaced an aging fluid flow control panel on the station's Zarya module as preventative maintenance on the cooling system for the Russian segment of the station. They also installed clamps for future power cables as an early step toward swapping the Pirs airlock with a new multipurpose laboratory module. The Russian Federal Space Agency plans to launch a combination research facility, airlock and docking port late this year on a Proton rocket. Yurchikhin and Misurkin also retrieved two science experiments and installed a new one.

  8. Russian EVA 33

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-011481 (24 June 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as work continues on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 34-minute spacewalk, Yurchikhin and Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin (out of frame), Expedition 36 flight engineer, replaced an aging fluid flow control panel on the station's Zarya module as preventative maintenance on the cooling system for the Russian segment of the station. They also installed clamps for future power cables as an early step toward swapping the Pirs airlock with a new multipurpose laboratory module. The Russian Federal Space Agency plans to launch a combination research facility, airlock and docking port late this year on a Proton rocket. Yurchikhin and Misurkin also retrieved two science experiments and installed a new one.

  9. Russian EVA 33

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-011477 (24 June 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as work continues on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 34-minute spacewalk, Yurchikhin and Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin (out of frame), Expedition 36 flight engineer, replaced an aging fluid flow control panel on the station's Zarya module as preventative maintenance on the cooling system for the Russian segment of the station. They also installed clamps for future power cables as an early step toward swapping the Pirs airlock with a new multipurpose laboratory module. The Russian Federal Space Agency plans to launch a combination research facility, airlock and docking port late this year on a Proton rocket. Yurchikhin and Misurkin also retrieved two science experiments and installed a new one.

  10. Russian EVA 33

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-011608 (24 June 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as work continues on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 34-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame), Expedition 36 flight engineer, replaced an aging fluid flow control panel on the station's Zarya module as preventative maintenance on the cooling system for the Russian segment of the station. They also installed clamps for future power cables as an early step toward swapping the Pirs airlock with a new multipurpose laboratory module. The Russian Federal Space Agency plans to launch a combination research facility, airlock and docking port late this year on a Proton rocket. Yurchikhin and Misurkin also retrieved two science experiments and installed a new one.

  11. Russian EVA 33

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-011598 (24 June 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as work continues on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 34-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame), Expedition 36 flight engineer, replaced an aging fluid flow control panel on the station's Zarya module as preventative maintenance on the cooling system for the Russian segment of the station. They also installed clamps for future power cables as an early step toward swapping the Pirs airlock with a new multipurpose laboratory module. The Russian Federal Space Agency plans to launch a combination research facility, airlock and docking port late this year on a Proton rocket. Yurchikhin and Misurkin also retrieved two science experiments and installed one new one.

  12. Russian EVA 33

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-011441 (24 June 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as work continues on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 34-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame), Expedition 36 flight engineer, replaced an aging fluid flow control panel on the station's Zarya module as preventative maintenance on the cooling system for the Russian segment of the station. They also installed clamps for future power cables as an early step toward swapping the Pirs airlock with a new multipurpose laboratory module. The Russian Federal Space Agency plans to launch a combination research facility, airlock and docking port late this year on a Proton rocket. Yurchikhin and Misurkin also retrieved two science experiments and installed a new one.

  13. Russian EVA 33

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-011745 (24 June 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin (bottom center), Expedition 36 flight engineer, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as work continues on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 34-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame), Expedition 36 flight engineer, replaced an aging fluid flow control panel on the station's Zarya module as preventative maintenance on the cooling system for the Russian segment of the station. They also installed clamps for future power cables as an early step toward swapping the Pirs airlock with a new multipurpose laboratory module. The Russian Federal Space Agency plans to launch a combination research facility, airlock and docking port late this year on a Proton rocket. Yurchikhin and Misurkin also retrieved two science experiments and installed a new one.

  14. Russian Contract Procurement Document

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J G

    2010-03-29

    This contract supports the enhancement of physical protection or nuclear material control and accounting systems at institutes or enterprises of the newly independent states under the material protection control and accounting (MPC&A) program. The contract is entered into pursuant to the MPC&A Program, a gratuitous technical assistance program, in accordance with the bilateral Agreements between the Russian Federation and the United States of America concerning the Safe and Secure Transportation, Storage and Destruction of Weapons and the Prevention of Weapons Proliferation of June 1992, as extended and amended by Protocol signed of June 1999, Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation regarding Cooperation in the Area of Nuclear Materials Physical Protection, Control and Accounting of October 1999 and the Russian Federation law of May 1999 on the taxation exemption of gratuitous technical assistance with Russian Federation under registration No.DOE001000.

  15. Station Tour: Russian Segment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams concludes her tour of the International Space Station with a visit to the Russian segment, which includes Zarya, the first segment of the station launched in 1...

  16. Russian Education: Historical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, John C.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the evaluation of Russian educational concepts through six historical periods; stresses the significance of social, philosophical, political, and psychological factors that have affected Soviet educational policies used to instill Communist values. (JD)

  17. Obsolete pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Several hundred tons of obsolete pesticide stocks worldwide will pose a threat to humans and the environment until the year 2030 in some regions, unless funding for waste disposal is significantly increased, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) said in a message directed to donor governments and industry on May 24.“Deadly chemicals are contaminating the soils, groundwater, irrigation, and drinking water,” said Amemayehu Wodageneh, senior expert on obsolete pesticides for FAO. “These ‘forgotten’ stocks are a serious risk, [and] they could cause an environmental tragedy in rural areas and big cities. There is hardly any developing country that is not affected by the hazards of obsolete pesticides.”

  18. Genetic Stock Identification of Russian Honey Bees

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A genetic stock certification assay was developed to distinguish Russian honey bees from other European stocks that are commercially produced in the United States. A total of 11 microsatellite and 5 SNP loci were used. Loci were selected for relatively high levels of homogeneity within each group an...

  19. Establishment of multiple pesticide biodegradation capacities from pesticide-primed materials in on-farm biopurification system microcosms treating complex pesticide-contaminated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sniegowski, Kristel; Springael, Dirk

    2015-07-01

    On-farm biopurification systems (BPSs) treat pesticide-containing wastewater at farms by biodegradation and sorption processes. The inclusion of pesticide-primed material carrying a pesticide-degrading microbial community is beneficial for improving biodegradation, but no data exist for treating wastewater containing multiple pesticides, as often occurs on farms. In a microcosm set-up, an examination was carried out to determine whether multiple pesticide degradation activities could be simultaneously established in the matrix of a BPS by the simultaneous inclusion of different, appropriate pesticide-primed materials. The microcosms were fed with a mixture of pesticides including the fungicide metalaxyl and the herbicides bentazon, isoproturon, linuron and metamitron, and pesticide-degrading activities were monitored over time. The strategy immediately provided the microcosms with a multiple pesticide degradation/mineralisation capacity, which improved during feeding of the pesticide mixture. Not only did the degradation of the parent compound improve but also that of the produced metabolites and compound mineralisation. The time to achieve maximum degradation/mineralisation capacity depended on the pesticide degradation capacity of the pesticide-primed materials. The data obtained show that the addition of pesticide-primed materials into the matrix of a BPS as an approach to improve biodegradation can be extended to the treatment of pesticide mixtures. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. 75 FR 24692 - Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Requesting a Temporary Exemption From the Requirement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... adverse human health impacts or environmental effects from exposure to the pesticides discussed in this... are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. Potentially affected... code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532). This...

  1. 75 FR 1773 - Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Polymeric Polyhydroxy Acid in or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... adverse human health impacts or environmental effects from exposure to the pesticides discussed in this... are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. Potentially affected... code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532). This...

  2. Russian EVA 33

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-011593 (24 June 2013) --- Russian cosmonauts Alexander Misurkin (left) and Fyodor Yurchikhin, both Expedition 36 flight engineers, participate in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as work continues on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 34-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Yurchikhin replaced an aging fluid flow control panel on the station's Zarya module as preventative maintenance on the cooling system for the Russian segment of the station. They also installed clamps for future power cables as an early step toward swapping the Pirs airlock with a new multipurpose laboratory module. The Russian Federal Space Agency plans to launch a combination research facility, airlock and docking port late this year on a Proton rocket. Yurchikhin and Misurkin also retrieved two science experiments and installed one new one.

  3. Russian EVA 33

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-011590 (24 June 2013) --- Russian cosmonauts Alexander Misurkin (left) and Fyodor Yurchikhin, both Expedition 36 flight engineers, participate in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as work continues on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 34-minute spacewalk, Misurkin and Yurchikhin replaced an aging fluid flow control panel on the station's Zarya module as preventative maintenance on the cooling system for the Russian segment of the station. They also installed clamps for future power cables as an early step toward swapping the Pirs airlock with a new multipurpose laboratory module. The Russian Federal Space Agency plans to launch a combination research facility, airlock and docking port late this year on a Proton rocket. Yurchikhin and Misurkin also retrieved two science experiments and installed a new one.

  4. Russian BAR/EXPERT experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-28

    ISS020-E-035017 (27 Aug. 2009) --- Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka, Expedition 20 commander, uses the Russian BAR/EXPERT science payload to take various environmental measurements in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station.

  5. Russian BAR/EXPERT experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-28

    ISS020-E-035016 (27 Aug. 2009) --- Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka, Expedition 20 commander, uses the Russian BAR/EXPERT science payload to take various environmental measurements in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station.

  6. Russian BAR/EXPERT experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-28

    ISS020-E-035022 (27 Aug. 2009) --- Russian cosmonaut Roman Romanenko, Expedition 20 flight engineer, uses the Russian BAR/EXPERT science payload to take various environmental measurements in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station.

  7. Russian EVA 36

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-09

    ISS037-E-028788 (9 Nov. 2013) --- Russian cosmonauts Oleg Kotov and Sergey Ryazanskiy (mostly out of frame at bottom right), both Expedition 37 flight engineers, attired in Russian Orlan spacesuits, participate in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) in support of assembly and maintenance on the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 50-minute spacewalk, Kotov and Ryazanskiy continued the setup of a combination EVA workstation and biaxial pointing platform that was installed during an Expedition 36 spacewalk on Aug. 22. Earth’s horizon and the blackness of space provide the backdrop for the scene.

  8. Russian EVA 36

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-09

    ISS037-E-028787 (9 Nov. 2013) --- Russian cosmonauts Oleg Kotov (left) and Sergey Ryazanskiy, both Expedition 37 flight engineers, attired in Russian Orlan spacesuits, participate in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) in support of assembly and maintenance on the International Space Station. During the five-hour, 50-minute spacewalk, Kotov and Ryazanskiy continued the setup of a combination EVA workstation and biaxial pointing platform that was installed during an Expedition 36 spacewalk on Aug. 22. Earth’s horizon and the blackness of space provide the backdrop for the scene.

  9. Fate of pesticides during beer brewing.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tomonori; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Suga, Keiko; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2011-04-27

    The fates of more than 300 pesticide residues were investigated in the course of beer brewing. Ground malt artificially contaminated with pesticides was brewed via steps such as mashing, boiling, and fermentation. Analytical samples were taken from wort, spent grain, and beer produced at certain key points in the brewing process. The samples were extracted and purified with the QuEChERS (Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe) method and were then analyzed by LC-MS/MS using a multiresidue method. In the results, a majority of pesticides showed a reduction in the unhopped wort and were adsorbed onto the spent grain after mashing. In addition, some pesticides diminished during the boiling and fermentation. This suggests that the reduction was caused mainly by adsorption, pyrolysis, and hydrolysis. After the entire process of brewing, the risks of contaminating beer with pesticides were reduced remarkably, and only a few pesticides remained without being removed or resolved.

  10. Introduction to Pesticide Incidents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticides incidents must be reported by pesticide registrants. Others, such as members of the public and environmental professionals, would like to report pesticide incidents. This website will explain and facilitate such incident reporting.

  11. Endangered Species: Pesticide Restrictions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Our goal is to protect threatened and endangered species and their habitats, without placing unnecessary burden on agriculture and pesticide users. Pesticide limitations are developed to ensure safe use of pesticides in order to meet this goal.

  12. Expedition 9 Russian News Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-20

    NASA Deputy Administrator Fred Gregory, second from right, and Russian Federal Space Agency Deputy General-Director Nikolai Moiseev, center, answer questions from reporters along with other Russian space officials at a news conference, Wednesday, April 21, 2004, at the Russian Mission Control Center outside Moscow following the docking of the Expedition 9 crew and a European Space Agency astronaut to the International Space Station in a Russian Soyuz spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Expedition 9 Russian News Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-20

    NASA Deputy Administrator Fred Gregory, far right, and Russian Federal Space Agency Deputy General-Director Nikolai Moiseev, second from right, answer questions from reporters along with other Russian space officials at a news conference, Wednesday, April 21, 2004, at the Russian Mission Control Center outside Moscow following the docking of the Expedition 9 crew and a European Space Agency astronaut to the International Space Station in a Russian Soyuz spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Roots of Russian Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    is the Russians.13 Although students of Russian (or French) military history know about Russia’s scorched earth policy—leaving no resources for the...7 6. Russians in the Caucasus Russia has a long history in the Caucasus going back centuries. During the “First” Chechen war, Russia fought an...Russian irregular warfare in previous wars. Although history is an imperfect teacher, in that events will never repeat exactly as they once occurred, it

  15. Setting Tolerances for Pesticide Residues in Foods

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticides are widely used in producing food and may remain in small amounts in or on fruits, vegetables, grains, and other foods. EPA ensures the safety of the food supply regulating the amount of pesticide that may remain on food. Learn how we do this.

  16. 77 FR 41284 - Azoxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. Potentially... pesticide chemical residue in or on a food) only if EPA determines that the tolerance is ``safe.'' Section...- observed-adverse-effect-level (LOAEL). Decreased body weight/weight gain and food utilization was noted in...

  17. Soil column leaching of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    persistence (DT50) of the pesticide, and its sorption/desorption(Koc) characteristics. These parameters may vary for the same pesticide from geographic site-to-site and with soil depth. The interactions that normally occur between pesticides and dissolved organic matter (DOM) or WDC are yet other factors that may complicate pesticide leaching behavior.The soil mobility of pesticides is normally tested both in the laboratory and in the field. Lab studies are initially performed to give researchers a preliminary appraisal of the relative mobility of a pesticide. Later, field lysimeter studies can be performed to provide more natural leaching conditions that emulate the actual field use pattern. Lysimeter studies give the most reliable information on the leaching behavior of a pesticide under field conditions, but these studies are time-consuming and expensive and cannot be performed everywhere. It is for this reason that the laboratory soil column leaching approach is commonly utilized to profile the mobility of a pesticide,and appraise how it behaves in different soils, and relative to other pesticides.Because the soil structure is chemically and physically heterogenous, different pesticide tests may produce variable DT50 and Koc values; therefore, initial pesticide mobility testing is undertaken in homogeneously packed columns that contain two or more soils and are eluted at constant flow rates. Such studies are done in duplicate and utilize a conservative tracer element. By fitting an appropriate mathematical model to the breakthrough curve of the conservative tracer selected,researchers determine key mobility parameters, such as pore water velocity, the column-specific dispersion coefficient, and the contribution of non equilibrium transport processes. Such parameters form the basis for estimating the probable transport and degradation rates that will be characteristic of the tested pesticide. Researchers also examine how a pesticide interacts with soil DOM and WDC, and

  18. 75 FR 56897 - S-metolachlor; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. Potentially... allows EPA to establish a tolerance (the legal limit for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food.... Quantitative acute dietary exposure and risk assessments are performed for a food-use pesticide, if a...

  19. 77 FR 10515 - Pesticide Product Registrations; Conditional Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. Potentially affected entities may include, but are... registration will not cause any unreasonable adverse effect on the environment, and that use of the pesticide... taken to ensure that use of the pesticides will not result in unreasonable adverse effects to man and...

  20. 76 FR 551 - Pesticide Product Registrations; Conditional Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. Potentially affected entities may include... effects; and that use of the pesticide is in the public interest. The Agency has considered the available... unreasonable adverse effect on the environment, and that use of the pesticide is in the public interest...

  1. 75 FR 57019 - Pesticide Product Registrations; Conditional Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... affected by this action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer... production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532... unreasonable adverse effects; and that use of the pesticide is in the public interest. The Agency has...

  2. Studying Russian and Soviet History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Abraham, Ed.

    These essays were written to assist teachers in the task of making Russian history intelligible to young U.S. students. In "An Approach to Russian History," Edward Keenan proposes that students need to gain a better understanding of how Russians perceive themselves and their history. In "Pre-Petrine Russia," Andrzej S. Kaminski…

  3. 76 FR 2110 - Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... adverse human health impacts or environmental effects from exposure to the pesticides discussed in this... affected by this action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer... production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532...

  4. 78 FR 1798 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. The following list of North American Industrial... (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide... environmental effects from exposure to the pesticides discussed in this document, compared to the general...

  5. On Lying in Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondry, Henrietta; Taylor, John R.

    1992-01-01

    It is argued that any attempt to explicate the notion of lying can proceed only on a prior understanding of the notion of truth. Two Russian words for "truth" and two for "lie" are examined, and various dimensions of meanings of the pairs are discussed. (17 references) (LB)

  6. The Overeducated Russian?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binyon, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Despite its planned, centrally directed economy, Russia has not been able to tailor its university system to its manpower needs. Peculiarities in the Russian system, including the method for planning enrollments, stiff competition for university acceptance, and application regulations, are discussed. (JMD)

  7. English Loanwords in Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Morton

    1959-01-01

    This introductory survey describes the English contribution to the vocabulary of modern Russian. The author presents an analysis of English loanwords based on the etymologies of Vasmer and Lexin, by subject classification (amusements, clothing, economics, food, nautical terminology, and technology). Separate commentary on sporting terms, where…

  8. Teaching Russian Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vakar, Nicholas

    1949-01-01

    Prior to World War Two, Slavic studies in America treated history, literature, and language as isolated disciplines and often neglected the study of Russian literature written after 1917. The pragmatic necessities of the war questioned the relevance of this traditional approach and specialists appeared, concentrating their efforts on the recent…

  9. Russian Resource Materials Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Viveca

    This guide provides the teacher of Russian with helpful background material and activities on the geography of the Soviet Union and the history of Russia as well as its customs, traditions, literary selections, songs, foods, and festivals. In addition to these topics, the introductory chapter outlines a philosophy for teaching and learning Russian…

  10. Spoken Russian; Book Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomfield, Leonard; Petrova, Luba

    This course in spoken Russian is intended for use in introductory conversational classes. Book II in the two volume series is divided into three major parts, each containing five learning units and one unit devoted to review. Each unit contains sections including (1) basic sentences, (2) word study and review of basic sentences, (3) listening…

  11. Russian Librarianship after Perestroika.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Boris

    1995-01-01

    Provides historical background and describes the change in the role of Russian libraries from conduits for party propaganda to organizations designed to serve the needs of their users. Considers problems for library educators in providing librarians with the skills needed in the new political and technological environment of post-Communist Russia.…

  12. Russian Resource Materials Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Viveca

    This guide provides the teacher of Russian with helpful background material and activities on the geography of the Soviet Union and the history of Russia as well as its customs, traditions, literary selections, songs, foods, and festivals. In addition to these topics, the introductory chapter outlines a philosophy for teaching and learning Russian…

  13. Pesticide contamination of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Houbraken, Michael; Spranghers, Thomas; De Clercq, Patrick; Cooreman-Algoed, Margot; Couchement, Tasmien; De Clercq, Griet; Verbeke, Sarah; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2016-06-15

    The use of pesticides contributes to the productivity and the quality of the cultivated crop. A large portion of the agricultural produce is not consumed as it is not an edible part or the quality of the product is too low. This waste of agricultural produce can be valorised as a substrate for the production of certain insects for human consumption. However, pesticides applied on the plants might accumulate during the life cycle of the insects fed on the waste materials and may cause a health risk to humans consuming the insects. Pesticide residues in larvae of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, were investigated. We monitored the accumulation of pesticides in the larvae upon consumption of contaminated fresh produce. An increased uptake rate by the insects was found for pesticides with higher Kow-values. Excretion of pesticides by the insect was inversely related to the log(Kow) values of the pesticides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The geochemistry of pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbash, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    The mid-1970s marked a major turning point in human history, for it was at that moment that the ability of the Earth's ecosystems to absorb most of the biological impacts of human activities appears to have been exceeded by the magnitude of those impacts. This conclusion is based partly upon estimates of the rate of carbon dioxide emission during the combustion of fossil fuels, relative to the rate of its uptake by terrestrial ecosystems (Loh, 2002). A very different threshold, however, had already been crossed several decades earlier with the birth of the modern chemical industry, which produced novel substances for which no such natural assimilative capacity existed. Among these new chemical compounds, none has posed a greater challenge to the planet's ecosystems than synthetic pesticides, compounds that have been intentionally released into the hydrologic system in vast quantities—several hundred million pounds of active ingredient (a.i.) per year in the United States alone (Donaldson et al., 2002)—for many decades. To gauge the extent to which we are currently able to assess the environmental implications of this new development in the Earth's history, this chapter presents an overview of current understanding regarding the sources, transport, fate, and biological effects of pesticides, their transformation products, and selected adjuvants in the hydrologic system. (Adjuvants are the so-called inert ingredients included in commercial pesticide formulations to enhance the effectiveness of the active ingredients.)

  15. The geochemistry of pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbash, Jack E.

    2007-01-01

    The mid-1970s marked a major turning point in human history, for it was at that moment that the ability of the Earth’s ecosystems to absorb most of the biological impacts of human activities appears to have been exceeded by the magnitude of those impacts. This conclusion is based partly upon estimates of the rate of carbon dioxide emission during the combustion of fossil fuels, relative to the rate of its uptake by terrestrial ecosystems (Loh, 2002). A very different threshold, however, had already been crossed several decades earlier with the birth of the modern chemical industry, which produced novel substances for which no such natural assimilative capacity existed. Among these new chemical compounds, none has posed a greater challenge to the planet’s ecosystems than synthetic pesticides, compounds that have been intentionally released into the hydrologic system in vast quantities—several hundred million pounds of active ingredient (a.i.) per year in the United States alone (Donaldson et al., 2002)—for many decades. To gauge the extent to which we are currently able to assess the environmental implications of this new development in the Earth’s history, this chapter presents an overview of current understanding regarding the sources, transport, fate, and biological effects of pesticides, their transformation products, and selected adjuvants in the hydrologic system. (Adjuvants are the so-called inert ingredients included in commercial pesticide formulations to enhance the effectiveness of the active ingredients.)

  16. The Geochemistry of Pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbash, J. E.

    2003-12-01

    The mid-1970s marked a major turning point in human history, for it was at that moment that the ability of the Earth's ecosystems to absorb most of the biological impacts of human activities appears to have been exceeded by the magnitude of those impacts. This conclusion is based partly upon estimates of the rate of carbon dioxide emission during the combustion of fossil fuels, relative to the rate of its uptake by terrestrial ecosystems (Loh, 2002). A very different threshold, however, had already been crossed several decades earlier with the birth of the modern chemical industry, which produced novel substances for which no such natural assimilative capacity existed. Among these new chemical compounds, none has posed a greater challenge to the planet's ecosystems than synthetic pesticides, compounds that have been intentionally released into the hydrologic system in vast quantities - several hundred million pounds of active ingredient per year in the United States alone ( Donaldson et al., 2002) - for many decades. To gauge the extent to which we are currently able to assess the environmental implications of this new development in the Earth's history, this chapter presents an overview of current understanding regarding the sources, transport, fate and biological effects of pesticides, their transformation products, and selected adjuvants in the hydrologic system. (Adjuvants are the so-called "inert ingredients" included in commercial pesticide formulations to enhance the effectiveness of the active ingredients.)

  17. Scientists Probe Pesticide Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes discussions of a symposium on pesticide environmental dynamics with emphases upon pesticide transport processes, environmental reactions, and partitioning in air, soil, water and living organisms. Indicates that the goal is to attain knowledge enough to predict pesticide behavior and describe pesticide distribution with models and…

  18. Scientists Probe Pesticide Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes discussions of a symposium on pesticide environmental dynamics with emphases upon pesticide transport processes, environmental reactions, and partitioning in air, soil, water and living organisms. Indicates that the goal is to attain knowledge enough to predict pesticide behavior and describe pesticide distribution with models and…

  19. Organochlorine pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, Lawrence J.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    1995-01-01

    the discovery of the insecticidal properties of DDT, which led to its subsequent use in pest control,w as hailed as a tremendous scientiffic achievement. Initial success with DDT in controlling human health pests during World War II, and subsequent success in agricultural pest control, stimulated the synthesis and development of related organochlorine pestidices; their use increased exponentially following the war.1 At first, evidence slowly accumulated that nearly all of these compounds were having widespread adverse effects on nontarget organisms. Later, a veritable mountain of evidence was amassed relating to their toxicity, persistence, and lipophilic characteristics, which resulted in accumulation of residues, mortality, lowered reproductive success, and decline - even extirpation - of certain populations of wildlife.2,3 Ecotoxicological data for organochlorine pesticides are limited in much of the world because most research has been conducted in relatively few countries. It is likely that no other group of contaminants of anthropogenic origin has exacted such a heavy toll on the environment as have the organochlorine pesticide.

  20. Russian Rocket Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA engineers successfully tested a Russian-built rocket engine on November 4, 1998 at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Engine Test Facility, which had been used for testing the Saturn V F-1 engines and Space Shuttle Main engines. The MSFC was under a Space Act Agreement with Lockheed Martin Astronautics of Denver to provide a series of test firings of the Atlas III propulsion system configured with the Russian-designed RD-180 engine. The tests were designed to measure the performance of the Atlas III propulsion system, which included avionics and propellant tanks and lines, and how these components interacted with the RD-180 engine. The RD-180 is powered by kerosene and liquid oxygen, the same fuel mix used in Saturn rockets. The RD-180, the most powerful rocket engine tested at the MSFC since Saturn rocket tests in the 1960s, generated 860,000 pounds of thrust.

  1. Russian EVA 38.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-19

    Cosmonaut Oleg Artemyev (EV2),in the blue striped Orlan suit,and Cosmonaut Alexander Skvortsov,in the red striped Orlan suit,are photographed at work during Russian EVA 38 by Expedition 40 crewmembers aboard the ISS. They are working to Installed the AFAR (Automatic Phased Array Antenna) Unit of the [EKTC] (Integrated Command and Telemetry System) external FU (Feeder Unit) between PI.II-III on Service Module (SM) circumferential handrails.

  2. Russian Rocket Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA engineers successfully tested a Russian-built rocket engine on November 4, 1998 at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Engine Test Facility, which had been used for testing the Saturn V F-1 engines and Space Shuttle Main engines. The MSFC was under a Space Act Agreement with Lockheed Martin Astronautics of Denver to provide a series of test firings of the Atlas III propulsion system configured with the Russian-designed RD-180 engine. The tests were designed to measure the performance of the Atlas III propulsion system, which included avionics and propellant tanks and lines, and how these components interacted with the RD-180 engine. The RD-180 is powered by kerosene and liquid oxygen, the same fuel mix used in Saturn rockets. The RD-180, the most powerful rocket engine tested at the MSFC since Saturn rocket tests in the 1960s, generated 860,000 pounds of thrust. The test was the first test ever anywhere outside Russia of a Russian designed and built engine.

  3. Russian electrometallurgy: Achievements, problems, prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utochkin, Yu. I.; Semin, A. E.

    2011-12-01

    The changes in the Russian metallurgy, in particular, electric furnace steelmaking, having occurred in the recent years are analyzed. The main increase in the steelmaking output is due to putting into operation of new electric furnaces in new miniworks and enterprises equipped earlier with open-hearth furnaces. Reaching the rated capacity of a furnace in Russia substantially lags behind foreign enterprises. Only 30-35% of the Russian market of corrosion-resistant steel are provided by Russian metal.

  4. Russian expats seek research reforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Over 170 Russian researchers working abroad have signed a letter addressed to the Russian president, Dmitry Medvedev, and prime minister Vladimir Putin raising concerns about "the catastrophic state of basic science" in the country. The letter, which appeared last month in the Moscow business paper Vedomosti, warns Russian leaders that unless urgent measures are implemented by the government, then science in the country may collapse.

  5. "Causes" of pesticide safety behavior change in Latino farmworker families.

    PubMed

    Grzywacz, Joseph G; Arcury, Thomas A; Talton, Jennifer W; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Trejo, Grisel; Mirabelli, Maria C; Quandt, Sara A

    2013-07-01

    To identify the source of behavior change resulting from a health education intervention focused on pesticide safety. Data were from the La Familia Sana demonstration project, a promotora-delivered pesticide safety education intervention conducted with immigrant Latinos (N = 610). The La Familia Sana program produced changes in 3 sets of pesticide safety behaviors. Changes in the conceptual targets of the intervention and promotora attributes explained 0.45-6% and 0.5-3% of the changes in pesticide-related behavior, respectively. The conceptual targets of the La Familia Sana program explained the greatest amount of change in pesticide-related behavior. Promotora attributes also contributed to intervention success.

  6. Russian Mission Control Center

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-20

    Helen Conijn, fiancée of European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers of the Netherlands, far right, joins Renita Fincke, second from right, wife of Expedition 9 Flight Engineer and NASA International Space Station Science Officer Michael Fincke, along with family members at the Russian Mission Control Center outside Moscow, Wednesday, April 21, 2004 to view the docking of the Soyuz capsule to the International Space Station that brought Kuipers, Fincke and Expedition 9 Commander Gennady Padalka to the complex following their launch Monday from Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Diminutivization supports gender acquisition in Russian children.

    PubMed

    Kempe, Vera; Brooks, Patricia J; Mironova, Natalija; Fedorova, Olga

    2003-05-01

    Gender agreement elicitation was used with Russian children to examine how diminutives common in Russian child-directed speech affect gender learning. Forty-six children (2;9-4;8) were shown pictures of familiar and of novel animals and asked to describe them after hearing their names, which all contained regular morphophonological cues to masculine or feminine gender. Half were presented as simplex (e.g. jozh 'porcupine') and half as diminutive forms (e.g. jozhik 'porcupine-DIM'). Children produced fewer agreement errors for diminutive than for simplex nouns, indicating that the regularizing features of diminutives enhance gender categorization. The study demonstrates how features of child-directed speech can facilitate language learning.

  8. Securitization of Russian Strategic Communication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-02

    102 i SCHOOL OF ADVANCED MILITARY STUDIES MONOGRAPH APPROVAL Rank and Student Full Name Title of Monograph: The Securitization of Russian... culture of like-mindedness and the securitization of Russian strategic communications. The increasing securitization of strategic communications brings...state owned corporations at rates that bordered on gifts rather than fair monetary exchange. 15 As Russia underwent this economic struggle, the

  9. Russian Higher Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khisamutdinov, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    In the first half of the twentieth century, Russian emigrants in China established a network of higher education institutions based on the prerevolutionary Russian educational system. By referring to memoirs and publications in the periodical press, the author traces the history of the most significant educational establishments: Harbin School of…

  10. Agreement and Attraction in Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorimor, Heidi; Bock, Kathryn; Zalkind, Ekaterina; Sheyman, Alina; Beard, Robert

    2008-01-01

    We assessed whether and under what conditions noncanonical agreement patterns occur in Russian, with the goal of understanding the factors involved in normal agreement. Russian is a morphosyntactically rich language in which agreement involves features for number, gender, and case. If consistent, overt specification of number and gender agreement…

  11. PLATO Sitcom Dialogs for Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Clayton; Provenzano, Nolen

    1981-01-01

    Situation comedy (sitcom) dialogs that are included in PLATO lessons for first year Russian students are described. These comprehension exercises make use of both the touch panel and the audio capabilities of PLATO. The sitcom dialogs were written by a native speaker of Russian and are based on the vocabulary in the textbook plus a small number of…

  12. PLATO Sitcom Dialogs for Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Clayton; Provenzano, Nolen

    1981-01-01

    Situation comedy (sitcom) dialogs that are included in PLATO lessons for first year Russian students are described. These comprehension exercises make use of both the touch panel and the audio capabilities of PLATO. The sitcom dialogs were written by a native speaker of Russian and are based on the vocabulary in the textbook plus a small number of…

  13. Pesticide Labeling Questions & Answers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide manufacturers, applicators, state regulatory agencies, and other stakeholders raise questions or issues about pesticide labels. The questions on this page are those that apply to multiple products or address inconsistencies among product labels.

  14. Revoking Pesticide Tolerances

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA revokes pesticide tolerances when all registrations of a pesticide have been canceled in the U.S. and the tolerances are not needed for imported foods or when there are no registered uses for certain crops.

  15. Exploring Pesticide Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Examines environmental problems associated with the use of pesticides, and suggests thirty learning activities designed to give elementary school children a better understanding of the problem of pesticide pollution. (JR)

  16. National Pesticide Standard Repository

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's National Pesticide Standards Repository collects and maintains an inventory of analytical “standards” of registered pesticides in the United States, as well as some that are not currently registered for food and product testing and monitoring.

  17. The Pesticide Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, Van Den Robert

    1979-01-01

    Contains a discussion of insects' ability to survive, of the development of pesticides and the introduction of DDT, of the problems of pesticide use and resistance to insecticides, and of the advantages of integrated pest control. (BB)

  18. Exploring Pesticide Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Examines environmental problems associated with the use of pesticides, and suggests thirty learning activities designed to give elementary school children a better understanding of the problem of pesticide pollution. (JR)

  19. The Pesticide Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, Van Den Robert

    1979-01-01

    Contains a discussion of insects' ability to survive, of the development of pesticides and the introduction of DDT, of the problems of pesticide use and resistance to insecticides, and of the advantages of integrated pest control. (BB)

  20. Pesticide Label Review Training

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This training will help ensure that reviewers evaluate labels according to four core principles. It also will help pesticide registrants developing labels understand what EPA expects of pesticide labels, and what the Agency generally finds acceptable.

  1. Pesticides and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Pesticides and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to pesticides may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  2. Pesticide Registration Information System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PRISM provides an integrated, web portal for all pesticide related data, communications, registrations and transactions for OPP and its stakeholders, partners and customers. PRISM supports Strategic Goal 4 by automating pesticide registration processes.

  3. 75 FR 48933 - 2010 Russian Export Certification for Fishery Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... Federation According to the terms of the MOU, U.S. seafood firms in the supply chain desiring to produce... new requirements. More specifically, each U.S. seafood firm in the supply chain for export to the... seafood products produced at each U.S. seafood firm in the supply chain and exported to the Russian...

  4. Settlements Emphasize that Pesticides Need to be Labeled Correctly, Protecting Public and Environment from Misbranded Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has reached three settlements with companies that produce and/or market pesticides, resolving EPA allegations that the companies or their agents distributed and sold pesticide products which lacked required labels or were missing critic

  5. Pesticide residues in olive oil.

    PubMed

    Lentza-Rizos, C; Avramides, E J

    1995-01-01

    The attacks of pests and diseases and the presence of weeds make it necessary to apply pesticides to olive trees to ensure crop protection. Residues of these compounds may remain and contaminate the oil produced. For the analysis of pesticide residues in olive oil, the most common methods are multiresidue methods for fatty substrates, based on partitioning between hexane or light petroleum and acetonitrile. Recently, other methods have been applied, such as ready-to-use, disposable minicolumns or direct injection of oil into a capillary gas chromatograph equipped with a precolumn with an oil recovery tank. Although several pesticides are registered in oil-producing countries for use on olive trees, available literature on the level and fate of residues is very limited. However, it is clear that fat-soluble pesticides tend to concentrate in the oil, both after full coverage and bait spraying, and their use close to harvest should therefore be avoided. Because it is sometimes necessary to use such pesticides late in autumn because of their effectiveness in cases of severe attack, residue trials should be carried out to determine the residue concentration in oil and to set a reasonable preharvest safety interval. Data produced by such trials would permit the establishment of MRLs (tolerances) in olive oil to cover cases where the residues, although relatively high, are not of toxicological significance for consumers (risk assessment). Such is the case with corn oil and the fat-soluble insecticide methyl pirimiphos, registered in the U.S. for use on corn. The U.S. EPA tolerance for methyl pirimiphos in corn is 8 mg/kg, whereas it is 11 times higher (88 mg/kg) for corn oil because it is known to concentrate in the oil. Similar provisions for olive oil, based on data from residue trials according to Good Agricultural Practice, the long-term toxicity of each pesticide as expressed by its ADI for man, and olive oil consumption patterns, would facilitate international trade

  6. The Pesticide Scorecard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Jerome B.

    1977-01-01

    A scheme for comparing the relative toxicities and environmental safety of agricultural pesticides is presented. It is based on the sum of four key factors: (1) oral toxicity to rats, (2) oral toxicity to fish, (3) longevity, and (4) bioaccumulation. Thirty-one pesticides are ranked by these factors. The ranking indicates that new pesticides are…

  7. Pesticides and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Gaylen

    1973-01-01

    Consideration of the dangers of pesticides to the world ecosystem as well as the economic necessity which an affluent society has created are the two sides of the pesticide problem discussed in this issue. An attempt is made to clarify the issue, to recognize the ways that pesticides exert their effects, and to relate what measures can be taken to…

  8. The Pesticide Scorecard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Jerome B.

    1977-01-01

    A scheme for comparing the relative toxicities and environmental safety of agricultural pesticides is presented. It is based on the sum of four key factors: (1) oral toxicity to rats, (2) oral toxicity to fish, (3) longevity, and (4) bioaccumulation. Thirty-one pesticides are ranked by these factors. The ranking indicates that new pesticides are…

  9. Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee: Pesticide Incidents Workgroup

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA formed this workgroup to assist in meeting its long-term goal of creating a publically-available framework that improves the reporting, quality and efficient use of pesticide incident data to ensure high-quality, science-based pesticide decisions.

  10. Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-24

    digit HS categories: aircraft, machinery (mostly parts for oil and gas production equipment), and meat (mostly poultry ).3 Issues in U.S.-Russian Trade...Russia’s treatment of imports of U.S. meats— poultry , pork and beef—is one of the most sensitive issues in U.S.-Russian trade relations. Russia’s...expanding demand for meat, especially as the rise of Russian incomes has led to a rise in demand for meat in the Russian diet . U.S. producers, especially

  11. Expedition 9 Russian News Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-20

    NASA Deputy Administrator Fred Gregory, right, and Nikolai Moiseev, Deputy General-Director of the Russian Federal Space Agency, center, share a light-hearted moment at the Russian Mission Control Center outside Moscow, Wednesday, April 21, 2004, following the successful docking of a Russian Soyuz spacecraft to the International Space Station. The Soyuz brought the new Expedition 9 crew and a European Space Agency researcher to the Station following their launch from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Russian Orthography and Learning to Read

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerek, Eugenia; Niemi, Pekka

    2009-01-01

    The unique structure of Russian orthography may influence the organization and acquisition of reading skills in Russian. The present review examines phonemic-graphemic correspondences in Russian orthography and discusses its grain-size units and possible difficulties for beginning readers and writers. Russian orthography is governed by a…

  13. Pesticides and children.

    PubMed

    Garry, Vincent F

    2004-07-15

    Prevention and control of damage to health, crops, and property by insects, fungi, and noxious weeds are the major goals of pesticide applications. As with use of any biologically active agent, pesticides have unwanted side-effects. In this review, we will examine the thesis that adverse pesticide effects are more likely to occur in children who are at special developmental and behavioral risk. Children's exposures to pesticides in the rural and urban settings and differences in their exposure patterns are discussed. The relative frequency of pesticide poisoning in children is examined. In this connection, most reported acute pesticide poisonings occur in children younger than age 5. The possible epidemiological relationships between parental pesticide use or exposure and the risk of adverse reproductive outcomes and childhood cancer are discussed. The level of consensus among these studies is examined. Current concerns regarding neurobehavioral toxicity and endocrine disruption in juxtaposition to the relative paucity of toxicant mechanism-based studies of children are explored.

  14. The Development of Pragmatic Competence and Perception of Requests by American Learners of the Russian Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Valentina Nikolayevna Amelkina

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the cross-cultural realization of request patterns. The goal of the study is to compare the realization of requests produced by adult American English speaking learners of Russian (NNS) to that of native speakers of Russian and native speakers of English to identify the similarities and differences between native and…

  15. From Commodification to Weaponization: The Russian Language as "Pride" and "Profit" in Russia's Transnational Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryazanova-Clarke, Lara

    2017-01-01

    The article expands the debate about the interaction and conflict of linguistic commodification with other values attached to a language. It interrogates Russian dominant discourse produced between 2010 and 2015, focusing on how it attributes the values of "pride" and "profit" to the Russian language in three transnational…

  16. 76 FR 66690 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... International Trade Administration Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on solid urea from the Russian Federation. The solid urea subject to this review was produced and exported by MCC EuroChem (EuroChem). The period...

  17. The Development of Pragmatic Competence and Perception of Requests by American Learners of the Russian Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Valentina Nikolayevna Amelkina

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the cross-cultural realization of request patterns. The goal of the study is to compare the realization of requests produced by adult American English speaking learners of Russian (NNS) to that of native speakers of Russian and native speakers of English to identify the similarities and differences between native and…

  18. Exobiological investigations on Russian spacecrafts.

    PubMed

    Kuzicheva, Evgenia A; Gontareva, Natalia B

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the possibility of prebiotic synthesis of organic molecules in open space, conditions involved irradiating nucleosides and inorganic phosphate during five Earth-orbiting Russian space missions that included Salut-7 (13- and 16-month missions), Mir, Bion-11, and Cosmos-2044. Dry films of samples were exposed from 2 weeks up to 16 months to the entire set of factors encountered in open space during Earth-orbiting missions. After each mission, products synthesized during flight and any compounds that remained undegraded were analyzed. The analyses demonstrated that increased flight duration led to the decay of both synthesized nucleotides and initial nucleosides. Corresponding laboratory experiments indicated that infrared radiation caused the greatest amount of decay to products of prebiotic reactions. Experiments revealed that 5'-mononucleotides were the main chemical products of the major derivatives synthesized of certain nucleosides. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) C(145) was more effective than UVC(254) in producing a comparatively higher yield of mononucleotides, while the energy flux of the latter was one order of magnitude less (10(-7) as compared with 10(-6) for UVC(145)). In the course of the laboratory simulation experiments the heating of solid samples yielded the greatest production amount (6.34% for adenosine derivatives).

  19. Exobiological Investigations on Russian Spacecrafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzicheva, Evgenia A.; Gontareva, Natalia B.

    2003-06-01

    To investigate the possibility of prebiotic synthesis of organic molecules in open space, conditions involved irradiating nucleosides and inorganic phosphate during five Earth-orbiting Russian space missions that included Salut-7 (13- and 16-month missions), Mir, Bion-11, and Cosmos-2044. Dry films of samples were exposed from 2 weeks up to 16 months to the entire set of factors encountered in open space during Earth-orbiting missions. After each mission, products synthesized during flight and any compounds that remained undegraded were analyzed. The analyses demonstrated that increased flight duration led to the decay of both synthesized nucleotides and initial nucleosides. Corresponding laboratory experiments indicated that infrared radiation caused the greatest amount of decay to products of prebiotic reactions. Experiments revealed that 5'-mononucleotides were the main chemical products of the major derivatives synthesized of certain nucleosides. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) C145 was more effective than UVC254 in producing a comparatively higher yield of mononucleotides, while the energy flux of the latter was one order of magnitude less (10-7 as compared with 10-6 for UVC145). In the course of the laboratory simulation experiments the heating of solid samples yielded the greatest production amount (6.34% for adenosine derivatives).

  20. Risk Assessment Update: Russian Segment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric; Lear, Dana; Hyde, James; Bjorkman, Michael; Hoffman, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    BUMPER-II version 1.95j source code was provided to RSC-E- and Khrunichev at January 2012 MMOD TIM in Moscow. MEMCxP and ORDEM 3.0 environments implemented as external data files. NASA provided a sample ORDEM 3.0 g."key" & "daf" environment file set for demonstration and benchmarking BUMPER -II v1.95j installation at the Jan-12 TIM. ORDEM 3.0 has been completed and is currently in beta testing. NASA will provide a preliminary set of ORDEM 3.0 ".key" & ".daf" environment files for the years 2012 through 2028. Bumper output files produced using the new ORDEM 3.0 data files are intended for internal use only, not for requirements verification. Output files will contain these words ORDEM FILE DESCRIPTION = PRELIMINARY VERSION: not for production. The projectile density term in many BUMPER-II ballistic limit equations will need to be updated. Cube demo scripts and output files delivered at the Jan-12 TIM have been updated for the new ORDEM 3.0 data files. Risk assessment results based on ORDEM 3.0 and MEM will be presented for the Russian Segment (RS) of ISS.

  1. The Russian Navy: A Historic Transition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Additional resources: Posters of the Russian Navy Major Forces by Fleet, Russian Navy New Construction, and the Russian Federation Navy (map) are located...increasingly armed with the KALIBR family of weapons, will be able to more capably defend the maritime approaches to the Russian Federation and...must pass a modern and strong Navy.” - Vladimir Putin, President Russian Federation Navy Day, 26 July 2015 NOTE: The contents of this publication

  2. Inside the Russian Soyuz Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    In this episode of NASA: Behind the Scenes, take a tour inside the Russian Soyuz, the vehicle which takes the expedition crews back and forth to the International Space Station. Astronaut Mike Finc...

  3. Federal and state pesticide regulations and legislation.

    PubMed

    Miller, T A

    1975-01-01

    The combined research, education, and regulatory efforts of federal and state governments have made possible an impressive record of abundant production while imposing minimal harm to human health and the environment. Considering that approximately one billion pounds of pesticides are being applied in the United States annually to control about 2000 pest species, the safety record is remarkable. The increased public concern about environmental values and long-term health effects is constructive and is resulting in some of the regulatory changes discussed in this article. The Federal Environmental Pesticide Control Act can result in an improved and expanded joint effort by federal and state governments to limit the misuse of pesticides while permitting their use to facilitate increased production of food, feed, and fiber; provide protection from spoilage; improve health; and control nuisance insects and unwanted plants. Implementation of current regulations, plus those in the process of being enacted under authority of the new federal act, will be complex and costly. Regulations will control the registration, labeling, distribution, storage, use and application, and disposal of pesticides. A small segment of our society would like to have the use of all chemicals banned. A few individuals oppose all government controls. However, the vast majority of agricultural producer groups, representatives of industry, and the public support the need for pesticide regulations. Only through continued legal controls over pesticides may we hope to retain their use. Our society has gained tremendous benefits from the use of pesticides to prevent disease and to increase the production of food and fiber. Our need to use pesticides will continue to increase for the foreseeable future. Government agencies responsible for protecting human health and the environment must make sound judgments on an individual basis in evaluating the evidence concerning both the benefits and risks of using

  4. Russian Aviation and Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Russian Space Agency (RKA) was created on 25 February 1992 by a decree issued by the President of the Russian Federation. It was formed after the break-up of the former Soviet Union and the dissolution of the Soviet space program. The RKA uses the technology and launch sites that belonged to the former Soviet space program. This includes payment to Kazakhstan for use of the Baikonur Cosmodrom...

  5. Ames, pesticides, and cancer revisited.

    PubMed

    Richter, Elihu D; Chlamtac, Noga

    2002-01-01

    The case for continuing use of existing levels of pesticides in agriculture, espoused by Bruce Ames, is refuted. Ames' contentions that naturally occurring carcinogens are far more widespread than man-made ones, that pesticides prevent cancer by providing fruits and vegetables at lower costs to the poor, and that animal data on high risks with high doses cannot predict low risks from low doses in humans do not address key issues: 1) fruits and vegetables contain mixtures of carcinogens and anti-carcinogens, and selection effects from human exposures to these mixtures go back more than a million years; 2) exposures from bioconcentrations of biopersistent organochlorines in the food chain create particular risks for meat-eaters, who have higher cancer risks than vegetarians; 3) even low doses from ingestion of produce containing pesticide residues can cause tissue injury, which could itself promote cancer; 4) epidemiologic data show rises in cancer incidences in older people in many countries, major differences in cancer risks between countries, and converging trends in risks for populations migrating to certain countries; 5) studies of pesticide-exposed workers consistently show increased rates of cancers and birth defects and cancers in their offspring; 6) epidemiologic studies based on large databases tend to underestimate risks from environmental causes because of exposure misclassification; 7) exposures to many organochlorines may have pervasive effects on endocrine function; 8) crop yields can be increased with less use of pesticides. Studies demonstrating the latter need replication, and should be supported as part of a coherent government agenda to develop alternative farming methods.

  6. Pesticides and childhood cancers.

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, J L; Olshan, A F; Savitz, D A

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the possible association between pesticides and the risk of childhood cancers, epidemiologic studies published between 1970 and 1996 were critically reviewed. Thirty-one studies investigated whether occupational or residential exposure to pesticides by either parents or children was related to increased risk of childhood cancer. In general, the reported relative risk estimates were modest. Risk estimates appeared to be stronger when pesticide exposure was measured in more detail. Frequent occupational exposure to pesticides or home pesticide use was more strongly associated with both childhood leukemia and brain cancer than either professional exterminations or the use of garden pesticides. Occupational pesticide exposure was also associated with increased risk of Wilms' tumor, Ewing's sarcoma, and germ cell tumors. Residence on a farm, a proxy for pesticide exposure, was associated with increased risk of a number of childhood cancers. Although increased risk of some childhood cancers in association with pesticide exposure is suggested by multiple studies, methodological limitations common to many studies restrict conclusions; these include indirect exposure classification, small sample size, and potential biases in control selection. Opportunities for methodologic improvement in future studies of pesticides and childhood cancers are described. PMID:9349828

  7. Russian astronomical software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukashova, Marina V.; Glebova, Nina I.; Netsvetaev, Ilja N.; Netsvetaeva, Galina A.; Parijskaja, Ekaterina Ju.; Pitieva, Elena V.; Sveshnikov, Michael L.; Skripnichenko, Vladimir I.

    2012-08-01

    Institute of Applied Astronomy of RAS has published “ The Astronomical Yearbook ” ( AY) with 1921, “ The Nautical Astronomical Yearbook ” (NAY) with 1930, “ The Nautical Astronomical Almanac ”’ biennial (NAA - 2) with 2001. The new IAU2006/2000 precession - nutation models, and the FK6/HIPPARCOS stellar catalogues were used in these editions. Ephemeris editions are based on the domestic EPM2004 (IAA RAS) theory of movement of planets, Sun and Moon. The electronic versions are developed for two editions. The important stage of work is creation of “The Personal Astronomical Yearbook ”’ (PersAY). The system gives ample opportunities to the user to put and to solve tasks of calculation of ephemerides for any moment in various time scales, and for any location of the observer on a terrestrial surface. Also in PersAY it is possible to calculate by means of DE405/LE405 theory to make comparison with others ephemeris editions. The time interval of validity of the system makes 2010 - 2015. Besides system of the removed access the "Navigator" was developed. It intended to solve some the navigating tasks describe d in NAA - 2. The system is accessible on a site http://shturman.ipa.nw.ru/ (in Russian). In electronic systems as in Y the same reduce theories and the theory of movement of planets, the Sun, the Moon are used. All calculations are work out on the basis of the multifunctional software system ERA.

  8. 78 FR 3418 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Web-Distributed Labeling for Pesticide...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... AGENCY Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Web- Distributed Labeling for Pesticide... (PR Notice) titled ``Web-Distributed Labeling for Pesticide Products.'' PR Notices are issued by the... Internet. Web-distributed labeling would allow users to retrieve a streamlined version of the pesticide...

  9. 78 FR 9688 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... AGENCY Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With Mold... for Antimicrobial Pesticide Products with Mold-Related Label Claims. This document extends the comment... guidance for antimicrobial pesticide products with mold-related claims. In response to comments...

  10. 77 FR 74003 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... AGENCY Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With Mold... Registration Notice (PR Notice) titled ``Guidance on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products with Mold-Related Label... (efficacy) data and labeling for ``mold-related'' pesticide products. EPA believes that the label...

  11. Pesticide Product Label System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). New labels were added to PPLS on November 21, 2014. Pesticide product labels provide critical information about how to safely handle and use registered pesticide products. An approved pesticide product label represents the full content of EPAs registration decision regarding that product. Pesticide labels contain detailed information on the use, storage, and handling of a product. This information will be found on EPA stamped-approved labels and, in some cases, in subsequent related correspondence, which is also included in PPLS. You may need to review several PDF files for a single product to determine the complete current terms of registration.

  12. Changes in the Russian Wheat Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Biotype Complex in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jankielsohn, Astrid

    2016-04-01

    Russian wheat aphid Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) has spread from its native area in central Asia to all the major wheat-producing countries in the world to become an international wheat pest. Because the Russian wheat aphid is a serious threat to the wheat industry in South Africa, it is important to investigate the key factors involved in the distribution of Russian wheat aphid biotypes and in the changes of the Russian wheat aphid biotype complex in South Africa. There are currently four known Russian wheat aphid biotypes occurring in South Africa. Russian wheat aphid samples were collected from 2011 to 2014 during the wheat-growing season in spring and summer and these samples were screened to determine the biotype status. RWASA1 occurred predominantly in the Western Cape, while RWASA2 and RWASA3 occurred predominantly in the Eastern Free State. Following the first record of RWASA4 in 2011, this biotype was restricted to the Eastern Free State. The surveys suggest that the Russian wheat aphid bioype complex was more diverse in the Eastern Free State than in the other wheat production areas. There was also a shift in Russian wheat aphid biotype composition over time. The Russian wheat aphid biotype complex is dynamic, influenced by environmental factors such as host plants, altitude, and climate, and it can change and diversify over time causing fluctuation in populations over sites and years. This dynamic nature of the Russian wheat aphid will continue to challenge the development of Russian wheat aphid-resistant wheat cultivars in South Africa, and the continued monitoring of the biotypic and genetic structure, to determine genetic relatedness and variation in different biotypes, of Russian wheat aphid populations is important for protecting wheat.

  13. New Labeling for Neonicotinoid Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These documents, a graphic of the bee advisory box and letters to pesticide registrants, describe steps by EPA to change pesticide labels to better protect pollinators by being clearer and more precise in their directions for pesticide application.

  14. Pesticide Worker Safety Cooperative Agreements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The worker safety program cooperative agreements fund projects to educate pesticide applicators, handlers, and farmworkers on working safely with, and around, pesticides. Read about pesticide related grant opportunities and reports from previous grants.

  15. Models for Pesticide Risk Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA considers the toxicity of the pesticide as well as the amount of pesticide to which a person or the environments may be exposed in risk assessment. Scientists use mathematical models to predict pesticide concentrations in exposure assessment.

  16. 76 FR 38033 - Cloquintocet-mexyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. Potentially affected entities may include, but are... production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532.... Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization food standards program, and it is...

  17. 77 FR 39962 - Difenzoquat; Proposed Data Call-in Order for Pesticide Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    .... Pesticide tolerances are established under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). DATES: Comments... affected by this action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer... code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide...

  18. 77 FR 30402 - Acibenzolar- S -methyl; Time-Limited Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... affected by this action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer... pesticide, if a toxicological study has indicated the possibility of an effect of concern occurring as a... in food and the actual levels of pesticide residues that have been measured in food. If EPA relies on...

  19. Preparation and characterization of degradable nanocapsules that release pesticides over an extended period of time

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pesticide efficacy is limited by evaporation and precipitation. These processes can result in the need for costly pesticide re-application. By using a nanocapsule to contain the pesticide, these two problems can be greatly reduced. Produced nanocapsules adsorb on the surface of the plant and are not...

  20. Managing Pesticide Resistance in Potato Health Management, ed. D. Johnson. APS Press

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pesticides exert a selection pressure on pest populations and pests that are not controlled may produce progeny with genetic resistance to the pesticide. Pesticide classification systems based on site/mode of action have been developed and knowing a pesticides’s mode/site of action is key to planni...

  1. Zur Wortbildung im Russischen (10) (On Russian Word Formation [10])

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Wolf

    1974-01-01

    Tenth of a regular series on contemporary Russian word formation, this article gives examples of: 1) four types of standard formation, 2) rare cases where compounds are produced with no combining vowel, and 3) appositive noun compounds. (Text is in German.) (TL)

  2. Marketization and Community in Post-Soviet Russian Villages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obrien, David; Wegren, Stephen; Patsiorkovsky, Valeri

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of new market institutions in former socialist countries has produced economic and social dislocations in people?s lives. Researchers have focused on the impact of these changes on inequality and poverty, but have not given much attention to changes in community relationships. Panel data from surveys of Russian rural households…

  3. Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee (PPDC)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee, a permanent, broadly representative advisory committee, meets with EPA on a regular basis to discuss pesticide regulatory, policy, and program implementation issues.

  4. Quantum chemistry in environmental pesticide risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Villaverde, Juan J; López-Goti, Carmen; Alcamí, Manuel; Lamsabhi, Al Mokhtar; Alonso-Prados, José L; Sandín-España, Pilar

    2017-11-01

    The scientific community and regulatory bodies worldwide, currently promote the development of non-experimental tests that produce reliable data for pesticide risk assessment. The use of standard quantum chemistry methods could allow the development of tools to perform a first screening of compounds to be considered for the experimental studies, improving the risk assessment. This fact results in a better distribution of resources and in better planning, allowing a more exhaustive study of the pesticides and their metabolic products. The current paper explores the potential of quantum chemistry in modelling toxicity and environmental behaviour of pesticides and their by-products by using electronic descriptors obtained computationally. Quantum chemistry has potential to estimate the physico-chemical properties of pesticides, including certain chemical reaction mechanisms and their degradation pathways, allowing modelling of the environmental behaviour of both pesticides and their by-products. In this sense, theoretical methods can contribute to performing a more focused risk assessment of pesticides used in the market, and may lead to higher quality and safer agricultural products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Proceedings -- US Russian workshop on fuel cell technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, B.; Sylwester, A.

    1996-04-01

    On September 26--28, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories sponsored the first Joint US/Russian Workshop on Fuel Cell Technology at the Marriott Hotel in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This workshop brought together the US and Russian fuel cell communities as represented by users, producers, R and D establishments and government agencies. Customer needs and potential markets in both countries were discussed to establish a customer focus for the workshop. Parallel technical sessions defined research needs and opportunities for collaboration to advance fuel cell technology. A desired outcome of the workshop was the formation of a Russian/American Fuel Cell Consortium to advance fuel cell technology for application in emerging markets in both countries. This consortium is envisioned to involve industry and national labs in both countries. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  6. Russian Navy fresh fuel MPC and A training and regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Forehand, H.M.; Rexroth, P.; Dove, A.; Shmelev, V.; Sukhoruchkin, V.; Roumiantsev, A.

    1998-07-01

    The Regulations and Training Projects are part of the US-Russian Federation Materials Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) cooperative program to protect Russian Navy Fuels. This paper describes the general status of the projects, progress achieved to date, and long-term plans for further work in producing regulatory documents and training to support this ewffort. The regulatory development will result in a document set that will include general requirements and rules for the Russian Navy MPC&A as well as specific instructions for operation and maintenance of each facility. The goals of the training program are to instill in managers a culture of sustainable commitment to MPC&A through the understanding of its principles and philosophies. In addition, the training program will help ensure that upgrades are effectively utilized and maintained by training operators and maintenance personnel in MPC&A principles as well in as the detailed operations of the systems.

  7. Pesticides as a source of microbial contamination of salad vegetables.

    PubMed

    Ng, Peter J; Fleet, Graham H; Heard, Gillian M

    2005-05-25

    Ten commercially available pesticides (insecticides, herbicides and fungicides), used during the production of vegetable produce, were examined as potential sources of microbial contaminants. As purchased, none of the pesticides showed the presence of viable microorganisms (< 5 CFU/ml). Using an agar plate diffusion assay, they did not inhibit a range of bacteria of spoilage and public health significance on vegetable produce. After reconstitution in sterile water to their recommended concentration, two of the pesticides supported the survival and growth of inoculated species of Pseudomonas, Salmonella and Escherichia coli. Listeria monocytogenes did not survive after inoculation into any of the pesticides. Pesticides were reconstituted in different sources of agricultural water (bore, dam and river) and examined for survival and growth of microorganisms naturally present in these waters. On storage at 30 degrees C for 48 h, nine of the pesticides supported the growth of bacterial species present in these waters. Predominant species in the pesticide solutions, before and after storage, varied according to the source, but species of Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Aeromonas and various coliforms exhibited significant growth. Unless managed properly (reconstituted in potable water, and used without lengthy storage), pesticides could contribute to the microbial load of vegetable produce, thereby affecting their shelf-life and public health safety.

  8. The Russian Virtual Observatory Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dluzhnevskaya, O. B.; Malkov, O. Yu.

    2005-12-01

    We describe the Russian Virtual Observatory (RVO), a prestigious international project sponsored by the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS). In 2001, the RAS Scientific Council on Astronomy included this project in a list of the most important international projects of the RAS. Its main goal to create and develop the RVO, intended to provide Russian astronomers with direct and effective access to worldwide astronomical data resources. The RVO is one component of the International Virtual Observatory (IVO), a system in which vast astronomical archives and databases around the world, together with analysis tools and computational services, are linked together into an integrated facility. The IVO unites all important national and international projects to create virtual observatories, coordinated by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance. The RVO is one of the organizers and an important participant of the IVO Alliance.

  9. Wiseman and Suraev in Russian segment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-06

    ISS040-E-008030 (6 June 2014) --- NASA astronaut Reid Wiseman and Russian cosmonaut Maxim Suraev (background), both Expedition 40 flight engineers, are pictured in the Russian segment of the International Space Station.

  10. Russian Prime Minister Calls the Station Crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin called the International Space Station from the Russian Mission Control Center in Korolev, Russia, on Jan. 11, 2011. Putin also offered his condolences to ISS ...

  11. Children, Pesticides and Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Alison

    1998-01-01

    Young children receive higher doses of pesticides than any other age group. The younger a child is the more difficulty the body will have in coping with toxins in general. Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) do not adequately protect children. Evidence of harm from a pesticide often has to be overwhelmingly strong before anything is done about it.…

  12. The Pesticide Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Lynn R.

    1998-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) works to make communities aware of dangers posed by misused pesticides, which can be hazardous to the health of children and others. The EPA is involved in outreach to inform the public. People need information about safe and effective pest-control options. They should report suspected pesticide misuse to…

  13. The Pesticide Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Lynn R.

    1998-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) works to make communities aware of dangers posed by misused pesticides, which can be hazardous to the health of children and others. The EPA is involved in outreach to inform the public. People need information about safe and effective pest-control options. They should report suspected pesticide misuse to…

  14. Children, Pesticides and Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Alison

    1998-01-01

    Young children receive higher doses of pesticides than any other age group. The younger a child is the more difficulty the body will have in coping with toxins in general. Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) do not adequately protect children. Evidence of harm from a pesticide often has to be overwhelmingly strong before anything is done about it.…

  15. Food and Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA sets limits on how much of a pesticide may be used on food during growing and processing, and how much can remain on the food you buy. Learn about regulation of pesticides on food and how you can limit exposure.

  16. Russian Soyuz in Launch Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Soyuz TM-31 launch vehicle is shown in the vertical position for its launch from Baikonur, carrying the first resident crew to the International Space Station. The Russian Soyuz launch vehicle is an expendable spacecraft that evolved out of the original Class A (Sputnik). From the early 1960s until today, the Soyuz launch vehicle has been the backbone of Russia's marned and unmanned space launch fleet. Today, the Soyuz launch vehicle is marketed internationally by a joint Russian/French consortium called STARSEM. As of August 2001, there have been ten Soyuz missions under the STARSEM banner.

  17. Russian EVA 34 pictures from MRM2.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-16

    ISS036-E-033158 (16 Aug. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the seven-hour, 29-minute spacewalk ? the longest ever conducted by a pair of Russian cosmonauts ? Yurchikhin and Alexander Misurkin (out of frame) rigged cables for the future arrival of a Russian laboratory module and installed an experiment panel.

  18. Russian EVA 34 pictures from MRM2.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-16

    ISS036-E-033058 (16 Aug. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the seven-hour, 29-minute spacewalk ? the longest ever conducted by a pair of Russian cosmonauts ? Misurkin and Fyodor Yurchikhin (out of frame) rigged cables for the future arrival of a Russian laboratory module and installed an experiment panel.

  19. Russian EVA 34 pictures from MRM2.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-16

    ISS036-E-033161 (16 Aug. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the seven-hour, 29-minute spacewalk ? the longest ever conducted by a pair of Russian cosmonauts ? Yurchikhin and Alexander Misurkin (out of frame) rigged cables for the future arrival of a Russian laboratory module and installed an experiment panel.

  20. Russian EVA 34 pictures from MRM2.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-16

    ISS036-E-033166 (16 Aug. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the seven-hour, 29-minute spacewalk ? the longest ever conducted by a pair of Russian cosmonauts ? Yurchikhin and Alexander Misurkin (out of frame) rigged cables for the future arrival of a Russian laboratory module and installed an experiment panel.

  1. Russian EVA 34 pictures from MRM2.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-16

    ISS036-E-033109 (16 Aug. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the seven-hour, 29-minute spacewalk ? the longest ever conducted by a pair of Russian cosmonauts ? Yurchikhin and Alexander Misurkin (out of frame) rigged cables for the future arrival of a Russian laboratory module and installed an experiment panel.

  2. Russian EVA 34 pictures from MRM2.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-16

    ISS036-E-033160 (16 Aug. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin, Expedition 36 flight engineer, attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to continue outfitting the International Space Station. During the seven-hour, 29-minute spacewalk ? the longest ever conducted by a pair of Russian cosmonauts ? Yurchikhin and Alexander Misurkin (out of frame) rigged cables for the future arrival of a Russian laboratory module and installed an experiment panel.

  3. Pesticide exposure in children.

    PubMed

    Roberts, James R; Karr, Catherine J

    2012-12-01

    Pesticides are a collective term for a wide array of chemicals intended to kill unwanted insects, plants, molds, and rodents. Food, water, and treatment in the home, yard, and school are all potential sources of children's exposure. Exposures to pesticides may be overt or subacute, and effects range from acute to chronic toxicity. In 2008, pesticides were the ninth most common substance reported to poison control centers, and approximately 45% of all reports of pesticide poisoning were for children. Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning are perhaps the most widely known acute poisoning syndromes, can be diagnosed by depressed red blood cell cholinesterase levels, and have available antidotal therapy. However, numerous other pesticides that may cause acute toxicity, such as pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and rodenticides, also have specific toxic effects; recognition of these effects may help identify acute exposures. Evidence is increasingly emerging about chronic health implications from both acute and chronic exposure. A growing body of epidemiological evidence demonstrates associations between parental use of pesticides, particularly insecticides, with acute lymphocytic leukemia and brain tumors. Prenatal, household, and occupational exposures (maternal and paternal) appear to be the largest risks. Prospective cohort studies link early-life exposure to organophosphates and organochlorine pesticides (primarily DDT) with adverse effects on neurodevelopment and behavior. Among the findings associated with increased pesticide levels are poorer mental development by using the Bayley index and increased scores on measures assessing pervasive developmental disorder, inattention, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Related animal toxicology studies provide supportive biological plausibility for these findings. Additional data suggest that there may also be an association between parental pesticide use and adverse birth

  4. Processing of Contrastiveness by Heritage Russian Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekerina, Irina A.; Trueswell, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments in the Visual World paradigm compared how monolingual Russian (Experiment 1) and heritage Russian-English bilingual (Experiment 2) listeners process contrastiveness online in Russian. Materials were color adjective-noun phrases embedded into the split-constituent construction Krasnuju polozite zvezdovku..."Red put…

  5. Russian Loanword Adaptation in Persian; Optimal Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambuziya, Aliye Kord Zafaranlu; Hashemi, Eftekhar Sadat

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we analyzed some of the phonological rules of Russian loanword adaptation in Persian, on the view of Optimal Theory (OT) (Prince & Smolensky, 1993/2004). It is the first study of phonological process on Russian loanwords adaptation in Persian. By gathering about 50 current Russian loanwords, we selected some of them to analyze. We…

  6. Processing of Contrastiveness by Heritage Russian Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekerina, Irina A.; Trueswell, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments in the Visual World paradigm compared how monolingual Russian (Experiment 1) and heritage Russian-English bilingual (Experiment 2) listeners process contrastiveness online in Russian. Materials were color adjective-noun phrases embedded into the split-constituent construction Krasnuju polozite zvezdovku..."Red put…

  7. Strategic Utility of the Russian Spetsnaz

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    assigned missions. Soviet and Russian military doctrines constitute a baseline for the evolution of Russian strategy and of Spetsnaz in parallel...doctrines constitute a baseline for the evolution of Russian strategy and of Spetsnaz in parallel. Three case studies—Operation Danube in Czechoslovakia...21  3.  The “Gerasimov Doctrine” .........................................................23  D.  EVOLUTION OF THE STRATEGY

  8. Social and Racial Correlates of Russian Roulette

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven; Wasserman, Ira

    2008-01-01

    The epidemiology of a neglected form of suicidal behavior, Russian roulette, is addressed. Also tested is an explanation of racial differences based on the opportunity theory of deviant behavior related to the availability of revolvers, necessary weapons with which to play Russian roulette. Data refer to 15 cases of Russian roulette found through…

  9. Russian History; A Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill Univ., Montreal (Quebec). McLennan Library.

    This guide identifies reference sources for the study of Russian and Soviet history available in the McGill University (Montreal) McLennan Library. Russian, English, French, and German language works covering Russian history from its origins to World War II are included. The guide is arranged in two parts: general reference sources and…

  10. Social and Racial Correlates of Russian Roulette

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven; Wasserman, Ira

    2008-01-01

    The epidemiology of a neglected form of suicidal behavior, Russian roulette, is addressed. Also tested is an explanation of racial differences based on the opportunity theory of deviant behavior related to the availability of revolvers, necessary weapons with which to play Russian roulette. Data refer to 15 cases of Russian roulette found through…

  11. Teaching Russian Culture: Concepts of Nature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dianne

    Russian culture is very much influenced by its huge land area, peculiar topography, and harsh climate. To understand Russian culture one must know how Russians perceive nature. This paper discusses how this concept may be conveyed to U.S. middle school students through poetry. Poems about nature can provide students an opportunity to understand…

  12. Protective Clothing for Pesticide Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This brief, largely pictorial guide to protective clothing for pesticide users addresses moderately to highly toxic pesticides. The guide discusses the potential hazards of pesticides and the kinds of clothing and equipment that should be worn for personal protection. It also explains how the type of pesticide formulation affects an individual's…

  13. Requiring Pollutant Discharge Permits for Pesticide Applications that Deposit Residues in Surface Waters

    PubMed Central

    Centner, Terence; Eberhart, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural producers and public health authorities apply pesticides to control pests that damage crops and carry diseases. Due to the toxic nature of most pesticides, they are regulated by governments. Regulatory provisions require pesticides to be registered and restrictions operate to safeguard human health and the environment. Yet pesticides used near surface waters pose dangers to non-target species and drinking water supplies leading some governments to regulate discharges of pesticides under pollution discharge permits. The dual registration and discharge permitting provisions are burdensome. In the United States, agricultural interest groups are advancing new legislation that would exempt pesticide residues from water permitting requirements. An analysis of the dangers posed by pesticide residues in drinking water leads to a conclusion that both pesticide registration and pollutant discharge permitting provisions are needed to protect human health and aquatic species. PMID:24814945

  14. Requiring pollutant discharge permits for pesticide applications that deposit residues in surface waters.

    PubMed

    Centner, Terence; Eberhart, Nicholas

    2014-05-08

    Agricultural producers and public health authorities apply pesticides to control pests that damage crops and carry diseases. Due to the toxic nature of most pesticides, they are regulated by governments. Regulatory provisions require pesticides to be registered and restrictions operate to safeguard human health and the environment. Yet pesticides used near surface waters pose dangers to non-target species and drinking water supplies leading some governments to regulate discharges of pesticides under pollution discharge permits. The dual registration and discharge permitting provisions are burdensome. In the United States, agricultural interest groups are advancing new legislation that would exempt pesticide residues from water permitting requirements. An analysis of the dangers posed by pesticide residues in drinking water leads to a conclusion that both pesticide registration and pollutant discharge permitting provisions are needed to protect human health and aquatic species.

  15. Pesticides Industry Sales and Usage 2006 and 2007 Market Estimates

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These reports provide economic profile information on sectors producing and using pesticides covered by FIFRA mandated regulatory programs. The reports contain contemporary and historical data estimating values and amounts of active ingredients used here.

  16. Pesticides Industry Sales and Usage 2008 - 2012 Market Estimates

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These reports provide economic profile information on sectors producing and using pesticides covered by FIFRA mandated regulatory programs. The reports contain contemporary and historical data estimating values and amounts of active ingredients used here.

  17. Perspectives on Russian Foreign Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    almost as a fetish brandished like a medieval talisman to ward off both real and imaginary apparitions. Consider, for example, the listing of the...power and empire is the fetish invoked by Russian statesman throughout the ages to ward off the nightmare of be- ing marginalized and no longer being a

  18. Economic Factors of Russian Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobkov, Vyacheslav N.; Vakhtina, Margarita A.; Simonova, Marina V.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the researched problem is connected with the high level of economic inequality in Russia. The article goal is to show that the current Russian institutional system is not directed to decrease the economic inequality but on the contrary it continues to make and deepen it. The leading approach to study of this problem is the…

  19. Identity Options in Russian Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shardakova, Marya; Pavlenko, Aneta

    2004-01-01

    This article introduces a new analytical approach to the study of identity options offered in foreign and second language textbooks. This approach, grounded in poststructuralist theory and critical discourse analysis, is applied to 2 popular beginning Russian textbooks. Two sets of identity options are examined in the study: imagined learners…

  20. Reflection in Russian Educational Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelissen, Jo M. C.; Tomic, Welko

    This paper discusses the cultural-historical school founded by Vygotsky, Luria, and Leontiev as the theoretical background of Russian educational psychologists who have been studying how children learn to reflect. Two approaches to reflection are examined within the cultural-historical tradition: first, reflection--like other higher psychological…

  1. Launch of Russian reactor postponed

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-05

    Astronomers and weapons scientists seemed heated on a collision course a few months ago over the military's plans to send a Russian nuclear reactor into space. But an agreement reached in late January has prevented a pile-up, at least for 6 months. The astronomers, led by Donald Lamb of the University of Chicago, were objecting to plans by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO) to launch Topaz 2, an experimental Russian nuclear reactor, arguing that rogue particles from it might ruin sensitive gamma ray experiments. The reactor is designed to propel itself in space with a jet of xenon ions. One worry was that leaking gamma rays and positrons, which can travel in the earth's magnetic field and pop up in the darndest places, might cause false signals in gamma ray monitors (Science, 18 December 1992, p. 1878). The worry has abated now that SDI officials will postpone choosing a rocket and mission altitutde for Topaz 2 for 6 months, while experts study how its emissions at various altitudes might affect instruments aboard the Gamma Ray Observatory and other satellites. In effect, the SDIO has agreed to an environmental impact study for space, following an unusual meeting organized by former Russian space official Roald Sagdeev at the University of Maryland on 19 January. There the Russian designers of Topaz 2, its new owners at the SDIO, and critics in the astronomy community achieved common ground: that more study was needed.

  2. Atlanta Public Schools Russian Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Billie Davis; And Others

    This guide for teachers of Russian outlines course objectives and general educational goals. Contents include information on: (1) philosophy and long-range goals, (2) student recruitment, (3) program counseling, (4) English in the classroom, (5) grammar, (6) articulation, (7) independent study, (8) grouping for student-centered work, (9) reading…

  3. 76 FR 27268 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... glyphosate and its metabolite N-acetyl glyphosate. N-acetyl glyphosate is found in genetically modified (GMO... glyphosate in or on corn, field, forage. Monsanto Company requested this tolerance under the Federal Food... affected by this action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...

  4. Pesticides and childhood cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Zahm, S H; Ward, M H

    1998-01-01

    Children are exposed to potentially carcinogenic pesticides from use in homes, schools, other buildings, lawns and gardens, through food and contaminated drinking water, from agricultural application drift, overspray, or off-gassing, and from carry-home exposure of parents occupationally exposed to pesticides. Parental exposure during the child's gestation or even preconception may also be important. Malignancies linked to pesticides in case reports or case-control studies include leukemia, neuroblastoma, Wilms' tumor, soft-tissue sarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and cancers of the brain, colorectum, and testes. Although these studies have been limited by nonspecific pesticide exposure information, small numbers of exposed subjects, and the potential for case-response bias, it is noteworthy that many of the reported increased risks are of greater magnitude than those observed in studies of pesticide-exposed adults, suggesting that children may be particularly sensitive to the carcinogenic effects of pesticides. Future research should include improved exposure assessment, evaluation of risk by age at exposure, and investigation of possible genetic-environment interactions. There is potential to prevent at least some childhood cancer by reducing or eliminating pesticide exposure. PMID:9646054

  5. Pesticide toxicity index for freshwater aquatic organisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munn, Mark D.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program is designed to assess current water-quality conditions, changes in water quality over time, and the effects of natural and human factors on water quality for the Nation's streams and ground-water resources. For streams, one of the most difficult parts of the assessment is to link chemical conditions to effects on aquatic biota, particularly for pesticides, which tend to occur in streams as complex mixtures with strong seasonal patterns. A Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) was developed that combines pesticide exposure of aquatic biota (measured concentrations of pesticides in stream water) with toxicity estimates (standard endpoints from laboratory bioassays) to produce a single index value for a sample or site. The development of the PTI was limited to pesticide compounds routinely measured in NAWQA studies and to toxicity data readily available from existing databases. Qualifying toxicity data were found for one or more types of test organisms for 75 of the 83 pesticide compounds measured in NAWQA samples, but with a wide range of bioassays per compound (1 to 65). There were a total of 2,824 bioassays for the 75 compounds, including 287 48-hour EC50 values (concentration at which 50 percent of test organisms exhibit a nonlethal response) for freshwater cladocerans, 585 96-hour LC50 values (concentration lethal to 50 percent of test organisms) for freshwater benthic invertebrates, and 1,952 96-hour LC50 values for freshwater fish. The PTI for a particular sample is the sum of toxicity quotients (measured concentration divided by the median toxicity concentration from bioassays) for each detected pesticide. The PTI can be calculated for specific groups of pesticides and for specific taxonomic groups.While the PTI does not determine whether water in a sample is toxic, its values can be used to rank or compare the toxicity of samples or sites on a relative basis for use in further analysis or

  6. Russian perspectives: The past shapes the present

    SciTech Connect

    Houck, R.P.

    1994-11-01

    This document contains an outline of a speech given to a group of professionals at Pacific Northwest Laboratory which was intended to give an unbiased view of Soviet perceptions. Topics discussed include: The new mission of US and Soviet labs and institutions to develop products and dedicate research to post cold war threat, historical prospectives of Russia, Russian military roles and missions, ideology of Russian politics, evils of capitalism, Russian civil war, communism, world war II, Russian losses during the war, the cold war, reasons why America should care what happens in Russia, the internal threat against a market-based economy, the US should help, and the Russian people and their attitudes.

  7. Russians Work on Aft Portion of Zarya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this photograph, Russians are working on the aft portion of the United States-funded, Russian-built Functional Cargo Bay (FGB) also known as Zarya (Russian for sunrise). Built at Khrunichev, the FGB began pre-launch testing shortly after this photo was taken. Launched by a Russian Proton rocket from the Baikonu Cosmodrome on November 20, 1998, Zarya was the first element of the International Space Station (ISS) followed by the U.S. Unity Node. The aft docking mechanism, Pirs, on the far right with ventilation ducting rurning through it, will be docked with the third Station element, the Russian Service Module, or Zvezda.

  8. National Standard of the Russian Federation for Space Debris Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loginov, S.; Yakovlev, M.; Mikhailov, M.; Popkova, L.

    2009-03-01

    Normative and technical document that define requirements for the mitigation of human-produced near-earth space pollution develops in Russian Federation.NATIONAL STANDARD of the Russian Federation GOST R 52925-2008 «SPACE TECHNOLOGY ITEMS. General Requirements on Space Systems for the Mitigation of Human-Produced near-Earth Space Pollution» was approved in 2008 and entered into force since 1st January of 2009. Requirements of this standard harmonized with requirements of «UN SPACE DEBRIS MITIGATION GUIDELINESÈ»This standard consists of six parts:- Scope;- References to Standards;- Terms & Definitions;- Abbreviations;- General Provisions;- General Requirements on Space Systems for the Mitigation of Human-Produced near-Earth Space Pollution.

  9. Watershed scale influence of pesticide reduction practices on pesticides and fishes within channelized agricultural headwater streams

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Implementation of pesticide reduction practices to reduce pesticide usage within agricultural watersheds has the potential to reduce pesticide concentrations within agricultural streams. The watershed scale influence of pesticide reduction practices on pesticides and the biota within agricultural he...

  10. Real-Time and in Situ Monitoring of Pesticide Penetration in Edible Leaves by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Mapping.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tianxi; Zhang, Zhiyun; Zhao, Bin; Hou, Ruyan; Kinchla, Amanda; Clark, John M; He, Lili

    2016-05-17

    Understanding of the penetration behaviors of pesticides in fresh produce is of great significance for effectively applying pesticides and minimizing pesticide residues in food. There is lack, however, of an effective method that can measure pesticide penetration. Herein, we developed a novel method for real-time and in situ monitoring of pesticide penetration behaviors in spinach leaves based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) mapping. Taking advantage of penetrative gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as probes to enhance the internalized pesticide signals in situ, we have successfully obtained the internal signals from thiabendazole, a systemic pesticide, following its penetration into spinach leaves after removing surface pesticide residues. Comparatively, ferbam, a nonsystemic pesticide, did not show internal signals after removing surface pesticide residues, demonstrating its nonsystemic behavior. In both cases, if the surface pesticides were not removed, copenetration of both AuNPs and pesticides was observed. These results demonstrate a successful application of SERS as an effective method for measuring pesticides penetration in fresh produce in situ. The information obtained could provide useful guidance for effective and safe applications of pesticides on plants.

  11. Dietary pesticides (99.99% all natural).

    PubMed Central

    Ames, B N; Profet, M; Gold, L S

    1990-01-01

    The toxicological significance of exposures to synthetic chemicals is examined in the context of exposures to naturally occurring chemicals. We calculate that 99.99% (by weight) of the pesticides in the American diet are chemicals that plants produce to defend themselves. Only 52 natural pesticides have been tested in high-dose animal cancer tests, and about half (27) are rodent carcinogens; these 27 are shown to be present in many common foods. We conclude that natural and synthetic chemicals are equally likely to be positive in animal cancer tests. We also conclude that at the low doses of most human exposures the comparative hazards of synthetic pesticide residues are insignificant. PMID:2217210

  12. Dietary pesticides (99. 99% all natural)

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, B.N.; Profet, M.; Gold, L.S. )

    1990-10-01

    The toxicological significance of exposures to synthetic chemicals is examined in the context of exposures to naturally occurring chemicals. The authors calculate that 99.99{percent} (by weight) of the pesticides in the American diet are chemicals that plants produce to defend themselves. Only 52 natural pesticides have been tested in high-dose animal cancer tests, and about half (27) are rodent carcinogens; these 27 are shown to be present in many common foods. They conclude that natural and synthetic chemicals are equally likely to be positive in animal cancer tests. They also conclude that at the low doses of most human exposures the comparative hazards of synthetic pesticide residues are insignificant.

  13. The Effects of Hive Size, Feeding, and Nosema ceranae on the Size of Winter Clusters of Russian Honey Bee Colonies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    USDA-ARS Russian honey bees are naturally inclined to produce smaller colonies during winter than Italian honey bees. Consequently, fewer of them are likely to meet the size standards necessary for almond pollination in February. Management procedures may result in more Russian colonies grading well...

  14. Risk assessment of pesticide runoff from turf.

    PubMed

    Haith, Douglas A; Rossi, Frank S

    2003-01-01

    The TurfPQ model was used to simulate the runoff of 15 pesticides commonly applied to creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) fairways and greens on golf courses in the northeastern USA. Simulations produced 100-yr daily records of water runoff, pesticide runoff, and pesticide concentration in runoff for three locations: Boston, MA, Philadelphia, PA, and Rochester, NY. Results were summarized as annual and monthly means and annual maximum daily loads (AMDLs) corresponding to 10- and 20-yr return periods. Mean annual pesticide runoff loads did not exceed 3% of annual applications for any pesticide or site, and most losses were substantially less than 1% of application. However, annual or monthly mean concentrations of chlorothalonil, iprodione, and PCNB in fairway runoff often exceeded concentrations that result in 50% mortality of the affected species (LC50) for aquatic organisms. Concentrations of azoxystrobin, bensulide, cyfluthrin, and trichlorfon in extreme (1 in 10 yr or 1 in 20 yr) events often approached or exceeded LC50 levels. Concentrations of halofenozide, mancozeb, MCPP, oxadiazon, propiconazole, thiophanate-methyl, triadimefon, and trinexapac-ethyl were well below LC50 levels, and turf runoff of these chemicals does not appear to be hazardous to aquatic life in surface waters.

  15. Job Demands & Pesticide Exposure among Immigrant Latino Farmworkers

    PubMed Central

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Quandt, Sara A.; Vallejos, Quirina M.; Whalley, Lara E.; Chen, Haiying; Isom, Scott; Barr, Dana B.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to understand the potential threat of job stressors to farmworker health. To accomplish this goal we studied pesticide exposure, an issue with immediate and long-term health consequences, and predictions from the demands-control model of occupational stress. Longitudinal, self-report data and urine samples were collected at monthly intervals from a cohort of Latino farmworkers (N=287) during the 2007 agricultural season. The primary hypothesis was that greater exposure to psychological demands, physical exertion, and hazardous work conditions are associated with greater odds of detecting DAP urinary pesticide metabolites, biomarkers indicating exposure to pesticides. Contrary to this hypothesis, results indicated that none of the elements of the Demands-Control model were independently associated with detection of DAP urinary pesticide metabolites. However, analyses produced several interaction effects, including evidence that high levels of control may buffer the effects of physical job demands on detection of DAP urinary pesticide metabolites. PMID:20604632

  16. Pesticide-Exposure Matrix

    Cancer.gov

    The "Pesticide-exposure Matrix" was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years.

  17. Safe Disposal of Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... pesticide label. Check with your local solid waste management authority, environmental agency or health department to find out whether ... Environmental Topics Air Bed Bugs Chemicals and Toxics Environmental Information by ... Administrator Current Leadership Organization Chart Staff Directory Planning, Budget and ...

  18. Why We Review Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As required by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), EPA periodically reviews existing registered pesticides to ensure they can be used safely, without unreasonable risks to human health and the environment.

  19. Screening Pesticides for Neuropathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, John D.

    2006-01-01

    Pesticides are routinely screened in studies that follow specific guidelines for possible neuropathogenicity in laboratory animals. These tests will detect chemicals that are by themselves strong inducers of neuropathogenesis if the tested strain is susceptible relative to the time of administration and methodology of assessment. Organophosphate induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) is the only known human neurodegenerative disease associated with pesticides and the existing study guidelines with hens are a standard for predicting the potential for organophosphates to cause OPIDN. Although recent data have led to the suggestion that pesticides may be risk factors for Parkinsonism syndrome, there are no specific protocols to evaluate this syndrome in the existing study guidelines. Ideally additional animal models for human neurodegenerative diseases need to be developed and incorporated into the guidelines to further assure the public that limited exposure to pesticides is not a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:17047311

  20. Types of Pesticide Ingredients

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide active ingredients are described by the types of pests they control or how they work. For example, algicides kill algae, biopesticides are derived from natural materials, and insecticides kill insects.

  1. [Acute pesticide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Durán-Nah, J J; Collí-Quintal, J

    2000-01-01

    To describe the epidemiologic pattern of acute pesticide poisoning (APP) in a general hospital in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. From 1994 to 1998, 33 patients 13 years of age or older with diagnosis of APP were studied. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze information. Males were frequently affected (82%), specially those coming from rural areas (60%). The mean age of the group was 34 +/- 15.8 years. In 79% of the cases, pesticides were used to commit suicide and 33% of poisoning cases were due to organophospate pesticides. The mortality rate was 12%. In this small sample, acute poisoning from pesticides in the agricultural setting may be underestimated, since it was less frequent than in the general population. APP was more commonly used by indigent people to commit suicide.

  2. What are Antimicrobial Pesticides?

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Antimicrobial pesticides are substances or mixtures of substances used to destroy or suppress the growth of harmful microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi on inanimate objects and surfaces.

  3. Pesticide Emergency Exemptions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A state or federal agency can request an emergency exemptions when a serious pest problem jeopardizes production of agricultural goods or public health but no pesticides are currently registered for that situation. Learn how to request emergency exemption.

  4. Neonicotinoid pesticide exposure impairs crop pollination services provided by bumblebees

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Dara A.; Garratt, Michael P.D.; Wickens, Jennifer B.; Wickens, Victoria J.; Potts, Simon G.; Raine, Nigel E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent concern over global pollinator declines has led to considerable research on the effects of pesticides on bees1-5. Although pesticides are typically not encountered at lethal levels in the field, there is growing evidence indicating that exposure to field-realistic levels can have sub-lethal effects on bees affecting their foraging behaviour1,6,7, homing ability8,9 and reproductive success2,5. Bees are essential for the pollination of a wide variety of crops and the majority of wild flowering plants10-12, but until now research on pesticide impacts has been limited to direct effects on bees themselves and not on the pollination services they provide. Here we show the first evidence that pesticide exposure can reduce the pollination services bumblebees deliver to apples, a crop of global economic importance. Colonies exposed to a neonicotinoid pesticide provided lower visitation rates to apple trees and collected pollen less often. Most importantly these pesticide exposed colonies produced apples containing fewer seeds demonstrating a reduced delivery of pollination services. Our results also suggest reduced pollination service delivery is not due to pesticide-induced changes in individual bee behaviour but most likely due to impacts at the colony level. These findings show that pesticide exposure can impair the ability of bees to provide pollination services, with important implications for both the sustained delivery of stable crop yields and the function of natural ecosystems. PMID:26580009

  5. Neonicotinoid pesticide exposure impairs crop pollination services provided by bumblebees.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Dara A; Garratt, Michael P D; Wickens, Jennifer B; Wickens, Victoria J; Potts, Simon G; Raine, Nigel E

    2015-12-24

    Recent concern over global pollinator declines has led to considerable research on the effects of pesticides on bees. Although pesticides are typically not encountered at lethal levels in the field, there is growing evidence indicating that exposure to field-realistic levels can have sublethal effects on bees, affecting their foraging behaviour, homing ability and reproductive success. Bees are essential for the pollination of a wide variety of crops and the majority of wild flowering plants, but until now research on pesticide effects has been limited to direct effects on bees themselves and not on the pollination services they provide. Here we show the first evidence to our knowledge that pesticide exposure can reduce the pollination services bumblebees deliver to apples, a crop of global economic importance. Bumblebee colonies exposed to a neonicotinoid pesticide provided lower visitation rates to apple trees and collected pollen less often. Most importantly, these pesticide-exposed colonies produced apples containing fewer seeds, demonstrating a reduced delivery of pollination services. Our results also indicate that reduced pollination service delivery is not due to pesticide-induced changes in individual bee behaviour, but most likely due to effects at the colony level. These findings show that pesticide exposure can impair the ability of bees to provide pollination services, with important implications for both the sustained delivery of stable crop yields and the functioning of natural ecosystems.

  6. Neonicotinoid pesticide exposure impairs crop pollination services provided by bumblebees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Dara A.; Garratt, Michael P. D.; Wickens, Jennifer B.; Wickens, Victoria J.; Potts, Simon G.; Raine, Nigel E.

    2015-12-01

    Recent concern over global pollinator declines has led to considerable research on the effects of pesticides on bees. Although pesticides are typically not encountered at lethal levels in the field, there is growing evidence indicating that exposure to field-realistic levels can have sublethal effects on bees, affecting their foraging behaviour, homing ability and reproductive success. Bees are essential for the pollination of a wide variety of crops and the majority of wild flowering plants, but until now research on pesticide effects has been limited to direct effects on bees themselves and not on the pollination services they provide. Here we show the first evidence to our knowledge that pesticide exposure can reduce the pollination services bumblebees deliver to apples, a crop of global economic importance. Bumblebee colonies exposed to a neonicotinoid pesticide provided lower visitation rates to apple trees and collected pollen less often. Most importantly, these pesticide-exposed colonies produced apples containing fewer seeds, demonstrating a reduced delivery of pollination services. Our results also indicate that reduced pollination service delivery is not due to pesticide-induced changes in individual bee behaviour, but most likely due to effects at the colony level. These findings show that pesticide exposure can impair the ability of bees to provide pollination services, with important implications for both the sustained delivery of stable crop yields and the functioning of natural ecosystems.

  7. A Russian View on Landpower

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    Putin had made no secret of driving change within Russia toward his ambition to reassert Russian power through the tried and tested means of military...to that of the United States in every aspect of capability. Russia under President Putin has shown, both in Syria and Ukraine, that only small and...of a new Military Doc- trine reflecting what Russia describes as new security realities in Europe. All of these circumstances have drawn attention

  8. Russian Defense Reform: Current Trends

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    Thus, according to Russian Duma member and ex-Deputy Minister of Defense Andrey Kokoshin, Russia is in the process of forming a completely different...military hardware sales abroad, i.e., $8 billion against $6 billion, according to Andrey Belianinov, newly appointed head of the Federal Custom Service...government. Andrey Belyaninov, former head of Rosoboronexport and a close associate of President Putin, was appointed head of the Federal Custom Service on

  9. Photochemical Attenuation of Pesticides in Prairie Potholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, T.; Arnold, W. A.

    2013-12-01

    Prairie potholes are small, shallow, glacially-derived wetlands scattered across a vast region extending from Midwestern United States into south central Canada known as the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR). They constitute one of the largest inland wetland systems on Earth and play a prominent role in sustaining the regional biodiversity and productivity. Throughout the PPR, historic and contemporary conversion of native prairie for agriculture resulted in a pronounced loss of potholes. Remaining potholes have become interspersed within a matrix of agricultural landscape and trap nonpoint source pollutants such as pesticides from adjacent farmland, which has raised concerns regarding negative impacts on the water quality of downstream water bodies. The fate and persistence of pesticides in potholes, however, remains largely unexplored. Prairie potholes are typically characterized by shallow depth (i.e., large photic zone) and high levels of dissolved organic matter (DOM), making them ideal for photochemical reactions. In this context, we collected pothole water samples from North Dakota to investigate the rates and mechanisms of sunlight-induced attenuation of pesticides. The photodegradation kinetics and pathways of sixteen pesticides in the pothole water were monitored under both simulated and natural sunlight. For most pesticides, photolysis accelerated in the pothole water relative to the buffer control, which pointed to the importance of photosensitized processes (i.e., indirect photolysis). Upon solar irradiation, a mixture of photochemically produced reactive intermediates (PPRIs), such as carbonate radical, hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen, and triplet-excited state DOM, formed in the pothole water. The major pathways through which pesticides degraded were inferred from the relative contribution attributable to specific PPRIs via quencher experiments. Different classes of pesticides exhibited contrasting photochemical behavior, but singlet oxygen and triplet

  10. Russian RBMK reactor design information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document concerns the systems, design, and operations of the graphite-moderated, boiling, water-cooled, channel-type (RBMK) reactors located in the former Soviet Union (FSU). The Russian Academy of Sciences Nuclear Safety Institute (NSI) in Moscow, Russia, researched specific technical questions that were formulated by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and provided detailed technical answers to those questions. The Russian response was prepared in English by NSI in a question-and-answer format. This report presents the results of that technical exchange in the context they were received from the NSI organization. Pacific Northwest Laboratory is generating this document to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) community in responding to requests from FSU states, which are seeking Western technological and financial assistance to improve the safety systems of the Russian-designed reactors. This report expands upon information that was previously available to the United States through bilateral information exchanges, international nuclear society meetings, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reactor safety programs, and Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (RDIPE) reports. The response to the PNL questions have not been edited or reviewed for technical consistency or accuracy by PNL staff or other US organizations, but are provided for use by the DOE community in the form they were received.

  11. U.S. aids Russian shift to peaceful power era

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-28

    This article is a review of the discussions between the US DOE and the Russian Federation related to the latter`s agreement to close three nuclear units that produce power as well as weapons material. These 200 MWe units at Tomsk and Krasnoyarsk will be replaced by gas turbines for power production and district heating and by an 800 MWe coal-fired plant.

  12. Pesticide residue quantification analysis by hyperspectral imaging sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yuan-Hsun; Lo, Wei-Sheng; Guo, Horng-Yuh; Kao, Ching-Hua; Chou, Tau-Meu; Chen, Junne-Jih; Wen, Chia-Hsien; Lin, Chinsu; Chen, Hsian-Min; Ouyang, Yen-Chieh; Wu, Chao-Cheng; Chen, Shih-Yu; Chang, Chein-I.

    2015-05-01

    Pesticide residue detection in agriculture crops is a challenging issue and is even more difficult to quantify pesticide residue resident in agriculture produces and fruits. This paper conducts a series of base-line experiments which are particularly designed for three specific pesticides commonly used in Taiwan. The materials used for experiments are single leaves of vegetable produces which are being contaminated by various amount of concentration of pesticides. Two sensors are used to collected data. One is Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The other is a hyperspectral sensor, called Geophysical and Environmental Research (GER) 2600 spectroradiometer which is a batteryoperated field portable spectroradiometer with full real-time data acquisition from 350 nm to 2500 nm. In order to quantify data with different levels of pesticide residue concentration, several measures for spectral discrimination are developed. Mores specifically, new measures for calculating relative power between two sensors are particularly designed to be able to evaluate effectiveness of each of sensors in quantifying the used pesticide residues. The experimental results show that the GER is a better sensor than FTIR in the sense of pesticide residue quantification.

  13. Are pesticides immunotoxic?

    PubMed

    Botham, P A

    1990-01-01

    So far there is little evidence that occupational or environmental exposure to pesticides has led to clinically significant immunosuppression, and hence to an increased risk of developing infection or cancer. In addition, the incidence of hypersensitivity reactions to pesticides is generally low. Experiments have been conducted in experimental models that indicate that certain pesticides are immunosuppressive to animals. The majority of these experiments, however, have used high (frankly toxic) doses of pesticides and immunosuppression has been monitored using in vivo or in vitro immune function tests, the results of which are difficult to interpret in terms of effects on health. One exception is tributyltin oxide which, in the rat, causes immune dysfunction at doses below those that cause general toxicity, and which compromises the ability of the animals to resist bacterial and parasitic infection. Predictive assessment of possible immunotoxicity induced by exposure to a pesticide should be structured within the current framework of acute, subacute and chronic testing procedures used for regulatory purposes. With the exception of predicting some hypersensitivity reactions (respiratory allergy and autoimmunity), which would require the development of novel specialized methods, indications of potential immunotoxicity can be obtained from standard haematological investigations and by evaluation of lymphoid organs and tissues such as the spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, and bone marrow. Pathological and histopathological examination of the lymphoid system is a mandatory requirement of nearly all subchronic testing guidelines for pesticides worldwide. The incorporation of specialized, and in particular in vitro, immune function tests into the routine toxicological assessment of a pesticide is not only time-consuming and potentially wasteful of animals, but is also scientifically unacceptable; the significance of changes in such tests must await further research on the

  14. Volkov and Samokutyaev during Russian EVA 29

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-03

    ISS028-E-020965 (3 Aug. 2011) --- Russian cosmonauts Sergei Volkov and Alexander Samokutyaev (out of frame), both Expedition 28 flight engineers, attired in Russian Orlan spacesuits, participate in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) on the Russian segment of the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 23-minute spacewalk, Volkov and Samokutyaev moved a cargo boom from one airlock to another, installed a prototype laser communications system and deployed an amateur radio micro-satellite.

  15. Volkov and Samokutyaev during Russian EVA 29

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-03

    ISS028-E-020962 (3 Aug. 2011) --- Russian cosmonauts Sergei Volkov and Alexander Samokutyaev, both Expedition 28 flight engineers, attired in Russian Orlan spacesuits, participate in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) on the Russian segment of the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 23-minute spacewalk, Volkov and Samokutyaev moved a cargo boom from one airlock to another, installed a prototype laser communications system and deployed an amateur radio micro-satellite.

  16. Pesticides and Health in Vegetable Production in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Macharia, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of pesticide-related cost of illness (COI) and acute symptoms, using a balanced panel of 363 farmers interviewed from seven major vegetable producing districts of Kenya. Finding shows that the incidences of pesticide-related health impairments have increased. Variation in number of symptoms and symptom severity significantly explained COI. The personal protective equipment (PPE), education level, record keeping, and geographical location considerably determined health impairments. Encouraging the proper use of PPE and record keeping of pesticide use could greatly reduce poisoning cases and COI.

  17. Pesticides and Health in Vegetable Production in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Macharia, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of pesticide-related cost of illness (COI) and acute symptoms, using a balanced panel of 363 farmers interviewed from seven major vegetable producing districts of Kenya. Finding shows that the incidences of pesticide-related health impairments have increased. Variation in number of symptoms and symptom severity significantly explained COI. The personal protective equipment (PPE), education level, record keeping, and geographical location considerably determined health impairments. Encouraging the proper use of PPE and record keeping of pesticide use could greatly reduce poisoning cases and COI. PMID:26783515

  18. Contaminants and remedial options at pesticides sites - a technical resource document

    SciTech Connect

    Koustas, R.N.

    1995-10-01

    Pesticide contamination includes a wide variety of compounds resulting from manufacturing, improper storage, handling, disposal, and/or agricultural processes. Remediation of pesticide-contaminated soils can be a complicated process, as most pesticides are mixtures of different compounds rather than pure pesticide. The remedial manager is faced with the task of selecting remedial options that will meet established cleanup levels. There are three principal options for dealing with pesticide contamination: containment/immobilization, destruction, and separation/concentration. This paper is condensed from the technical resource document (TRD){open_quotes}Contaminants and Remedial Options at Pesticide Sites{close_quotes} and provides a brief summary on treatment technologies that are available or those being developed for pesticide contamination. Technologies that have not produced performance data are not included nor are water treatment technologies. This paper focuses on potential remediation techniques of soils.

  19. Antimicrobial Pesticide Use Site Index

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Use Site Index provides guidance to assist applicants for antimicrobial pesticide registration by helping them identify the data requirements necessary to register a pesticide or support their product registrations.

  20. Requirements for Monitoring Pesticide Handlers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To ensure safety, someone must monitor pesticide handlers in certain situations, including when the most toxic pesticides are used and when fumigants are used in greenhouses. Find out about these requirements.

  1. Toward Safer Use of Pesticides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moats, Sheila; Moats, William A.

    1970-01-01

    Gives information on costs and benefits of pesticides, and on specific injurious effects on humans and fish and wild life. Suggests restriction of use of certain pesticides and acceleration of research on biological control. (EB)

  2. Common Causes of Pesticide Incidents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There are many types of pesticide incidents. EPA staff analyze pesticide incident reports involving people (including children and farm workers), pets, domestic animals, wildlife including bees and other pollinators, and the environment.

  3. Pesticide Data Submitters List (PDSL)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pesticide Data Submitters List is a compilation of names and addresses of registrants who wish to be notified and offered compensation for use of their data. It was developed to assist pesticide applicants in fulfilling their obligation under FIFRA.

  4. Toward Safer Use of Pesticides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moats, Sheila; Moats, William A.

    1970-01-01

    Gives information on costs and benefits of pesticides, and on specific injurious effects on humans and fish and wild life. Suggests restriction of use of certain pesticides and acceleration of research on biological control. (EB)

  5. Conventional Reduced Risk Pesticide Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find out about the Conventional Reduced Risk Pesticide Program, which expedites the review and regulatory decision-making process of conventional pesticides that pose less risk to human health and the environment than existing conventional alternatives.

  6. ISS Update: Russian Spacesuits and Spacewalks

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Marc Ciupitu, EVA Flight and Increment Manager, about the Russian Orlan spacesuits that cosmonauts wear during spacewalks. Marc also discusses wha...

  7. Pesticide Use and Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred

    This publication describes in nontechnical language the problem of pesticide use and how it affects water quality. It provides information on laws affecting pesticide use and the reasons for them, as well as giving directions for the proper use of pesticides. The booklet is divided into five chapters, each of which concludes with a list of study…

  8. Pesticides (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Town - National Library of Medicine) - Introduction to the health effects associated with exposure to pesticides and where they can be found in the ... and Pesticides (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) - Information on health ... food; links to pesticides and detrimental environmental risks. Healthy ...

  9. Pesticide Use and Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred

    This publication describes in nontechnical language the problem of pesticide use and how it affects water quality. It provides information on laws affecting pesticide use and the reasons for them, as well as giving directions for the proper use of pesticides. The booklet is divided into five chapters, each of which concludes with a list of study…

  10. Pesticides: A Community Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumstead, Cynthia, Ed.; And Others

    Developed to provide an introduction to the issues surrounding the use of chemical pesticides, this booklet encourages individuals and communities to become active in determining the safe use and regulation of pesticides. The major components of the guide include: (1) an explanation of the issue; (2) pesticides and their effect on human health;…

  11. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pesticide Product Information System contains information concerning all pesticide products registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and address, chemical ingredients, toxicity category, product names, distributor brand names, site/pest uses, pesticidal type, formulation code, and registration status.

  12. Pesticides: A Community Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumstead, Cynthia, Ed.; And Others

    Developed to provide an introduction to the issues surrounding the use of chemical pesticides, this booklet encourages individuals and communities to become active in determining the safe use and regulation of pesticides. The major components of the guide include: (1) an explanation of the issue; (2) pesticides and their effect on human health;…

  13. Russian-American Cooperation in EVA Area (from Russian Perspective)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsygankov, O. S.; Alexandrov, A. P.; Poleschuk, A. F.

    Russian and American extravehicular activity (EVA) specialists started cooperation after Russia entered the ISS Program. Practical work began in the framework of the Mir-NASA Program, when astronauts J. Linenger, M. Foale and D. Wolf were trained in Russia and participated in the EVA on MIR. This was the intercourse of two experiences, two equal schools each formed under specific conditions. The Report studies the peculiarities of national EVA schools, shows the experience in their integration for the ISS purposes. Organizational aspects of the ISS Program to optimize the implementation of the EVA tasks are presented. It gives examples of the cooperation and development of the hardware equally compatible both with EMU and ORLAN-M space suits, impacts of different schools on the operational methods. It presents proposals on the further integration of the Russian and American schools, considers the prerequisites and perspectives of maximally integrated EVA system for the ISS and the possibility of its incorporation in future in to the mission to Mars.

  14. Pesticides and other chemicals: minimizing worker exposures.

    PubMed

    Keifer, Matthew; Gasperini, Frank; Robson, Mark

    2010-07-01

    Pesticides, ammonia, and sanitizers, all used in agricultural production present ongoing risks for exposed workers. Pesticides continue to poison workers despite elimination of some of the most toxic older products. Obligatory reporting of pesticide poisonings exists in 30 states and surveillance of poisoning occurs in only 12. Estimates of poisoning numbers have been based on sampling but funding for this is scant and in constant jeopardy. There appears to be a downward trend in poisonings nationally based on SENSOR data. Newer more pest-specific pesticides are generally less toxic and present less health risks but may have unpredicted health effects in humans that may not emerge until used widely. Internationally, older cheaper chemicals continue to be used with serious consequences in many developing countries. Monitoring workers for overexposure to pesticides broadly is impractical with the exception of the cholinesterase inhibitors. We can learn much from monitoring systems. Unfortunately, monitoring tools are economically inaccessible for most other chemical groups. New technologies for toxicity testing will necessitate new biomonitoring tools that should be supplied by the producers of these chemicals and made available for protecting worker and the public. Protection of workers from pesticides is primarily based on personal protective equipment use, which presents significant hardship for workers in hot environments and is generally considered the least effective approach on the hierarchy of controls in worker protection. Isolation through the use of closed systems has been employed, though rarely studied as to effectiveness in field use. Substitution or replacing harmful substances with safer ones is underway as more pest specific chemicals enter the pesticide portfolio and older ones drop out. This paper summarizes the panel presentation, "Minimizing Exposures to Pesticides and Other Chemicals," at the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America

  15. Russian Federation. Health system review.

    PubMed

    Popovich, Larisa; Potapchik, Elena; Shishkin, Sergey; Richardson, Erica; Vacroux, Alexandra; Mathivet, Benoit

    2011-01-01

    The HiT reviews are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. At independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, the Russian health system inherited an extensive, centralized Semashko system, but was quick to reform health financing by adopting a mandatory health insurance (MHI) model in 1993. MHI was introduced in order to open up an earmarked stream of funding for health care in the face of severe fiscal constraints. While the health system has evolved and changed significantly since the early 1990 s, the legacy of having been a highly centralized system focused on universal access to basic care remains. High energy prices on world markets have ensured greater macroeconomic stability, a budget surplus and improvements in living standards for most of the Russian population. However, despite an overall reduction in the poverty rate, there is a marked urban rural split and rural populations have worse health and poorer access to health services than urban populations. The increase in budgetary resources available to policy-makers have led to a number of recent federal-level health programmes that have focused on the delivery of services and increasing funding for priority areas including primary care provision in rural areas. Nevertheless, public health spending in the Russian Federation remains relatively low given the resources available. However, it is also clear that, even with the current level of financing, the performance of the health system could be improved. Provider payment mechanisms are the main obstacle to improving technical efficiency in

  16. Climate changes and technological disasters in the Russian Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, E. G.

    2009-04-01

    Global warming and climate change are responsible for many ecological, economic and other significant influences on natural environment and human society. Increasing in number and severity of natural and technological disasters (TD) around the world is among of such influences. Great changes in geographical distribution of disasters are also expected. The study suggested examines this problem by the example of the Russian Federation. Using data base of TD and na-techs (natural-technological disasters) happened in the Russian Federation in 1992-2008 the most important types of disasters caused by various natural hazards were identified and classified for Russian federal regions. In concept of this study na-techs are considered as TD produced by natural factors. 88 percent of all na-techs occurring in the Russian Federation during the observation period were caused by natural processes related to various meteorological and hydrological phenomena. The majority of them were produced by windstorms and hurricanes (37%), snowfalls and snowstorms (27%), rainfalls (16%), hard frost and icy conditions of roads (12%). 11 types of na-techs caused by meteorological and hydrological hazards were found. These types are: (1) accidents at power and heat supply systems caused by windstorms, cyclones, and hurricanes, snowfalls and sleets, hard frost, rainfalls, hailstones, icing, avalanches, or thunderstorms (more than 50% of all na-techs registered in the data base); (2) accidents at water supply systems caused by hard frost, rainfalls, or subsidence of rock (3%); (3) sudden collapses of constructions caused by windstorms, snowfalls, rainfalls, hard frost, subsidence of rock, or floods (12%); (4) automobile accidents caused by snowfalls and snowstorms, icy conditions of roads, rainfalls, fogs, mist, or avalanches (10%); (5) water transport accidents caused by storms, cyclones, typhoons, or fogs (9%); (6) air crashes caused by windstorms, snowfalls, icing, or fogs; (7) railway

  17. Technical evaluation of Russian aircraft stealth coating and structural materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gac, F.D.; Young, A.T. Jr.; Migliori, A.

    1996-10-01

    Treating aircraft, missiles, and ships with materials that absorb electromagnetic energy continues to be an important technique for reducing a vehicle`s radar cross section (RCS) and improving tis combat effectiveness and survivability. Work at the Russian Scientific Center for Applied Problems in Electrodynamics (SCAPE) has produced and experimentally validated an accurate predictor of the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with discontinuous composite materials consisting of magnetic and/or dielectric particles dispersed in a non-conductive matrix (i.e. percolation systems). The primary purpose of this project was to analyze rf-absorbing coatings and validate manufacturing processes associated with the Russian percolation system designs. An additional objective was to apply the percolation methodology toward a variety of civilian applications by transferring the technology to US industry.

  18. Syllabus for Use in Imperial Russian History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husum, Carol

    This syllabus is an outline of a one semester course in Imperial Russia designed to emphasize the relationship between Russia's past and her present. Course content begins with the founding of the first Russian state and continues to the fall of the Romanovs in 1917. In addition, some topics are suggested for investigation of Russian history in…

  19. The Russian Novel, Literature: 5113.88.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Developed for a high school quinmester unit on the Russian novel, this guide is designed to give students the opportunity to become familiar with the major works of Leo Tolstoy and Fyodor Dostoevski. Performance objectives for the course include studying the general facets of 19th century Russian culture and history, analyzing the novels of…

  20. Legal Portion in Russian Inheritance Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inshina, Roza; Murzalimova, Lyudmila

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe the right to inherit as one of the basic human rights guaranteed by the Constitution of the Russian Federation. The state has set rules according to which after a person's death, his or her property is inherited by other persons. The Russian civil legislation establishes the institution of legal portions that is…

  1. Syllabus for Use in Russian Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cernonok, Jevgenij

    This syllabus outlines a two semester course to accompany the basic textbook: THE EPIC OF RUSSIAN LITERATURE by Marc Slonim. An introduction to the guide gives a brief summary of the history of Russian literature and objectives of the course are stated, defining concepts and understandings to be developed. In addition, teaching techniques are…

  2. Impact of Alleged Russian Cyber Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    security. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Cyber Security, Cyber Warfare , Estonia, Georgia, Russian Federation Cyber Strategy, Convention on Cybercrime, NATO Center...Federation ......................................................................................... 33  X.  The Future of Russian Cyber Warfare ................................................................... 39...Issue 15.09); Binoy Kampmark, Cyber Warfare Between Estonia And Russia, (Contemporary Review: Autumn, 2003), p 288-293; Jaak Aaviksoo, Address by the

  3. Conversational Russian in Russkij Jazyk Za Rubezom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Thomas W.

    1976-01-01

    Reviews materials relating to Russian speech which have appeared in the journal "Russkij Jazyk Za Rubezom" since its first issue in 1967. The articles reviewed are divided into three categories: the stylistics of Russian speech, specific conversation expressions, and methodology. (CLK)

  4. The Historical Self-Awareness of Russians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorshkov, M. K.; Davydova, N. M.

    2006-01-01

    In June and July 2004, the Institute for Comprehensive Social Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, in collaboration with the Russian Federation office of the F. Ebert Foundation, carried out a repeat survey on the topic of "Citizens of the New Russia: How Do They Feel about Themselves, and What Society Would They Like to Live…

  5. Lexical Inferencing in Reading L2 Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, William J.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes how intermediate-level first language English readers of Russian as a second language deploy lexical inferencing and other strategies when reading informational texts. Fifth-semester students of Russian performed think-alouds while reading two texts; one written for the general adult reader, and the other meant for school-age…

  6. Russian for Trade Negotiations with the USSR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, James S.

    The primary goal of this text is to present the vocabulary and phraseology used in Soviet-American trade and to provide the student with oral facility in business Russian. In order to bring together the vocabulary of the diverse fields which play a role in such trade, the student is presented with sufficient background information in Russian to…

  7. The Russian Virtual Observatory: Recent Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, O.; Dluzhnevskaya, O.; Kilpio, E.; Kovaleva, D.

    2006-04-01

    The Russian Virtual Observatory (RVO) is a collaborative effort by Russian astronomy researches and computer scientists to develop astronomical data and tools which have proved to be very useful for the international astronomical community. The paper reviews the current status of the RVO project and planned developments.

  8. Common fungal diseases of Russian forests

    Treesearch

    Evgeny P. Kuz' michevl; Ella s. Sokolova; Elena G. Kulikova

    2001-01-01

    Describes common fungal diseases of Russian forests, including diagnostic signs and symptoms, pathogen biology, damage caused by the disease, and methods of control. The fungal diseases are divided into two groups: those that are the most common in Russian forests and those that are found only in Russia. Within each group, diseases are subdivided by plant organ...

  9. Ranking of Russian Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokholkov, Yuri P.; Chuchalin, Alexander I.; Agranovich, Boris L.; Mogilnitsky, Sergey B.

    2007-01-01

    This article considers some patterns of ranking higher education institutions which are used in the Russian Federation to reveal strengths and weaknesses in meeting the national individual, societal and state-related needs, as well as those of the international academic community concerning relevant information on Russian higher education…

  10. Russian Basic Course: Reader, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This anthology of short stories is representative of well-known 19th and 20th century Russian writers. Eleven stories, often adapted or abridged, are arranged in order of increasing difficulty and intended for use in intermediate and advanced phases of the Russian Basic Course. The selections, all in Cyrillic script, include: (1) A. S. Pushkin's…

  11. My Russian Program is Alive and Growing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Henry P.

    The decision on the part of students regarding what language to take often depends on the tradition of good teaching that has been established in a school. Three factors have been involved in establishing such a tradition in Russian at Princeton High School in Columbus, Ohio. These are: (1) accepting the students who sign up for Russian as they…

  12. Russian Literature: A Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill Univ., Montreal (Quebec). McLennan Library.

    An annotated bibliography of general and specialized reference works for Russian and Soviet literature is intended for both students and researchers. English language and Russian language sources in the McGill University (Canada) libraries are included. Subject headings include guides (to the literature and to archival resources), encyclopedias,…

  13. My Russian Program is Alive and Growing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Henry P.

    The decision on the part of students regarding what language to take often depends on the tradition of good teaching that has been established in a school. Three factors have been involved in establishing such a tradition in Russian at Princeton High School in Columbus, Ohio. These are: (1) accepting the students who sign up for Russian as they…

  14. Russian Media Education Researches: 1950-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzed the development of Russian media education researches from 1950 to 2010 years. The list of theses of the Russian authors on the subject of Media Education is about 180 titles since 1950. Nearly 70 of them have been defended for the recent 10 years. From 1950 till 1959 six theses were defended, from 1960 till 1969--15; from…

  15. Predicate Adjective Usage in Standard Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Morton

    1959-01-01

    This paper describes predicate adjective usage in modern standard Russian using a corpus of written Russian derived from "Pravda" (neutral literary style) and "Krokodil" (conversational material). The short, long nominative, and instrumental forms are examined in relation to the type of adjective, copulative verb, sentence subject, and other…

  16. Excerpt from {open_quotes}Summary of Near-Term Options for Russian Plutonium-Production Reactors{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    The Russian Federation desires to stop producing weapons-grade plutonium. During the last several years, ten graphite-moderated, water-cooled, production reactors have been shut down. However, complete cessation of weapons-grade plutonium production is impeded by the fact that the last three operating Russian plutonium-production reactors supply electrical energy and district heat as well as produce plutonium. These reactors are major suppliers of heat in the Tomsk and Krasnoyarsk regions of Siberia.

  17. Factors fragmenting the Russian Federation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, E.

    1993-10-06

    This paper examines the factors that threaten the future of the Russian Federation (RF). The observations are based on a study that focused on eight republics: Mordova, Udmurtia, Tatarstan, Mari El, Bashkortostan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Buryatia, and Altay Republic. These republics were selected for their geographic and economic significance to the RF. Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, Udmurtia, and Mari El are located on important supply routes, such as the Volga River and the trans-Siberian railroad. Some of these republics are relatively wealthy, with natural resources such as oil (e.g., Tatarstan and Bashkortostan), and all eight republics play significant roles in the military-industrial complex. The importance of these republics to the RF contrasts to the relative insignificance of the independence-minded Northern Caucasus area. The author chose not to examine the Northern Caucasus region (except Kabardino-Balkaria) because these republics may have only a minor impact on the rest of the RF if they secede. Their impact would be minimized because they lie on the frontiers of the RF. Many Russians believe that {open_quotes}it might be best to let such a troublesome area secede.{close_quotes}

  18. The Russian/American Fuel Cell Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Sylwester, A.; Baker, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1996-12-31

    The United States and Russia discovered a mutual interest in fuel cell development during a series of workshops designed to teach entrepreneurial skills to Russian nuclear weapon scientists and engineers to aid them in converting their skill to peaceful applications. The proposal for a Russian/American Fuel Cell Consortium was initiated at the third workshop held in Livermore, CA, in May 1994. Representatives from U.S. fuel cell industries, U.S. research institutes, Russian institutes and ministries, and U.S. national laboratories attended, including those from GAZPROM, the Russian natural gas company. GASPROM needs to provide power for telemetry, cathodic corrosion protection of gas lines, and gas line pumping power in remote areas, and estimates that it needs approximately seventy thousand 1.5 to 15 KW plants to do so. Since the workshop, several direct working relationships have developed between the Russian Nuclear Weapon Institutes and the U.S. fuel cell industry.

  19. A Test House Study of Pesticides and PesticideDegradation Products Following an Indoor Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preexisting pesticide degradates are a concern for pesticide biomonitoring studies as exposure to them may result in overestimation of pesticide exposure. The purpose of this research was to determine whether there was significant formation and movement, of pesticide degradates o...

  20. A Test House Study of Pesticides and PesticideDegradation Products Following an Indoor Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preexisting pesticide degradates are a concern for pesticide biomonitoring studies as exposure to them may result in overestimation of pesticide exposure. The purpose of this research was to determine whether there was significant formation and movement, of pesticide degradates o...

  1. Pesticide use in agriculture.

    PubMed Central

    Ridgway, R L; Tinney, J C; MacGregor, J T; Starler, N J

    1978-01-01

    During the last three decades, the use of modern organic synthetic pesticides has increased about 40-fold. Total U.S. production, for domestic and expert use, in 1976 was about 1.4 million pounds. Crops receiving the most intensive application of various pesticides were cotton for insecticides, corn for herbicides, and fruits and vegetables for fungicides. Examination of use trends of pesticides indicates that the volume in pounds of herbicides used on crops is increasing, whereas the quantities of insecticides and fungicides remain stable. New chemical classes of compounds such as the synthetic pyrethroid insecticides are being introduced, but are not yet significant in terms of their share of the market. The increased usage of pesticides, together with knowledge of some of their adverse effects, has alerted the public to the need for regulation. To assist in the regulatory decision-making process, emphasis is being placed on benefit-cost analyses. Additional and improved biological inputs and methodologies are needed to provide accurate analyses. PMID:104870

  2. Epigenetics and pesticides.

    PubMed

    Collotta, M; Bertazzi, P A; Bollati, V

    2013-05-10

    Pesticides, a wide class of environmental contaminants, may cause both acute and delayed health effects in exposed subjects. These effects can range from simple irritation of the skin and eyes to more severe effects such as affecting the nervous system, the reproductive system and cancer. The molecular mechanisms underlying such effects are still under investigation. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression that occur without a change in the DNA sequence. Several epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNA expression, can be triggered by environmental factors. We review current evidences indicating that epigenetic modifications may mediate pesticide effects on human health. In vitro, animal, and human investigations have identified several classes of pesticides that modify epigenetic marks, including endocrine disruptors, persistent organic pollutants, arsenic, several herbicides and insecticides. Several investigations have examined the effects of environmental exposures and epigenetic markers, and identified toxicants that modify epigenetic states. These modifications are similar to the ones found in pathological tissue samples. In spite of the current limitations, available evidence supports the concept that epigenetics holds substantial potential for furthering our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of pesticides health effects, as well as for predicting health-related risks due to conditions of environmental exposure and individual susceptibility.

  3. Citizen's Guide to Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    This guide provides suggestions on pest control and safety rules for pesticide use at home. Pest prevention may be possible by modification of pest habitat: removal of food and water sources, removal or destruction of pest shelter and breeding sites, and good horticultural practices that reduce plant stress. Nonchemical alternatives to pesticides…

  4. Exporting DBCP and other banned pesticides: consideration of ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Lowry, L K; Frank, A L

    1999-01-01

    Many developed countries permit the export of pesticides that are banned, restricted, or unregistered within their own borders. This practice, which leads to the exposure of agricultural workers in developing countries to high levels of pesticides that are not permitted in the country of manufacture, raises many ethical issues as well as economic, social, political, and public health issues. Worldwide attempts to control export of such pesticides, through the FAO/UNEP Prior Informed Consent program, moves this issue in the right direction. This article explores the current U.S. and international practices, using the specific example of export of DBCP to banana-producing countries. The actions taken by multinational corporations, manufacturers of the pesticides, and public health officials in both the exporting and importing countries are explored, along with the impacts on workers, local economies, governments, and the environment.

  5. Pesticide residues in essential oils: evaluation of a database.

    PubMed

    Klier, B; Knödler, M; Peschke, J; Riegert, U; Steinhoff, B

    2015-01-01

    In the context of a revision of the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) general monograph Essential oils (2098), the need to include a test for pesticides is being discussed. According to published literature, some oils, mainly those produced by cold pressing (e.g. citrus oils), can contain relevant amounts of pesticide residues, whereas distilled oils showed positive findings in only a few cases. Recent evaluation of a database containing 127 517 sets of data compiled over 8 years, showed positive results in 1 150 cases (0.90 per cent), and the limits of Ph. Eur. general chapter 2.8.13 Pesticide residues or Regulation (EC) 396/2005, both applicable to herbal drugs, were exceeded in 392 cases (0.31 per cent, equivalent to 34.1 per cent of the positive results), particularly in cases of oils produced by cold pressing. From these results, it can be concluded that a general test on pesticides in the Ph. Eur. general monograph on essential oils is not required for most oils used in medicinal products. Therefore, it is proposed to limit the testing of essential oils for pesticide residues to those cases where potential residues are more of a concern, either due to the type of production process or to those processes where pesticides are actively used during cultivation of the plant (e.g. as documented according to Good Agricultural and Collection Practice (GACP)). Furthermore, in order to assess any potential risk, an approach using the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) can be made.

  6. Ecological risk assessment of pesticide runoff from grass surfaces.

    PubMed

    Haith, Douglas A

    2010-08-15

    An ecological risk assessment was performed for runoff of 37 pesticides registered for use on grass surfaces (lawns and golf courses) in the U.S. The assessment was based on 100-yr simulations using TPQPond, a newly developed model of pesticide runoff and subsequent accumulation in a receiving pond. One-in-10 yr pond concentrations were compared with acute toxicity end points for fish, invertebrates, and algae. Simulations were performed for pesticides applied at label rates on lawns, fairways, and greens using weather data for nine U.S. locations. Runoff of 4 of the 37 pesticides produced potential acute risk to invertebrates or fish. Two chemicals posed a comparable danger to plants. Risk was highest with fairways and lowest for greens. Locations with long growing seasons and large amounts of precipitation produced the highest risks. The risk assessment followed the general protocols recommended by USEPA, but with different models, weather data, and scenarios. In spite of the differences, the results confirmed that most but not all of the pesticides which had survived the USEPA registration process were also demonstrated safe, with respect to acute risks, by this independent assessment. The five exceptions were explained by differences in models, simulation scenarios, and input data. These results do not mean that the studied pesticides are free of any ecological dangers. In particular, no attempt was made to evaluate chronic risk.

  7. Science and Russian Orthodox Scholarship.

    PubMed

    Hall, Karl; Bayuk, Dimitri

    2016-09-01

    In Russia the theme of science and religion found its strongest resonance at the levels of humanistic scholarship and Christianity in general, where visions of harmony dominated and doctrinal and confessional particularity was largely absent. The fraught relations of both the Holy Synod and the Imperial Academy of Sciences with the Russian state since the early eighteenth century had the collateral consequence of minimal institutional contacts between theology and natural philosophy. Though “scientific apologetics” eventually found a place in the seminaries, scientists did not contribute to this scholarship in the nineteenth century. The rare prominent scientist who entertained religious beliefs posited either harmony or conflict in public writings even more rarely, and it is the varieties of religious indifference—not solely Soviet in origin—that invite historical inquiry.

  8. Demonstration of a joint US-Russian very long baseline interferometry tracking capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroger, P. M.; Iijima, B. A.; Edwards, C. D.; Altunin, V.; Alexeev, V.; Lipatov, B.; Molotov, E.

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses results of the first very long baseline interferometric (VLBI) measurements between antennas of the NASA DSN and the Russian three-station spacecraft tracking network. The VLBI systems of the U.S. and Russian tracking networks are described, and their compatibility for joint U.S.-Russian measurements is discussed. The results of a series of VLBI measurements involving Deep Space Stations and Russian tracking antennas are presented. The purpose of these first observations is to establish the compatibility of the two VLBI recording systems and verify that data recorded on these systems can be successfully correlated. The delay and delay rate observables produced by correlation of the recorded data are then used to estimate the locations of the Russian tracking stations relative to the Deep Space Stations. These first experiments, carried out at 1.7 GHz, are precursors to a future series of observations at 2 and 8 GHz, which will provide far more accurate station location estimates. The capability of the VLBI systems for joint U.S.-Russian spacecraft navigation measurements is also discussed.

  9. Syntactic flexibility and competition in sentence production: the case of English and Russian.

    PubMed

    Myachykov, Andriy; Scheepers, Christoph; Garrod, Simon; Thompson, Dominic; Fedorova, Olga

    2013-08-01

    We analysed how syntactic flexibility influences sentence production in two different languages-English and Russian. In Experiment 1, speakers were instructed to produce as many structurally different descriptions of transitive-event pictures as possible. Consistent with the syntactically more flexible Russian grammar, Russian participants produced more descriptions and used a greater variety of structures than their English counterparts. In Experiment 2, a different sample of participants provided single-sentence descriptions of the same picture materials while their eye movements were recorded. In this task, English and Russian participants almost exclusively produced canonical subject-verb-object active-voice structures. However, Russian participants took longer to plan their sentences, as reflected in longer sentence onset latencies and eye-voice spans for the sentence-initial subject noun. This cross-linguistic difference in processing load diminished toward the end of the sentence. Stepwise generalized linear model analyses showed that the greater sentence-initial processing load registered in Experiment 2 corresponded to the greater amount of syntactic competition from available alternatives (Experiment 1), suggesting that syntactic flexibility is costly regardless of the language in use.

  10. Distribution and diversity of Russian wheat aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) biotypes in South Africa and Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Jankielsohn, Astrid

    2011-10-01

    Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) was recorded for the first time in South Africa in 1978. In 2005, a second biotype, RWASA2, emerged, and here we report on the emergence of yet another biotype, found for the first time in 2009. The discovery of new Russian wheat aphid biotypes is a significant challenge to the wheat, Triticum aestivum L., industry in South Africa. Russian wheat aphid resistance in wheat, that offered wheat producers a long-term solution to Russian wheat aphid control, may no longer be effective in areas where the new biotypes occur. It is therefore critical to determine the diversity and extent of distribution of biotypes in South Africa to successfully deploy Russian wheat aphid resistance in wheat. Screening of 96 Russian wheat aphid clones resulted in identification of three Russian wheat aphid biotypes. Infestations of RWASA1 caused susceptible damage symptoms only in wheat entries containing the Dn3 gene. Infestations of RWASA2 caused susceptible damage symptoms in wheat entries containing Dn1, Dn2, Dn3, and Dn9 resistant genes. Based on the damage-rating scores for the seven resistance sources, a new biotype, which caused damage rating scores different from those for RWASA1 and RWASA2, was evident among the Russian wheat aphid populations tested. This new biotype is virulent to the same resistance sources as RWASA2 (Dn1, Dn2, Dn3, and Dn9), but it also has added virulence to Dn4, whereas RWASA2 is avirulent to this resistance source.

  11. OSIRIS: An Optical Stellar Interferometer for Russian Investigations in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagrov, A. V.; Boyarchuk, A. A.; Barabanov, S. I.; Mikisha, A. M.; Rykhlova, L. V.; Smirnov, M. A.

    Project OSIRIS is two-based interferometer designed for measurements of arcs between any two stars separated by angle from 30 to 100 degrees in the space. RKA and Russian Academy of Sciences included OSIRIS in the first step of the Russian Segment of the ISS. It may be launched in 2001-2003. The main idea of the OSIRIS project based on the ZODIAC ideas that was primerly designed for ISS as USA-RF project. It based on fast metrology as well as on fast light-receiver that allow to recalculate positions of every photon to the frozen interference field. Thus, all the shifts of optical elements would be avoided. As both of interferometers have the same base produced by common fiducial blocks, project OSIRIS has no external metrology system. Two versions of the OSIRIS project are the same arc-measurer but one is constructed for ISS and the other for special light-class spacecraft. The most advanced is the project for the Russian Segment of the ISS. The device would be mounted on Science&Energy Platform in the upper hemispheare of the ISS. Four-axis mounting is necessary to point interferometer to the chosen stars. Every observation will be of one bright star and the other may be a week one. As the exposure time for the week star may be long, it may consist of a set of short observations that mathematically would be composed together.

  12. Persistent organic pollutants in maternal blood plasma and breast milk from Russian arctic populations.

    PubMed

    Klopov, V; Odland, J O; Burkow, I C

    1998-10-01

    Under the auspices of Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), a Russian-Norwegian co-operation project was established to assess the exposure of delivering women to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Arctic areas of Russia. In the period 1993-95 blood and breast milk samples were collected from 94 delivering women in Yamal and Tajmyr Autonomous Regions of Siberia. Concentrations of chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined by high resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The POP levels in maternal plasma among the non-indigenous women were higher than the native population, especially in total PCB, HCHs (hexachlorocyclohexanes) and the DDT-group. The dietary questionnaires showed that the non-indigenous populations consumed considerably less local food items like reindeer meat and fresh water fish. There was no correlation between local food consumption and elevated levels of pollutants. Even if the indigenous groups had lower concentrations of the most important pollutants than the non-indigenous population, they were still higher than the levels measured in the Scandinavian countries of the AMAP-study and up to levels of medical concern. The most important sources of organic pollutants for the Russian Arctic populations of Yamal and Tajmyr seems to be imported food from other areas of Russia and local use of pesticides. It must be a high priority concern to further elucidate these trends and initiate prophylactic measures for the exposed population groups.

  13. Combining data sets of organochlorines (OCs) in human plasma for the Russian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Sandanger, T M; Anda, E E; Dudarev, A A; Nieboer, E; Konoplev, A V; Vlasov, S V; Weber, J-P; Odland, J Ø; Chashchin, V P

    2009-09-15

    As part of AMAP's human circumpolar study of POPs, an international effort was initiated to extend coverage to communities across the Russian Arctic. Two additional laboratories were invited to join the analytical component of this effort, resulting in four participating analytical centres. Although quality assurance measures were put in place, and the level of performance of the laboratories was generally acceptable, deficiencies in the analytical protocols used were recognized subsequent to the collection and analyses of the plasma specimens. The current paper describes the criteria employed to critically appraise the four data bases and guide their integration into a single data set. Summary statistics are presented for plasma concentrations of major PCBs, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, beta-HCH, and HCB for communities/regions across the arctic/subarctic Russian continent, and for one community located in the Aral Sea area of Uzbekistan (a control group). Highly exposed people were identified in the coastal communities of Chukotka, which appears mainly related to marine mammal intake, but recent pesticide use is also suspected. Other communities with intermediate levels of PCBs had relatively elevated beta-HCH, p,p'-DDT and HCB concentrations and low DDE/DDT ratios (<10), suggesting recent pesticide use.

  14. [Eye care management in Russian Federation].

    PubMed

    Neroev, V V

    2014-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of Russian eye care performance indicators based on federal and sector statistics over the recent years provided by the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, that is the incidence of eye diseases, eye care equipment provision, inpatient and outpatient volumes. Legal acts of the Russian Federation on health system in general and eye care in particular were taken into consideration when preparing the section on organizational matters. Problems of human resources, efficiency of specialists' time management, hospital beds use, and administrative issues in particular regions and Russia as a whole are discussed.

  15. [Russian stimulation in strengthening abdominal muscle].

    PubMed

    Lima, Evelyne Patrícia Fernandes; Rodrigues, Geruza Baima de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Muscle weakness appears most often in women, the factor that causes bad esthetics. To analyze the results of the Russian current strengthening the abdominal muscles. Literature review based on publications available in the following databases: Medline / Pubmed, Scielo, Lilacs with crossing headings Russian current, sagging, abdomen. The use of electrical stimulation acts both on the white fibers, which account for the speed, but also on the red fibers given their support, and on intermediate fibers. The data published show the satisfaction and success of treatment, emphasizing that the Russian current promotes increase of muscle strength and hypertrophy.

  16. 27 CFR 9.66 - Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Russian River Valley. 9.66... Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Russian River Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Russian...

  17. 31 CFR 540.304 - Government of the Russian Federation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Government of the Russian Federation...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.304 Government of the Russian Federation. (a) The term Government of the Russian Federation means the Government of the Russian Federation,...

  18. 31 CFR 540.304 - Government of the Russian Federation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Government of the Russian Federation...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.304 Government of the Russian Federation. (a) The term Government of the Russian Federation means the Government of the Russian Federation,...

  19. 31 CFR 540.304 - Government of the Russian Federation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Government of the Russian Federation...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.304 Government of the Russian Federation. (a) The term Government of the Russian Federation means the Government of the Russian Federation,...

  20. 31 CFR 540.304 - Government of the Russian Federation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Government of the Russian Federation...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.304 Government of the Russian Federation. (a) The term Government of the Russian Federation means the Government of the Russian Federation,...

  1. 31 CFR 540.304 - Government of the Russian Federation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Government of the Russian Federation...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.304 Government of the Russian Federation. (a) The term Government of the Russian Federation means the Government of the Russian Federation,...

  2. Violence on the Russian & American Media Screen and Youth Audience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    The comparison of the Russian and American experience regarding media violence, standards for rating Russian media programs, and a course of study on media violence for students will have a significant impact upon Russian society, will raise Russian societal and governmental attention to the infringement of the Rights of the Child on the Russian…

  3. Using University and Community Resources in the Teaching of Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bustin, Ronald W.

    Activities that have helped to make the Watervliet (New York) High School Russian language education program highly successful involve return visits by former students who are using their Russian language skills in various ways after graduation. These graduates include student teachers of Russian, college students taking Russian to satisfy a…

  4. Pesticides and healthy public policy.

    PubMed

    Labonte, R N

    1989-01-01

    Despite concern over long-term human and environmental health risks, Canadian and international pesticide use continues to increase. Enormous gaps in pesticide toxicity data persist and, though equivocal, there is mounting evidence that certain pesticide families are carcinogenic. Farmworkers are at greatest risk of pesticide poisoning and long-term health effects, and unions representing farmworkers have initiated a boycott of California grapes to draw attention to the need to reduce pesticide use and improve health and safety conditions. The boycott is a model of "healthy public policy" in action, and can be one element in a public health strategy to reduce significantly pesticide use and promote less toxic alternatives and less chemically dependent forms of agriculture and silviculture.

  5. Use, analysis, and regulation of pesticides in natural extracts, essential oils, concretes, and absolutes.

    PubMed

    Tascone, Oriane; Roy, Céline; Filippi, Jean-Jacques; Meierhenrich, Uwe J

    2014-02-01

    Natural extracts used by the fragrance and cosmetics industries, namely essential oils, concretes, resinoids, and absolutes, are produced from natural raw materials. These are often cultivated by use of monoculture techniques that involve the use of different classes of xenobiotica, including pesticides. Because of these pesticides’ potential effect on public health and the environment, laws regarding permitted residual levels of pesticides used in cultivation of raw materials for fragrance and cosmetic products are expected to become stricter. The purpose of this review is to present and classify pesticides commonly used in the cultivation of these natural raw materials. We will summarize the most recent regulations, and discuss publications on detection of pesticides via chemical analysis of raw natural extracts. Advances in analytical chemistry for identification and quantification of pesticides will be presented, including both sample preparation and modern separation and detection techniques, and examples of the identification and quantification of individual pesticides present in natural extracts, for example essential oils, will be provided.

  6. Revised Certification Standards for Pesticide Applicators

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has finalized stronger standards for people who apply restricted use pesticides (RUPs). These revisions to the Certification of Pesticide Applicators rule will reduce the likelihood of harm from the misapplication of toxic pesticides.

  7. 75 FR 5077 - Pesticide Product; Registration Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Product; Registration Application AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received an application to register a pesticide product containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions...

  8. PESTICIDE SCREENING RESULTS FROM EIGHT DAYCARE CENTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To improve assessments of children's exposures to pesticides in support of the Food Quality Protection Act, priority research and data needs include: pesticide use patterns, pesticide residue distributions, and dermal exposure assessment approaches. To address these gaps, the ...

  9. Sample Pesticide Label for Label Review Training

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  10. 75 FR 11884 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide...: Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) Regulatory Public Docket (7502P), Environmental Protection...

  11. 77 FR 14362 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register pesticide products... by the docket identification (ID) number and the file symbol for the pesticide of interest as...

  12. 75 FR 80490 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing active ingredients not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions...

  13. 77 FR 38285 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register pesticide products...), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Washington,...

  14. 78 FR 60709 - Methoxyfenozide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Methoxyfenozide; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Pesticide Programs Regulatory Public Docket (OPP Docket) in the Environmental Protection Agency Docket..., Registration Division (7505P), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200...

  15. 75 FR 32767 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide...: Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) Regulatory Public Docket (7502P), Environmental Protection Agency...

  16. 75 FR 71695 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing... Pesticide Programs (OPP) Regulatory Public Docket (7502P), Environmental Protection Agency, 1200...

  17. 75 FR 24694 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide product. Pursuant to the provisions...

  18. 76 FR 38160 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the...

  19. 77 FR 8746 - Indoxacarb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Indoxacarb; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... CONTACT: Julie Chao, Registration Division (7505P), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection... manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. Potentially affected entities may include, but are not limited to...

  20. PESTICIDE SCREENING RESULTS FROM EIGHT DAYCARE CENTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To improve assessments of children's exposures to pesticides in support of the Food Quality Protection Act, priority research and data needs include: pesticide use patterns, pesticide residue distributions, and dermal exposure assessment approaches. To address these gaps, the ...

  1. Tips for Reducing Pesticide Impacts on Wildlife

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Web page provides tips for pesticide users in residential and agricultural settings, as well as tips for certified pesticide applicators for ways to protect wildlife from potentially harmful effects of pesticides.

  2. Pesticides in fog.

    PubMed

    Glotfelty, D E; Seiber, J N; Liljedahl, L A

    The discovery of the very acidic nature of fog and clouds has created much interest in sampling, analysing, and elucidating the chemistry of fog, principally because an understanding of the chemical transformations leading to acid fog may provide important clues to the origin of acid rain. Recently, the knowledge of the chemistry of fog has expanded to include carbonyl compounds, volatile organic acids, and alkyl sulphonates. We have discovered that a variety of pesticides and their toxic alteration products are present in fog, and that they occasionally reach high concentrations relative to reported rainwater concentrations. In our experiments, we were able to measure the air-water distribution coefficients of pesticides between the liquid fog and the interstitial gas phase. These measurements reveal that some chemicals are enriched several thousandfold in the suspended liquid fog droplets compared to equilibrium distributions expected from Henry's Law coefficients for pure aqueous solutions.

  3. From vegetated ditches to rice fields: Thinking outside the box for pesticide mitigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pesticide contamination of surface waters has been a global concern for decades. In agricultural areas, pesticides enter aquatic receiving waters through irrigation and storm runoff, spray drift, or even atmospheric deposition. With increased pressure to continue producing food and fiber to sustai...

  4. Reforestation trials in the Russian Far East

    SciTech Connect

    Lowery, R.F. ); Perevertailo, I. )

    1994-12-01

    Enormous areas of primary forest in Russia have been and continue to be destroyed by fire and harvesting. Most all of these areas have been left to reforest naturally. Little reforestation by planting has been attempted and these efforts have met with limited success. Consequently vast areas are without forest cover. Weyerhaeuser Company initiated cooperative forest planting trials in the Russian Far East (RFE) in 1989. Seeds from the RFE were used to produce high quality containerized seedlings in the US. These seedlings were then used in research plantings trials in 1991 and 1992, near Vanino and Khabarovsk. A large-scale operational planting project was carried out in 1993. Seedling survival and growth has been excellent over a wide range of sites. The operational planting results demonstrate that high quality seedlings can be used to successfully reforest sites that have been burned or harvested in the RFE. Key to the operational planting success was good logistical support and a well trained, organized and positively motivated work force.

  5. Pesticide exposure--Egyptian scene.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Sameeh A

    2004-05-20

    Pesticides have contributed to dramatic increases in crop yields and in the quantity and variety of the diet. Also, they have helped to limit the spread of certain diseases. But pesticides have harmful effects; they can cause injury to human health as well as to the environment. The range of these adverse health effects includes acute and persistent injury to the nervous system, lung damage, injury to the reproductive organs, dysfunction of the immune and endocrine systems, birth defects, and cancer. Problems associated with pesticide hazards to man and the environment are not confined to the developing countries. Developed nations have already suffered these problems, and still facing some problems in certain locations. For many reasons, the severity of pesticide hazards is much pronounced in Third World Countries. A number of long persistent organochlorines and highly toxic organophosphates, which have been banned or severely restricted, are still marketed and used in many developing countries. The misuse of pesticides by concerned individuals, in addition to lack of or weak national controlling plans are behind the outbreak of adverse effects in developing countries. Since about 25 years, the use of DDT and many other organochlorine pesticides in Egyptian agriculture has been banned. However, these long persistent compounds are still detectable in many different types of environmental samples (e.g., water, fish, sediment, vegetables, fruits, milk, foodstuffs, etc.). Large number of compounds known as "extremely hazardous", "highly hazardous", "probable human carcinogenic", and "possible human carcinogenic", are listed among the pesticides registered and recommended for use in Egypt during the season of 2001/2002. The present article deals with: trends and patterns of pesticide use, impact of pesticides on human health, factors contributing to pesticide risks, environmental impacts of pesticides, and bioaccumulation of pesticide residues in food; giving special

  6. Neonicotinoid pesticides severely affect honey bee queens

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Geoffrey R.; Troxler, Aline; Retschnig, Gina; Roth, Kaspar; Yañez, Orlando; Shutler, Dave; Neumann, Peter; Gauthier, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Queen health is crucial to colony survival of social bees. Recently, queen failure has been proposed to be a major driver of managed honey bee colony losses, yet few data exist concerning effects of environmental stressors on queens. Here we demonstrate for the first time that exposure to field-realistic concentrations of neonicotinoid pesticides during development can severely affect queens of western honey bees (Apis mellifera). In pesticide-exposed queens, reproductive anatomy (ovaries) and physiology (spermathecal-stored sperm quality and quantity), rather than flight behaviour, were compromised and likely corresponded to reduced queen success (alive and producing worker offspring). This study highlights the detriments of neonicotinoids to queens of environmentally and economically important social bees, and further strengthens the need for stringent risk assessments to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem services that are vulnerable to these substances. PMID:26459072

  7. Microbial inoculant carrier for pesticide degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhixing, Y.; Velagaleti, R.; Gorman, M.

    1995-12-31

    Biological degradation of pesticides may be enhanced by using a suitable carrier that sustains microbial growth. The char matrix (TRB Char) was evaluated as a biocarrier, and is produced by three sequential cocurrent gasifications of coal. The nature of TRB Char and the large pores provides an ideal matrix for mixing, drying, and retaining liquid wastes. The macropore structure of TRB Char is also ideal for microbial growth. Plate counts were conducted to monitor the extent of microbial growth following 20 and 504 hours of growth. Additionally, electron micrograph scans showed location of microbial growth on the char particle. By 21 days 10{sup 8} colony forming units per gram of bacteria had grown. The electron micrographs showed that the macropore structure of TRB Char is an ideal shelter for microbial growth throughout the char particle. TRB Char could serve as a biocarrier for pesticide degradation.

  8. Neonicotinoid pesticides severely affect honey bee queens.

    PubMed

    Williams, Geoffrey R; Troxler, Aline; Retschnig, Gina; Roth, Kaspar; Yañez, Orlando; Shutler, Dave; Neumann, Peter; Gauthier, Laurent

    2015-10-13

    Queen health is crucial to colony survival of social bees. Recently, queen failure has been proposed to be a major driver of managed honey bee colony losses, yet few data exist concerning effects of environmental stressors on queens. Here we demonstrate for the first time that exposure to field-realistic concentrations of neonicotinoid pesticides during development can severely affect queens of western honey bees (Apis mellifera). In pesticide-exposed queens, reproductive anatomy (ovaries) and physiology (spermathecal-stored sperm quality and quantity), rather than flight behaviour, were compromised and likely corresponded to reduced queen success (alive and producing worker offspring). This study highlights the detriments of neonicotinoids to queens of environmentally and economically important social bees, and further strengthens the need for stringent risk assessments to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem services that are vulnerable to these substances.

  9. Monitoring pesticides in wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dustman, E.H.; Martin, W.E.; Heath, R.G.; Reichel, W.L.

    1971-01-01

    Early in the development of the wildlife monitoring program, certain criteria were recognized as being important in the selection of species of wild animals suitable for pesticide monitoring purposes. Ideally, the forms selected should be geographically well distributed, and they should be reasonably abundant and readily available for sampling. In addition, animals occurring near the top of food chains have the capacity to reflect residues in organisms occurring at lower levels in the same food chains. Based on these criteria, species chosen for monitoring include the starling (Sturnus vulgaris), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and black ducks (Anas rubripes), and the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). The black duck is substituted for the mallard in States where suitable numbers of mallards cannot be obtained. The Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife is held responsible for the execution of the wildlife portion of the National Pesticide Monitoring Program. The primary objective is to ascertain on a nationwide basis and independent of specific treatments the levels and trends of certain pesticidal chemicals and other pollutants in the bodies of selected forms of wildlife. The program was first described by Johnson et al. (4) in 1967. The purpose of this report is to update and redescribe the wildlife monitoring program and briefly review accomplishments.

  10. Electronic Submissions of Pesticide Applications

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Applications for pesticide registration can be submitted electronically, including forms, studies, and draft product labeling. Applicants need not submit multiple electronic copies of any pieces of their applications.

  11. International Activities Related to Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Regulating pesticides involves many international issues and working with our regulatory partners in other countries. Learn about EPA's activities, upcoming meetings and workshops, and various regulatory issues.

  12. [Bioethics in Russian neurology and epileptology].

    PubMed

    Mikhalovska-Karlova, E P

    2016-01-01

    Historical roots and further development of bioethics in domestic neurology and epileptology are considered. The main bioethical principles were established during the formation of the Russian clinical school and neurosciences. It is most distinctly seen in the development of bioethics in neurology and epileptology. In the author's opinion, the Russian scientist V.M. Bekhterev had played a prominent role in the field. In the time when the term "bioethics" was not coined and its principles were not formulated, V.M. Bekhterev had created the Russian league against epilepsy and established the foundations of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) as the organizations working on the problems of medical and social care to patients with epilepsy. In Russia, the Russian society of neurologists has been doing a great work in the field.

  13. CHALLENGES POSED BY RETIRED RUSSIAN NUCLEAR SUBMARINES

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, Dieter; Kroken, Ingjerd; Latyshev, Eduard; Griffith, Andrew

    2003-02-27

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the challenges posed by retired Russian nuclear submarines, review current U.S. and International efforts and provide an assessment of the success of these efforts.

  14. Russian BTKh-43 KONSTANTA (#11) payload

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-01

    ISS025-E-010086 (1 Nov. 2010) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri, Expedition 25 flight engineer, uses a still camera to photograph the BTKh-42 STRUKTURA (Structure) in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station.

  15. Estimating terrestrial amphibian pesticide body burden through dermal exposure.

    PubMed

    Van Meter, Robin J; Glinski, Donna A; Hong, Tao; Cyterski, Mike; Henderson, W Matthew; Purucker, S Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Dermal exposure presents a potentially significant but understudied route for pesticide uptake in terrestrial amphibians. Our study measured dermal uptake of pesticides of varying hydrophobicity (logKow) in frogs. Amphibians were indirectly exposed to one of five pesticide active ingredients through contact with contaminated soil: imidacloprid (logKow = 0.57), atrazine (logKow = 2.5), triadimefon (logKow = 3.0), fipronil (logKow = 4.11) or pendimethalin (logKow = 5.18). All amphibians had measurable body burdens at the end of the exposure in concentrations ranging from 0.019 to 14.562 μg/g across the pesticides tested. Atrazine produced the greatest body burdens and bioconcentration factors, but fipronil was more permeable to amphibian skin when application rate was considered. Soil partition coefficient and water solubility were much better predictors of pesticide body burden, bioconcentration factor, and skin permeability than logKow. Dermal uptake data can be used to improve risk estimates of pesticide exposure among amphibians as non-target organisms.

  16. Simultaneous extraction and determination of various pesticides in environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zulin; Lefebvre, Thibault; Kerr, Christine; Osprey, Mark

    2014-12-01

    A simple and rapid method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of nine different pesticides in water samples by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. A number of parameters that may affect the recovery of pesticides, such as the type of solid-phase extraction cartridge, eluting solvent in single or combination and their volumes, and water pH value were investigated. It showed that three solid-phase extraction cartridges (Strata-X, Oasis HLB, and ENVI-18) produced the greatest recovery while ethyl acetate/dichloromethane/acetone (45:10:45, 12 mL) followed by dichloromethane (6 mL) was efficient in eluting target pesticides from solid-phase extraction cartridges. Different water pH values (4-9) did not show a significant effect on the pesticides recovery. The optimized method was verified by performing spiking experiments with a series of concentrations (0.002-10 μg/L) in waters, with good linearity, recovery, and reproducibility for most compounds. The limit of detection and limit of quantification of this optimized method were 0.01-2.01 and 0.02-6.71 ng/L, respectively, much lower than the European Union environmental quality standard for the pesticides (0.1 μg/L) in waters. The proposed method was further validated by participation in an interlaboratory trial. It was then subsequently applied to river waters from north-east Scotland, UK, for the determination of the target pesticides.

  17. Pesticide photolysis in prairie potholes: probing photosensitized processes.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Teng; Arnold, William A

    2013-07-02

    Prairie pothole lakes (PPLs) are glacially derived, ecologically important water bodies found in central North America and represent a unique setting in which extensive agriculture occurs within wetland ecosystems. In the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR), elevated pesticide use and increasing hydrologic connectivity have raised concerns about the impact of nonpoint source agricultural pollution on the water quality of PPLs and downstream aquatic systems. Despite containing high dissolved organic matter (DOM) levels, the photoreactivity of the PPL water and the photochemical fate of pesticides entering PPLs are largely unknown. In this study, the photodegradation of sixteen pesticides was investigated in PPL waters sampled from North Dakota, under simulated and natural sunlight. Enhanced pesticide removal rates in the irradiated PPL water relative to the control buffer pointed to the importance of indirect photolysis pathways involving photochemically produced reactive intermediates (PPRIs). The steady-state concentrations of carbonate radical, hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen, and triplet-excited state DOM were measured and second-order rate constants for reactions of pesticides with these PPRIs were calculated. Results from this study underscore the role of DOM as photosensitizer in limiting the persistence of pesticides in prairie wetlands through photochemical reactions.

  18. A case of methanol intoxication caused by methomyl pesticide ingestion.

    PubMed

    Gil, H W; Hong, J R; Song, H Y; Hong, S Y

    2012-12-01

    When clinicians treat patients with pesticide poisoning, they often pay attention only to the chief toxic agent and ignore the toxicity of the pesticide's additives or solvents. Occasionally, however, a solvent (e.g. methanol) may itself be the cause of poisoning. We report a case of acute methanol intoxication that occurred after ingestion of a methomyl pesticide that contained methanol as an additive. A 49-year-old man was brought to the emergency department in an unconscious state after ingestion of 20 ml of a carbamate pesticide (chief ingredient: methomyl; active ingredient: methanol). Upon arrival, he was semicomatose and did not breathe spontaneously; however, his cholinesterase level was within normal limits and cholinergic symptoms were not observed. High anion gap metabolic acidosis was present. His blood ethanol level was 74.8 mg/dL. The urine methanol level was 55.60 mg/dL, and urine ethanol level was 22.0 mg/dL. He was treated with hemodialysis; subsequently, his metabolic acidosis resolved and he returned to normal mental status. We guessed that methanol, as the solvent of the methomyl, had produced the symptoms. When treating pesticide-poisoned patients, clinicians should identify the solvent used in the pesticide, because solvents such as methanol may exacerbate the symptoms of poisoned patients.

  19. Renita Fincke at Russian Mission Control Center

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-20

    Renita Fincke, wife of Expedition 9 Flight Engineer and NASA International Space Station Science Officer Michael Fincke, smiles with their two-year old son Chandra at the Russian Mission Control Center outside Moscow, Wednesday, April 21, 2004, following the successful docking of the Russian Soyuz capsule carrying Fincke, Expedition 9 Commander Gennady Padalka and European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers of the Netherlands to the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Russian Anti-Americanism: Origins and Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    intelligent, speaks with a golden tongue, albeit with a penchant for crude humor, and seems to use his political influence as a sounding board in...sentiment with Russia’s strong sense of nationalism Commonly referred to as “ jackals ,” Russians felt that the United States always seemed to interfere with...Russian’s seem to see the United States as nothing more than “political jackals .”369 This Russian perspective of the United States may offer that

  1. Russian Political Warfare: Origin, Evolution, and Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    WARFARE: ORIGIN , EVOLUTION, AND APPLICATION by Jeffrey V. Dickey Thomas B. Everett Zane M. Galvach Matthew J. Mesko Anton V. Soltis June...blank) 2. REPORT DATE June 2015 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE RUSSIAN POLITICAL WARFARE: ORIGIN ...political warfare (PW) campaign. Analysis of the origin , history, and evolution of Soviet/Russian PW from 1917 through today reveals that Russia is

  2. Military Modernization and the Russian Ground Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    role in shaping Russian society. The military, indeed, saw itself as a force for social good. There was a sense that all young Russian men should...experience conscript service as a means of creating a sense of na- tional pride. Previously, in Soviet times, the military had been the only state...institution that could develop in young men, from Lithuania to Kyrgyzstan, and from Novaya Zemlya to Sakhalin, a sense of ”sovietness,” of nationhood

  3. Russian Tactical Lessons Learned Fighting Chechen Separatists

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    capital of Moscow. On 21 August 2004, some 250 Chechen insurgents, many reportedly dressed as policemen, attacked simultaneously in twelve different...parts of the Chechen capital of Grozny. The timing of the event, a few hours before Russian President Vladimir Putin’s surprise visit to the grave... capital of the neighboring Russian republic of Ingushetia and stopped and executed police who came to, as they thought, “support” their brothers

  4. Russian Influence on Ukrainian Strategic Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-10

    Russian construction of the Nord Stream pipeline started in April 2010, passing through the Baltic. This pipeline would strengthen Russia‘s ability...transit route, these alternate pipelines would weaken one of the key Ukrainian bargaining points with Russia. The Nord Stream and South Stream...instrument and changes in Ukrainian policy. Russia‘s development of the Nord Stream and South Stream pipeline projects may either enhance Russian influence

  5. Perception of English final stops by native Spanish and Russian listeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argodale, Paul; Strange, Winifred

    2002-05-01

    Spanish and Russian speakers perception of word-final stops was investigated in an identification task. Natural stimulus triads (sue-suit-sued, see-seat seed) were produced and presented in two conditions: (1) Final consonants released and CV in the utterance final position; (2) final consonants unreleased and CV produced before a word beginning with a voiceless stop. Russian listeners, whose first language has final voiceless stops, correctly identified English final stops better than Spanish listeners, whose first language does not have final stops (72% vs 60% correct overall). Spanish listeners were more likely than Russian listeners to identify words with final stops as open syllables (31% vs 2% errors). A significant effect of release condition was also found: Spanish listeners were much better at identifying released stops than unreleased stops (90% vs 29% correct). Russian listeners also showed a slightly higher correct rate of identification for released stops (91% vs 42%). Both groups identified voiceless final stops more accurately than voiced stops: Russians (80% vs 65% correct); Spanish (65% vs 54% correct). These results replicate and extend earlier work by Flege and colleagues. [Work supported by a grant from the Professional Staff Congress of the City University of New York.

  6. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual. Core Manual, Northeastern Regional Pesticide Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, J. E.; And Others

    This manual provides basic information for all pesticide applicators. The first section deals with laws, regulations, toxicity and safety, and covers background information that every pesticide applicator should know. The second section describes the steps and decisions which applicators make in their daily routine on the job. These include…

  7. Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee and Pesticide Regulatory Reform Meetings

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s Office of Pesticide Programs will hold a public meeting of the Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee (PPDC) on Wednesday, May 3, from 9:00 a.m. to 4:45 p.m., and on Thursday, May 4, from 8:30 a.m. to noon.

  8. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual. Core Manual, Northeastern Regional Pesticide Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, J. E.; And Others

    This manual provides basic information for all pesticide applicators. The first section deals with laws, regulations, toxicity and safety, and covers background information that every pesticide applicator should know. The second section describes the steps and decisions which applicators make in their daily routine on the job. These include…

  9. Pesticide toxicity index for freshwater aquatic organisms, 2nd edition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munn, Mark D.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Moran, Patrick W.; Nowell, Lisa H.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program is designed to assess current water-quality conditions, changes in water quality over time, and the effects of natural and human factors on water quality for the Nation's streams and ground-water resources. For streams, one of the most difficult parts of the assessment is to link chemical conditions to effects on aquatic biota, particularly for pesticides, which tend to occur in streams as complex mixtures with strong seasonal patterns. A Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) was developed that combines pesticide exposure of aquatic biota (measured concentrations of pesticides in stream water) with acute toxicity estimates (standard endpoints from laboratory bioassays) to produce a single index value for a sample or site. The development of the PTI was limited to pesticide compounds routinely measured in NAWQA studies and to toxicity data readily available from existing databases. Qualifying toxicity data were found for one or more types of test organisms for 124 of the 185 pesticide compounds measured in NAWQA samples, but with a wide range of available bioassays per compound (1 to 232). In the databases examined, there were a total of 3,669 bioassays for the 124 compounds, including 398 48-hour EC50 values (concentration at which 50 percent of test organisms exhibit a sublethal response) for freshwater cladocerans, 699 96-hour LC50 values (concentration lethal to 50 percent of test organisms) for freshwater benthic invertebrates, and 2,572 96-hour LC50 values for freshwater fish. The PTI for a particular sample is the sum of toxicity quotients (measured concentration divided by the median toxicity concentration from bioassays) for each detected pesticide, and thus, is based on the concentration addition model of pesticide toxicity. The PTI can be calculated for specific groups of pesticides and for specific taxonomic groups. Although the PTI does not determine whether water in a sample is

  10. Russian Docking Module is lowered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Russian-built Docking Module (DM) is lowered for installation into the payload bay of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis while the spaceplane is in Orbiter Processing Facility bay 2. The module will fly as a primary payload on the second Space Shuttle/Mir space station docking mission, STS-74, which is now scheduled for liftoff in the fall of 1995. During the mission, the module will first be attached with the orbiter's robot arm to the Orbiter Docking System (ODS) in the payload bay of the orbiter Atlantis and then be docked with the Mir. When Atlantis undocks from the Mir, it will leave the new docking module permanently attached to the space station for use during future Shuttle Mir docking missions. The new module will simplify future Shuttle linkups with Mir by improving orbiter clearances when it serves as a bridge between the two space vehicles. The white structures attached to the module's sides are solar panels that will be attached to the Mir after the conclusion of the STS-74 mission.

  11. Data from Russian Planetary Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A'Hearn, Michael; Zakharov, A.; Zelenyi, Lev

    The Russian Federal Space Program for 2006-2015 includes three major flight projects - Phobos- Soil, Luna-Glob, and Venus-D. Of these, only the first is in active development now, with launch planned for the 2009 Martian launch window. The primary goal of the Phobos-Soil mission, to be described in detail in session B04, is to return a sample of soil from Phobos to Earth for laboratory analysis, but the goals also include a detailed study of Phobos (its regolith, internal structure, and its dynamics) and studies of the Martian environment (dust, plasma, and fields). The overall scientific goal is to understand Phobos as representatives of primitive small bodies and to understand their role in the Martian system (how they became satellites). The spacecraft will land on the Phobos surface and take a sample of the soil. The return capsule will be launched by a return rocket from the surface of Phobos while the mother-ship remains on the surface for lengthy in situ investigations. Instrumentation on the mother-ship includes gamma and neutron spectrometers, an IR spectrometer, a seismometer, a panchromatic camera, a dust sensor, and a plasma package. This talk will describe the digital data to be returned, all of which will be archived consistent with recommendations from the IPDA and the PDS.

  12. Pesticide Degradation in Thermal Foggers.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thermal foggers are used in many parts of the world for vector control. Since thermal foggers use heat to create and help propel adulticide clouds, there is reason to examine the stability of pesticides in both diesel and water-based formulations. This study examined the degradation of 5 pesticide...

  13. Introduction to Pesticides. MP-18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Alvin F.

    This document is one in a series distributed by the Agricultural Extension Service of the University of Wyoming-Laramie. It provides an introduction to pesticides and is concerned with pesticide development, labeling and safety associated with the use, storage and disposal of these substances and their containers. Safety aspects of handling and…

  14. Behavior of pesticides in plants.

    Treesearch

    Logan A. Norris

    1974-01-01

    A number of chemicals of diverse characteristics have arbitrarily been classed together on the basis of their use and given the descriptive name "pesticides." An unfortunate aura of mystery has developed about these chemicals. However, there is nothing unique or mysterious about the chemicals we refer to as "pesticides." Like other chemicals, they...

  15. Introduction to Pesticides. MP-18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Alvin F.

    This document is one in a series distributed by the Agricultural Extension Service of the University of Wyoming-Laramie. It provides an introduction to pesticides and is concerned with pesticide development, labeling and safety associated with the use, storage and disposal of these substances and their containers. Safety aspects of handling and…

  16. Revolutions in Russian Military Thought: Implications for U.S.-Russian Defense Cooperation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-18

    4. Elements of Analysis ................................ 19 5. Military Doctrine ................................... 20 6. Doctrine, Science, and Art...interpretive I lnroducdon analysis --from the Russian 2 Rfolu&rns In Russian perspective--of continuity and 3 Mendor Poe: Shapingthe Defense Relationship...moral parameters [objectives] and physical parameters [means) of the opposing sides. Lenin also introduced the dialectical method of analysis into

  17. Reading L2 Russian: The Challenges of the Russian-English Dictionary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, William J.

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive study examines when and how students use Russian-English dictionaries while reading informational texts in Russian and what success they have with word lookup. The study uses introspective verbal protocols (i.e., think-alouds) to follow how readers construct meaning from two texts while reading them for a limited time first…

  18. Reading L2 Russian: The Challenges of the Russian-English Dictionary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, William J.

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive study examines when and how students use Russian-English dictionaries while reading informational texts in Russian and what success they have with word lookup. The study uses introspective verbal protocols (i.e., think-alouds) to follow how readers construct meaning from two texts while reading them for a limited time first…

  19. Russian Advanced Course: A Short History of the Development of Russian Language and Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    The purpose of this volume is to acquaint the student with the historical development of the Russian language and literature. Samples of the original works with English translations and lists of recommended readings are provided. Contents include a review of Russian literature by century, samples of the short story "Samizdat," and major…

  20. Russian Dialect Project. Volume III: Bibliography of Russian Dialect Studies. Preliminary Version. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankiewicz, Edward; And Others

    Volume 3 of the Russian Dialect Studies is a bibliography listing Russian dialect studies published in the 19th and 20th centuries in Russia and abroad. The selection has been oriented primarily toward phonological and morphological studies of the dialects, and secondarily toward lexical, syntactic, and other studies. The bibliography is also…

  1. Russian Advanced Course: A Short History of the Development of Russian Language and Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    The purpose of this volume is to acquaint the student with the historical development of the Russian language and literature. Samples of the original works with English translations and lists of recommended readings are provided. Contents include a review of Russian literature by century, samples of the short story "Samizdat," and major…

  2. [Prenatal exposure to organochlorine pesticides and cryptorchidism].

    PubMed

    Bustamante Montes, Lília Patrícia; Waliszewski, Stefan; Hernández-Valero, María; Sanín-Aguirre, Luz; Infanzón-Ruiz, Rosa Maria; Jañas, Arlette García

    2010-06-01

    Fetuses and children are more susceptible to the effects of environmental toxins. The objective of this article is to determine the levels of organochlorine pesticides (HCB, ss-HCH, pp'DDT, op'DDT and pp'DDE) in the serum lipids of mothers of newborns with cryptorchidism and compare the levels to a control group of mothers of newborns with descended testicles. The cases were composed of newborns with cryptorchidism (n=41), and the controls (n=41) newborns with descended testicles. Blood samples from both groups of mothers were used to determine the organochlorine pesticide levels. Cryptorchidism was diagnosed at birth by a neonatologist. The results showed that the organochlorine pesticide residues were found in the serum lipids of both groups of mothers. The median serum lipid levels (mgkg-1 lipid-based) were statistically higher for the metabolites pp'DDT (0.464 vs. 0.269) and ss-HCH (0.263 vs. 0.192) in the cryptorchidism group compared to the control group (p<0.01). It could be concluded that the levels of the metabolites pp'DDT and ss-HCH are higher among mothers of newborns with cryptorchidism. It is possible that substances with anti-androgenic effects could produce endocrine disruption, such as cryptorchidism, during fetal development.

  3. Pesticide Exposure and Child Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Schelar, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Widely used around the world, pesticides play an important role in protecting health, crops, and property. However, pesticides may also have detrimental effects on human health, with young children among the particularly vulnerable. Recent research suggests that even low levels of pesticide exposure can affect young children’s neurological and behavioral development. Evidence shows a link between pesticides and neonatal reflexes, psychomotor and mental development, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Implications include a need for improved risk assessment and health histories by clinicians, greater education at all levels, more common use of integrated pest management, and continued policy and regulatory strategies to mitigate the effects of and the need for pesticides. PMID:22587699

  4. Understanding pesticides in California's Delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuivila, Kathryn; Orlando, James L.

    2012-01-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (Delta) is the hub of California’s water system and also an important habitat for imperiled fish and wildlife. Aquatic organisms are exposed to mixtures of pesticides that flow through the maze of Delta water channels from sources including agricultural, landscape, and urban pest-control applications. While we do not know all of the effects pesticides have on the ecosystem, there is evidence that they cause some damage to organisms in the Delta. Decades of USGS research have provided a good understanding of when, where, and how pesticides enter the Delta. However, pesticide use is continually changing. New field studies and methods are needed so that scientists can analyze which pesticides are present in the Delta, and at what concentrations, enabling them to estimate exposure and ultimate effects on organisms. Continuing research will provide resource managers and stakeholders with crucial information to manage the Delta wisely.

  5. How Truncating Are 'Truncating Languages'? Evidence from Russian and German.

    PubMed

    Rathcke, Tamara V

    Russian and German have pr eviously been described as 'truncating', or cutting off target frequencies of the phrase-final pitch trajectories when the time available for voicing is compromised. However, supporting evidence is rare and limited to only a few pitch categories. This paper reports a production study conducted to document pitch adjustments to linguistic materials, in which the amount of voicing available for the realization of a pitch pattern varies from relatively long to extremely short. Productions of nuclear H+L*, H* and L*+H pitch accents followed by a low boundary tone were investigated in the two languages. The results of the study show that speakers of both 'truncating languages' do not utilize truncation exclusively when accommodating to different segmental environments. On the contrary, they employ several strategies - among them is truncation but also compression and temporal re-alignment - to produce the target pitch categories under increasing time pressure. Given that speakers can systematically apply all three adjustment strategies to produce some pitch patterns (H* L% in German and Russian) while not using truncation in others (H+L* L% particularly in Russian), we question the effectiveness of the typological classification of these two languages as 'truncating'. Moreover, the phonetic detail of truncation varies considerably, both across and within the two languages, indicating that truncation cannot be easily modeled as a unified phenomenon. The results further suggest that the phrase-final pitch adjustments are sensitive to the phonological composition of the tonal string and the status of a particular tonal event (associated vs. boundary tone), and do not apply to falling vs. rising pitch contours across the board, as previously put forward for German. Implications for the intonational phonology and prosodic typology are addressed in the discussion. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Pesticide effects on freshwater zooplankton: an ecological perspective.

    PubMed

    Hanazato, T

    2001-01-01

    The effects of pesticides on zooplankton are reviewed and their ecological significance is discussed. Toxicity is shown to vary depending on animal species, genotype, life stage, and size at birth. Natural stresses such as food shortage, oxygen depletion and odors of potential predators can also affect toxicity. Populations in the growth phase are vulnerable to pesticides but have the potential to recover rapidly from the damage. Pesticides may affect the population dynamics by controlling individual survival and reproduction, and by altering the sex ratio. Furthermore, toxic chemicals may control predation risk by changing swimming behavior and body morphology, and this in turn influences the population dynamics. Many zooplankton display morphological and behavioral responses to predators when exposed to their odor-producing chemicals. However, pesticides induce a maladaptive response to predator odor, and this poses an ecological risk. The following patterns are recognized as effects of pesticides at the community and ecosystem levels: (1) induction of dominance by small species; (2) an increase of species richness and diversity; and (3) elongation of the food chain and reduction of energy transfer efficiency from primary producers to top predators.

  7. Assessment of pesticide residues in commonly used vegetables in Hyderabad, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Latif, Yawar; Sherazi, S T H; Bhanger, M I

    2011-11-01

    The aim of present study was to assess pesticide residues in vegetables in the Hyderabad region of Pakistan. The concentrations of six pesticides were determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass selective detector (GC-MSD) in locally produced vegetables purchased from wholesale markets. A total of 200 samples of eight vegetables viz. cauliflower, green chilli, eggplant, tomato, peas, bitter gourd, spinach and apple gourd were analyzed for pesticide residues. The results indicated that almost all samples were contained pesticides, only 39% contained pesticide residues at or below maximum residue limits (MRLs), and 61% contained pesticide residues above MRLs. From the six analyzed pesticides, carbofuran and chlorpyrifos were found above to MRLs with concentrations ranging from 0.01-0.39 and 0.05-0.96 mg/kg, respectively. The results provided important information on the current pesticide contamination status of some commonly used vegetables and pointed an urgent need to control the use of some excessively applied and potentially persistent pesticides, such as carbofuran and chlorpyrifos. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A Multi Residue GC-MS Method for Determination of 12 Pesticides in Cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri, Azadeh; Amirahmadi, Maryam; Mousavi, Zahra; Shoeibi, Shahram; Khajeamiri, Alireza; Kobarfard, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    Cucumber is one of the main vegetables in Iranian food basket. A wide range of pesticides are used for crops protection during the cultivation of vegetables such as cucumber due to heavy pest infestation. Analysis of pesticide residues in food and other environmental commodities have become essential requirement for consumers, producers, and food quality control authorities. This study was aimed at determination of pesticides residues in cucumber as a main vegetable in Iranian food basket. A reliable, rapid and accurate method based on spiked calibration curves and modified QuEChERS sample preparation was developed for determination of 12 pesticide residues in cucumber by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The use of spiked calibration standards for constructing the calibration curve substantially reduced adverse matrix-related effects. The recovery of pesticides at 5 concentration levels (n = 3) was in the range of 80.6-112.3. The method was proved to be repeatable with RSD lower than 20%. The limits of detection and quantification for all pesticides were <10 ng/g and <25 ng/g, respectively. The developed method was used for simultaneous determination of the selected pesticides in 60 greenhouse and garden cucumber samples. Among the 60 analyzed samples, 41.7% of them were contaminated with pesticide residues which 31.7% of samples had pesticide residues lower than maximum residue limit and 10% of samples had residue higher than maximum residue limit. PMID:28243277

  9. Safeguarding world wheat and barley production against Russian wheat aphid: An international pre-breeding initiative

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia, is one of the most damaging insect pests of wheat and barley throughout the World. This aphid, although is not yet present in Australia, is extremely damaging with up to 70% yield loses in wheat and barley producing lands, causing significant financia...

  10. Phenotype analysis of Russian dandelion root tissues from the national plant germplasm system collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Russian dandelion (Taraxacum kok-saghyz) (TKS) produces high quality natural rubber (NR), cis-1,4 polyisoprene, by biosynthesis, and has been used historically as a source of NR during times of short supply or high prices for Hevea NR. The rubber is primarily located in root tissues along with appre...

  11. Knowledge attitude and practice of pesticide use among agricultural workers in Puducherry, South India.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Manoj Kumar; Behera, Basanta Kumar; Jena, Saubhagya Kumar; Srikanth, S; Mogane, C; Samal, Soumya; Behera, Anugya Aparajita

    2013-11-01

    To study the level of knowledge and practice related to pesticides and their adverse effects among agricultural workers. A cross sectional study among 100 randomly selected agricultural workers, using or ever used pesticide within last one year was conducted in Puducherry, South India. The questionnaire was adapted from WHO field surveys of 'Exposure to Pesticides Standard Protocol' and similar studies. Data were collected by face to face interview. All the participants were male with mean age of 54.3 yrs. While 70% of respondents perceived pesticide spraying affects a person's health, only 40% were aware that it affects the environment. Two thirds of the respondents (62%) were aware that pesticide enters the body through nose and affects lungs. Awareness on other modes of entry was less. Majority (76%) of them was aware of training programs conducted by government agriculture department on pest management. About 42% of farmers had good knowledge regarding pesticide. Between 40% and 70% of respondents were not using any protective equipments during pesticide spraying. Around 68% of farmers indiscriminately disposed empty containers while 48% buried the leftover pesticides. Significant association (p < 0.05) was observed between knowledge of the farmers and their practices related to pesticides. Overall awareness of agricultural workers on pesticide was inadequate. Improper disposal of pesticides and its container can produce harm to the environment. The findings of the study emphasize the need to educate agricultural workers regarding safe and adequate use of pesticides to prevent health and environmental hazards. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  12. 77 FR 23713 - Pesticides; Final Guidance on Material Safety Data Sheets as Pesticide Labeling; Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... AGENCY Pesticides; Final Guidance on Material Safety Data Sheets as Pesticide Labeling; Request for.... SUMMARY: The Agency is announcing the availability of a Pesticide Registration Notice (PR Notice) entitled ``Pesticide Registration (PR) Notice 2012-1: Material Safety Data Sheets as Pesticide Labeling.'' This PR...

  13. 75 FR 28012 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on False or Misleading Pesticide Product...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... Brand Names AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The... Notice (PR Notice) entitled ``False or Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Names.'' PR Notices are issued... applicants, registrants and distributors concerning pesticide product brand names that may be false or...

  14. 75 FR 34448 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on False or Misleading Pesticide Product...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... Brand Names; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice...) entitled ``False or Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Names.'' This document extends the comment period... Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Names.'' EPA is hereby extending the comment period, which was set to end...

  15. Mitigating pesticide pollution in China requires law enforcement, farmer training, and technological innovation.

    PubMed

    Li, Huizhen; Zeng, Eddy Y; You, Jing

    2014-05-01

    To feed an ever-growing population, it is necessary to take all measures to increase crop yields, including the use of pesticides. It has long been a difficult task to boost agricultural production and simultaneously minimize the impact of pesticide application on the environment, particularly in China, a developing country with more than 1.3 billion people. China has recently become the world's leading producer and consumer of pesticides, with production and consumption reaching 265 tons and 179 tons, respectively, in 2011, and a national average pesticide application dosage of more than 14 kg/ha. The large quantities of pesticides applied in agricultural fields have resulted in serious environmental deterioration. Organochlorine pesticides, such as dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane and hexachlorohexane, have become ubiquitous in the environment of China, with spatial distributions in soils and aquatic systems similar to their historic application patterns in different geographic regions: southeast > central > northwest. Pollution by current-use pesticides, for example, organophosphates and pyrethroids, has also been of great concern. To mitigate pesticide pollution in China, a significant reduction in pesticide inputs into the environment is mandatory. This can be accomplished only with joint efforts by the government, professionals, and citizens in combination with rigorous enforcement of laws and regulations, training of farmers in pesticide knowledge and environmental awareness, and technological innovation for producing low-risk pesticides and developing efficient application approaches. Restoring contaminated sites is also an urgent task. Finally, food security and environmental pollution are not problems for a sole country, and international cooperation and communication are necessary.

  16. 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP) covers discharges of biological pesticides, and chemical pesticides that leave a residue, in areas where EPA is the NPDES permitting authority, for the following four pesticide use patterns: Mosquito and other flying insect pest control; Weed and algae control; Animal pest control; and Forest canopy pest control.

  17. [Pesticides in rural pathology].

    PubMed

    Pettinati, L; Perrelli, G

    1979-03-10

    Reference is made to the extensive use of pesticides in agriculture and the fact that many are highly toxic. The lack of information and legislative provisions makes agricultural workers particularly vulnerable to the several categories of poisons contained under the description "pesticides". The chlorinated and phosphoric organic compounds are of especial interest. The former include the derivatives of the phenoxycarboxylic acids, which can give rise to a product (tetrachlorobenzodioxine, or dioxine) that was responsible for the pollution at Seveso. The latter group contains the very commonly employed alkylthiophosphates (malathion, parathion, etc.). These are well-known inhibitors of acetylcholine esterase and thus responsible for harm to the nervous system. A comparable, but less intense effect on this esterase is possessed by the carbamates, which are increasingly being used in agriculture. It is hoped that, as in the past, suitable, oriented epidemiological surveys will be carried out in industry, designed to focus attention on the probable, but not yet documented chronic damage that many of these products cause to the human body.

  18. Organochlorine pesticides and endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Cooney, Maureen A; Buck Louis, Germaine M; Hediger, Mary L; Vexler, Albert; Kostyniak, Paul J

    2010-11-01

    Limited study of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and endometriosis has been conducted. One hundred women aged 18-40 years who were undergoing laparoscopy provided 20 cm(3) of blood for toxicologic analysis and surgeons completed operative reports regarding the presence of endometriosis. Gas chromatography with electron capture was used to quantify (ng/g serum) six OCPs. Logistic regression was utilized to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for individual pesticides and groups based on chemical structure adjusting for current cigarette smoking and lipids. The highest tertile of aromatic fungicide was associated with a fivefold risk of endometriosis (aOR=5.3; 95% CI, 1.2-23.6) compared to the lowest tertile. Similar results were found for t-nonachlor and HCB. These are the first such findings in a laproscopic cohort that suggest an association between OCP exposure and endometriosis. More prospective studies are necessary to ensure temporal ordering and confirm these findings.

  19. Companies Agree to Stop Selling Pet Collars Containing Pesticide to Protect Children

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sergeant's Pet Care Products, Inc. and Wellmark International have agreed to stop producing pet collars containing the pesticide propoxur. This decision resulted from discussions about how to reduce children’s exposure to propoxur in pet collars.

  20. The Russian Virtual Observatory. Information System of the Centre for Astronomical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dluzhnevskaya, O.; Malkov, O.; Kovaleva, D.; Kilpio, E.; Kilpio, A.; Sat, L.

    The ultimate goal of the Russian Virtual Observatory (RVO) initiative is to provide every astronomer with on-line access to the rich volumes of data and metadata that have been and will continue to be produced by astronomical survey projects. RVO will be merged naturally into the International Astronomical Observatory. The information system of the RVO has a main goal of integrating resources of astronomical data accumulated in Russian observatories and institutions, and providing transparent access for scientific and educational purposes to the distributed information and data services that comprise its content. One of the general purpose data centres for astronomy world-wide is the Centre for Astronomical Data (CAD). CAD has been sistematically collecting and distributing astronomical data for more than 20 years. Some hundreds of catalogs and journal tables are currently available from the CAD repository. The CAD staff will carry out the activities on construction of the information system of the Russian Virtual Observatory.