Sample records for rutheniumii arene complexes

  1. Bipyrimidine ruthenium(II) arene complexes: structure, reactivity and cytotoxicity.


    Betanzos-Lara, Soledad; Novakova, Olga; Deeth, Robert J; Pizarro, Ana M; Clarkson, Guy J; Liskova, Barbora; Brabec, Viktor; Sadler, Peter J; Habtemariam, Abraha


    The synthesis and characterization of complexes [(η(6)-arene)Ru(N,N')X][PF(6)], where arene is para-cymene (p-cym), biphenyl (bip), ethyl benzoate (etb), hexamethylbenzene (hmb), indane (ind) or 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (thn), N,N' is 2,2'-bipyrimidine (bpm) and X is Cl, Br or I, are reported, including the X-ray crystal structures of [(η(6)-p-cym)Ru(bpm)I][PF(6)], [(η(6)-bip)Ru(bpm)Cl][PF(6)], [(η(6)-bip)Ru(bpm)I][PF(6)] and [(η(6)-etb)Ru(bpm)Cl][PF(6)]. Complexes in which N,N' is 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione or 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (bathophen) were studied for comparison. The Ru(II) arene complexes undergo ligand-exchange reactions in aqueous solution at 310 K; their half-lives for hydrolysis range from 14 to 715 min. Density functional theory calculations on [(η(6)-p-cym)Ru(bpm)Cl][PF(6)], [(η(6)-p-cym)Ru(bpm)Br][PF(6)], [(η(6)-p-cym)Ru(bpm)I][PF(6)], [(η(6)-bip)Ru(bpm)Cl][PF(6)], [(η(6)-bip)Ru(bpm)Br][PF(6)] and [(η(6)-bip)Ru(bpm)I][PF(6)] suggest that aquation occurs via an associative pathway and that the reaction is thermodynamically favourable when the leaving ligand is I > Br ≈ Cl. pK (a)* values for the aqua adducts of the complexes range from 6.9 to 7.32. A binding preference for 9-ethylguanine (9-EtG) compared with 9-ethyladenine (9-EtA) was observed for [(η(6)-p-cym)Ru(bpm)Cl][PF(6)], [(η(6)-hmb)Ru(bpm)Cl](+), [(η(6)-ind)Ru(bpm)Cl](+), [(η(6)-thn)Ru(bpm)Cl](+), [(η(6)-p-cym)Ru(phen)Cl](+) and [(η(6)-p-cym)Ru(bathophen)Cl](+) in aqueous solution at 310 K. The X-ray crystal structure of the guanine complex [(η(6)-p-cym)Ru(bpm)(9-EtG-N7)][PF(6)](2) shows multiple hydrogen bonding. Density functional theory calculations show that the 9-EtG adducts of all complexes are thermodynamically preferred compared with those of 9-EtA. However, the bmp complexes are inactive towards A2780 human ovarian cancer cells. Calf thymus DNA interactions for [(η(6)-p-cym)Ru(bpm)Cl][PF(6)] and [(η(6)-p

  2. Photodissociation of a ruthenium(II) arene complex and its subsequent interactions with biomolecules: a density functional theory study.


    Wang, Hanlu; DeYonker, Nathan J; Zhang, Xiting; Zhao, Cunyuan; Ji, Liangnian; Mao, Zong-Wan


    The piano-stool Ru(II) arene complex [(η⁶-benz)Ru(bpm)(py)]²⁺ (benz = benzene, bpm = 2,2'-bipyrimidine, and py = pyridine), which is conventionally nonlabile (on a timescale and under conditions relevant for biological reactivity), can be activated by visible light to selectively photodissociate the monodentate ligand (py). In the present study, the aquation and binding of the photocontrolled ruthenium(II) arene complex [(η⁶-benz)Ru(bpm)(py)]²⁺ to various biomolecules are studied by density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT). Potential energy curves (PECs) calculated for the Ru-N (py) bonds in [(η⁶-benz)Ru(bpm)(py)]²⁺ in the singlet and triplet state give useful insights into the photodissociation mechanism of py. The binding energies of the various biomolecules are calculated, which allows the order of binding affinities among the considered nuleic-acid- or protein-binding sites to be discerned. The kinetics for the replacement of water in the aqua complex with biomolecules is also considered, and the results demonstrate that guanine is superior to other biomolecules in terms of coordinating with the Ru(II) aqua adduct, which is in reasonable agreement with experimental observations.

  3. Selenoquinones stabilized by ruthenium(II) arene complexes: synthesis, structure, and cytotoxicity.


    Dubarle-Offner, Julien; Clavel, Catherine M; Gontard, Geoffrey; Dyson, Paul J; Amouri, Hani


    A new series of monoselenoquinone and diselenoquinone π complexes, [(η(6) -p-cymene)Ru(η(4) -C6 R4 SeE)] (R=H, E=Se (6); R=CH3 , E=Se (7); R=H, E=O (8)), as well as selenolate π complexes [(η(6) -p-cymene)Ru(η(5) -C6 H3 R2 Se)][SbF6 ] (R=H (9); R=CH3 (10)), stabilized by arene ruthenium moieties were prepared in good yields through nucleophilic substitution reactions from dichlorinated-arene and hydroxymonochlorinated-arene ruthenium complexes [(η(6) -p-cymene)Ru(C6 R4 XCl)][SbF6 ]2 (R=H, X=Cl (1); R=CH3 , X=Cl (2); R=H, X=OH (3)) as well as the monochlorinated π complexes [(η(6) -p-cymene)Ru(η(5) -C6 H3 R2 Cl)][SbF6 ]2 (R=H (4); R=CH3 (5)). The X-ray crystallographic structures of two of the compounds, [(η(6) -p-cymene)Ru(η(4) -C6 Me4 Se2 )] (7) and [(η(6) -p-cymene)Ru(η(4) -C6 H4 SeO)] (8), were determined. The structures confirm the identity of the target compounds and ascertain the coordination mode of these unprecedented ruthenium π complexes of selenoquinones. Furthermore, these new compounds display relevant cytotoxic properties towards human ovarian cancer cells.

  4. Radiosensitisation of human colorectal cancer cells by ruthenium(II) arene anticancer complexes.


    Carter, R; Westhorpe, A; Romero, M J; Habtemariam, A; Gallevo, C R; Bark, Y; Menezes, N; Sadler, P J; Sharma, R A


    Some of the largest improvements in clinical outcomes for patients with solid cancers observed over the past 3 decades have been from concurrent treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT). The lethal effects of RT on cancer cells arise primarily from damage to DNA. Ruthenium (Ru) is a transition metal of the platinum group, with potentially less toxicity than platinum drugs. We postulated that ruthenium-arene complexes are radiosensitisers when used in combination with RT. We screened 14 ruthenium-arene complexes and identified AH54 and AH63 as supra-additive radiosensitisers by clonogenic survival assays and isobologram analyses. Both complexes displayed facial chirality. At clinically relevant doses of RT, radiosensitisation of cancer cells by AH54 and AH63 was p53-dependent. Radiation enhancement ratios for 5-10 micromolar drug concentrations ranged from 1.19 to 1.82. In p53-wildtype cells, both drugs induced significant G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Colorectal cancer cells deficient in DNA damage repair proteins, EME1 and MUS81, were significantly more sensitive to both agents. Both drugs were active in cancer cell lines displaying acquired resistance to oxaliplatin or cisplatin. Our findings broaden the potential scope for these drugs for use in cancer therapy, including combination with radiotherapy to treat colorectal cancer.

  5. Radiosensitisation of human colorectal cancer cells by ruthenium(II) arene anticancer complexes

    PubMed Central

    Carter, R; Westhorpe, A; Romero, MJ; Habtemariam, A; Gallevo, CR; Bark, Y; Menezes, N; Sadler, PJ; Sharma, RA


    Some of the largest improvements in clinical outcomes for patients with solid cancers observed over the past 3 decades have been from concurrent treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT). The lethal effects of RT on cancer cells arise primarily from damage to DNA. Ruthenium (Ru) is a transition metal of the platinum group, with potentially less toxicity than platinum drugs. We postulated that ruthenium-arene complexes are radiosensitisers when used in combination with RT. We screened 14 ruthenium-arene complexes and identified AH54 and AH63 as supra-additive radiosensitisers by clonogenic survival assays and isobologram analyses. Both complexes displayed facial chirality. At clinically relevant doses of RT, radiosensitisation of cancer cells by AH54 and AH63 was p53-dependent. Radiation enhancement ratios for 5–10 micromolar drug concentrations ranged from 1.19 to 1.82. In p53-wildtype cells, both drugs induced significant G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Colorectal cancer cells deficient in DNA damage repair proteins, EME1 and MUS81, were significantly more sensitive to both agents. Both drugs were active in cancer cell lines displaying acquired resistance to oxaliplatin or cisplatin. Our findings broaden the potential scope for these drugs for use in cancer therapy, including combination with radiotherapy to treat colorectal cancer. PMID:26867983

  6. Synthesis and anticancer activity of carbosilane metallodendrimers based on arene ruthenium(ii) complexes.


    Maroto-Díaz, Marta; Elie, Benelita T; Gómez-Sal, Pilar; Pérez-Serrano, Jorge; Gómez, Rafael; Contel, María; Javier de la Mata, F


    A series of new organometallic carbosilane dendrimers (first and second generation) and the corresponding non-dendritic mononuclear based on ruthenium arene fragments are described. The metallodendrimers were prepared by reactions of the precursor [Ru(η(6)-p-cymene)Cl2]2 with carbosilane dendrimers functionalized with N-donor monodentate ligands such as NH2- and pyridine, or with N,O-, N,N-chelating imine ligands. While the dendrimer precursors are insoluble in DMSO or water, novel metallodendrimers are soluble in DMSO and some of them are even highly soluble in water. The molecular structure of the "Ru-NH2" mononuclear compound (zero generation) was determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. The cytotoxicity activity of these dendritic structures was evaluated in several human cancer cell lines and compared with that of the corresponding mononuclear ruthenium complexes. Most compounds display significant cytotoxic activities in the low micromolar range with the first generation ruthenium dendrimers being the most active compounds. The cell death type for selected compounds has been studied as well as their reactivity towards relevant biomolecules such as DNA, Human Serum Albumin (HSA) and Cathepsin-B. All the data point to a mode of action different from that of cisplatin for most complexes. First generation ruthenium dendrimers inhibit Cathepsin-B, which may suggest potential antimetastatic properties of these compounds.

  7. Anticancer Activity and Modes of Action of (arene) ruthenium(II) Complexes Coordinated to C-, N-, and O-ligands.


    Biersack, Bernhard


    An overview of anticancer active (arene)ruthenium(II) complexes coordinated to period 2 element-based ligand systems, i.e., carbon-, nitrogen-, and oxygen-coordinated ligands, is provided in this mini-review. A bridge is forged from the large group of anticancer active ruthenium compounds with monodentate and chelating nitrogen ligands via complexes of O,O-chelating ligands to organometallic ruthenium derivatives coordinated to carbon. (Arene)ruthenium(II) complexes with reduced side-effects and enhanced efficacy against cancer are highlighted. Pertinent literature is covered up to 2014.

  8. Competition between glutathione and guanine for a ruthenium(II) arene anticancer complex: detection of a sulfenato intermediate.


    Wang, Fuyi; Xu, Jingjing; Habtemariam, Abraha; Bella, Juraj; Sadler, Peter J


    The organometallic anticancer complex [(eta6-bip)Ru(en)Cl]+ (1; bip = biphenyl, en = ethylenediamine) selectively binds to guanine (N7) bases of DNA (Novakova, O.; Chen, H.; Vrana, O.; Rodger, A.; Sadler, P. J.; Brabec, V. Biochemistry 2003, 42, 11544-11554). In this work, competition between the tripeptide glutathione (gamma-L-Glu-L-Cys-Gly; GSH) and guanine (as guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, cGMP) for complex 1 was investigated using HPLC, LC-MS and 1H,15N NMR spectroscopy. In unbuffered solution (pH ca. 3), the reaction of 1 with GSH gave rise to three intermediates: an S-bound thiolato adduct [(eta6-bip)Ru(en)(GS-S)] (4) and two carboxylate-bound glutathione products [(eta6-bip)Ru(en)(GSH-O)]+ (5, 6) during the early stages (<6 h), followed by en displacement and formation of a tri-GS-bridged dinuclear Ru(II) complex [((eta6-bip)Ru)2(GS-mu-S)3]2- (7). Under physiologically relevant conditions (micromolar Ru concentrations, pH 7, 22 mM NaCl, 310 K), the thiolato complex 4 was unexpectedly readily oxidized by dioxygen to the sulfenato complex [(eta6-bip)Ru(en)(GS(O)-S)] (8) instead of forming the dinuclear complex 7. Under these conditions, competitive reaction of complex 1 with GSH and cGMP gave rise to the cGMP adduct [(eta6-bip)Ru(en)(cGMP-N7)]+ (10) as the major product, accounting for ca. 62% of total Ru after 72 h, even in the presence of a 250-fold molar excess of GSH. The oxidation of coordinated glutathione in the thiolato complex 4 to the sulfenate in 8 appears to provide a facile route for displacement of S-bound glutathione by G N7. Redox reactions of cysteinyl adducts of these Ru(II) arene anticancer complexes could therefore play a significant role in their biological activity.

  9. Dual-targeting organometallic ruthenium(II) anticancer complexes bearing EGFR-inhibiting 4-anilinoquinazoline ligands.


    Zhang, Yang; Zheng, Wei; Luo, Qun; Zhao, Yao; Zhang, Erlong; Liu, Suyan; Wang, Fuyi


    We have recently demonstrated that complexation with (η(6)-arene)Ru(II) fragments confers 4-anilinoquinazoline pharmacophores a higher potential for inducing cellular apoptosis while preserving the highly inhibitory activity of 4-anilinoquinazolines against EGFR and the reactivity of the ruthenium centre to 9-ethylguanine (Chem. Commun., 2013, 49, 10224-10226). Reported herein are the synthesis, characterisation and evaluation of the biological activity of a new series of ruthenium(ii) complexes of the type [(η(6)-arene)Ru(N,N-L)Cl]PF6 (arene = p-cymene, benzene, 2-phenylethanol or indane, L = 4-anilinoquinazolines). These organometallic ruthenium complexes undergo fast hydrolysis in aqueous solution. Intriguingly, the ligation of (arene)Ru(II) fragments with 4-anilinoquinazolines not only makes the target complexes excellent EGFR inhibitors, but also confers the complexes high affinity to bind to DNA minor grooves while maintaining their reactivity towards DNA bases, characterising them with dual-targeting properties. Molecular modelling studies reveal that the hydrolysis of these complexes is a favourable process which increases the affinity of the target complexes to bind to EGFR and DNA. In vitro biological activity assays show that most of this group of ruthenium complexes are selectively active inhibiting the EGF-stimulated growth of the HeLa cervical cancer cell line, and the most active complex [(η(6)-arene)Ru(N,N-L13)Cl]PF6 (, IC50 = 1.36 μM, = 4-(3'-chloro-4'-fluoroanilino)-6-(2-(2-aminoethyl)aminoethoxy)-7-methoxyquinazoline) is 29-fold more active than its analogue, [(η(6)-arene)Ru(N,N-ethylenediamine)Cl]PF6, and 21-fold more active than gefitinib, a well-known EGFR inhibitor in use clinically. These results highlight the strong promise to develop highly active ruthenium anticancer complexes by ligation of cytotoxic ruthenium pharmacophores with bioactive organic molecules.

  10. Molecular Models of Ruthenium(II) Organometallic Complexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, William F.


    This article presents the featured molecules for the month of March, which appear in the paper by Ozerov, Fafard, and Hoffman, and which are related to the study of the reactions of a number of "piano stool" complexes of ruthenium(II). The synthesis of compound 2a offers students an alternative to the preparation of ferrocene if they are only…

  11. Transferrin serves as a mediator to deliver organometallic ruthenium(II) anticancer complexes into cells.


    Guo, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Luo, Qun; Li, Xianchan; Zhao, Yao; Xiong, Shaoxiang; Wang, Fuyi


    We report herein a systematic study on interactions of organometallic ruthenium(II) anticancer complex [(η(6)-arene)Ru(en)Cl](+) (arene = p-cymene (1) or biphenyl (2), en = ethylenediamine) with human transferrin (hTf) and the effects of the hTf-ligation on the bioavailability of these complexes with cisplatin as a reference. Incubated with a 5-fold excess of complex 1, 2, or cisplatin, 1 mol of diferric hTf (holo-hTf) attached 0.62 mol of 1, 1.01 mol of 2, or 2.14 mol of cisplatin. Mass spectrometry revealed that both ruthenium complexes coordinated to N-donors His242, His273, His578, and His606, whereas cisplatin bound to O donors Tyr136 and Tyr317 and S-donor Met256 in addition to His273 and His578 on the surface of both apo- and holo-hTf. Moreover, cisplatin could bind to Thr457 within the C-lobe iron binding cleft of apo-hTf. Neither ruthenium nor platinum binding interfered with the recognition of holo-hTf by the transferrin receptor (TfR). The ruthenated/platinated holo-hTf complexes could be internalized via TfR-mediated endocytosis at a similar rate to that of holo-hTf itself. Moreover, the binding to holo-hTf well preserved the bioavailability of the ruthenium complexes, and the hTf-bound 1 and 2 showed a similar cytotoxicity toward the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 to those of the complexes themselves. However, the conjugation with holo-hTf significantly reduced the cellular uptake of cisplatin and the amount of platinated DNA adducts formed intracellularly, leading to dramatic reduction of cisplatin cytotoxicity toward MCF-7. These findings suggest that hTf can serve as a mediator for the targeting delivery of Ru(arene) anticancer complexes while deactivating cisplatin.

  12. A divalent germanium complex of calix[5]arene.


    Schrick, Aaron C; Rheingold, Arnold L; Weinert, Charles S


    The reaction of the germylene Ge[N(SiMe(3))(2)](2) with calix[5]arene yields the first example of a group 14 calix[5]arene complex. The crystal structure of this material has been obtained and contains two calix[5]arene macrocycles held together by a Ge(2)O(2) rhombus.

  13. Electron Transfer Studies of Ruthenium(II) Complexes with Biologically Important Phenolic Acids and Tyrosine.


    Rajeswari, Angusamy; Ramdass, Arumugam; Muthu Mareeswaran, Paulpandian; Rajagopal, Seenivasan


    The ruthenium(II) complexes having 2,2'-bipyridine and phenanthroline derivatives are synthesized and characterized. The photophysical properties of these complexes at pH 12.5 are studied. The electron transfer reaction of biologically important phenolic acids and tyrosine are studied using absorption, emission and transient absorption spectral techniques. Semiclassical theory is applied to calculate the rate of electron transfer between ruthenium(II) complexes and biologically important phenolic acids.

  14. A selective, long-lived deep-red emissive ruthenium(II) polypyridine complexes for the detection of BSA.


    Babu, Eththilu; Muthu Mareeswaran, Paulpandian; Singaravadivel, Subramanian; Bhuvaneswari, Jayaraman; Rajagopal, Seenivasan


    A selective, label free luminescence sensor for bovine serum albumin (BSA) is investigated using ruthenium(II) complexes over the other proteins. Interaction between BSA and ruthenium(II) complexes has been studied using absorption, emission, excited state lifetime and circular dichroism (CD) spectral techniques. The luminescence intensity of ruthenium(II) complexes (I and II), has enhanced at 602 and 613 nm with a large hypsochromic shift of 18 and 5 nm respectively upon addition of BSA. The mode of binding of ruthenium(II) complexes with BSA has analyzed using computational docking studies.

  15. Synthesis, Structure, and Anticancer Activity of Arene-Ruthenium(II) Complexes with Acylpyrazolones Bearing Aliphatic Groups in the Acyl Moiety.


    Palmucci, Jessica; Marchetti, Fabio; Pettinari, Riccardo; Pettinari, Claudio; Scopelliti, Rosario; Riedel, Tina; Therrien, Bruno; Galindo, Agustin; Dyson, Paul J


    A series of neutral ruthenium(II) arene complexes [(arene)Ru(Q(R))Cl] (arene = p-cymene (cym) or hexamethylbenzene (hmb)) containing 4-acyl-5-pyrazolonate Q(R) ligands with different electronic and steric substituents (R = 4-cyclohexyl, 4-stearoyl, or 4-adamantyl) and related ionic complexes [(arene)Ru(Q(R))(PTA)][PF6] (PTA = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane) were synthesized and characterized by spectroscopy (IR, UV-vis, ESI-MS, and (1)H and (13)C NMR), elemental analysis, X-ray crystallography, and density functional theory studies. The cytotoxicity of the proligands and metal complexes was evaluated in vitro against human ovarian carcinoma cells (A2780 and A2780cisR), as well as against nontumorous human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. In general the cationic PTA-containing complexes are more cytotoxic than their neutral precursors with a chloride ligand in place of the PTA. Moreover, the complexes do not show cross-resistance and are essentially equally cytotoxic to both the A2780 and A2780cisR cell lines, although they only show limited selectivity toward the cancer cell lines.

  16. Ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complex as inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and Aβ aggregation.


    Vyas, Nilima A; Bhat, Satish S; Kumbhar, Avinash S; Sonawane, Uddhavesh B; Jani, Vinod; Joshi, Rajendra R; Ramteke, Shefali N; Kulkarni, Prasad P; Joshi, Bimba


    Two ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes [Ru(phen)3](2+) (1) and [Ru(phen)2(bxbg)](2+) (2) (where phen = 1,10 phenanthroline, bxbg = bis(o-xylene)bipyridine glycoluril) have been evaluated for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) aggregation inhibition. Complex 2 exhibits higher potency of AChE inhibition and kinetics and molecular modeling studies indicate that ancillary ligand plays significant role in inhibitory potency exhibited by complex 2. The inhibitory effect of these complexes on Aβ (1-40) aggregation is investigated using Thioflavin T fluorescence and Transmission Electron Microscopy. Both complexes efficiently inhibit Aβ (1-40) aggregation and are negligibly toxic to human neuroblastoma cells. This is the first demonstration that ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes simultaneously inhibit AChE and Aβ aggregation.

  17. Organometallic osmium arene complexes with potent cancer cell cytotoxicity.


    Fu, Ying; Habtemariam, Abraha; Pizarro, Ana M; van Rijt, Sabine H; Healey, David J; Cooper, Patricia A; Shnyder, Steven D; Clarkson, Guy J; Sadler, Peter J


    Iodido osmium(II) complexes [Os(η(6)-arene)(XY)I](+) (XY = p-hydroxy or p-dimethylaminophenylazopyridine, arene = p-cymene or biphenyl) are potently cytotoxic at nanomolar concentrations toward a panel of human cancer cell lines; e.g., IC(50) = 140 nM for [Os(η(6)-bip)(azpy-NMe(2))I](+) toward A2780 ovarian cancer cells. They exhibit low toxicity and negligible deleterious effects in a colon cancer xenograft model, giving rise to the possibility of a broad therapeutic window. The most active complexes are stable and inert toward aquation. Their cytotoxic activity appears to involve redox mechanisms.

  18. Synthesis, spectral characterization, DNA interaction, radical scavenging and cytotoxicity studies of ruthenium(II) hydrazone complexes.


    Mohanraj, Maruthachalam; Ayyannan, Ganesan; Raja, Gunasekaran; Jayabalakrishnan, Chinnasamy


    Three new ruthenium(II) complexes with hydrazone ligands, furan-2-carboxylic acid (2,4-dihydroxy-benzylidene)-hydrazide (HL(1)), furan-2-carboxylic acid [4-(ethyl-propyl-amino)-2-hydroxy-benzylidene]-hydrazide (HL(2)) and furan-2-carboxylic acid (3-ethoxy-2-hydroxy-benzylidene)-hydrazide (HL(3)) were synthesized and characterized by various spectro-analytical techniques. The hydrazone ligands act as a tridendate ligand with ONO as the donor sites and are preferably found in the enol form in all the complexes. The molecular structure of the ligands was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The interaction of the ligands and the complexes with CT-DNA were evaluated by an absorption titration method which revealed that the compounds interact with CT-DNA through intercalation. Gel electrophoresis assay demonstrated the ability of the complexes to cleave the calf thymus DNA hydrolytically. Antioxidant studies showed that the ruthenium(II) complexes have a strong radical-scavenging properties. Further, the cytotoxic effect of the compounds examined on cancerous cell lines showed that the complexes exhibited substantial anticancer activity.

  19. Arene Binding Affinities in [CpRu(nu6-arene)]+ Complexes: Models for the Adsorption of Arenes on Hydroesulferization Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, M. G.; Ho, T. C.; Angelici, R.


    Product/reactant ratios (Y) were determined for the reactions CpRu({eta}{sup 6}-DBT){sup +} + L CpRu({eta}{sup 6}-L){sup +} + DBT (where DBT is dibenzothiophene and L is a homo- or heterocyclic arene), which were conducted under UV photolysis conditions. In the photostationary state, the Y values for the different arenes decrease in the following order: mesitylene (17) > toluene (13) > indole (9.1) > carbazole (6.7) > benzene (5.9) > fluorene (5.1) > biphenyl (3.9) > DBT (1.0) > phenanthrene (0.65) > naphthalene (0.35). In general, alkyl-substituted arenes have a higher binding affinity than the parent arene, except for tert-butyl groups, which decrease the Y values. These trends in {eta}{sup 6}-arene binding to CpRu{sup +} provide a basis for understanding competitive adsorption of arenes on metal sites of hydrotreating catalysts. Such arene components in petroleum feedstocks reduce the rates of hydrodesulfurization of dibenzothiophenes.

  20. Ruthenium- and osmium-arene-based paullones bearing a TEMPO free-radical unit as potential anticancer drugs.


    Arion, Vladimir B; Dobrov, Anatolie; Göschl, Simone; Jakupec, Michael A; Keppler, Bernhard K; Rapta, Peter


    A modified paullone ligand bearing a TEMPO free-radical unit (HL) and its ruthenium(II) and osmium(II)-arene complexes [M(p-cymene)(HL)Cl]Cl·nH(2)O (M = Ru, Os) exhibit high antiproliferative activity in human cancer cell lines.

  1. Square-planar ruthenium(II) complexes: control of spin state by pincer ligand functionalization.


    Askevold, Bjorn; Khusniyarov, Marat M; Kroener, Wolfgang; Gieb, Klaus; Müller, Paul; Herdtweck, Eberhardt; Heinemann, Frank W; Diefenbach, Martin; Holthausen, Max C; Vieru, Veacheslav; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Schneider, Sven


    Functionalization of the PNP pincer ligand backbone allows for a comparison of the dialkyl amido, vinyl alkyl amido, and divinyl amido ruthenium(II) pincer complex series [RuCl{N(CH2 CH2 PtBu2 )2 }], [RuCl{N(CHCHPtBu2 )(CH2 CH2 PtBu2 )}], and [RuCl{N(CHCHPtBu2 )2 }], in which the ruthenium(II) ions are in the extremely rare square-planar coordination geometry. Whereas the dialkylamido complex adopts an electronic singlet (S=0) ground state and energetically low-lying triplet (S=1) state, the vinyl alkyl amido and the divinyl amido complexes exhibit unusual triplet (S=1) ground states as confirmed by experimental and computational examination. However, essentially non-magnetic ground states arise for the two intermediate-spin complexes owing to unusually large zero-field splitting (D>+200 cm(-1) ). The change in ground state electronic configuration is attributed to tailored pincer ligand-to-metal π-donation within the PNP ligand series.

  2. Photoinduced interactions of supramolecular ruthenium(II) complexes with plasmid DNA: synthesis and spectroscopic, electrochemical, and DNA photocleavage studies.


    Swavey, Shawn; DeBeer, Madeleine; Li, Kaiyu


    Two new bridging ligands have been synthesized by combining substituted benzaldehydes with phenanthrolinopyrrole (php), resulting in new polyazine bridging ligands. The ligands have been characterized by (1)H NMR, mass spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. These new ligands display π-π* transitions above 500 nm with modest molar absorptivities. Upon excitation at the ligand-centered charge-transfer transition, weak emission with a maximum wavelength of 612 nm is observed. When coordinated to two ruthenium(II) bis(bipyridyl) groups, the new bimetallic complexes generated give an overall 4+ charge. The electronic transitions of the bimetallic ruthenium(II) complexes display traditional π-π* transitions at 287 nm and metal-to-ligand charge-transfer transitions at 452 nm with molar absorptivities greater than 30000 M(-1) cm(-1). Oxidation of the ruthenium(II) metal centers to ruthenium(III) occurs at potentials above 1.4 V versus the Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Spectroscopic and electrochemical measurements indicate that the ruthenium(II) moieties behave independently. Both complexes are water-soluble and show the ability to photonick plasmid DNA when irradiated with low-energy light above 550 nm. In addition, one of the complexes, [Ru(bpy)2php]2Van(4+), shows the ability to linearize plasmid DNA and gives evidence, by gel electrophoresis, of photoinduced binding to plasmid DNA.

  3. Syntheses and properties of phosphine-substituted ruthenium(II) polypyridine complexes with nitrogen oxides.


    Nakamura, Go; Kondo, Mio; Crisalli, Meredith; Lee, Sze Koon; Shibata, Akane; Ford, Peter C; Masaoka, Shigeyuki


    Four novel phosphine-substituted ruthenium(ii) polypyridine complexes with nitrogen oxides-trans(P,NO2)-[Ru(trpy)(Pqn)(NO2)]PF6 (trans-NO2), cis(P,NO2)-[Ru(trpy)(Pqn)(NO2)]PF6 (cis-NO2), [Ru(trpy)(dppbz)(NO2)]PF6 (PP-NO2), and cis(P,NO)-[Ru(trpy)(Pqn)(NO)](PF6)3 (cis-NO)-were synthesised (trpy = 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine, Pqn = 8-(diphenylphosphanyl)quinoline, and dppbz = 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphanyl)benzene). The influence of the number and position of the phosphine group(s) on the electronic structure of these complexes was investigated using single-crystal X-ray structural analysis, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, and electrochemical measurements. The substitution lability of the nitrogen oxide ligand of each complex is discussed in comparison with that of the corresponding acetonitrile complexes.

  4. Ruthenium(II) hydrazone Schiff base complexes: Synthesis, spectral study and catalytic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikandan, R.; Viswanathamurthi, P.; Muthukumar, M.


    Ruthenium(II) hydrazone Schiff base complexes of the type [RuCl(CO)(B)(L)] (were B = PPh 3, AsPh 3 or Py; L = hydrazone Schiff base ligands) were synthesized from the reactions of hydrazone Schiff base ligand (obtained from isonicotinoylhydrazide and different hydroxy aldehydes) with [RuHCl(CO)(EPh 3) 2(B)] (where E = P or As; B = PPh 3, AsPh 3 or Py) in 1:1 molar ratio. All the new complexes have been characterized by analytical and spectral (FT-IR, electronic, 1H, 13C and 31P NMR) data. They have been tentatively assigned an octahedral structure. The synthesized complexes have exhibited catalytic activity for oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde and cyclohexanol to cyclohexanone in the presence of N-methyl morpholine N-oxide (NMO) as co-oxidant. They were also found to catalyze the transfer hydrogenation of aliphatic and aromatic ketones to alcohols in KOH/Isopropanol.

  5. Molecular dinitrogen complexes of ruthenium(II) porphyrins

    SciTech Connect

    Camenzind, M.J.; James, B.R.; Dolphin, D.; Sparapany, J.W.; Ibers, J.A.


    The existence of both mono- and bis(nitrogen) complexes of ruthenium have been previously established. Details on a series of complexes are presented herein, and results of an x-ray crystallographic study of Ru(TMP) (THF) (N/sub 2/) are reported. 30 references, 4 tables.

  6. Organometallic osmium(II) arene anticancer complexes containing picolinate derivatives.


    van Rijt, Sabine H; Peacock, Anna F A; Johnstone, Russell D L; Parsons, Simon; Sadler, Peter J


    Chlorido osmium(II) arene [(eta(6)-biphenyl)Os(II)(X-pico)Cl] complexes containing X = Br (1), OH (2), and Me (3) as ortho, or X = Cl (4), CO(2)H (5), and Me (6) as para substituents on the picolinate (pico) ring have been synthesized and characterized. The X-ray crystal structures of 1 and 6 show typical "piano-stool" geometry with intermolecular pi-pi stacking of the biphenyl outer rings of 6. At 288 K the hydrolysis rates follow the order 2 > 6 > 4 > 3 > 5 > 1 with half-lives ranging from minutes to 4.4 h illustrating the influence of both electronic and steric effects of the substituents. The pK(a) values of the aqua adducts 3A, 4A, 5A, and 6A were all in the range of 6.3-6.6. The para-substituted pico complexes 4-6 readily formed adducts with both 9-ethyl guanine (9EtG) and 9-ethyl adenine (9EtA), but these were less favored for the ortho-substituted complexes 1 and 3 showing little reaction with 9EtG and 9EtA, respectively. Density-functional theory calculations confirmed the observed preferences for nucleobase binding for complex 1. In cytotoxicity assays with A2780, cisplatin-resistant A2780cis human ovarian, A549 human lung, and HCT116 colon cancer cells, only complexes 4 (p-Cl) and 6 (p-Me) exhibited significant activity (IC(50) values < 25 microM). Both of these complexes were as active as cisplatin in A2780 (ovarian) and HCT116 (colon) cell lines, and even overcome cisplatin resistance in the A2780cis (ovarian) cell line. The inactivity of 5 is attributed to the negative charge on its para carboxylate substituent. These data illustrate how the chemical reactivity and cancer cell cytotoxicity of osmium arene complexes can be controlled and "fine-tuned" by the use of steric and electronic effects of substituents on a chelating ligand to give osmium(II) arene complexes which are as active as cisplatin but have a different mechanism of action.

  7. Transient photocyclization in ruthenium(ii) polypyridine complexes of indolamines.


    Carrone, G; Zayat, L; Slep, L D; Etchenique, R


    Ruthenium polypyridine complexes have proved to be useful caging groups for visible-light photodelivery of biomolecules. In most photoreactions, one ligand is expelled upon irradiation, yielding ruthenium mono-aqua complexes and no other photoproduct. In this work we show that a long-lived transient photoproduct is generated when the ruthenium complexes involve indolamines. The spatial conformation of this species is compatible with a cyclic structure that contains both the amine and the normally non-coordinating aromatic ring coordinated to the ruthenium center.

  8. Ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes as mitochondria-targeted two-photon photodynamic anticancer agents.


    Liu, Jiangping; Chen, Yu; Li, Guanying; Zhang, Pingyu; Jin, Chengzhi; Zeng, Leli; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui


    Clinical acceptance of photodynamic therapy is currently hindered by poor depth efficacy and inefficient activation of the cell death machinery in cancer cells during treatment. To address these issues, photoactivation using two-photon absorption (TPA) is currently being examined. Mitochondria-targeted therapy represents a promising approach to target tumors selectively and may overcome the resistance in current anticancer therapies. Herein, four ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes (RuL1-RuL4) have been designed and developed to act as mitochondria-targeted two-photon photodynamic anticancer agents. These complexes exhibit very high singlet oxygen quantum yields in methanol (0.74-0.81), significant TPA cross sections (124-198 GM), remarkable mitochondrial accumulation, and deep penetration depth. Thus, RuL1-RuL4 were utilized as one-photon and two-photon absorbing photosensitizers in both monolayer cells and 3D multicellular spheroids (MCSs). These Ru(II) complexes were almost nontoxic towards cells and 3D MCSs in the dark and generate sufficient singlet oxygen under one- and two-photon irradiation to trigger cell death. Remarkably, RuL4 exhibited an IC50 value as low as 9.6 μM in one-photon PDT (λirr = 450 nm, 12 J cm(-2)) and 1.9 μM in two-photon PDT (λirr = 830 nm, 800 J cm(-2)) of 3D MCSs; moreover, RuL4 is an order of magnitude more toxic than cisplatin in the latter test system. The combination of mitochondria-targeting and two-photon activation provides a valuable paradigm to develop ruthenium(II) complexes for PDT applications.

  9. Arene C-H Amination at Nickel in Terphenyl Diphosphine Complexes with Labile Metal-Arene Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, David E.; Lara, Nadia C.


    The meta-terphenyl diphosphine, m-P2: 1, was utilized to support Ni centers in the oxidation states 0, I and II. A series of complexes bearing different substituents and/or ligands at Ni were prepared to investigate the dependence of metal-arene interactions on oxidation state and substitution at the metal. Compound (m-P2)Ni (2), shows close Ni(0)-arene interactions between the metal centre and the central arene ring of the terphenyl ligand both in solution and the solid-state. These interactions are significantly less pronounced in Ni(0) complexes bearing L-type ligands (2-L: L = CH3CN, CO, Ph2CN2), Ni(I)X complexes [3-X: X = Cl, BF4, N3, N3B(C6F5)3] and (m-P2)Ni(II)Cl2 (4). Complex 2 reacts with substrates such as diphenyldiazoalkane, sulfur ylides (Ph2S=CH2), organoazides (RN3: R = para-C6H5OMe, para-C6H5CF3, 1-adamantyl) and N2O with the locus of observed reactivity dependent on the nature of the substrate, leading to isolation of an η1-diphenyldiazoalkane adduct (2-Ph2CN2), methylidene insertion into a Ni-P bond, followed by rearrangement of a nickel-bound phosphorus ylide (5) to a benzylphosphine (6), Staudinger oxidation of the phosphine arms and metal-mediated nitrene insertion into an arene C-H bond of 1 to give the insertion product 8, all derived from the same compound (2). Hydrogen atom abstraction from a nickel(I)-amide (9) and resulting nitrene transfer chemistry supports the viability of nickel-imide intermediates in the reaction of 1 with 1-azido-arenes. PMID:24127196

  10. ESR study of reduced monosubstituted ruthenium(II) diimine complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, A.C.; DeArmond, M.K.


    Electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) was used in the characterization of [Ru(bpy)(CN){sub 4}]{sup 2{minus}}, [Ru(bpm)(CN){sub 4}]{sup 2{minus}}, and [Ru(bpz)(CN){sub 4}]{sup 2{minus}}. Hyperfine structure and coupling constants for the ESR spectra were reported. Further characterization of these complexes was accomplished using absorption and emission spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry.

  11. Thermodynamic and kinetic hydricity of ruthenium(II) hydride complexes.


    Matsubara, Yasuo; Fujita, Etsuko; Doherty, Mark D; Muckerman, James T; Creutz, Carol


    Despite the fundamental importance of the hydricity of a transition metal hydride (ΔG(H–)°(MH) for the reaction M–H → M+ + H–) in a range of reactions important in catalysis and solar energy storage, ours (J. Am. Chem. Soc.2009, 131, 2794) are the only values reported for water solvent, and there has been no basis for comparison of these with the wider range already determined for acetonitrile solvent, in particular. Accordingly, we have used a variety of approaches to determine hydricity values in acetonitrile of Ru(II) hydride complexes previously studied in water. For [Ru(η(6)-C6Me6)(bpy)H]+ (bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine), we used a thermodynamic cycle based on evaluation of the acidity of [Ru(η(6)-C6Me6)(bpy)H]+ pKa = 22.5 ± 0.1 and the [Ru(η(6)-C6Me6)(bpy)(NCCH3)(1/0)](2+/0) electrochemical potential (−1.22 V vs Fc+/Fc). For [Ru(tpy)(bpy)H]+ (tpy = 2,2′:6′,2″-terpyridine) we utilized organic hydride ion acceptors (A+) of characterized hydricity derived from imidazolium cations and pyridinium cations, and determined K for the hydride transfer reaction, S + MH+ + A+ → M(S)2+ + AH (S = CD3CN, MH+ = [Ru(tpy)(bpy)H]+), by 1H NMR measurements. Equilibration of initially 7 mM solutions was slow--on the time scale of a day or more. When E°(H+/H–) is taken as 79.6 kcal/mol vs Fc+/Fc as a reference, the hydricities of [Ru(η(6)-C6Me6)(bpy)H]+ and [Ru(tpy)(bpy)H]+ were estimated as 54 ± 2 and 39 ± 3 kcal/mol, respectively, in acetonitrile to be compared with the values 31 and 22 kcal/mol, respectively, found for aqueous media. The pKa estimated for [Ru(tpy)(bpy)H]+ in acetonitrile is 32 ± 3. UV–vis spectroscopic studies of [Ru(η(6)-C6Me6)(bpy)]0 and [Ru(tpy)(bpy)]0 indicate that they contain reduced bpy and tpy ligands, respectively. These conclusions are supported by DFT electronic structure results. Comparison of the hydricity values for acetonitrile and water reveals a flattening or compression of the hydricity range upon transferring the

  12. DNA interaction, antioxidant activity, and bioactivity studies of two ruthenium(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Bing-Jie; Jiang, Guang-Bin; Yao, Jun-Hua; Li, Wei; Wang, Ji; Huang, Hong-Liang; Liu, Yun-Jun


    Two new ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes [Ru(dmb)2(dcdppz)](ClO4)2 (1) and [Ru(bpy)2(dcdppz)](ClO4)2 (2) were prepared and characterized. The crystal structure of the complex 2 was solved by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The complex crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P21/n with a = 12.9622(14) Å, b = 17.1619(19) Å, c = 22.7210(3) Å, β = 100.930(2)°, R = 0.0536, Rω = 0.1111. The DNA-binding constants for complexes 1 and 2 were determined to be 1.92 × 105 (s = 1.72) and 2.24 × 105 (s = 1.86) M-1, respectively. The DNA-binding behaviors showed that complexes 1 and 2 interact with DNA by intercalative mode. The antioxidant activities of the ligand and the complexes were performed. Ligand, dcdppz, has no cytotoxicity against the selected cell lines. Complex 1 shows higher cytotoxicity than complex 2, but lower than cisplatin toward selected cell lines. The apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were investigated, and the apoptotic mechanism of BEL-7402 cells was studied by reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential and western blot analysis. Complex 1 induces apoptosis in BEL-7402 cells through ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction pathway and by regulating the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins.

  13. DNA binding properties, histidine interaction and cytotoxicity studies of water soluble ruthenium(ii) terpyridine complexes.


    Lazić, Dejan; Arsenijević, Aleksandar; Puchta, Ralph; Bugarčić, Živadin D; Rilak, Ana


    In this study, two representatives of previously synthesized ruthenium(ii) terpyridine complexes, i.e., [Ru(Cl-tpy)(en)Cl][Cl] (1) and [Ru(Cl-tpy)(dach)Cl][Cl] (2), were chosen and a detailed study of the kinetic parameters of their reactivity toward l-histidine (l-His), using the UV-Vis and (1)H NMR techniques, was developed. The inner molecular rearrangement from N3-coordinated l-His to the N1 bound isomer, observable in the NMR data, was corroborated by DFT calculations favoring N1 coordination by nearly 4 kcal mol(-1). These two ruthenium(ii) terpyridine complexes were investigated for their interactions with DNA employing UV-Vis spectroscopy, DNA viscosity measurements and fluorescence quenching measurements. The high binding constants obtained in the DNA binding studies (Kb = 10(4)-10(5) M(-1)) suggest a strong binding of the complexes to calf thymus (CT) DNA. Competitive studies with ethidium bromide (EB) showed that the complexes can displace DNA-bound EB, suggesting strong competition with EB (Ksv = 1.5-2.5 × 10(4) M(-1)). In fact, the results indicate that these complexes can bind to DNA covalently and non-covalently. In order to gain insight of the behavior of a neutral compound, besides the four previously synthesized cationic complexes [Ru(Cl-tpy)(en)Cl][Cl] (1), [Ru(Cl-tpy)(dach)Cl][Cl] (2), [Ru(Cl-tpy)(bpy)Cl][Cl] (3) and [Ru(tpy)Cl3] (P2), a new complex, [Ru(Cl-tpy)(pic)Cl] (4), was used in the biological studies. Their cytotoxicity was investigated against three different tumor cell lines, i.e., A549 (human lung carcinoma cell line), HCT116 (human colon carcinoma cell line), and CT26 (mouse colon carcinoma cell line), by the MTT assay. Complexes 1 and 2 showed higher activity than complexes 3, 4 and P2 against all the selected cell lines. The results on in vitro anticancer activity confirmed that only compounds that hydrolyze the monodentate ligand at a reasonable rate show moderate activity, provided that the chelate ligand is a hydrogen bond

  14. Mitochondrial fragmentation is an important cellular event induced by ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes in osteosarcoma cells.


    Du, Yanxin; Fu, Xiaoyan; Li, Hong; Chen, Bolai; Guo, Yuhai; Su, Guoyi; Zhang, Hu; Ning, Feipeng; Lin, Yongpeng; Mei, Wenjie; Chen, Tianfeng


    A series of ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro anticancer activities. The results showed that ruthenium polypyridyl complexes, especially [Ru(bpy)2 (p-tFPIP)](2+) (2 a; bpy=bipyridine, tFPIP=2-(2-trifluoromethane phenyl)imidazole[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline), exhibited novel anticancer activity against human cancer cell lines, but with less toxicity to a human normal cell line. The results of flow cytometry and caspase activities analysis indicated that the 2 a-induced growth inhibition against MG-63 osteosarcoma cells was mainly caused by mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. DNA fragmentation and nuclear condensation as detected by TUNEL-DAPI co-staining further confirmed 2 a-induced apoptotic cell death. Further, fluorescence imaging revealed that ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes could target mitochondria to induce mitochondrial fragmentation, accompanied by depletion of mitochondrial membrane potential. Taken together, these findings suggest a potential application of theses ruthenium(II) complexes in the treatment of cancers.

  15. Modulating the Anticancer Activity of Ruthenium(II)-Arene Complexes.


    Clavel, Catherine M; Păunescu, Emilia; Nowak-Sliwinska, Patrycja; Griffioen, Arjan W; Scopelliti, Rosario; Dyson, Paul J


    Following the identification of [Ru(η(6)-p-cymene)Cl2(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl-3-(pyridin-3-yl)propanoate)], a ruthenium(II)-arene complex with a perfluoroalkyl-modified ligand that displays remarkable in vitro cancer cell selectivity, a series of structurally related compounds were designed. In the new derivatives, the p-cymene ring and/or the chloride ligands are substituted by other ligands to modulate the steric bulk or aquation kinetics. The new compounds were evaluated in both in vitro (cytotoxicity and migration assays) and in vivo (chicken chorioallantoic membrane) models and were found to exhibit potent antivascular effects.

  16. A functional ruthenium(ii) complex for imaging biothiols in living bodies.


    Ye, Zhiqiang; Gao, Quankun; An, Xin; Song, Bo; Yuan, Jingli


    A unique ruthenium(ii) complex, [Ru(bpy)2(DNS-bpy)](PF6)2 [bpy: 2,2'-bipyridine, DNS-bpy: 4-(2,4-dinitrophenylthio)-2,2'-bipyridine], that can act as a probe for the recognition and luminescence sensing of biothiols has been designed and synthesized. Due to the presence of effective photo-induced electron transfer (PET) from the potent electron donor (Ru-bpy centre) to the strong electron acceptor (2,4-dinitrophenyl moiety), the Ru(ii) complex itself is weakly luminescent. Reaction of [Ru(bpy)2(DNS-bpy)](PF6)2 with biothiols leads to the replacement of the 2,4-dinitrophenyl moiety by biothiols, which results in the loss of PET within the complex, to allow recovery of the MLCT-based emission of the Ru(ii) complex with an 80-fold increase in luminescence intensity. Taking advantage of the high specificity and sensitivity, and the excellent photophysical properties of Ru(ii) complexes, [Ru(bpy)2(DNS-bpy)](PF6)2 was successfully applied to the luminescence imaging of biothiols in living Daphnia magna. The results demonstrated the practical applicability of [Ru(bpy)2(DNS-bpy)](PF6)2 as a luminescent probe for the monitoring of biothiols in living bodies.

  17. Synthesis, characterization, DNA interaction, antioxidant and anticancer activity of new ruthenium(II) complexes of thiosemicarbazone/semicarbazone bearing 9,10-phenanthrenequinone.


    Anitha, Panneerselvam; Chitrapriya, Nataraj; Jang, Yoon Jung; Viswanathamurthi, Periasamy


    A new series of octahedral ruthenium(II) complexes supported by tridentate ligands derived from phenanthrenequinone and derivatives of thiosemicarbazide/semicarbazide and other co-ligands have been synthesized and characterized. DNA binding experiments indicated that ruthenium(II) complexes can interact with DNA through non-intercalation and the apparent binding constant value (Kb) of [RuCl(CO)(PPh₃)(L₃)] (3) at room temperature was calculated to be 2.27 × 10(3)M(-1). The DNA cleavage studies showed that the complexes have better cleavage of pBR 322 DNA. Antioxidative activity proved that the complexes have significant radical scavenging activity against free radicals. Cytotoxic activities showed that the ruthenium(II) complexes exhibited more effective cytotoxic activity against selected cancer cells.

  18. Tri- and tetra-nuclear polypyridyl ruthenium(II) complexes as antimicrobial agents.


    Gorle, Anil K; Feterl, Marshall; Warner, Jeffrey M; Wallace, Lynne; Keene, F Richard; Collins, J Grant


    A series of inert tri- and tetra-nuclear polypyridylruthenium(II) complexes that are linked by the bis[4(4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridyl)]-1,n-alkane ligand ("bb(n)" for n = 10, 12 and 16) have been synthesised and their potential as antimicrobial agents examined. Due to the modular nature of the synthesis of the oligonuclear complexes, it was possible to make both linear and non-linear tetranuclear ruthenium species. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the ruthenium(II) complexes were determined against four strains of bacteria--Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and Gram negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). In order to gain an understanding of the relative antimicrobial activities, the cellular uptake and water-octanol partition coefficients (log P) were determined for a selection of the ruthenium complexes. Although the trinuclear complexes were the most lipophilic based upon log P values and showed the greatest cellular uptake, the linear tetranuclear complexes were generally more active, with MIC values <1 μM against the Gram positive bacteria. Similarly, although the non-linear tetranuclear complexes were slightly more lipophilic and were taken up to a greater extent by the bacteria, they were consistently less active than their linear counterparts. Of particular note, the cellular accumulation of the oligonuclear ruthenium complexes was greater in the Gram negative strains compared to that in the Gram positive S. aureus and MRSA. The results demonstrate that the lower antimicrobial activity of polypyridylruthenium(II) complexes towards Gram negative bacteria, particularly P. aeruginosa, is not strongly correlated to the cellular accumulation but rather to a lower intrinsic ability to kill the Gram negative cells.

  19. Host-Guest Complexes of Carboxylated Pillar[n]arenes With Drugs.


    Wheate, Nial J; Dickson, Kristie-Ann; Kim, Ryung Rae; Nematollahi, Alireza; Macquart, René B; Kayser, Veysel; Yu, Guocan; Church, W Bret; Marsh, Deborah J


    Pillar[n]arenes are a new family of nanocapsules that have shown application in a number of areas, but because of their poor water solubility their biomedical applications are limited. Recently, a method of synthesizing water-soluble pillar[n]arenes was developed. In this study, carboxylated pillar[n]arenes (WP[n], n = 6 or 7) have been examined for their ability to form host-guest complexes with compounds relevant to drug delivery and biodiagnostic applications. Both pillar[n]arenes form host-guest complexes with memantine, chlorhexidine hydrochloride, and proflavine by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance and modeling. Binding is stabilized by hydrophobic effects within the cavities, and hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions at the portals. Encapsulation within WP[6] results in the complete and efficient quenching of proflavine fluorescence, giving rise to "on" and "off" states that have potential in biodiagnostics. The toxicity of the pillar[n]arenes was examined using in vitro growth assays with the OVCAR-3 and HEK293 cell lines. The pillar[n]arenes are relatively nontoxic to cells except at high doses and after prolonged continuous exposure. Overall, the results show that there could be a potentially large range of medical applications for carboxylated pillar[n]arene nanocapsules.

  20. Arene-metal π-complexation as a traceless reactivity enhancer for C-H arylation.


    Ricci, Paolo; Krämer, Katrina; Cambeiro, Xacobe C; Larrosa, Igor


    Current approaches to facilitate C-H arylation of arenes involve the use of either strongly electron-withdrawing substituents or directing groups. Both approaches require structural modification of the arene, limiting their generality. We present a new approach where C-H arylation is made possible without altering the connectivity of the arene via π-complexation of a Cr(CO)3 unit, greatly enhancing the reactivity of the aromatic C-H bonds. We apply this approach to monofluorobenzenes, highly unreactive arenes, which upon complexation become nearly as reactive as pentafluorobenzene itself in their couplings with iodoarenes. DFT calculations indicate that C-H activation via a concerted metalation-deprotonation transition state is facilitated by the predisposition of C-H bonds in (Ar-H)Cr(CO)3 to bend out of the aromatic plane.

  1. A ruthenium(II) complex-based lysosome-targetable multisignal chemosensor for in vivo detection of hypochlorous acid.


    Cao, Liyan; Zhang, Run; Zhang, Wenzhu; Du, Zhongbo; Liu, Chunjun; Ye, Zhiqiang; Song, Bo; Yuan, Jingli


    Although considerable efforts have been made for the development of ruthenium(II) complex-based chemosensors and bioimaging reagents, the multisignal chemosensor using ruthenium(II) complexes as the reporter is scarce. In addition, the mechanisms of cellular uptake of ruthenium(II)-based chemosensors and their intracellular distribution are ill-defined. Herein, a new ruthenium(II) complex-based multisignal chemosensor, Ru-Fc, is reported for the highly sensitive and selective detection of lysosomal hypochlorous acid (HOCl). Ru-Fc is weakly luminescent because the MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge transfer) state is corrupted by the efficient PET (photoinduced electron transfer) process from Fc (ferrocene) moiety to Ru(II) center. The cleavage of Fc moiety by a HOCl-induced specific reaction leads to elimination of PET, which re-establishes the MLCT state of the Ru(II) complex, accompanied by remarkable photoluminescence (PL) and electrochemiluminescence (ECL) enhancements. The result of MTT assay showed that the proposed chemosensor, Ru-Fc, was low cytotoxicity. The applicability of Ru-Fc for the quantitative detection of HOCl in live cells was demonstrated by the confocal microscopy imaging and flow cytometry analysis. Dye colocalization studies confirmed very precise distribution of the Ru(II) complex in lysosomes, and inhibition studies revealed that the caveolae-mediated endocytosis played an important role during the cellular internalization of Ru-Fc. By using Ru-Fc as a chemosensor, the imaging of the endogenous HOCl generated in live macrophage cells during the stimulation was achieved. Furthermore, the practical applicability of Ru-Fc was demonstrated by the visualizing of HOCl in laboratory model animals, Daphnia magna and zebrafish.

  2. Tuning reactivity and site selectivity of simple arenes in C-H activation: ortho-arylation of anisoles via arene-metal π-complexation.


    Ricci, Paolo; Krämer, Katrina; Larrosa, Igor


    Current approaches to achieve site selectivity in the C-H activation of arenes involve the use of directing groups or highly electron-poor arenes. In contrast, simple arenes, such as anisole, are characterized by poor reactivity and selectivity. We report that π-complexation to a Cr(CO)3 unit enhances the reactivity of anisoles providing an unprecedented ortho-selective arylation. This mild methodology can be used for the late stage functionalization of bioactive compounds containing the anisole motif, allowing the construction of novel organic scaffolds with few synthetic steps.

  3. Experimental and theoretical NMR determination of isoniazid and sodium p-sulfonatocalix[n]arenes inclusion complexes.


    de Assis, João V; Teixeira, Milena G; Soares, Cássia G P; Lopes, Juliana F; Carvalho, Guilherme S L; Lourenço, Maria C S; de Almeida, Mauro V; de Almeida, Wagner B; Fernandes, Sergio A


    In this work the inclusion complex formation of isoniazid with sodium p-sulfonatocalix[n]arenes is reported aiming to improve the physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties of isoniazid a first line antibuberculosis drug. The architectures of the complexes were proposed according to NMR data Job plot indicating details on the insertion of the isoniazid in the calix[n]arenes cavities. DFT theoretical NMR calculations were also performed for sodium p-sulfonatocalix[4]arene complex with isoniazid, with various modes of complexation being considered, to provide support for the experimental proposal. A comparison between experimental and theoretical ¹H NMR chemical shifts profiles allowed for the inclusion complex characterization confirming the isoniazid inclusion mode which is preferentially through the hydrazide moiety. The remarkable agreement between experimental and theoretical NMR profiles adds support to their use in the structural characterization of inclusion compounds. Antibacterial activity was evaluated and the results indicated the inclusion complexes as a potential strategy for tuberculosis treatment.

  4. A paradigm shift in the construction of heterobimetallic complexes: synthesis of group 2 & 4 metal-calix[6]arene complexes.


    Petrella, Antonella J; Craig, Donald C; Lamb, Robert N; Raston, Colin L; Roberts, Nicholas K


    Deprotonation of calix[6]arenes with barium in methanol followed by the addition of [Ti(OPr(i))(4)] or [Zr(OBu(n))(4)] is effective in the formation of novel dimeric 2:1 barium-titanium(IV)/zirconium(IV) calix[6]arene complexes. In these complexes a central Ti(IV)/Zr(IV) coordinated in the exo-position connects the two calix[6]arenes in the 1,3-alternate conformation, each with an endo-barium sharing common phenolate groups with the titanium/zirconium centre and participating in cation-pi interactions. A homometallic barium calix[6]arene dimer was also prepared wherein the calix[6]arenes are in the 1,3-alternate conformation with each coordinating one endo- and one exo-barium centre. The exo-barium cations connect the two calix[6]arenes through bridging methanol ligands. In this and the heterometallic complexes, cation-pi complexation of the Ba(2+) ion within the 1,3 alternate conformation of calix[6]arene facilitates the formation of the dimeric complexes in methanol. In contrast, the smaller Sr(2+) ion did not form similar complexes in methanol, and the formation of an analogous 2:1 strontium-titanium calixarene complex required the use of the more sterically demanding donor alcohol, isopropanol, the resulting complex being devoid of cation-pi interaction. The results show (i) that a subtle interplay of solvation strength, coordination array type and cavity/cation size influences the accessibility of heterobimetallic complexes based on calix[6]arenes, and (ii) a synergistic endo-exo binding behaviour.

  5. NanoSIMS analysis of an isotopically labelled organometallic ruthenium(II) drug to probe its distribution and state in vitro.


    Lee, Ronald F S; Escrig, Stéphane; Croisier, Marie; Clerc-Rosset, Stéphanie; Knott, Graham W; Meibom, Anders; Davey, Curt A; Johnsson, Kai; Dyson, Paul J


    The in vitro inter- and intra-cellular distribution of an isotopically labelled ruthenium(II)-arene (RAPTA) anti-metastatic compound in human ovarian cancer cells was imaged using nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). Ultra-high resolution isotopic images of (13)C, (15)N, and Ru indicate that the phosphine ligand remains coordinated to the ruthenium(II) ion whereas the arene detaches. The complex localizes mainly on the membrane or at the interface between cells which correlates with its anti-metastatic effects.

  6. A high molar extinction coefficient mono-anthracenyl bipyridyl heteroleptic ruthenium(II) complex: synthesis, photophysical and electrochemical properties.


    Adeloye, Adewale O; Ajibade, Peter A


    In our quest to develop good materials as photosensitizers for photovoltaic dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), cis-dithiocyanato-4-(2,3-dimethylacrylic acid)-2,2'-bipyridyl-4-(9-anthracenyl-(2,3-dimethylacrylic)-2,2'-bipyridyl ruthenium(II) complex, a high molar extinction coefficient charge transfer sensitizer, was designed, synthesized and characterized by spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. Earlier studies on heteroleptic ruthenium(II) complex analogues containing functionalized oligo-anthracenyl phenanthroline ligands have been reported and documented. Based on a general linear correlation between increase in the length of π-conjugation bond and the molar extinction coefficients, herein, we report the photophysical and electrochemical properties of a Ru(II) bipyridyl complex analogue with a single functionalized anthracenyl unit. Interestingly, the complex shows better broad and intense metal-to ligand charge transfer (MLCT) band absorption with higher molar extinction coefficient (λ(max) = 518 nm, e = 44900 M⁻¹ cm⁻¹), and appreciable photoluminescence spanning the visible region than those containing higher anthracenyl units. It was shown that molar absorption coefficient of the complexes may not be solely depended on the extended π-conjugation but are reduced by molecular aggregation in the molecules.

  7. Dinuclear Ruthenium(II) Complexes as Two-Photon, Time-Resolved Emission Microscopy Probes for Cellular DNA**

    PubMed Central

    Baggaley, Elizabeth; Gill, Martin R; Green, Nicola H; Turton, David; Sazanovich, Igor V; Botchway, Stanley W; Smythe, Carl; Haycock, John W; Weinstein, Julia A; Thomas, Jim A


    The first transition-metal complex-based two-photon absorbing luminescence lifetime probes for cellular DNA are presented. This allows cell imaging of DNA free from endogenous fluorophores and potentially facilitates deep tissue imaging. In this initial study, ruthenium(II) luminophores are used as phosphorescent lifetime imaging microscopy (PLIM) probes for nuclear DNA in both live and fixed cells. The DNA-bound probes display characteristic emission lifetimes of more than 160 ns, while shorter-lived cytoplasmic emission is also observed. These timescales are orders of magnitude longer than conventional FLIM, leading to previously unattainable levels of sensitivity, and autofluorescence-free imaging. PMID:24458590

  8. Modification of multiwall carbon nanotubes with ruthenium(II) terpyridine complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huayang; Wu, Jie; Jeilani, Yassin A.; Ingram, Conrad W.; Harruna, Issifu I.


    Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, 1-3 μM in length and 20-25 nm in diameter) were initially functionalized with a 2,2':6'2″-terpyridine-chelated ruthenium(II) complex by covalent amidation. The resulting functionalized ruthenium MWCNTs (RuMWCNTs, 1-2 μM in length and 10-20 nm in diameter) were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thermogravimetric experiments of RuMWCNTs show that the functional group coverage of terpyridine-rutheniun-terpyridine (tpy-Ru-tpy) is 0.7036 mmol/1.0 g carbon. The XPS results show N1s and Ru3d5/5 signals, confirming the presence of tpy-Ru-tpy groups on the surface of MWCNTs. The FTIR spectra of the RuMWCNTs display the typical stretching mode of the carboxyl group (amide I) and a combination of amide N-H and C-N stretching mode (amide II). The Raman D- and G-line peak intensity ratio of RuMWCNTs (ID/IG 2.21) exceeds that of pristine MWCNTs (ID/IG 1.93), suggesting covalent bonding of tpy-Ru-tpy to MWCNTs and supporting the disruption of the graphitic integrity due to the proposed covalent functionalization. High-resolution SEM images confirm that tpy-Ru-tpy moieties are interconnected or attached as aggregated structures (100-200-nm range) on the surfaces of the carbon nanotubes after functionalization. The electrical property of RuMWCNTs depicts higher resistance (10.10 M Ω) than that of OX-MWCNTs (15.38 kΩ).

  9. Mitochondria are the primary target in the induction of apoptosis by chiral ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes in cancer cells.


    Wang, Jin-Quan; Zhang, Ping-Yu; Qian, Chen; Hou, Xiao-Juan; Ji, Liang-Nian; Chao, Hui


    A series of novel chiral ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes (Δ-Ru1, Λ-Ru1, Δ-Ru2, Λ-Ru2, Δ-Ru3, Λ-Ru3) were synthesized and evaluated to determine their antiproliferative activities. Colocalization, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay studies showed that these ruthenium(II) complexes accumulated preferentially in the mitochondria and exhibited cytotoxicity against various cancer cells in vitro. The complex Δ-Ru1 is of particular interest because it was found to have half-maximal inhibitory concentrations comparable to those of cisplatin and better activity than cisplatin against a cisplatin-resistant cell line, A549-CP/R. Δ-Ru1 induced alterations in the mitochondrial membrane potential and triggered intrinsic mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in HeLa cells, which involved the regulation of Bcl-2 family members and the activation of caspases. Taken together, these data suggest that Δ-Ru1 may be a novel mitochondria-targeting anticancer agent.

  10. Ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes containing pyridine carboxamide ligands and PPh3/AsPh3/Py coligands: Synthesis, spectral characterization, catalytic and antioxidant studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, Rangasamy; Viswanathamurthi, Periasamy


    New ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes bearing pyridine carboxamide and triphenylphosphine/triphenylarsine/pyridine have been prepared by direct reaction of ruthenium(II) precursors with some pyridine carboxamide ligands, N,N-bis(2-pyridinecarboxamide)-1,2-ethane (H2L1), N,N-bis(2-pyridinecarboxamide)-1,2-benzene (H2L2) and N,N-bis(2-pyridinecarboxamide)-trans-1,2-cyclohexane (H2L3). The organic ligands offering two Namide and two Npyridine donor sites to the metal centre. They have been characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR, UV-Visible, NMR (1H, 13C and 31P) and ESI-MS techniques. Based on the above data, an octahedral structure has been assigned for all the complexes. The catalytic efficiency of the complexes in transfer hydrogenation of ketones in the presence of iPrOH/KOH and N-alkylation of amine in the presence of tBuOK was examined. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of the ligands and its ruthenium(II) complexes were determined by DPPH radical, nitric oxide radical, hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging methods, which indicates that the ruthenium(II) complexes exhibit more effective antioxidant activity than the ligands alone.

  11. C-H Bond Activation/Arylation Catalyzed by Arene-Ruthenium-Aniline Complexes in Water.


    Binnani, Chinky; Tyagi, Deepika; Rai, Rohit K; Mobin, Shaikh M; Singh, Sanjay K


    Water-soluble arene-ruthenium complexes coordinated with readily available aniline-based ligands were successfully employed as highly active catalysts in the C-H bond activation and arylation of 2-phenylpyridine with aryl halides in water. A variety of (hetero)aryl halides were also used for the ortho-C-H bond arylation of 2-phenylpyridine to afford the corresponding ortho- monoarylated products as major products in moderate to good yields. Our investigations, including time-scaled NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry studies, evidenced that the coordinating aniline-based ligands, having varying electronic and steric properties, had a significant influence on the catalytic activity of the resulting arene-ruthenium-aniline-based complexes. Moreover, mass spectrometry identification of the cycloruthenated species, {(η(6) -arene)Ru(κ(2) -C,N-phenylpyridine)}(+) , and several ligand-coordinated cycloruthenated species, such as [(η(6) -arene)Ru(4-methylaniline)(κ(2) -C,N-phenylpyridine)](+) , found during the reaction of 2-phenylpyridine with the arene-ruthenium-aniline complexes further authenticated the crucial roles of these species in the observed highly active and tuned catalyst. At last, the structures of a few of the active catalysts were also confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies.

  12. Arene-ruthenium(II) complexes with hydrophilic P-donor ligands: versatile catalysts in aqueous media.


    Crochet, Pascale; Cadierno, Victorio


    In the last few years there has been increasing interest in the use of water as a reaction medium for catalysis, and therefore in designing water-soluble transition-metal catalysts. Half-sandwich (η(6)-arene)-ruthenium(ii) complexes are a versatile and well-known family of ruthenium compounds that exhibit a rich catalytic and coordination chemistry. This Perspective article focuses on the catalytic applications in aqueous media of (η(6)-arene)-ruthenium(ii) complexes containing water-soluble phosphines, and related hydrophilic P-donor ligands.

  13. Syntheses and structural characterization of trivalent lanthanide complexes of p-sulfonatothiacalix[4]arene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qian-ling; Zhu, Wen-xiang; Ma, Shu-lan; Yuan, Da-qiang; Dong, Shu-jing; Xu, Miao-qiong


    The X-ray crystallographic studies are reported for the water-soluble trivalent lanthanide complexes of the macrocyclic p-sulfonatothiacalix[4]arene [Gd(H 2O) 6((CH 3) 2SO)( p-sulfonatothiacalix[4]arene)]·H 3O +·5H 2O ( 1) and Na[Nd(H 2O) 6((CH 3) 2SO)( p-sulfonatothiacalix[4]arene)]·3H 2O ( 2). The complexes are isostructural and belong to monoclinic system, C2/m space group. The Ln 3+ metal ion is coordinated by the thiacalixarene ligand via the sulfonato group, and also ligated by an oxygen atom of a dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) molecule that occupies the cavity of the thiacalixarene and six aqua ligands. The thiacalixarenes are linked by the coordinated water molecules through hydrogen bonding to form a 2D polymer. The p-sulfonatothiacalixarenes maintain the clay-like bi-layer structure in the coordination network.

  14. Preparation, spectroscopy, EXAFS, electrochemistry and pharmacology of new ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes containing ferrocenylthiosemicarbazone and triphenylphosphine/arsine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakaran, R.; Anantharaman, S.; Thilagavathi, M.; Kaveri, M. V.; Kalaivani, P.; Karvembu, R.; Dharmaraj, N.; Bertagnolli, H.; Dallemer, F.; Natarajan, K.


    A new series of new hetero-bimetallic complexes containing iron and ruthenium of the general formula [RuCl(CO)(B)(EPh 3)(L)] (where E = P or As; B = PPh 3, AsPh 3, py or pip; L = ferrocene derived monobasic bidentate thiosemicarbazone ligand) have been synthesized by the reaction between ferrocene-derived thiosemicarbazones and ruthenium(II) complexes of the type [RuHCl(CO)(B)(EPh 3) 2] (where E = P or As; B = PPh 3, AsPh 3, py or pip). The new complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, IR, electronic, NMR ( 1H, 13C and 31P), EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy) and cyclic voltammetric techniques. Antibacterial activity of the new complexes has been screened against Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa species.

  15. Role of intercalation and redox potential in DNA photosensitization by ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes: assessment using DNA repair protein tests.


    Gicquel, Etienne; Souchard, Jean-Pierre; Magnusson, Fay; Chemaly, Jad; Calsou, Patrick; Vicendo, Patricia


    Here we report that the photoreactivity of ruthenium(II) complexes with nucleobases may not only be modulated by their photoredox properties but also by their DNA binding mode. The damage resulting from photolysis of synthetic oligonucleotides and plasmid DNA by [Ru(bpz)3](2+), [Ru(bipy)3](2+) and the two DNA intercalating agents [Ru(bpz)2dppz](2+) and [Ru(bipy)2dppz](2+) has been monitored by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by tests using proteins involved in DNA repair processes (DNA-PKCs, Ku80, Ku70, and PARP-1). The data show that intercalation controls the nature of the DNA damage photo-induced by ruthenium(II) complexes reacting with DNA via an electron transfer process. The intercalating agent [Ru(bpz)2dppz](2+) is a powerful DNA breaker inducing the formation of both single and double (DSBs) strand breaks which are recognized by the PARP-1 and DNA-PKCs proteins respectively. [Ru(bpz)2dppz](2+) is the first ruthenium(II) complex described in the literature that is able to induce DSBs by an electron transfer process. In contrast, its non-intercalating parent compound, [Ru(bpz)3](2+), is mostly an efficient DNA alkylating agent. Photoadducts are recognized by the proteins Ku70 and Ku80 as with cisplatin adducts. This result suggests that photoaddition of [Ru(bpz)2dppz](2+) is strongly affected by its DNA intercalation whereas its photonuclease activity is exalted. The data clearly show that DNA intercalation decreases drastically the photonuclease activity of ruthenium(II) complexes oxidizing guanine via the production of singlet oxygen. Interestingly, the DNA sequencing data revealed that the ligand dipyridophenazine exhibits on single-stranded oligonucleotides a preference for the 5'-TGCGT-3' sequence. Moreover the use of proteins involved in DNA repair processes to detect DNA damage was a powerful tool to examine the photoreactivity of ruthenium(II) complexes with nucleic acids.

  16. Electrochemical DNA biosensor for detection of porcine oligonucleotides using ruthenium(II) complex as intercalator label redox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halid, Nurul Izni Abdullah; Hasbullah, Siti Aishah; Ahmad, Haslina; Heng, Lee Yook; Karim, Nurul Huda Abd; Harun, Siti Norain


    A DNA biosensor detection of oligonucleotides via the interactions of porcine DNA with redox active complex based on the electrochemical transduction is described. A ruthenium(II) complex, [Ru(bpy)2(PIP)]2+, (bpy = 2,2'bipyridine, PIP = 2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f[[1,10-phenanthroline]) as DNA label has been synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR and mass spectra. The study was carried out by covalent bonding immobilization of porcine aminated DNA probes sequences on screen printed electrode (SPE) modified with succinimide-acrylic microspheres and [Ru(bpy)2(PIP)]2+ was used as electrochemical redox intercalator label to detect DNA hybridization event. Electrochemical detection was performed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) over the potential range where the ruthenium (II) complex was active. The results indicate that the interaction of [Ru(bpy)2(PIP)]2+ with hybridization complementary DNA has higher response compared to single-stranded and mismatch complementary DNA.

  17. Highly Charged Ruthenium(II) Polypyridyl Complexes as Lysosome-Localized Photosensitizers for Two-Photon Photodynamic Therapy.


    Huang, Huaiyi; Yu, Bole; Zhang, Pingyu; Huang, Juanjuan; Chen, Yu; Gasser, Gilles; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui


    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a noninvasive medical technique that has received increasing attention over the last years and been applied for the treatment of certain types of cancer. However, the currently clinically used PDT agents have several limitations, such as low water solubility, poor photostability, and limited selectivity towards cancer cells, aside from having very low two-photon cross-sections around 800 nm, which limits their potential use in TP-PDT. To tackle these drawbacks, three highly positively charged ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes were synthesized. These complexes selectively localize in the lysosomes, an ideal localization for PDT purposes. One of these complexes showed an impressive phototoxicity index upon irradiation at 800 nm in 3D HeLa multicellular tumor spheroids and thus holds great promise for applications in two-photon photodynamic therapy.

  18. A dinuclear ruthenium(II) complex as turn-on luminescent probe for hypochlorous acid and its application for in vivo imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zonglun; Gao, Kuo; Wang, Beng; Yan, Hui; Xing, Panfei; Zhong, Chongmin; Xu, Yongqian; Li, Hongjuan; Chen, Jianxin; Wang, Wei; Sun, Shiguo


    A dinuclear ruthenium(II) complex Ruazo was designed and synthesized, in which oxidative cyclization of the azo and o-amino group was employed for the detection of hypochlorous acid (HClO) in aqueous solution. The non-emissive Ruazo formed highly luminescent triazole-ruthenium(II) complex in presence of HClO and successfully imaged HClO in living cell and living mouse. PMID:27356618

  19. Anion- and Spacer-Directed Host-Guest Complexes of Bipyridine with Pyrogallol[4]arene.


    Patil, Rahul S; Kumari, Harshita; Barnes, Charles L; Atwood, Jerry L


    New oval-shaped capsular and bilayer-type hydrogen-bonded arrangements of C-propyl-ol-pyrogallol[4]arene (PgC3-OH) with bipyridine-type spacer complexes are reported here. These complexes are engineered by virtue of derivatization of C-alkyl tails of pyrogallol[4]arene and the use of divergent spacer ligands. Complexes of PgC3-OH, PgC3-OH with bpy (4,4'-bipyridine) and PgC3-OH with bpa (1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)acetylene) have bilayer type arrangements; however, the use of hydrogen chloride causes protonation of bpy molecule, which is then entrapped flat within an offset oval-shaped dimeric hydrogen-bonded PgC3-OH nanocapsule. The presence of chloride anion in the crystal lattice controls the geometry of the resultant nanoassembly.

  20. Single-Component Phosphinous Acid Ruthenium(II) Catalysts for Versatile C-H Activation by Metal-Ligand Cooperation.


    Zell, Daniel; Warratz, Svenja; Gelman, Dmitri; Garden, Simon J; Ackermann, Lutz


    Well-defined ruthenium(II) phosphinous acid (PA) complexes enabled chemo-, site-, and diastereoselective C-H functionalization of arenes and alkenes with ample scope. The outstanding catalytic activity was reflected by catalyst loadings as low as 0.75 mol %, and the most step-economical access reported to date to angiotensin II receptor antagonist blockbuster drugs. Mechanistic studies indicated a kinetically relevant C-X cleavage by a single-electron transfer (SET)-type elementary process, and provided evidence for a PA-assisted C-H ruthenation step.

  1. Structure-activity relationships for organometallic osmium arene phenylazopyridine complexes with potent anticancer activity.


    Fu, Ying; Habtemariam, Abraha; Basri, Aida M B H; Braddick, Darren; Clarkson, Guy J; Sadler, Peter J


    We report the synthesis and characterisation of 32 half sandwich phenylazopyridine Os(II) arene complexes [Os(η(6)-arene)(phenylazopyridine)X](+) in which X is chloride or iodide, the arene is p-cymene or biphenyl and the pyridine and phenyl rings contain a variety of substituents (F, Cl, Br, I, CF(3), OH or NO(2)). Ten X-ray crystal structures have been determined. Cytotoxicity towards A2780 human ovarian cancer cells ranges from high potency at nanomolar concentrations to inactivity. In general the introduction of an electron-withdrawing group (e.g. F, Cl, Br or I) at specific positions on the pyridine ring significantly increases cytotoxic activity and aqueous solubility. Changing the arene from p-cymene to biphenyl and the monodentate ligand X from chloride to iodide also increases the activity significantly. Activation by hydrolysis and DNA binding appears not to be the major mechanism of action since both the highly active complex [Os(η(6)-bip)(2-F-azpy)I]PF(6) (9) and the moderately active complex [Os(η(6)-bip)(3-Cl-azpy)I]PF(6) (23) are very stable and inert towards aquation. Studies of octanol-water partition coefficients (log P) and subcellular distributions of osmium in A2780 human ovarian cancer cells suggested that cell uptake and targeting to cellular organelles play important roles in determining activity. Although complex 9 induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in A2780 cells, the ROS level did not appear to play a role in the mechanism of anticancer activity. This class of organometallic osmium complexes has new and unusual features worthy of further exploration for the design of novel anticancer drugs.

  2. Synthesis, Anticancer Activity, and Genome Profiling of Thiazolo Arene Ruthenium Complexes.


    Grozav, Adriana; Balacescu, Ovidiu; Balacescu, Loredana; Cheminel, Thomas; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana; Therrien, Bruno


    Sixteen hydrazinyl-thiazolo arene ruthenium complexes of the general formula [(η(6)-p-cymene)Ru(N,N'-hydrazinyl-thiazolo)Cl]Cl were synthesized. All complexes were tested in vitro for their antiproliferative activity on three tumor cell lines (HeLa, A2780, and A2780cisR) and on a noncancerous cell line (HFL-1). A superior cytotoxic activity of the ruthenium complexes as compared to cisplatin and oxaliplatin, on both cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer cells, was observed. In addition, the biological activity of two selected derivatives was evaluated using microarray gene expression assay and ingenuity pathway analysis. p53 signaling was identified as an important pathway modulated by both arene ruthenium compounds. New activated molecules such as FAS, ZMAT3, PRMT2, BBC3/PUMA, and PDCD4, whose overexpressions are correlated with overcoming resistance to cisplatin therapy, were also identified as potential targets. Moreover, the arene ruthenium complexes can be used in association with cisplatin to prevent cisplatin resistance development and synergistically to induce cell death in ovarian cancer cells.

  3. Unmasking the Action of Phosphinous Acid Ligands in Nitrile Hydration Reactions Catalyzed by Arene-Ruthenium(II) Complexes.


    Tomás-Mendivil, Eder; Cadierno, Victorio; Menéndez, María I; López, Ramón


    The catalytic hydration of benzonitrile and acetonitrile has been studied by employing different arene-ruthenium(II) complexes with phosphinous (PR2OH) and phosphorous acid (P(OR)2OH) ligands as catalysts. Marked differences in activity were found, depending on the nature of both the P-donor and η(6)-coordinated arene ligand. Faster transformations were always observed with the phosphinous acids. DFT computations unveiled the intriguing mechanism of acetonitrile hydration catalyzed by these arene-ruthenium(II) complexes. The process starts with attack on the nitrile carbon atom of the hydroxyl group of the P-donor ligand instead of on a solvent water molecule, as previously suggested. The experimental results presented herein for acetonitrile and benzonitrile hydration catalyzed by different arene-ruthenium(II) complexes could be rationalized in terms of such a mechanism.

  4. New ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes bearing disulfide Schiff base ligands and their applications as catalyst for some organic transformations.


    Prakash, Govindan; Viswanathamurthi, Periasamy


    Schiff base disulfide ligands (H2L(1-6)) were synthesized from the condensation of cystamine with salicylaldehyde(H2L(1)), 5-chlorosalicylaldehyde(H2L(2)), o-vanillin(H2L(3)), 2-hydroxyacetophenone(H2L(4)), 3-methyl-2-hydroxyacetophenone(H2L(5)), and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde(H2L(6)). H2L(1-6) reacts with the ruthenium precursor complex [RuHCl(CO)(PPh3)3] in benzene giving rise to six new ruthenium(II) complexes of general formula [Ru(CO)L(1-6)]. Characterization of the new complexes was carried out by using elemental and spectral (IR, UV-Vis, NMR ((1)H and (13)C) and Mass) techniques. An octahedral geometry was assigned for all the complexes based on the spectral data obtained. The catalytic efficiency of the new complexes in aldehyde to amide conversion in the presence of NaHCO3, N-alkylation of aniline in the presence of t-BuOK, and transfer hydrogenation of ketones in the presence of iPrOH/KOH reactions were studied. Furthermore, the effect of solvents and catalyst/substrate ratio on the catalytic aldehyde to amide conversion were also discussed.

  5. New ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes bearing disulfide Schiff base ligands and their applications as catalyst for some organic transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Govindan; Viswanathamurthi, Periasamy


    Schiff base disulfide ligands (H2L1-6) were synthesized from the condensation of cystamine with salicylaldehyde(H2L1), 5-chlorosalicylaldehyde(H2L2), o-vanillin(H2L3), 2-hydroxyacetophenone(H2L4), 3-methyl-2-hydroxyacetophenone(H2L5), and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde(H2L6). H2L1-6 reacts with the ruthenium precursor complex [RuHCl(CO)(PPh3)3] in benzene giving rise to six new ruthenium(II) complexes of general formula [Ru(CO)L1-6]. Characterization of the new complexes was carried out by using elemental and spectral (IR, UV-Vis, NMR (1H and 13C) and Mass) techniques. An octahedral geometry was assigned for all the complexes based on the spectral data obtained. The catalytic efficiency of the new complexes in aldehyde to amide conversion in the presence of NaHCO3, N-alkylation of aniline in the presence of t-BuOK, and transfer hydrogenation of ketones in the presence of iPrOH/KOH reactions were studied. Furthermore, the effect of solvents and catalyst/substrate ratio on the catalytic aldehyde to amide conversion were also discussed.

  6. Nitric oxide binding and photodelivery based on ruthenium(II) complexes of 4-arylazo-3,5-dimethylpyrazole.


    Ortiz, Mayreli; Torréns, Mabel; Mola, José L; Ortiz, Pedro J; Fragoso, Alex; Díaz, Alicia; Cao, Roberto; Prados, Pilar; de Mendoza, Javier; Otero, Antonio; Antiñolo, Antonio; Lara, Agustin


    Two fluorescent ligands, 3,5-dimethyl-4-(6'-sulfonylammonium-1'-azonaphthyl)pyrazole (dmpzn, 1) and 3,5-dimethyl-4-(4'-N,N'-dimethylaminoazophenyl)pyrazole (dmpza, 2) were obtained by condensation of ketoenolic derivatives with hydrazine. 1 and 2 formed the novel dinuclear complexes [(H(2)O)(3)ClRu(micro-L)(2)RuCl(H(2)O)(3)] (3 or 4) and [(H(2)O)(NO)Cl(2)Ru(micro-L)(2)RuCl(2)(NO)(H(2)O)] (6 or 7) (where L 1 = 2 or , respectively) which were characterized by IR, NMR and elemental analysis. The nitrosyl complexes were prepared by bubbling purified nitric oxide through methanol solutions of the corresponding ruthenium(II) chloroderivative or by reaction of the appropriate ligands with Ru(NO)Cl(3). Complexes 3 and 4 were found to bind NO, resulting in an increase in fluorescence. Ligand 1 also formed the mononuclear nitrosyl complex [Ru(NO)(bpy)(2)(dmpzn)]Cl(2) (8) which released NO in water at physiological pH and in the solid state as revealed by fluorescence and IR measurements, respectively.

  7. An investigation on new ruthenium(II) hydrazone complexes as anticancer agents and their interaction with biomolecules.


    Alagesan, Mani; Bhuvanesh, Nattamai S P; Dharmaraj, Nallasamy


    A new set of ruthenium(II) hydrazone complexes [Ru(H)(CO)(PPh3)2(L)] (1) and [RuCl2(DMSO)2(HL)] (2), with triphenyl phosphine or DMSO as co-ligands was synthesized by reacting benzoyl pyridine furoic acid hydrazone (HL) with [Ru(H)(Cl)(CO)(PPh3)3] and [RuCl2(DMSO)4]. The single crystal X-ray data of complexes 1 and 2 revealed an octahedral geometry around the ruthenium ion in which the hydrazone is coordinated through ON and NN atoms in complexes 1 and 2 respectively. The interaction of the compounds with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) has been estimated by absorption and emission titration methods which indicated that the ligand and the complexes interacted with CT-DNA through intercalation. In addition, the DNA cleavage ability of these newly synthesized ruthenium complexes assessed by an agarose gel electrophoresis method demonstrated that complex 2 has a higher DNA cleavage activity than that of complex 1. The binding properties of the free ligand and its complexes with bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein have been investigated using UV-visible, fluorescence and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic methods which indicated the stronger binding nature of the ruthenium complexes to BSA than the free hydrazone ligand. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of the compounds examined in vitro on a human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) and a normal mouse embryonic fibroblasts cell line (NIH 3T3) revealed that complex 2 exhibited a superior cytotoxicity than complex 1 to the cancer cells but was less toxic to the normal mouse embryonic fibroblasts under identical conditions.

  8. Electrochemical DNA biosensor for detection of porcine oligonucleotides using ruthenium(II) complex as intercalator label redox

    SciTech Connect

    Halid, Nurul Izni Abdullah; Hasbullah, Siti Aishah; Heng, Lee Yook; Karim, Nurul Huda Abd; Ahmad, Haslina; Harun, Siti Norain


    A DNA biosensor detection of oligonucleotides via the interactions of porcine DNA with redox active complex based on the electrochemical transduction is described. A ruthenium(II) complex, [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(PIP)]{sup 2+}, (bpy = 2,2′bipyridine, PIP = 2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f[[1,10-phenanthroline]) as DNA label has been synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR and mass spectra. The study was carried out by covalent bonding immobilization of porcine aminated DNA probes sequences on screen printed electrode (SPE) modified with succinimide-acrylic microspheres and [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(PIP)]{sup 2+} was used as electrochemical redox intercalator label to detect DNA hybridization event. Electrochemical detection was performed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) over the potential range where the ruthenium (II) complex was active. The results indicate that the interaction of [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(PIP)]{sup 2+} with hybridization complementary DNA has higher response compared to single-stranded and mismatch complementary DNA.

  9. Labile ruthenium(ii) complexes with extended phenyl-substituted terpyridyl ligands: synthesis, aquation and anticancer evaluation.


    Huang, Huaiyi; Zhang, Pingyu; Chen, Yu; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui


    Ruthenium complexes have been considered as promising substitutes for cisplatin in cancer chemotherapy. However, novel ruthenium-based therapies are faced with some limitations, such as unimpressive cytotoxicity toward solid tumors. Herein, we designed and synthesized phenyl-substituted terpyridyl ruthenium(ii) complexes ([Ru(tpy)(bpy)Cl](+) (Ru1), [Ru(phtpy)(bpy)Cl](+) (Ru2) and [Ru(biphtpy)(bpy)Cl](+) (Ru3)) which exhibited distinctly different anticancer activity. Ru1-Ru3 all underwent moderate aquation in buffer solution and this process was significantly inhibited by high chloride concentration. Cancer cells were found to readily uptake the relatively hydrophobic Ru3, as quantified using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Ru1 was found to be non-cytotoxic (IC50 > 100 μM) while Ru3 exhibited very promising cytotoxicity on both two-dimensional (2D) cancer cell monolayers and 3D MCTSs. An antiproliferative assay revealed that Ru3 significantly inhibited cellular DNA replication which ultimately induced apoptosis of cancer cells.

  10. Noncovalent Complexation of Monoamine Neurotransmitters and Related Ammonium Ions by Tetramethoxy Tetraglucosylcalix[4]arene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torvinen, Mika; Kalenius, Elina; Sansone, Francesco; Casnati, Alessandro; Jänis, Janne


    The noncovalent complexation of monoamine neurotransmitters and related ammonium and quaternary ammonium ions by a conformationally flexible tetramethoxy glucosylcalix[4]arene was studied by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (ESI-FTICR) mass spectrometry. The glucosylcalixarene exhibited highest binding affinity towards serotonin, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine. Structural properties of the guests, such as the number, location, and type of hydrogen bonding groups, length of the alkyl spacer between the ammonium head-group and the aromatic ring structure, and the degree of nitrogen substitution affected the complexation. Competition experiments and guest-exchange reactions indicated that the hydroxyl groups of guests participate in intermolecular hydrogen bonding with the glucocalixarene.

  11. A cobalt complex of a microbial arene oxidation product

    PubMed Central


    We report the first synthesis of a cobalt Cp diene complex wherein the diene is derived by microbial dearomatising dihydroxylation of an aromatic ring. The complex has been characterised crystallographically and its structure is compared to that of an uncomplexed diene precursor. PMID:22152033

  12. Determination of association constant of host-guest supramolecular complex (molecular recognition of carbamazepine, antiseizure drug, with calix(4)arene).


    Meenakshi, C; Jayabal, P; Ramakrishnan, V


    The thermodynamic property of the host-guest, inclusion complex formed between p-t-butyl calix(4)arene which is a supramolecule, and the antiseizure drug, carbamazepine was studied. p-t-Butyl calix(4)arene has been used as a host molecule and carbamazepine as a guest molecule. Optical absorption spectral studies were carried out to investigate the molecular recognition properties of p-t-butyl calix(4)arene with carbamazepine. The stochiometry of the host-guest complexes formed and the association constant were determined. An interesting 1:2 stochiometric host-guest complex was formed. Job's continuous method of variation and Benesi-Hildebrand expression were used for the determination of binding constant and the stochiometry of the host-guest complex formed. Molecular dimension of the host molecule plays a vital role in the formation of the host-guest stochiometric complexes.

  13. A comparative DFT study on aquation and nucleobase binding of ruthenium (II) and osmium (II) arene complexes.


    Wang, Hanlu; Zeng, Xingye; Zhou, Rujin; Zhao, Cunyuan


    The potential energy surfaces of the reactions of organometallic arene complexes of the type [(η (6)-arene)M(II)(pic)Cl] (where pic = 2-picolinic acid, M = Ru or Os) were examined by a DFT computational study. Among the seven density functional methods, hybrid exchange functional B3LYP outperforms the others to explain the aquation of the complexes. The reactions and binding energies of Ru(II) and Os(II) arene complexes with both 9EtG and 9EtA were studied to gain insight into the reactivity of these types of organometallic complexes with DNA. The obtained data rationalize experimental observation, contributing to partly understanding the potential biological and medical applications of organometallic complexes.

  14. Synthesis, Electrochemistry, and Photophysical Studies of Ruthenium(II) Polypyridine Complexes with D-π-A-π-D Type Ligands and Their Application Studies as Organic Memories.


    Leung, Ming-Yi; Leung, Sammual Yu-Lut; Wu, Di; Yu, Tao; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah


    A new class of ruthenium(II) polypyridine complexes with a series of D-π-A-π-D type (D=donor, A=acceptor) ligands was synthesized and characterized by (1) H NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis. The photophysical and electrochemical properties of the complexes were also investigated. The newly synthesized ruthenium(II) polypyridine complexes were found to exhibit two intense absorption bands at both high-energy (λ=333-369 nm) and low-energy (λ=520-535 nm) regions. They are assigned as intraligand (IL) π→π* transitions of the bipyridine (bpy) and π-conjugated bpy ligands, and IL charge-transfer (CT) transitions from the donor to the acceptor moiety with mixing of dπ(Ru(II) )→π*(bpy) and dπ(Ru(II) )→π*(L) MLCT characters, respectively. In addition, all complexes were demonstrated to exhibit intense red emissions at approximately λ=727-744 nm in degassed dichloromethane at 298 K or in n-butyronitrile glass at 77 K. Nanosecond transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy has also been carried out, establishing the presence of the charge-separated state. In order to understand the electrochemical properties of the complexes, cyclic voltammetry has also been performed. Two quasi-reversible oxidation couples and three quasi-reversible reduction couples were observed. One of the ruthenium(II) complexes has been utilized in the fabrication of memory devices, in which an ON/OFF current ratio of over 10(4) was obtained.

  15. Oxidative Stress and Antimicrobial Activity of Chromium(III) and Ruthenium(II) Complexes on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Páez, Paulina L.; Bazán, Claudia M.; Bongiovanni, María E.; Toneatto, Judith; Albesa, Inés; Becerra, María C.; Argüello, Gerardo A.


    The prevalence of antibiotic resistance has resulted in the need for new approaches to be developed to combat previously easily treatable infections. The main aim of this work was to establish the potential of the synthetic α-diimine chromium(III) and ruthenium(II) complexes (where the α-diimine ligands are bpy = 2,2-bipyridine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, and dppz = dipyrido[3,2-a:2′,3′-c]-phenazine) like [Cr(phen)3]3+, [Cr(phen)2(dppz)]3+, [Ru(phen)3]2+, and [Ru(bpy)3]2+ as antibacterial agents by generating oxidative stress. The [Cr(phen)3]3+ and [Cr(phen)2(dppz)]3+ complexes showed activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 0.125 μg/mL to 1 μg/mL, while [Ru(phen)3]2+ and [Ru(bpy)3]2+ do not exhibit antimicrobial activity against the two bacterial genera studied at the concentration range used. When ciprofloxacin was combined with [Cr(phen)3]3+ for the inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, an important synergistic effect was observed, FIC 0.066 for S. aureus and FIC 0.064 for E. coli. The work described here shows that chromium(III) complexes are bactericidal for S. aureus and E. coli. Our results indicate that α-diimine chromium(III) complexes may be interesting to open new paths for metallodrug chemotherapy against different bacterial genera since some of these complexes have been found to exhibit remarkable antibacterial activities. PMID:24093107

  16. Sweetening ruthenium and osmium: organometallic arene complexes containing aspartame.


    Gray, Jennifer C; Habtemariam, Abraha; Winnig, Marcel; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Sadler, Peter J


    The novel organometallic sandwich complexes [(eta(6)-p-cymene)Ru(eta(6)-aspartame)](OTf)(2) (1) (OTf = trifluoromethanesulfonate) and [(eta(6)-p-cymene)Os(eta(6)-aspartame)](OTf)(2) (2) incorporating the artificial sweetener aspartame have been synthesised and characterised. A number of properties of aspartame were found to be altered on binding to either metal. The pK(a) values of both the carboxyl and the amino groups of aspartame are lowered by between 0.35 and 0.57 pH units, causing partial deprotonation of the amino group at pH 7.4 (physiological pH). The rate of degradation of aspartame to 3,6-dioxo-5-phenylmethylpiperazine acetic acid (diketopiperazine) increased over threefold from 0.12 to 0.36 h(-1) for 1, and to 0.43 h(-1) for 2. Furthermore, the reduction potential of the ligand shifted from -1.133 to -0.619 V for 2. For the ruthenium complex 1 the process occurred in two steps, the first (at -0.38 V) within a biologically accessible range. This facilitates reactions with biological reductants such as ascorbate. Binding to and activation of the sweet taste receptor was not observed for these metal complexes up to concentrations of 1 mM. The factors which affect the ability of metal-bound aspartame to interact with the receptor site are discussed.

  17. Detection and differentiation of neutral organic compounds by 19F NMR with a tungsten calix[4]arene imido complex.


    Zhao, Yanchuan; Swager, Timothy M


    Fluorinated tungsten calix[4]arene imido complexes were synthesized and used as receptors to detect and differentiate neutral organic compounds. It was found that the binding of specific neutral organic molecules to the tungsten centers induces an upfield shift of the fluorine atom appended on the arylimido group, the extent of which is highly dependent on electronic and steric properties. We demonstrate that the specific bonding and size-selectivity of calix[4]arene tungsten-imido complex combined with (19)F NMR spectroscopy is a powerful new method for the analysis of complex mixtures.

  18. Förster resonance energy transfer studies of luminescent gold nanoparticles functionalized with ruthenium(II) and rhenium(I) complexes: modulation via esterase hydrolysis.


    Leung, Frankie Chi-Ming; Tam, Anthony Yiu-Yan; Au, Vonika Ka-Man; Li, Mei-Jin; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah


    A number of ruthenium(II) and rhenium(I) bipyridine complexes functionalized with lipoic acid moieties have been synthesized and characterized. Functionalization of gold nanoparticles with these chromophoric ruthenium(II) and rhenium(I) complexes has resulted in interesting supramolecular assemblies with Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) properties that could be modulated via esterase hydrolysis. The luminescence of the metal complex chromophores was turned on upon cleavage of the ester bond linkage by esterase to reduce the efficiency of FRET quenching. The prepared nanoassembly conjugates have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), UV-visible spectroscopy, and emission spectroscopy. The quenching mechanism has also been studied by transient absorption and time-resolved emission decay measurements. The FRET efficiencies were found to vary with the nature of the chromophores and the length of the spacer between the donor (transition metal complexes) and the acceptor (gold nanoparticles).

  19. Preparation and Antibacterial Activity of Inclusion Complex Sulfonatocalix[4]arene-Xanthone against Escherichia Coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumaningsih, T.; Firdaus, M.; Suparjo, H. F.


    The preparation of inclusion complex sulfonatocalix[4]arene (SC[4]A) with xanthone and measurement of antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli have been performed. Analysis of the structure of inclusion complex between SC[4]A and xanthone was investigated by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (H-NMR). The solubility of the product in water was examined. Surface area and porous determination were analyzed by Surface Area Analyzer (SAA). Antibacterial activity test was performed for 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 hours. The results showed that antibacterial activity of the complex of xanthone SC[4]An against Escherichia coli was higher than that of xanthone it self.

  20. Synthesis, electrochemical characterization, and photophysical studies of structurally tuned aryl-substituted terpyridyl ruthenium(II) complexes.


    Spettel, Karen E; Damrauer, Niels H


    Synthesis, electrochemical potentials, static emission, and temperature-dependent excited-state lifetimes of several 4'-aryl-substituted terpyridyl complexes of ruthenium(II) are reported. Synthetic tuning is explored within three conceptual series of complexes. The first series explores the impact of introducing a strong σ-donating 4,4',4″-tri-tert-butyl-2,2':6',2″-terpyridine (tbtpy) opposite to an arylated terpyridine ligand 4'-(4-methylphenyl)-2,2':6',2″-terpyridine (ttpy). It is found that (3)MLCT (triplet metal-to-ligand charge-transfer state) stabilization concomitant with (3)MC (triplet metal-centered state) destabilization in the heteroleptic parent complex [Ru(ttpy)(tbtpy)](2+) leads to an extended excited-state lifetime relative to the structurally related bis-homoleptic species [Ru(ttpy)2](2+). The second series explores the impact of introducing a carboxylic acid or a methyl ester moiety at the para-position of the arylterpyridyl ligand (R1 = R2 = H) within heteroleptic complexes as a platform for future semiconductor attachment studies. This substitution leads to further lifetime enhancements, understood as arising from (3)MLCT stabilization. Such complexes are referred to as [Ru(1)(tbtpy)](2+) (for the acid at R3) and [Ru(1')(tbtpy)](2+) (for the ester at R3). In the final series, methyl substituents are sequentially added at the R1 and R2 positions for both the acid ([Ru(2)(tbtpy)](2+) and [Ru(3)(tbtpy)](2+)) and ester ([Ru(2')(tbtpy)](2+) and [Ru(3')(tbtpy)](2+)) analogues to eventually explore dynamical electron transfer coupling at dye/semiconductor interfaces. In these complexes, sequential addition of steric bulk decreases excited state lifetimes. This can be understood to arise primarily from the increase of the (3)MLCT level, as excited-state electron delocalization is limited by inter-ring twisting in the lower-energy arylated ligand. The introduction of a dimethylated sterically encumbered ligand lead to a notable 14-fold increase in

  1. Discovery of a highly tumor-selective organometallic ruthenium(II)-arene complex.


    Clavel, Catherine M; Păunescu, Emilia; Nowak-Sliwinska, Patrycja; Griffioen, Arjan W; Scopelliti, Rosario; Dyson, Paul J


    A ruthenium(II)-arene complex with a perfluoroalkyl-ligand was found to display remarkable selectivity toward cancer cells. IC50 values on several cancer cell lines are in the range of 25-45 μM, and no cytotoxic effect was observed on nontumorigenic (HEK-293) cells at concentrations up to 500 μM (the maximum concentration tested). Consequently, this complex was used as the basis for the development of a number of related derivatives, which were screened in cancerous and noncancerous cell lines. The lead compound was then evaluated in vivo for antiangiogenic activity in the CAM model and in a xenografted ovarian carcinoma tumor (A2780) grown on the CAM. A 90% reduction in the tumor growth was observed.

  2. Photophysical properties of Lanthanide Dinuclear complexes with p-tert-butylcalix[8]arene[sup 1,2

    SciTech Connect

    Buenzli, J.-C.G.; Froidevaux, P. ); Harrowfield, J.M. )


    The macrocyclic octaphenol p-tert-butylcalix[8]arene (LH[sub 8]) was reacted with lanthanide(III) ions in dimethylformamide (DMF) containing triethylamine to obtain both homo- and heterodinuclear neutral complexes of composition [(Ln1:Ln2)LH[sub 2](DMF)[sub 5

  3. π-Expansive Heteroleptic Ruthenium(II) Complexes as Reverse Saturable Absorbers and Photosensitizers for Photodynamic Therapy.


    Wang, Li; Yin, Huimin; Jabed, Mohammed A; Hetu, Marc; Wang, Chengzhe; Monro, Susan; Zhu, Xiaolin; Kilina, Svetlana; McFarland, Sherri A; Sun, Wenfang


    Five heteroleptic tris-diimine ruthenium(II) complexes [RuL(N^N)2](PF6)2 (where L is 3,8-di(benzothiazolylfluorenyl)-1,10-phenanthroline and N^N is 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) (1), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) (2), 1,4,8,9-tetraazatriphenylene (tatp) (3), dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (dppz) (4), or benzo[i]dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (dppn) (5), respectively) were synthesized. The influence of π-conjugation of the ancillary ligands (N^N) on the photophysical properties of the complexes was investigated by spectroscopic methods and simulated by density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT. Their ground-state absorption spectra were characterized by intense absorption bands below 350 nm (ligand L localized (1)π,π* transitions) and a featureless band centered at ∼410 nm (intraligand charge transfer ((1)ILCT)/(1)π,π* transitions with minor contribution from metal-to-ligand charge transfer ((1)MLCT) transition). For complexes 4 and 5 with dppz and dppn ligands, respectively, broad but very weak absorption (ε < 800 M(-1) cm(-1)) was present from 600 to 850 nm, likely emanating from the spin-forbidden transitions to the triplet excited states. All five complexes showed red-orange phosphorescence at room temperature in CH2Cl2 solution with decreased lifetimes and emission quantum yields, as the π-conjugation of the ancillary ligands increased. Transient absorption (TA) profiles were probed in acetonitrile solutions at room temperature for all of the complexes. Except for complex 5 (which showed dppn-localized (3)π,π* absorption with a long lifetime of 41.2 μs), complexes 1-4 displayed similar TA spectral features but with much shorter triplet lifetimes (1-2 μs). Reverse saturable absorption (RSA) was demonstrated for the complexes at 532 nm using 4.1 ns laser pulses, and the strength of RSA decreased in the order: 2 ≥ 1 ≈ 5 > 3 > 4. Complex 5 is particularly attractive as a broadband reverse saturable absorber due to its wide optical window (430

  4. Comparison of physical and photophysical properties of monometallic and bimetallic ruthenium(II) complexes containing structurally altered diimine ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Macatangay, A.; Jackman, D.C.; Merkert, J.W.


    The physical and photophysical properties of a series of monometallic, [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(dmb)]{sup 2+}, [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(BPY)]{sup 2+}, [Ru(bpy)(Obpy)]{sup 2+} and [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(Obpy)] {sup 2+}, and bimetallic, [(Ru(bpy){sub 2}){sub 2}(BPY)]{sup 4+} and [(Ru(bpy){sub 2}){sub 2}(Obpy)]{sup 4+}, complexes are examined, where bpy is 2,2{prime}-bipyridine, dmb is 4,4{prime}-dimethyl-2,2{prime}-bipyridine, BPY is 1,2-bis(4-methyl-2,2{prime}-bipyridin-4{prime}-yl)ethane, and Obpy is 1,2-bis(2,2{prime}-bipyridin-6-yl)ethane. The complexes display metal-to-ligand charge transfer transitions in the 450 nmn region, intraligand {pi}{yields}{pi}* transitions at energies greater than 300 nm, a reversible oxidation of the ruthenium(II) center in the 1.25-1.40 V vs SSCE region, a series of three reductions associated with each coordinated ligand commencing at {minus}1.3 V and ending at {approximately}{minus}1.9 V, and emission from a {sup 3}MLCT state having energy maxima between 598 and 610 nm. The Ru{sup III}/Ru{sup II} oxidation of the two bimetallic complexes is a single, two one-electron process. Relative to [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(BPY)]{sup 2+}, the Ru{sup III}/Ru{sup II} potential for [Ru-(bpy){sub 2}(Obpy)]{sup 2+} increases from 1.24 to 1.35 V, the room temperature emission lifetime decreases from 740 to 3ns, and the emission quantum yield decreases from 0.078 to 0.000 23. Similarly, relative to [(Ru(bpy){sub 2}){sub 2}(BPY)]{sup 4+}, the Ru{sup III}/Ru{sup II} potential for [(Ru(bpy){sub 2}){sub 2}(Obpy)]{sup 4+} increases from 1.28 to 1.32 V, the room temperature emission lifetime decreases from 770 to 3 ns, and the room temperature emission quantum yield decreases from 0.079 to 0.000 26.

  5. Mirror-image organometallic osmium arene iminopyridine halido complexes exhibit similar potent anticancer activity.


    Fu, Ying; Soni, Rina; Romero, María J; Pizarro, Ana M; Salassa, Luca; Clarkson, Guy J; Hearn, Jessica M; Habtemariam, Abraha; Wills, Martin; Sadler, Peter J


    Four chiral Os(II) arene anticancer complexes have been isolated by fractional crystallization. The two iodido complexes, (S(Os),S(C))-[Os(η(6)-p-cym)(ImpyMe)I]PF6 (complex 2, (S)-ImpyMe: N-(2-pyridylmethylene)-(S)-1-phenylethylamine) and (R(Os),R(C))-[Os(η(6)-p-cym)(ImpyMe)I]PF6 (complex 4, (R)-ImpyMe: N-(2-pyridylmethylene)-(R)-1-phenylethylamine), showed higher anticancer activity (lower IC50 values) towards A2780 human ovarian cancer cells than cisplatin and were more active than the two chlorido derivatives, (S(Os),S(C))-[Os(η(6)-p-cym)(ImpyMe)Cl]PF6, 1, and (R(Os),R(C))-[Os(η(6)-p-cym)(ImpyMe)Cl]PF6, 3. The two iodido complexes were evaluated in the National Cancer Institute 60-cell-line screen, by using the COMPARE algorithm. This showed that the two potent iodido complexes, 2 (NSC: D-758116/1) and 4 (NSC: D-758118/1), share surprisingly similar cancer cell selectivity patterns with the anti-microtubule drug, vinblastine sulfate. However, no direct effect on tubulin polymerization was found for 2 and 4, an observation that appears to indicate a novel mechanism of action. In addition, complexes 2 and 4 demonstrated potential as transfer-hydrogenation catalysts for imine reduction.

  6. Catalytic water oxidation by ruthenium(II) quaterpyridine (qpy) complexes: evidence for ruthenium(III) qpy-N,N'''-dioxide as the real catalysts.


    Liu, Yingying; Ng, Siu-Mui; Yiu, Shek-Man; Lam, William W Y; Wei, Xi-Guang; Lau, Kai-Chung; Lau, Tai-Chu


    Polypyridyl and related ligands have been widely used for the development of water oxidation catalysts. Supposedly these ligands are oxidation-resistant and can stabilize high-oxidation-state intermediates. In this work a series of ruthenium(II) complexes [Ru(qpy)(L)2 ](2+) (qpy=2,2':6',2'':6'',2'''-quaterpyridine; L=substituted pyridine) have been synthesized and found to catalyze Ce(IV) -driven water oxidation, with turnover numbers of up to 2100. However, these ruthenium complexes are found to function only as precatalysts; first, they have to be oxidized to the qpy-N,N'''-dioxide (ONNO) complexes [Ru(ONNO)(L)2 ](3+) which are the real catalysts for water oxidation.

  7. A dendritic nano-sized hexanuclear ruthenium(II) complex as a one- and two-photon luminescent tracking non-viral gene vector

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Kangqiang; Yu, Bole; Huang, Huaiyi; Zhang, Pingyu; Huang, Juanjuan; Zou, Shanshan; Chen, Yu; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui


    Fluorescent tracking gene delivery could provide us with a better understanding of the critical steps in the transfection process. However, for in vivo tracking applications, a small diameter (<10 nm) is one of the rigorous requirements for tracking vectors. Herein, we have demonstrated a new paradigm for two-photon tracking gene delivery based on a dendritic nano-sized hexanuclear ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complex. Because this metallodendrimer has a multivalent periphery, the complex, which is 6.1 nm, showed high stability and excellent dispersibility and could stepwise condense DNA in vitro. With the outstanding photochemical properties of Ru(II) polypyridyl, this complex could track gene delivery in vivo using one- and two-photon imaging. PMID:26185052

  8. Ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes bearing CCC-pincer bis-(carbene) ligands: synthesis, structures and activities toward recycle transfer hydrogenation reactions.


    Naziruddin, Abbas Raja; Huang, Zhao-Jiunn; Lai, Wei-Chih; Lin, Wan-Jung; Hwang, Wen-Shu


    A new series of ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes with benzene-based CCC-pincer bis-(carbene) ligands, [((R)CCC(R))Ru(CO)2(X)](0/+) and [((R)CCC(R))Ru(CO)(NN)](+) ((R)CCC(R) = 2,6-bis-(1-alkylimidazolylidene)benzene, R = Me or (n)Bu; X = I, Br, CH3CN, or 6-(aminomethyl)pyridine (ampy); NN = 2·CH3CN, or chelating ampy or bipyridine), was synthesized and fully characterized. X-Ray structure determinations revealed that these eight complexes have pseudo-octahedral configurations around the ruthenium center with the pincer ligand occupying three meridional sites. These complexes prove to be efficient precatalysts demonstrating very good activity and reusability for the transfer hydrogenation of ketones.

  9. Bis-heteroleptic ruthenium(II) complex of a triazole ligand as a selective probe for phosphates.


    Chowdhury, Bijit; Khatua, Snehadrinarayan; Dutta, Ranjan; Chakraborty, Sourav; Ghosh, Pradyut


    A new bis-heteroleptic ruthenium(II) complex (1) of 2-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl) pyridine (L) ligand was extensively explored for anion sensing studies. 1[PF6]2 shows selective sensing of dihydrogen phosphate (H2PO4(-))/hydrogen pyrophosphate (HP2O7(3-)) among halides, HCO3(-), AcO(-), NO3(-), ClO4(-), HSO4(-), OH(-), BzO(-), H2PO4(-), and HP2O7(3-) in acetonitrile. Enhancement of emission intensity of 1[PF6]2 along with a 10 nm red shift of the emission maximum is observed in the presence of H2PO4(-)/HP2O7(3-) selectively. The photoluminescence (PL) titration experiment of 1[PF6]2 results in binding constants (K(a)) of 5.28 × 10(4) M(-1) and 4.67 × 10(4) M(-1) for H2PO4(-) and HP2O7(3-), respectively, which is in good agreement with the Ka values obtained from UV-vis titration experiments (2.97 × 10(4) M(-1) and 2.45 × 10(4) M(-1) for H2PO4(-) and HP2O7(3-), respectively). High selectivity of 1[PF6]2 toward these two anions in acetonitrile is further confirmed by PL intensity measurement of 1[PF6]2 upon addition of these two anions in the presence of a large excess of other competitive anions. Further, considerable changes in the lifetime (τ) as well as in the decay pattern of 1[PF6]2 in the presence of H2PO4(-)/HP2O7(3-) among all tested anions support the selective binding property of 1[PF6]2 toward these two anions. Significant downfield shift of the triazole -CH proton of 1[PF6]2 with 1 equiv of H2PO4(-) (Δδ = 0.26 ppm) and HP2O7(3-) (Δδ = 0.23 ppm) in deuterated dimethyl sulfoxide proclaim binding mechanism via C-H···anion interaction in solution state. Finally, single-crystal X-ray structural analysis confirms the first example of dihydrogen pyrophosphate (H2P2O7(2-)) recognition via solitary C-H···anion interactions.

  10. Picolyl-NHC hydrotris(pyrazolyl)borate ruthenium(II) complexes: synthesis, characterization, and reactivity with small molecules.


    Fernández, Francys E; Puerta, M Carmen; Valerga, Pedro


    Ruthenium(II) hydrotris(pyrazolyl)borate chloro complexes bearing picolyl-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbenes [TpRu(κ(2)-C,N-picolyl-(R)I)Cl] (picolyl-(Me)I = 3-methyl-1-(2-picolyl)imidazol-2-ylidene) (1a), picolyl-(iPr)I = 3-isopropyl-1-(2-picolyl)imidazol-2-ylidene (1b), picolyl-(Me)45DClI = 3-methyl-1-(2-picolyl)-4,5-dichloroimidazol-2-ylidene (1c), picolyl-(Ph)I = 3-phenyl-1-(2-picolyl)imidazol-2-ylidene (1d), picolyl-(Me)BI = 3-methyl-1-(2-picolyl)benzoimidazol-2-ylidene (1e)) have been synthesized and characterized. Furthermore, cationic carbonyl derivatives 2a-e have been prepared, characterized, and used to study the donor properties of the picolylcarbene ligands (picolyl-(R)I) via infrared spectroscopy. Also, the reactivity of the 16-electron species [TpRu(κ(2)-C,N-picolyl-(R)I)](+), in situ generated using NaBAr(F)4 (Ar(F) = 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl) as a halide scavenger, toward N2, CH3CN, H2, CH2CH2, S8, and O2 was studied indicating a strong influence of the NHC wingtip and backbone substituents in the product distribution. The crystal structures of [TpRu(κ(2)-C,N-picolyl-(iPr)I)Cl] (1b), [TpRu(κ(2)-C,N-picolyl-(Me)I)CO][BAr(F)4] (2a), [TpRu(κ(2)-C,N-picolyl-(Ph)I)CO][BAr(F)4] (2d), [{TpRu(κ(2)-C,N-picolyl-(Me)I}2(μ-N2)][BAr(F)4]2 (3'a), [{TpRu(κ(2)-C,N-picolyl-(Ph)I)}2(μ-N2)][BAr(F)4]2 (3'd), [TpRu(κ(2)-C,N-picolyl-(iPr)I)(η(2)-CH2CH2)][BAr(F)4] (5b), and [{TpRu(κ(2)-C,N-picolyl-(Me)I)}2(μ-S2)][BAr(F)4]2 (6) are reported.

  11. Effect of substituent of terpyridines on the DNA-interaction of polypyridyl ruthenium(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Mohan N.; Gandhi, Deepen S.; Parmar, Pradhuman A.


    An octahedral complexes of ruthenium with 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (dmphen) and substituted terpyridine have been synthesized. The Ru II complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, thermogravimetric analyses, magnetic moment measurements, FT-IR, electronic, 1H NMR and FAB mass spectra. The binding strength and mode of interaction of the complexes with Herring Sperm DNA has been investigated using absorption titration and viscosity measurement studies. Results suggest that the substituent on terpyridine ligand affects the binding mode and binding ability of the complexes. Effect of time and ionic strength on DNA cleavage ability of complex has also been studied by gel electrophoresis. Results suggest that more than 200 mM concentration of NaCl decreases the cleavage ability of complex.

  12. Ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes with hydrophobic ancillary ligand as Aβ aggregation inhibitors.


    Vyas, Nilima A; Ramteke, Shefali N; Kumbhar, Avinash S; Kulkarni, Prasad P; Jani, Vinod; Sonawane, Uddhavesh B; Joshi, Rajendra R; Joshi, Bimba; Erxleben, Andrea


    The synthesis, spectral and electrochemical characterization of the complexes of the type [Ru(NN)2(txbg)](2+) where NN is 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) (1), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) (2), dipyrido [3,2-d:2',3f] quinoxaline (dpq) (3), and dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (dppz) (4) which incorporate the tetra-xylene bipyridine glycoluril (txbg) as the ancillary ligand are described in detail. Crystal structures of ligand txbg and complex 2 were solved by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results indicated that at micromolar concentration all complexes exhibit significant potential of Aβ aggregation inhibition, while the ligand txbg displayed weak activity towards Aβ aggregation. Complex 1 showed relatively low inhibition (70%) while complexes 2-4 inhibited nearly 100% Aβ aggregation after 240 h of incubation. The similar potential of complexes 2-4 and absence of any trend in their activity with the planarity of polypyridyl ligands suggests there is no marked effect of planarity of coligands on their inhibitory potential. Further studies on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition indicated very weak activity of these complexes against AChE. Detailed interactions of Aβ with both ligand and complex 2 have been studied by molecular modeling. Complex 2 showed interactions involving all three polypyridyl ligands with hydrophobic region of Aβ. Furthermore, the toxicity of these complexes towards human neuroblastoma cells was evaluated by MTT assay and except complex 4, the complexes displayed very low toxicity.

  13. Synthesis, Characterization, In Vitro Cytotoxicity, and Apoptosis-Inducing Properties of Ruthenium(II) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li; Zhong, Nan-Jing; Xie, Yang-Yin; Huang, Hong-Liang; Jiang, Guang-Bin; Liu, Yun-Jun


    Two new Ru(II) complexes, [Ru(bpy)2(FAMP)](ClO4)2 1 and 2, are synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, electrospray mass spectrometry, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance. The in vitro cytotoxicities and apoptosis-inducing properties of these complexes are extensively studied. Complexes 1 and 2 exhibit potent antiproliferative activities against a panel of human cancer cell lines. The cell cycle analysis shows that complexes 1 and 2 exhibit effective cell growth inhibition by triggering G0/G1 phase arrest and inducing apoptosis by mitochondrial dysfunction. The in vitro DNA binding properties of the two complexes are investigated by different spectrophotometric methods and viscosity measurements. PMID:24804832

  14. Chlorido-containing ruthenium(II) and iridium(III) complexes as antimicrobial agents.


    Pandrala, Mallesh; Li, Fangfei; Feterl, Marshall; Mulyana, Yanyan; Warner, Jeffrey M; Wallace, Lynne; Keene, F Richard; Collins, J Grant


    A series of polypyridyl-ruthenium(II) and -iridium(III) complexes that contain labile chlorido ligands, [{M(tpy)Cl}(2){μ-bb(n)}](2/4+) {Cl-Mbb(n); where M = Ru or Ir; tpy = 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine; and bb(n) = bis[4(4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridyl)]-1,n-alkane (n = 7, 12 or 16)} have been synthesised and their potential as antimicrobial agents examined. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the series of metal complexes against four strains of bacteria - Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and Gram negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) - have been determined. All the ruthenium complexes were highly active and bactericidal. In particular, the Cl-Rubb(12) complex showed excellent activity against all bacterial cell lines with MIC values of 1 μg mL(-1) against the Gram positive bacteria and 2 and 8 μg mL(-1) against E. coli and P. aeruginosa, respectively. The corresponding iridium(III) complexes also showed significant antimicrobial activity in terms of MIC values; however and surprisingly, the iridium complexes were bacteriostatic rather than bactericidal. The inert iridium(III) complex, [{Ir(phen)(2)}(2){μ-bb(12)}](6+) {where phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) exhibited no antimicrobial activity, suggesting that it could not cross the bacterial membrane. The mononuclear model complex, [Ir(tpy)(Me(2)bpy)Cl]Cl(2) (where Me(2)bpy = 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine), was found to aquate very rapidly, with the pK(a) of the iridium-bound water in the corresponding aqua complex determined to be 6.0. This suggests the dinuclear complexes [Ir(tpy)Cl}(2){μ-bb(n)}](4+) aquate and deprotonate rapidly and enter the bacterial cells as 4+ charged hydroxo species.

  15. Effect of radiation on cytotoxicity, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of human osteosarcoma MG-63 induced by a ruthenium(II) complex.


    Liu, Si-Hong; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Deng, Kun-Kang; Wu, Yong; Zhu, Jian-Wei; Liu, Qing-Hua; Xu, Hui-Hua; Wu, Hai-Feng; Li, Xin-Yan; Wang, Jian-Wei; Guo, Qi-Feng


    Radiation has large influence on the cytotoxicity, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. The bioactivity of ruthenium(II) complex [Ru(dmb)2(DBHIP)](ClO4)2 (Ru1) (DBHIP=2-(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxylphenyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline) was investigated in the absence and presence of radiation. The cytotoxicity of Ru1 against MG-63 cells was evaluated by CCK-8 method. Ru1 shows high cytotoxicity upon radiation. Radiation can enhance the cytotoxicity of Ru1 on MG-63 cells. The apoptosis was studied by Hoechst 33258 staining method and flow cytometry. The reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell cycle arrest and western blot analysis were investigated in detail. The complex induces the apoptosis in MG-63 cells through ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction pathway.

  16. DMSO containing ruthenium(ii) hydrazone complexes: in vitro evaluation of biomolecular interaction and anticancer activity.


    Alagesan, M; Sathyadevi, P; Krishnamoorthy, P; Bhuvanesh, N S P; Dharmaraj, N


    Synthesis, spectral, electrochemical and single crystal X-ray diffraction data of a new series of DMSO containing bivalent ruthenium hydrazone complexes are presented. XRD data of two of the new complexes revealed an octahedral coordination around the ruthenium ion satisfied by NOS2Cl2 atoms. Electrochemical studies showed the metal centred, quasi-reversible, one-electron redox behaviour of the new complexes. The binding of these complexes with biomolecules such as calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein investigated by different spectrophotometric methods revealed an intercalative mode of interaction. The in vitro cytotoxicity of these complexes evaluated by the MTT assay on a panel of cancer and normal cell lines indicated that the above complexes are more toxic to cancer cells with a few micromolar concentrations as the IC50 value, but are significantly less toxic to normal cell lines. The observed variations in the binding interactions and cytotoxicity of the complexes were attributed to the nature of the hydrazide moiety of the hydrazones that influences their biological activities.

  17. Cytoxicity and apoptotic mechanism of ruthenium(II) amino acid complexes in sarcoma-180 tumor cells.


    Lima, Aliny Pereira; Pereira, Flávia Castro; Almeida, Marcio Aurelio Pinheiro; Mello, Francyelli Mariana Santos; Pires, Wanessa Carvalho; Pinto, Thallita Monteiro; Delella, Flávia Karina; Felisbino, Sérgio Luis; Moreno, Virtudes; Batista, Alzir Azevedo; de Paula Silveira-Lacerda, Elisângela


    Over the past several decades, much attention has been focused on ruthenium complexes in antitumor therapy. Ruthenium is a transition metal that possesses several advantages for rational antitumor drug design and biological applications. In the present study, five ruthenium complexes containing amino acids were studied in vitro to determine their biological activity against sarcoma-180 tumor cells. The cytotoxicity of the complexes was evaluated by an MTT assay, and their mechanism of action was investigated. The results demonstrated that the five complexes inhibited the growth of the S180 tumor cell line, with IC50 values ranging from 22.53 µM to 50.18 µM, and showed low cytotoxicity against normal L929 fibroblast cells. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the [Ru(gly)(bipy)(dppb)]PF6 complex (2) inhibited the growth of the tumor cells by inducing apoptosis, as evidenced by an increased number of Annexin V-positive cells and G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest. Further investigation showed that complex 2 caused a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential; activated caspases 3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 and caused a change in the mRNA expression levels of caspase 3, caspase-9 as well as the bax genes. The levels of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein Bak were increased. Thus, we demonstrated that ruthenium amino acid complexes are promising drugs against S180 tumor cells, and we recommend further investigations of their role as chemotherapeutic agents for sarcomas.

  18. RNA and DNA binding of inert oligonuclear ruthenium(II) complexes in live eukaryotic cells.


    Li, Xin; Gorle, Anil K; Ainsworth, Tracy D; Heimann, Kirsten; Woodward, Clifford E; Collins, J Grant; Keene, F Richard


    Confocal microscopy was used to study the intracellular localisation of a series of inert polypyridylruthenium(II) complexes with three eukaryotic cells lines - baby hamster kidney (BHK), human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) and liver carcinoma (Hep-G2). Co-staining experiments with the DNA-selective dye DAPI demonstrated that the di-, tri- and tetra-nuclear polypyridylruthenium(II) complexes that are linked by the bis[4(4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridyl)]-1,12-dodecane bridging ligand ("bb12") showed a high degree of selectivity for the nucleus of the eukaryotic cells. Additional co-localisation experiments with the general nucleic acid stain SYTO 9 indicated that the ruthenium complexes showed a considerable preference for the RNA-rich nucleolus, rather than chromosomal DNA. No significant differences were observed in the intracellular localisation between the ΔΔ and ΛΛ enantiomers of the dinuclear complex. Cytotoxicity assays carried out over 72 hours indicated that the ruthenium complexes, particularly the tri- and tetra-nuclear species, were significantly toxic to the eukaryotic cells. However, when the activity of the least cytotoxic compound (the ΔΔ enantiomer of the dinuclear species) was determined over a 24 hour period, the results indicated that the ruthenium complex was approximately a 100-fold less toxic to liver and kidney cells than to Gram positive bacteria. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy was used to examine the effect of the ΔΔ and ΛΛ enantiomers of the dinuclear complex on the solution conformations of RNA and DNA. The CD experiments indicated that the RNA maintained the A-type conformation, and the DNA the B-type structure, upon binding by the ruthenium complexes.

  19. Bifunctional ruthenium(II) hydride complexes with pendant strong Lewis acid moieties: structure, dynamics, and cooperativity.


    Ostapowicz, Thomas G; Merkens, Carina; Hölscher, Markus; Klankermayer, Jürgen; Leitner, Walter


    The synthesis of a novel class of bifunctional ruthenium hydride complexes incorporating Lewis acidic BR(2) moieties is reported. Determination of the molecular structures in the solid state and in solution provided evidence for tunable interaction between the two functionalities. Cooperative effects on the reactivity of the complexes were demonstrated including the activation of small Lewis basic molecules by reversible anchoring at the boron center.

  20. Studies on Photocleavage, DNA Binding, Cytotoxicity, and Docking Studies of Ruthenium(II) Mixed Ligand Complexes.


    Kumar, Yata Praveen; Devi, C Shobha; Srishailam, A; Deepika, N; Kumar, V Ravi; Reddy, P Venkat; Nagasuryaprasad, K; Singh, Surya S; Nagababu, Penumaka; Satyanarayana, S


    This article describes the synthesis and characterization of three new Ru(II) polypyridyl complexes including [Ru(phen)2(dpphz)](2+) (1), [Ru(bpy)2(dpphz)](2+) (2) and [Ru(dmb)2(dpphz)](2+) (3) where dpphz = dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c] phenazine-11-hydrazide, phen =1,10-phenanthroline, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine and dmb = 4,4'-dimethyl2,2'-bipyridine. The binding behaviors of these complexes to calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) were explored by spectroscopic titrations, viscosity measurements. Results suggest that these complexes can bind to CT-DNA through intercalation. However, their binding strength differs from each other; this may be attributed to difference in the ancillary ligand. The cytotoxicity of 1-3 was evaluated by MTT assay; results indicated that all complexes have significant dose dependent cytotoxicity with HeLa tumor cell line. All complexes exhibited efficient photocleavage of pBR322 DNA upon irradiation. The DNA binding ability of 1-3 was also studied by docking the complexes into B-DNA using docking program.

  1. Calix[4]arene based chemosensor for selective complexation of Cd(II) and Cu(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qazi, Mansoor Ahmed; Qureshi, Imdadullah; Memon, Shahabuddin


    The present article describes synthesis, characterization and a detailed complexation study of calix[4]arene based chemosensor ( 4) bearing two anthracenyl units as signaling groups on its coordination sphere. The complex formation ability of 4 toward selected transition metals such as Cd(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II) has been investigated by UV-visible spectroscopy. Assessment of results reveal that the chemosensor is selective toward Cd(II) and Cu(II). The FT-IR spectroscopic method was applied for further confirmation of the complexation phenomenon. Besides this, a study regarding interference of other metals on complex formation in solution has also supported the efficient binding preference of 4 for Cd(II) and Cu(II). From the results it has been concluded that 4 has compatible coordination sphere to accommodate these metals. The similarities and differences revealed that being soft nature of both metals and because of diagonal relationship in the periodic table their coordination behavior toward N/O-donor ligand may be treated as a test on possibility of the Cu(II) ions to be displaced by Cd(II). The study certainly will help in understanding the hazards of Cd(II) in biological systems.

  2. 1,3-Dipolar cycloadditions of ruthenium(II) azido complexes with alkynes and nitriles.


    Miguel-Fernández, S; Martínez de Salinas, S; Díez, J; Gamasa, M P; Lastra, E


    The diazido complex [Na][Ru(N3)2{κ(3)(N,N,N)-Tpms}(PPh3)] (1) (Tpms = tris(pyrazolyl)methanesulfonate) has been synthesized, and its reactivity toward dipolarophiles has been investigated. Thus, the reaction of 1 with alkynes leads to complexes with one or two triazolate ligands depending on the alkyne and the reaction conditions. Complex 1 also reacts with nitriles. Thus, the reaction with RCN (R = Me, Ph) leads to the substitution products [Ru(N3)(NCR){κ(3)(N,N,N)-Tpms}(PPh3)]. However, when fumaronitrile is used, a complex containing a new κ(2)(N(1),N(3))-5-(1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)-1,2,3,4-tetrazolate ligand is obtained as the result of two consecutive cycloaddition reactions. The mechanism for this unusual reaction has been unambiguously established through the isolation of the intermediate complex resulting from a first cycloaddition between a coordinated azide and the C═C double bond.

  3. Selective nuclei accumulation of ruthenium(II) complex enantiomers that target G-quadruplex DNA.


    Sun, Dongdong; Liu, Yanan; Yu, Qianqian; Liu, Du; Zhou, Yanhui; Liu, Jie


    Different enantiomers exhibit large differences in their biological activity and/or toxicity, but they rarely involve the relationship of the agents for molecular and cellular imaging with the chiral structure of ruthenium complexes. Here, we report that an enantiomer of a polypyridyl ruthenium complex can selectively accumulate in the nucleus of HepG2 cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy studies show that this phenomenon occurs via a non-endocytotic, but temperature-dependent, mechanism of cellular uptake in HepG2 cells. DNA oligonucleotides with repetitive tracts of guanine bases that can form G-quadruplex structures have aroused interest as therapeutic agents and as targets for anticancer drug design. Various biophysical techniques show that the Λ-enantiomer of ruthenium complexes can selectively stabilize human telomeric G-quadruplex DNA and has a strong preference for G-quadruplex over duplex DNA. Judged from the NMR results, we speculate that at higher 4:1 ligand/G-quadruplex stoichiometry, complex Λ-Ru is likely to bind with each groove of the tetraplex in a dimeric form or intercalate with the G-tetrad in the 3' terminal face and coexist with other modes. The molecular modeling analysis is in agreement with the NMR titrations performed in this investigation indicating that ruthenium complexes are actually characterized by a mixed binding mode. The results provide many opportunities for the development of novel agents for living cell-related studies.

  4. RutheniumII complexes bearing fused polycyclic ligands: from fundamental aspects to potential applications.


    Troian-Gautier, Ludovic; Moucheron, Cécile


    In this review, we first discuss the photophysics reported in the literature for mononuclear ruthenium complexes bearing ligands with extended aromaticity such as dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (DPPZ), tetrapyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c:3'',2''-h:2''',3'''-j]-phenazine (TPPHZ),  tetrapyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c:3'',2''-h:2''',3'''-j]acridine (TPAC), 1,10-phenanthrolino[5,6-b]1,4,5,8,9,12-hexaazatriphenylene (PHEHAT) 9,11,20,22-tetraaza- tetrapyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c:3'',2''-l:2''',3'''-n]pentacene (TATPP), etc. Photophysical properties of binuclear and polynuclear complexes based on these extended ligands are then reported. We finally develop the use of binuclear complexes with extended π-systems for applications such as photocatalysis.

  5. Protein-binding, cytotoxicity in vitro and cell cycle arrest of ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Si-Hong; Zhu, Jian-Wei; Xu, Hui-Hua; Wang, Yan; Liu, Ya-Min; Liang, Jun-Bo; Zhang, Gui-Qiang; Cao, Di-Hua; Lin, Yang-Yang; Wu, Yong; Guo, Qi-Feng


    The cytotoxic activity of two Ru(II) complexes against A549, BEL-7402, HeLa, PC-12, SGC-7901 and SiHa cell lines was investigated by MTT method. Complexes 1 and 2 show moderate cytotoxicity toward BEL-7402 cells with an IC50 value of 53.9 ± 3.4 and 39.3 ± 2.1 μM. The effects of the complexes inducing apoptosis, cellular uptake, reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial membrane potential in BEL-7402 cells have been studied by fluorescence microscopy. The percentages of apoptotic and necrotic cells and cell cycle arrest were studied by flow cytometry. The BSA-binding behaviors were investigated by UV/visible and fluorescent spectra.

  6. Ruthenium(II) sulfoxide-maltolato and -nitroimidazole complexes: synthesis and MTT assay.


    Wu, Adam; Kennedy, David C; Patrick, Brian O; James, Brian R


    Ru(II) sulfoxide-maltolato complexes, Ru(ma)(2)(L)(2) (L = DMSO (1a) and TMSO (1b) or L(2) = BESE (1c)), were synthesized, as well as the analogous ethylmaltolato derivatives, Ru(etma)(2)(L)(2) (2a-c) (ma = 3-hydroxy-2-methylpyran-4-onate, etma = 2-ethyl-3-hydroxypyran-4-onate, TMSO = tetramethylene sulfoxide, BESE = 1,2-bis(ethylsulfinyl)ethane). A Ru(II) bidentate sulfoxide-metronidazole complex, RuCl(2)(BESE)(metro)(2) (3), was also synthesized (metro = metronidazole = 2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole-1-ethanol). The complexes were characterized generally by (1)H NMR, UV-vis, and IR spectroscopies, as well as MS, elemental analysis, solution conductivity, and cyclic voltammetry. The molecular structures of Ru(ma)(2)(S,R-BESE) (1c) and trans-RuCl(2)(R,R-BESE)(metro)(2) (3) were determined by X-ray crystallography. All sulfoxide ligands are S-bonded. The complexes were tested against human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-435S) using an in vitro MTT assay, a colorimetric determination of cell viability: 2a,b exhibit the lowest IC(50) values of 190 +/- 10 and 220 +/- 10 microM, respectively. Cisplatin exhibits an IC(50) value of 30 +/- 5 microM.

  7. Photocatalytic degradation of bromothymol blue with Ruthenium(II) bipyridyl complex in aqueous basic solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fui, Mark Lee Wun; Hang, Ng Kim; Arifin, Khuzaimah; Minggu, Lorna Jeffery; Kassim, Mohammad Bin


    Ru(II) bipyridyl photocatalyst with the formula, [Ru(bpy)2(o-CH3-bzpypz)](PF6)2] (Ru01) and [Ru(bpy)2(o-Cl-bzpypz)](PF6)2] (Ru02), where bpy = 2,2'-bipyridyl, o-CH3-bzpypz = (3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)(o-tolyl)methanone and o-Cl-bzpypz = (2-chlorophenyl)(3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)methanone, has been successfully synthesized and characterized on the basis of C, H, N elemental analysis, IR, UV-Vis and NMR spectroscopy. Both Ru(II) complexes showed Infrared stretching frequencies at 1742-1736 cm-1 v(C=O), 1605 cm-1 v(C=N) and 842-837 cm-1 v(PF). Full geometry optimization of the complex structures were carried out using DFT method with B3LYP exchange-correlation functional and 6-31G (d,p) basis-set for H, C, N, O and Cl; and LAN2LDZ basis set as effective core potential for the ruthenium centre. The highest-occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy levels of Ru01 and Ru02 are -5.63 and -5.55 eV, respectively. The photocatalytic properties of the Ru(II) complexes were evaluated by studying the degradation of aqueous bromothymol blue (BTB) under light illumination. The mechanisms are presented and discussed to highlight the role of the ruthenium complex in the degradation process.

  8. Bis(o-methylserotonin)-containing iridium(III) and ruthenium(II) complexes as new cellular imaging dyes: synthesis, applications, and photophysical and computational studies.


    Núñez, Cristina; Silva López, Carlos; Faza, Olalla Nieto; Fernández-Lodeiro, Javier; Diniz, Mario; Bastida, Rufina; Capelo, Jose Luis; Lodeiro, Carlos


    We report the synthesis, characterization, and scope of a new versatile emissive molecular probe functionalized with a 1,10-phenanthroline moiety containing methylserotonin groups as binding sites for metal ion recognition. The synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of the in vitro imaging capability of the iridium(III) and ruthenium(II) complexes [Ir(ppy)2(N-N)](+) and [Ru(bpy)2(N-N)](2+), in which ppy is 2-phenylpyridine, bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, and N-N is a 1,10-phenanthroline ligand functionalized with two methylserotonin groups to serve as binding sites for metal ion recognition, is reported. The uptake of these compounds by living freshwater fish (Carassius auratus) was studied by fluorescence microscopy, and the cytotoxicity of ligand N-N and [Ru(bpy)2(N-N)](2+) in this species was also investigated.

  9. Influence of solvent on the spectroscopic properties of cyano complexes of ruthenium(II)

    SciTech Connect

    Timpson, C.J.; Meyer, J.M.; Bignozzi, C.A.; Sullivan, P.B.; Kober, E.M.


    Specific solute-solvent interactions are known to play an important role in optical and thermal electron transfer involving transition-metal complexes. These interactions can influence both spectroscopic energies and redox potentials in a significant way. Their existence has been documented in the literature, and qualitative models have been proposed, but they have yet to be examined quantitatively. Literature examples include mixed cyano-pyridyl complexes of Fe(II) and Ru(II) where specific interactions occur with the cyanide ligands. We extend that work here and report the effect of solvent on absorption, emission, and Ru{sup III/II} reduction potentials in the series cis-[Ru(bpy){sub 2}(py)(CN)]{sup +}, cis-Ru(bpy){sub 2}(CN){sub 2}, [Ru(tpy)(CN){sub 3}]{sup -}, [Ru(bpy)(CN){sub 4}]{sup 2-}, and [Ru(MQ{sup +})(CN){sub 5}]{sup 2-}, where there is a sequential increase in the number of cyanide ligands. The goals were to obtain systematic data on specific solvent effects in these complexes, to analyze the effects, and to develop models to explain them. UV-visible spectra, emission spectra, and Ru{sup III/II} reduction potentials have been measured. The shifts in the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) absorption (E{sub abs}) or emission (E{sub em}) band energies with solvent increase linearly with the number of cyano ligands and correlate well with the Gutmann `acceptor number` of the solvent. 32 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Insights into anticancer activity and mechanism of action of a ruthenium(II) complex in human esophageal squamous carcinoma EC109 cells.


    Guo, Liubin; Lv, Gaochao; Qiu, Ling; Yang, Hui; Zhang, Li; Yu, Huixin; Zou, Meifen; Lin, Jianguo


    A ruthenium(II) complex [Ru(p-cymene)(NHC)Cl2] (NHC=1,3-bis(4-(tert-butyl)benzylimidazol-2-ylidene), referred to as L-4, has been designed and synthesized recently in order to look for new anticancer drugs with high efficacy and low side effects. The anticancer activity and mechanism of action of L-4 in human esophageal squamous carcinoma EC109 cells were systematically investigated. The results revealed that L-4 exerted strong inhibitory effect on the proliferation of EC109 cells, and it arrested EC109 cells at G2/M phase, accompanied with the up-regulation of p53 and p21 and the down-regulation of cyclin D1. The results also showed that the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent apoptosis of EC109 can be induced by L-4 via inhibiting the activity of glutathione reductase (GR), decreasing the ratio of glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), and leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species. The mitochondria-mediated apoptosis of EC109 induced by L-4 was also observed from the increase of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, overload of Ca(2+), disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), redistribution of cytochrome c, and activation of caspase-3/-9. However, the effects of L-4 on the cell viability, GR activity, GSH/GSSG ratio, reactive oxygen species level, mitochondria dysfunction and apoptosis induction were remarkably attenuated by adding the reactive oxygen species scavenger, NAC. Therefore, it was concluded that L-4 can inhibit the proliferation of EC109 cells via blocking cell cycle progression and inducing reactive oxygen species-dependent and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. These findings suggested that the ruthenium(II) complex might be a potential effective chemotherapeutic agent for human esophageal squamous carcinoma (ESCC) and worthy of further investigation.

  11. Demonstration of intramolecular energy transfer in asymmetric bimetallic ruthenium(ii) complexes.


    Bar, Manoranjan; Maity, Dinesh; Das, Shyamal; Baitalik, Sujoy


    A new family of bimetallic Ru(ii) complexes derived from an asymmetric bridging ligand (tpy-Hbzim-dipy) consisting of both bipyridine and terpyridine chelating sites covalently connected via phenyl-imidazole spacer were designed in this work to demonstrate intramolecular energy transfer from one component to the other in asymmetric dyads. To fine tune the photo-redox properties, both bidentate and tridentate terminal ligands in the complexes were varied systematically. Both steady state and time-resolved luminescence spectral results indicated photo-induced intramolecular energy transfer from the excited MLCT state of the [(bpy/phen)2Ru(II)(dipy-Hbzim-tpy)] component to the MLCT state of the tpy-containing unit [(dipy-Hbzim-tpy)Ru(II)(tpy-PhCH3/H2pbbzim)] in dyads with rate constant values on the order of 10(6)-10(7) s(-1). Temperature-dependent luminescence studies indicated an enhancement in the luminescence intensity and excited state lifetimes upon decreasing the temperature.

  12. New Series of Dinuclear Ruthenium(II) Complexes Synthesized Using Photoisomerization for Efficient Water Oxidation Catalysis.


    Hirahara, Masanari; Nagai, Sho; Takahashi, Kosuke; Saito, Kenji; Yui, Tatsuto; Yagi, Masayuki


    A new series of proximal,proximal-[Ru2(tpy)2(L)XY](n+) (p,p-Ru2XY, tpy = 2,2':6',2″-terpyridine, L = 5-phenyl-2,8-di(2-pyridyl)-1,9,10-anthyridine, X and Y = other coordination sites) were synthesized using photoisomerization of a mononuclear complex. The p,p-Ru2XY complexes undergo unusual reversible bridge-exchange reactions to generate p,p-Ru2(μ-Cl), p,p-Ru2(μ-OH), and p,p-Ru2(OH)(OH2) with μ-Cl, μ-OH, as well as hydroxo and aquo ligands at X and Y sites of p,p-Ru2XY, respectively. The geometric and electronic structures of these complexes were characterized based on UV-vis and (1)H NMR spectra, X-ray crystallography, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. (1)H NMR data showed C2 symmetry of p,p-Ru2(OH)(OH2) with the distorted L chelate and nonequivalence of two tpy ligands, in contrast to the C2v symmetry of p,p-Ru2(μ-Cl) and p,p-Ru2(μ-OH). However, irrespective of the lower symmetry, p,p-Ru2(OH)(OH2) is predominantly formed in neutral and weakly basic conditions due to the specially stabilized core structure by multiple hydrogen-bond interactions among aquo, hydroxo, and backbone L ligands. The electrochemical data suggested that p,p-Ru2(OH)(OH2) (Ru(II)-OH:Ru(II)-OH2) is oxidized to the Ru(III)-OH:Ru(III)-OH state at 0.64 V vs saturated calomel electrode (SCE) and further to Ru(IV)═O:Ru(IV)-OH at 0.79 V by successive 1-proton-coupled 2-electron processes at pH 7.0. The cyclic voltammogram data exhibited that the p,p-Ru2(OH)(OH2) complex works more efficiently for electrocatalytic water oxidation, compared with a similar mononuclear complex distal-[Ru(tpy)(L)OH2](2+) (d-RuOH2) and p,p-Ru2(μ-Cl) and p,p-Ru2(μ-OH), showing that the p,p-Ru2 core structure with aquo and hydroxo ligands is important for efficient electrocatalytic water oxidation. Bulk electrolysis of the p,p-Ru2(OH)(OH2) solution corroborated the electrocatalytic cycle involving the Ru(III)-OH:Ru(III)-OH state species as a resting state. The mechanistic insight into O-O bond

  13. Systematic manipulation of the light-harvesting properties for tridentate cyclometalated ruthenium(II) complexes.


    Koivisto, Bryan D; Robson, Kiyoshi C D; Berlinguette, Curtis P


    The response of the metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) band to variability in terminal substituents within a related set of tridentate polypyridyl and cyclometalated Ru(II) complexes is reported. These complexes are formulated as [Ru(tpy-R(1))(tpy-R(2))](PF(6))(2) (1-6; tpy = 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine; R(1) = -H, -2-furyl, or -OMe; R(2) = -H, -2-furyl, or -CO(2)H) and [Ru(tpy-R(2))(dpb-R(1))]PF(6) (7-10; Hdpb = 1,3-di(pyridin-2-yl)benzene; R(2) = -H or -2-furyl; R(1) = -H or -OMe). Absorption spectra for the [Ru(tpy-R(1))(tpy-R(2))](2+) series highlight the sensitivity of the MLCT band to the indicated substituents at the 4' position of one or both tpy ligands (e.g., a bathochromic shift up to 24 nm coupled with a 2-fold increase in absorption intensity). Similar observations are made for the [Ru(tpy-R(2))(dpb-R(1))](+) series, where a single Ru-N dative bond is replaced by a Ru-C sigma-bond to form a cyclometalated complex. The reduced symmetry at the metal center within this series results in a broadening of the lowest-energy MLCT band, while an additional set of transitions at higher energies emerges that involves an excited state localized on the cyclometalating ligand. These MLCT transitions collectively render a broad absorption envelope of substantial intensity at wavelengths longer than ca. 525 nm. Optimal results are obtained for compound 10 (R(1) = -OMe; R(2) = -2-furyl), where a strong electron-donating group is situated para to the Ru-C bond (lambda(max) = 523 nm; epsilon = 2.6 x 10(4) M(-1) cm(-1)). This approach imparts substantial polarization within the molecule, which should benefit excited-state electron-transfer reactions for photosensitizing applications (e.g., dye-sensitized solar cells). Spectroscopic data are corroborated by electrochemical and TD-DFT measurements for all compounds.

  14. Thermal and photochemical reduction of aqueous chlorine by ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes.


    Saha, B; Stanbury, D M


    Studies are reported on the reactions of aqueous chlorine with a series of substitution-inert, one-electron metal-complex reductants, which includes [Ru(bpy)3]2+, [Ru(4,4'-Me2bpy)3]2+, [Ru(4,7-Me2phen)3]2+, [Ru(terpy)2]2+, and [Fe(3,4,7,8-Me4phen)3]2+. The reactions were studied by spectrophotometry at 25 degrees C in acidic chloride media at mu = 0.3 M. In general the reactions have the stoichiometry 2[ML3]2+ + Cl2-->2[ML3]3+ + 2Cl-. In the case of [Ru(bpy)3]2+, the reaction is quite photosensitive; the thermal reaction is so slow as to be practically immeasurable. The reactions of [Ru(4,4'-Me2bpy)3]2+ and [Ru(4,7-Me2phen)3]2+ are also highly photosensitive, giving pseudo-first-order rate constants that depend on the monochromator slit width in a stopped-flow instrument; however, the thermal rates are fast enough that they can be obtained by extrapolation of kobs to zero slit width. The reactions of [Ru(terpy)2]2+ and [Fe(3,4,7,8-Me4phen)3]2+ show no appreciable photosensitivity, allowing direct determination of their thermal rate laws. From the kinetic effects of pH, [Cl2]tot, and [Cl-] it is evident that all of the thermal rate laws have a first-order dependence on [ML3]2+ and on [Cl2]. The second-order rate constants decrease as Eo for the complex increases, consistent with the predictions of Marcus theory for an outer-sphere electron-transfer mechanism. Quantum yields at 460 nm for the reactions of [Ru(4,4'-Me2bpy)3]2+ and [Ru(4,7-Me2phen)3]2+ exceed 0.1 and show a dependence on [Cl2] indicative of competition among spontaneous decay of *Ru, nonreactive quenching by Cl2, and reactive quenching by Cl2.

  15. Tuning Reactivity and Site Selectivity of Simple Arenes in C–H Activation: Ortho-Arylation of Anisoles via Arene–Metal π-Complexation

    PubMed Central


    Current approaches to achieve site selectivity in the C–H activation of arenes involve the use of directing groups or highly electron-poor arenes. In contrast, simple arenes, such as anisole, are characterized by poor reactivity and selectivity. We report that π-complexation to a Cr(CO)3 unit enhances the reactivity of anisoles providing an unprecedented ortho-selective arylation. This mild methodology can be used for the late stage functionalization of bioactive compounds containing the anisole motif, allowing the construction of novel organic scaffolds with few synthetic steps. PMID:25510851

  16. Evaluation of DNA binding, DNA cleavage, protein binding, radical scavenging and in vitro cytotoxic activities of ruthenium(II) complexes containing 2,4-dihydroxy benzylidene ligands.


    Mohanraj, Maruthachalam; Ayyannan, Ganesan; Raja, Gunasekaran; Jayabalakrishnan, Chinnasamy


    The new ruthenium(II) complexes with hydrazone ligands, 4-Methyl-benzoic acid (2,4-dihydroxy-benzylidene)-hydrazide (HL(1)), 4-Methoxy-benzoic acid (2,4-dihydroxy-benzylidene)-hydrazide (HL(2)), 4-Bromo-benzoic acid (2,4-dihydroxy-benzylidene)-hydrazide (HL(3)), were synthesized and characterized by various spectro analytical techniques. The molecular structures of the ligands were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The DNA binding studies of the ligands and complexes were examined by absorption, fluorescence, viscosity and cyclic voltammetry methods. The results indicated that the ligands and complexes could interact with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) through intercalation. The DNA cleavage activity of the complexes was evaluated by gel electrophoresis assay, which revealed that the complexes are good DNA cleaving agents. The binding interaction of the ligands and complexes with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopic method. Antioxidant studies showed that the complexes have a strong radical scavenging properties. Further, the cytotoxic effect of the complexes examined on cancerous cell lines showed that the complexes exhibit significant anticancer activity.

  17. Laser Spectroscopic and Theoretical Studies of Encapsulation Complexes of Calix[4]arene

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, Shohei; Inokuchi, Yoshiya; Ebata, Takayuki; Apra, Edoardo; Xantheas, Sotiris S.


    The complexes between the host calix[4]arene (C4A) and various guest molecules such as NH3, N2, CH4, and C2H2 have been investigated via experimental and theoretical methods. The S1-S0 electronic spectra of these guest-host complexes are observed by mass-selected resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI) and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy. The infrared (IR) spectra of the complexes formed in molecular beams are obtained by IR-UV double resonance (IR-UV DR) and IR photodissociation (IRPD) spectroscopy. The supramolecular structures of the complexes are investigated by electronic structure methods (density functional and second order perturbation theory). The current results for the various molecular guests are put in perspective with the previously reported ones for the C4A-Rare Gas (Rg) (Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2007, 126, 141101) and C4A-H2O complexes (J. Phys. Chem. A, 2010, 114, 2967). The electronic spectra of the complexes of C4A with N2, CH4 and C2H2 exhibit red-shifts of similar magnitudes with the ones observed for the C4A-Rg complexes, whereas the complexes of C4A with H2O and NH3 show much larger red-shifts. Most of the IR-UV DR spectra of the complexes, except for C4A-C2H2, show a broad hydrogen bonded OH stretching band with a peak at ~3160 cm-1. The analysis of the experimental results, in agreement with the ones resulted from the electronic structure calculations, suggest that C4A preferentially forms endo-complexes with all the guest species reported in this study. We discuss the similarities and differences of the structures, binding energies and the nature of the interaction between the C4A host and the various guest species. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy

  18. Novel C,N-Cyclometalated Benzimidazole Ruthenium(II) and Iridium(III) Complexes as Antitumor and Antiangiogenic Agents: A Structure-Activity Relationship Study.


    Yellol, Jyoti; Pérez, Sergio A; Buceta, Alicia; Yellol, Gorakh; Donaire, Antonio; Szumlas, Piotr; Bednarski, Patrick J; Makhloufi, Gamall; Janiak, Christoph; Espinosa, Arturo; Ruiz, José


    A series of novel C,N-cyclometalated benzimidazole ruthenium(II) and iridium(III) complexes of the types [(η(6)-p-cymene)RuCl(κ(2)-N,C-L)] and [(η(5)-C5Me5)IrCl(κ(2)-N,C-L)] (HL = methyl 1-butyl-2-arylbenzimidazolecarboxylate) with varying substituents (H, Me, F, CF3, MeO, NO2, and Ph) in the R4 position of the phenyl ring of 2-phenylbenzimidazole chelating ligand of the ruthenium (3a-g) and iridium complexes (4a-g) have been prepared. The cytotoxic activity of the new ruthenium(II) and iridium(III) compounds has been evaluated in a panel of cell lines (A2780, A2780cisR, A427, 5637, LCLC, SISO, and HT29) in order to investigate structure-activity relationships. Phenyl substitution at the R4 position shows increased potency in both Ru and Ir complexes (3g and 4g, respectively) as compared to their parent compounds (3a and 4a) in all cell lines. In general, ruthenium complexes are more active than the corresponding iridium complexes. The new ruthenium and iridium compounds increased caspase-3 activity in A2780 cells, as shown for 3a,d and 4a,d. Compound 4g is able to increase the production of ROS in A2780 cells. Furthermore, all the new compounds are able to overcome the cisplatin resistance in A2780cisR cells. In addition, some of the metal complexes effectively inhibit angiogenesis in the human umbilical vein endothelial cell line EA.hy926 at 0.5 μM, the ruthenium derivatives 3g (Ph) and 3d (CF3) being the best performers. QC calculations performed on some ruthenium model complexes showed only moderate or slight electron depletion at the phenyl ring of the C,N-cyclometalated ligand and the chlorine atom on increasing the electron withdrawing effect of the R substituent.

  19. Improved antiparasitic activity by incorporation of organosilane entities into half-sandwich ruthenium(II) and rhodium(III) thiosemicarbazone complexes.


    Adams, Muneebah; de Kock, Carmen; Smith, Peter J; Land, Kirkwood M; Liu, Nicole; Hopper, Melissa; Hsiao, Allyson; Burgoyne, Andrew R; Stringer, Tameryn; Meyer, Mervin; Wiesner, Lubbe; Chibale, Kelly; Smith, Gregory S


    A series of ferrocenyl- and aryl-functionalised organosilane thiosemicarbazone compounds was obtained via a nucleophilic substitution reaction with an amine-terminated organosilane. The thiosemicarbazone (TSC) ligands were further reacted with either a ruthenium dimer [(η(6-i)PrC6H4Me)Ru(μ-Cl)Cl]2 or a rhodium dimer [(Cp*)Rh(μ-Cl)Cl]2 to yield a series of cationic mono- and binuclear complexes. The thiosemicarbazone ligands, as well as their metal complexes, were characterised using NMR and IR spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. The molecular structure of the binuclear ruthenium(ii) complex was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The thiosemicarbazones and their complexes were evaluated for their in vitro antiplasmodial activities against the chloroquine-sensitive (NF54) and chloroquine-resistant (Dd2) Plasmodium falciparum strains, displaying activities in the low micromolar range. Selected compounds were screened for potential β-haematin inhibition activity, and it was found that two Rh(iii) complexes exhibited moderate to good inhibition. Furthermore, the compounds were screened for their antitrichomonal activities against the G3 Trichomonas vaginalis strain, revealing a higher percentage of growth inhibition for the ruthenium and rhodium complexes over their corresponding ligand.

  20. The induction of apoptosis in HepG-2 cells by ruthenium(II) complexes through an intrinsic ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction pathway.


    Zeng, Chuan-Chuan; Lai, Shang-Hai; Yao, Jun-Hua; Zhang, Cheng; Yin, Hui; Li, Wei; Han, Bing-Jie; Liu, Yun-Jun


    Four new ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes [Ru(N-N)2(dhbn)](ClO4)2 (N-N = dmb: 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine 1; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine 2; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline 3; dmp = 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline 4) were synthesized and characterized. The cytotoxicity in vitro of the ligand and complexes toward HepG-2, HeLa, MG-63 and A549 were assayed by MTT method. The IC50 values of the complexes against the above cells range from 17.7 ± 1.1 to 45.1 ± 2.8 μM. The cytotoxic activity of the complexes against HepG-2 cells follows the order of 4 > 2 > 3 > 1. Ligand shows no cytotoxic activity against the selected cell lines. Cellular uptake, apoptosis, comet assay, reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell cycle arrest, and the expression of proteins involved in apoptosis pathway induced by the complexes were investigated. The results indicate that complexes 1-4 induce apoptosis in HepG-2 cells through an intrinsic ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction pathway.

  1. Crystal Structure of an L-Carnitine Complex with Pyrogallol[4]arene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujisawa, I.; Takeuchi, D.; Kitamura, Y.; Okamoto, R.; Aoki, K.


    L-Carnitine is essential for the transport of long-chain fatty acids from cytosol into mitochondria for generating metabolic energy. The survey of crystal structures of carnitine-containing proteins in the Protein Data Bank reveals that carnitine can take several conformations with the quarternary trimethylammonium terminal being always bound to aromatic residues through cation-π interactions in acyltransferases or carnitine-binding proteins. In order to demonstrate the importance of cation-π interaction as a carnitine recognition mechanism in the artificial receptor-ligand system that mimics the carnitine-binding sites, we have determined the crystal structure of a complex formed between L-carnitine and pyrogallol[4]arene (pyrogallol cyclic tetramer: PCT) as a carnitine receptor, 2PCT·2(L-carnitine)·4EtOH. There form two crystallographically independent monomeric [PCT·L-carnitine] substructures, which further form an obliquely arranged capsule-like dimeric [PCT·L-carnitine]2 structure through a pair of O-H (PCT)···O (L-carnitine) hydrogen bonds. This is the first report of PCT complex with chiral molecules. In each of the two monomeric [PCT·L-carnitine] substructures, the L-carnitine molecule takes the elongated form with an intramolecular hydrogen bond between the hydroxyl group and the carboxylate oxygen, and the cationic trimethylammonium moiety is incorporated into the cavity of the bowl-shaped PCT molecule through cation-π interactions. These features are similar to those at the D-carnitine-binding site in the crystal structure of the glycine betaine/carnitine/choline-binding protein complex.

  2. Evaluation of DNA-binding, DNA cleavage, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of mononuclear ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes of benzaldehyde 4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampath, Krishnan; Sathiyaraj, Subbaiyan; Jayabalakrishnan, Chinnasamy


    Two 4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone ligands, (E)-2-(2-chlorobenzylidene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide (HL1) and (E)-2-(2-nitrobenzylidene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide (HL2), and its ruthenium(II) complexes were synthesized and characterized by physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. The Schiff bases act as bidentate, monobasic chelating ligands with S and N as the donor sites and are preferably found in the thiol form in all the complexes studied. The molecular structure of HL1 and HL2 were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. DNA binding of the compounds was investigated by absorption spectroscopy which indicated that the compounds bind to DNA via intercalation. The oxidative cleavage of the complexes with CT-DNA inferred that the effects of cleavage are dose dependent. Antioxidant study of the ligands and complexes showed significant antioxidant activity against DPPH radical. In addition, the in vitro cytotoxicity of the ligands and complexes assayed against HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines showed higher cytotoxic activity with the lower IC50 values indicating their efficiency in killing the cancer cells even at low concentrations.

  3. Spectroscopy and quantum-chemical calculations of nitro-bis-bipyridyl complexes of ruthenium(II) with 4-substituted pyridine ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetova, K. I.; Krauklis, I. V.; Litke, S. V.; Ershov, A. Yu.; Chizhov, Yu. V.


    The luminescence, absorption, and luminescence excitation spectra of complexes cis-[Ru(bpy)2(L)(NO2)]+ [bpy = 2,2'-bipyridyl, L = pyridine, 4-aminopyridine, 4-dimethylaminopyridine, 4-picoline, isonicotinamide, or 4,4'-bipyridyl] in alcoholic (4 : 1 EtOH-MeOH) solutions are studied at 77 K. A linear correlation is established between the energy of the lowest electronically excited metal-toligand charge transfer state d π(Ru) → π*(bpy) of the complexes and the pKa parameter of the free 4-substituted pyridines used as ligands L. The B3LYP/[6-31G(d)+LanL2DZ(Ru)] hybrid density functional method is used to optimize the geometry of complexes and calculate their electronic structure and the charge distribution on the atoms of the nearest environment of ruthenium(II) ions. It is shown that there exists a mutually unambiguous correspondence between the charge on the nitrogen atom of ligands L coordinated in the complex and the pK a parameter of ligands. The calculated energies of the electronically excited metal-to-ligand charge transfer states of complexes linearly (correlation coefficient 0.99) depend on the charge on the nitrogen atom of ligands L, which completely agrees with the experimental data.

  4. Ruthenium(II) p-cymene complex bearing 2,2'-dipyridylamine targets caspase 3 deficient MCF-7 breast cancer cells without disruption of antitumor immune response.


    Kaluđerović, Goran N; Krajnović, Tamara; Momcilovic, Miljana; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Mijatović, Sanja; Maksimović-Ivanić, Danijela; Hey-Hawkins, Evamarie


    [Ru(η(6)-p-cym)Cl{dpa(CH2)4COOEt}][PF6] (cym=cymene; dpa=2,2'-dipyridylamine; complex 2) was prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, as well as ESI-MS and X-ray structural analysis. The structural analog without a side chain [Ru(η(6)-p-cym)Cl(dpa)][PF6] (1) as well as 2 were investigated in vitro against 518A2, SW480, 8505C, A253 and MCF-7 cell lines. Complex 1 is active against all investigated tumor cell lines while the activity of compound 2 is limited only to caspase 3 deficient MCF-7 breast cancer cells, however, both are less active than cisplatin. As CD4(+)Th cells are necessary to trigger all the immune effector mechanisms required to eliminate tumor cells, besides testing the in vitro antitumor activity of 1 and 2, the effect of ruthenium(II) complexes on the cells of the adaptive immune system have also been evaluated. Importantly, complex 1 applied in concentrations which were effective against tumor cells did not affect immune cell viability, nor did exert a general immunosuppressive effect on cytokine production. Thus, beneficial characteristics of 1 might contribute to the overall therapeutic properties of the complex.

  5. Synthesis, structures and reactivity of group 4 hydrazido complexes supported by calix[4]arene ligands.


    Clulow, Andrew J; Selby, Jonathan D; Cushion, Michael G; Schwarz, Andrew D; Mountford, Philip


    Reaction of TiCl(2)(Me(2)Calix) with 2 equiv of LiNHNRR' afforded the corresponding terminal hydrazido(2-) complexes Ti(NNRR')(Me(2)Calix) (R = Ph, R' = Ph (1) or Me; R = R' = Me (3)) which were all structurally characterized. The X-ray structure of Ph(2)NNH(2) is reported for comparison. Compound 1 was also prepared from Na(2)[Me(2)Calix] and Ti(NNPh(2))Cl(2)(py)(3). Reaction of ZrCl(2)(Me(2)Calix) with 2 equiv of LiNHNR(2) afforded only the bis(hydrazido(1-)) complexes Zr(NHNR(2))(2)(Me(2)Calix) (R = Ph or Me). Treatment of Ti(NNMe(2))(Me(2)Calix) (3) with MeI gave the zwitterionic hydrazidium species Ti(NNMe(3))(MeCalix) (6) via a net isomerization reaction which was found to be catalytic in MeI. The corresponding reaction of 3 with CD(3)I gave Ti(NNMe(2)CD(3))(MeCalix) (6-d(3)) with concomitant elimination of MeI. Reaction of 3 with 1 equiv of MeOTf gave [Ti(NNMe(3))(Me(2)Calix)][OTf] (7-OTf) which in turn reacted with (n)Bu(4)NI to form 6 and MeI. Addition of PhCHO to 3 gave the mu-oxo dimer [Ti(mu-O)(Me(2)Calix)](2) and benzaldehyde-dimethylhydrazone. Reaction of either 3 or 6 with (t)BuNCO gave the zwitterionic species Ti{(t)BuNC(NNMe(3))O}(MeCalix) (10) which has been crystallographically characterized. Compound 10 is the formal product of insertion of an isocyanate into the Ti=N(alpha) bond of a titanium hydrazide or hydrazidium species (Me(2)Calix or MeCalix = dianion or trianion of the di- or monomethyl ether of p-tert-butyl calix[4]arene, respectively).

  6. Synthesis and reactivity of calix[4]arene-supported group 4 imido complexes.


    Dubberley, Stuart R; Friedrich, Andreas; Willman, David A; Mountford, Philip; Radius, Udo


    New mononuclear titanium and zirconium imido complexes [M(NR)(R'(2)calix)] [M=Ti, R'=Me, R=tBu (1), R=2,6-C(6)H(3)Me(2) (2), R=2,6-C(6)H(3)iPr(2) (3), R=2,4,6-C(6)H(2)Me(3) (4); M=Ti, R'=Bz, R=tBu (5), R=2,6-C(6)H(3)Me(2) (6), R=2,6-C(6)H(3)iPr(2) (7); M=Zr, R'=Me, R=2,6-C(6)H(3)iPr(2) (8)] supported by 1,3-diorganyl ether p-tert-butylcalix[4]arenes (R'(2)calix) were prepared in good yield from the readily available complexes [MCl(2)(Me(2)calix)], [Ti(NR)Cl(2)(py)(3)], and [Ti(NR)Cl(2)(NHMe(2))(2)]. The crystallographically characterised complex [Ti(NtBu)(Me(2)calix)] (1) reacts readily with CO(2), CS(2), and p-tolyl-isocyanate to give the isolated complexes [Ti[N(tBu)C(O)O](Me(2)calix)] (10), [[Ti(mu-O)(Me(2)calix)](2)] (11), [[Ti(mu-S)(Me(2)calix)](2)] (12), and [Ti[N(tBu)C(O)N(-4-C(6)H(4)Me)](Me(2)calix)] (13). In the case of CO(2) and CS(2), the addition of the heterocumulene to the Ti-N multiple bond is followed by a cycloreversion reaction to give the dinuclear complexes 11 and 12. The X-ray structure of 13.4(C(7)H(8)) clearly establishes the N,N'-coordination mode of the ureate ligand in this compound. Complex 1 undergoes tert-butyl/arylamine exchange reactions to form 2, 3, [Ti(N-4-C(6)H(4)Me)(Me(2)calix)] (14), [Ti(N-4-C(6)H(4)Fc)(Me(2)calix)] (15) [Fc=Fe(eta(5)-C(5)H(5))(eta(5)-C(5)H(4))], and [[Ti(Me(2)calix)](2)[mu-(N-4-C(6)H(4))(2)CH(2)

  7. Ru(η6-arene) complexes of combretastatin-analogous oxazoles with enhanced anti-tumoral impact.


    Biersack, Bernhard; Effenberger, Katharina; Knauer, Sebastian; Ocker, Matthias; Schobert, Rainer


    Oxazole-bridged combretastatin A-4 analogues bind to tubulin and exert anti-vascular and anti-angiogenic effects. When linked to Ru(η(6)-arene) complex fragments, conjugates with additional cytotoxic activity result which can ruthenate bionucleophiles such as DNA and proteins. For instance, the Ru(II)(p-cymene)(isonicotinate)Cl(2) complex 6a of the known 4-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-5-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-oxazole 4a was far more active than the latter against cells of the p53-competent wild-type form of HCT-116 colon carcinoma at low 0.01 μM concentrations. A fast reaction of 6a with nucleophilic N-acetyl-L-cysteine was observed in NMR studies. The Ru(arene) complexes 6a-c were also more efficacious against combretastatin-refractory p53(+) cells of human HT-29 colon carcinoma when compared to their parent 4-(3,4-dimethoxy-5-methoxy/halo-phenyl)-5-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-oxazoles 4a-c. These cells are rich in ABC-transporters which are responsible for their multi-drug resistance and for which conjugates 6 are less good substrates than the phenols 4. Unlike 4a, its complex 6a also diminished the motility of human 518A2 melanoma cells in a wound-healing assay which is indicative of anti-metastatic activity in solid tumors. Overall, the Ru(arene) complex conjugates 6 broaden the anti-tumoral spectrum of the combretastatin A-4 analogues 4 considerably.

  8. A new ligand system based on a bipyridine-functionalized calix[4]arene backbone leading to mono- and bimetallic complexes.


    Dorta, Reto; Shimon, Linda J W; Rozenberg, Haim; Ben-David, Yehoshoa; Milstein, David


    The synthesis of a new ligand system for mono- and bimetallic complexes based on a calixarene is described. Ligand BBPC (3, bis(bipyridine)-calix[4]arene) is obtained in three steps in 40% overall yield by first brominating one of the methyl groups of the 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine in two steps and subsequently reacting it with p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene under basic conditions. Reaction of BBPC (3) with 2 equiv of [Rh(NBD)(2)]BF(4) or [Rh(NBD)(CH(3)CN)(2)]BF(4) (NBD = norbornadiene) produces the bimetallic compound BBPC[Rh(NBD)BF(4)](2) (4). Treatment of the ligand with PdCl(2)(CH(3)CN)(2) leads to the isolation of the bimetallic complex BBPC[PdCl(2)](2) (5). When the nickel precursor NiBr(2)(DME) (DME = dimethoxyethane) is reacted with BBPC, the bimetallic complex BBPC[NiBr(2)](2) (6) is isolated which, upon crystallization from methanol, gives the mononuclear bis(bipyridine) complex BBPC[NiBr(OMe)] (7). Full characterization includes X-ray structural studies of complexes 4, 5, and 7. The bimetallic compounds 4 and 5 show metal to metal distances of 4.334 A (for 4) and 3.224 A (for 5). For all three complexes, unique molecular packing arrangements were found, based on hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions.

  9. Ruthenium(II) bipyridine complexes bearing quinoline-azoimine (NN‧N″) tridentate ligands: Synthesis, spectral characterization, electrochemical properties and single-crystal X-ray structure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Noaimi, Mousa; Abdel-Rahman, Obadah S.; Fasfous, Ismail I.; El-khateeb, Mohammad; Awwadi, Firas F.; Warad, Ismail

    Four octahedral ruthenium(II) azoimine-quinoline complexes having the general molecular formula [RuII(Lsbnd Y)(bpy)Cl](PF6) {Lsbnd Y = YC6H4Ndbnd NC(COCH3)dbnd NC9H6N, Y = H (1), CH3 (2), Br (3), NO2 (4) and bpy = 2,2‧-bipyrdine} were synthesized. The azoimine-quinoline based ligands behave as NN‧N″ tridentate donors and coordinated to ruthenium via azo-N‧, imine-N‧ and quinolone-N″ nitrogen atoms. The composition of the complexes has been established by elemental analysis, spectral methods (FT-IR, electronic, 1H NMR, UV/Vis and electrochemical (cyclic voltammetry) techniques. The crystal structure of complex 1 is reported. The Ru(II) oxidation state is greatly stabilized by the novel tridentate ligands, showing Ru(III/II) couples ranging from 0.93-1.27 V vs. Cp2Fe/Cp2Fe+. The absorption spectrum of 1 in dichloromethane was modeled by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT).

  10. Ruthenium(II) bipyridine complexes bearing quinoline-azoimine (NN'N″) tridentate ligands: synthesis, spectral characterization, electrochemical properties and single-crystal X-ray structure analysis.


    Al-Noaimi, Mousa; Abdel-Rahman, Obadah S; Fasfous, Ismail I; El-khateeb, Mohammad; Awwadi, Firas F; Warad, Ismail


    Four octahedral ruthenium(II) azoimine-quinoline complexes having the general molecular formula [Ru(II)(L-Y)(bpy)Cl](PF6) {L-Y=YC6H4N=NC(COCH3)=NC9H6N, Y=H (1), CH3 (2), Br (3), NO2 (4) and bpy=2,2'-bipyrdine} were synthesized. The azoimine-quinoline based ligands behave as NN'N″ tridentate donors and coordinated to ruthenium via azo-N', imine-N' and quinolone-N″ nitrogen atoms. The composition of the complexes has been established by elemental analysis, spectral methods (FT-IR, electronic, (1)H NMR, UV/Vis and electrochemical (cyclic voltammetry) techniques. The crystal structure of complex 1 is reported. The Ru(II) oxidation state is greatly stabilized by the novel tridentate ligands, showing Ru(III/II) couples ranging from 0.93-1.27 V vs. Cp2Fe/Cp2Fe(+). The absorption spectrum of 1 in dichloromethane was modeled by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT).

  11. Proparacaine complexation with beta-cyclodextrin and p-sulfonic acid calix[6]arene, as evaluated by varied (1)H-NMR approaches.


    Arantes, Lucas Micquéias; Scarelli, Camilla; Marsaioli, Anita Jocelyne; de Paula, Eneida; Fernandes, Sergio Antonio


    This study focused on the use of NMR techniques as a tool for the investigation of complex formation between proparacaine and cyclodextrins (CDs) or p-sulfonic acid calix[6]arene. The pH dependence of the complexation of proparacaine with beta-CD and p-sulfonic acid calix[6]arene was studied and binding constants were determined by (1)H NMR spectroscopy [diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY)] for the charged and uncharged forms of the local anesthetic in beta-CD and p-sulfonic acid calix[6]arene. The stoichiometries of the complexes was determined and rotating frame Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (ROESY) 1D experiments revealed details of the molecular insertion of proparacaine into the beta-CD and p-sulfonic acid calix[6]arene cavities. The results unambiguously demonstrate that pH is an important factor for the development of supramolecular architectures based on beta-CD and p-sulfonic acid calix[6]arene as the host molecules. Such host-guest complexes were investigated in view of their potential use as new therapeutic formulations, designed to increase the bioavailability and/or to decrease the systemic toxicity of proparacaine in anesthesia procedures.

  12. Benzocaine complexation with p-sulfonic acid calix[n]arene: experimental ((1) H-NMR) and theoretical approaches.


    Arantes, Lucas M; Varejão, Eduardo V V; Pelizzaro-Rocha, Karin J; Cereda, Cíntia M S; de Paula, Eneida; Lourenço, Maicon P; Duarte, Hélio A; Fernandes, Sergio A


    The aim of this work was to study the interaction between the local anesthetic benzocaine and p-sulfonic acid calix[n]arenes using NMR and theoretical calculations and to assess the effects of complexation on cytotoxicity of benzocaine. The architectures of the complexes were proposed according to (1) H NMR data (Job plot, binding constants, and ROESY) indicating details on the insertion of benzocaine in the cavity of the calix[n]arenes. The proposed inclusion compounds were optimized using the PM3 semiempirical method, and the electronic plus nuclear repulsion energy contributions were performed at the DFT level using the PBE exchange/correlation functional and the 6-311G(d) basis set. The remarkable agreement between experimental and theoretical approaches adds support to their use in the structural characterization of the inclusion complexes. In vitro cytotoxic tests showed that complexation intensifies the intrinsic toxicity of benzocaine, possibly by increasing the water solubility of the anesthetic and favoring its partitioning inside of biomembranes.

  13. Multifaceted interplay between lipophilicity, protein interaction and luminescence parameters of non-intercalative ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes controlling cellular imaging and cytotoxic properties.


    Mazuryk, Olga; Magiera, Katarzyna; Rys, Barbara; Suzenet, Franck; Kieda, Claudine; Brindell, Małgorzata


    Here, we examine the photophysical properties of five ruthenium(II) complexes comprising two 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (dip) ligands and functionalized bipyridine (R₁bpy-R₂, where R₁= H or CH3, R₂= H, CH₃, COO⁻,4-[3-(2-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)propyl] or 1,3-dicyclohexyl-1-carbonyl-urea) towards development of luminescence probes for cellular imaging. These complexes have been shown to interact with albumin and the formed adducts exhibited up to eightfold increase in the luminescence quantum yield as well as the average lifetime of emission. It was demonstrated that they cannot bind to DNA through the intercalation mode and its luminescence in the presence of DNA is quenching. Cell viability experiments indicated that all complexes possess significant dose-dependent cytotoxicity (with IC₅₀ 5-19 μM) on 4T1 breast cancer cell line and their anti-proliferative activity correlates very well with their lipophilicity. Cellular uptake was studied by measuring the ruthenium content in cells using ICP-MS technique. As expected, the better uptake is directly related to higher lipophilicity of doubly charged ruthenium complexes while uptake of monocationic one is much lower in spite of the highest lipophilicity. Additionally staining properties were assessed using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. These experiments showed that complex with 1,3-dicyclohexyl-1-carbonyl-urea substituent exhibits the best staining properties in spite of the lowest luminescence quantum yield in buffered solution (pH 7.4). Our results point out that both the imaging and cytotoxic properties of the studied ruthenium complexes are strongly influence by the level of internalization and protein interaction.

  14. Ruthenium(II) Complex Incorporated UiO-67 Metal-Organic Framework Nanoparticles for Enhanced Two-Photon Fluorescence Imaging and Photodynamic Cancer Therapy.


    Chen, Rui; Zhang, Jinfeng; Chelora, Jipsa; Xiong, Yuan; Kershaw, Stephen V; Li, King Fai; Lo, Pik-Kwan; Cheah, Kok Wai; Rogach, Andrey L; Zapien, Juan Antonio; Lee, Chun-Sing


    Ruthenium(II) tris(bipyridyl) cationic complex (Ru(bpy)3(2+)) incorporated UiO-67 (Universitetet i Oslo) nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (NMOFs) with an average diameter of ∼92 nm were developed as theranostic nanoplatform for in vitro two-photon fluorescence imaging and photodynamic therapy. After incorporation into porous UiO-67 nanoparticles, the quantum yield, luminescence lifetime, and two-photon fluorescence intensity of Ru(bpy)3(2+) guest molecules were much improved owing to the steric confinement effect of MOF pores. Benefiting from these merits, the as-synthesized nanoparticles managed to be internalized by A549 cells while providing excellent red fluorescence in cytoplasm upon excitation with 880 nm irradiation. Photodynamic therapeutic application of the Ru(bpy)3(2+)-incorporated UiO-67 NMOFs was investigated in vitro. The Ru(bpy)3(2+)-incorporated UiO-67 NMOFs exhibited good biocompatibility without irradiation while having good cell-killing rates upon irradiation. In view of these facts, the developed Ru(bpy)3(2+)-incorporated NMOFs give a new potential pathway to achieve enhanced two-photon fluorescence imaging and photodynamic therapy.

  15. A ruthenium(II) complex as turn-on Cu(II) luminescent sensor based on oxidative cyclization mechanism and its application in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunfei; Liu, Zonglun; Yang, Kui; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Yongqian; Li, Hongjuan; Wang, Chaoxia; Lu, Aiping; Sun, Shiguo


    Copper ions play a vital role in a variety of fundamental physiological processes not only in human beings and plants, but also for extensive insects and microorganisms. In this paper, a novel water-soluble ruthenium(II) complex as a turn-on copper(II) ions luminescent sensor based on o-(phenylazo)aniline was designed and synthesized. The azo group would undergo a specific oxidative cyclization reaction with copper(II) ions and turn into high luminescent benzotriazole, triggering significant luminescent increasements which were linear to the concentrations of copper(II) ions. The sensor distinguished by its high sensitivity (over 80-fold luminescent switch-on response), good selectivity (the changes of the emission intensity in the presence of other metal ions or amino acids were negligible) and low detection limit (4.42 nM) in water. Moreover, the copper(II) luminescent sensor exhibited good photostability under light irradiation. Furthermore, the applicability of the proposed sensor in biological samples assay was also studied and imaged copper(II) ions in living pea aphids successfully. PMID:25640000

  16. A ruthenium(II) complex as turn-on Cu(II) luminescent sensor based on oxidative cyclization mechanism and its application in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunfei; Liu, Zonglun; Yang, Kui; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Yongqian; Li, Hongjuan; Wang, Chaoxia; Lu, Aiping; Sun, Shiguo


    Copper ions play a vital role in a variety of fundamental physiological processes not only in human beings and plants, but also for extensive insects and microorganisms. In this paper, a novel water-soluble ruthenium(II) complex as a turn-on copper(II) ions luminescent sensor based on o-(phenylazo)aniline was designed and synthesized. The azo group would undergo a specific oxidative cyclization reaction with copper(II) ions and turn into high luminescent benzotriazole, triggering significant luminescent increasements which were linear to the concentrations of copper(II) ions. The sensor distinguished by its high sensitivity (over 80-fold luminescent switch-on response), good selectivity (the changes of the emission intensity in the presence of other metal ions or amino acids were negligible) and low detection limit (4.42 nM) in water. Moreover, the copper(II) luminescent sensor exhibited good photostability under light irradiation. Furthermore, the applicability of the proposed sensor in biological samples assay was also studied and imaged copper(II) ions in living pea aphids successfully.

  17. Influence of different ruthenium(II) bipyridyl complex on the photocatalytic H 2 evolution over TiO 2 nanoparticles with mesostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Tianyou; Ke, Dingning; Cai, Ping; Dai, Ke; Ma, Liang; Zan, Ling

    H 2 production over dye-sensitized Pt/TiO 2 nanoparticles with mesostructures (m-TiO 2) under visible light (λ > 420 nm) was investigated by using methanol as electron donors. Experimental results indicate that three types of ruthenium(II) bipyridyl complex dyes (one binuclear Ru, two mononuclear Ru), which can be attached to Pt/ m-TiO 2 with different linkage modes, show different photosensitization effects due to their different coordination circumstances and physicochemical properties. The dye tightly linked with m-TiO 2 has better durability but the lowest H 2 evolution efficiency, whereas the loosely attached dyes possess higher H 2 evolution efficiency and preferable durability. It seems that the dynamic equilibrium between the linkage of the ground state dye with TiO 2 and the divorce of the oxidization state dye from the surfaces plays a crucial role in the photochemical behavior during the photocatalyst sensitization process. It is helpful to improve the H 2 evolution efficiency by enhancing the electron injection and hindering the backward transfer. The binuclear Ru(II) dye shows a better photosensitization in comparison with mononuclear Ru(II) dyes due to its large molecular area, conjugation system, and "antenna effect", which, in turn, improve the visible light harvesting and electron transfer between the dye molecules and TiO 2.

  18. In vitro evaluation of the cyto-genotoxic potential of Ruthenium(II) SCAR complexes: a promising class of antituberculosis agents.


    De Grandis, Rone Aparecido; Resende, Flávia Aparecida; da Silva, Monize Martins; Pavan, Fernando Rogério; Batista, Alzir Azevedo; Varanda, Eliana Aparecida


    Tuberculosis is a top infectious disease killer worldwide, caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Increasing incidences of multiple drug-resistance (MDR) strains are emerging as one of the major public health threats. However, the drugs in use are still incapable of controlling the appalling upsurge of MDR. In recent years a marked number of research groups have devoted their attention toward the development of specific and cost-effective antimicrobial agents against targeted MDR-Tuberculosis. In previous studies, ruthenium(II) complexes (SCAR) have shown a promising activity against MDR-Tuberculosis although few studies have indeed considered ruthenium toxicity. Therefore, within the preclinical requirements, we have sought to determine the cyto-genotoxicity of three SCAR complexes in this present study. The treatment with the SCARs induced a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability in CHO-K1 and HepG2 cells. Based on the clonogenic survival, SCAR 5 was found to be more cytotoxic while SCAR 6 exhibited selectivity action on tumor cells. Although SCAR 4 and 5 did not indicate any mutagenic activity as evidenced by the Ames and Cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome assays, the complex SCAR 6 was found to engender a frameshift mutation detected by Salmonella typhimurium in the presence of S9. Similarly, we observed a chromosomal damage in HepG2 cells with significant increases of micronuclei and nucleoplasmic bridges. These data indicate that SCAR 4 and 5 complexes did not show genotoxicity in our models while SCAR 6 was considered mutagenic. This study presented a comprehensive genotoxic evaluation of SCAR complexes were shown to be genotoxic in vitro. All in all, further studies are required to fully elucidate how the properties can affect human health.

  19. Ground- and excited-state properties of ruthenium(II) complexes containing tridentate azine ligands, Ru(tpy)(bpy)L{sup 2+}, where L is a polymerizable acetylene

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, S.C.; Ronco, S.E.; Mlsna, D.A.; Billadeau, M.A.; Pennington, W.T.; Kolis, J.W.; Petersen, J.D.


    A series of polypyridyl ruthenium(II) complexes containing monodentate pyridyl- and cyano-substituted acetylenes have been prepared. Complexes of the type Ru(tpy)(bpy)L{sup 2+} (where tpy = 2,2{prime}:6{prime}:2{double_prime}-terpyridine (C{sub 15}H{sub 11}N{sub 3}), bpy = 2,2{prime}-bipyridine (C{sub 10}H{sub 8}N{sub 2}), and L = pyridine (py) (C{sub 5}H{sub 5}N), pyridylacetylene (PA) (C{sub 7}H{sub 5}N), phenylpyridylacetylene (PPA) (C{sub 10}H{sub 9}N), dipyridylacetylene (DPA) (C{sub 12}H{sub 8}N{sub 2}), CH{sub 3}CN, cyanoacetylene (CA) (C{sub 3}HN), and cyanophenylacetylene (CPA) (C{sub 9}H{sub 5}N)) have been prepared, and their synthesis and characterization are reported herein. The complexes [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(PPA)](PF{sub 6}){sub 2}{center_dot}(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CO, [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(PA)](PF{sub 6}){sub 2}{center_dot}(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CO, and [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(CH{sub 3}CN)](PF{sub 6}){sub 2} have been crystallized and the crystal structures determined. [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(CH{sub 3}CN)](PF{sub 6}){sub 2} crystallizes in the monoclinic P2{sub 1}/c space group. [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(PA)](PF{sub 6}){sub 2}{center_dot}(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CO crystallizes in the triclinic P{bar 1} space group. [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(PPA)](PF{sub 6}){sub 2}{center_dot}(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CO crystallizes in the triclinic P{bar 1} space group. The inclusion of the functionalized acetylene groups makes these complexes possible precursors to metal-coordinated polyacetylenes.

  20. Simultaneous determination of hydrazine and phenyl hydrazine using 4′-(4-carboxyphenyl)-2,2′:6′,2″ terpyridine diacetonitrile triphenylphosphine ruthenium(II) tetrafluoroborate complex functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, Ida; Gupta, Mandakini; Sinha, Preeti; Banks, Craig E.


    Highlights: • A nanocomposite of ruthenium(II) terpyridine, triphenylphosphine based complex and multiwalled carbon nanotubes have been used first time for simultaneous detection of hydrazine and phenyl hydrazine. • The detection limit reported is lower as compared to other reported works. • The paper also focuses towards effect of ligand variation attached to ruthenium(II) terpyridine based complexes complex for the hydrazine and phenyl hydrazine detection. • Nanocomposite does not involve any biological entity hence high stability. - Abstract: A nanocomposite based on the incorporation of the complex 4′-(4-carboxyphenyl)-2,2′:6′,2″ terpyridine triphenylphosphine diacetonitrile ruthenium(II) tetrafluoroborate with multiwalled carbon nanotubes and ionomer supported upon a glassy carbon electrode substrate is reported and characterized with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The electrochemical behavior and stability of the composite electrode was investigated via cyclic voltammetry. The modified electrode exhibits an electro-catalytic activity towards the oxidation of both hydrazine and phenyl hydrazine in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS, pH 7.4). The oxidation of hydrazine and phenyl hydrazine occurs at 0.81 V and 0.32 V with limit of detection found to be 3.7 × 10{sup −7} M and 1.15 × 10{sup −7} M and having a linear range from 5 × 10{sup −6} M to 6.5 × 10{sup −3} M, and 5 × 10{sup −6} M to 0.2 × 10{sup −3} M, respectively.

  1. Ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes bearing quinoline-based NNO tridentate ligands as catalyst for one-pot conversion of aldehydes to amides and o-allylation of phenols.


    Manikandan, R; Prakash, G; Kathirvel, R; Viswanathamurthi, P


    Six new octahedral ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes having the general molecular formula [RuCl(CO)(B)L(1-2)] (B = PPh3, AsPh3 or py; L(1-2) = quinoline based NNO ligand) were synthesized. The quinoline based ligands behave as monoanionic tridentate donor and coordinated to ruthenium via ketoenolate oxygen, azomethine nitrogen and quinoline nitrogen. The composition of the complexes has been established by elemental analysis and spectral methods (FT-IR, electronic, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, (31)P NMR and ESI-Mass). The complexes were used as efficient catalysts for one-pot conversion of various aldehydes to their corresponding primary amides in presence of NH2OH · HCl and NaHCO3. The effect of catalyst loading and reaction temperature on catalytic activity of the ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes were also investigated. The synthesized complexes also possess good catalytic activity for the o-allylation of phenols in the presence of K2CO3 under mild conditions. The complexes afforded branched allyl aryl ethers according to a regioselective reaction.

  2. Sensitization of nanocrystalline TiO2 anchored with pendant catechol functionality using a new tetracyanato ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complex.


    Kar, Prasenjit; Verma, Sandeep; Sen, Anik; Das, Amitava; Ganguly, Bishwajit; Ghosh, Hirendra Nath


    We have synthesized a new photoactive ruthenium(II) complex having a pendant catechol functionality (K(2)[Ru(CN)(4)(L)] (1) (L is 4-[2-(4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridinyl-4-yl)vinyl]benzene-1,2-diol) for studying the dynamics of the interfacial electron transfer between nanoparticulate TiO(2) and the photoexcited states of this Ru(II) complex using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Steady-state absorption and emission studies revealed that the complex 1 showed a strong solvatochromic behavior in solvents or solvent mixtures of varying polarity. Our steady-state absorption studies further revealed that 1 is bound to TiO(2) surfaces through the catechol functionality, though 1 has two different types of functionalities (catecholate and cyanato) for binding to TiO(2) surfaces. The longer wavelength absorption band tail for 1, bound to TiO(2) through the proposed catecholate functionality, could also be explained on the basis of the DFT calculations. Dynamics of the interfacial electron transfer between 1 and TiO(2) nanoparticles was investigated by studying kinetics at various wavelengths in the visible and near-infrared region. Electron injection to the conduction band of the nanoparticulate TiO(2) was confirmed by detection of the conduction band electron in TiO(2) ([e(-)](TiO(2))(CB)) and cation radical of the adsorbed dye (1(*+)) in real time as monitored by transient absorption spectroscopy. A single exponential and pulse-width limited (<100 fs) electron injection was observed. Back electron transfer dynamics was determined by monitoring the decay kinetics of 1(*+) and [e(-)](TiO(2))(CB). This is the first report on ultrafast ET dynamics on TiO(2) nanoparticle surface using a solvatochromic sensitizer molecule.

  3. Catalysis of the carbonylation of olefins by the cationic chromium complexes allyl(arene)dicarbonylchromium(I) tetrafluoroborates

    SciTech Connect

    Magomedov, G.K.I.; Morozova, L.V.; Sigachev, S.A.; Krivykh, V.V.; Taits, E.S.; Rybinskaya, M.I.


    A qualitative comparison of the catalytic activities of the title complexes and cobalt carbonyl showed that (arene)allyldicarbonylchromium(I) tetrafluoroborates are more active than cobalt carbonyl, and this applies particularly to (C/sub 6/H/sub 6/Cr(CO)/sub 2/..pi..-C/sub 3/H/sub 5/)/sup +/BF/sub 4/. The possibility is not ruled out that in the course of the synthesis the acid HBF/sub 4/ is generated, and this is known to be a catalyst for the Koch reaction, but in this reaction only secondary and tertiary carboxy derivatives, i.e., only products of addition in accordance with the Markovnikov rule, are formed. In view of these results the authors investigated the activity of the title complexes in the hydroformylation process, an important industrial method for the preparation of aldehydes and alcohols.

  4. Activation of C-H bonds of arenes: selectivity and reactivity in bis(pyridyl) platinum(II) complexes.


    Zhang, Fenbao; Kirby, Christopher W; Hairsine, Douglas W; Jennings, Michael C; Puddephatt, Richard J


    The reaction of [PtMe2(NN)] and B(C6F5)3/H2O in CF3CH2OH with arenes Ar-H gives [PtAr{HOB(C6F5)3}(LL)] if the bis(pyridyl) ligand NN forms a six-membered, but not five-membered, chelate ring; methyl-substituted arenes give selectivity for metalation of meta > para > ortho, but methoxy-substituted arenes give ortho > meta, para.

  5. Complex behavior and source model of the tremor at Arenal volcano, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesage, Philippe; Mora, Mauricio M.; Alvarado, Guillermo E.; Pacheco, Javier; Métaxian, Jean-Philippe


    Typical records of volcanic tremor and explosion quakes at Arenal volcano are analyzed with a high-resolution time-frequency method. The main characteristics of these seismic signals are: (1) numerous regularly spaced spectral peaks including both odd and even overtones; (2) frequency gliding in the range [0.9-2] Hz of the fundamental peak; (3) frequency jumps with either positive or negative increments; (4) tremor episodes with two simultaneous systems of spectral peaks affected by independent frequency gliding; (5) progressive transitions between spasmodic tremor and harmonic tremor; (6) lack of clear and systematic relationship between the occurrence of explosions and tremor. Some examples of alternation between two states of oscillation characterized by different fundamental frequencies are also observed. Some tremor and explosion codas are characterized by acoustic and seismic waves with identical spectral content and frequency gliding, which suggests a common excitation process. We propose a source model for the tremor at Arenal in which intermittent gas flow through fractures produces repetitive pressure pulses. The repeating period of the pulses is stabilized by a feedback mechanism associated with standing or traveling waves in the magmatic conduit. The pressure pulses generate acoustic waves in the atmosphere and act as excitation of the interface waves in the conduit. When the repeating period of the pulses is stable enough, they produce regularly spaced spectral peaks by the Dirac comb effect and hence harmonic tremor. When the period stability is lost, because of failures in the feedback mechanism, the tremor becomes spasmodic. The proposed source model of tremor is similar to the sound emission process of a clarinet. Fractures in the solid or viscous layer capping the lava pool in the crater act as the clarinet reed, and the conduit filled with low velocity bubbly magma is equivalent to the pipe of the musical instrument. The frequency gliding is

  6. A triphenylamine-grafted imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline ruthenium(II) complex: acid-base and photoelectric properties.


    Fan, Su-Hua; Zhang, An-Guo; Ju, Chuan-Chuan; Gao, Li-Hua; Wang, Ke-Zhi


    A new heteroleptic ruthenium(II) complex of [Ru(Hipdpa)(Hdcbpy)(NCS)(2)](-).0.5H(+).0.5[N(C(4)H(9))(4)](+) Ru(Hipdpa) {where Hdcbpy = monodeprotonated 4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridine and Hipdpa = 4-(1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthrolin-2-yl)-N,N-diphenylaniline} was synthesized and characterized by elementary analysis, standard spectroscopy techniques, and cyclic voltammetry. The ground- and excited-state acid-base properties of Ru(Hipdpa) were studied by means of UV-vis absorption spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric titrations in 4:1(v/v) Britton-Robinson/dimethylformamide buffer solution. The four-step separate protonation/deprotonation processes were found in the ground states, and one of which taking place near the physiological pH range. The two observable excited-state protonation/deprotonation processes were found for the Ru(Hipdpa), constituting pH-induced "off-on-off" emission switches. The performance of the complexes as photosensitizers in nanocrystalline TiO(2)-based liquid solar cells containing an electrolyte solution (0.05 M I(2), 0.5 M LiI, and 0.5 M 4-tert-butylpyridine in 50% acetonitrile and 50% propylene carbonate) was investigated and found to achieve a much improved device performance (a short-circuit photocurrent density of 18.7 mA cm(-2), an open-circuit voltage of 630 mV, and an overall conversion efficiency of 6.85%) compared to a triphenylamine-free parent complex [Ru(Hpip)(Hdcbpy)(NCS)(2)](-).[N(C(4)H(9))(4)](+)-based device {Hpip = 2-phenyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline} and a comparable performance to that of cis-bis(isothiocyanato)bis(2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid)ruthenium(II) (N3) under identical experimental conditions. A density functional theory calculation of the molecular structures and electronic properties of the complexes was also carried out in an effort to understand their effectiveness in TiO(2)-based solar cells.

  7. 3-Hydroxyflavones vs. 3-hydroxyquinolinones: structure-activity relationships and stability studies on Ru(II)(arene) anticancer complexes with biologically active ligands.


    Kurzwernhart, Andrea; Kandioller, Wolfgang; Enyedy, Éva A; Novak, Maria; Jakupec, Michael A; Keppler, Bernhard K; Hartinger, Christian G


    Ru(II)(η(6)-arene) complexes, especially with bioactive ligands, are considered to be very promising compounds for anticancer drug design. We have shown recently that Ru(II)(η(6)-p-cymene) complexes with 3-hydroxyflavone ligands exhibit very high in vitro cytotoxic activities correlating with a strong inhibition of topoisomerase IIα. In order to expand our knowledge about the structure-activity relationships and to determine the impact of lipophilicity of the arene ligand and of the hydrolysis rate on anticancer activity, a series of novel 3-hydroxyflavone derived Ru(II)(η(6)-arene) complexes were synthesised. Furthermore, the impact of the heteroatom in the bioactive ligand backbone was studied by comparing the cytotoxic activity of Ru(II)(η(6)-p-cymene) complexes of 3-hydroxyquinolinone ligands with that of their 3-hydroxyflavone analogues. To better understand the behaviour of these Ru(II) complexes in aqueous solution, the stability constants and pK(a) values for complexes and the corresponding ligands were determined. Furthermore, the interaction with the DNA model 5'-GMP and with a series of amino acids was studied in order to identify potential biological target structures.

  8. Kinetics of photoinduced electron transfer reactions of ruthenium(II) complexes and phenols, tyrosine, N-acetyl-tyrosine and tryptophan in aqueous solutions measured with modulated fluorescence spectroscopy.


    Nguyen, Truong X; Landgraf, Stephan; Grampp, Günter


    Photooxidation kinetics of phenol, 1-naphthol, 2-naphthol, tyrosine (TyrOH) and N-acetyl-tyrosine (AcTyrOH), tryptophan (TrpH) by ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes: [Ru(bpy)3]Cl2 (1), [Ru(phen)3]Cl2 (2), [Ru(bpy)(phen)(bpg)]Cl2 (3), and [Ru(dpq)2(bxbg)]Cl2 (4) where bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, phen - 1,10-phenanthroline, bpg - bipyridine-glycoluril, dpq - dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline, and bxbg - bis(o-xylene)bipyridine-glycoluril are investigated. Rate constants have been measured by steady-state luminescence and phase-modulation fluorometry in aqueous solutions at different pH's. The rates for the oxidation of the phenols and phenolic aromatic amino acids spreads over a wide range from 4.2×10(6) to 6.8×10(9)M(-1)s(-1), depending on pH and the nature of solutes. At pH>pKa of the quenchers, the presence of reactive species (PhO(-)) in the alkaline solutions is accounted for the rapid ET rates. In the pH range between 4 and 10 (pHcomplex and AcTyrOH. Phen ligands and acetyl group cause a steric effect, but strengthen the hydrophobic interactions and thus promote the quenching process. The pH-dependent equation of the observed rate constant for PhOH/AcTyrOH oxidation is expressed as a sum of rates for its protonated, neutral and deprotonated forms.

  9. Ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) 1,2,3-triazolylidene organometallics: a preliminary investigation into the biological activity of 'click' carbene complexes.


    Kilpin, Kelly J; Crot, Stéphanie; Riedel, Tina; Kitchen, Jonathan A; Dyson, Paul J


    Taking advantage of the facile and versatile synthetic properties of 'click' 1,2,3-triazolylidene N-heterocyclic carbenes (tzNHC's), a range of new organometallic Ru(II) and Os(II) arene complexes containing functionalised tzNHC ligands, [M(η(6)-p-cymene)(tzNHC)Cl2] [M = Ru(II), Os(II)], have been synthesised and fully characterised, including the X-ray crystal structure of one of the Os(II) complexes. The tzNHC ligands remain coordinated to the metal centres under relevant physiological conditions, and following binding to the model protein, ubiquitin. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the compounds towards human ovarian cancer cells is dependent on the substituent on the tzNHC ligand but is generally <50 μM and in some cases <1 μM, whilst still retaining a high degree of selectivity towards cancer cells over healthy cells (1.85 μM in A2780 ovarian cancer cells versus 435 μM in human embryonic kidney cells in one case).

  10. Synthesis, characterization, photophysical, and anion-binding studies of luminescent heteroleptic bis-tridentate ruthenium(II) complexes based on 2,6-bis(benzimidazole-2-yl)pyridine and 4'-substituted 2,2':6',2'' terpyridine derivatives.


    Bhaumik, Chanchal; Das, Shyamal; Saha, Debasish; Dutta, Supriya; Baitalik, Sujoy


    A series of heteroleptic tridentate ruthenium(II) complexes of composition [(H(2)pbbzim)Ru(tpy-X)](PF(6))(2) (1-7), where H(2)pbbzim = 2,6-bis(benzimidazole-2-yl)pyridine and tpy-X = 4'-substituted terpyridine ligands with X = H, p-methyl phenyl (PhCH(3)), p-bromomethylphenyl (PhCH(2)Br), p-dibromomethylphenyl (PhCHBr(2)), p-cyanomethylphenyl (PhCH(2)CN), p-triphenylphosphonium methylphenyl bromide (PhCH(2)PPh(3)Br), and 4'-phenylformyl (PhCHO) groups, has been synthesized and characterized by using standard analytical and spectroscopic techniques. These compounds were designed to increase the excited-state lifetime of ruthenium(II) bisterpyridine-type complexes. The X-ray crystal structure of a representative compound 2, which crystallized with monoclinic space group P2(1)/c, has been determined. The absorption spectra, redox behavior, and luminescence properties of the ruthenium(II) complexes have been thoroughly investigated. All of the complexes display moderately strong luminescence at room temperature with lifetimes in the range of 10-58 ns. Correlations have been obtained for the Hammett sigma(p) parameter with their MLCT emission energies, lifetimes, redox potentials, proton NMR chemical shifts, etc. The anion binding properties of all the complexes as well as the parent ligand H(2)pbbzim have been studied in acetonitrile using absorption, emission, and (1)H NMR spectral studies, and it has been observed that the metalloreceptors act as sensors for F(-), AcO(-), and to some extent H(2)PO(4)(-). At a relatively lower concentration of anions, a 1:1 H-bonded adduct is formed; however, in the presence of an excess of anions, stepwise deprotonation of the two benzimidazole N-H fragments occurs, an event which is signaled by the development of vivid colors visible with the naked eye. The receptor-anion binding constants have been evaluated. Cyclic voltammetric (CV) measurements carried out in acetonitrile-dimethylformamide (9:1) provided evidence in favor of

  11. Development of more labile low electron count Co(I) sources: mild, catalytic functionalization of activated alkanes using a [(Cp*Co)2-μ-(η4:η4-arene)] complex.


    Hung-Low, Fernando; Krogman, Jeremy P; Tye, Jesse W; Bradley, Christopher A


    Catalytic transfer dehydrogenation of silyl protected amines, requiring sp(3) C-H bond activation, is mediated by a bridging arene complex of the type [(Cp*Co)(2)-μ-(η(4):η(4)-arene)] under mild conditions. Mechanistic and qualitative rate studies establish the compound as a more reactive Co(I) source when compared to other known Cp*Co(I) complexes.

  12. Syntheses and Characterization of Ruthenium(II) Tetrakis(pyridine)complexes: An Advanced Coordination Chemistry Experiment or Mini-Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Benjamin J.


    An experiment for third-year undergraduate a student is designed which provides synthetic experience and qualitative interpretation of the spectroscopic properties of the ruthenium complexes. It involves the syntheses and characterization of several coordination complexes of ruthenium, the element found directly beneath iron in the middle of the…

  13. Half-sandwich ruthenium-arene complexes with thiosemicarbazones: Synthesis and biological evaluation of [(η6-p-cymene)Ru(piperonal thiosemicarbazones)Cl]Cl complexes

    PubMed Central

    Dourth, Deidra; Shaloski, Michael; Didion, Jacob; Thessing, Jeffrey; Woods, Jason; Crowell, Vernon; Gerasimchuk, Nikolay; Gonzalez-Sarrías, Antonio; Seeram, Navindra P.


    The synthesis and characterization of a number of organometallic ruthenium(II) complexes containing a series of bidentate thiosemicarbazone ligands derived from piperonal is reported. The structure of compounds have been confirmed by spectroscopic analysis (IR and NMR) as well as X-ray crystallographic analysis of [(η6-p-cymene)Ru(pPhTSC)Cl]Cl (4) (pPhTSC is piperonal-N(4)-phenylthiosemicarbazone). The interaction of the complexes ([(η6-p-cymene)Ru(pEtTSC)Cl]Cl) (3) (pEtTSC is piperonal-N(4)-ethylthiosemicarbazone) and 4 with calf thymus DNA, human serum albumin (HSA) and pBR322 plasmid DNA were studied by spectroscopic, gel electrophoresis and hydrodynamic methods. The apparent binding constant for the interaction with DNA was determined to be 3.97 × 103 M−1 and 4.07 × 103 M−1 at 293 K for 3 and 4 respectively. The complexes bind strongly to HSA with binding constants of 2.94 × 104 M−1 and 12.2 × 104 M−1 at 296 K for 3 and 4 respectively. The in vitro anticancer activity of 3 and 4 has been evaluated against two human colon cancer cell line (HCT-116 and Caco-2) with IC50 values in the range 26 – 150 µM. Both 3 and 4 show good activity as a catalytic inhibitor of human topoisomerase II at concentrations as low as 20 µM. The proficiency of 3 and 4 to act as antibacterial agents was also evaluated against six pathogenic bacterial strains with the best activity seen against Gram-positive strains. PMID:21666776

  14. Photoisomerisation in Aminoazobenzene-Substituted Ruthenium(II) Tris(bipyridine) Complexes: Influence of the Conjugation Pathway.


    Amar, Anissa; Savel, Paul; Akdas-Kilig, Huriye; Katan, Claudine; Meghezzi, Hacène; Boucekkine, Abdou; Malval, Jean-Pierre; Fillaut, Jean-Luc


    Transition-metal complexes containing stimuli-responsive systems are attractive for applications in optical devices, photonic memory, photosensing, as well as luminescence imaging. Amongst them, photochromic metal complexes offer the possibility of combining the specific properties of the metal centre and the optical response of the photochromic group. The synthesis, the electrochemical properties and the photophysical characterisation of a series of donor-acceptor azobenzene derivatives that possess bipyridine groups connected to a 4-dialkylaminoazobenzene moiety through various linkers are presented. DFT and TD-DFT calculations were performed to complement the experimental findings and contribute to their interpretation. The position and nature of the linker (ethynyl, triazolyl, none) were engineered and shown to induce different electronic coupling between donor and acceptor in ligands and complexes. This in turn led to strong modulations in terms of photoisomerisation of the ligands and complexes.

  15. Mono and binuclear ruthenium(II) complexes containing 5-chlorothiophene-2-carboxylic acid ligands: Spectroscopic analysis and computational studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swarnalatha, Kalaiyar; Kamalesu, Subramaniam; Subramanian, Ramasamy


    New Ruthenium complexes I, II and III were synthesized using 5-chlorothiophene-2-carboxylic acid (5TPC), as ligand and the complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H, 13C NMR, and mass spectroscopic techniques. Photophysical and electrochemical studies were carried out and the structures of the synthesized complex were optimized using density functional theory (DFT). The molecular geometry, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energies and Mulliken atomic charges of the molecules are determined at the B3LYP method and standard 6-311++G (d,p) basis set starting from optimized geometry. They possess excellent stabilities and their thermal decomposition temperatures are 185 °C, 180 °C and 200 °C respectively, indicating that the metal complexes are suitable for the fabrication processes of optoelectronic devices.

  16. Synthesis of novel p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene Schiff bases and their complexes with C60, potential HIV-Protease inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadra, Khalid Abu; Mizyed, Shehadeh; Marji, Deeb; Haddad, Salim F.; Ashram, Muhammad; Foudeh, Ayat


    Some p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene Schiff base crown ethers were synthesized, characterized using 1H, 13C-NMR, DEPT 135 and Mass spectrometry. Their complexes with C60 were isolated and characterized. The inhibition effect of these complexes on HIVP was studied and found that complexes of 9 and 10 have comparable Ki values to Pepstatine which is known as HIVP inhibitor and used as a control. The synthesis of the ligands, complexes and the inhibition behavior are discussed in this article.

  17. Synthesis, crystal structure and cytotoxic activity of ruthenium(II) piano-stool complex with N,N-chelating ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogala, Patrycja; Jabłońska-Wawrzycka, Agnieszka; Kazimierczuk, Katarzyna; Borek, Agnieszka; Błażejczyk, Agnieszka; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Barszcz, Barbara


    A mononuclear compound of the general formula [(η6-p-cymene)RuIICl(2,2‧-PyBIm)]PF6 has been synthesized from a bidentate N,N-donor ligand, viz. 2,-(2‧-pyridyl)benzimidazole (2,2‧-PyBIm) and the corresponding chloro-complex [(η6-p-cymene)Ru(μ-Cl)Cl]2 (precursor). The isolated coordination compound was characterized by IR, UV-vis and 1H, 13C NMR spectroscopies. The single crystal X-ray analysis of the complex reveals that the asymmetric part of the unit cell consists of two symmetrically independent, [(η6-p-cymene)RuCl(2,2‧-PyBIm)]+ cationic complexes. Each cation exhibits a pseudo-octahedral three-legged piano-stool geometry, in which three "legs" are occupied by one chloride ion and two nitrogen donor atoms of the chelating ligand 2,2‧-PyBIm. The Hirshfeld surface analysis of obtained complex was determined, too. The ionic nature of the compound is identified by a strong band at around 830 cm-1 due to the νP-F stretching mode of the PF6- counter ion. The electronic spectrum of this monomeric complex displays high intensity bands in the ultraviolet region assignable to π→π*/n→π* transitions, as well as a band attributable to the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) dπ(Ru)→π*(L) transition. Additionally, the complex has been screened for its cytotoxicity against three human cancer lines: non-small cell lung carcinoma (A549), colon adenocarcinoma (HT29) and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) as well as normal mice fibroblast cells (BALB/3T3). The complex demonstrated a moderate antiproliferative activity against the cell lines tested.

  18. Synthesis and cytotoxicity of dinuclear complexes containing ruthenium(II) bipyridyl units linked by a bis(pyridylimine) ligand.


    McDonnell, Ursula; Kerchoffs, Jessica M C A; Castineiras, Rosa P M; Hicks, Matthew R; Hotze, Anna C G; Hannon, Michael J; Rodger, Alison


    Enantiopure dinuclear ruthenium polypyridyl complexes of the form [Ru(2)(LL)(4)L(1)](PF(6))(4) (LL = 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) or 1,10-phenanthroline (phen); L(1)= C(25)H(20)N(4) a bis(pyridylimine) ligand containing a diphenylmethane spacer) have been synthesized using the chiral building blocks cis-[Ru(bpy)(2)(py)(2)](2+) and cis-[Ru(phen)(2)(py)(2)](2+). These dinuclear ruthenium complexes have been characterised using NMR, mass spectrometry, UV-visible absorbance, circular dichroism and linear dichroism. The compounds exhibit good photo and thermal stability. The extinction coefficient for the bpy complex at 478 nm is epsilon(478) = 15,700 mol(-1) cm(-1) dm(3) and for the phen complex is epsilon(478) = 24,900 mol(-1) cm(-1) dm(3). Both complexes have their longest wavelength (metal to ligand charge transfer) transition predominantly x/y (short axis)-polarised while the transitions at shorter wavelength are a mixture of x/y and z-polarisations, similar to both the copper helicate and iron triple helicate studied previously. Cytotoxicity studies reveal that the compounds are dramatically less active against cancer cell lines than the recently reported supramolecular cylinders prepared from the same bis(pyridylimine) ligand.

  19. Gold(I)-mediated C-H activation of arenes.


    Lu, Pengfei; Boorman, Tanya C; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Larrosa, Igor


    We demonstrate the first Au(I)-mediated C-H activation of arenes. Au(I) salts undergo C-H activation with electron-poor arenes, in stark contrast to Au(III) salts, which activate electron-rich arenes. This operationally simple and highly regioselective process occurs under very mild conditions and gives access to a variety of Au(I)-arene complexes in excellent yields.

  20. Chemiluminescence reactions with cationic, neutral, and anionic ruthenium(II) complexes containing 2,2'-bipyridine and bathophenanthroline disulfonate ligands.


    Francis, Paul S; Papettas, Dimitra; Zammit, Elizabeth M; Barnett, Neil W


    Ruthenium complexes containing 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline disulfonate (bathophenanthroline disulfonate; BPS) ligands, Ru(BPS)(3)(4-), Ru(BPS)(2)(bipy)(2-) and Ru(BPS)(bipy)(2), were compared to tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) (Ru(bipy)(3)(2+)), including examination of the wavelengths of maximum absorption and corrected emission intensity, photoluminescence quantum yield, stability of their oxidised ruthenium(III) form, and relative chemiluminescence intensities and signal-to-blank ratios with cerium(IV) sulfate and six analytes (codeine, morphine cocaine, potassium oxalate, furosemide and hydrochlorothiazide) in acidic aqueous solution. The presence of BPS ligands in the complex increased the photoluminescence quantum yield, but decreased the stability of the oxidised form of the reagent. In contrast to previous evidence showing much greater electrochemiluminescence intensities using Ru(BPS)(2)(bipy)(2-) and Ru(BPS)(bipy)(2), these complexes did not provide superior chemiluminescence signals than their homoleptic analogues.

  1. Synthesis and spectral characterization of 2'-hydroxy chalconate complexes of ruthenium(II) and their catalytic and biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthukumar, M.; Viswanathamurthi, P.; Natarajan, K.


    The reactions of [RuHCl(CO)(B)(EPh 3) 2] (B = EPh 3 or pyridine; E = P or As) and 2'-hydroxychalcones in 1:2 ratio led to the formation of [Ru(CO)(B)(L) 2] (B = PPh 3, AsPh 3 or Py; L = 2'-hydroxychalcones). The new complexes have been characterized by analytical and spectral (IR, electronic and 1H NMR) data. They have been assigned an octahedral structure. The new complexes were found to catalyze the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes using N-methylmorpholine- N-oxide as co-oxidant. All the new complexes were found to be active against bacteria such as E. coli, Salmonella typhi and fungi Aspergillus niger. The activity was compared with standard Streptomycin or Bavistin.

  2. Influence of bridging ligand unsaturation on excited state behavior in mono- and bimetallic ruthenium(II) diimine complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Baba, A.I.; Ensley, H.E.; Schmehl, R.H.


    The redox and photophysical properties of a series of bis(bipyridine)-bridged bimetallic complexes of the type [(dmb){sub 2}Ru(BL)](PF{sub 6}){sub 2} and ([(dmb){sub 2}Ru]{sub 2}(BL))(PF{sub 6}){sub 4} (dmb = 4,4{prime}-dimethyl-2,2{prime}-bipyridine; BL = 1,4-bis(4{prime}-methyl-2,2{prime}-bipyridin-4-yl)buta-1,3-diene (bbdb), 1,4-bis(4{prime}-methyl-2,2{prime}-bipyridin-4-yl)-2-cyclohexene -5,6-dicarboxylic acid diethyl ester (bchb), and 1,4-bis(r{prime}-methyl-2,2{prime}-bipyridin-4-yl)benzene (bphb)) are reported. Complexes having cyclohexenyl and phenyl bridging ligands have redox and photophysical properties similar to the parent complex of the series, [(dmb){sub 3} Ru](PF{sub 6}){sub 2}. The butadienyl complexes exhibit very weak luminescence and transient absorbance spectra which are indicative of the presence of another excited state. For [(dmb){sub 2}Ru-(bbdb)](PF{sub 6}){sub 2} the room temperature luminescence lifetime differs from the lifetime obtained by transient absorbance and the luminescence and transient absorbance are quenched with different rate constants by a series of triplet quenchers. The results suggest that the complexes of bbdb have a second excited state which is populated along with the {sup 3}MLCT state. A comparison of the luminescence behavior of several different bridged complexes with the triplet energies of related aromatic hydrocarbons suggests that the triplet energy of the bridging ligand is relatively unaffected by coordination.

  3. Crystal structures of resorcin[4]arene and pyrogallol[4]arene complexes with DL-pipecolinic acid. Model compounds for the recognition of the pipecolinyl ring, a key fragment of FK506, through C-H⋯π interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujisawa, Ikuhide; Kitamura, Yuji; Kato, Ryo; Murayama, Kazutaka; Aoki, Katsuyuki


    Resorcin[4]arene (resorcinol cyclic tetramer, abbreviated as RCT) or pyrogallol[4]arene (pyrogallol cyclic tetramer, PCT) form host-guest 1:1 complexes with DL-pipecolinic acid (DL-pipeH), RCT·DL-pipeH·EtOH·8H2O (1), PCT DL-pipeH·EtOH·4H2O (2), and PCT·DL-pipeH·3H2O (3), whose crystal structures have been determined. In each complex, the pipeH ligand is incorporated into the bowl-shaped cavity of the RCT or PCT host molecules through C-H⋯π interactions between alkyl protons of the piperidine ring of pipeH and π-rings of RCT or PCT, forming an [(RCT/PCT)·pipeH] structural fragment. In 1 and 3, two [(RCT/PCT) pipeH] fragments self-associate across an inversion center to form a guest-mediated, obliquely declined dimeric structure [(RCT/PCT)·L-pipeH·D-pipeH (RCT/PCT)]. In 2, each PCT-capped pipeH ligand bridges to two adjacent PCT molecules to form guest-mediated, optically-discrete helical polymers [PCT·L-pipeH]n or [PCT·D-pipeH]n. An 1H NMR experiment shows that the complexation through C-H⋯π interaction between the piperidine ring of pipeH and π-rings of RCT or PCT occurs also in solution, with the binding constants of 9.7 ± 0.6 M-1 for RCT and 26.5 ± 1.5 M-1 for PCT. These complexes provide a synthetic model for the recognition of the pipecolinyl-ring moiety, a key constituent of immunosuppressant drugs such as FK506, FK520 or rapamycin, by their binding proteins through C-H⋯π interaction.

  4. Hydrogenation of imines catalysed by ruthenium(II) complexes based on lutidine-derived CNC pincer ligands.


    Hernández-Juárez, Martín; Vaquero, Mónica; Álvarez, Eleuterio; Salazar, Verónica; Suárez, Andrés


    The preparation of new Ru(II) complexes incorporating fac-coordinated lutidine-derived CNC ligands is reported. These derivatives are selectively deprotonated by (t)BuOK at one of the methylene arms of the pincer, leading to catalytically active species in the hydrogenation of imines.

  5. Teaching Inorganic Photophysics and Photochemistry with Three Ruthenium(II) Polypyridyl Complexes: A Computer-Based Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garino, Claudio; Terenzi, Alessio; Barone, Giampaolo; Salassa, Luca


    Among computational methods, DFT (density functional theory) and TD-DFT (time-dependent DFT) are widely used in research to describe, "inter alia," the optical properties of transition metal complexes. Inorganic/physical chemistry courses for undergraduate students treat such methods, but quite often only from the theoretical point of…

  6. Kinetic and mechanistic study on the reactions of ruthenium(ii) chlorophenyl terpyridine complexes with nucleobases, oligonucleotides and DNA.


    Milutinović, Milan M; Elmroth, Sofi K C; Davidović, Goran; Rilak, Ana; Klisurić, Olivera R; Bratsos, Ioannis; Bugarčić, Živadin D


    In this study, we investigated the ability of Ru(ii) polypyridyl complexes to act as DNA binders. The substitution reactions of three Ru(ii) chlorophenyl terpyridine complexes, i.e. [Ru(Cl-Ph-tpy)(en)Cl]Cl (1), [Ru(Cl-Ph-tpy)(dach)Cl]Cl (2) and [Ru(Cl-Ph-tpy)(bpy)Cl]Cl (3) (Cl-Ph-tpy = 4'-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine, en = 1,2-diaminoethane, dach = 1,2-diaminocyclohexane, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine), with a mononucleotide guanosine-5'-monophosphate (5'-GMP) and oligonucleotides such as fully complementary 15-mer and 22-mer duplexes with a centrally located GG-binding site for DNA, and fully complementary 13-mer duplexes with a centrally located GG-binding site for RNA were studied quantitatively by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Duplex RNA reacts faster with complexes 1-3 than duplex DNA, while shorter duplex DNA (15mer GG) reacts faster compared with 22mer GG duplex DNA. The measured enthalpies and entropies of activation (ΔH(≠) > 0, ΔS(≠) < 0) support an associative mechanism for the substitution process. (1)H NMR spectroscopy studies performed on complex 3 demonstrated that after the hydrolysis of the Cl ligand, it is capable to interact with guanine derivatives (i.e., 9-methylguanine (9MeG) and 5'-GMP) through N7, forming monofunctional adducts. The molecular structure of the cationic compound [Ru(Cl-Ph-tpy)(bpy)Cl]Cl (3) was determined in the solid state by X-ray crystallography. The interactions of 1-3 with calf thymus (CT) and herring testes (HT) DNA were examined by stopped-flow spectroscopy, in which HT DNA was sensibly more reactive than CT DNA. The reactivity towards the formation of Ru-DNA adducts was also revealed by a gel mobility shift assay, showing that complexes 1 and 2 have a stronger DNA unwinding ability compared to complex 3. Overall, the complexes with bidentate aliphatic diamines proved to be superior to those with bpy in terms of capability to bind to the here studied biomolecules.

  7. Enantioselective syntheses of sulfoxides in octahedral ruthenium(II) complexes via a chiral-at-metal strategy.


    Li, Zheng-Zheng; Wen, A-Hao; Yao, Su-Yang; Ye, Bao-Hui


    The preparation of chiral 2-(alkylsulfinyl)phenol compounds by enantioselective coordination-oxidation of the thioether ruthenium complexes with a chiral-at-metal strategy has been developed. The enantiomerically pure sulfoxide complexes Δ-[Ru(bpy)2{(R)-LO-R}](PF6) (bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, HLO-R is 2-(alkylsulfinyl)phenol, R = Me (Δ-1a), Et (Δ-2a), iPr (Δ-3a), Bn (Δ-4a), and Nap (Δ-5a)) and Λ-[Ru(bpy)2{(S)-LO-R}](PF6) (R = Me (Λ-1a), Et (Λ-2a), iPr (Λ-3a), Bn (Λ-4a), and Nap (Λ-5a)) have been synthesized by the reaction of Δ-[Ru(bpy)2(py)2](2+) or Λ-[Ru(bpy)2(py)2](2+) with the prochiral thioether ligands 2-(alkylthio)phenol (HL-R), followed by enantioselective oxidation with m-CPBA as oxidant. The X-ray crystallography was used to verify the stereochemistry of ruthenium complexes and sulfur atoms. The configurations of the ruthenium complexes are stable during the coordination and oxidation reactions. Moreover, the chiral sulfoxide ligands are enantioselectively generated by controlling of the configuration of ruthenium centers in the course of oxidation reaction. That is, the Λ configuration at the ruthenium center generates the S sulfoxide ligand; on the contrary, the Δ configuration of the ruthenium complex originates the R sulfoxide ligand. Acidolysis of Λ-[Ru(bpy)2{(R)-LO-R}](PF6) and Δ-[Ru(bpy)2{(S)-LO-R}](PF6) complexes in the presence of TFA-MeCN afforded the chiral ligands (R)-HLO-R and (S)-HLO-R in 96-99% ee values, respectively. Importantly, the chiral ruthenium complexes can be recycled as Δ/Λ-[Ru(bpy)2(MeCN)2](PF6)2 and reused in a next reaction cycle with complete retention of the configurations at ruthenium centers.

  8. Ruthenium(II) bipyridine complexes bearing new keto-enol azoimine ligands: Synthesis, structure, electrochemistry and DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Noaimi, Mousa; Awwadi, Firas F.; Mansi, Ahmad; Abdel-Rahman, Obadah S.; Hammoudeh, Ayman; Warad, Ismail


    The novel azoimine ligand, Phsbnd NHsbnd Ndbnd C(COCH3)sbnd NHPh(Ctbnd CH) (H2L), was synthesized and its molecular structure was determined by X-ray crystallography. Catalytic hydration of the terminal acetylene of H2L in the presence of RuCl3·3H2O in ethanol at reflux temperature yielded a ketone (L1 = Phsbnd Ndbnd Nsbnd C(COCH3)dbnd Nsbnd Ph(COCH3) and an enol (L2 = Phsbnd Ndbnd Nsbnd C(COCH3)dbnd Nsbnd PhC(OH)dbnd CH2) by Markovnikov addition of water. Two mixed-ligand ruthenium complexes having general formula, trans-[Ru(bpy)(Y)Cl2] (1-2) (where Y = L1 (1) and Y = L2 (2), bpy is 2.2‧-bipyrdine) were achieved by the stepwise addition of equimolar amounts of (H2L) and bpy ligands to RuCl3·3H2O in absolute ethanol. Theses complexes were characterized by elemental analyses and spectroscopic (IR, UV-Vis, and NMR (1D 1H NMR, 13C NMR, (DEPT-135), (DEPT-90), 2D 1H-1H and 13C-1H correlation (HMQC) spectroscopy)). The two complexes exhibit a quasi-reversible one electron Ru(II)/Ru(III) oxidation couple at 604 mV vs. ferrocene/ferrocenium (Cp2Fe0/+) couple along with one electron ligand reduction at -1010 mV. The crystal structure of complex 1 showed that the bidentate ligand L1 coordinates to Ru(II) by the azo- and imine-nitrogen donor atoms. The complex adopts a distorted trans octahedral coordination geometry of chloride ligands. The electronic spectra of 1 and 1+ in dichloromethane have been modeled by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT).

  9. Alkali metal cation complexation by 1,3-alternate, mono-ionisable calix[4]arene-benzocrown-6 compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Surowiec, Malgorzata A.; Custelcean, Radu; Surowiec, Kazimierz; Bartsch, Richard A.


    Alkali metal cation extraction behavior for two series of 1,3-alternate, mono-ionizable calix[4]arene-benzocrown-6 compounds is examined. In Series 1, the proton-ionizable group is a substituent on the benzo group of the polyether ring that directs it away from the crown ether cavity. In Series 2, the proton-ionizable group is attached to one para position in the calixarene framework, thus positioning it over the crown ether ring. Competitive solvent extraction of alkali metal cations from aqueous solutions into chloroform shows high Cs+ efficiency and selectivity. Single-species extraction pH profiles of Cs+ for Series 1 and 2 ligands with the same proton-ionizable group are very similar. Thus, association of Cs+ with the calixcrown ring is more important than the the proton-ionizable group’s position in relation to the crown ether cavity. Solid-state structures are presented for two unionized ligands from Series 2, as is a crystal containing two different ionized ligand–Cs+ complexes.

  10. Multistimuli-responsive supramolecular vesicles based on water-soluble pillar[6]arene and SAINT complexation for controllable drug release.


    Cao, Yu; Hu, Xiao-Yu; Li, Yan; Zou, Xiaochun; Xiong, Shuhan; Lin, Chen; Shen, Ying-Zhong; Wang, Leyong


    Supramolecular binary vesicles based on the host-guest complexation of water-soluble pillar[6]arene (WP6) and SAINT molecule have been successfully constructed, which showed pH-, Ca(2+)-, and thermal-responsiveness. These supramolecular vesicles can efficiently encapsulate model substrate calcein, which then can be efficiently released either by adjusting the solution pH to acidic condition due to the complete disruption of vesicular structure, or particularly, by adding a certain amount of Ca(2+) due to the Ca(2+)-induced vesicle fusion and accompanied by the structure disruption. More importantly, drug loading and releasing experiments demonstrate that an anticancer drug, DOX, can be successfully encapsulated by the supramolecular vesicles, and the resulting DOX-loaded vesicles exhibit efficient release of the encapsulated DOX with the pH adjustment or the introduction of Ca(2+). Cytotoxicity experiments suggest that the resulting DOX-loaded supramolecular vesicles exhibit comparable therapeutic effect for cancer cells as free DOX and the remarkably reduced damage for normal cells as well. The present multistimuli-responsive supramolecular vesicles have great potential applications in the field of controlled drug delivery. In addition, giant supramolecular vesicles (~3 μm) with large internal volume and good stability can be achieved by increasing the temperature of WP6 ⊃ SAINT vesicular solution, and they might have potential applications for bioimaging.

  11. Alkali metal cation complexation by 1,3-alternate, mono-ionisable calix[4]arene-benzocrown-6 compounds


    Surowiec, Malgorzata A.; Custelcean, Radu; Surowiec, Kazimierz; ...


    Alkali metal cation extraction behavior for two series of 1,3-alternate, mono-ionizable calix[4]arene-benzocrown-6 compounds is examined. In Series 1, the proton-ionizable group is a substituent on the benzo group of the polyether ring that directs it away from the crown ether cavity. In Series 2, the proton-ionizable group is attached to one para position in the calixarene framework, thus positioning it over the crown ether ring. Competitive solvent extraction of alkali metal cations from aqueous solutions into chloroform shows high Cs+ efficiency and selectivity. Single-species extraction pH profiles of Cs+ for Series 1 and 2 ligands with the same proton-ionizable groupmore » are very similar. Thus, association of Cs+ with the calixcrown ring is more important than the the proton-ionizable group’s position in relation to the crown ether cavity. Solid-state structures are presented for two unionized ligands from Series 2, as is a crystal containing two different ionized ligand–Cs+ complexes.« less

  12. Formation of a ruthenium(IV)-oxo complex by electron-transfer oxidation of a coordinatively saturated ruthenium(II) complex and detection of oxygen-rebound intermediates in C-H bond oxygenation.


    Kojima, Takahiko; Nakayama, Kazuya; Ikemura, Kenichiro; Ogura, Takashi; Fukuzumi, Shunichi


    A coordinatively saturated ruthenium(II) complex having tetradentate tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine (TPA) and bidentate 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy), [Ru(TPA)(bpy)](2+) (1), was oxidized by a Ce(IV) ion in H(2)O to afford a Ru(IV)-oxo complex, [Ru(O)(H(+)TPA)(bpy)](3+) (2). The crystal structure of the Ru(IV)-oxo complex 2 was determined by X-ray crystallography. In 2, the TPA ligand partially dissociates to be in a facial tridentate fashion and the uncoordinated pyridine moiety is protonated. The spin state of 2, which showed paramagnetically shifted NMR signals in the range of 60 to -20 ppm, was determined to be an intermediate spin (S = 1) by the Evans' method with (1)H NMR spectroscopy in acetone-d(6). The reaction of 2 with various oraganic substrates in acetonitrile at room temperature afforded oxidized and oxygenated products and a solvent-bound complex, [Ru(H(+)TPA)(bpy)(CH(3)CN)], which is intact in the presence of alcohols. The oxygenation reaction of saturated C-H bonds with 2 proceeds by two-step processes: the hydrogen abstraction with 2, followed by the dissociation of the alcohol products from the oxygen-rebound complexes, Ru(III)-alkoxo complexes, which were successfully detected by ESI-MS spectrometry. The kinetic isotope effects in the first step for the reaction of dihydroanthrathene (DHA) and cumene with 2 were determined to be 49 and 12, respectively. The second-order rate constants of C-H oxygenation in the first step exhibited a linear correlation with bond dissociation energies of the C-H bond cleavage.

  13. Dipyrido[4,3-b;5,6-b]acridine derivatives and their ruthenium(II) complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, Chi-Ying; Wang, Tie-Lin; Jang, Youngchan |


    Two of the most common bidentate chelating ligands employed in coordination chemistry are 2,2{prime}-bipyridine (bpy) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen). The latter may be considered as a 3,3{prime}-etheno-bridged derivative of the former. The steric requirements of both ligands are very similar, and differences in the properties of their metal complexes may be mostly attributed to electronic differences arising from the greater electronegativity of phen. The next higher homologue of bpy is 2,2{prime};6,2{double_prime}-terpyridine (tpy), which behave as a tridentate chelator but enjoys many of the same coordination properties as bpy. The coordination chemistry of the analogous 3,3{prime}-etheno-bridged derivatives of tpy has not yet been explored. This report will present the preparation and properties of these derivatives and their complexation with Ru(II).

  14. Structural Studies on Dinuclear Ruthenium(II) Complexes That Bind Diastereoselectively to an Antiparallel Folded Human Telomere Sequence

    PubMed Central


    We report DNA binding studies of the dinuclear ruthenium ligand [{Ru(phen)2}2tpphz]4+ in enantiomerically pure forms. As expected from previous studies of related complexes, both isomers bind with similar affinity to B-DNA and have enhanced luminescence. However, when tested against the G-quadruplex from human telomeres (which we show to form an antiparallel basket structure with a diagonal loop across one end), the ΛΛ isomer binds approximately 40 times more tightly than the ΔΔ, with a stronger luminescence. NMR studies show that the complex binds at both ends of the quadruplex. Modeling studies, based on experimentally derived restraints obtained for the closely related [{Ru(bipy)2}2tpphz]4+, show that the ΛΛ isomer fits neatly under the diagonal loop, whereas the ΔΔ isomer is unable to bind here and binds at the lateral loop end. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the ΔΔ isomer is prevented from binding under the diagonal loop by the rigidity of the loop. We thus present a novel enantioselective binding substrate for antiparallel basket G-quadruplexes, with features that make it a useful tool for quadruplex studies. PMID:24088028

  15. Synthesis and photophysical properties of mono(2,2{prime},2{double_prime}-terpyridine) complexes of ruthenium(II)

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, B.J.; Thompson, D.W.; Culbertson, C.T.


    A series of [Ru(tpy)(X)(Y)(Z)]{sup n+} complexes have been synthesized (tpy = 2,2{prime},2{double_prime}-terpyridine: X = triphenylphosphine (PPh{sub 3}); trans Y = Z = trifluoroacetate (CF{sub 3}CO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}), n = 0(1); trans Y=Z=4-ethylpyridine (4-Etpy), n = 2 (2); trans Y = Z = 4(dimethylamino)pyridine (DMAP), n = 2 (3); Y = 4-Etpy, Z = chloride (Cl{sup {minus}}), n = 1 (4); cis Y = Z = 4-Etpy, n = 2(5); X = Cl{sup {minus}}; trans Y = Z = 4-Etpy, n = 1 (6); X = Y = Z = 4-Etpy, n = 2 (7)) and isolated as their PF{sub 6}{sup {minus}} salts. UV-visible spectroscopic and electrochemical studies have been conducted and photochemical and photophysical properties of representative examples determined. Emission, absorption, and electrochemical properties depend on the nonchromophoric ligands and the coordination geometry. The complexes investigated emit in 4:1 (v/v) EtOH/MeOH glasses at 77 K and have lifetimes which range from 1.1 to 11.0 {mu}s depending on the ancillary ligands. Through a combination of emission spectral fitting and resonance Raman measurements on [Ru(tpy){sub 2}](PF{sub 6}){sub 2}, the acceptor characteristics of tpy as a chromophoric ligand have been analyzed. At room temperature the Ru(II) mono-tpy complexes are short-lived, weak emitters. Emission quantum yields and lifetimes for [Ru(tpy)(4-Etpy){sub 3}](PF{sub 6}){sub 2}(7) and [Ru(tpy){sub 2}](PF{sub 6}){sub 2} in 4:1 (v/v) EtOH/MeOH are strongly temperature dependent from T=90-270 K. These results are consistent with the existence of low-lying dd states which are responsible for the short excited state lifetimes at room temperature and the appearance of ligand-loss photochemistry for 7.

  16. Highly sensitive and selective difunctional ruthenium(II) complex-based chemosensor for dihydrogen phosphate anion and ferrous cation.


    Zheng, Ze-Bao; Duan, Zhi-Ming; Ma, Ying-Ying; Wang, Ke-Zhi


    The anion-interaction properties of a Ru(II) complex of [Ru(bpy)2(Htppip)](ClO4)2·H2O·DMF (RuL) {bpy =2,2'-bipyridine and Htppip =2-(4-(2,6-di(pyridin-2-yl)pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline} were thoroughly investigated in CH3CN and CH3CN/H2O (50:1, v/v) solutions by UV-visible absorption, emission, and (1)H NMR spectra. These analyses revealed that RuL acts as an efficient "turn on" emission sensor for H2PO4(-), and a "turn off" sensor for F(-) and OAc(-); in addition, RuL exhibited slightly disturbed emission spectra in the presence of the other anions studied (Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), NO3(-), and ClO4(-)). The cation-sensing properties of RuL were also studied in both neat CH3CN and aqueous 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid buffer (pH = 7.2)/CH3CN (71/1, v/v) solutions. RuL was found to exhibit a colorimetric sensing ability that was highly selective for Fe(2+), as evidenced by an obvious color change from pale yellow to light red-purple to the naked eye over the other cations studied (Na(+), Mg(2+), Ba(2+), Mn(2+), Fe(3+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+), and Ag(+)). To obtain insights into the possible binding modes and the sensing mechanisms, (1)H NMR spectral analysis, luminescence lifetime measurements, and density functional theoretical calculations were also performed.

  17. Dynamic NMR studies of restricted arene rotation in the chromiu tricarbonyl thiophene and selenophene complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Sanger, Michael J.


    This thesis contains the results of organometallic studies of thiophene and selenophene coordination in transition metal complexes. Chromium tricarbonyl complexes of thiophene, selenophene, and their alkyl-substituted derivatives were prepared and variable-temperature 13C NMR spectra of these complexes were recorded in dimethyl ether. Bandshape analyses of these spectra yielded activation parameters for restricted rotation of the thiophene and selenophene ligands in these complexes. Extended Hueckel molecular orbital calculations (EHMO) of the free thiophene and selenophene ligands and selected chromium tricarbonyl thiophene complexes were performed to better explain the activation barriers of these complexes. The structure of Cr(CO)35-2,5-dimethylthiophene) was established by a single crystal X-ray diffraction study.

  18. Organometallic ruthenium anticancer complexes inhibit human glutathione-S-transferase π.


    Lin, Yu; Huang, Yongdong; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Fuyi; Habtemariam, Abraha; Luo, Qun; Li, Xianchan; Wu, Kui; Sadler, Peter J; Xiong, Shaoxiang


    The organometallic ruthenium(II) anticancer complexes [(η(6)-arene)Ru(en)Cl](+) (arene = p-cymene (1), biphenyl (2) or 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (3); en = ethylenediamine), exhibit in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities. In the present work, we show that they inhibit human glutathione-S-transferase π (GSTπ) with IC50 values of 59.4 ± 1.3, 63.2 ± 0.4 and 37.2 ± 1.1 μM, respectively. Mass spectrometry revealed that complex 1 binds to the S-donors of Cys15, Cys48 within the G-site and Cys102 at the interface of the GSTπ dimer, while complex 2 binds to Cys48 and Met92 at the dimer interface and complex 3 to Cys15, Cys48 and Met92. Moreover, the binding of complex 1 to Cys15 and Cys102, complex 2 to Cys48 and complex 3 to Cys15 induces the irreversible oxidation of the coordinated thiolates to sulfenates. Molecular modeling studies indicate that the coordination of the {(arene)Ru(en)}(2+) fragment to Cys48 blocks the hydrophilic G-site sterically, perhaps preventing substrate from proper positioning and accounting for the reduction in enzymatic activity of ruthenated GSTπ. The binding of the ruthenium arene complexes to Cys102 or Met92 disrupts the dimer interface which is an essential structural feature for the proper functioning of GSTπ, perhaps also contributing to the inhibition of GSTπ.

  19. Rapid and highly sensitive dual-channel detection of cyanide by bis-heteroleptic ruthenium(II) complexes.


    Khatua, Snehadrinarayan; Samanta, Debabrata; Bats, Jan W; Schmittel, Michael


    Two new ruthenium complexes [Ru(bipy)(2)(PDA)](2+) (1) and [Ru(phen)(2)(PDA)](2+) (2) (PDA = 1,10-phenanthroline-4,7-dicarboxaldehyde) have been synthesized to detect cyanide based on the well-known formation of cyanohydrins. Both 1[PF(6)](2) and 2[PF(6)](2) were fully characterized by various spectroscopic techniques and their solid state structures determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Their anion binding properties in pure and aqueous acetonitrile were thoroughly examined using two different channels, i.e., UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL). After addition of only 2 equiv of CN(-), the PL intensity of 1[PF(6)](2) and 2[PF(6)](2) was enhanced ∼55-fold within 15 s along with a diagnostic blue shift of the emission by more than 100 nm. PL titrations of 1[PF(6)](2) and 2[PF(6)](2) with CN(-) in CH(3)CN furnished the very high overall cyanohydrin formation constants log β([CN(-)]) = 15.36 ± 0.44 (β([CN(-)]) = 2.3 × 10(15) M(-2)) and log β([CN(-)]) = 16.37 ± 0.53 (β([CN(-)]) = 2.3 × 10(16) M(-2)), respectively. For both probes, the second constant, K(2), is about 57-84 times less than K(1), suggesting that the cyanohydrin reaction is stepwise. The stepwise mechanism is further supported by results of a (1)H NMR titration of 2[PF(6)](2) with CN(-). The high selectivity of 2[PF(6)](2) for CN(-) was established by PL in the presence of other competing anions. Furthermore, the color change from orange-red to yellow and the appearance of a orange luminescence, which can be observed by the naked eye, provides a simple real-time method for cyanide detection. Finally, theoretical calculations were carried out to elucidate the details of the electronic structure and transitions involved in the ruthenium probes and their cyanide adducts.

  20. Rare-earth metal π-complexes of reduced arenes, alkenes, and alkynes: bonding, electronic structure, and comparison with actinides and other electropositive metals.


    Huang, Wenliang; Diaconescu, Paula L


    Rare-earth metal complexes of reduced π ligands are reviewed with an emphasis on their electronic structure and bonding interactions. This perspective discusses reduced carbocyclic and acyclic π ligands; in certain categories, when no example of a rare-earth metal complex is available, a closely related actinide analogue is discussed. In general, rare-earth metals have a lower tendency to form covalent interactions with π ligands compared to actinides, mainly uranium. Despite predominant ionic interactions in rare-earth chemistry, covalent bonds can be formed with reduced carbocyclic ligands, especially multiply reduced arenes.

  1. Because Trucks Aren't Bicycles: Orthographic Complexity as an Important Variable in Reading Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galletly, Susan A.; Knight, Bruce Allen


    Severe enduring reading- and writing-accuracy difficulties seem a phenomenon largely restricted to nations using complex orthographies, notably Anglophone nations, given English's highly complex orthography (Geva and Siegel, "Read Writ" 12:1-30, 2000; Landerl et al., "Cognition" 63:315-334, 1997; Share, "Psychol Bul"l…

  2. Computational Analysis of a Zn-Bound Tris(imidazolyl) Calix[6]arene Aqua Complex: Toward Incorporating Second-Coordination Sphere Effects into Carbonic Anhydrase Biomimetics.


    Koziol, Lucas; Essiz, Sebnem G; Wong, Sergio E; Lau, Edmond Y; Valdez, Carlos A; Satcher, Joe H; Aines, Roger D; Lightstone, Felice C


    Molecular dynamics simulations and quantum-mechanical calculations were performed to characterize a supramolecular tris(imidazolyl) calix[6]arene Zn(2+) aqua complex, as a biomimetic model for the catalyzed hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate, H2O + CO2 → H(+) + HCO3(-). On the basis of potential-of-mean-force (PMF) calculations, stable conformations had distorted 3-fold symmetry and supported either one or zero encapsulated water molecules. The conformation with an encapsulated water molecule is calculated to be lower in free energy than the conformation with an empty cavity (ΔG = 1.2 kcal/mol) and is the calculated free-energy minimum in solution. CO2 molecule partitioning into the cavity is shown to be very facile, proceeding with a barrier of 1.6 kcal/mol from a weak encounter complex which stabilizes the species by about 1.0 kcal/mol. The stabilization energy of CO2 is calculated to be larger than that of H2O (ΔΔG = 1.4 kcal/mol), suggesting that the complex will preferentially encapsulate CO2 in solution. In contrast, the PMF for a bicarbonate anion entering the cavity is calculated to be repulsive in all nonbonding regions of the cavity, due to the diameter of the calix[6]arene walls. Geometry optimization of the Zn-bound hydroxide complex with an encapsulated CO2 molecule showed that multiple noncovalent interactions direct the reactants into optimal position for nucleophilic addition to occur. The calixarene complex is a structural mimic of the hydrophilic/hydrophobic divide in the enzyme, providing a functional effect for CO2 addition in the catalytic cycle. The results show that Zn-binding calix[6]arene scaffolds can be potential synthetic biomimetics for CO2 hydration catalysis, both in terms of preferentially encapsulating CO2 from solution and by spatially fixing the reactive species inside the cavity.

  3. DNA-binding, topoisomerases I and II inhibition and in vitro cytotoxicity of ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes: [Ru(dppz)2L]2+ (L = dppz-11-CO2Me and dppz)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaojun; Jin, Lianhe; Tan, Lifeng


    Two ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes, [Ru(dppz)2dppz-11-CO2Me](ClO4)2 (Ru1) and [Ru(dppz)3](ClO4)2 (Ru2), have been synthesized and characterized. The spectral characteristics of Ru1 and Ru2 were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy and revealed that both complexes were sensitive to solvent polarity. The binding properties of the two complexes towards calf-thymus DNA (CT-DNA) have been investigated by different spectrophotometric methods and viscosity measurements, indicating that both complexes bind to CT-DNA by means of intercalation, but with different binding affinities. Topoisomerase inhibition and DNA strand passage assay demonstrates that the two complexes are dual inhibitors of topoisomerases I and IIa. On the other hand, the cytotoxicity of both complexes has been evaluated by MTT assays and Giemsa staining experiments. The main results reveal that the ester functional group has a significant effect on the DNA-binding affinities and topoisomerases inhibition effects of Ru1 and Ru2, and further advance our knowledge on the DNA-binding and topoisomerase inhibition by Ru(II) complexes.

  4. Supramolecular modeling of mono-copper enzyme active sites with calix[6]arene-based funnel complexes.


    Le Poul, Nicolas; Le Mest, Yves; Jabin, Ivan; Reinaud, Olivia


    Supramolecular bioinorganic chemistry is a natural evolution in biomimetic metallic systems since it constitutes a further degree of complexity in modeling. The traditional approach consisting of mimicking the first coordination sphere of metal sites proved to be very efficient, because valuable data are extracted from these examples to gain insight in natural systems mechanisms. But it does not reproduce several specific aspects of enzymes that can be mimicked by the implementation of a cavity embedding the labile active site and thus controlling the properties of the metal ion by noncovalent interactions. This Account reports on a strategy aimed at reproducing some supramolecular aspects encountered in the natural systems. The cavity complexes described herein display a coordination site constructed on a macrocycle. Thanks to a careful design of the cavity-based ligands, complexes orienting their labile site specifically toward the inside of the macrocycle were obtained. The supramolecular systems are based on the flexible calix[6]arene core that surrounds the metal ion labile site, thereby constraining exogenous molecules to pass through the conic funnel to reach the metal center. Such an architecture confers to the metal ion very unusual properties and behaviors, which in many aspects are biologically relevant. Three generations of calix[6]-based ligands are presented and discussed in the context of modeling the monocopper sites encountered in some enzymes. A wide range of phenomena are highlighted such as the impact that the size and shape of the access channel to the metal center have on the selectivity and rate of the binding process, the possible remote control of the electronics through small modifications operated on the cavity edges, induced-fit behavior associated with host-guest association (shoe-tree effect) that affects the redox properties of the metal ion and the electron exchange pathway, consequences of forbidden associative ligand exchange

  5. Selectivity of calix[4]arene-bis(benzocrown-6) in the complexation and transport of francium ion.


    Haverlock, Tamara J; Mirzadeh, Saed; Moyer, Bruce A


    It is shown for the first time that a representative member of the "cesium-selective" calix[4]arene-crown-6 family exhibits a high affinity for Fr+ ion. In the investigation, the transport of 221Fr+ and Cs+ ions by calix[4]arene-bis(benzocrown-6) from an aqueous sodium nitrate solution into the water-immiscible diluent 1,2-dichloroethane was measured and compared to address the question of selectivity of the calix-crown-6 cavity toward alkali metal ions of increasing size. Selective separation of 221Fr+ from its parent 225Ac and from the matrix Na+ ions was demonstrated. Higher distribution ratios were obtained than those for the Cs+ ion. The extraction equilibria were determined for the case of the Cs+ ion, and the same equilibria were shown to be applicable to the case of Fr+ with inclusion of additional competitive effects.

  6. Host-guest chemistry of a water-soluble pillar[5]arene: evidence for an ionic-exchange recognition process and different complexation modes.


    Gómez, Borja; Francisco, Vitor; Fernández-Nieto, Fernando; Garcia-Rio, Luis; Martín-Pastor, M; Paleo, M Rita; Sardina, F Javier


    The complexation of an anionic guest by a cationic water-soluble pillararene is reported. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), (1)H NMR, (1)H and (19)F DOSY, and STD NMR experiments were performed to characterize the complex formed under aqueous neutral conditions. The results of ITC and (1)H NMR analyses showed the inclusion of the guest inside the cavity of the pillar[5]arene, with the binding constant and thermodynamic parameters influenced by the counter ion of the macrocycle. NMR diffusion experiments showed that although a fraction of the counter ions are expelled from the host cavity by exchange with the guest, a complex with both counter ions and the guest inside the pillararene is formed. The results also showed that at higher concentrations of guest in solution, in addition to the inclusion of one guest molecule in the cavity, the pillararene can also form an external complex with a second guest molecule.

  7. Synthesis of 2-pyridyl-benzimidazole iridium(III), ruthenium(II), and platinum(II) complexes. study of the activity as inhibitors of amyloid-β aggregation and neurotoxicity evaluation.


    Yellol, Gorakh S; Yellol, Jyoti G; Kenche, Vijaya B; Liu, Xiang Ming; Barnham, Kevin J; Donaire, Antonio; Janiak, Christoph; Ruiz, José


    The design of small molecules that can target the aggregation of Aβ as potential therapeutic agents for Alzheimer's disease is an area of study that has attracted a lot of attention recently. The novel ligand methyl 1-butyl-2-pyridyl-benzimidazole carboxylate was prepared for the synthesis of a series of new iridium(III), ruthenium(II), and platinum(II) 2-pyridyl-benzimidazole complexes. The crystal structure of the half-sandwich iridium(III) complex was established by X-ray diffraction. An arrangement of two cationic complexes in the unit cell is observed, and it seems to be organized by weak π···π interactions that are taking place between two symmetry-related benzimidazole ring systems. All new compounds inhibited aggregation of Aβ1-42 in vitro as shown by both thioflavin T fluorescence assay and transmission electron microscopy. Among them the Ir compound rescued the toxicity of Aβ1-42 in primary cortical neurons effectively.

  8. Determination of Oxygen by Means of a Biogas and Gas - Interference Study Using an Optical Tris (4,7-Diphenyl-1,10-Phenanthroline) Ruthenium(II) Dichloride Complex Sensor.


    Brglez, Polonca; Holobar, Andrej; Pivec, Aleksandra; Nataša, Belšak; Kolar, Mitja


    Biogas is a mixture of gases produced by anaerobic fermentation where biomass or animal waste is decomposed and methane and carbon dioxide are mainly released. Biogas also has a very high moisture content (up to 80%), temperatures of around 60 °C, high pressure, and can contain other gases (N2, H2S, NH3 and H2). We searched for an appropriate measuring system for the determining of oxygen in biogas, since the production process of biogas must be run under anaerobic conditions; as the presence of oxygen decreases the quality of the biogas. Ruthenium (II) complexes are by far the most widely-used oxygen dyes within optical oxygen sensors. In general, they have efficient luminescences, relatively long-life metal-ligand charge-transfer excited states, fast response times, strong visible absorptions, large Stokes shifts, and high-photochemical stability. The purpose of this work was to characterise and optimize an optical oxygen sensor using tris (4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) dichloride complex for measuring oxygen. Different sensor properties were additionally studied, focusing on the interference of external light, temperature, and various gases. A special gas-mixing chamber was developed for gas interference study, and on-line experiments are presented for oxygen determination within the pilot biogas reactor.

  9. Efficient and versatile catalysis of N-alkylation of heterocyclic amines with alcohols and one-pot synthesis of 2-aryl substituted benzazoles with newly designed ruthenium(II) complexes of PNS thiosemicarbazones.


    Ramachandran, Rangasamy; Prakash, Govindan; Selvamurugan, Sellappan; Viswanathamurthi, Periasamy; Malecki, Jan Grzegorz; Ramkumar, Venkatachalam


    Ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes with phosphine-functionalized PNS type thiosemicarbazone ligands [RuCl(CO)(EPh3)(L)] (1-6) (E = P or As, L = 2-(2-(diphenylphosphino)benzylidene) thiosemicarbazone (PNS-H), 2-(2-(diphenylphosphino)benzylidene)-N-methylthiosemicarbazone (PNS-Me), 2-(2-(diphenylphosphino)benzylidene)-N-phenylthiosemicarbazone (PNS-Ph)) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopy (IR, UV-Vis, (1)H, (13)C, (31)P-NMR) as well as ESI mass spectrometry. The molecular structures of complexes 1, 2 and 6 were identified by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The analysis revealed that all the complexes possess a distorted octahedral geometry with the ligand coordinating in a uni-negative tridentate PNS fashion. All the ruthenium complexes (1-6) were tested as catalyst for N-alkylation of heteroaromatic amines with alcohols. Notably, complex 2 was found to be a very efficient and versatile catalyst towards N-alkylation of a wide range of heterocyclic amines with alcohols. Complex 2 can also catalyze the direct amination of 2-nitropyridine with benzyl alcohol to the corresponding secondary amine. Furthermore, a preliminary examination of performance for N,N-dialkylation of diamine showed promising results, giving good conversion and high selectivity. In addition, N-alkylation of ortho-substituted anilines (-NH2, -OH and -SH) led to the one-pot synthesis of 2-aryl substituted benzimidazoles, benzoxazoles and benzothiazoles, also revealing the catalytic activity of complex 2.

  10. BODIPY-modified Ru(II) arene complex--a new ligand dissociation mechanism and a novel strategy to red shift the photoactivation wavelength of anticancer metallodrugs.


    Zhou, Qian-Xiong; Lei, Wan-Hua; Hou, Yuan-Jun; Chen, Yong-Jie; Li, Chao; Zhang, Bao-Wen; Wang, Xue-Song


    A Ru(II) arene complex [(η(6)-p-cymene)Ru(bpy)(py-BODIPY)](PF(6))(2), where bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine and py-BODIPY is a 4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene dye containing a pyridine group at the 8-position, was designed and synthesized. BODIPY modification renders the monodentate pyridine ligand with long wavelength absorbing capability, and an absorption maximum at 504 nm. Upon selective irradiation of the absorption band of the py-BODIPY ligand, the dissociation of the monodentate ligand occurs efficiently, followed by substitution by 9-ethylguanine if it is present in the solution. The photoinduced ligand dissociation quantum yield was measured to be 4.1% at 480 nm. The photoinduced electron transfer from the BODIPY chromophore to the Ru(II) arene moiety plays an important role in the ligand dissociation. Such a photosensitization strategy can be utilized to develop novel anticancer metallodrugs that may respond to light in the phototherapeutic window (650-900 nm).

  11. Lipophilicity Assessment of Ruthenium(II)-Arene Complexes by the Means of Reversed-Phase Thin-Layer Chromatography and DFT Calculations

    PubMed Central

    Shweshein, Khalil Salem A. M.; Andrić, Filip; Radoičić, Aleksandra; Gruden-Pavlović, Maja; Tešić, Živoslav; Milojković-Opsenica, Dušanka


    The lipophilicity of ten ruthenium(II)-arene complexes was assessed by reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (RP-TLC) on octadecyl silica stationary phase. The binary solvent systems composed of water and acetonitrile were used as mobile phase in order to determine chromatographic descriptors for lipophilicity estimation. Octanol-water partition coefficient, logKOW, of tested complexes was experimentally determined using twenty-eight standard solutes which were analyzed under the same chromatographic conditions as target substances. In addition, ab initio density functional theory (DFT) computational approach was employed to calculate logKOW values from the differences in Gibbs' free solvation energies of the solute transfer from n-octanol to water. A good overall agreement between DFT calculated and experimentally determined logKOW values was established (R2 = 0.8024–0.9658). PMID:24587761

  12. Lipophilicity assessment of ruthenium(II)-arene complexes by the means of reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography and DFT calculations.


    Shweshein, Khalil Salem A M; Andrić, Filip; Radoičić, Aleksandra; Zlatar, Matija; Gruden-Pavlović, Maja; Tešić, Zivoslav; Milojković-Opsenica, Dušanka


    The lipophilicity of ten ruthenium(II)-arene complexes was assessed by reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (RP-TLC) on octadecyl silica stationary phase. The binary solvent systems composed of water and acetonitrile were used as mobile phase in order to determine chromatographic descriptors for lipophilicity estimation. Octanol-water partition coefficient, logK(OW), of tested complexes was experimentally determined using twenty-eight standard solutes which were analyzed under the same chromatographic conditions as target substances. In addition, ab initio density functional theory (DFT) computational approach was employed to calculate logK(OW) values from the differences in Gibbs' free solvation energies of the solute transfer from n-octanol to water. A good overall agreement between DFT calculated and experimentally determined logK(OW) values was established (R(2) = 0.8024-0.9658).

  13. C-F activation of fluorinated arenes using NHC-stabilized nickel(0) complexes: selectivity and mechanistic investigations.


    Schaub, Thomas; Fischer, Peter; Steffen, Andreas; Braun, Thomas; Radius, Udo; Mix, Andreas


    The reaction of [Ni2((i)Pr2Im)4(COD)] 1a or [Ni((i)Pr2Im)2(eta(2)-C2H4)] 1b with different fluorinated arenes is reported. These reactions occur with a high chemo- and regioselectivity. In the case of polyfluorinated aromatics of the type C6F5X such as hexafluorobenzene (X = F) octafluorotoluene (X = CF3), trimethyl(pentafluorophenyl)silane (X = SiMe3), or decafluorobiphenyl (X = C6F5) the C-F activation regioselectively takes place at the C-F bond in the para position to the X group to afford the complexes trans-[Ni((i)Pr2Im)2(F)(C6F5)]2, trans-[Ni((i)Pr2Im)2(F)(4-(CF3)C6F4)] 3, trans-[Ni((i)Pr2Im)2(F)(4-(C6F5)C6F4)] 4, and trans-[Ni((i)Pr2Im)2(F)(4-(SiMe3)C6F4)] 5. Complex 5 was structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction. The reaction of 1a with partially fluorinated aromatic substrates C6H(x)F(y) leads to the products of a C-F activation trans-[Ni((i)Pr2Im)2(F)(2-C6FH4)] 7, trans-[Ni((i)Pr2Im)2(F)(3,5-C6F2H3)] 8, trans-[Ni((i)Pr2Im)2(F)(2,3-C6F2H3)] 9a and trans-[Ni((i)Pr2Im)2(F)(2,6-C6F2H3)] 9b, trans-[Ni((i)Pr2Im)2(F)(2,5-C6F2H3)] 10, and trans-[Ni((i)Pr2Im)2(F)(2,3,5,6-C6F4H)] 11. The reaction of 1a with octafluoronaphthalene yields exclusively trans-[Ni((i)Pr2Im)2(F)(1,3,4,5,6,7,8-C10F7)] 6a, the product of an insertion into the C-F bond in the 2-position, whereas for the reaction of 1b with octafluoronaphthalene the two isomers trans-[Ni((i)Pr2Im)2(F)(1,3,4,5,6,7,8-C10F7)] 6a and trans-[Ni((i)Pr2Im)2(F)(2,3,4,5,6,7,8-C10F7)] 6b are formed in a ratio of 11:1. The reaction of 1a or of 1b with pentafluoropyridine at low temperatures affords trans-[Ni((i)Pr2Im)2(F)(4-C5NF4)] 12a as the sole product, whereas the reaction of 1b performed at room temperature leads to the generation of trans-[Ni((i)Pr2Im)2(F)(4-C5NF4)] 12a and trans-[Ni((i)Pr2Im)2(F)(2-C5NF4)] 12b in a ratio of approximately 1:2. The detection of intermediates as well as kinetic studies gives some insight into the mechanistic details for the activation of an aromatic carbon-fluorine bond at

  14. Multi-targeted organometallic ruthenium(II)-arene anticancer complexes bearing inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1: A strategy to improve cytotoxicity.


    Wang, Zhigang; Qian, Hui; Yiu, Shek-Man; Sun, Jianwei; Zhu, Guangyu


    Small-molecule inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) have currently drawn much attention as promising chemotherapeutic drug candidates, and there is a need to develop more potent PARP inhibitors with improved bioavailability. Here we report a strategy to improve the cytotoxicity of PARP inhibitors by conjugation with organometallic ruthenium(II)-arene compounds. We also report a systematic study to reveal the mechanism of action of these ruthenium-PARP inhibitor conjugates. The complexes have been synthesized and characterized spectroscopically. The improved antiproliferative activity from the as-prepared complexes in four human cancer cell lines has indicated their potential for further development as antitumor drugs. Cellular uptake study reveals that the most active complex 3 easily entered into cells. Target validation assays show that the complexes inhibited PARP-1 slightly better than the original PARP inhibitors, that complex 3 strongly bound to DNA and inhibited transcription, and that this complex arrested the cell cycle at the G0/G1 stage. This type of information could shed light on the design of the next generation of more active ruthenium-PARP inhibitor conjugates.

  15. η(6) -Arene-Zirconium-PNP-Pincer Complexes: Mechanism of Their Hydrogenolytic Formation and Their Reactivity as Zirconium(II) Synthons.


    Plundrich, Gudrun T; Wadepohl, Hubert; Clot, Eric; Gade, Lutz H


    The cyclometalated monobenzyl complexes [(Cbzdiphos(R) -CH)ZrBnX] 1 (iPr) Cl and 1 (Ph) I reacted with dihydrogen (10 bar) to yield the η(6) -toluene complexes [(Cbzdiphos(R) )Zr(η(6) -tol)X] 2 (iPr) Cl and 2 (Ph) I (cbzdiphos=1,8-bis(phosphino)-3,6-di-tert-butyl-9H-carbazole). The arene complexes were also found to be directly accessible from the triiodide [(Cbzdiphos(Ph) )ZrI3 ] through an in situ reaction with a dibenzylmagnesium reagent and subsequent hydrogenolysis, as exemplified for the η(6) -mesitylene complex [(Cbzdiphos(Ph) )Zr(η(6) -mes)I] (3 (Ph) I). The tolyl-ring in 2 (iPr) Cl adopts a puckered arrangement (fold angle 23.3°) indicating significant arene-1,4-diido character. Deuterium labeling experiments were consistent with an intramolecular reaction sequence after the initial hydrogenolysis of a Zr-C bond by a σ-bond metathesis. A DFT study of the reaction sequence indicates that hydrogenolysis by σ-bond metathesis first occurs at the cyclometalated ancillary ligand giving a hydrido-benzyl intermediate, which subsequently reductively eliminates toluene that then coordinates to the Zr atom as the reduced arene ligand. Complex 2 (Ph) I was reacted with 2,6-diisopropylphenyl isocyanide giving the deep blue, diamagnetic Zr(II) -diisocyanide complex [(Cbzdiphos(Ph) )Zr(CNDipp)2 I] (4 (Ph) I). DFT modeling of 4 (Ph) I demonstrated that the HOMO of the complex is primarily located as a "lone pair on zirconium", with some degree of back-bonding into the C≡N π* bond, and the complex is thus most appropriately described as a zirconium(II) species. Reaction of 2 (Ph) I with trimethylsilylazide (N3 TMS) and 2 (iPr) Cl with 1-azidoadamantane (N3 Ad) resulted in the formation of the imido complexes [(Cbzdiphos(R) )Zr=NR'(X)] 5 (iPr) Cl-NAd and 5 (Ph) I-NTMS, respectively. Reaction of 2 (iPr) Cl with azobenzene led to N-N bond scission giving 6 (iPr) Cl, in which one of the NPh-fragments is coupled with the carbazole

  16. Methods for preparation of cyclopentadienyliron (II) arenes


    Keipert, Steven J.


    Two improved methods for preparation of compounds with the structure shown in equation X [(Cp)--Fe--(Ar)].sup.+.sub.b X.sup.b- (X) where Cp is an eta.sup.5 complexed, substituted or unsubstituted, cyclopentadienyl or indenyl anion, Ar is an eta.sup.6 complexed substituted or unsubstituted, pi-arene ligand anad X is a b-valent anion where b is an integer between 1 and 3. The two methods, which differ in the source of the cyclopentadienyl anion - Lewis acid complex, utilize a Lewis acid assisted ligand transfer reaction. The cyclopentadienyl anion ligand, assisted by a Lewis acid is transferred to ferrous ion in the presence of an arene. In the first method, the cyclopentadienyl anion is derived from ferrocene and ferrous chloride. In this reaction, the cyclopentadienyliron (II) arene product is derived partially from ferrocene and partially from the ferrous salt. In the second method, the cyclopentadienyl anion - Lewis acid complex is formed by direct reaction of the Lewis acid with an inorganic cyclopentadienide salt. The cyclopentadienyliron (II) arene product of this reaction is derived entirely from the ferrous salt. Cyclopentadienyliron (II) arene cations are of great interest due to their utility as photoactivatable catalysts for a variety of polymerization reactions.

  17. Near-Infrared Fluorescence Detection of Acetylcholine in Aqueous Solution Using a Complex of Rhodamine 800 and p-Sulfonato-calix[8]arene

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Takashi


    The complexing properties of p-sulfonatocalix[n]arenes (n = 4: S[4], n = 6: S[6], and n = 8: S[8]) for rhodamine 800 (Rh800) and indocyanine green (ICG) were examined to develop a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence detection method for acetylcholine (ACh). We found that Rh800 (as a cation) forms an inclusion complex with S[n], while ICG (as a twitter ion) have no binding ability for S[n]. The binding ability of Rh800 to S[n] decreased in the order of S[8] > S[6] >> S[4]. By the formation of the complex between Rh800 and S[8], fluorescence intensity of the Rh800 was significantly decreased. From the fluorescence titration of Rh800 by S[8], stoichiometry of the Rh800-S[8] complex was determined to be 1:1 with a dissociation constant of 2.2 μM in PBS. The addition of ACh to the aqueous solution of the Rh800-S[8] complex caused a fluorescence increase of Rh800, resulting from a competitive replacement of Rh800 by ACh in the complex. From the fluorescence change by the competitive fluorophore replacement, stoichiometry of the Rh800-ACh complex was found to be 1:1 with a dissociation constant of 1.7 mM. The effects of other neurotransmitters on the fluorescence spectra of the Rh800-S[8] complex were examined for dopamine, GABA, glycine, and l-asparatic acid. Among the neurotransmitters examined, fluorescence response of the Rh800-S[8] complex was highly specific to ACh. Rh800-S[8] complexes can be used as a NIR fluorescent probe for the detection of ACh (5 × 10−4−10−3 M) in PBS buffer (pH = 7.2). PMID:22294934

  18. Diglycolamide-functionalized calix[4]arenes showing unusual complexation of actinide ions in room temperature ionic liquids: role of ligand structure, radiolytic stability, emission spectroscopy, and thermodynamic studies.


    Mohapatra, Prasanta K; Sengupta, Arijit; Iqbal, Mudassir; Huskens, Jurriaan; Verboom, Willem


    Diglycolamide-functionalized calix[4]arenes (C4DGAs) with varying structural modifications were evaluated for actinide complexation from their extraction behavior toward actinide ions such as UO2(2+), Pu(4+), PuO2(2+), and Am(3+) in the room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) 1-n-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonamide (C8mimNTf2). The formation constants were calculated for Am(3+) which showed a significant role of ligand structure, nature of substituents, and spacer length. Although the alkyl substituents on the amidic nitrogen increase the extraction efficiency of americium at lower acidity because of the inductive effect of the alkyl groups, at higher acidity the steric crowding around the ligating site determines the extraction efficiency. All C4DGAs formed 1:1 complexes with Am(3+) while for the analogous Eu(3+) complexes no inner sphere water molecules were detected and the asymmetry of the metal ligand complex differed from one another as proved by time-resolved laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLIFS). Thermodynamic studies indicated that the extraction process, predominant by the Am(3+)-C4DGA complexation reaction, is exothermic. The unique role of the medium on Am(3+) complexation with the C4DGA molecules with varying spacer length, L-IV and L-V, was noticed for the first time with a reversal in the trend observed in the RTIL compared to that seen in a nonpolar molecular diluent like n-dodecane. Various factors leading to a more preorganized structure were responsible for favorable metal ion complexation. The solvent systems show promise to be employed for nuclear waste remediation, and sustainability options were evaluated from radiolytic stability as well as stripping studies.

  19. Novel chiral (salen)Mn(III) complexes containing a calix[4]arene unit in 1,3-alternate conformation as catalysts for enantioselective epoxidation reactions of (Z)-aryl alkenes.


    Bonaccorso, Carmela; Brancatelli, Giovanna; Ballistreri, Francesco P; Geremia, Silvano; Pappalardo, Andrea; Tomaselli, Gaetano A; Toscano, Rosa M; Sciotto, Domenico


    Two new chiral calix[4]arene-salen ligands 1a,b, based on calix[4]arene platforms in 1,3-alternate conformation, have been prepared by a new general synthetic pathway. Their Mn(III) complexes, 3a,b have shown fairly good efficiency in the asymmetric epoxidation of styrene and substituted styrenes, whereas excellent catalytic activity and selectivity were observed with rigid bicyclic alkenes, namely 1,2-dihydro-naphthalene and substituted 2,2'-dimethyl-chromene. The higher catalytic properties of 3a may be ascribed to the more rigid and inherently chiral structure as proved by molecular modelling, NMR spectroscopy and X-ray data of the similarly structured UO2 complexes 2a,b.

  20. Fifty years of oxacalix[3]arenes: A review

    PubMed Central

    Cottet, Kevin; Marcos, Paula M


    Summary Hexahomotrioxacalix[3]arenes, commonly called oxacalix[3]arenes, were first reported in 1962. Since then, their chemistry has been expanded to include numerous derivatives and complexes. This review describes the syntheses of the parent compounds, their derivatives, and their complexation behaviour towards cations. Extraction data are presented, as are crystal structures of the macrocycles and their complexes with guest species. Applications in fields as diverse as ion selective electrode modifiers, fluorescence sensors, fullerene separations and biomimetic chemistry are described. PMID:22423288

  1. Electrophilic arene hydroxylation and phenol O-H oxidations performed by an unsymmetric μ-η(1):η(1)-O2-peroxo dicopper(II) complex.


    Garcia-Bosch, Isaac; Ribas, Xavi; Costas, Miquel


    Reactions of the unsymmetric dicopper(II) peroxide complex [Cu(II)(2)(μ-η(1):η(1)-O(2))(m-XYL(N3N4))](2+) (1 O(2), where m-XYL is a heptadentate N-based ligand), with phenolates and phenols are described. Complex 1 O(2) reacts with p-X-PhONa (X = MeO, Cl, H, or Me) at -90 °C performing tyrosinase-like ortho-hydroxylation of the aromatic ring to afford the corresponding catechol products. Mechanistic studies demonstrate that reactions occur through initial reversible formation of metastable association complexes [Cu(II)(2)(μ-η(1):η(1)-O(2))(p-X-PhO)(m-XYL(N3N4))](+) (1 O(2)⋅X-PhO) that then undergo ortho-hydroxylation of the aromatic ring by the peroxide moiety. Complex 1 O(2) also reacts with 4-X-substituted phenols p-X-PhOH (X = MeO, Me, F, H, or Cl) and with 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol at -90 °C causing rapid decay of 1 O(2) and affording biphenol coupling products, which is indicative that reactions occur through formation of phenoxyl radicals that then undergo radical C-C coupling. Spectroscopic UV/Vis monitoring and kinetic analysis show that reactions take place through reversible formation of ground-state association complexes [Cu(II)(2)(μ-η(1):η(1)-O(2))(X-PhOH)(m-XYL(N3N4))](2+) (1 O(2)⋅X-PhOH) that then evolve through an irreversible rate-determining step. Mechanistic studies indicate that 1 O(2) reacts with phenols through initial phenol binding to the Cu(2)O(2) core, followed by a proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) at the rate-determining step. Results disclosed in this work provide experimental evidence that the unsymmetric 1 O(2) complex can mediate electrophilic arene hydroxylation and PCET reactions commonly associated with electrophilic Cu(2)O(2) cores, and strongly suggest that the ability to form substrate⋅Cu(2)O(2) association complexes may provide paths to overcome the inherent reactivity of the O(2)-binding mode. This work provides experimental evidence that the presence of a H(+) completely determines the

  2. Syntheses, characterization and DNA-binding studies of ruthenium(II) terpyridine complexes: [Ru(tpy)(PHBI)]2+ and [Ru(tpy)(PHNI)]2+.


    Jiang, Cai-Wu; Chao, Hui; Li, Hong; Ji, Liang-Nian


    Two novel tridentate ligands, 2-(2-benzimidazole)-1,10-phenanthroline (PHBI) and 2-(2-naphthoimidazole)-1,10-phenanthroline (PHNI), and their heteroleptic complexes [Ru(tpy)(PHBI)](ClO(4))(2).2H(2)O (1) and [Ru(tpy)(PHNI)](ClO(4))(2).H(2)O (2) (tpy=2,2':6',2"-terpyridyl) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, mass spectra, 1H NMR, and electronic spectroscopy. The electrochemical behaviors of the two novel complexes were studied by cyclic voltammetry. The DNA-binding properties of the two complexes were investigated by spectroscopic methods and viscosity measurements. The results indicated that the two complexes interact with DNA in different binding modes. Complex 1 may bind to DNA via electrostatic interaction, while complex 2 binds to DNA by partial intercalation via the extended naphthyl ring into the base pairs of DNA.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of mixed-ligand diimine-piperonal thiosemicarbazone complexes of ruthenium(II): Biophysical investigations and biological evaluation as anticancer and antibacterial agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckford, Floyd A.; Thessing, Jeffrey; Shaloski, Michael, Jr.; Canisius Mbarushimana, P.; Brock, Alyssa; Didion, Jacob; Woods, Jason; Gonzalez-Sarrías, Antonio; Seeram, Navindra P.


    We have used a novel microwave-assisted method developed in our laboratories to synthesize a series of ruthenium-thiosemicarbazone complexes. The new thiosemicarbazone ligands are derived from benzo[ d][1,3]dioxole-5-carbaldehyde (piperonal) and the complexes are formulated as [(diimine) 2Ru(TSC)](PF 6) 2 (where the TSC is the bidentate thiosemicarbazone ligand). The diimine in the complexes is either 2,2'-bipyridine or 1,10-phenanthroline. The complexes have been characterized by spectroscopic means (NMR, IR and UV-Vis) as well as by elemental analysis. We have studied the biophysical characteristics of the complexes by investigating their anti-oxidant ability as well as their ability to disrupt the function of the human topoisomerase II enzyme. The complexes are moderately strong binders of DNA with binding constants of 10 4 M -1. They are also strong binders of human serum albumin having binding constants on the order of 10 4 M -1. The complexes show good in vitro anticancer activity against human colon cancer cells, Caco-2 and HCT-116 and indeed show some cytotoxic selectivity for cancer cells. The IC 50 values range from 7 to 159 μM (after 72 h drug incubation). They also have antibacterial activity against Gram-positive strains of pathogenic bacteria with IC 50 values as low as 10 μM; little activity was seen against Gram-negative strains. It has been established that all the compounds are catalytic inhibitors of human topoisomerase II.

  4. Ruthenium(II) Complexes with 2-Phenylimidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline Derivatives that Strongly Combat Cisplatin-Resistant Tumor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Leli; Chen, Yu; Liu, Jiangping; Huang, Huaiyi; Guan, Ruilin; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui


    Cisplatin was the first metal-based therapeutic agent approved for the treatment of human cancers, but its clinical activity is greatly limited by tumor drug resistance. This work utilized the parent complex [Ru(phen)2(PIP)]2+ (1) to develop three Ru(II) complexes (2–4) with different positional modifications. These compounds exhibited similar or superior cytotoxicities compared to cisplatin in HeLa, A549 and multidrug-resistant (A549R) tumor cell lines. Complex 4, the most potent member of the series, was highly active against A549R cancer cells (IC50 = 0.8 μM). This complex exhibited 178-fold better activity than cisplatin (IC50 = 142.5 μM) in A549R cells. 3D multicellular A549R tumor spheroids were also used to confirm the high proliferative and cytotoxic activity of complex 4. Complex 4 had the greatest cellular uptake and had a tendency to accumulate in the mitochondria of A549R cells. Further mechanistic studies showed that complex 4 induced A549R cell apoptosis via inhibition of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), elevated intracellular ROS levels, mitochondrial dysfunction and cell cycle arrest, making it an outstanding candidate for overcoming cisplatin resistance.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of mixed-ligand diimine-piperonal thiosemicarbazone complexes of ruthenium(II): Biophysical investigations and biological evaluation as anticancer and antibacterial agents

    PubMed Central

    Beckford, Floyd A.; Thessing, Jeffrey; Shaloski, Michael; Mbarushimana, P. Canisius; Brock, Alyssa; Didion, Jacob; Woods, Jason; Gonzalez-Sarrías, Antonio; Seeram, Navindra P.


    We have used a novel microwave-assisted method developed in our laboratories to synthesize a series of ruthenium-thiosemicarbazone complexes. The new thiosemicarbazone ligands are derived from benzo[d][1,3]dioxole-5-carbaldehyde (piperonal) and the complexes are formulated as [(diimine)2Ru(TSC)](PF6)2 (where the TSC is the bidentate thiosemicarbazone ligand). The diimine in the complexes is either 2,2'-bipyridine or 1,10-phenanthroline. The complexes have been characterized by spectroscopic means (NMR, IR and UV-Vis) as well as by elemental analysis. We have studied the biophysical characteristics of the complexes by investigating their anti-oxidant ability as well as their ability to disrupt the function of the human topoisomerase II enzyme. The complexes are moderately strong binders of DNA with binding constants of 104 M−1. They are also strong binders of human serum albumin having binding constants on the order of 104 M−1. The complexes show good in vitro anticancer activity against human colon cancer cells, Caco-2 and HCT-116 and indeed show some cytotoxic selectivity for cancer cells. The IC50 values range from 7 – 159 μM (after 72 h drug incubation). They also have antibacterial activity against Gram-positive strains of pathogenic bacteria with IC50 values as low as 10 μM; little activity was seen against Gram-negative strains. It has been established that all the compounds are catalytic inhibitors of human topoisomerase II. PMID:21552381

  6. Ruthenium(II) Complexes Containing Lutidine-Derived Pincer CNC Ligands: Synthesis, Structure, and Catalytic Hydrogenation of C-N bonds.


    Hernández-Juárez, Martín; López-Serrano, Joaquín; Lara, Patricia; Morales-Cerón, Judith P; Vaquero, Mónica; Álvarez, Eleuterio; Salazar, Verónica; Suárez, Andrés


    A series of Ru complexes containing lutidine-derived pincer CNC ligands have been prepared by transmetalation with the corresponding silver-carbene derivatives. Characterization of these derivatives shows both mer and fac coordination of the CNC ligands depending on the wingtips of the N-heterocyclic carbene fragments. In the presence of tBuOK, the Ru-CNC complexes are active in the hydrogenation of a series of imines. In addition, these complexes catalyze the reversible hydrogenation of phenantridine. Detailed NMR spectroscopic studies have shown the capability of the CNC ligand to be deprotonated and get involved in ligand-assisted activation of dihydrogen. More interestingly, upon deprotonation, the Ru-CNC complex 5 e(BF4 ) is able to add aldimines to the metal-ligand framework to yield an amido complex. Finally, investigation of the mechanism of the hydrogenation of imines has been carried out by means of DFT calculations. The calculated mechanism involves outer-sphere stepwise hydrogen transfer to the C-N bond assisted either by the pincer ligand or a second coordinated H2 molecule.

  7. An unsymmetrical binuclear ruthenium(II) complex of tris(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine and its identification by sup 1 H NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chirayil, S.; Hegde, V.; Jahng, Yurngdong; Thummel, R.P. )


    The use of tris(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPT) for use as a bridging ligand that incorporates two Ru(II) atoms in nonequivalent sites such that one Ru(II) is bound in a bidentate fashion and the other is bound in a tridentate manner is described herein. The use of bpy-d{sub 8} as an auxiliary ligand in the formation and characterization of an unsymmetrical mononuclear ruthenium (I) complex has been extended to the perdeuterio analog of 2,2{prime};6,2{double prime}-terpyridine (Tpy), and its use in the characterization of a binuclear complex of TPT are reported. {sup 1}H NMR chemical shift data for the ligands and the ruthenium complexes are presented. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Poly(ε-caprolactone) decorated with one room-temperature red-emitting ruthenium(II) complex: synthesis, characterization, thermal and optical properties.


    Schulze, Marcus; Jäger, Michael; Schubert, Ulrich S


    The incorporation of room-temperature red-emissive [Ru(II)(dqp)(dqp-CH(2) OH)](2+) (dqp is 2,6-di(quinolin-8-yl)pyridine) in poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) is explored following two routes. First, the ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone is investigated using the free ligand and the complex as initiators. Alternatively, the complexation strategy utilizing PCL-dqp as a macroligand is detailed. Both routes yield room-temperature emissive polymers centered at 400 nm (free ligand) and 680 nm (complex) in aerated solvent. DSC and TGA showed the typical properties of PCL, for example, the melting point (59 °C).

  9. Ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) vinyl complexes as highly sensitive and selective chromogenic and fluorogenic probes for the sensing of carbon monoxide in air.


    Toscani, Anita; Marín-Hernández, Cristina; Moragues, María E; Sancenón, Félix; Dingwall, Paul; Brown, Neil J; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; White, Andrew J P; Wilton-Ely, James D E T


    The detection of carbon monoxide in solution and air has been achieved using simple, inexpensive systems based on the vinyl complexes [M(CHCHR)Cl(CO)(BTD)(PPh3 )2 ] (R=aryl, BTD=2,1,3-benzothiadiazole). Depending on the nature of the vinyl group, chromogenic and fluorogenic responses signalled the presence of this odourless, tasteless, invisible, and toxic gas. Solutions of the complexes in CHCl3 underwent rapid change between easily differentiated colours when exposed to air samples containing CO. More significantly, the adsorption of the complexes on silica produced colorimetric probes for the naked-eye detection of CO in the gas phase. Structural data for key species before and after the addition of CO were obtained by means of single X-ray diffraction studies. In all cases, the ruthenium and osmium vinyl complexes studied showed a highly selective response to CO with exceptionally low detection limits. Naked-eye detection of CO at concentrations as low as 5 ppb in air was achieved with the onset of toxic levels (i.e., 100 ppm), thus resulting in a remarkably clear colour change. Moreover, complexes bearing pyrenyl, naphthyl, and phenanthrenyl moieties were fluorescent, and greater sensitivities were achieved (through turn-on emission fluorescence) in the presence of CO both in solution and air. This behaviour was explored computationally using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) experiments. In addition, the systems were shown to be selective for CO over all other gases tested, including water vapour and common organic solvents. Supporting the metal complexes on cellulose strips for use in an existing optoelectronic device allows numerical readings for the CO concentration to be obtained and provision of an alarm system.

  10. Spectroscopic and second-order nonlinear optical properties of Ruthenium(ii) complexes: a DFT/MRCI and ADC(2) study.


    Escudero, Daniel; Thiel, Walter; Champagne, Benoît


    In this communication we use the density functional theory-based multi-reference configuration interaction (DFT/MRCI) and the second-order algebraic diagrammatic construction (ADC(2)) methods to compute the spectroscopic and second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of Ru(ii)-based NLO-phores. For some of the complexes, an appropriate treatment of doubly excited states is essential to correctly describe their spectroscopic and photochemical properties. Geometrical and solvent relaxation effects are also assessed. An adequate treatment of solvent effects seems critical for an accurate description of the NLO properties of these complexes.

  11. Luminescent Ruthenium(II) Complex Bearing Bipyridine and N-Heterocyclic Carbene-based C∧N∧C Pincer Ligand for Live-Cell Imaging of Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Wai-Kuen; Chung, Lai-Hon; Wong, Matthew Man-Kin; Tsang, Wai-Him; Lo, Hoi-Shing; Liu, Yaxiang; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung; Chiu, Sung-Kay; Wong, Chun-Yuen


    Luminescent ruthenium(II)-cyanide complex with N-heterocyclic carbene pincer ligand C∧N∧C = 2,6-bis(1-butylimidazol-2-ylidene)pyridine and 2,2′-bipyridine (bpy) shows minimal cytotoxicity to both human breast carcinoma cell (MCF-7) and human retinal pigmented epithelium cell (RPE) in a wide range of concentration (0.1–500 μM), and can be used for the luminescent imaging of endocytosis of the complex in these cells. PMID:25765974

  12. Interaction of a dinuclear fluorescent Cd(II) complex of calix[4]arene conjugate with phosphates and its applicability in cell imaging.


    Sreenivasu Mummidivarapu, V V; Hinge, Vijaya Kumar; Rao, Chebrolu Pulla


    A triazole-linked hydroxyethylimino conjugate of calix[4]arene () and its cadmium complex have been synthesized and characterized, and their structures have been established. In the complex, both the Cd(2+) centers are bound by an N2O4 core, and one of it is a distorted octahedral, whereas the other is a trigonal anti-prism. The fluorescence intensity of the di-nuclear Cd(ii) complex is quenched only in the presence of phosphates and not with other anions studied owing to their binding affinities and the nature of the interaction of the phosphates with Cd(2+). These are evident even from their absorption spectra. Different phosphates exhibit changes in both their fluorescence as well as absorption spectra to varying extents, suggesting their differential interactions. Among the six phosphates, H2PO4(-) has higher fluorescence quenching even at low equivalents of this ion, whereas P2O7(4-) shows only 50% quenching even at 10 equivalents. The fluorescence quenching is considerable even at 20 ppb (0.2 μM) of H2PO4(-), whereas all other phosphates require a concentration of 50-580 ppb to exhibit the same effect on fluorescence spectra. Thus, the interaction of H2PO4(-) is more effective by ∼30 fold as compared to that of P2O7(4-). Fluorescence quenching by phosphate is due to the release of from its original cadmium complex via the formation of a ternary species followed by the capture of Cd(2+) by the phosphate, as delineated based on the combination of spectral techniques, such as absorption, emission, (1)H NMR and ESI MS. The relative interactive abilities of the six phosphates differ from each other. The removal of Cd(2+) is demonstrated to be reversible by the repeated addition of the phosphate followed by Cd(2+). The characteristics of the ternary species formed in each of these six phosphates have been computationally modeled using molecular mechanics. The computational study revealed that the coordination between cadmium and -CH2-CH2-OH breaks and new

  13. Physicochemical properties and theoretical modeling of actinide complexes with a para-tert-Butylcalix[6]arene bearing phosphinoyl pendants. Extraction capability of the calixarene toward f elements.


    Ramírez, Flor de María; Varbanov, Sabi; Padilla, Juan; Bünzli, Jean-Claude G


    The coordination ability of the hexaphosphinoylated p-tert-butylcalix[6]arene B6bL6 toward actinides is established, as well as its good separation ability of the actinide ions UO2 2+ and Th(IV) over trivalent rare earths such as La(III), Eu(III), and Y(III). Spectrophotometric titration of uranyl with B6bL6 in CH 3CN yields log beta 11 = 7.1 and log beta 12 = 12.5 for the 1:1 and 1:2 (UO2 2+/B 6bL6) species, respectively. Actinide complexes with 1:1 and 1:2 (M/L) stoichiometries are isolated and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, and UV-vis. Compounds 1 and 3 fulfill their CN = 8 just with B 6bL (6), while compounds 2 and 4 require coordinated nitrates and/or water molecules. The luminescence spectra of the uranyl complexes and the parameters such as FWMH, vibronic spacing (upsilon sp), and the U-O bond length, as well as the luminescence lifetimes, permit the understanding of the coordination chemistry of these actinide calixarene complexes. Energy transfer from the B6bL6 ligand to the uranyl ion is demonstrated to be relevant in compound 1 with Q abs = 2.0%. The uranyl complex emission reveals a biexponential decay with tau s from 210 to 220 micros and tau L from 490 to 650 micros for compounds 1 and 3, respectively. The liquid-liquid extraction results demonstrate the good extraction capability of B 6bL (6) toward actinides but not for rare earths at room temperature. The extracted species keeps the 1(cation)/1(calixarene) ratio for the UO2 2+, Th 4+, and Eu 3+ ions. A good capacity of B6bL 6 toward Th4+ ions using aqueous phase 2 containing even up to 0.3 M thorium nitrate and an organic phase of 2.47 x 10 (-4) M B6bL6 in chloroform is found. The spectroscopic properties of the isolated uranyl complexes and the extraction studies reveal a uranophilic nature of B6bL6. The molecular modeling results are in good agreement with the experimental findings.

  14. Ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) bis(terpyridine) complexes in covalently-linked multicomponent systems: Synthesis, electrochemical behavior, absorption spectra, and photochemical and photophysical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Sauvage, J.P.; Collin, J.P.; Chambron, J.C.; Guillerez, S.; Coudret, C. . Lab. de Chimie Organo-minerale); Balzani, V.; Barigelletti, F.; Cola, L. de; Flamigni, L. . Dipt. di Chimica Ist. FRAE-CNR, Bologna )


    The interaction of photons with molecules can cause simple acts, such as a change in the molecular structure (isomerization), which can be exploited. For example, solar energy can be converted into chemical energy by transforming norbornadiene into its higher energy quadricyclane isomer. Supramolecular organization can be attained by intermolecular forces of various type (Coulombic interactions, hydrogen bonds, etc.) or by linking together molecular components by covalent bonds. By these routes it is possible to put together prefabricated molecular components that carry the desired light-related properties: absorption spectrum, excited-state lifetime, luminescence spectrum, excited-state redox properties, etc. This allows one to design structurally organized and functionally integrated systems (photochemical molecular devices, PMDs) capable of elaborating the energy and information input of photons to perform complex functions (light harvesting, conversion of light into chemical or electrical energy, collection of information in a molecular shift register, etc.). Sections of the paper discuss: natural vs. artificial photochemical molecular devices; molecular and supramolecular species; energy- and electron-transfer processes; bis(terpyridine)-metal complexes as photosensitizers; design of multicomponent systems; synthesis of the ligands; synthesis of dyads and triads based on Ru(tpy)[sub 2][sup 2+]-type photosensitizers; synthesis of dyads and traids based on Os(tpy)[sub 2][sup 2+]-type photosensitizers; synthesis of rigidly-bridged homo- and heterodinuclear complexes; energy- and electron-transfer processes in dinuclear metal complexes; and photoinduced charge separation in dyads and triads. 165 refs.

  15. The effects of linear assembly of two carbazole groups on acid-base and DNA-binding properties of a ruthenium(II) complex.


    Chen, Xi; Xue, Long-Xin; Ju, Chun-Chuan; Wang, Ke-Zhi


    A novel Ru(II) complex of [Ru(bpy)2(Hbcpip)](ClO4)2 {where bpy=2,2-bipyridine, Hbcpip=2-(4-(9H-3,9'-bicarbazol-9-yl)phenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline} is synthesized and characterized. Calf-thymus DNA-binding properties of the complex were studied by UV-vis absorption and luminescence titrations, steady-state emission quenching by [Fe(CN)6](4-), DNA competitive binding with ethidium bromide, thermal denaturation and DNA viscosity measurements. The results indicate that the complex partially intercalated into the DNA with a binding constant of (5.5±1.4)×10(5) M(-1) in buffered 50 mM NaCl. The acid-base properties of the complex were also studied by UV-visible and luminescence spectrophotometric pH titrations, and ground- and excited-state acidity ionization constant values were derived.

  16. Monometallic osmium(II) complexes with bis(N-methylbenzimidazolyl)benzene or -pyridine: a comparison study with ruthenium(II) analogues.


    Shao, Jiang-Yang; Zhong, Yu-Wu


    Seven bis-tridentate osmium complexes with Mebib or Mebip (Mebib is the 2-deprotonated form of 1,3-bis(N-methylbenzimidazolyl)benzene and Mebip is bis(N-methylbenzimidazolyl)pyridine) have been prepared, and their electrochemical and spectroscopic properties are compared with ruthenium structural analogues. Among them, four complexes have the [Os(NCN)(NNN)]-type coordination, including [Os(Mebib)(Mebip)](PF6)2 (1(PF6)2), [Os(dpb)(Mebip)](PF6) (2(PF6), dpb is the 2-deprotonated form of 1,3-di(pyrid-2-yl)benzene), [Os(Mebib)(ttpy)](PF6) (3(PF6), ttpy = 4'-tolyl-2,2':6',2"-terpyridine), and [Os(dpb)(ttpy)](PF6) (4(PF6)). The other three complexes are [Os(Mebip)2](PF6)2 (5(PF6)2), [Os(Mebip)(tpy)](PF6)2 (6(PF6)2, tpy = 2,2':6',2"-terpyridine), and [Os(ttpy)2](PF6)2 (7(PF6)2) with the [Os(NNN)(NNN)]-type coordination. Single crystals of 2(PF6) and 6(PF6)2 have been obtained, and their structures are studied by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The Os(II/III) redox potentials of 1(PF6)2 to 7(PF6)2 progressively increase from +0.04, +0.23, +0.24, +0.36, +0.56, +0.79 to +0.94 V vs Ag/AgCl, which are 200-300 mV less positive relative to the Ru(II/III) potentials of their ruthenium counterparts. The highest occupied molecular orbital energy levels of 1(+)-7(2+) are calculated to vary in a descending order. The ruthenium and osmium complexes have singlet metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) transitions of similar energies and band shapes, while the osmium complexes display additional (3)MLCT transitions in the lower-energy region. Complexes 6(PF6)2 and 7(PF6)2 emit weakly at 780 and 740 nm, respectively. Complex 1(PF6)2 was synthesized as the oxidized Os(III) salt because of the low Os(II/III) potential. The transformation of 1(2+) to 1(+) by chemical reduction or electrolysis led to the emergence of the (1)MLCT transitions in the visible region.

  17. Metal-drug synergy: new ruthenium(II) complexes of ketoconazole are highly active against Leishmania major and Trypanosoma cruzi and nontoxic to human or murine normal cells.


    Iniguez, Eva; Sánchez, Antonio; Vasquez, Miguel A; Martínez, Alberto; Olivas, Joanna; Sattler, Aaron; Sánchez-Delgado, Roberto A; Maldonado, Rosa A


    In our ongoing search for new metal-based chemotherapeutic agents against leishmaniasis and Chagas disease, six new ruthenium-ketoconazole (KTZ) complexes have been synthesized and characterized, including two octahedral coordination complexes-cis,fac-[Ru(II)Cl2(DMSO)3(KTZ)] (1) and cis-[Ru(II)Cl2(bipy)(DMSO)(KTZ)] (2) (where DMSO is dimethyl sulfoxide and bipy is 2,2'-bipyridine)-and four organometallic compounds-[Ru(II)(η(6)-p-cymene)Cl2(KTZ)] (3), [Ru(II)(η(6)-p-cymene)(en)(KTZ)][BF4]2 (4), [Ru(II)(η(6)-p-cymene)(bipy)(KTZ)][BF4]2 (5), and [Ru(II)(η(6)-p-cymene)(acac)(KTZ)][BF4] (6) (where en is ethylenediamine and acac is acetylacetonate); the crystal structure of 3 is described. The central hypothesis of our work is that combining a bioactive compound such as KTZ and a metal in a single molecule results in a synergy that can translate into improved activity and/or selectivity against parasites. In agreement with this hypothesis, complexation of KTZ with Ru(II) in compounds 3-5 produces a marked enhancement of the activity toward promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania major, when compared with uncomplexed KTZ, or with similar ruthenium compounds not containing KTZ. Importantly, the selective toxicity of compounds 3-5 toward the leishmania parasites, in relation to human fibroblasts and osteoblasts or murine macrophages, is also superior to the selective toxicities of the individual constituents of the drug. When tested against Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes, some of the organometallic complexes displayed activity and selectivity comparable to those of free KTZ. A dual-target mechanism is suggested to account for the antiparasitic properties of these complexes.

  18. Ferrocene and (arene)ruthenium(II) complexes of the natural anticancer naphthoquinone plumbagin with enhanced efficacy against resistant cancer cells and a genuine mode of action.


    Spoerlein-Guettler, Cornelia; Mahal, Katharina; Schobert, Rainer; Biersack, Bernhard


    A series of ferrocene and (arene)ruthenium(II) complexes attached to the naturally occurring anticancer naphthoquinones plumbagin and juglone was tested for efficacy against various cancer cell lines and for alterations in the mode of action. The plumbagin ferrocene and (p-cymene)Ru(II) conjugates 1c and 2a overcame the multi-drug drug resistance of KB-V1/Vbl cervix carcinoma cells and showed IC50 (72 h) values around 1 μM in growth inhibition assays using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). They were further investigated for their influence on the cell cycle of KB-V1/Vbl and HCT-116 colon carcinoma cells, on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the latter cell line, for their substrate character for the P-glycoprotein drug eflux pump via the calcein-AM efflux assays, and for DNA affinity by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). The derivatives 1c and 2a increased the number of dead cancer cells (sub-G0/G1 fraction) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. ROS levels were significantly increased upon treatment with 1c and 2a. These compounds also showed a greater affinity to linear DNA than plumbagin. While plumbagin did not affect calcein-AM transport by P-glycoprotein the derivatives 1c and 2a exhibited a 50% or 80% inhibition of the P-glycoprotein-mediated calcein-AM efflux relative to the clinically established sensitizer verapamil.

  19. Isolation and characterization of a dimeric ruthenium(II) complex. An intermediate in the ruthenium-catalyzed oxygen oxidation of thioethers to sulfoxides

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, D.P.; Thompson, M.R.; Lyon, J. III


    Complexes of the type Ru/sup II/X/sub 2/(MeSO)/sub 2 or 3/(PR/sub 3/) are excellent catalysts for the selective oxygen oxidation of thioethers to sulfoxides. The complex RuCl/sub 2/(Me/sub 2/SO)/sub 3/(PPh/sub 3/) is an example of such a catalyst, and its solution chemistry under simulated catalytic conditions reveals that only one detectable complex is present. This presumed catalytic complex has been isolated and characterized by /sup 1/H, /sup 13/C, and /sup 31/P NMR and by an x-ray structure determination to be the chlorotri-/mu/-chlorotris(dimethyl sulfoxide)bis(triphenylphosphine)diruthenium, 2. Single crystals of 2 are monoclinic with space group P/sub 2/sub 1//c/ with a = 16.662(3)/angstrom/, b = 16.576(3)/angstrom/, c = 19.282(3)/angstrom/, and /beta/ = 98.86(1)/degree/. Both Ru centers are coordinated in a distorted octahedral fashion having three /mu/-bridged chlorine atoms shared between them. Ru/sub 1/ possesses three terminal ligands, one chloride, one triphenylphosphine and a dimethyl sulfoxide. Ru/sub 2/ is terminally bonded to two Me/sub 2/SO centers and one triphenylphosphine. The /mu/-bridged chlorine atoms are bonded in an asymmetric fashion due to the differing trans-influences of the Cl/sup /minus//, (CH/sub 3/)/sub 2/SO and PPh/sub 3/ ligands bonded to the metal centers. Ru-/mu/Cl distances range from 2.436(2)/angstrom/ to 2.490(2)/angstrom/, and Ru-S distances from 2.205(2)/angstrom/ to 2.269(2)/angstrom/.

  20. New ruthenium(II) complexes with enantiomerically pure bis- and tris(pinene)-fused tridentate ligands. Synthesis, characterization and stereoisomeric analysis.


    Sala, Xavier; Poater, Albert; von Zelewsky, Alexander; Parella, Teodor; Fontrodona, Xavier; Romero, Isabel; Solà, Miquel; Rodríguez, Montserrat; Llobet, Antoni


    A new set of Ru-Cl complexes containing either the pinene[5,6]bpea ligand (L1) or the C3 symmetric pinene[4,5]tpmOMe (L2) tridentate ligand in combination with the bidentate (B) 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) or 1,2-diphenylphosphinoethane (dppe) with general formula [RuCl(L1 or L2)(B)](+) have been prepared and thoroughly characterized. In the solid state, X-ray diffraction analysis techniques have been used. In solution, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy have been employed. DFT calculations have been also performed on these complexes and their achiral analogues previously reported in our group, to interpret and complement experimental results. Whereas isomerically pure complexes ([Ru(II)Cl(L2)(bpy)](BF4), 5 and [Ru(II)Cl(L2)(dppe)](BF4), 6) are obtained when starting from the highly symmetric [Ru(III)Cl3(L2)], 2, isomeric mixtures of cis, fac-[Ru(II)Cl(L1)(bpy)](BF4) (3b/3b'), trans,fac- (3a) and up/down,mer- (3c, 3d) isomers are formed when bpy is added to the less symmetric [Ru(III)Cl3(L1)], 1, in contrast to the case of the bulky dppe ligand that, upon coordination to 1, leads to the trans,fac-[Ru(II)Cl(L1)(dppe)](BF4) (4a) complex as a sole isomer due to steric factors.

  1. Water oxidation with mononuclear ruthenium(II) polypyridine complexes involving a direct Ru(IV)═O pathway in neutral and alkaline media.


    Badiei, Yosra M; Polyansky, Dmitry E; Muckerman, James T; Szalda, David J; Haberdar, Rubabe; Zong, Ruifa; Thummel, Randolph P; Fujita, Etsuko


    The catalytic water oxidation mechanism proposed for many single-site ruthenium complexes proceeds via the nucleophilic attack of a water molecule on the Ru(V)═O species. In contrast, Ru(II) complexes containing 4-t-butyl-2,6-di-1',8'-(naphthyrid-2'-yl)-pyridine (and its bisbenzo-derivative), an equatorial water, and two axial 4-picolines follow the thermodynamically more favorable "direct pathway" via [Ru(IV)═O](2+), which avoids the higher oxidation state [Ru(V)═O](3+) in neutral and basic media. Our experimental and theoretical results that focus on the pH-dependent onset catalytic potentials indicative of a PCET driven low-energy pathway for the formation of products with an O-O bond (such as [Ru(III)-OOH](2+) and [Ru(IV)-OO](2+)) at an applied potential below the Ru(V)═O/Ru(IV)═O couple clearly support such a mechanism. However, in the cases of [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(OH2)](2+) and [Ru(tpy)(bpm)(OH2)](2+), the formation of the Ru(V)═O species appears to be required before O-O bond formation. The complexes under discussion provide a unique functional model for water oxidation that proceeds by four consecutive PCET steps in neutral and alkaline media.

  2. Octahedral manganese(i) and ruthenium(ii) complexes containing 2-(methylamido)pyridine-borane as a tripod κ(3)N,H,H-ligand.


    Brugos, Javier; Cabeza, Javier A; García-Álvarez, Pablo; Pérez-Carreño, Enrique; Van der Maelen, Juan F


    The borane adduct of the 2-(methylamido)pyridine anion, [mapyBH3](-), has been incorporated into octahedral metal complexes. In fac-[Mn(κ(3)N,H,H-mapyBH3)(CO)3] (1) and fac-[RuH(κ(3)N,H,H-mapyBH3)(CO)(PiPr3)] (2), which have been prepared by treating K[mapyBH3] with fac-[MnBr(MeCN)2(CO)3] and [RuHCl(CO)(PiPr3)2], respectively, it behaves as a tripod ligand, attached to the metal atom through the amido N atom and through two H atoms of the BH3 moiety. X-ray diffraction analyses and theoretical studies (DFT, QTAIM) have shown that the MH2B atom grouping of 1 and 2 comprises two 3c-2e M-H-B interactions that are between those of the Shimoi type (κ(1)H coordination of the B-H bond) and those of the agostic type (κ(2)B,H coordination of the B-H bond). However, while both M-H-B interactions are almost identical in complex 1, this is not the case in complex 2, in which one M-H-B interaction is more agostic than the other due to the different trans influence of the hydride and phosphane ligands.

  3. Nature-Inspired, Highly Durable CO2 Reduction System Consisting of a Binuclear Ruthenium(II) Complex and an Organic Semiconductor Using Visible Light.


    Kuriki, Ryo; Matsunaga, Hironori; Nakashima, Takuya; Wada, Keisuke; Yamakata, Akira; Ishitani, Osamu; Maeda, Kazuhiko


    A metal-free organic semiconductor of mesoporous graphitic carbon nitride (C3N4) coupled with a Ru(II) binuclear complex (RuRu') containing photosensitizer and catalytic units selectively reduced CO2 into HCOOH under visible light (λ > 400 nm) in the presence of a suitable electron donor with high durability, even in aqueous solution. Modification of C3N4 with Ag nanoparticles resulted in a RuRu'/Ag/C3N4 photocatalyst that exhibited a very high turnover number (>33000 with respect to the amount of RuRu'), while maintaining high selectivity for HCOOH production (87-99%). This turnover number was 30 times greater than that reported previously using C3N4 modified with a mononuclear Ru(II) complex, and by far the highest among the metal-complex/semiconductor hybrid systems reported to date. The results of photocatalytic reactions, emission decay measurements, and time-resolved infrared spectroscopy indicated that Ag nanoparticles on C3N4 collected electrons having lifetimes of several milliseconds from the conduction band of C3N4, which were transferred to the excited state of RuRu', thereby promoting photocatalytic CO2 reduction driven by two-step photoexcitation of C3N4 and RuRu'. This study also revealed that the RuRu'/Ag/C3N4 hybrid photocatalyst worked efficiently in water containing a proper electron donor, despite the intrinsic hydrophobic nature of C3N4 and low solubility of CO2 in an aqueous environment.

  4. Ruthenium(II) bis(terpyridine) electron transfer complexes with alkynyl-ferrocenyl bridges: synthesis, structures, and electrochemical and spectroscopic studies.


    Wu, Kai-Qiang; Guo, Jian; Yan, Jian-Feng; Xie, Li-Li; Xu, Feng-Bo; Bai, Sha; Nockemann, Peter; Yuan, Yao-Feng


    Two novel alkynyl-bridged symmetric bis-tridentate ligands 1,2-bis(1'-[4'-(2,2':6',2''-terpyridinyl)]ferrocenyl)ethyne (3a; tpy-Fc-C[triple bond]C-Fc-tpy; Fc = ferrocenyl; tpy = terpyridyl) and 1,4-bis(1'-[4'-(2,2':6',2''-terpyridinyl)]ferrocenyl)-1,3-butadiyne (3b; tpy-Fc-C[triple bond]C-C[triple bond]C-Fc-tpy) and their Ru(2+) complexes 6a and 6b have been synthesized and characterized by cyclic voltammetry, UV-vis and luminescence spectroscopy, and in the case of 3b by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Cyclic voltammograms of both compounds, 3a and 3b, display two severely overlapping ferrocene-based oxidative peaks with only one reductive peak. The redox behavior of 6a and 6b is dominated by the Ru(2+)/Ru(3+) redox couple (E(1/2) from 1.33 to 1.34 V), the Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) redox couples (E(1/2) from 0.46 to 0.80 V), and the tpy/tpy(-)/tpy(2-) redox couples (E(1/2) from -1.19 to -1.48 V). The UV-vis spectra of 6a and 6b show absorption bands assigned to the (1)[(d(π)(Fe))(6)] → (1)[(d(π)(Fe))(5)(π*(tpy)(Ru))(1)] MMLCT transition at ~555 nm. Complexes and are luminescent in H(2)O-CH(3)CN (4 : 1, v/v) solution at room temperature, and 6b exhibits the strongest luminescence intensity (λ(max)(em): 710 nm, Φ(em): 2.28 × 10(-4), τ: 358 ns) relative to analogous ferrocene-based bis(terpyridine) Ru(II) complexes reported so far.

  5. Pyrazole cleavage of tris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)borate with Ruthenium(II) complexes: Synthesis, structural characterization and DFT studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharbani, Donkupar; Deb, Debojit Kumar; Mawnai, Ibaniewkor L.; Kurbah, Sunshine D.; Sarkar, Biplab; Rymmai, E. K.


    The reaction of [Ru(H)(Cl)(CO)(PPh3)3] (1) with KTp* (KTp* = Potassium tris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)borate) in a refluxing toluene yields a mixture of [RuTp*(H)(CO)(PPh3)] (2), [Ru(H)(Cl)(pz*H)(CO)(PPh3)2] (3), and [H(pz*)B(μ-pz*)2B(pz*)H] (4) (pz*H = 3,5-dimethylpyrazole). The products (3) and (4) were obtained by the degradation of the scorpionate ligand, Tp*. These complexes were characterised by IR, 1H NMR, UV, X-ray crystallography and DFT calculations.

  6. Organometallic ruthenium(II) complexes: synthesis, structure and influence of substitution at azomethine carbon towards DNA/BSA binding, radical scavenging and cytotoxicity.


    Sathyadevi, Palanisamy; Krishnamoorthy, Paramasivam; Bhuvanesh, Nattamai S P; Kalaiselvi, Palaniswamy; Vijaya Padma, Viswanadha; Dharmaraj, Nallasamy


    Bivalent, ruthenium organometallics containing hydrazone ligands with the composition [RuH(CO)(PPh(3))(2)(L(1-3))] (4-6) have been synthesised from the reactions of [RuH(2)(CO)(PPh(3))(3)] and benzoic acid pyridine-2-ylmethylene-hydrazide (HL(1)) (1) /benzoic acid (1-pyridin-2-yl-ethylidene)-hydrazide (HL(2)) (2)/benzoic acid (phenyl-pyridin-2-yl-methylene)-hydrazide (HL(3)) (3) and characterised by various physico-chemical techniques. The X-ray crystal structure of one of the above complexes, [RuH(CO)(PPh(3))(2)(L(3))] (6) demonstrated a distorted octahedral coordination geometry around the metal centre. Results of our investigation on the effect of substitution (H or CH(3) or C(6)H(5)) at the azomethine carbon of coordinated hydrazone in these ruthenium chelates on the potential binding with DNA/BSA, free radical scavenging and cytotoxicity is presented.

  7. Superior Light-Harvesting Heteroleptic Ruthenium(II) Complexes with Electron-Donating Antennas for High Performance Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.


    Chen, Wang-Chao; Kong, Fan-Tai; Li, Zhao-Qian; Pan, Jia-Hong; Liu, Xue-Peng; Guo, Fu-Ling; Zhou, Li; Huang, Yang; Yu, Ting; Dai, Song-Yuan


    Three heteroleptic polypyridyl ruthenium complexes, RC-41, RC-42, and RC-43, with efficient electron-donating antennas in the ancillary ligands were designed, synthesized, and characterized as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell. All the RC dye sensitizers showed remarkable light-harvesting capacity and broadened absorption range. Significantly, RC-43 obtained the lower energy metal-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) band peaked at 557 nm with a high molar extinction coefficient of 27 400 M(-1) cm(-1). In conjunction with TiO2 photoanode of submicrospheres and iodide-based electrolytes, the DSSCs sensitizing with the RC sensitizers, achieved impressively high short-circuit current density (19.04 mA cm(-2) for RC-41, 19.83 mA cm(-2) for RC-42, and 20.21 mA cm(-2) for RC-43) and power conversion efficiency (10.07% for RC-41, 10.52% for RC-42, and 10.78% for RC-43). The superior performances of RC dye sensitizers were attributed to the enhanced light-harvesting capacity and incident-photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) caused by the introduction of electron-donating antennas in the ancillary ligands. The interfacial charge recombination/regeneration kinetics and electron lifetime were further evaluated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS). These data decisively revealed the dependences on the photovoltaic performance of ruthenium sensitizers incorporating electron-donating antennas.

  8. A combined experimental and computational study on the cycloisomerization of 2-ethynylbiaryls catalyzed by dicationic arene ruthenium complexes.


    Yamamoto, Yoshihiko; Matsui, Kazuma; Shibuya, Masatoshi


    Ruthenium-catalyzed cycloisomerization of 2-ethynylbiaryls was investigated to identify an optimal ruthenium catalyst system. A combination of [η(6) -(p-cymene)RuCl2 (PR3 )] and two equivalents of AgPF6 effectively converted 2-ethynylbiphenyls into phenanthrenes in chlorobenzene at 120 °C over 20 h. Moreover, 2-ethynylheterobiaryls were found to be favorable substrates for this ruthenium catalysis, thus achieving the cycloisomerization of previously unused heterocyclic substrates. Moreover, several control experiments and DFT calculations of model complexes were performed to propose a plausible reaction mechanism.

  9. Influence of the nature of the absorption band on the potential performance of high molar extinction coefficient ruthenium(II) polypyridinic complexes as dyes for sensitized solar cells.


    Gajardo, Francisco; Barrera, Mauricio; Vargas, Ricardo; Crivelli, Irma; Loeb, Barbara


    When tested in solar cells, ruthenium polypyridinic dyes with extended π systems show an enhanced light-harvesting capacity that is not necessarily reflected by a high (collected electrons)/(absorbed photons) ratio. Provided that metal-to-ligand charge transfer bands, MLCT, are more effective, due to their directionality, than intraligand (IL) π-π* bands for the electron injection process in the solar cell, it seems important to explore and clarify the nature of the absorption bands present in these types of dyes. This article aims to elucidate if all the absorbed photons of these dyes are potentially useful in the generation of electric current. In other words, their potentiality as dyes must also be analyzed from the point of view of their contribution to the generation of excited states potentially useful for direct injection. Focusing on the assignment of the absorption bands and the nature of the emitting state, a systematic study for a series of ruthenium complexes with 4,4'-distyryl-2,2'-dipyridine (LH) and 4,4'-bis[p-(dimethylamino)-α-styryl]-2,2'-bipyridine (LNMe(2)) "chromophoric" ligands was undertaken. The observed experimental results were complemented with TDDFT calculations to elucidate the nature of the absorption bands, and a theoretical model was proposed to predict the available energy that could be injected from a singlet or a triplet excited state. For the series studied, the results indicate that the percentage of MLCT character to the anchored ligand for the lower energy absorption band follows the order [Ru(deebpy)(2)(LNMe(2))](PF(6))(2) > [Ru(deebpy)(2)(LH)](PF(6))(2) > [Ru(deebpy)(LH)(2)](PF(6))(2), where deebpy is 4,4'-bis(ethoxycarbonyl)-2,2'-bipyridine, predicting that, at least from this point of view, their efficiency as dyes should follow the same trend.

  10. Development of an efficient and durable photocatalytic system for hydride reduction of an NAD(P)+ model compound using a ruthenium(II) complex based on mechanistic studies.


    Matsubara, Yasuo; Koga, Kichitaro; Kobayashi, Atsuo; Konno, Hideo; Sakamoto, Kazuhiko; Morimoto, Tatsuki; Ishitani, Osamu


    The mechanism of photocatalytic reduction of 1-benzylnicotinamidium cation (BNA(+)) to the 1,4-dihydro form (1,4-BNAH) using [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(L)](2+) (Ru-L(2+), where tpy = 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, and L = pyridine and MeCN) as a photocatalyst and NEt(3) as a reductant has been clarified. On the basis of this mechanistic study, an efficient and durable photocatalytic system for selective hydride reduction of an NAD(P)(+) model compound has been developed. The photocatalytic reaction is initiated by the formation of [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(NEt(3))](2+) (Ru-NEt(3)(2+)) via the photochemical ligand substitution of Ru-L(2+). For this reason, the production rate of 1,4-BNAH using [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(MeCN)](2+) (Ru-MeCN(2+)) as a photocatalyst, from which the quantum yield of photoelimination of the MeCN ligand is greater than that of the pyridine ligand from [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(pyridine)](2+) (Ru-py(2+)), was faster than that using Ru-py(2+), especially in the first stage of the photocatalytic reduction. The photoexcitation of Ru-NEt(3)(2+) yields [Ru(tpy)(bpy)H](+) (Ru-H(+)), which reacts with BNA(+) to give 1:1 adduct [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(1,4-BNAH)](2+) (Ru-BNAH(2+)). In the presence of excess NEt(3) in the reaction solution, a deprotonation of the carbamoyl group in Ru-BNAH(2+) proceeds rapidly, mainly forming [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(1,4-BNAH-H(+))](+) (Ru-(BNAH-H(+))(+)). Although photocleavage of the adduct yields 1,4-BNAH and the cycle is completed by the re-coordination of a NEt(3) molecule to the Ru(II) center, this process competes with hydride abstraction from Ru-(BNAH-H(+))(+) by BNA(+) giving 1,4-BNAH and [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(BNA(+)-H(+))](2+). This adduct was observed as the major complex in the reaction solution after the photocatalysis was depressed and is a dead-end product because of its stability. Based on the information about the reaction mechanism and the deactivation process, we have successfully developed a new photocatalytic system using Ru-MeCN(2+) with 2 M of NEt(3) as

  11. Total enantioselectivity in the DNA binding of the dinuclear ruthenium(II) complex [[Ru(Me2bpy)2]2(mu-bpm)]4+ [bpm = 2,2'-bipyrimidine; Me2bpy = 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine].


    Smith, Jayden A; Collins, J Grant; Patterson, Bradley T; Keene, F Richard


    The binding of the three stereoisomers (DeltaDelta-, LambdaLambda- and DeltaLambda-) of the dinuclear ruthenium(II) complex [[Ru(Me2bpy)2]2(mu-bpm)]4+ [Me2bpy = 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine; bpm = 2,2'-bipyrimidine] to a tridecanucleotide containing a single adenine bulge has been studied by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The addition of the DeltaDelta-isomer to d(CCGAGAATTCCGG)2 induced significant chemical shift changes for the base and sugar resonances of the residues at the bulge site (G3A4G5/C11C10), whereas small shifts were observed upon addition of the enantiomeric LambdaLambda-form. NOESY spectra of the tridecanucleotide bound with the DeltaDelta-isomer revealed intermolecular NOE's between the metal complex and the nucleotide residues at the bulge site, while only weak NOE's were observed to terminal residues to the LambdaLambda-form. Competitive binding studies were performed where both enantiomers were simultaneously added to the tridecanucleotide, and for all ratios of the two stereoisomers the DeltaDelta-isomer remained selectively bound at the bulge site with the LambdaLambda-enantiomer localised at the terminal regions of the tridecanucleotide. The meso-diastereoisomer (DeltaLambda) was found to bind to the tridecanucleotide with characteristics intermediate between the DeltaDelta- and LambdaLambda-enantiomers of the rac form. Two distinct sets of metal complex resonances were observed, with one set having essentially the same shift as the free metal complex, whilst the other set of resonances exhibited significant shifts. The NOE data indicated that the meso-diastereoisomer does not bind as selectively as the DeltaDelta-isomer, with NOE's observed to a greater number of nucleotide residues compared to the DeltaDelta-form. This study provides a rare example of total enantioselectivity in the binding of an inert transition metal complex to DNA, produced by the shape recognition of both ruthenium(II) centres.

  12. Improvement of catalytic activity of Candida rugosa lipase in the presence of calix[4]arene bearing iminodicarboxylic/phosphonic acid complexes modified iron oxide nanoparticles.


    Ozyilmaz, Elif; Bayrakci, Mevlut; Yilmaz, Mustafa


    In the present study, iron oxide magnetite nanoparticles, prepared through a co-precipitation method, were coated with phosphonic acid or iminodicarboxylic acid derivatives of calix[4]arene to modulate their surfaces with different acidic groups. Candida rugosa lipase was then directly immobilized onto the modified nanoparticles through sol-gel encapsulation. The catalytic activities and enantioselectivities of the two encapsulated lipases in the hydrolysis reaction of (R/S)-naproxen methyl ester and (R/S)-2-phenoxypropionic acid methyl ester were assessed. The results showed that the activity and enantioselectivity of the lipase were improved when the lipase was encapsulated in the presence of calixarene-based additives; the encapsulated lipase with the phosphonic acid derivative of calix[4]arene had an excellent rate of enantioselectivity against the (R/S)-naproxen methyl and (R/S)-2-phenoxypropionic acid methyl esters, with E=350 and 246, respectively, compared to the free enzyme. The encapsulated lipases (Fe-Calix-N(COOH)) and (Fe-Calix-P) showed good loading ability and little loss of enzyme activity, and the stability of the catalyst was very good; they only lost 6-11% of the enzyme's activity after five batches.

  13. Potential energy mapping of the excited-states of (η6-arene)Cr(CO)3 complexes: the evolution toward CO-loss or haptotropic shift processes.


    Long, Conor


    The potential energy profiles of the optically accessible excited states of two model (η(6)-arene)Cr(CO)(3) systems were explored using Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory. Two photochemical reactions were investigated, CO-loss and the haptotropic or ring-slip of the arene ligand. In both cases the photochemical reaction requires the surmounting of a small thermal barrier in the lowest energy excited state. In the case of (η(6)-benzene)Cr(CO)(3) only one excited state is populated following 400 nm excitation and this leads to the release of CO. The calculated energy barrier to this process is 13 kJ mol(-1). In the case of (η(6)-thiophenol)Cr(CO)(3) two excited states are accessible one leading to CO-loss while the other results in the ring-slip process. The calculated barrier to the ring-slip process is 11 kJ mol(-1). The calculations are consistent with the results of picosecond time-resolved infrared studies.

  14. Heteroatom-free arene-cobalt and arene-iron catalysts for hydrogenations.


    Gärtner, Dominik; Welther, Alice; Rad, Babak Rezaei; Wolf, Robert; Jacobi von Wangelin, Axel


    75 years after the discovery of hydroformylation, cobalt catalysts are now undergoing a renaissance in hydrogenation reactions. We have evaluated arene metalates in which the low-valent metal species is--conceptually different from heteroatom-based ligands--stabilized by π coordination to hydrocarbons. Potassium bis(anthracene)cobaltate 1 and -ferrate 2 can be viewed as synthetic precursors of quasi-"naked" anionic metal species; their aggregation is effectively impeded by (labile) coordination to the various π acceptors present in the hydrogenation reactions of unsaturated molecules (alkenes, arenes, carbonyl compounds). Kinetic studies, NMR spectroscopy, and poisoning studies of alkene hydrogenations support the formation of a homogeneous catalyst derived from 1 which is stabilized by the coordination of alkenes. This catalyst concept complements the use of complexes with heteroatom donor ligands for reductive processes.

  15. Differentiating phosphates by an Mg(2+) complex of the conjugate of calix[4]arene via the formation of ternary species and causing changes in the aggregation: spectroscopy, microscopy, and computational modeling.


    Nehra, Anita; Yarramala, Deepthi S; Hinge, Vijaya Kumar; Samanta, Kushal; Rao, Chebrolu Pulla


    A phenylene diimine capped conjugate of 1,3-calix[4]arene (L) was synthesized and characterized, and its Mg(2+) complex has been isolated and characterized. The chemo sensing ensemble of Mg(2+) bound L provides distinguishable features of response toward phosphates, viz., HPO4(2-), P2O7(4-), and AMP(2-) (Set A) and H2PO4(-), ATP(2-), and ADP(2-) (Set B). While the Set A shows the formation of ternary complex, the Set B does not exhibit any intermediate complex, but both show the release of Mg(2+) and L at different equivalents. The structures of {L + Mg(2+)} and its phosphate bound ternary complexes have been established by computational calculations, and the corresponding results agree well with the experimental ones. The microscopy studies show an aggregation-disaggregation phenomenon in the presence of different equivalents of phosphates in both of the sets. Using the fluorescence data, an INHIBIT logic gate has been built.

  16. Spectrophotometric Determination of Cr(III) and Pb(II) Using Their Complexes with 5,11,17,23-Tetra[(2-ethyl acetoethoxyphenyl)(azo)phenyl]calix[4]arene

    PubMed Central

    Van Tan, Le; Quang Hieu, Tran; Van Cuong, Nguyen


    New complexes of 5,11,17,23-tetra[(2-ethyl acetoethoxyphenyl)(azo)phenyl]calix[4]arene (TEAC) with Pb(II) and Cr(III) were prepared in basic solution with a mixture of MeOH and H2O as solvent. The ratio of TEAC and metal ion in complexes was found to be 1 : 1 under investigated condition. The complex formation constants (based on Benesi-Hildebrand method) for TEAC-Pb(II) and TEAC-Cr(III) were 4.03 × 104 and 1.2 × 104, respectively. Additionally, the molar extinction coefficients were 5 × 104 and 1.42 × 104 for TEAC-Pb(II) and TEAC-Cr(III), respectively. The H-Point Standard Addition Method (HPSAM) has been applied for simultaneous determination of complexes formation of Cr(III)/Pb(II) and TEAC with concentration from 2 : 1 to 1 : 20 (w/w). The proposed method was successfully utilized to invest lead and chromium contents in plating wastewater samples. The results for several analyzed samples were found to be in satisfied agreement with those acquired by using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) technique. PMID:25984379

  17. Solvation structure around ruthenium(II) tris(bipyridine) in lithium halide solutions

    PubMed Central

    Josefsson, Ida; Eriksson, Susanna K.; Rensmo, Håkan; Odelius, Michael


    The solvation of the ruthenium(II) tris(bipyridine) ion ([Ru(bpy)3]2+) is investigated with molecular dynamics simulations of lithium halide solutions in polar solvents. The anion distribution around the [Ru(bpy)3]2+ complex exhibits a strong solvent dependence. In aqueous solution, the iodide ion forms a solvent shared complex with [Ru(bpy)3]2+, but not in the other solvents. Between Cl– and [Ru(bpy)3]2+, the strong hydration of the chloride ion results in a solvent separated complex where more than one solvent molecule separates the anion from the metal center. Hence, tailored solvation properties in electrolytes is a route to influence ion-ion interactions and related electron transfer processes. PMID:26798838

  18. Mimicking the Regulation Step of Fe-Monooxygenases: Allosteric Modulation of Fe(IV) -Oxo Formation by Guest Binding in a Dinuclear Zn(II) -Fe(II) Calix[6]arene-Based Funnel Complex.


    Ségaud, Nathalie; De Thomasson, Constance; Daverat, Caroline; Sénéchal-David, Katell; Dos Santos, Amandine; Steinmetz, Vincent; Maître, Philippe; Rebilly, Jean-Noël; Banse, Frédéric; Reinaud, Olivia


    A heteroditopic ligand associated with a calix[6]arene scaffold bearing a tris(imidazole) coordinating site at its small rim and an amine/pyridine ligand at its large rim has been prepared, and its regioselective coordination to Zn(II) at the small rim and Fe(II) in the amine/pyridine ligand has been achieved. The heterodinuclear complex obtained displays an overall cone conformation capped by the tris(imidazole)Zn(II) moiety and bears a non-heme Fe(II) complex at its base. Each of the metal centers exhibits one labile position, allowing the coordination inside the cavity of a guest alkylamine at Zn(II) and the generation of reaction intermediates (Fe(III) (OOH) and Fe(IV) O) at the large rim. A dependence between the chain length of the encapsulated alkylamine and the distribution of Fe(III) (OOH) intermediates and Fe(III) (OMe) is observed. In addition, it is shown that the generation of the Fe(IV) O intermediate is enhanced by addition of the alkylamine guest. Hence, this supramolecular system gathers the three levels of reactivity control encountered in oxidoreductases: i) control of the Fe(II) redox properties through its first coordination sphere, allowing us to generate high valent reactive species; ii) control of guest binding through a hydrophobic funnel that drives its alkyl chain next to the reactive iron complex, thus mimicking the binding pocket of natural systems; iii) guest-modulated reactivity of the Fe(II) center towards oxidants.

  19. Structural characterization and some coordinational aspects of tetrathiacalix[4]arenes functionalized by hydrazide groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podyachev, Sergey N.; Gubaidullin, Aidar T.; Syakaev, Victor V.; Sudakova, Svetlana N.; Masliy, Aleksey N.; Saifina, Alina F.; Burmakina, Nadezda Е.; Kuznetsov, Andrey M.; Shagidullin, Roald R.; Avvakumova, Ludmila V.; Konovalov, Alexander I.


    The structural peculiarities of tetrathiacalix[4]arenes with acetylhydrazide substitutes in cone and 1,3 -alternate conformations have been determined by means of X-ray analysis, IR and NMR spectroscopy. The structural and molecular modeling data were used in the interpretation of binding properties of calix[4]arene tetrahydrazides. The quantum-chemical calculations at the DFT level using the PBE exchange-correlation functional were performed for the complexation of 1,3 -alternate conformer of tetrathiacalix[4]arene with Ag + ion. It was shown that the removal of tert-butyl groups from tert-butyltetrathiacalix[4]arene platform facilitates a bis-ligand coordination of the metal ion and leads to a remarkable increase of Ag + extraction efficiency.

  20. Cell cycle, apoptosis, cellular uptake and whole-transcriptome microarray gene expression analysis of HeLa cells treated with a ruthenium(II)-arene complex with an isoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid ligand.


    Jovanović, Katarina K; Tanić, Miljana; Ivanović, Ivanka; Gligorijević, Nevenka; Dojčinović, Biljana P; Radulović, Siniša


    Ruthenium(II)-arene complexes are promising drug candidates for the therapy of solid tumors. In previous work, seven new compounds of the general formula [Ru(η(6)-p-cymene)(L(1-7))Cl] were synthesized and characterized, of which the complex with L=isoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (RuT7) was two times as active on HeLa cells compared to normal cell line MRC-5, as indicated by IC50 values determined after 48h of incubation (45.4±3.0 vs. 84.2±5.7μM, respectively). In the present study, cell cycle analysis of HeLa cells treated with RuT7 showed S phase arrest and an increase in sub-G1 population. The apoptotic potential of the title compound was confirmed with the Annexin V-FITC/PI assay together with a morphological evaluation of cells using fluorescent microscopy. Analysis of the intracellular accumulation of ruthenium showed 8.9ng Ru/10(6) cells after 6h of incubation. To gain further insight in the molecular mechanism of action of RuT7 on HeLa cells, a whole-transcriptome microarray gene expression analysis was performed. Analysis of functional categories and signaling and biochemical pathways associated with the response of HeLa cells to treatment with RuT7 showed that it leads the cells through the intrinsic (mitochondrial) apoptotic pathway, via indirect DNA damage due to the action of reactive oxygen species, and through direct DNA binding of RuT7. Statistical analysis for enrichment of gene sets associated with known drug-induced toxicities identified fewer associated toxicity profiles in RuT7-treated cells compared to cisplatin treatment. Altogether these results provide the basis for further development of RuT7 in animal and pre-clinical studies as a potential drug candidate.

  1. SO2-Binding Properties of Cationic η6,η1-NCN-Pincer Arene Ruthenium Platinum Complexes: Spectroscopic and Theoretical Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnet, Sylvestre A.; Van Lenthe, Joop H.; van Dam, Hubertus JJ; van Koten, Gerard; Klein Gebbink, Robertus J M


    The SO2-binding properties of a series of η6,η1-NCN-pincer ruthenium platinum complexes have been studied by both UV-visible spectroscopy, and theoretical calculations. When an electronwithdrawing [Ru(C5R5)]+ fragment (R = H or Me) is η6-coordinated to the phenyl ring of the NCNpincer platinum fragment (cf. [2]+ and [3]+, see scheme 1), the characteristic orange coloration (pointing to η1- SO2 binding to Pt) of a solution of the parent NCN-pincer platinum complex 1 in dichloromethane upon SO2-bubbling is not observed. However, when the ruthenium center is η6- coordinated to a phenyl substituent linked in para-position to the carbon-to-platinum bond, i.e. complex [4]+, the SO2-binding property of the NCN-platinum center seems to be retained, as bubbling SO2 into a solution of the latter complex produces the characteristic orange color. We performed theoretical calculations at the MP2 level of approximation and TD-DFT studies, which enabled us to interpret the absence of color change in the case of [2]+ as an absence of coordination of SO2 to platinum. We analyze this absence or weaker SO2-coordination in dichloromethane to be a consequence of the relative electron-poorness of the platinum center in the respective η6- ruthenium coordinated NCN-pincer platinum complexes, that leads to a lower binding energy and an elongated calculated Pt-S bond distance. We also discuss the effects of electrostatic interactions in these cationic systems, which also seems to play a destabilizing role for complex [2(SO2)]+.

  2. Arene-Ru(II)-Chloroquine Complexes Interact With DNA, Induce Apoptosis on Human Lymphoid Cell Lines and Display Low Toxicity to Normal Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Alberto; Rajapakse, Chandima S.K.; Varela-Ramírez, Armando; Lema, Carolina; Aguilera, Renato J.; Sánchez-Delgado, Roberto A.


    The complexes [Ru(η6-p-cymene)(CQ)Cl2] (1), [Ru(η6-benzene)(CQ)Cl2] (2), [Ru(η6-p-cymene)(CQ)(H2O)2][BF4]2 (3), [Ru(η6- p-cymene)(en)(CQ)][PF6]2 (4), [Ru(η6-p-cymene)(η6-CQDP)][BF4]2 (5) (CQ = chloroquine base; CQDP = chloroquine diphosphate; en = ethylenediamine) interact with DNA to a comparable extent to that of CQ and in analogous intercalative manner with no evidence for any direct contribution of the metal, as shown by spectrophotometric and fluorimetric titrations, thermal denaturation measurements, circular dichroism spectroscopy and electrophoresis mobility shift assays. Complexes 1–5 induced cytotoxicity in Jurkat and SUP-T1 cancer cells primarily via apoptosis. Despite the similarities in the DNA binding behavior of complexes 1–5 with those of CQ the antitumor properties of the metal drugs do not correlate with those of CQ, indicating that DNA is not the principal target in the mechanism of cytotoxicity of these compounds. Importantly, the Ru-CQ complexes are generally less toxic toward normal mouse splenocytes and human foreskin fibroblast cells than the standard antimalarial drug CQDP and therefore this type of compound shows promise for drug development. PMID:20605217

  3. Thermochromic organometallic complexes: experimental and theoretical studies of 16- to 18-electron interconversions of adducts of arene Ru(II) carboranes with aromatic amine ligands.


    Barry, Nicolas P E; Deeth, Robert J; Clarkson, Guy J; Prokes, Ivan; Sadler, Peter J


    A series of 18-electron complexes of general formula [Ru(p-cym)(1,2-dicarba-closo-dodecaborane-1,2-dithiolato)(L)] (p-cym = para-cymene; L = 4-dimethylaminopyridine (2), nicotinamide (3), 3-ethynylpyridine (4), N-methylimidazole (5), 4-cyanopyridine (6), and pyridine (7)) were synthesised by reactions between the 16-electron precursor [Ru(p-cym)(1,2-dicarba-closo-dodecaborane-1,2-dithiolato)] (1) and corresponding heterocyclic bases. X-ray crystal structures of complexes 2 and 5 were determined. In dichloromethane and chloroform solutions at ambient temperature, the 18-electron complexes 2-7 are in equilibrium with the 16-electron precursor 1. Each equilibrium is displaced towards the formation of the blue 16-electron or yellow 18-electron complex by increasing or decreasing the temperature of the solution, respectively, which results in controlled and reversible thermochromism. Binding constants (K) and Gibbs free energies (ΔG°) of the six equilibria have been determined by a combination of experiments (Job plots, UV-visible titrations, NMR studies) and also by computation (time-dependent density functional theory, TD-DFT). A linear free energy relationship for log K versus pK(a) for the pyridine and imidazole ligands was established. The predicted strong interactions of 1 with other aromatic amine ligands, such as amphetamine derivatives, were verified experimentally. This appears to be the first report of reversible 16/18-electron interconversions with associated thermochromic properties for a well-known family of complexes.

  4. Solvent assisted formation of ruthenium(III) and ruthenium(II) hydrazone complexes in one-pot with potential in vitro cytotoxicity and enhanced LDH, NO and ROS release.


    Jayanthi, Eswaran; Kalaiselvi, Sivalingam; Padma, Viswanatha Vijaya; Bhuvanesh, Nattamai S P; Dharmaraj, Nallasamy


    A set each of new bivalent and trivalent ruthenium complexes, [Ru(III)(HL)Cl2(EPh3)2] and [Ru(II)(L)(CO)(EPh3)2] (E = P (complexes and ) or As (complexes and )) were synthesised from the reactions of [Ru(III)Cl3(EPh3)3] with 2-hydroxynaphthaldehyde benzoic acid hydrazone (H2L) in methanol-chloroform and characterized by elemental analysis, spectral data and XRD study. A suitable mechanism to account for the formation of bivalent ruthenium carbonyl complexes from the corresponding trivalent precursors is provided by considering the role of added base in the reaction. Interaction of complexes with CT-DNA/bovine serum albumin was analysed with absorption and emission spectral titration studies. In vitro cytotoxic potential of the above ruthenium hydrazone complexes assayed against the A549 cell line revealed a significant growth inhibition. The test complexes added in IC50 concentration into the cell culture medium enhanced the release of lactate dehydrogenase, NO and reactive oxygen species in comparison with the control. Cell death induced by the complexes was studied using a propidium iodide staining assay and showed noticeable changes in the cell morphology which resembled apoptosis.

  5. Charge-separated and molecular heterobimetallic rare earth-rare earth and alkaline earth-rare earth aryloxo complexes featuring intramolecular metal-pi-arene interactions.


    Deacon, Glen B; Junk, Peter C; Moxey, Graeme J; Ruhlandt-Senge, Karin; St Prix, Courtney; Zuniga, Maria F


    Treatment of a rare earth metal (Ln) and a potential divalent rare earth metal (Ln') or an alkaline earth metal (Ae) with 2,6-diphenylphenol (HOdpp) at elevated temperatures (200-250 degrees C) afforded heterobimetallic aryloxo complexes, which were structurally characterised. A charge-separated species [(Ln'/Ae)(2)(Odpp)(3)][Ln(Odpp)(4)] was obtained for a range of metals, demonstrating the similarities between the chemistry of the divalent rare earth metals and the alkaline earth metals. The [(Ln'/Ae)(2)(Odpp)(3)](+) cation in the heterobimetallic structures is unusual in that it consists solely of bridging aryloxide ligands. A molecular heterobimetallic species [AeEu(Odpp)(4)] (Ae = Ca, Sr, Ba) was obtained by treating an alkaline earth metal and Eu metal with HOdpp at elevated temperatures. Similarly, [BaSr(Odpp)(4)] was prepared by treating Ba metal and Sr metal with HOdpp. Treatment of [Ba(2)(Odpp)(4)] with [Mg(Odpp)(2)(thf)(2)] in toluene afforded [Ba(2)(Odpp)(3)][Mg(Odpp)(3)(thf)]. Analogous solution-based syntheses were not possible for [(Ln'/Ae)(2)(Odpp)(3)][Ln(Odpp)(4)] complexes, for which the free-metal route was essential. As a result of the absence of additional donor ligands, the crystal structures of the heterobimetallic complexes feature extensive pi-Ph-metal interactions involving the pendant phenyl groups of the Odpp ligands, thus enabling the large electropositive metal atoms to attain coordination saturation. The charge-separated heterobimetallic species were purified by extraction with toluene/thf mixtures at ambient temperature (Ba-containing compounds) or by extraction with toluene under pressure above the boiling point of the solvent (other products). In donor solvents, heterobimetallic complexes other than those containing barium were found to fragment into homometallic species.

  6. 7-Amino-5-methyl-2-phenyl-6-(phenyldiazenyl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine crystallizes with Z' = 2: pseudosymmetry and the formation of complex sheets built from N-H...N and C-H...pi(arene) hydrogen bonds.


    Portilla, Jaime; Estupiñan, Diego; Cobo, Justo; Glidewell, Christopher


    The title compound, C(19)H(16)N(6), crystallizes with Z' = 2 in the space group P2(1)/n. The two molecules in the selected asymmetric unit are approximate mirror images of one another; most corresponding pairs of atoms are related by an approximate half-cell translation along [100]. Each molecule contains an intramolecular N-H...N hydrogen bond and the molecules are linked into complex sheets by a combination of two intermolecular N-H...N and four C-H...pi(arene) hydrogen bonds. Comparisons are made with some other 7-aminopyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines.

  7. Synthesis of a ruthenium(II) bipyridyl complex coordinated by a functionalized Schiff base ligand: characterization, spectroscopic and isothermal titration calorimetry measurements of M2+ binding and sensing (M2+=Ca2+, Mg2+).


    Dixit, Namrata; Mishra, Lallan; Mustafi, Sourajit M; Chary, Kandala V R; Houjou, Hirohiko


    Bis-[methylsalicylidine-4'benzoic acid]-ethylene (LH2) complexed with cis-Ru(bpy)2Cl(2).2H2O provides a complex of composition [Ru(bpy)2L].2NH4PF6 (1), which has been characterized spectroscopically. Its binding behaviour towards Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions is monitored using 1H NMR titration, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and luminescence microscopy. The luminescent ruthenium complex binds Ca2+ in a more selective manner as compared to Mg2+.

  8. Process Development for Separation of Conformers from Derivatives of Resorcin[4]arenes and Pyrogallol[4]arenes.


    Patil, Rahul S; Zhang, Chen; Atwood, Jerry L


    Macrocyclic compounds, such as resorcin[4]arenes and pyrogallol[4]arenes, have proven to be useful building blocks in the construction of supramolecular organic frameworks (SOFs) because of their unique bowl-like shape and ability to interact through variety of intermolecular interactions. Herein, we report the synthesis and crystal structures of two functionalized resorcin[4]arenes and pyroagllol[4]arenes, 4-hydroxyphenylresorcin[4]arenes, and 4-hydroxyphenylpyrogallol[4]arenes. These phenyl-functionalized macrocycles usually have different conformers, such as cone, boat, chair, saddle, and diamond. The successful separation of predominant conformers from the crude product was carried out with solvent-extraction technique. The shape and molecular arrangement of these conformers in the individual crystal structure was verified with single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies.

  9. Homo- and Heterobimetallic Ruthenium(II) and Osmium(II) Complexes Based on a Pyrene-Biimidazolate Spacer as Efficient DNA-Binding Probes in the Near-Infrared Domain.


    Mardanya, Sourav; Karmakar, Srikanta; Mondal, Debiprasad; Baitalik, Sujoy


    We report in this work a new family of homo- and heterobimetallic complexes of the type [(bpy)2M(Py-Biimz)M'(II)(bpy)2](2+) (M = M' = Ru(II) or Os(II); M = Ru(II) and M' = Os(II)) derived from a pyrenyl-biimidazole-based bridge, 2-imidazolylpyreno[4,5-d]imidazole (Py-BiimzH2). The homobimetallic Ru(II) and Os(II) complexes were found to crystallize in monoclinic form with space group P21/n. All the complexes exhibit strong absorptions throughout the entire UV-vis region and also exhibit luminescence at room temperature. For osmium-containing complexes (2 and 3) both the absorption and emission band stretched up to the NIR region and thus afford more biofriendly conditions for probable applications in infrared imaging and phototherapeutic studies. Detailed luminescence studies indicate that the emission originates from the respective (3)MLCT excited state mainly centered in the [M(bpy)2](2+) moiety of the complexes and is only slightly affected by the pyrene moiety. The bimetallic complexes show two successive one-electron reversible metal-centered oxidations in the positive potential window and several reduction processes in the negative potential window. An efficient intramolecular electronic energy transfer is found to occur from the Ru center to the Os-based component in the heterometallic dyad. The binding studies of the complexes with DNA were thoroughly studied through different spectroscopic techniques such as UV-vis absorption, steady-state and time-resolved emission, circular dichroism, and relative DNA binding study using ethidium bromide. The intercalative mode of binding was suggested to be operative in all cases. Finally, computational studies employing DFT and TD-DFT were also carried out to interpret the experimentally observed absorption and emission bands of the complexes.

  10. A SAR study of novel antiproliferative ruthenium and osmium complexes with quinoxalinone ligands in human cancer cell lines.


    Ginzinger, Werner; Mühlgassner, Gerhard; Arion, Vladimir B; Jakupec, Michael A; Roller, Alexander; Galanski, Markus; Reithofer, Michael; Berger, Walter; Keppler, Bernhard K


    A series of ruthenium(II) arene complexes with 3-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-1H-quinoxalin-2-one, bearing pharmacophoric groups of known protein kinase inhibitors, and related benzoxazole and benzothiazole derivatives have been synthesized. In addition, the corresponding osmium complexes of the unsubstituted ligands have also been prepared. The compounds have been characterized by NMR, UV-vis, and IR spectroscopy, ESI mass spectrometry, elemental analysis, and by X-ray crystallography. Antiproliferative activity in three human cancer cell lines (A549, CH1, SW480) was determined by MTT assays, yielding IC(50) values of 6-60 μM for three unsubstituted metal-free ligands, whereas values for the metal complexes vary in a broad range from 0.3 to 140 μM. Complexation with osmium of quinoxalinone derivatives with benzimidazole or benzothiazole results in a more consistent increase in cytotoxicity than complexation with ruthenium. For selected compounds, the capacity to induce apoptosis was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy and flow-cytometric analysis, whereas cell cycle effects are only moderate.

  11. Ruthenium—Arene Complexes Derived from NHC•CO2 and NHC•CS2 Zwitterionic Adducts and Their Use in Olefin Metathesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaude, Lionel; Demonceau, Albert

    A range of imidazol(in)ium-2-carboxylates and -dithiocarboxylates bearing alkyl or aryl groups on their nitrogen atoms were prepared by reacting the corresponding N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) with either carbon dioxide or carbon disulfide. All the zwitterionic products were characterized by various analytical techniques, including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Their ability to act as NHC ligand precursors for in situ catalytic applications was investigated in the ruthenium-promoted ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of cyclo-octene. Upon exposure to the [RuCl2(p-cymene)]2 dimer, the NHC CO2 adducts readily dissociated to generate [RuCl2(p-cymene)(NHC)] complexes that were highly active catalyst precursors for olefin metathesis. Conversely, the NHC CS2 betaines retained their zwitterionic nature and led to new cationic complexes of the [RuCl(p-cymene)(NHC CS2)]+PF6 - type that were devoid of any significant catalytic activity in the reaction under consideration

  12. Pyrogallol[4]arenes as frustrated organic solids.


    Kumari, Harshita; Erra, Loredana; Webb, Alicia C; Bhatt, Prashant; Barnes, Charles L; Deakyne, Carol A; Adams, John E; Barbour, Leonard J; Atwood, Jerry L


    Two forms of interdigitated layered arrangements of C-pentylpyrogallol[4]arene (PgC5) have been structurally elucidated and show variations in packing arrangements and host-guest interactions. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal a propensity for formation of self-included dimers, with or without incorporated solvent. Combined gas sorption and PXRD results show the presence of seven forms of PgC5, with and without CO2 (and their interconversions). This is the first CO2 gas sorption study of pyrogallol[4]arenes, and it provides evidence that pyrogallol[4]arenes may act as frustrated organic solids.

  13. Alkali-metalated forms of thiacalix[4]arenes.


    Zeller, Jürgen; Radius, Udo


    The alkali metal salts [TCALi4] (1), [TCANa4] (2), and [TCALK4] (3) of fully deprotonated p-tert-butyltetrathiacalix[4]arene (H(4)TCA) are readily available from the reactions of thiacalix[4]arene and n-BuLi, NaH, or KH as deprotonating reagents. Crystals of the sodium salts 2 and the potassium salt 3 suitable for X-ray diffraction were obtained in the form of the pyridine solvates [(TCA)2Na8.8py] (2.8py) and [(TCA)2K(8).8py] (3.8py). These molecules are dimers in the solid state but are structurally not related. In addition, the reaction of H(4)TCA and lithium hydroxide afforded the structurally characterized complex [(TCA)Li5(OH).4THF] (4). The molecular structure of 4 as well as the structures of 2.8py and 3.8py reveal a close relationship to the corresponding alkali metal salts of the calix[4]arenes.

  14. Highly efficient redox isomerisation of allylic alcohols catalysed by pyrazole-based ruthenium(IV) complexes in water: mechanisms of bifunctional catalysis in water.


    Bellarosa, Luca; Díez, Josefina; Gimeno, José; Lledós, Agustí; Suárez, Francisco J; Ujaque, Gregori; Vicent, Cristian


    The catalytic activity of ruthenium(IV) ([Ru(η(3):η(3)-C(10)H(16))Cl(2)L]; C(10)H(16) = 2,7-dimethylocta-2,6-diene-1,8-diyl, L = pyrazole, 3-methylpyrazole, 3,5-dimethylpyrazole, 3-methyl-5-phenylpyrazole, 2-(1H-pyrazol-3-yl)phenol or indazole) and ruthenium(II) complexes ([Ru(η(6)-arene)Cl(2)(3,5-dimethylpyrazole)]; arene = C(6)H(6), p-cymene or C(6)Me(6)) in the redox isomerisation of allylic alcohols into carbonyl compounds in water is reported. The former show much higher catalytic activity than ruthenium(II) complexes. In particular, a variety of allylic alcohols have been quantitatively isomerised by using [Ru(η(3):η(3)-C(10)H(16))Cl(2)(pyrazole)] as a catalyst; the reactions proceeded faster in water than in THF, and in the absence of base. The isomerisations of monosubstituted alcohols take place rapidly (10-60 min, turn-over frequency = 750-3000 h(-1)) and, in some cases, at 35 °C in 60 min. The nature of the aqueous species formed in water by this complex has been analysed by ESI-MS. To analyse how an aqueous medium can influence the mechanism of the bifunctional catalytic process, DFT calculations (B3LYP) including one or two explicit water molecules and using the polarisable continuum model have been carried out and provide a valuable insight into the role of water on the activity of the bifunctional catalyst. Several mechanisms have been considered and imply the formation of aqua complexes and their deprotonated species generated from [Ru(η(3):η(3)-C(10)H(16))Cl(2)(pyrazole)]. Different competitive pathways based on outer-sphere mechanisms, which imply hydrogen-transfer processes, have been analysed. The overall isomerisation implies two hydrogen-transfer steps from the substrate to the catalyst and subsequent transfer back to the substrate. In addition to the conventional Noyori outer-sphere mechanism, which involves the pyrazolide ligand, a new mechanism with a hydroxopyrazole complex as the active species can be at work in water. The

  15. Photoinduced electron and energy transfer and pH-induced modulation of the photophysical properties in homo- and heterobimetallic complexes of ruthenium(II) and rhodium(III) based on a heteroditopic phenanthroline-terpyridine bridge.


    Maity, Dinesh; Bhaumik, Chanchal; Karmakar, Srikanta; Baitalik, Sujoy


    Homo- and heterobimetallic complexes of compositions [(bpy)2Ru(II)(phen-Hbzim-tpy)Ru(II)(tpy/tpy-PhCH3/H2pbbzim)](4+) and [(bpy)2Ru(II)(phen-Hbzim-tpy)Rh(III)(tpy-PhCH3/H2pbbzim)](5+), where phen-Hbzim-tpy = 2-[4-(2,6-dipyridin-2-ylpyridin-4-yl)phenyl]-1H-imidazole[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, tpy = 2,2':6',2"-terpyridine, tpy-PhCH3 = 4'-(4-methylphenyl)-2,2':6',2"-terpyridine, and H2pbbzim = 2,6-bis(benzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine, have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The absorption spectra, redox behavior, and luminescence properties of these bimetallic complexes have been thoroughly investigated and compared with those of monometallic [(bpy)2Ru(II)(phen-Hbzim-tpy)](2+) and [(tpy-PhCH3)Rh(III)(tpy-Hbzim-phen)](3+) model compounds. The electrochemistry of the complexes shows a reversible Ru(II/III) oxidation in the anodic region and an irreversible Rh(III/I) reduction and several ligand-based reductions in the cathodic region. Steady-state and time-resolved luminescence data at room temperature show that an efficient intramolecular electronic energy transfer from the metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) excited state of the [(bpy)2Ru(II)(phen-Hbzim-tpy)] chromophore to the MLCT state of the tpy-containing chromophore [(phen-Hbzim-tpy)Ru(II)(tpy/tpy-PhCH3/H2pbbzim)] occurs in all three unsymmetrical homobimetallic complexes. On the other hand, for both heterometallic dyads, an efficient intramolecular photoinduced electron transfer from the excited ruthenium moiety to the rhodium-based unit takes place. The rate constants for the energy- and electron-transfer processes have been determined by time-resolved emission spectroscopy. The influence of the pH on the absorption, steady-state, and time-resolved emission properties of complexes has been thoroughly investigated. The absorption titration data were used to determine the ground-state pK values

  16. Conformational isomerism in the solid-state structures of tetracaine and tamoxifen with para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danylyuk, Oksana; Monachino, Melany; Lazar, Adina N.; Suwinska, Kinga; Coleman, Anthony W.


    The solid-state complexes between para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene and the drugs tamoxifen and tetracaine show an unusual 4:1 guest-host stoichiometry with formation of hydrophobic layer of drug molecules held between bilayers of para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene. In both structures each of the four independent drug molecules adopts different conformation due to the different mode of interaction with the anionic host, the neighbouring drug cations and water molecules.

  17. Organometallic rhodium(III) and iridium(III) cyclopentadienyl complexes with curcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin co-ligands.


    Pettinari, Riccardo; Marchetti, Fabio; Pettinari, Claudio; Condello, Francesca; Petrini, Agnese; Scopelliti, Rosario; Riedel, Tina; Dyson, Paul J


    A series of half-sandwich cyclopentadienyl rhodium(III) and iridium(III) complexes of the type [Cp*M(curc/bdcurc)Cl] and [Cp*M(curc/bdcurc)(PTA)][SO3CF3], in which Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl, curcH = curcumin and bdcurcH = bisdemethoxycurcumin as O^O-chelating ligands, and PTA = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane, is described. The X-ray crystal structures of three of the complexes, i.e. [Cp*Rh(curc)(PTA)][SO3CF3] (5), [Cp*Rh(bdcurc)(PTA)][SO3CF3] (6) and [Cp*Ir(bdcurc)(PTA)][SO3CF3] (8), confirm the expected "piano-stool" geometry. With the exception of 5, the complexes are stable under pseudo-physiological conditions and are moderately cytotoxic to human ovarian carcinoma (A2780 and A2780cisR) cells and also to non-tumorigenic human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells, but lack the cancer cell selectivity observed for related arene ruthenium(II) complexes.

  18. Synthesis and photophysical properties of zeolite-entrapped bisterpyridine ruthenium(II). Dramatic consequences of ligand-field-state destabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Bhuiyan, A.A.; Kincaid, J.R.


    A bisterpyridine complex of ruthenium(II) (Ru(tpy){sub 2}{sup 2+}) has been prepared in zeolite Y supercages and investigated by electronic absorption, electronic emission, and resonance Raman spectroscopy. In free solution this complex is practically nonluminescent, having a very short excited-state lifetime (250 ps) at room temperature. However, entrapment within the zeolite supercage results in dramatic increases in emission intensity and excited-state lifetime (140 ns) at room temperature. The observed temperature dependence of the excited-state lifetime has been modeled by a kinetic equation with two thermal terms corresponding to the so-called fourth {sup 3}MLCT state and ligand-field state (LF), respectively. It is shown that the increased lifetime of the entrapped complex results from zeolite-induced destabilization of the LFe state, a conclusion which is in agreement with results obtained for a number of other zeolite-entrapped ruthenium(II)polypyridine complexes.

  19. Tuning the cytotoxic properties of new ruthenium(III) and ruthenium(II) complexes with a modified bis(arylimino)pyridine Schiff base ligand using bidentate pyridine-based ligands.


    Garza-Ortiz, Ariadna; Maheswari, Palanisamy Uma; Lutz, Martin; Siegler, Maxime A; Reedijk, Jan


    Synthesis, spectroscopy, characterization, structures, and cytotoxicity studies of 2,6-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyliminomethyl)pyridine (LLL) ruthenium compounds are described. The starting compound [RuCl3(LLL)] has been fully characterized using IR spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and NMR spectroscopy. In addition, the crystal structure of the ligand LLL has been determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. With the ruthenium(III) trichloride compound as starting material, a new family of Ru(II) complexes with a number of neutral and charged bidentate co-ligands have been synthesized and used for characterization and cytotoxicity studies. The synthesis of the corresponding [Ru(II)LLL(LL)Cl](+/0) complexes with co-ligands- LL is 1,10-phenanthroline, 2,2'-bipyridyl, 2-(phenylazo)pyridine, 2-(phenylazo)-3-methylpyridine, 2-(tolylazo)pyridine, or the anionic 2-picolinate-is reported. Analytical, spectroscopic (IR spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry), and structural characterization of the new compounds is described. Crystal structure analyses of two Ru(II) compounds show a slightly distorted octahedral Ru(II) geometry with tridentate LLL coordinated in a planar meridional fashion, and the chelating co-ligand (LL) and a chloride ion complete the octahedron. The co-ligand plays a significant role in modulating the physicochemical and cytotoxic properties of these new ruthenium complexes. The in vitro cytotoxicity of these new Ru(II) complexes (half-maximal inhibitory concentration, IC50, of 0.5-1.5 μM), in comparison with the parent Ru(III) compound (half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 3.9-4.3 μM) is higher for several of the human cancer cell lines tested. The cytotoxic activity of some of the new ruthenium compounds is even higher than that of cisplatin in the same cancer cell lines. The cytotoxicity of these new anticancer compounds is

  20. Interaction of octahedral ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complex [Ru(bpy)2(PIP)](2+) with poly(U)·poly(A)*poly(U) triplex: Increasing third-strand stabilization of the triplex without affecting the stability of the duplex.


    Zhu, Zhiyuan; Peng, Mengna; Zhang, Jingwen; Tan, Lifeng


    Triple-helical RNA are of interest because of possible biological roles as well as the potential therapeutic uses of these structures, while the stability of triplexes is usually weaker than that of the Watson-Crick base pairing duplex strand due to the electrostatic repulsion between three polyanionic strands. Therefore, how to increase the stability of the specific sequences of triplexes are of importance. In this paper the binding of a Ru(II) complex, [Ru(bpy)2(PIP)](2+) (bpy=2.2'-bipyridine, PIP=2-phenyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-f]- [1,10]-phenanthroline), with poly(U)·poly(A)*poly(U) triplex has been investigated by spectrophotometry, spectrofluorometry, viscosimetry and circular dichroism. The results suggest that [Ru(bpy)2(PIP)](2+) as a metallointercalator can stabilize poly(U)·poly(A)*poly(U) triplex (where · denotes the Watson-Crick base pairing and * denotes the Hoogsteen base pairing),while it stabilizes third-strand with no obvious effect on the duplex of poly(U)·poly(A), reflecting the binding of this complex with the triplex is favored by the Hoogsteen paired poly(U) third strand to a great extent.

  1. Time resolved study of three ruthenium(II) complexes at micellar surfaces: A new long excited state lifetime probe for determining critical micelle concentration of surfactant nano-aggregates.


    Patra, Digambara; Chaaban, Ahmad H; Darwish, Shaza; Saad, Huda A; Nehme, Ali S; Ghaddar, Tarek H


    Three different ruthenium complexes have been synthesized and their luminescence properties in different solvent environments are reported. Luminescence intensities and excited state lifetimes of Ru-I, Ru-II and Ru-III vary with solvent viscosity. The excited state lifetime of Ru-I linearly increases in the viscosity range 1.76-12,100cP. Ru-II shows two linear increases: one in the low and another in the high viscosity ranges, whereas Ru-III illustrates a linear enhancement only in the low viscosity range. Interestingly, luminescence intensities and excited state lifetimes of Ru-I, Ru-II and Ru-III are found to be sensitive to nano-aggregation. However, the surfactant head charge and that of the ruthenium center as well as the hydrophobic tail of the ancillary ligand of the complexes have a great role in deciding the nature of the interaction and on the excited state properties at micellar surfaces. It is proposed that the long lifetime of Ru-III in water could be due to the coiling of the carbon chain of the ancillary ligand around the ruthenium center. At micelle surface, this coiling of the carbon chain is lost due to the parallel alignment with surfactants and thus quenching of the excited state lifetime is seen. Furthermore, it is shown that the variation of the excited state lifetime with respect to the change in surfactant concentration is a result of the formation of micelles from the surfactant monomer, thus, a novel technique for the determination of the critical micelle concentration (cmc) based on the long excited state lifetime of Ru-III located at the micellar nano-aggregates is reported.

  2. Calix[4]arene Based Single-Molecule Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Karotsis, Georgios; Teat, Simon J.; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Piligkos, Stergios; Dalgarno, Scott J.; Brechin, Euan K.


    -8) also suggests they should be excellent candidates as ligands for the isolation of molecular magnets, but to date their use in the isolation of paramagnetic cluster compounds is rather limited. Herein we present the first Mn cluster and the first SMM to be isolated using any methylene bridged calix[n]arene - a ferromagnetically coupled mixed-valence [Mn{sub 2}{sup III}Mn{sub 2}{sup II}] complex housed between either two TBC4s or two C4s.

  3. Effect of Bridge Alteration on Ground- and Excited-State Properties of Ruthenium(II) Complexes with Electron-Donor-Substituted Dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine Ligands.


    Shillito, Georgina E; Larsen, Christopher B; McLay, James R W; Lucas, Nigel T; Gordon, Keith C


    A series of Ru(II) 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) complexes with an electron-accepting dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (dppz) ligand coupled to an electron-donating triarylamine (TAA) group have been investigated. Systematic alteration of a bridging unit between the dppz and TAA allowed exploration into how communication between the donor and acceptor is perturbed by distance, as well as by steric and electronic effects. The effect of the bridging group on the electronic properties of the systems was characterized using a variety of spectroscopic methods, including Fourier transform-Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopy, resonance Raman spectroscopy, and transient resonance Raman (TR(2)) spectroscopy. These methods were used in conjunction with ground- and excited-state absorption spectroscopy, electrochemical studies, and DFT calculations. The ground-state electronic absorption spectra show distinct variation with the bridging group, with the wavelength observed for the lowest energy electronic transition ranging from 449 nm to 522 nm, accompanied by large changes in the molar absorptivity. The lowest-energy Franck-Condon state was determined to be intra-ligand charge transfer (ILCT) in nature for most compounds. The presence of higher-energy metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) Ru(II) → bpy and Ru(II) → dppz transitions was also confirmed via resonance Raman spectroscopy. The TR(2) spectra showed characteristic dppz(• -) and TAA(• +) vibrations, indicating that the THEXI state formed was also ILCT in nature. Excited-state lifetime measurements reveal that the rate of decay is in accordance with the energy gap law and is not otherwise affected by the nature of the bridging unit.

  4. Syntheses and spin-spin exchange interactions of calix[4]arene biradicals.


    Hu, Xiaojun; Yang, Haijun; Li, Yong


    Three novel paramagnetic calix[4]arenes (2, 3 and 4) with two opposite nitroxide radicals on the upper rims were synthesized and characterized. The through-space spin-spin exchange interactions of these calixarene biradicals were investigated, and found to be affected by many factors, such as molecular conformational flexibility, steric hindrance, temperature, solvent effect and complexation of silver ion.

  5. The first water-soluble pillar[5]arene dimer: synthesis and construction of a reversible fluorescent supramolecular polymer network in water.


    Sun, Yan; Wang, Jin; Yao, Yong


    The first water-soluble pillar[n]arene (n = 5) dimer was successfully synthesized. This dimer can complex with carboxylate anion-functionalized tetraphenyl ethylene to form a reversible fluorescent supramolecular polymer network in water.

  6. Molecular recognition of curcumin (Indian Ayurvedic medicine) by the supramolecular probe, p-t-butyl calix(8)arene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meenakshi, C.; Jayabal, P.; Ramakrishnan, V.


    The thermodynamic property of the host-guest complexes formed between the curcumin, component of Indian Ayurvedic medicine turmeric, a drug molecule, with the supra molecule, p-t-butyl calix(8)arene was studied. p-t-Butyl calix(8)arene has been used as a host molecule and curcumin as a guest molecule. Optical absorption spectral studies were carried out to investigate the molecular recognition properties of p-t-butyl calix(8)arene with curcumin. The stochiometry of the host-guest complexes formed and the binding constant were determined. An interesting 1:1 and 4:1 stochiometric host-guest complexes were formed. Job's continuous method of variation and Benesi-Hildebrand expression were used for the determination of binding constant and the stochiometry of the host-guest complex formed.

  7. Molecular recognition of curcumin (Indian Ayurvedic medicine) by the supramolecular probe, p-t-butyl calix(8)arene.


    Meenakshi, C; Jayabal, P; Ramakrishnan, V


    The thermodynamic property of the host-guest complexes formed between the curcumin, component of Indian Ayurvedic medicine turmeric, a drug molecule, with the supra molecule, p-t-butyl calix(8)arene was studied. p-t-Butyl calix(8)arene has been used as a host molecule and curcumin as a guest molecule. Optical absorption spectral studies were carried out to investigate the molecular recognition properties of p-t-butyl calix(8)arene with curcumin. The stochiometry of the host-guest complexes formed and the binding constant were determined. An interesting 1:1 and 4:1 stochiometric host-guest complexes were formed. Job's continuous method of variation and Benesi-Hildebrand expression were used for the determination of binding constant and the stochiometry of the host-guest complex formed.

  8. 7-Amino-5-methyl-2-phenyl-6-(phenyl­diazenyl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine crystallizes with Z′ = 2: pseudosymmetry and the formation of complex sheets built from N—H⋯N and C—H⋯π(arene) hydrogen bonds

    PubMed Central

    Portilla, Jaime; Estupiñan, Diego; Cobo, Justo; Glidewell, Christopher


    The title compound, C19H16N6, crystallizes with Z′ = 2 in the space group P21/n. The two mol­ecules in the selected asym­metric unit are approximate mirror images of one another; most corresponding pairs of atoms are related by an approximate half-cell translation along [100]. Each mol­ecule contains an intra­molecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bond and the mol­ecules are linked into complex sheets by a combination of two inter­molecular N—H⋯N and four C—H⋯π(arene) hydrogen bonds. Comparisons are made with some other 7-amino­pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines. PMID:20203410

  9. The Chemistry of Mesitylgallium(3) Derivatives as Arene Ligands in Metal Carbonyl Complexes. Crystal and Molecular Structures of ((CO)3Mo(Eta 6- C6Me3H2))Ga(C6Me3H2)2 and ((CO)3Mo(Eta 6-C6Me3H2))2GA(C6Me3H2)

    DTIC Science & Technology


    useful neutral 6 6 6amphoteric ligands include PhB (NMe2 )2 , PhB (OMe)2 , PhB (C 5Ho10 ) and PhB (CH2CH(Me)C2H4 ) 6 . An anionic arene-transition metal...recrystallized from an appropriate solvent system. Synthesis of [(CO)3MoNes]2Ga~es. The complex [(CO) 3MoMes]2GaMes was prepared by refluxing a...2.22 (s, p-Me, 3 H); IR (DME, v(CO), cm- I) 1960 (sh, s), 1951 (vs), 1879 (vs). Anal. Caled: C, 50.35; H, 4.22. Found: C, 50.56; H, 4.24. Synthesis

  10. Solution structures of nanoassemblies based on pyrogallol[4]arenes.


    Kumari, Harshita; Deakyne, Carol A; Atwood, Jerry L


    ]arene hexamer. However, the arenes are arranged differently in the two toroids, a variation that accounts for the differences in their sizes and guest encapsulation. Guest encapsulation of biotemplates, such as insulin, has demonstrated the feasibility of synthesizing nanocapsules with a volume three times that of a hexamer. The solution-phase studies have also demonstrated that the self-assembly of dimers versus hexamers can be controlled by the choice of metal, solvent, and temperature. Controlling the size of the host, nature of the metal, and identity of the guest will allow construction of targeted host-guest assemblies having potential uses as drug delivery agents, nanoscale reaction vessels, and radioimaging/radiotherapy agents. Overall, the present series of solid- and solution-phase studies has begun to pave the way toward a more complete understanding of the properties and behavior of complex supramolecular nanoassemblies.

  11. Pentanuclear lanthanide pyramids based on thiacalix[4]arene ligand exhibiting slow magnetic relaxation.


    Ge, Jing-Yuan; Ru, Jing; Gao, Feng; Song, You; Zhou, Xin-Hui; Zuo, Jing-Lin


    A series of pentanuclear Ln(III) clusters, [Ln5(μ4-OH)(μ3-OH)4(L1)(acac)6] (H4L1 = p-tert-butylthiacalix[4]arene; acac = acetylacetonate; Ln = Dy, Ho, Er) and [Ln5(μ5-OH)(μ3-OH)4(L1)(L2)2(acac)2(CH3OH)2] (H3L2 = 5,11,17,23-tetrakis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-25,26,27-trihydroxy-28-methoxy thiacalix[4]arene; Ln = Dy, Ho, Er), have been synthesized based on the thiacalix[4]arene ligand. All of these complexes feature a square-based pyramid with four triangular Ln3 structural motifs. One μ4-OH group bridges four Ln(III) ions in the basal plane of , while the OH group in complexes adopts the μ5-coordination mode. Our results illuminate the coordination modes of the versatile thiacalix[4]arene ligands and their application to new cluster compounds. The structural and magnetic studies confirm that the molecular symmetries and coordination geometries for lanthanide metal cores have a significant effect on some parameters as single-molecule magnets. Among them, two Dy5 pyramids exhibit distinct slow magnetic relaxation.

  12. Systematic study of modifications to ruthenium(II) polypyridine dyads for electron injection enhancement.


    Jakubikova, Elena; Martin, Richard L; Batista, Enrique R


    Spatial localization of excited-state electrons in transition-metal complexes used as photocatalysts or dye sensitizers in solar cells is important for efficient electron injection into the metal oxide nanoparticles. We use density functional theory to investigate the excited states in a prototype catalyst-chromophore assembly [(bpy)(H(2)O)Ru(tpy-tpy)Ru(tpy)](4+) ([Ru(tpy)(bpy)(H(2)O)](2+) = catalyst, [Ru(tpy)(2)](2+) = chromophore, tpy = 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine, and bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) and a series of related compounds. We explore several bridging ligand and terminal tpy ligand modifications of the prototype assembly, with the aim of inducing electronic excitations into the terminal tpy ligand upon irradiation with visible light. The excitations into the terminal ligand (i.e., ligand covalently attached to the semiconductor in the photocatalytic synthetic cell) should, in turn, enhance electron injection into the semiconductor. Our results suggest that both introduction of a spacer group (such as phenylene or alkane) into the tpy-tpy bridge and replacement of the terminal tpy group by a more extended pi-conjugated ligand are necessary to shift the electronic excitations from the bridging ligand into the terminal ligand. These results have implications for the design of photocatalysts and dye-sensitizer assemblies based on ruthenium(II) terpyridine compounds.

  13. Room-temperature direct alkynylation of arenes with copper acetylides.


    Theunissen, Cédric; Evano, Gwilherm


    C-H bond in azoles and polyhalogenated arenes can be smoothly activated by copper acetylides to give the corresponding alkynylated (hetero)arenes by simple reaction at room temperature in the presence of phenanthroline and lithium tert-butoxide under an oxygen atmosphere. These stable, unreactive, and readily available polymers act as especially efficient and practical reagents for the introduction of an alkyne group to a wide number of arenes under remarkably mild conditions.

  14. Chemoselective hydrogenation of arenes by PVP supported Rh nanoparticles.


    Ibrahim, Mahmoud; Poreddy, Raju; Philippot, Karine; Riisager, Anders; Garcia-Suarez, Eduardo J


    Polyvinylpyrrolidone-stabilized Rh nanoparticles (RhNPs/PVP) of ca. 2.2 nm in size were prepared by the hydrogenation of the organometallic complex [Rh(η(3)-C3H5)3] in the presence of PVP and evaluated as a catalyst in the hydrogenation of a series of arene substrates as well as levulinic acid and methyl levulinate. The catalyst showed excellent activity and selectivity towards aromatic ring hydrogenation compared to other reported transition metal-based catalysts under mild reaction conditions (room temperature and 1 bar H2). Furthermore, it was shown to be a highly promising catalyst for the hydrogenation of levulinic acid and methyl levulinate in water leading to quantitative formation of the fuel additive γ-valerolactone under moderate reaction conditions compared to previously reported catalytic systems.

  15. Theoretical study of a novel imino bridged pillar[5]arene derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Ju; Zuo, Tongfei; Huang, Zhiling; Huan, Long; Gu, Qixin; Gao, Chenxi; Shao, Jingjing


    In this paper, we report a novel imino bridged pillar[5]arene derivative (P5N) for the first time. Four conformers (P5N0, P5N1, P5N12, and P5N13, arising due to the different orientation of Nsbnd H bond of imino bridging group) are obtained by quantum chemical calculations at the CAM-B3LYP/6-31+G(d, p) level of theory. The geometries, energies, electronic structures, and absorption spectra of P5N conformers as well as pillar[5]arene (P5) are discussed in detail. The inclusion complexes of paraquat (Pq) with P5N and P5, respectively, are also obtained at the same level of theory. Compared to P5, P5N exhibits better performance in inclusion complexation toward Pq.

  16. What Indiana's Education Schools Aren't Teaching About Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2009


    In May 2006 the National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ) released a groundbreaking study, "What Education Schools Aren't Teaching About Reading - and "What Elementary Teachers Aren't Learning." The primary findings were disheartening: in a representative sampling of education schools in 35 states, only 15 percent of schools…

  17. Arene Selectivity by a Flexible Coordination Polymer Host

    PubMed Central

    Wright, James S.; Vitórica‐Yrezábal, Iñigo J.; Thompson, Stephen P.


    Abstract The coordination polymers [Ag4(O2CCF3)4(phen)3]⋅ phen⋅arene (1⋅phen⋅arene) (phen=phenazine; arene=toluene, p‐xylene or benzene) have been synthesised from the solution phase in a series of arene solvents and crystallographically characterised. By contrast, analogous syntheses from o‐xylene and m‐xylene as the solvent yield the solvent‐free coordination polymer [Ag4(O2CCF3)4(phen)2] (2). Toluene, p‐xylene and benzene have been successfully used in mixed‐arene syntheses to template the formation of coordination polymers 1⋅phen⋅arene, which incorporate o‐ or m‐xylene. The selectivity of 1⋅phen⋅arene for the arene guests was determined, through pairwise competition experiments, to be p‐xylene>toluene≈benzene>o‐xylene>m‐xylene. The largest selectivity coefficient was determined as 14.2 for p‐xylene:m‐xylene and the smallest was 1.0 for toluene:benzene. PMID:27483388

  18. Conjugation, immunoreactivity, and immunogenicity of calix[4]arenes; model study to potential calix[4]arene-based Ac3+ chelators.


    Grote Gansey, M H; de Haan, A S; Bos, E S; Verboom, W; Reinhoudt, D N


    For the development of calix[4]arene-based radiotherapeutic agents, the conjugation to biomolecules and immunogenicity in mice of potential 225Ac3+-chelating calix[4]arenes were studied. A calix[4]arene triethyl ester isothiocyanate and a bis(calix[4]arene) hexacarboxylic acid, containing a masked thiol functionality, were used in conjugation experiments to a mouse monoclonal antibody and serum albumins. All characterization techniques indicate that only the calix[4]arene carboxylic acid is successfully conjugated to the biomolecules. The immunoreactivity of the conjugates is not impaired when up to 6 equiv of calixarene are bound to the monoclonal antibody. Animal tests indicated that the immunogenicity toward the calix[4]arene is strongly influenced by the nature of the carrier, the dosage, and the injection method. No immune response occurred when a homologous carrier was used or when a heterologous carrier was applied at a dosage of 10 microg per immunization via intravenous injection. Under all other conditions, the presence of antibodies directed against the calix[4]arene was demonstrated. Thus, for the application in radioimmunotherapy, the conjugation of a calix[4]arene to a humanized antibody will probably not lead to an immune response, and the immunoreactivity will not be disturbed.

  19. Electronically Active Cyclocarborane-Metal-Arene Assemblies

    DTIC Science & Technology


    Benvenuto , and R. N. Grimes, "Organotransition-Metal Metalla- carboranes. 18. Y16, _q5-Benzyltetramethylcyclopentadieneide(1-) as a Bridging Ligand in...Polyhedral Expansion of (Arene)Fe(Et 2CB 4 H4) Clusters", J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1991, 113 3061. M. A. Benvenuto and R. N. Grimes, "Organotransition-Metal...34, Organometallics 1992, 11, 2404. R. N. Grimes, "Boron-Carbon Ring Ligands in Organometallic Synthesis", Chem. Rev. 1992, 92. 251. M. A. Benvenuto and R

  20. Parameterization of the torsional potential for calix[4]arene-substituted poly(thiophene)s.


    Preat, Julien; Rodríguez-Ropero, Francisco; Torras, Juan; Bertran, Oscar; Zanuy, David; Alemán, Carlos


    Three different strategies have been followed to develop the torsional force-field parameters of the inter-ring dihedral angles for calix[4]arene-substituted poly(thiophene)s, a family of highly sensitive ion receptors. These procedures, which are based on the rotational profiles calculated using quantum mechanical methods, differ in the complexity of the model compounds and the processing applied to the quantum mechanical energies before the fitting. The performance of the three sets of developed parameters, which are essentially compatible with the General Amber Force Field, has been evaluated by computing the potential of mean forces for the inter-ring rotation of 2,2'-bithiophene, and its substituted analog bearing a calix[4]arene group in different environments. Finally, the ability of the new sets of torsional parameters to describe a calix[4]arene-substituted poly(thiophene) in tetrahydrofuran solution has been checked using Molecular Dynamics simulations. Specifically, the molecular shape, the polymer conformation, and the effects of the Na(+) ions trapped in the cavity of the receptor have been examined. Although the potential derived from unsubstituted 2,2'-bithiophene is able to reproduce the experimental free energies of the minima, the overall results indicate that the parameters derived from the analog bearing a calix[4]arene group provide the best description of the systems under study. This should be attributed to the strong constraints found in complex substituted poly(thiophene)s, which require parameterization strategies able to capture all the interactions and phenomena involved in their inter-ring rotations.

  1. Synthesis, Physicochemical Studies, Molecular Dynamics Simulations, and Metal-Ion-Dependent Antiproliferative and Antiangiogenic Properties of Cone ICL670-Substituted Calix[4]arenes

    PubMed Central

    Rouge, Pascal; Dassonville-Klimpt, Alexandra; Cézard, Christine; Boudesocque, Stéphanie; Ourouda, Roger; Amant, Carole; Gaboriau, François; Forfar, Isabelle; Guillon, Jean; Guillon, Emmanuel; Vanquelef, Enguerran; Cieplak, Piotr; Dupradeau, François-Yves; Dupont, Laurent


    Iron chelators, through their capacity to modulate the iron concentration in cells, are promising molecules for cancer chemotherapy. Chelators with high lipophilicity easily enter into cells and deplete the iron intracellular pool. Consequently, iron-dependent enzymes, such as ribonucleotide reductase, which is over-expressed in cancer cells, become nonfunctional. A series of calix[4]arene derivatives substituted at the lower rim by ICL670, a strong FeIII chelator, have been synthesized. Physicochemical properties and antiproliferative, angiogenesis, and tumorigenesis effects of two calix[4]arenes mono- (5a) or disubstituted (5b) with ICL670 have been studied. These compounds form metal complexes in a ratio of one to two ligands per FeIII atom as shown by combined analyses of the protometric titration curves and ESIMS spectra. The grafting of an ICL670 group on a calix[4]arene core does not significantly alter the acid–base properties, but improves the iron-chelating and lipophilicity properties. The best antiproliferative and anti-angiogenic results were obtained with calix[4]arene ligand 5a, which possesses the highest corresponding properties. Analyses of molecular dynamics simulations performed on the two calix[4]arenes provide three-dimensional structures of the complexes and proved 5a to be the most stable upon complexation. PMID:25599014

  2. Half-sandwich ruthenium(II) biotin conjugates as biological vectors to cancer cells.


    Babak, Maria V; Plażuk, Damian; Meier, Samuel M; Arabshahi, Homayon John; Reynisson, Jóhannes; Rychlik, Błażej; Błauż, Andrzej; Szulc, Katarzyna; Hanif, Muhammad; Strobl, Sebastian; Roller, Alexander; Keppler, Bernhard K; Hartinger, Christian G


    Ruthenium(II)-arene complexes with biotin-containing ligands were prepared so that a novel drug delivery system based on tumor-specific vitamin-receptor mediated endocytosis could be developed. The complexes were characterized by spectroscopic methods and their in vitro anticancer activity in cancer cell lines with various levels of major biotin receptor (COLO205, HCT116 and SW620 cells) was tested in comparison with the ligands. In all cases, coordination of ruthenium resulted in significantly enhanced cytotoxicity. The affinity of Ru(II) -biotin complexes to avidin was investigated and was lower than that of unmodified biotin. Hill coefficients in the range 2.012-2.851 suggest strong positive cooperation between the complexes and avidin. To estimate the likelihood of binding to the biotin receptor/transporter, docking studies with avidin and streptavidin were conducted. These explain, to some extent, the in vitro anticancer activity results and support the conclusion that these novel half-sandwich ruthenium(II)-biotin conjugates may act as biological vectors to cancer cells, although no clear relationship between the cellular Ru content, the cytotoxicity, and the presence of the biotin moiety was observed.

  3. Eruptive History of Arenal Volcano, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, G. J.; Alvarado, G. E.


    Tephra-stratigraphy, volcanic history, eruption types, eruptive dynamics and area distribution of tephra from the most important eruptions of Arenal volcano, are reviewed and updated. Deposits of explosive eruptions are named AR-1 to AR-22 (from older to younger). All previous and new Arenal and neighbouring Chato volcanoes' radiocarbon dates were calibrated: the last Chato eruption occurred 3720±150 B.P and the first known eruption of Arenal (AR-1), 7010+170-130 B.P. Isopachs and characteristics of the most relevant and recognized airfall deposits are presented. Area distributions of the key layers are oriented toward W, WSW and SW, except the lowest layer of AR-17, which is distributed northward. According to lithic isopleths, an eruption column height of 23 km (subplinian) was calculated for AR-20. Most fall layers in Arenal show associated pyroclastic flow deposits up to a distance of 6.5 km from the summit. They are restricted to river valley paths. Among Arenal eruptions, plinian-subplinian type events like AR-20, AR-15, AR-12 and AR-9, are the most violent and destructive, with tephra volumes between 0.2 and 1 km3. There are also violent strombolian eruptions which were sustained for a considerable time, resembling subplinian eruptions (the AR-19 case, total volume 0.45 km3), and pelean type eruptions, as AR-22, which erupted 0.026 km3 of tephra. A temporal correlation of explosive events after AR-8 shows that the four most important dacitic eruptions (AR-20, 15, 12 and 9), are separated by an average period of 800 years ("long term"). Three of them (AR-20, 15 and 9) have been preceded by two important explosive events with a more basic chemistry, which occurred around 300 years or less previously to the dacitic eruption ("short term" periods). Nevertheless, between cycles AR-13/14/15 and AR-18/19/20, there are two events (AR-16 and 17) that do not belong to any cycle. In fact, between the major eruptions AR-15 and 20, the highest eruptive frequency of all

  4. Plugging a Bipyridinium Axle into Multichromophoric Calix[6]arene Wheels Bearing Naphthyl Units at Different Rims

    PubMed Central

    Orlandini, Guido; Ragazzon, Giulio; Zanichelli, Valeria; Degli Esposti, Lorenzo; Baroncini, Massimo; Silvi, Serena; Venturi, Margherita; Arduini, Arturo


    Abstract Tris‐(N‐phenylureido)‐calix[6]arene derivatives are heteroditopic non‐symmetric molecular hosts that can form pseudorotaxane complexes with 4,4′‐bipyridinium‐type guests. Owing to the unique structural features and recognition properties of the calix[6]arene wheel, these systems are of interest for the design and synthesis of novel molecular devices and machines. We envisaged that the incorporation of photoactive units in the calixarene skeleton could lead to the development of systems the working modes of which can be governed and monitored by means of light‐activated processes. Here, we report on the synthesis, structural characterization, and spectroscopic, photophysical, and electrochemical investigation of two calix[6]arene wheels decorated with three naphthyl groups anchored to either the upper or lower rim of the phenylureido calixarene platform. We found that the naphthyl units interact mutually and with the calixarene skeleton in a different fashion in the two compounds, which thus exhibit a markedly distinct photophysical behavior. For both hosts, the inclusion of a 4,4′‐bipyridinium guest activates energy‐ and/or electron‐transfer processes that lead to non‐trivial luminescence changes. PMID:28168152

  5. Structure of a piperidine-modified calix[4]arene derivative and spectral resolution of its interaction with rare earth metals with chemometric methods.


    Wang, Li; Wang, Xiaoya; Wang, Yanmei


    A piperidine-modified calix[4]arene derivative was synthesized and its structure was confirmed with X-ray diffraction data. UV-visible spectroscopy was used to study its molecular recognition of rare earth ions. The results revealed the calix[4]arene derivative could separate tight metal picrate ion pairs by complexation with the rare earth metal ions in tetrahydrofuran. Resolution of the UV-visible spectra with chemometric methods revealed that the derivative and the rare earth ions Eu(3+), Dy(3+), and Tb(3+) formed ML(2) complexes with stability constants of 10(8.26), 10(8.29), and 10(7.41) respectively.

  6. Networked calix[4]arene polymers with unusual mechanical properties.


    Grima, Joseph N; Williams, Jennifer J; Evans, Kenneth E


    Polymeric networks built from calix[4]arenes that form a three dimensional folded structure have been predicted to exhibit negative Poisson's ratios (auxetic), an unusual property which makes them superior to conventional materials in many practical applications.

  7. Multiclausal Utterances Aren't Just for Big Kids: A Framework for Analysis of Complex Syntax Production in Spoken Language of Preschool- and Early School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arndt, Karen Barako; Schuele, C. Melanie


    Complex syntax production emerges shortly after the emergence of two-word combinations in oral language and continues to develop through the school-age years. This article defines a framework for the analysis of complex syntax in the spontaneous language of preschool- and early school-age children. The purpose of this article is to provide…

  8. Annelation of furan rings to arenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omelchuk, O. A.; Tikhomirov, A. S.; Shchekotikhin, A. E.


    Benzo[b]furans have been used in various fields of chemistry and technology due to their unique physical, chemical and biological properties. It is primarily a wide range of biological activities of natural and synthetic benzo[b]furan derivatives and their polyfused analogues (naphthofurans, anthrafurans, etc.) that attracts a significant scientific interest in the context of using these heterocycles as privileged scaffolds in drug design. This survey covers those methods for the annelation of a furan ring to arenes that have been developed mostly during the last decade. We also analyze trends in synthetic methods of benzo[b]furans. Some synthetic schemes are highly efficient in the synthesis of polyfunctionalized furan derivatives. The bibliography includes 110 references.

  9. The contrasting activity of iodido versus chlorido ruthenium and osmium arene azo- and imino-pyridine anticancer complexes: control of cell selectivity, cross-resistance, p53 dependence, and apoptosis pathway.


    Romero-Canelón, Isolda; Salassa, Luca; Sadler, Peter J


    Organometallic half-sandwich complexes [M(p-cymene)(azo/imino-pyridine)X](+) where M = Ru(II) or Os(II) and X ═ Cl or I, exhibit potent antiproliferative activity toward a range of cancer cells. Not only are the iodido complexes more potent than the chlorido analogues, but they are not cross-resistant with the clinical platinum drugs cisplatin and oxaliplatin. They are also more selective for cancer cells versus normal cells (fibroblasts) and show high accumulation in cell membranes. They arrest cell growth in G1 phase in contrast to cisplatin (S phase) with a high incidence of late-stage apoptosis. The iodido complexes retain potency in p53 mutant colon cells. All complexes activate caspase 3. In general, antiproliferative activity is greatly enhanced by low levels of the glutathione synthase inhibitor l-buthionine sulfoxime. The work illustrates how subtle changes to the design of low-spin d(6) metal complexes can lead to major changes in cellular metabolism and to potent complexes with novel mechanisms of anticancer activity.

  10. Estimation of conventional C-Hπ (arene), unconventional C-Hπ (chelate) and C-Hπ (thiocyanate) interactions in hetero-nuclear nickel(ii)-cadmium(ii) complexes with a compartmental Schiff base.


    Roy, Sourav; Drew, Michael G B; Bauzá, Antonio; Frontera, Antonio; Chattopadhyay, Shouvik


    Three new heteronuclear nickel(ii)/cadmium(ii) complexes, [(SCN)(Cl)Cd(L)Ni(DMF)2] (1), [(SCN)(CH3CO2)Cd(L)Ni(CH3OH)2] (2) and [(SCN)(Cl)Cd(L)Ni(NH2CH2CH2CH2NH2)]n (3) {where H2L = N,N'-bis(3-ethoxy-salicylidene)propane-1,3-diamine is a N2O4 compartmental Schiff base}, have been synthesized and characterized. The structures of the complexes have been confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. In each complex, nickel(ii) is placed in the inner N2O2 environment and cadmium(ii) is placed in the outer O4 compartment of the compartmental Schiff base. Furthermore, the importance of unconventional C-Hπ (chelate) interactions in the solid state of both complexes and C-Hπ (thiocyanate) interaction in complex 2 has been described by means of DFT and MEP calculations and characterized using NCI plots. All complexes show photoluminescence at room temperature upon irradiation by ultraviolet light. The lifetimes of excited states are in the range of 2-6 ns.

  11. Osmium(II)--versus ruthenium(II)--arene carbohydrate-based anticancer compounds: similarities and differences.


    Hanif, Muhammad; Nazarov, Alexey A; Hartinger, Christian G; Kandioller, Wolfgang; Jakupec, Michael A; Arion, Vladimir B; Dyson, Paul J; Keppler, Bernhard K


    The synthesis and in vitro anticancer activity of Os(II)-arene complexes with carbohydrate-derived phosphite co-ligands are reported. The compounds were characterized by standard methods and the molecular structure of dichlorido(eta(6)-p-cymene)(3,5,6-bicyclophosphite-1,2-O-isopropylidene-alpha-D-glucofuranoside)osmium(II) was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. Complexes with chlorido leaving groups undergo hydrolysis by consecutive formation of aqua compounds, followed by cleavage of a P-O bond of sugar phosphite ligands, as demonstrated by NMR studies. These observations are similar to those of analogous Ru(II)-arene complexes; however the rate of hydrolysis is very slow for osmium compounds. The complexes with oxalato leaving groups resist hydrolysis; no hydrolytic species were detected by (31)P{(1)H} NMR spectroscopy over several days. Within this series of Os compounds, in vitro anticancer activity is highest for the most lipophilic chlorido complex dichlorido(eta(6)-p-cymene)(3,5,6-bicyclophosphite-1,2-O-cyclohexylidene-alpha-D-glucofuranoside)osmium(II).

  12. Negative ion gas-phase chemistry of arenes.


    Danikiewicz, Witold; Zimnicka, Magdalena


    Reactions of aromatic and heteroaromatic compounds involving anions are of great importance in organic synthesis. Some of these reactions have been studied in the gas phase and are occasionally mentioned in reviews devoted to gas-phase negative ion chemistry, but no reviews exist that collect all existing information about these reactions. This work is intended to fill this gap. In the first part of this review, methods for generating arene anions in the gas phase and studying their physicochemical properties and fragmentation reactions are presented. The main topics in this part are as follows: processes in which gas-phase arene anions are formed, measurements and calculations of the proton affinities of arene anions, proton exchange reactions, and fragmentation processes of substituted arene anions, especially phenide ions. The second part is devoted to gas-phase reactions of arene anions. The most important of these are reactions with electrophiles such as carbonyl compounds and α,β-unsaturated carbonyl and related compounds (Michael acceptors). Other reactions including oxidation of arene anions and halogenophilic reactions are also presented. In the last part of the review, reactions of electrophilic arenes with nucleophiles are discussed. The best known of these is the aromatic nucleophilic substitution (SN Ar) reaction; however, other processes that lead to the substitution of a hydrogen atom in the aromatic ring are also very important. Aromatic substrates in these reactions are usually but not always nitroarenes bearing other substituents in the ring. The first step in these reactions is the formation of an anionic σ-adduct, which, depending on the substituents in the aromatic ring and the structure of the attacking nucleophile, is either an intermediate or a transition state in the reaction path. In the present review, we attempted to collect the results of both experimental and computational studies of the aforementioned reactions conducted since the

  13. 10-π-Electron arenes à la carte: structure and bonding of the [E-(CnHn)-E](n-6) (E = Ca, Sr, Ba; n = 6-8) complexes.


    Mondal, Sukanta; Cabellos, Jose Luis; Pan, Sudip; Osorio, Edison; Torres-Vega, Juan Jose; Tiznado, William; Restrepo, Albeiro; Merino, Gabriel


    In this paper, we provide solid evidence to show that among an overwhelming structural diversity, alkaline earth metals (Ca, Sr, Ba) have the ability to form inverted sandwich compounds with C6H6, C7H7(+), and C8H8(2+) of Dnh symmetry and general formula [E-(CnHn)-E](n-6) (n = 6-8) with planar 10-π-electron aromatic cores by virtue of transferring two electrons per metal atom to the ring. However, the origin of the orbital interaction between the metals and the carbon ring is quite different; while [E-(C6H6)-E] complexes are dominated by δ-interactions, both π- and δ-interactions are important in [E-(C7H7)-E](+) and [E-(C8H8)-E](2+) complexes.

  14. Anticancer activity and DNA binding of a bifunctional Ru(II) arene aqua-complex with the 2,4-diamino-6-(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine ligand.


    Busto, Natalia; Valladolid, Jesús; Martínez-Alonso, Marta; Lozano, Héctor J; Jalón, Félix A; Manzano, Blanca R; Rodríguez, A M; Carrión, M Carmen; Biver, Tarita; Leal, José M; Espino, Gustavo; García, Begoña


    The synthesis and full characterization of the new aqua-complex [(η(6)-p-cymene)Ru(OH2)(κ(2)-N,N-2-pydaT)](BF4)2, [2](BF4)2, and the nucleobase derivative [(η(6)-p-cymene)Ru(9-MeG)(κ(2)-N,N-2-pydaT)](BF4)2, [4](PF6)2, where 2-pydaT = 2,4-diamino-6-(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine and 9-MeG = 9-methylguanine, are reported here. The crystal structures of both [4](PF6)2 and the chloro complex [(η(6)-p-cymene)RuCl(κ(2)-N,N-2-pydaT)](PF6), [1](PF6), have been elucidated by X-ray diffraction. The former provided relevant information regarding the interaction of the metallic fragment [(η(6)-p-cymene)Ru(κ(2)-N,N-2-pydaT)](2+) and a simple model of DNA. NMR and kinetic absorbance studies have proven that the aqua-complex [2](BF4)2 binds to the N7 site of guanine in nucleobases, nucleotides, or DNA. A stable bifunctional interaction (covalent and partially intercalated) between the [(η(6)-p-cymene)Ru(κ(2)-N,N-2-pydaT)](2+) fragment and CT-DNA has been corroborated by kinetic, circular dichroism, viscometry, and thermal denaturation experiments. The reaction mechanism entails the very fast formation of the Ru-O-(PO3) linkage prior to the fast intercalation of the 2-pydaT fragment. Then, a Ru-N7-(G) covalent bond is formed at the expense of the Ru-O-(PO3) bond, yielding a bifunctional complex. The dissociation rate of the intercalated fragment is slow, and this confers additional interest to [2](BF4)2 in view of the likely correlation between slow dissociation and biological activity, on the assumption that DNA is the only biotarget. Furthermore, [2](BF4)2 displays notable pH-dependent cytotoxic activity in human ovarian carcinoma cells (A2780, IC50 = 11.0 μM at pH = 7.4; IC50 = 6.58 μM at pH = 6.5). What is more, complex [2](BF4)2 is not cross-resistant with cisplatin, exhibiting a resistance factor, RF(A2780cis), of 0.28, and it shows moderate selectivity toward the cancer cell lines, in particular, A2780cis (IC50 = 3.0 5 ± 0.08 μM), relative to human lung fibroblast

  15. Stereochemical preference of 2'-deoxycytidine for chiral bis(diamido)-bridged basket resorcin[4]arenes.


    D'Acquarica, Ilaria; Calcaterra, Andrea; Sacco, Fabiola; Balzano, Federica; Aiello, Federica; Tafi, Andrea; Pesci, Nicolò; Uccello-Barretta, Gloria; Botta, Bruno


    Bis(diamido)-bridged basket resorcin[4]arene (all-S)-1 and its (all-R)-1 enantiomer proved able to interact with 2'-deoxycytidine (2) and pyrimidine nucleoside analogs in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution. In such a solvent, the resorcinarene hosts adopt a preferential 1,3-alternate-like conformation, with a larger cavity delimited by two syn 3,5-dimethoxyphenyl moieties, and two external pockets, each delimited by the other 3,5-dimethoxyphenyl group and its diamido arm (the wing). Complexation phenomena were investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods, including (1)H NMR DOSY and 1D ROESY experiments, and molecular modeling. Heteroassociation constants of [(all-S)-1·2] and [(all-R)-1·2] diastereoisomeric complexes were obtained from diffusion data by single point measurements, and from nonlinear fitting of 1H NMR chemical shifts. Selective proton relaxation rate measurements allowed us to significantly discriminate the two complexes by identifying two different interaction sites of the guest in the resorcin[4]arene host, depending on its configuration.

  16. Artificial photosynthesis based on ruthenium(II) tetrazole-dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cells.


    Shahroosvand, Hashem; Najafi, Leyla; Khanmirzaei, Leyla; Tarighi, Sara


    We have demonstrated the optical and morphological properties of a novel TiO2 nanoparticle as photoanode in order to apply in dye sensitized solar cells. The nanoparticles were synthesized through hydrothermal method in Tri-n-octyl amine (TOA) as capping agent. From the results it is concluded that the molar ratio of TiCl4 and TOA has remarkable influence on the size and homogeneity of the nanoparticles. The optimized nanoparticles structure for photoanode incorporated into dye-sensitized solar cell was obtained via the molar ratio of 1:10 for TiCl4:TOA. It has also studied the photovoltaic properties of different synthesized TiO2 nanocrystalline (1-4) anchored to ruthenium(II) complexes. 4-(1H-tetrazole-5-yl) benzoic acid (TzBA) applied as an anchoring ligand and 2,2-bipyridine (bpy), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and pyridine tetrazole (pyTz) used as ancillary ligands. A solar energy to electricity conversion efficiency (η) of 1.06% was obtained for [Ru(TzBA)(bpy)(pyTz)(NCS)] (5) under the standard AM 1.5 irradiation with a Jsc of 2.29 mA cm(-2), a Voc of 0.51 V, and FF of 55% which are the highest values among Ru(TzBA) complexes. DSSC study reveals that pyTz as an auxiliary ligand exhibits improved current generating capacity than the bpy and phen, which are introduced by dye (5).

  17. Thiacalix[4]arene: New protection for metal nanoclusters

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Zong-Jie; Zeng, Jiu-Lian; Nan, Zi-Ang; Wan, Xian-Kai; Lin, Yu-Mei; Wang, Quan-Ming


    Surface organic ligands are critical for the formation and properties of atomically precise metal nanoclusters. In contrast to the conventionally used protective ligands such as thiolates and phosphines, thiacalix[4]arene has been used in the synthesis of a silver nanocluster, [Ag35(H2L)2(L)(C≡CBut)16](SbF6)3, (H4L, p-tert-butylthiacalix[4]-arene). This is the first structurally determined calixarene-protected metal nanocluster. The chelating and macrocyclic effects make the thiacalix[4]arene a rigid shell that protects the silver core. Upon addition or removal of one silver atom, the Ag35 cluster can be transformed to Ag36 or Ag34 species, and the optical properties are changed accordingly. The successful use of thiacalixarene in the synthesis of well-defined silver nanoclusters suggests a bright future for metal nanoclusters protected by macrocyclic ligands. PMID:27536724

  18. The extraction of thorium by calix[6]arene columns for urine analysis.


    Mekki, S; Bouvier-Capely, C; Jalouali, R; Rebière, F


    Thorium is a natural alpha-emitting element occurring in various ores and has numerous industrial applications. Routine monitoring of potentially exposed workers is generally achieved through radiobioassay (urine and faeces). The procedures currently used for analysing actinides such as thorium in urine require lengthy chemical separation associated with long counting times by alpha-spectrometry due to low activity levels. Thus, their main drawback is that they are time-consuming, which limits the frequency and flexibility of individual monitoring. In this context, this study developed new radiochemical procedures based on the use of tertbutylcalix[6]arenes bearing three carboxylic acid groups or three hydroxamic acid groups. These previous works demonstrated that these macrocyclic molecules immobilised on an inert solid support are excellent extractants for uranium, plutonium and americium. In this study, the authors investigated the thorium extraction by calix[6]arene columns. Experiments were performed on synthetic solutions and on real urine samples. The influence of various parameters, such as the thorium solution pH and the column flow rate on thorium extraction, was studied. The results showed that both calix[6]arenes are efficient to extract thorium. Thorium extraction is quantitative from pH = 2 for synthetic solution and from pH = 3 for real urine samples. This study has demonstrated that the column flow rate is a crucial parameter since its value must not be too high to achieve the steady-state complexation equilibrium. Finally, these results will be compared with those obtained for other actinides (U, Pu and Am) and the conditions of actinides' separation will be discussed.

  19. Size Switchable Supramolecular Nanoparticle Based on Azobenzene Derivative within Anionic Pillar[5]arene

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cai-Cai; Li, Sheng-Hua; Zhang, Cui-Fang; Liu, Yu


    A photo/thermal-switchable supramolecular nanoparticles assembly has been constructed based on an inclusion complex between anionic pillar[5]arene 2C-WP5A and azobenzene derivative Azo-py-OMe (G). The novel anionic pillar[5]arene-based host-guest inclusion complexation was investigated by the 1H NMR titration, 2D ROESY and isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC) showing high association constant (Ka) of (2.60 ± 0.06) × 104 M−1 with 1:1 binding stoichiometry. Furthermore, the supramolecular nanoparticles assembly can be conveniently obtained from G and a small amount of 2C-WP5A in aqueous solution, which was so-called “host induced aggregating (HIA)”. The size and morphology of the supramolecular nanoparticles assembly were characterized by TEM and DLS. As a result of the photo/thermal-isomerization of G included in the cavity of 2C-WP5A, the size of these nanoparticles could reversibly change from ~800 nm to ~250 nm, which could switch the solution of this assembly from turbid to clear. PMID:27849055

  20. Size Switchable Supramolecular Nanoparticle Based on Azobenzene Derivative within Anionic Pillar[5]arene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cai-Cai; Li, Sheng-Hua; Zhang, Cui-Fang; Liu, Yu


    A photo/thermal-switchable supramolecular nanoparticles assembly has been constructed based on an inclusion complex between anionic pillar[5]arene 2C-WP5A and azobenzene derivative Azo-py-OMe (G). The novel anionic pillar[5]arene-based host-guest inclusion complexation was investigated by the 1H NMR titration, 2D ROESY and isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC) showing high association constant (Ka) of (2.60 ± 0.06) × 104 M‑1 with 1:1 binding stoichiometry. Furthermore, the supramolecular nanoparticles assembly can be conveniently obtained from G and a small amount of 2C-WP5A in aqueous solution, which was so-called “host induced aggregating (HIA)”. The size and morphology of the supramolecular nanoparticles assembly were characterized by TEM and DLS. As a result of the photo/thermal-isomerization of G included in the cavity of 2C-WP5A, the size of these nanoparticles could reversibly change from ~800 nm to ~250 nm, which could switch the solution of this assembly from turbid to clear.

  1. Thiocyanate-free cyclometalated ruthenium(II) sensitizers for DSSC: a combined experimental and theoretical investigation.


    Chitumalla, Ramesh Kumar; Gupta, Kankatala S V; Malapaka, Chandrasekhram; Fallahpour, Reza; Islam, Ashraful; Han, Liyuan; Kotamarthi, Bhanuprakash; Singh, Surya Prakash


    In an effort to bring out efficient thiocyanate-free dyes for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) we have designed, synthesized and characterized four novel cyclometalated ruthenium(II) dyes (M1 to M4) with superior photochemical properties. All dyes contain terpyridyl ligands (TPY) with carboxylic acids as anchoring groups and cyclometalated ligand (TPY-C) with substituents for fine tuning the electronic properties. We obtain a broad absorption band which extends up to 725 nm due to metal to ligand charge transfer (MLCT) when donating groups are used, which slightly blue-shifts when a withdrawing group is used. In addition to the CT, small HOMO-LUMO gaps are obtained from electrochemical measurements which indicate characteristics of an ideal sensitizer. All four dyes were used as sensitizers for DSSC and photoelectrochemical measurements were carried out. Reasonably good efficiency (7.1%) has been achieved for . We have carried out periodic-DFT studies of these dyes adsorbed on the (TiO2)38 cluster. They revealed that, in bidentate bridging mode the dyes preferably bind with the help of two carboxylic groups onto the TiO2. To the best of our knowledge we are the first to do DFT studies of thiocyanate free cyclometalated ruthenium(ii) dyes tethered to TiO2.

  2. Improved Arene Fluorination Methodology for I(III) Salts

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bijia; Qin, Linlin; Neumann, Kiel D.; Uppaluri, ShriHarsha; Cerny, Ronald L.; DiMagno, Stephen G.


    The use of low polarity aromatic solvents (benzene or toluene) and/or the removal of inorganic salts results in dramatically improved yields of fluorinated arenes from diaryliodonium salts. This methodology is shown to “scale down” to the conditions used typically for radiotracer synthesis. PMID:20617820

  3. Study on the inclusion behavior of p-sulfonatocalix[6]arene with propranolol by spectrofluorometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Song, Jin-Ping; Chao, Jian-Bin; Shuang, Shao-Min; Dong, Chuan


    The inclusion interaction between propranolol (PPL) and p-sulfonatocalix[6]arene (SCX6) was investigated by fluorescence and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Influences of pH, temperature, ionic strength and the concentration of SCX6 were examined in detail. In phosphate buffer solution with pH 7.5, the fluorescence of PPL dramatically quenched upon addition of SCX6 revealing the formation of inclusion complexes between PPL and SCX6. The stoichiometric ratio was verified to be 1:1 by the continuous variation method. The inclusion constant of PPL-SCX6 complexes was calculated as 2.2 × 104 L/mol by the nonlinear curve fitting method. 1H NMR titration spectra testified that the aliphatic chain of PPL may be partially penetrated into the hydrophobic cavity of SCX6. This was confirmed by molecular dynamics calculations.

  4. The Olefin Metathesis Reactions Combined with Organo-Iron Arene Activation Towards Dendrimers, and Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astruc, Didier; Martinez, Victor

    The subjects treated in the two lectures of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) summer course are (1) the combination of arene activation and perfunctionalization using organo-iron chemistry with olefin metathesis incuding metathesis of dendritic polyolefin molecules; (2) the synthesis of metallodendritic benzylidene complexes that catalyse ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) under ambient conditions and the formation of dendritic stars; (3) the use of stoichiometric and catalytic electron-transfer processes with standard reservoirs of electrons (reductants) or electron holes (oxidants) iron complexes to achieve noteworthy metathesis reactions or synthesize compounds that are useful in metathesis. Only the two first topics are treated in this chapter, and interested readers can find references concerning the third aspect called in the introduction and subsequently cited in the reference list.

  5. Rationally designed calix[4]arene-pyrrolotetrathiafulvalene receptors for electron-deficient neutral guests.


    Düker, Matthias H; Schäfer, Hannes; Zeller, Matthias; Azov, Vladimir A


    Four upper rim bis-monopyrrolotetrathiafulvalene-calix[4]arene conjugates 2a,b and 3a,b have been efficiently synthesized using a modular construction approach. The new compounds feature a molecular tweezer architecture with a quasi-parallel arrangement of redox-active tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) arms, which serve as the guest binding centers. Complexation studies using UV/vis binding titrations revealed a high affinity of the calixarene-TTF receptors for planar electron-deficient guests, leading to formation of deeply colored charge-transfer complexes in solution. The binding efficiency of the receptors depends on the flexibility of the calixarene scaffolds and the electronic nature of the TTF arms: the highest binding efficiency is shown by receptor 2b, featuring a highly preorganized molecular structure and an electron-rich TTF moiety.

  6. Pillar-Shaped Macrocyclic Hosts Pillar[n]arenes: New Key Players for Supramolecular Chemistry.


    Ogoshi, Tomoki; Yamagishi, Tada-Aki; Nakamoto, Yoshiaki


    In 2008, we reported a new class of pillar-shaped macrocyclic hosts, known as "pillar[n]arenes". Today, pillar[n]arenes are recognized as key players in supramolecular chemistry because of their facile synthesis, unique pillar shape, versatile functionality, interesting host-guest properties, and original supramolecular assembly characteristics, which have resulted in numerous electrochemical and biomedical material applications. In this Review, we have provided historical background to macrocyclic chemistry, followed by a detailed discussion of the fundamental properties of pillar[n]arenes, including their synthesis, structure, and host-guest properties. Furthermore, we have discussed the applications of pillar[n]arenes to materials science, as well as their applications in supramolecular chemistry, in terms of their fundamental properties. Finally, we have described the future perspectives of pillar[n]arene chemistry. We hope that this Review will provide a useful reference for researchers working in the field and inspire discoveries concerning pillar[n]arene chemistry.

  7. Precision targeted ruthenium(ii) luminophores; highly effective probes for cell imaging by stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed synthesis and characterisation of metal complexes and peptides. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc02588a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Aisling; Burke, Christopher S.


    Fluorescence microscopy has undergone a dramatic evolution over the past two decades with development of super-resolution far-field microscopy methods that break the light diffraction limited resolution of conventional microscopy, offering unprecedented opportunity to interrogate cellular processes at the nanoscale. However, these methods make special demands of the luminescent agents used for contrast and development of probes suited to super-resolution fluorescent methods is still relatively in its infancy. In spite of their many photophysical advantages, metal complex luminophores have not yet been considered as probes in this regard, where to date, only organic fluorophores have been applied. Here, we report the first examples of metal complex luminophores applied as probes for use in stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy. Exemplified with endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear targeting complexes we demonstrate that luminescent Ru(ii) polypyridyl complexes can, through signal peptide targeting, be precisely and selectively delivered to key cell organelles without the need for membrane permeabilization, to give high quality STED images of these organelles. Detailed features of the tubular ER structure are revealed and in the case of the nuclear targeting probe we exploit the molecular light switch properties of a dipyrido[3,2-a:2′,3′-c]phenazine containing complex which emits only on DNA/RNA binding to give outstanding STED contrast and resolution of the chromosomes within the nucleus. Comparing performance with a member of the AlexaFluor family commonly recommended for STED, we find that the performance of the ruthenium complexes is superior across both CW and gated STED microscopy methods in terms of image resolution and photostability. The large Stokes shifts of the Ru probes permit excellent matching of the stimulating depletion laser with their emission whilst avoiding anti-Stokes excitation. Their long lifetimes make them particularly amenable to

  8. 1-(2-biphenyl)-3-methyltriazenide-N-oxide as a template for intramolecular copper(II)⋯arene-π interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraginski, Gustavo Luiz; Hörner, Manfredo; Back, Davi Fernando; Wohlmuth Alves dos Santos, Aline Joana Rolina; Beck, Johannes


    Deprotonated triazene N-oxides are able to chelate metal ions resulting in five-membered rings without carbon atoms. A new ligand 1-(2-biphenyl)-3-methyltriazenide-N-oxide (1) and its mononuclear Cu(II) complex (2) were synthesized to verify the capability of this ligand to promote Cu(II)⋯arene-π interactions. Ligand 1 and complex 2 have been characterized by elemental analysis, mass spectrometry (ESI(+)-TOF), IR, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. In addition, ligand 1 was characterized by 1H and 13C NMR and complex 2 by X-ray diffraction on single crystal. The crystal structure of complex 2 reveals a distorted tetrahedral geometry of Cu(II) in the first coordination sphere, which expands to a distorted octahedral environment by two symmetrically independent intramolecular metal⋯arene-π interactions. These interactions are provided by ortho-phenyl rings of both triazene N-oxide ligands 1. The aim of this work was to contribute to the architecture of new Cu(II)⋯arenecomplexes based on the synthesis of appropriated ligand for intramolecular interactions

  9. The (Calix[4]arene)chloromolybdate(IV) anion [MoCl(Calix)](-): a convenient entry into molybdenum Calix[4]arene chemistry.


    Radius, Udo; Attner, J


    The complex (HNEt(3))[MoCl(NCMe)(Calix)] (1), prepared from the reaction of [MoCl(4)(NCMe)(2)] with p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene, H(4)Calix, in the presence of triethylamine, has been used as a source of the d(2)-[Mo(NCMe)(Calix)] fragment. Complex 1 is readily oxidized with PhICl(2) to afford the molybdenum(VI) dichloro complex [MoCl(2)(Calix)] (2). Both complexes are a convenient entry point into molybdenum(VI) and molybdenum(IV) calixarene chemistry. The reaction of 1 with trimethylphosphine and pyridine in the presence of catalytic amounts [Ag(OTf)] led to the formation of neutral d(2) complexes [Mo(PMe(3))(NCMe)(Calix)] (3) and [Mo(NC(5)H(5))(NCMe)(Calix)] (4). The role of the silver salt in the reaction mixture is presumably the oxidation of the chloromolybdate anion of 1 to give a reactive molybdenum(V) species. The same reactions can also be initiated with ferrocenium cations such as [Cp(2)Fe](BF(4)). Without the presence of coordinating ligands, the dimeric complex [[Mo(NCMe)(Calix)](2)] (5) was isolated. The reaction of 1 with Ph(2)CN(2) led to the formation of a metallahydrazone complex [Mo(N(2)CPh(2))(NCMe)(Calix)] (6), in which the diphenyldiazomethane has been formally reduced by two electrons. Molybdenum(VI) complexes were also obtained from reaction of 1 with azobenzene and sodium azide in the presence of catalytic amounts of silver salt. The reaction with azobenzene led under cleavage of the nitrogen nitrogen bond to an imido complex [Mo(NPh)(NCMe)(Calix)] (7), whereas the reaction with sodium azide afforded the mononuclear molybdenum(VI) nitrido complex (HNEt(3))[MoN(Calix)] (8).

  10. Zinc(II), ruthenium(II), rhodium(III), palladium(II), silver(I), platinum(II) and MoO22+ complexes of 2-(2‧-hydroxy-5‧-methylphenyl)-benzotriazole as simple or primary ligand and 2,2‧-bipyridyl, 9,10-phenanthroline or triphenylphosphine as secondary ligands: Structure and anticancer activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Asmy, Hala A.; Butler, Ian S.; Mouhri, Zhor S.; Jean-Claude, Bertrand J.; Emmam, Mohamed S.; Mostafa, Sahar I.


    New complexes of 2-(2‧-hydroxy-5‧-methylphenyl)-benzotriazole (Hhmbt), [Zn(hmbt)2(H2O)2], [Zn(hmbt)(OAc)(H2O)2], [Pd(hmbt)(H2O)Cl], [Pd(hmbt)2], [M(PPh3)(hmbt)Cl], [M(L)(hmbt)]Cl (M(II) = Pd, Pt; L = bpy, phen), [Ag2(hmbt)2], [Ag(phen)(hmbt)], [Ag(PPh3)(hmbt)], [Rh(hmbt)2(H2O)2]Cl, [Ru(hmbt)2(H2O)2], [Ru(PPh3)(hmbt)2Cl] and cis-[MoO2(hmbt)2] have been synthesized. They have been structurally and spectroscopically characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, NMR (1H, 13C, 31P), UV-vis. and ESI-mass spectroscopy, thermal and molar conductivity measurements. 2-(2‧-Hydroxy-5‧-methylphenyl)-benzotriazole behaves as a mononegative bidentate through the deprotonated phenolic oxygen and imine nitrogen atoms. The reported complexes have been tested against human breast cancer (MDA-MB231) and human ovarian cancer (OVCAR-8) cell lines. The complexes, [Ag(hmpbt)(PPh3)], [Rh(hmbt)2(H2O)2]Cl, [Pt(phen)(hmbt)]Cl and [Pd(phen)(hmbt)]Cl exhibit the highest growth inhibitory activity with mean IC50 values 1.37, 7.52, 5.24 and 4.85 μM (MDA-MB231) and 1.75, 8.50, 3.00 and 2.99 μM (OVACAR-8), respectively.

  11. [Accumulation of polycyclic arenes in Baltic Sea algae].


    Veldre, I A; Itra, A R; Paal'me, L P; Kukk, Kh A


    The paper presents data on the level of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and some other polycyclic arenes in alga and phanerogam specimens from different gulfs of the Baltic Sea. Algae were shown to absorb BP from sea water. The mean concentration of BP in sea water was under 0.004 microgram/1, while in algae it ranged 0.1-21.2 micrograms/kg dry weight. Algae accumulate BP to a higher degree than phanerogams. The highest concentrations of BP were found in algae Enteromorpha while the lowest ones in Furcellaria. In annual green algae, BP level was higher in autumn, i. e. at the end of vegetation period, than in spring. Brown algae Fucus vesiculosus is recommended for monitoring polycyclic arene pollution in the area from Vormsi Island to Käsmu and green algae Cladophora or Enteromorpha in the eastern part of the Finnish Gulf.

  12. Synthesis of 2,5-disubstituted oxazoles and oxazolines catalyzed by ruthenium(II) porphyrin and simple copper salts.


    Zhong, Chuan Long; Tang, Bo Yang; Yin, Ping; Chen, Yue; He, Ling


    A novel and moderate synthesis of 2,5-disubstituted oxazoles and oxazolines involving ruthenium(II) porphyrin-copper chloride catalyzed cyclization was developed. These reactions using readily available benzene carboxylic acids and phenylethenes or phenylacetylenes are performed under mild conditions. The reactions proceed in series, giving rise to the formation of an intermolecular C-N bond and an intramolecular C-O bond, which yield oxazole or oxazoline derivatives simultaneously.

  13. New superhindered polydentate polyphosphine ligands P(CH2CH2P(t)Bu2)3, PhP(CH2CH2P(t)Bu2)2, P(CH2CH2CH2P(t)Bu2)3, and their ruthenium(II) chloride complexes.


    Gilbert-Wilson, Ryan; Field, Leslie D; Bhadbhade, Mohan M


    The synthesis and characterization of the extremely hindered phosphine ligands, P(CH(2)CH(2)P(t)Bu(2))(3) (P(2)P(3)(tBu), 1), PhP(CH(2)CH(2)P(t)Bu(2))(2) (PhP(2)P(2)(tBu), 2), and P(CH(2)CH(2)CH(2)P(t)Bu(2))(3) (P(3)P(3)(tBu), 3) are reported, along with the synthesis and characterization of ruthenium chloro complexes RuCl(2)(P(2)P(3)(tBu)) (4), RuCl(2)(PhP(2)P(2)(tBu)) (5), and RuCl(2)(P(3)P(3)(tBu)) (6). The bulky P(2)P(3)(tBu) (1) and P(3)P(3)(tBu) (3) ligands are the most sterically encumbered PP(3)-type ligands so far synthesized, and in all cases, only three phosphorus donors are able to bind to the metal center. Complexes RuCl(2)(PhP(2)P(2)(tBu)) (5) and RuCl(2)(P(3)P(3)(tBu)) (6) were characterized by crystallography. Low temperature solution and solid state (31)P{(1)H} NMR were used to demonstrate that the structure of RuCl(2)(P(2)P(3)(tBu)) (4) is probably analogous to that of RuCl(2)(PhP(2)P(2)(tBu)) (5) which had been structurally characterized.

  14. Organometallic ruthenium complexes with thiosemicarbazone ligands: Synthesis, structure and cytotoxicity of [(η6-p-cymene)Ru(NS)Cl]+ (NS = 9-anthraldehyde thiosemicarbazones)

    PubMed Central

    Beckford, Floyd A.; Leblanc, Gabriel; Thessing, Jeffrey; Shaloski, Michael; Frost, Brian J.; Li, Liya; Seeram, Navindra P.


    A series of half-sandwich arene-ruthenium complexes of the type [(η6-p-cymene) Ru(thiosemicarbazone)Cl]+ have been synthesized and their biological activity investigated. The first structurally characterized arene-ruthenium half-sandwich complex with a thiosemicarbazone ligand is reported. PMID:20160909

  15. Organolithium compounds in the nucleophilic substitution of hydrogen in arenes and hetarenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, I. S.; Kopchuk, D. S.; Zyryanov, G. V.; Rusinov, V. L.; Chupakhin, O. N.; Charushin, V. N.


    The review considers the most typical examples of the direct non-activated non-catalytic C-C bond formation in arenes and their metal complexes activated by electron-withdrawing substituents in the aromatic nucleus and in hetarenes (azines and their N-oxides, porphyrins, etc.) upon the reactions with aliphatic and (hetero)aromatic (hetero)organolithium nucleophiles. Particular attention is given to the direct introduction of nitroxide radicals and (hetero)organic moieties into mono-, di- and triazines and their N-oxides. The influence of the structures of the (hetero)aromatic substrate and the (hetero)organolithium nucleophile on the reaction pathway and rate and on the structure of the reaction product is analyzed. The bibliography includes 237 references. Dedicated to Academician N S Zefirov on the occasion of 80th birthday.

  16. Layered Calcium Structures of p-Phosphonic Acid O-Methyl-Calix[6]arene

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Thomas E.; Martin, Adam; Makha, Mohamed; Sobolev, Alexandre N.; Su, Dian; Rohrs, Henry W.; Gross, Michael L.; Raston, Colin L.


    Hexamethoxy-calix[6]arene has been fully functionalized with p-phosphonic acid groups on the upper rim in 57% yield over three steps, and has been authenticated in the solid state by X-ray diffraction as either a nitrate salt or one of two calcium complexes. The latter differ by the ratio of calcium ions per calixarene, either 3:1 or 4:1. In both structures the coordination sphere of the calcium ions is made up of oxygen atoms from the phosphonic acid groups and from water of crystallization, as part of extended polymeric layers in the extended 3D packing. Hirshfeld surface analysis shows extensive O…H and O…Ca interactions for the phosphonic acid moieties in both calcium structures. MALDI-TOF MS of the hexaphosphonic acid shows nano-arrays consisting of up to a maximum of 28 calixarene units. PMID:20657793

  17. In Vitro and in Vivo Evaluation of Water-Soluble Iminophosphorane Ruthenium(II) Compounds. A Potential Chemotherapeutic Agent for Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central


    A series of organometallic ruthenium(II) complexes containing iminophosphorane ligands have been synthesized and characterized. Cationic compounds with chloride as counterion are soluble in water (70–100 mg/mL). Most compounds (especially highly water-soluble 2) are more cytotoxic to a number of human cancer cell lines than cisplatin. Initial mechanistic studies indicate that the cell death type for these compounds is mainly through canonical or caspase-dependent apoptosis, nondependent on p53, and that the compounds do not interact with DNA or inhibit protease cathepsin B. In vivo experiments of 2 on MDA-MB-231 xenografts in NOD.CB17-Prkdc SCID/J mice showed an impressive tumor reduction (shrinkage) of 56% after 28 days of treatment (14 doses of 5 mg/kg every other day) with low systemic toxicity. Pharmacokinetic studies showed a quick absorption of 2 in plasma with preferential accumulation in the breast tumor tissues when compared to kidney and liver, which may explain its high efficacy in vivo. PMID:25409416

  18. Theoretical investigation on the molecular inclusion process of prilocaine into p-sulfonic acid calix[6]arene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sousa, Sara M. R.; Fernandes, Sergio A.; De Almeida, Wagner B.; Guimarães, Luciana; Abranches, Paula A. S.; Varejão, Eduardo V. V.; Nascimento, Clebio S., Jr.


    The present letter reports, for the first time, results from a theoretical analysis of the inclusion process involving the prilocaine into the p-sulfonic acid calix[6]arene. Structure and stabilization energies were calculated, in both gas and aqueous phases, using a sequential methodology based on semiempirical and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. From the results, a qualitative structure property relationship could be established with some main structural features being relevant for inclusion complex stabilization: (i) the hydrogen bonds established between guest and host molecules, (ii) the dispersion effect and (iii) the inclusion mode of guest molecule into the host cavity.

  19. Ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) mixed chelates based on pyrenyl-pyridylimidazole and 2,2'-bipyridine ligands as efficient DNA intercalators and anion sensors.


    Mardanya, Sourav; Karmakar, Srikanta; Maity, Dinesh; Baitalik, Sujoy


    We report herein the synthesis and characterization of two monometallic ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) complexes of composition [(bpy)2M(HImzPPy)] (ClO4)2 derived from pyrenylimidazole-10-pyridin-2-yl-9H-9,11-diazacyclopenta[e]pyrene (HImzPPy) and 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) ligands. X-ray crystallographic study shows that both crystals belong to the triclinic system having space group P1̅. The photophysical properties of 1 and 2 in acetonitrile indicate that the metal-to-ligand charge-transfer excited state is mainly centered in the [M(bpy)2](2+) moiety of the complexes and slightly affected by the extended conjugation of the pyrenylimidazole moiety. Both complexes display one-electron reversible metal-centered oxidative processes and a number of quasi-reversible reductive processes. The binding affinities of the complexes toward calf-thymus DNA (CT-DNA) were thoroughly studied through different methods such as absorption, emission, excited-state lifetime, circular dichroism, and thermal denaturation of DNA and a relative DNA binding study using ethidium bromide. All of these experiments account for the intercalative nature of both 1 and 2 toward CT-DNA as well as their light-switch behavior. The anion recognition study through different spectroscopic techniques reveals that both complexes act as "turn-on" luminescence sensors for H2PO4(-) and "turn-off" sensors toward F(-) and AcO(-). The imidazole N-H proton of the receptors gets deprotonated with the excessive addition of F(-) and AcO(-), while it interacts with H2PO4(-) through hydrogen-bonding interaction. Theoretical calculations (DFT and TD-DFT) were also performed to understand the photophysical properties of the metalloreceptors.

  20. DNA Interactions with Ruthenium(ll) Polypyridine Complexes Containing Asymmetric Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Hui


    In an attempt to probe nucleic acid structures, numerous Ru(II) complexes with different ligands have been synthesized and investigated. In this contribution we focus on the DNA-binding properties of ruthenium(II) complexes containing asymmetric ligands that have attracted little attention in the past decades. The influences of the shape and size of the ligand on the binding modes, affinity, enantioselectivities and photocleavage of the complexes to DNA are described. PMID:18365086

  1. Shaping the cavity of the macrocyclic ligand in metallocalix[4]arenes: the role of the ligand sphere.


    Radius, U


    The coordination form of calix[4]arene ligands and therefore the cavity of the macrocyclic ligand can be controlled by other ligands in transition metal calix[4]arene complexes, if strong directing coligands such as oxo groups are used. This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of the d(0) transition metal complexes [Cax(OMe)(2)O(2)TiCl(2)] 1 (monoclinic, space group P2(1)/c, lattice constants a = 21.639(4), b = 20.152(3), c = 12.750(3) A, beta = 95.68(3), V = 5532.6(19) A(3)) and [Cax(OMe)(2)O(2)MoO(2)] 2 (monoclinic, space group P2/c, lattice constants a = 12.433(3), b = 16.348(3), c = 24.774(5) A, beta = 99.15(3), V = 4971.6(17) A(3)). Whereas in 1 the calix[4]arene ligand adopts an elliptically distorted cone conformation, the macrocyclic ligand binds in a paco-like conformation to the metal center of 2, in the solid state and in solution. This was predicted by density functional theory calculations on models of different isomers of 1 and 2: cis,cone-1',2', trans,cone-1',2', and cis,paco-1',2'. According to these calculations, the energetic difference of 72.9 kJ/mol between both cis-dioxomolybdenum compounds is quite pronounced in favor of the cis,paco isomer, and 28.0 kJ/mol for the titanium compounds in favor of the cis,cone isomer.

  2. Iron-catalyzed oxidative coupling of alkylamides with arenes through oxidation of alkylamides followed by Friedel-Crafts alkylation.


    Shirakawa, Eiji; Uchiyama, Nanase; Hayashi, Tamio


    FeCl(3) in combination with t-BuOOt-Bu as an oxidant was found to be an efficient catalyst for oxidation of alkylamides to α-(tert-butoxy)alkylamides. FeCl(2) and CuCl showed, respectively, almost the same and slightly lower activities compared with FeCl(3) in the tert-butoxylation of N-phenylpyrrolidone (1a), whereas no tert-butoxylated product was obtained by use of Fe(OTf)(3), RuCl(3), or Zr(OTf)(4). FeCl(3) was found to be effective also as a catalyst for the Friedel-Crafts alkylation with thus obtained α-(tert-butoxy)alkylamides. The Friedel-Crafts alkylation proceeded smoothly also in the presence of a catalytic amount of Fe(OTf)(3), RuCl(3), or Zr(OTf)(4). In contrast, FeCl(2) and CuCl, which showed certain activity toward the tert-butoxylation, failed to promote the Friedel-Crafts alkylation. Among the transition metal complexes thus far examined, only FeCl(3) showed high catalytic activities for both the oxidation and the Friedel-Crafts alkylation. The bifunctionality of FeCl(3) was utilized for the oxidative coupling of alkylamides with arenes through a tandem reaction consisting of oxidation of alkylamides to α-(tert-butoxy)alkylamides and the following Friedel-Crafts alkylation. The FeCl(3)-catalyzed oxidative coupling is applicable to a wide variety of alkylamides and arenes, though a combination of FeCl(3) with Fe(OTf)(3) was found to be effective for the reaction of arenes with low nucleophilicity. A Fe(II)-Fe(III) catalytic cycle is concerned with the tert-butoxylation, whereas a Fe(III) complex as a Lewis acid catalyzes the Friedel-Crafts alkylation.

  3. A route for lignin and bio-oil conversion: dehydroxylation of phenols into arenes by catalytic tandem reactions.


    Wang, Xingyu; Rinaldi, Roberto


    Finding a workaround: The conversion of lignin into low-boiling-point arenes instead of high-boiling-point phenols could greatly facilitate conventional refinery processes. A new procedure for the depolymerization of lignin and simultaneous conversion phenols into arenes is described. The method can also be rendered as a fundamental finding for the upgrade of bio-oils to arenes under mild conditions.

  4. Multivalent calix[4]arene-based fluorescent sensor for detecting silver ions in aqueous media and physiological environment.


    Lotfi, Behzad; Tarlani, Aliakbar; Akbari-Moghaddam, Peyman; Mirza-Aghayan, Maryam; Peyghan, Ali Ahmadi; Muzart, Jacques; Zadmard, Reza


    A new derivative of dipodal 1,3-calix[4]arene-based chemosensor (R), which was containing several binding sites have been synthesized and characterized by NMR, IR and LC-MS spectroscopic methods. The selectivity of Rhas been investigated in aqueous methanol, resulting in fluorescence shift and selective recognition of Ag(+) among 20 various alkali, alkaline earth and transition metal ions. Microstructural features of R and its complex with Ag(+)have been investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). AFM images can clearly differentiate R from its complex of Ag(+). Moreover; the complicated binding mode of metal-ligand complex has been explored by UV-Vis, LC-MS, FIR, Fluorescence titration, Job's plot method and theoretical approaches. Density functional theory (DFT) method at B3LYP/LANL2DZ level of theory was employed for computational studies. Theoretical calculations revealed that selectivity and specificity of R toward Ag(+) could be attributed to structural conformation of 1,3-alternate-calix[4]arene scaffold and molecular electrostatic potential of its surface. Furthermore; the competitive experiments were carried out to test sensor's ability for practical uses. Finally, the efficiency of R in matrix of physiological cations was examined and showed gradual emission enhancement which makes R an ideal candidate for monitoring of Ag(+) in physiological environment.

  5. Ruthenium-catalyzed direct C-H amidation of arenes including weakly coordinating aromatic ketones.


    Kim, Jiyu; Kim, Jinwoo; Chang, Sukbok


    C-H activation: The ruthenium-catalyzed direct sp(2) C-H amidation of arenes by using sulfonyl azides as the amino source is presented (see scheme). A wide range of substrates were readily amidated including arenes bearing weakly coordinating groups. Synthetic utility of the thus obtained products was demonstrated in the preparation of biologically active heterocycles.

  6. [Synthesis of a novel calix[4]arene derivative with 2-methylquinoline and study of it's spectrum character with Zn(II) and Cu(II)].


    Liu, Shi-Zhu; Tang, You-Wen


    A novel calix[4]arene derivative(25,27-two2-methylquinoline t-butylcalix[4]arene, MQBC) with the lower rim modified fluorescence groups was synthesized. IR spectra, elemental analysis, HNMR spectra and MS were used to determine its structure. Meanwhile, the spectra characters of MQBC and the fluorescent behaviors of the complex with zinc(II) and copper (II) were investigated, and the results showed that the lower rim oxygen atoms in calix[4]arenes may act as electrons donor to metal ions. Calix[4] arene was chosen as a basic skeleton of a photoresponsive ion carrier because its quinolin derivatives are known to emit fluorescence and absorb UV in the solution, and the information of the complex with metal ions will be known by spectra experiment. The UV absorbance became weak at the band of 226 nm but was enhanced at the band of 315 nm when it bound zinc ions, The complex constant(K) and binding ratio(x) were determined to be 2 064 L x mol(-1) and 1, respectively, by UV spectra experiment. It is expected that MQBC will be applied to the detection of trace zinc ions. The fluorecence spectra experiment found that MQBC is has feeble fluorecence attributed to the intramolecular photoinduced electron transfer(PET) between oxygen atoms and methylquinoline groups. When MQBC was combined with zinc(II) and copper(II), it caused the inhibiting photoinduced electron transfer process between oxygen atoms and methylquinoline groups leading to the enhancement of fluorescence. In addition, the photoinduced electron mechanism was discussed and the influence of the concentration of zinc(II) and copper(II) on the fluorescence intensities was studied.

  7. Glued Langmuir-Blodgett bilayers from calix[n]arenes: Influence of calix[n]arene size on ionic cross-linking, film thickness, and permeation selectivity


    Wang, Minghui; Janout, Vaclav; Regen, Steven L.


    A homologous series of calix[4]arene-, calix[5]arene- and calix[6]arene-based surfactants, containing pendant trimethylammonium and n-hexadecyl groups, have been compared with respect to their ability (i) to undergo ionic crosslinking at the air/water interface, (ii) to incorporate poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) in Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) bilayers, and (iii) to act as barriers towards He, N2 and CO2 when assembled into crosslinked LB bilayers. As these calix[n]arenes increase in size, their ability to undergo ionic crosslinking has been found to increase, the thickness of corresponding glued LB bilayers has been found to decrease, and their barrier properties and permeation selectivities have been found to increase. Inmore » conclusion, the likely origin for these effects and the probable mechanism by which He, N2 and CO2 cross these ultrathin films are discussed.« less

  8. Ion binding compounds, radionuclide complexes, methods of making radionuclide complexes, methods of extracting radionuclides, and methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations


    Chen, Xiaoyuan; Wai, Chien M.; Fisher, Darrell R.


    The invention pertains to compounds for binding lanthanide ions and actinide ions. The invention further pertains to compounds for binding radionuclides, and to methods of making radionuclide complexes. Also, the invention pertains to methods of extracting radionuclides. Additionally, the invention pertains to methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations. In one aspect, the invention includes a compound comprising: a) a calix[n]arene group, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene group comprising an upper rim and a lower rim; b) at least one ionizable group attached to the lower rim; and c) an ion selected from the group consisting of lanthanide and actinide elements bound to the ionizable group. In another aspect, the invention includes a method of extracting a radionuclide, comprising: a) providing a sample comprising a radionuclide; b) providing a calix[n]arene compound in contact with the sample, wherein n is an integer greater than 3; and c) extracting radionuclide from the sample into the calix[n]arene compound. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a method of delivering a radionuclide to a target location, comprising: a) providing a calix[n]arene compound, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene compound comprising at least one ionizable group; b) providing a radionuclide bound to the calix[n]arene compound; and c) providing an antibody attached to the calix[n]arene compound, the antibody being specific for a material found at the target location.

  9. Closed- to open-system differentiation at Arenal volcano (1968 2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryder, C. H.; Gill, J. B.; Tepley, F.; Ramos, F.; Reagan, M.


    Arenal volcano, located in northern Costa Rica, has been continuously erupting since 1968. Magmas during the first half of the eruption by volume (Stage 1: 1968-1971) were related by largely closed-system crystal fractionation that had produced a compositionally zoned magma chamber prior to 1968. It erupted downward from the most differentiated magma in 1968 to the most mafic by early 1971. In contrast, the second half of the eruption has been dominated by recharge and compositions have become more evolved with time (Stage 2: 1971-current). We base these conclusions on new major and trace element plus Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotope analyses of 56 whole rocks from throughout the eruption. Differentiates are enriched in incompatible elements in both stages, but compatible element concentrations drop much more during Stage 1 than 2. Changes during Stage 1 were successfully modeled using least squares and MELTS models despite the mineral complexity of the rocks. About 19% fractional crystallization of phenocryst phases (plagioclase > orthopyroxene > clinopyroxene > magnetite) is required, consistent with crystallization at 4 kb and from 1145 to 1088 °C of a melt initially containing 2.5 wt.% H 2O at quite oxidizing conditions (QFM + 2). An implication is that most phenocrysts formed during decompression and degassing. Changes during the second stage were successfully modeled using EC-E'RAχFC with the ratio of recharge to crystallization decreasing from 17 to 5 over ˜ 30 years. Crystallization rates (d FS / d t) increase from 0.05 to 0.4%/a from closed- to open-system behavior and are even faster than inferred from U-series disequilibria. The recharging magma results from a smaller degree of flux melting of a mostly similar source than for the resident magma prior to the eruption, with the two events separated by ˜ 450 years. The most recent compositions have no precedent at Arenal.

  10. Identification of the structural determinants for anticancer activity of a ruthenium arene peptide conjugate.


    Meier, Samuel M; Novak, Maria; Kandioller, Wolfgang; Jakupec, Michael A; Arion, Vladimir B; Metzler-Nolte, Nils; Keppler, Bernhard K; Hartinger, Christian G


    Organometallic Ru(arene)-peptide bioconjugates with potent in vitro anticancer activity are rare. We have prepared a conjugate of a Ru(arene) complex with the neuropeptide [Leu(5)]-enkephalin. [Chlorido(η(6)-p-cymene)(5-oxo-κO-2-{(4-[(N-tyrosinyl-glycinyl-glycinyl-phenylalanyl-leucinyl-NH2)propanamido]-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)methyl}-4H-pyronato-κO)ruthenium(II)] (8) shows antiproliferative activity in human ovarian carcinoma cells with an IC50 value as low as 13 μM, whereas the peptide or the Ru moiety alone are hardly cytotoxic. The conjugation strategy for linking the Ru(cym) (cym=η(6)-p-cymene) moiety to the peptide involved N-terminal modification of an alkyne-[Leu(5)]-enkephalin with a 2-(azidomethyl)-5-hydroxy-4H-pyran-4-one linker, using Cu(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC), and subsequent metallation with the Ru(cym) moiety. The ruthenium-bioconjugate was characterized by high resolution top-down electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) with regard to peptide sequence, linker modification and metallation site. Notably, complete sequence coverage was obtained and the Ru(cym) moiety was confirmed to be coordinated to the pyronato linker. The ruthenium-bioconjugate was analyzed with respect to cytotoxicity-determining constituents, and through the bioconjugate models [{2-(azidomethyl)-5-oxo-κO-4H-pyronato-κO}chloride (η(6)-p-cymene)ruthenium(II)] (5) and [chlorido(η(6)-p-cymene){5-oxo-κO-2-([(4-(phenoxymethyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl]methyl)-4H-pyronato-κO}ruthenium(II)] (6) the Ru(cym) fragment with a triazole-carrying pyronato ligand was identified as the minimal unit required to achieve in vitro anticancer activity.

  11. Clickable di- and tetrafunctionalized pillar[n]arenes (n = 5, 6) by oxidation-reduction of pillar[n]arene units.


    Ogoshi, Tomoki; Yamafuji, Daiki; Kotera, Daisuke; Aoki, Takamichi; Fujinami, Shuhei; Yamagishi, Tada-aki


    We report a new route for the selective synthesis of di- and tetrafunctionalized pillararenes via oxidation and reduction of the pillararene units. Hypervalent-iodine oxidation of perethylated pillar[5]arene afforded pillar[5]arene derivatives containing one benzoquinone unit and two benzoquinones at the A,B- and A,C-units. A pillar[6]arene derivative containing one benzoquinone unit was also synthesized. Reduction of the benzoquinone units yielded position-selective di- and tetrahydroxylated pillararene derivatives. This methodology avoids the generation of many constitutional isomers and overcomes the isolation problem of numerous constitutional isomers. From these hydroxylated pillararenes, Huisgen reaction-based clickable di- and tetraalkynylated pillar[5]arenes were prepared. Because of the highly selective and reactive nature of Huisgen alkyne-azide cycloaddition, these pillar[5]arenes can serve as key compounds for a large library of di- and tetrafunctionalized pillararenes. Based on these di- and tetrafunctionalized pillar[5]arenes as key compounds, fluorescent sensors were created by the modification of di- and tetrapyrene moieties via Huisgen-type click reactions.

  12. Mechanisms of photoisomerization and water-oxidation catalysis of mononuclear ruthenium(II) monoaquo complexes.


    Hirahara, Masanari; Ertem, Mehmed Z; Komi, Manabu; Yamazaki, Hirosato; Cramer, Christopher J; Yagi, Masayuki


    A ligation of Ru(tpy)Cl3 (tpy = 2,2':6',2"-terpyridine) with 2-(2-pyridyl)-1,8-naphthyridine) (pynp) in the presence of LiCl gave distal-[Ru(tpy)(pynp)Cl](+) (d-1Cl) selectively, whereas the ligation gave proximal-[Ru(tpy)(pynp)OH2](2+) (p-1H2O) selectively in the absence of halide ions. (The proximal/distal isomers were defined by the structural configuration between the 1,8-naphthyridine moiety and the aquo or chloro ligand.) An aquation reaction of d-1Cl quantitatively afforded distal-[Ru(tpy)(pynp)OH2](2+) (d-1H2O) in water, and d-1H2O is quantitatively photoisomerized to p-1H2O. The mechanism of the photoisomerization was investigated by transient absorption spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. The temperature dependence of the transient absorption spectral change suggests existence of the thermally activated process from the (3)MLCT state with the activation energy (ΔE = 49 kJ mol(-1)), which is close to that (41.7 kJ mol(-1)) of the overall photoisomerization reaction. However, quantum chemical calculations suggest another activation process involving the conformational change of the pentacoordinated distal structure to the proximal structure. Quantum chemical calculations provide redox potentials and pK(a) values for proton-coupled electron transfer reactions from Ru(II)-OH2 to Ru(IV)═O in good agreement with experiments and provide an explanation for mechanistic differences between d-1H2O and p-1H2O with respect to water oxidation. The calculations show that water nucleophilic attack (WNA) on d-[Ru(V)-O](3+) (the ruthenyl oxo species derived from d-1H2O, calculated ΔG(‡) of 87.9 kJ/mol) is favored over p-[Ru(V)-O](3+) (calculated ΔG(‡) of 104.6 kJ/mol) for O-O bond formation. Examination of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals in d- and p-[Ru(V)-O](3+) indicates that more orbital amplitude is concentrated on the [Ru-O] unit in the case of d-[Ru(V)-O](3+) than in the case of p-[Ru(V)-O](3+), where some of the amplitude is instead delocalized over the pynp ligand, making this isomer less electrophilic.

  13. Molecular recognition using ruthenium(II) porphyrin thiol complexes as probes.


    Rebouças, Júlio S; James, Brian R


    In situ (1)H NMR data are reported for 106 Ru(porp)(RSH)(2) species, where porp is the dianion of β-octaethylporphyrin (OEP), meso-tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP), and its para-substituted tetraphenyl analogues (T-p-XPP; X = OMe, Me, F, Cl, CO(2)Me, CF(3)), meso-tetrakis(3,5-dimethylphenyl)porphyrin (T-m,m'-Me(2)PP), and meso-tetramesitylporphyrin (TMP), and R = Me, Et, (n)Pr, (i)Pr, (n)Bu, (t)Bu, (n)Hex, Bn (benzyl), Ph, and p-MeOC(6)H(4). The upfield shifts in the SH resonances upon coordination of the thiol reflect changes in the porphyrin ring current and are analyzed using an empirical model that depicts quantitatively the nonbonding, electronic, and steric interactions between the thiol ligands, where steric factors dominate, and the porphyrin plane, where electronic factors dominate; such interactions are typically involved in small-molecule recognition within metalloporphyrin systems. Implications of the findings to hemethiolate proteins and surface coordination chemistry are also briefly presented.

  14. [The Thiacalix [4] arene-Coumarin Fluorescence Probe Recognition for Fe³⁺ and Bovine Hemoglobin].


    Li, Yan-qin; Mu, Lan; Zeng, Xi; Li, Jun; Yamato, Takehiko


    1,3-alternate coumarin substituted thiacalix[4]arene fluorescent probe 1 was synthesised from 1,3-alternate diethyl thiacalix[4]arene and 7-hydroxycoumarin by-step reactions. In DMSO/H₂O (φ, 3/7, pH 7) solution, the strong fluorescence emission and UV absorption of probe 1 can be selectively quenched or significantly enhanced by Fe³⁺ ion. The probe 1 showed high Fe³⁺ selective fluorescence quenching or absorption enhancement over commonly coexistent metal ions in neutral aqueous media, and the limit of detections were obtained as low as 10⁻⁸ mol · L⁻¹ of Fe³⁺ by fluorescence and absorption spectrometry. Spectral titration, isothermal titration calorimetry and mass spectrometry were showed that probe and Fe³⁺ form 1:1 complexes, the constant up to 10⁵ L · mol⁻¹ and coordinate process was spontaneous by the mole binding free energy and entropy of probe with Fe³⁺. In addition, the probe can identification bovine hemoglobin (BHb) over other proteins through quenched its fluorescence in DMSO/H₂O (φ, 1/9, Tris-HCl, pH 7, 0.1 mol · L⁻¹ NaCl) media. The limit of detection was obtained as 0. 12 µg · mL⁻¹ of BHb, as well as a linearity of 0.2-3.0 µg · mL⁻¹, indicating the probe of high sensitivity and quantitation range. It can be used as a selective recognition Fe³⁺ and BHb of thiacalix[4] arene fluorescent probe.

  15. Solution superstructures: truncated cubeoctahedron structures of pyrogallol[4]arene nanoassemblies.


    Kumari, Harshita; Kline, Steven R; Fowler, Drew A; Mossine, Andrew V; Deakyne, Carol A; Atwood, Jerry L


    Giant nanocapsules: the solution-phase structures of PgC1Ho and PgC3Ho have been investigated using in situ neutron scattering measurements. The SANS results show the presence of spherical nanoassemblies of radius 18.2 Å, which are larger than the previously reported metal-seamed PgC3 hexamers (radius = 10 Å). The spherical architectures conform to a truncated cubeoctahedron geometry, indicating formation of the first metal-containing pyrogallol[4]arene-based dodecameric nanoassemblies in solution.

  16. Host-guest inclusion system of ferulic acid with p-Sulfonatocalix[n]arenes: Preparation, characterization and antioxidant activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Jianbin; Wang, Huijuan; Song, Kailun; Wang, Yongzhao; Zuo, Ying; Zhang, Liwei; Zhang, Bingtai


    The inclusion complexes of ferulic acid (FA) with p-Sulfonatocalix[n]arenes (SCXn, n = 4, 6, 8) were prepared and characterized both in the solid state and in solution using fluorescence spectroscopy, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), attenuated total reflectance-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results show that FA is able to form inclusion complexes with SCXn in a molar ratio of 1:1, causing a significant decrease in the fluorescence intensity of FA. The association constant of the inclusion complexes was calculated from the fluorescence titration data. 1H NMR spectroscopy analysis demonstrates that the aromatic ring and methoxy group of FA are partially covered by SCXn.

  17. Plagioclase and pyroxene hosted melt inclusions in basaltic andesites of the current eruption of Arenal volcano, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streck, Martin J.; Wacaster, Sue


    In this study, we investigated melt inclusions hosted in pyroxene and plagioclase to find direct evidence for the composition of melt components in the pre-eruptive magmas of the current eruption of Arenal volcano and to further shed light on the petrogenetic history of remarkably uniform basaltic andesitic bulk compositions. Composition of melt inclusions ranges widely regardless of whether an inclusion is hosted by plagioclase or by pyroxene and whether crystals with inclusions came from tephra samples or from slower emplaced lava flows. However, inclusions from each type of host mineral have distinct evolutionary trends most consistent with being mainly introduced by post-emplacement crystallization of the enclosing host, which is also supported by the composition of groundmass glasses. At the least-modified compositions, plagioclase and pyroxene inclusion trends overlap allowing for identification of melt compositions entrapped by both phases and, thus, strongly suggesting that these melt compositions existed in the reservoir prior to entrapment. Most of these are "dacitic" (61 to 64 wt.% SiO 2) and strongly match phenocryst-poor dacitic magmas of earlier eruptive phases of Arenal [Borgia, A., Poore, C., Carr, M.J., Melson, W.G., Alvarado, G.E., 1988. Structural, stratigraphic, and petrologic aspects of the Arenal-Chato volcanic system, Costa Rica: evolution of a young stratovolcanic complex. Bull Volcanol, 50, 86-105], suggesting earlier dacitic magmas may have been generated by melt-extraction processes. Correction for host crystallization of some inclusions also suggests that melt components as mafic as ˜ 53 wt.% may have been entrapped. All melt components inferred to have existed in the magmatic reservoirs prior to entrapment have low Mg# (38-45) yielding evidence for liquid compositions required for crystallizing the bulk of observed pyroxene and likely also olivine. Water rich (> 5 wt.%, by difference) and probably undegassed (S = 400-1600 ppm, Cl =

  18. Synthesis and functionalization of inherently chiral tetraoxacalix[2]arene[2]pyridines.


    Pan, Shuai; Wang, De-Xian; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Mei-Xiang


    Inherently chiral tetraoxacalix[2]arene[2]pyridines containing C(2) symmetry were synthesized efficiently from a macrocyclic condensation reaction of resorcinol derivatives with 2,6-dichloro-3-nitropyridine in a one-pot reaction manner, while tetraoxacalix[2]arene[2]pyridine with an ABCD-substitution pattern was prepared in a good yield by means of a stepwise fragment coupling approach. Postmacrocyclization chemical manipulations led to functionalized tetraoxacalix[2]arene[2]pyridines. A racemic sample was resolved into enantiopure (+)- and (-)-inherently chiral compounds.

  19. Molecular binding behavior of water-soluble calix[4]arenes with asymmetric 4,4'-bipyridinium guests in aqueous solution: regioselective recognition or not?


    Wang, Kui; Cui, Jian-Hua; Xing, Si-Yang; Dou, Hong-Xi


    The molecular binding behavior of water-soluble calix[4]arenes (p-sulfonatocalix[4]arene (SC4A) and p-sulfonatothiacalix[4]arene (STC4A)) with two asymmetric 4,4'-bipyridinium guests (N-methyl-N'-adamantane carbomethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dibromide (MVAd(2+)) and N-methyl-N'-(naphthalen-2-ylmethyl)-4,4'-bipyridinium bromide iodide (MVNp(2+))) was systematically studied using NMR spectroscopy and microcalorimetry in a neutral aqueous solution. Either the methyl group or the adamantane moiety in MVAd(2+) could enter into the SC4A and STC4A cavities, without regioselectivity. The STC4A cavity can also accommodate MVNp(2+), either through incorporation of the methyl group or the naphthalene moiety, without regioselectivity. However, we were surprised to find that MVNp(2+) could only be included within the SC4A cavity through incorporation of the methyl group, with regioselectivity, which is rare for a flexible host. Furthermore, both SC4A and STC4A can form stable inclusion complexes with the two investigated asymmetric 4,4'-bipyridinium guests, driven by very favorable enthalpy changes, and the thermodynamic origins of the host selectivities for MVAd(2+) and MVNp(2+) can be well explained through their binding modes. The finding of this novel regioselective recognition is promising for potential applications in the development of more sophisticated biomimetic materials.

  20. Correction: NanoSIMS analysis of an isotopically labelled organometallic ruthenium(II) drug to probe its distribution and state in vitro.


    Lee, Ronald F S; Escrig, Stéphane; Croisier, Marie; Clerc-Rosset, Stéphanie; Knott, Graham W; Meibom, Anders; Davey, Curt A; Johnsson, Kai; Dyson, Paul J


    Correction for 'NanoSIMS analysis of an isotopically labelled organometallic ruthenium(II) drug to probe its distribution and state in vitro' by Ronald F. S. Lee et al., Chem. Commun., 2015, DOI: 10.1039/c5cc06983a.

  1. Binding of monovalent metal cations by the p-sulfonatocalix[4]arene: experimental evidence for cation-pi interactions in water.


    Morel, Jean-Pierre; Morel-Desrosiers, Nicole


    Gibbs free energies, enthalpies and entropies for the binding of Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+, Ag+, Tl+ and NH4+ by the p-sulfonatocalix[4]arene in water are determined by microcalorimetry. Whereas no significant heat effect is detected with Na+ or Ag+, suggesting that these cations are not complexed, weak but selective binding is observed with the other cations. The whole set of thermodynamic parameters, which demonstrate that the cations bind inside the cavity of the calixarene, evidence the importance of the cation-pi interactions for these complexes in water.

  2. Gas Concentration Mapping of Arenal Volcano Using AVEMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, J. Andres; Arkin, C. Richard; Griffin, Timothy P.; Conejo, Elian; Heinrich, Kristel; Soto, Carlomagno


    The Airborne Volcanic Emissions Mass Spectrometer (AVEMS) System developed by NASA-Kennedy Space Center and deployed in collaboration with the National Center for Advanced Technology (CENAT) and the University of Costa Rica was used for mapping the volcanic plume of Arenal Volcano, the most active volcano in Costa Rica. The measurements were conducted as part of the second CARTA (Costa Rica Airborne Research and Technology Application) mission conducted in March 2005. The CARTA 2005 mission, involving multiple sensors and agencies, consisted of three different planes collecting data over all of Costa Rica. The WB-57F from NASA collected ground data with a digital camera, an analog photogrametric camera (RC-30), a multispectral scanner (MASTER) and a hyperspectral sensor (HYMAP). The second aircraft, a King Air 200 from DoE, mounted with a LIDAR based instrument, targeted topography mapping and forest density measurements. A smaller third aircraft, a Navajo from Costa Rica, integrated with the AVEMS instrument and designed for real-time measurements of air pollutants from both natural and anthropogenic sources, was flown over the volcanoes. The improved AVEMS system is designed for deployment via aircraft, car or hand-transport. The 85 pound system employs a 200 Da quadrupole mass analyzer, has a volume of 92,000 cubic cm, requires 350 W of power at steady state, can operate up to an altitude of 41,000 feet above sea level (-65 C; 50 torr). The system uses on-board gas bottles on-site calibration and is capable of monitoring and quantifying up to 16 gases simultaneously. The in-situ gas data in this work, consisting of helium, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and acetone, was acquired in conjunction of GPS data which was plotted with the ground imagery, topography and remote sensing data collected by the other instruments, allowing the 3 dimensional visualization of the volcanic plume at Arenal Volcano. The modeling of possible scenarios of Arenal s activity and its

  3. Supramolecular chemistry of p-sulfonatocalix[5] arene: A water-soluble, bowl-shaped host with a large molecular cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, J.W.; Johnson, C.P.; Barnes, C.L.; Kuneja, R.K.; Atwood, J.L.; Reilly, S.; Hollis, R.L.; Smith, P.H.; Clark, D.L.


    The first X-ray crystallographic studies are reported for water-soluble inclusion complexes of the macrocyclic p-sulfonatocalix[5]arene (1b). The complexes Na{sub 7} [p-sulfonatocalix[5]arene].18H{sub 2}O (2) and Na{sub 5} [p-sulfonatocalix]5[arene].py-N-O.8.5H{sub 2}O (3) containing water and pyridine N-oxide (py-N-O) guest species have been isolated. In 2 the large bowl-shaped cavity of the host molecule is occupied by a total of three water molecules, while for 3 a single molecule of pyridine N-oxide is included and interacts with the host via a strong hydrogen bond to a protonated sulfonate substituent. The behavior of 1b as a ligand for a number of lanthanide elements is also reported. Low temperature X-ray structural studies reveal that coordination of the Ln{sup 3+} metal ions to the calixarene ligand occurs exclusively via the sulfonato functionalities and not the phenolic oxygen atoms as suggested by Shinkai et al. for the complexation of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} by lb. In complex 2 the calixarene exists as the heptaanion. In contrast, crystallization from acidic solution results in complexes 3-8 retaining all their phenolic protons. The protonation constants of 1b have been measured in aqueous solution: pK{sub a} = 10.96(8), 7. 63(5), and 4.31(1) at 25{degree}C and 0.1 M KNO{sub 3}. 24 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Irritable Bowel Syndrome Treatments Aren't One-Size-Fits-All


    ... Bowel Syndrome Treatments Aren't One-Size-Fits-All Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... the United States. No one remedy works for all patients, so there’s a great medical need to ...

  5. DFT study of hydrogen bonding and IR spectra of calix[6]arene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furer, V. L.; Potapova, L. I.; Kovalenko, V. I.


    IR and far IR spectra of calix[6]arene were recorded at various temperatures, between 16 and 180 °C and spectra of solutions and crystalline solids were obtained. Density functional calculations (DFT) gave vibrational frequencies and infrared intensities for the compressed cone conformation. Complete assignments were made for experimental IR spectrum of the compressed cone conformer. DFT calculations, in conjunction with experimental data give a better understanding of the effect of hydrogen bonding on the typical bands of calixarenes. Method of FTIR spectroscopy shows that a cyclic cooperative intramolecular hydrogen bond is implemented in calix[6]arene. Weakening of the cooperative hydrogen bond in calixarenes is caused by the mutual influence of covalent and hydrogen-bonded macrocycles on each other. Analysis of IR spectra changes during heating showed that calix[6]arene remains in the compressed cone conformation. In a molecule of calix[6]arene six oxygen atoms form a "boat" conformation with three pairs of hydrogen bonds.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous silica functionalized with calix[4]arene derivatives.


    Alahmadi, Sana M; Mohamad, Sharifah; Maah, Mohd Jamil


    This work reports a new method to covalently attach calix[4]arene derivatives onto MCM-41, using a diisocyanate as a linker. The modified mesoporous silicates were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal analysis (TGA) and elemental analysis. The FTIR spectra and TGA analysis verified that the calix[4]arene derivates are covalently attached to the mesoporous silica. The preservation of the MCM-41 channel system was checked by X-ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption analysis.

  7. Double heteroatom functionalization of arenes using benzyne three-component coupling.


    García-López, José-Antonio; Çetin, Meliha; Greaney, Michael F


    Arynes participate in three-component coupling reactions with N, S, P, and Se functionalities to yield 1,2-heteroatom-difunctionalized arenes. Using 2-iodophenyl arylsulfonates as benzyne precursors, we could effectively add magnesiated S-, Se-, and N-nucleophilic components to the strained triple bond. In the same pot, addition of electrophilic N, S, or P reagents and a copper(I) catalyst trapped the intermediate aryl Grignard to produce a variety of 1,2-difunctionalized arenes.

  8. Kinetic and equilibrium lithium acidities of arenes: theory and experiment.


    Streitwieser, Andrew; Shah, Kamesh; Reyes, Julius R; Zhang, Xingyue; Davis, Nicole R; Wu, Eric C


    Kinetic acidities of arenes, ArH, measured some time ago by hydrogen isotope exchange kinetics with lithium cyclohexylamide (LiCHA) in cyclohexylamine (CHA) show a wide range of reactivities that involve several electronic mechanisms. These experimental reactivities give an excellent Brønsted correlation with equilibrium lithium ion pair acidities (pK(Li)) derived as shown recently from computations of ArLi.2E (E = dimethyl ether). The various electronic mechanisms are well modeled by ab initio HF calculations with modest basis sets. Additional calculations using NH(3) as a model for CHA further characterize the TS of the exchange reactions. The slopes of Brønsted correlations of ion pair systems can vary depending on the nature of the ion pairs.

  9. Homodiselenacalix[4]arenes: Molecules with Unique Channelled Crystal Structures.


    Thomas, Joice; Dobrzańska, Liliana; Van Meervelt, Luc; Quevedo, Mario Alfredo; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Stachowicz, Marcin; Smet, Mario; Maes, Wouter; Dehaen, Wim


    A synthetic route towards homodiselenacalix[4]arene macrocycles is presented, based on the dynamic covalent chemistry of diselenides. The calixarene inner rim is decorated with either alkoxy or tert-butyl ester groups. Single-crystal X-ray analysis of two THF solvates with methoxy and ethoxy substituents reveals the high similarity of their molecular structures and alterations on the supramolecular level. In both crystal structures, solvent channels are present and differ in both shape and capacity. Furthermore, the methoxy-substituted macrocycle undergoes a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation during which the molecular structure changes its conformation from 1,3-alternate (loaded with THF/water) to 1,2-alternate (apohost form). Molecular modelling techniques were applied to explore the conformational and energetic behaviour of the macrocycles.

  10. [Study on the inclusion behavior of p-sulphonatocalix[4]arene with acridine by spectrofluorometric titrations].


    Zhou, Yun-You; Lu, Qin; Liu, Chun; She, Shi-Ke; Yang, Xu-Lai; Wang, Lun


    p-sulphonatocalix[4] arene (1) was prepared according to the literature, and spectrofluorometric titrations were performed to investigate the inclusion behavior of (1) and acridine in citrate buffer solution (pH 5.92, 0.1 mol x L(-1)) at different temperatures. It was found that in definite concentration range, the emission peak of acridine exhibited a slight red shift and th fluorescence intensity decreased when (1) was added. They form stable host-guest complex, and the stoichiometry of the inclusion complex is 1 : 1. The stability constants of the inclusion complex at 15.0 degrees C, 20.0, 25.0 and 30.0 degrees C were determined as 3.08 x 10(5), 4.45 x 10(4), 2.58 x 10(4) and 8.90 x 10(3), respectively. The thermodynamic parameters of inclusion process, deltaG, deltaH and deltaS, were determined. The experimental results indicated that the inclusion process was an exothermic and enthalpy-driven process. It was found that the stability constants descended when temperature rose. The most probable pattern of the inclusion complex between (1) and acridine was proposed as: acridine partially goes into the cavity of (1), and the protonated N atom and the negatively charged sulphonyl group bond firmly owing to strong electrostatic interaction. With the main contribution of electrostatic interaction and the assistance of Van de Waals and hydrophobic interaction, the host and the guest molecules form 1 : 1 supramolecular complex.

  11. Highly selective and sensitive fluorescent sensor: Thiacalix[4]arene-1-naphthalene carboxylate for Zn2+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darjee, Savan M.; Modi, Krunal M.; Panchal, Urvi; Patel, Chirag; Jain, Vinod K.


    Thiacalix[4]arene based fluorescent sensor bearing two naphthoyl groups, thiacalix-1-naphthalene carboxylate (TCNC) has been synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, FTIR, ESI-MS spectroscopic techniques. The interaction behavior of TCNC with various metal ions like Fe3+, Hg2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, and Zn2+ was studied by UV-visible and emission spectrophotometry. It was observed that TCNC recognizes Zn2+ ions with high selectivity and sensitivity. The enhancement of fluorescence intensity due to presence of Zn2+ ions was not perturbed in the presence of high concentration of other associated metal ions. The 1:1 stoichiometry of TCNC:Zn2+ complex was confirmed by job's plot, ESI-MS study and 1H NMR titration. The binding constant and quantum yield were also calculated by using spectrofluorimetric titration data. Linear detection range of zinc ions was found to be 1 nM-740 nM. Furthermore, molecular docking study was performed to evaluate the binding affinity and possible interactions between TCNC and Zn2+ depicting that TCNC interact with Zn2+ via weak intramolecular forces. In addition to that molecular dynamics has also been performed to evaluate the conformational changes and it's structural stability in the particular environment.

  12. Computational and experimental investigations of supramolecular assemblies of p-sulfonatocalix[4]arene organized by weak forces.


    Ghoufi, A; Pison, L; Morel, J P; Morel-Desrosiers, N; Bonal, C; Malfreyt, P


    We report the study of the supramolecular assemblies formed by the incorporation of quaternary ammonium cations such as Me4N+ or Et4N+ into host-guest assemblies with p-sulfonatocalix[4]arene in the presence of a lanthanide(III) cation in water. We use microcalorimetry to characterize the formation of these supramolecular assemblies. We obtain a molecular description of these assemblies by performing molecular dynamics simulations over a very large period of time. The structures of these supramolecular complexes have been determined and discussed through specific interaction energy contributions. By combining MD simulations and 1NMR spectroscopy, we highlight a specific behavior of the supramolecular assembly with the Me4N+.

  13. Tetraazacalix[2]arene[2]triazine modified silica gel: a novel multi-interaction stationary phase for mixed-mode chromatography.


    Zhao, Wenjie; Wang, Wenjing; Chang, Hong; Cui, Shiwei; Hu, Kai; He, Lijun; Lu, Kui; Liu, Jinxia; Wu, Yangjie; Qian, Jiang; Zhang, Shusheng


    A novel multi-interaction and mixed-mode stationary phase based on tetraazacalix[2]arene[2]triazine modified silica (NCS) was synthesized and characterized by infrared spectra, elemental analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. Mechanism involved in the chromatographic separation is the multi-interaction including hydrophobic, π-π, hydrogen-bonding, inclusion and anion-exchange interactions. Based on these interactions, successful separation could be achieved among polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic position isomers, organic bases and phenols in reversed-phase chromatography. Inorganic anions were also shown to be individually separated in anion-exchange chromatography by using the same column. Moreover, the results here also demonstrated that NCS based stationary phase could effectively reduce the adverse effect of residual silanol in the separation process. Such stationary phase with characteristics of multi-interaction mechanism and mixed-mode separation is potential for the analysis of complex samples.

  14. A Zn2+ specific triazole based calix[4]arene conjugate (L) as a fluorescence sensor for histidine and cysteine in HEPES buffer milieu.


    Pathak, Rakesh Kumar; Tabbasum, Khatija; Rai, Ankit; Panda, Dulal; Rao, Chebrolu Pulla


    A highly fluorescent Zn(2+) complex of the triazole linked salicyl-imino-thiophenyl conjugate of calix[4]arene, [ZnL] has been demonstrated to be a chemo-sensing ensemble for the recognition of His and Cys among the naturally occurring amino acids in HEPES buffer milieu. The recognition behaviour of the [ZnL] towards these amino acids has been shown on the basis of fluorescence, absorption and visual fluorescent colour changes. The species of recognition were shown by ESI MS titrations, AFM & TEM microscopy and cell studies.

  15. The influence of arene-ring size on stacking interaction with canonical base pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formánek, Martin; Burda, Jaroslav V.


    Stacking interactions between aromatic molecules (benzene, p-cymene, biphenyl, and di- and tetra-hydrogen anthracene) and G.C and A.T canonical Watson-Crick (WC) base pairs are explored. Two functionals with dispersion corrections: ω-B97XD and B3LYP-D3 are used. For a comparison also the MP2 and B3LYP-D3/PCM methods were used for the most stable p-cymene…WC geometries. It was found that the stacking interaction increases with the size of π-conjugation system. Its extent is in agreement with experimental finding on anticancer activity of Ru(II) piano-stool complexes where intercalation of these aromatic molecules should play an important role. The explored structures are considered as ternary system so that decomposition of the interaction energy to pairwise and non-additivity contributions is also examined.

  16. Pillar[5,6]arene-functionalized silicon dioxide: synthesis, characterization, and adsorption of herbicide.


    Zhou, Ting; Song, Nan; Yu, Hao; Yang, Ying-Wei


    A layer of synthetic supramolecular macrocycles, that is, perhydroxyl-pillar[5]arene and perhydroxyl-pillar[6]arene, has been covalently attached to hydrophilic silica supports through Si-O-Si linkages with a coverage of up to 250 μmol pillar[5,6]arenes/g to form novel absorbent hybrid materials. Their adsorption toward a typical herbicide, namely, paraquat, from its aqueous solution has been investigated. Kinetic studies disclosed that paraquat adsorption fits a first-order kinetic model. Equilibrium adsorption data could be explained very well by the Langmuir equation. The pillar[6]arene-modified materials showed more obvious adsorption as compared with pillar[5]arene-modified ones and the saturation adsorption quantity reached about 0.20 mmol of paraquat per gram of materials. The entire process of adsorption was endothermic, and significantly an elevated temperature led to an increase in the adsorption quantity. This new type of pillarene-based adsorbent materials can be considered as a potential adsorbent for harmful substances removal from wastewaters.

  17. Luminescent iridium(III) complexes as novel protein staining agents.


    Jia, Junli; Fei, Hao; Zhou, Ming


    This article reports a new class of luminescent metal complexes, biscyclometalated iridium(III) complexes with an ancillary bathophenanthroline disulfonate ligand, for staining protein bands that are separated by electrophoresis. The performances of these novel staining agents have been studied in comparison with tris(bathophenanthroline disulfonate) ruthenium(II) tetrasodium salt (i.e. RuBPS) using a commercially available imaging system. The staining agents showed different limits of detection, linear dynamic ranges, and protein-to-protein variations. The overall performances of all three stains were found to be better than or equivalent to RuBPS under the experimental conditions.

  18. Using stannous ion as an excellent inorganic ECL coreactant for tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II).


    Zheng, Liyan; Wang, Binbin; Chi, Yuwu; Song, Shiping; Fan, Chunhai; Chen, Guonan


    It was found that stannous chloride (SnCl(2)), as a popular inorganic reducing reagent, could obviously enhance the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II) (Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)) in aqueous solution. Some factors affecting the ECL reactions between Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) and Sn(2+), including pH, concentrations of coreactant, and electrode materials, were investigated by comparison with a classic ECL coreactant tripropylamine (TPA). The Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)-Sn(2+) ECL coreactant system produces stronger and more stable ECL signals, can keep its excellent ECL activity over a wider pH range and has more choices in using electrode materials than the Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)-TPA ECL coreactant system. The ECL mechanism of the Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)-Sn(2+) coreactant system was also studied in detail.

  19. Excited-state absorption and circular dichroism of ruthenium(II) tris(phenanthroline) in the ultraviolet region.


    Niezborala, Claire; Hache, François


    Excitation of ruthenium(II) tris(phenanthroline) in the visible region results in the tranfer of an electron from the central atom toward one of the ligands. To probe this excited state, we have performed pump-induced absorption and circular dichroism in the ultraviolet wavelengths, in the intraligand pi-pi* transition region. On top of the bleaching of the ground state transitions, new structures appear in the absorption and CD spectra. Thanks to a classical calculation based on the polarizability theory, we can interpret these features as the result of a strong reduction of the excitonic coupling due to a blue shift of the pi-pi* transition in the reduced ligand accompanied by the onset of new excited-state transitions.

  20. Direct access to pyrazolo(benzo)thienoquinolines. Highly effective palladium catalysts for the intramolecular C-H heteroarylation of arenes.


    Churruca, Fátima; Hernández, Susana; Perea, María; SanMartin, Raul; Domínguez, Esther


    A short and atom-efficient strategy to obtain a series of pyrazolo(benzo)thienoquinolines is developed. Alternative catalytic systems for the key intramolecular direct heteroarylation of arenes are presented and include the first example of C-H (hetero)arylation of (hetero)arenes catalyzed by very low catalyst loadings of a palladium source.

  1. NMR analysis of t‐butyl‐catalyzed deuterium exchange at unactivated arene localities

    PubMed Central

    Eastman, Rachel


    Regioselective labelling of arene rings via electrophilic exchange is often dictated by the electronic environment caused by substituents present on the aromatic system. Previously, we observed the presence of a t‐butyl group, either covalently bond or added as an external reagent, could impart deuterium exchange to the unactivated, C1‐position of estrone. Here, we provide nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of this exchange in a solvent system composed of 50:50 trifluoroacetic acid and D2O with either 2‐t‐butylestrone or estrone in the presence of t‐butyl alcohol has shed insights into the mechanism of this t‐butyl‐catalyzed exchange. Fast exchange of the t‐butyl group concurrent with the gradual reduction of the H1 proton signal in both systems suggest a mechanism involving ipso attack of the t‐butyl position by deuterium. The reversible addition/elimination of the t‐butyl group activates the H1 proton towards exchange by a mechanism of t‐butyl incorporation, H1 activation and exchange, followed by eventual t‐butyl elimination. Density functional calculations are consistent with the observation of fast t‐butyl exchange concurrent with slower H1 exchange. The σ‐complex resulting from ipso attack of deuterium at the t‐butyl carbon was 6.6 kcal/mol lower in energy than that of the σ‐complex resulting from deuterium attack at C1. A better understanding of the t‐butyl‐catalyzed exchange could help in the design of labelling recipes for other phenolic metabolites. PMID:27645832

  2. The water soluble ruthenium(II) organometallic compound [Ru(p-cymene)(bis(3,5 dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)methane)Cl]Cl suppresses triple negative breast cancer growth by inhibiting tumor infiltration of regulatory T cells.


    Montani, Maura; Pazmay, Gretta V Badillo; Hysi, Albana; Lupidi, Giulio; Pettinari, Riccardo; Gambini, Valentina; Tilio, Martina; Marchetti, Fabio; Pettinari, Claudio; Ferraro, Stefano; Iezzi, Manuela; Marchini, Cristina; Amici, Augusto


    Ruthenium compounds have become promising alternatives to platinum drugs by displaying specific activities against different cancers and favorable toxicity and clearance properties. Here, we show that the ruthenium(II) complex [Ru(p-cymene)(bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)methane)Cl]Cl (UNICAM-1) exhibits potent in vivo antitumor effects. When administered as four-dose course, by repeating a single dose (52.4mgkg-1) every three days, UNICAM-1 significantly reduces the growth of A17 triple negative breast cancer cells transplanted into FVB syngeneic mice. Pharmacokinetic studies indicate that UNICAM-1 is rapidly eliminated from kidney, liver and bloodstream thanks to its high hydrosolubility, exerting excellent therapeutic activity with minimal side effects. Immunohistological analysis revealed that the efficacy of UNICAM-1, mainly relies on its capacity to reverse tumor-associated immune suppression by significantly reducing the number of tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells. Therefore, UNICAM-1 appears very promising for the treatment of TNBC.

  3. Preparation of phenols by phthaloyl peroxide-mediated oxidation of arenes.


    Yuan, Changxia; Eliasen, Anders M; Camelio, Andrew M; Siegel, Dionicio


    This protocol describes an approach to installing hydroxyls into arenes through the direct replacement of C-H bonds with C-O bonds. This direct oxidation avoids the need to prefunctionalize the substrate, use precious metals, introduce directing groups, or use strong Brønsted or Lewis acids. Phthaloyl peroxide, the sole reagent used for this transformation, can be prepared readily from the commodity chemicals phthaloyl chloride and sodium percarbonate. Phthaloyl peroxide oxidizes a diverse range of arenes, and the reactions that involve its use are characterized by high functional group compatibility, which enables the hydroxylation of simple arenes, advanced synthetic intermediates, natural products and other drug-like molecules forming the corresponding phenolic compounds. Notably, the reaction is operationally straightforward and has no special requirements for the exclusion of oxygen and water. The synthesis of phthaloyl peroxide takes 4  h and the subsequent hydroxylation of mesitylene takes 21  h.

  4. Impact of the uranium (VI) speciation in mineralised urines on its extraction by calix[6]arene bearing hydroxamic groups used in chromatography columns.


    Baghdadi, S; Bouvier-Capely, C; Ritt, A; Peroux, A; Fevrier, L; Rebiere, F; Agarande, M; Cote, G


    Actinides determination in urine samples is part of the analyses performed to monitor internal contamination in case of an accident or a terrorist attack involving nuclear matter. Mineralisation is the first step of any of these analyses. It aims at reducing the sample volume and at destroying all organic compounds present. The mineralisation protocol is usually based on a wet ashing step, followed by actinides co-precipitation and a furnace ashing step, before redissolution and the quantification of the actinides by the appropriate techniques. Amongst the existing methods to perform the actinides co-precipitation, alkali-earth (typically calcium) precipitation is widely used. In the present work, the extraction of uranium(VI), plutonium(IV) and americium(III) from the redissolution solutions (called "mineralised urines") on calix[6]arene columns bearing hydroxamic groups was investigated as such an extraction is a necessary step before their determination by ICP-MS or alpha spectrometry. Difficulties were encountered in the transfer of uranium(VI) from raw to mineralised urines, with yield of transfer ranging between 0% and 85%, compared to about 90% for Pu and Am, depending on the starting raw urines. To understand the origin of such a difficulty, the speciation of uranium (VI) in mineralised urines was investigated by computer simulation using the MEDUSA software and the associated HYDRA database, compiled with recently published data. These calculations showed that the presence of phosphates in the "mineralised urines" leads to the formation of strong uranyl-phosphate complexes (such as UO2HPO4) which compete with the uranium (VI) extraction by the calix[6]arene bearing hydroxamic groups. The extraction constant of uranium (VI) by calix[6]arene bearing hydroxamic groups was determined in a 0.04 mol L(-1) sodium nitrate solution (logK=4.86±0.03) and implemented in an extraction model taking into account the speciation in the aqueous phase. This model allowed to

  5. Removal of uranyl ions by p-hexasulfonated calyx[6]arene acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu (Hoştuc), Ioana-Carmen; Petru, Filip; Humelnicu, Ionel; Mateescu, Marina; Militaru, Ecaterina; Humelnicu, Doina


    Radioactive pollution is a significant threat for the people’s health. Therefore highly effective radioactive decontamination methods are required. Ion exchange, biotechnologies and phytoremediation in constructed wetlands have been used as radioactive decontamination technologies for uranium contaminated soil and water remediation. Recently, beside those classical methods the calix[n]arenic derivatives’ utilization as radioactive decontaminators has jogged attention. The present work aims to present the preliminary research results of uranyl ion sorption studies on the p-hexasulfonated calyx[6]arenic acid. The effect of temperature, contact time, sorbent amount and uranyl concentration variation on sorption efficiency was investigated. Isotherm models revealed that the sorption process fit better Langmuir isotherm.

  6. Bis-15-crown-5-ether-pillar[5]arene K(+)-Responsive Channels.


    Feng, Wei-Xu; Sun, Zhanhu; Zhang, Yan; Legrand, Yves-Marie; Petit, Eddy; Su, Cheng-Yong; Barboiu, Mihail


    An artificial selective K(+) channel is formed from the supramolecular organization on bis(benzo-15-crown-5- ether-ureido)-pillar[5]arene compound. This channel achieves a selectivity of SK(+)/Na(+) = 5 for an initial transport rate of kK(+) = 3.2 × 10(-3) s(-1). The cation-file diffusion occurs via selective macrocyclic-filters anchored on inactive supporting pillar[5]arene relays. The sandwich-type binding geometry of the K(+) cation by two 15-crown-5 moieties sites is a key feature influencing channel efficiency.

  7. Controlled 2D Assembly of Nickel-Seamed Hexameric Pyrogallol[4]arene Nanocapsules.


    Zhang, Chen; Patil, Rahul S; Liu, Chong; Barnes, Charles L; Atwood, Jerry L


    The two-dimensional framework of nickel-seamed hexameric metal-organic nanocapsules has been synthesized by connecting the tailed hydroxyl groups of C-propan-3-ol pyrogallol[4]arene with adjacent hexameric capsules via nickel-hydroxyl coordination. In addition, functionalization of nanocapsules with multiple pyridine molecules at the capsule surface prevents them from assembling into hierarchical structures and leads to the formation of discrete nickel-seamed pyrogallol[4]arene nanocapsules. This work shows that surface functionalization of nanocapsules is an effective and innovative method of controlling the assembly of these nanometric building blocks.

  8. Inherently chiral calix[4]arenes via oxazoline directed ortholithiation: synthesis and probe of chiral space

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Simon A; van Laeren, Laura J; Castell, Dominic C


    Summary The diastereoselective oxazoline-directed lithiation of calix[4]arenes is reported with diastereoselective ratios of greater than 100:1 in some instances. Notably, it has been found that the opposite diastereomer can be accessed via this approach merely through the choice of an alkyllithium reagent. The inherently chiral oxazoline calix[4]arenes have also been preliminarily examined as ligands in the palladium-catalyzed Tsuji–Trost allylation reaction, returning results comparable to their planar chiral ferrocene counterparts pointing towards future application of these types of compounds. PMID:25550740

  9. Inherently chiral calix[4]arenes via oxazoline directed ortholithiation: synthesis and probe of chiral space.


    Herbert, Simon A; van Laeren, Laura J; Castell, Dominic C; Arnott, Gareth E


    The diastereoselective oxazoline-directed lithiation of calix[4]arenes is reported with diastereoselective ratios of greater than 100:1 in some instances. Notably, it has been found that the opposite diastereomer can be accessed via this approach merely through the choice of an alkyllithium reagent. The inherently chiral oxazoline calix[4]arenes have also been preliminarily examined as ligands in the palladium-catalyzed Tsuji-Trost allylation reaction, returning results comparable to their planar chiral ferrocene counterparts pointing towards future application of these types of compounds.

  10. Amidofluorene-appended lower rim 1,3-diconjugate of calix[4]arene: synthesis, characterization and highly selective sensor for Cu2+

    PubMed Central

    Nemati, Mohammad; Zadmard, Reza; Mohadjerani, Maryam


    Summary Functionalization of calix[4]arene with amidofluorene moieties at the lower rim led to formation of the 1,3-diconjugate of calix[4]arene L as a novel fluorescent chemosensor for Cu2+. The receptor molecule L exhibited a pronounced selectivity towards Cu2+ over other mono and divalent ions. The formation of the complex between L and Cu2+ was evaluated by absorption, fluorescence and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The sensor L showed a remarkable color change from colorless to purple and a fluorescence quenching only upon interaction with Cu2+. The 1:1 stoichiometry of the obtained complex has been determined by Job’s plot. The association constant determined by fluorescence titration was found to be 1.8 × 106 M−1. The sensor showed a linear response toward Cu2+ in the concentration range from 1 to 10 µM with a detection limit of 9.6 × 10−8 M. PMID:27559419

  11. Protonation of calix[4]arene-(2,3-naphthylene-crown-6,crown-6): Experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvíčalová, Magdalena; Makrlík, Emanuel; Böhm, Stanislav; Vaňura, Petr; Asfari, Zouhair


    On the basis of extraction experiments and γ-activity measurements, the extraction constant corresponding to the equilibrium H3O+ (aq) + 1·Na+ (nb) ⇄1·H3O+ (nb) + Na+ (aq) occurring in the two-phase water-nitrobenzene system (1 = calix[4]arene-(2,3-naphthylene-crown-6,crown-6); aq = aqueous phase, nb = nitrobenzene phase) was determined as log Kex(H3O+,1·Na+) = -0.2 ± 0.1. Further, the stability constant of the 1·H3O+ complex in nitrobenzene saturated with water was calculated for a temperature of 25 °C: log βnb(1·H3O+) = 5.9 ± 0.2. Finally, applying quantum chemical DFT calculations, the most probable structure of the cationic complex species 1·H3O+ was derived. In the resulting complex, the "central" cation H3O+ is bound by three strong hydrogen bonds to two phenoxy oxygen atoms and to one ethereal oxygen from the crown-6 moiety of the parent ligand 1. The interaction energy, E(int), of the considered 1·H3O+ complex was found to be -416.0 kJ/mol, confirming the formation of this cationic species as well.

  12. A High Molar Extinction Coefficient Bisterpyridyl Homoleptic Ru(II) Complex with trans-2-Methyl-2-butenoic Acid Functionality: Potential Dye for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Adeloye, Adewale O.; Olomola, Temitope O.; Adebayo, Akinbulu I.; Ajibade, Peter A.


    In our continued efforts in the synthesis of ruthenium(II) polypyridine complexes as potential dyes for use in varied applications, such as the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), this work particularly describes the synthesis, absorption spectrum, redox behavior and luminescence properties of a new homoleptic ruthenium(II) complex bearing a simple trans-2-methyl-2-butenoic acid functionality as the anchoring ligand on terpyridine moiety. The functionalized terpyridine ligand: 4′-(trans-2-methyl-2-butenoic acid)-terpyridyl (L1) was synthesized by aryl bromide substitution on terpyridine in a basic reaction condition under palladium carbide catalysis. In particular, the photophysical and redox properties of the complex formulated as: bis-4′-(trans-2-methyl-2-butenoic acid)-terpyridyl ruthenium(II) bis-hexafluorophosphate [Ru(L1)2(PF6)2] are significantly better compared to those of [Ru(tpy)2]2+ and compare well with those of the best emitters of Ru(II) polypyridine family containing tridentate ligands. Reasons for the improved photophysical and redox properties of the complex may be attributed partly to the presence of a substituted α,β-unsaturated carboxylic acid moiety leading to increase in the length of π-conjugation bond thereby enhancing the MLCT-MC (Metal-to-ligand-charge transfer-metal centred) energy gap, and to the reduced difference between the minima of the excited and ground states potential energy surfaces. PMID:22489165

  13. Graphene-Ruthenium(II) complex composites for sensitive ECL immunosensors.


    Xiao, Fang-Nan; Wang, Min; Wang, Feng-Bin; Xia, Xing-Hua


    Non-covalent modification method has been proven as an effective strategy for enhancing the chemical properties of graphene while the structure and electronic properties of graphene can be retained. This work describes a novel strategy to fabricate a solid-state electrochemiluminescent (ECL) immunosensor based on ruthenium(II) complex/3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic acid (PTCA)/graphene nanocomposites (Ru-PTCA/G) for sensitive detection of α-fetoprotein (AFP). It is found that immobilization of PTCA and reduction of GO can be simultaneously achieved in one-pot synthesis method under alkaline condition and moderate temperature, forming PTCA/G nanocomposites. Further covalent attachment of ruthenium(II) complex to the PTCA assembled on graphene sheets produces the functional Ru-PTCA/G nanocomposites which show good electrochemical activity and ca. 21 times higher luminescence quantum efficiency than the adsorbed derivative ruthenium(II) complex. The Ru-PTCA/G nanocomposites based solid-state ECL sensor exhibits high stability toward the determination of tripropylamine (TPA) coreactant. In addition, a new ECL immunosensor based on steric hindrance effect is fabricated by cross-linking α-fetoprotein antibody (anti-AFP) with chitosan covered on Ru-PTCA/G composites modified electrode for detection of cancer biomarker AFP. This ECL immunosensor shows an extremely sensitive response to AFP in a linear range of 5 pg·mL(-1) -10 ng·mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.2 pg·mL(-1) . The present approach is effective for various molecules immobilization and may become a promising technique for biomolecular detection.

  14. Complexity.


    Gómez-Hernández, J Jaime


    It is difficult to define complexity in modeling. Complexity is often associated with uncertainty since modeling uncertainty is an intrinsically difficult task. However, modeling uncertainty does not require, necessarily, complex models, in the sense of a model requiring an unmanageable number of degrees of freedom to characterize the aquifer. The relationship between complexity, uncertainty, heterogeneity, and stochastic modeling is not simple. Aquifer models should be able to quantify the uncertainty of their predictions, which can be done using stochastic models that produce heterogeneous realizations of aquifer parameters. This is the type of complexity addressed in this article.

  15. Rare Earth Metal Complexes of Bidentate Nitroxide Ligands: Synthesis and Electrochemistry.


    Kim, Jee Eon; Bogart, Justin A; Carroll, Patrick J; Schelter, Eric J


    We report rare earth metal complexes with tri- and bidentate ligands including strongly electron-donating nitroxide groups. The tridentate ligand 1,3,5-tris(2'-tert-butylhydroxylaminoaryl)benzene (H3arene-triNOx) was complexed to cerium(IV) in a 2:1 ligand-to-metal stoichiometry as Ce(Harene-triNOx)2 (1). Cyclic voltammetry of this compound showed stabilization of the tetravalent cerium cation with a Ce(IV/III) couple at E1/2 = -1.82 V versus Fc/Fc(+). On the basis of the uninvolvement of the third nitroxide group in the coordination chemistry with the cerium(IV) cation, the ligand system was redesigned toward a simpler bidentate mode, and a series of rare earth metal-arene-diNOx complexes were prepared with La(III), Ce(IV), Pr(III), Tb(III), and Y(III), [RE(arene-diNOx)2](-) ([2-RE](-), RE = La, Pr, Y, Tb) and Ce(IV)(arene-diNOx)2, where H2arene-diNOx = 1,3-bis(2'-tert-butylhydroxylaminoaryl)benzene. The core structures were isostructural throughout the series, with three nitroxide groups in η(2) binding modes and one κ(1) nitroxide group coordinated to the metal center in the solid state. In all cases except Ce(IV)(arene-diNOx)2, electrochemical analysis described two subsequent, ligand-based, quasi-reversible redox waves, indicating that a stable [N-O•] group was generated on the electrochemical time scale. Chemical oxidation of the terbium complex was performed, and isolation of the resulting complex, Tb(arene-diNOx)2·CH2Cl2 (3·CH2Cl2), confirmed the assignment of the cyclic voltammograms. Magnetic data showed no evidence of mixing between the Tb(III) states and the states of the open-shell ligand.

  16. Tandem intermolecular Suzuki coupling/intramolecular vinyl triflate-arene coupling.


    Willis, Michael C; Claverie, Christelle K; Mahon, Mary F


    Treatment of a benzyl substituted meso-ditriflate with boronic acids in the presence of palladium acetate, triphenylphosphine and caesium fluoride results in intermolecular Suzuki coupling followed by vinyl triflate-arene cyclisation to provide, in high yields, single regioisomers of tricyclic-carbocycles.

  17. Oxatub[4]arene: a molecular "transformer" capable of hosting a wide range of organic cations.


    Jia, Fei; Wang, Hao-Yi; Li, Dong-Hao; Yang, Liu-Pan; Jiang, Wei


    The molecular "transformer", oxatub[4]arene, was found to be able to host a wide range of organic cations. The strong binding ability is believed to originate from its four interconvertible and deep-cavity conformers. The binding behavior of such adaptable receptors may provide implications for molecular recognition in nature.

  18. Thia-arenes as source apportionment tracers for urban air particulate

    SciTech Connect

    McCarry, B.E.; Allan, L.M.; Mehta, S.; Marvin, C.H.


    Over sixty respirable air particulate samples were selected from a large number of filters collected in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Depending on the wind direction these sites were either predominantly upwind or predominantly downwind of the industrial sources. The sixty filters were extracted and analyzed using GC-MS for a range of PAH and sulfur-containing PAH (thia-arenes). Various reference standards (coal tar, diesel exhaust, urban air particulate) and source samples (coke oven condensate) were analyzed as well. A set of air particulate samples collected in another city alongside a highway provided an urban vehicular air sample. Unique thia-arene profiles were noted in the reference and source samples which provided the basis for this source apportionment work; two main approaches were used: (1) analysis of alkylated derivatives of thia-arenes with a molecular mass of 184 amu and (2) analysis of 234 amu isomers. The diesel exhaust and urban vehicular samples gave identical profiles while the coal tar and coke oven samples also had identical profiles but in different respects. The air samples collected at samplers located upwind of the coke ovens showed thia-arene profiles which were similar to the profile observed with a diesel exhaust reference material. However, air samples collected downwind of the coke ovens were heavily loaded samples and resembled the coal tar coke and oven condensate samples.

  19. Review of "Incomplete: How Middle Class Schools Aren't Making the Grade". Think Tank Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bruce D.


    "Incomplete: How Middle Class Schools Aren't Making the Grade" is a new report from Third Way, a Washington, D.C.-based policy think tank. The report aims to convince parents, taxpayers and policymakers that they should be as concerned about middle-class schools not making the grade as they are about the failures of the nation's large, poor, urban…

  20. Versatile assembly of p-carboxylatocalix[4]arene-O-alkyl ethers

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, Stuart; Teat, Simon J.; Dalgarno, Scott J.


    Crystallisation of lower-rim tetra-O-alkylated p-carboxylatocalix[4]arenes from pyridine results in the formation of both bi-layer and pillar type supramolecular motifs. Full alkylation at the calixarene lower rim has significant influence over the supramolecular self-assembly motif, including preclusion of pyridine guest molecules from the calixarene cavity in the solid state.

  1. Utilization Chitosan-p-t-Butylcalix[4]Arene for Red MX 8B Adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handayani, D. S.; Kusumaningsih, T.; Hak, L. A.


    Adsorption of Procion Red MX 8B using chitosan dan chitosan-linked p-t-butylcalix[4]arene has been done. The research aimed to understand the adsorption of Procion Red MX 8B using chitosan p-t-butylcalix[4]arene compared to ordinary chitosan. The research was conducted in a batch process varying in pH, contact time and initial concentration of the Procion Red MX 8B. The amount of dye adsorbed was determined using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and the adsorben was characterized using FTIR and SEM-EDX spectrophotometer. The result showed that the optimum condition was achieved when the pH was set at 4, contact time 135 minutes and initial concentration at 200 ppm. The kinetic analysis showed that the adsorption followed Ho kinetic model and pseudo second order with the adsorption rate constant was 3.69×10-3 g/mg.minute and 2.03×10-3 g/mg.minute. The isotherm analysis showed that the adsorption process tend to occur following the Langmuir model with maximum capacity for chitosan and chitosan-linked p-t-butylcalix[4]arene 136.09 mg/g and 147.35 mg/g respectively. The adsorption energy of chitosan and chitosan-linked p-t-butylcalix[4]arene at 30.53 kJ/mole and 33.65 kJ/mole.

  2. Adsorption of Cd2+ using chitosan-linked p-t-buthylcalix[4]arene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handayani, D. S.; Kusumaningsih, T.; Pranoto; Ihsaniati, N.


    This research aims to assess the use of chitosan -linked p-t-buthylcalix[4]arene as an adsorbent of Cd2+. Adsorption was done with the batch method in the variation of acidity (pH), contact time and initial concentration of Cd2+. The experimental results showed that the optimum pH of adsorption was pH 6 for the adsorbent chitosan and 8 for chitosan -linked p-t-buthylcalix[4]arene adsorbent. The optimum adsorption contact time was 240 minutes for the both adsorbent. Study of adsorption kinetics revealed that the adsorption of Cd for two adsorbents followed the kinetics model Ho, pseudo-order 2, with adsorption rate constant 1.037x10-2 and 1.777x10-2 g mg-1 min-1 respectively. Study of adsorption isotherm presented that the using chitosan adsorbent tends to follow the Langmuir isotherm, while the adsorbent chitosan- linked p-t-buthylcalix[4]arene tend to follow Freundlich isotherm. The maximum capacity of the adsorption using chitosan and chitosan- linked p-t-buthylcalix[4]arene adsorbent 30.19 and 21.67 mol/g, with the adsorption energy 41.459 and 28.627 KJ/mol respectively.

  3. Increased control over the frustration of p-tert-butylcalix[5]arene

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Jian; Dalgarno, Scott J.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Atwood, Jerry L.


    Parital de-solvation of the toluene solvate of p-tert-butylcalix[5]arene affords a frustrated organic solid that is a new type of sorbant. Increased control over this sorption is achieved by employing a high boiling solvent for incremental de-solvation, revealing the calixarene:solvent ratio for maximum gas sorption

  4. High water contents in basaltic melt inclusions from Arenal volcano, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, J. A.; Plank, T.; Hauri, E. H.; Melson, W. G.; Soto, G. J.


    Despite the importance of water to arc magma genesis, fractionation and eruption, few quantitative constraints exist on the water content of Arenal magmas. Early estimates, by electron microprobe sum deficit, suggested up to 4 wt% H2O in olivine-hosted basaltic andesite melt inclusions (MI) from pre-historic ET-6 tephra (Melson, 1982), and up to 7 wt% H2O in plagioclase and orthopyroxene-hosted dacitic MI from 1968 lapilli (Anderson, 1979). These high water contents are consistent with abundant hornblende phenocrysts in Arenal volcanics, but inconsistent with geochemical tracers such as 10Be and Ba/La that suggest a low flux of recycled material (and presumably water) from the subduction zone. In order to test these ideas, and provide the first direct measurements of water in mafic Arenal magmas, we have studied olivine-hosted MI from the prehistoric (900 yBP; Soto et al., 1998) ET3 tephra layer. MI range from andesitic (> 58% SiO2) to basaltic compositions (< 50% SiO2), the latter of which are similar to the most primitive whole rocks analyzed from Arenal. SIMS analyses yield up to 4 wt% H2O in the basaltic MI, and water declines systematically (to 1-2 wt%) with increasing silica content. Water also correlates strongly with sulfur (up to 2500 ppm S) and CO2 (up to 300 ppm). H2O and CO2 in the MI define a closed-system degassing path that begins at 2 kb. Chlorine ( ˜ 2000 ppm) and fluorine ( ˜ 400 ppm) show less variation, as expected from their higher solubilities in these melts. The high sulfur contents ( ˜ 2000 ppm on average for basaltic MI) would provide more than enough "petrologic" sulfur to balance recent (1982, 1995, and 1996; Williams-Jones et al., 2001) COSPEC measurements. Although host olivines are quite evolved (< Fo76), the high CO2 and sulfur contents indicate that their inclusions are not highly degassed. The high water contents (> 4 wt%) found here for Arenal basaltic MI support the semi-quantitative data from earlier studies, but are somewhat

  5. Development of Conductometric Sensor Based on 25,27-Di-(5-thio-octyloxy)calix[4]arene-crown-6 for Determination of Ammonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiapina, O. Y.; Kharchenko, S. G.; Vishnevskii, S. G.; Pyeshkova, V. M.; Kalchenko, V. I.; Dzyadevych, S. V.


    The conductometric sensor based on 25,27-di-(5-thio-octyloxy)calix[4]arene-crown-6 was developed for the quantitative analysis of ammonium. The calixarene was immobilized on the surface of the planar interdigitated electrodes by attachment of its dialkyl sulfide groups to the surface of the gold electrodes. The intrinsic ability of the calixarene to capture ammonium was studied in the conductometric measuring mode and by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The developed sensor showed high selectivity to ammonium in the presence of mono-, di-, and trivalent cations. Selective and highly sensitive detection of ammonium resulted from the complexation between the ammonium ions and a crown-ether fragment of the upper rim of the 25,27-di-(5-thio-octyloxy)calix[4]arene-crown-6 macrocycle. The developed sensor had high signal repeatability. Its sensitivity was found to be satisfactory for the forthcoming sensor application in the water-sample analysis; the linear range was 0.01-1.5 mM and limit of detection 10 μM.

  6. Determination of dopamine hydrochloride by host-guest interaction based on water-soluble pillar[5]arene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xue-Dong; Shi, Lin; Guo, Li-Hui; Wang, Jun-Wen; Zhang, Xiang


    The supramolecular interaction between the water-soluble pillar[5]arene (WP[5]) as host and dopamine hydrochloride (DH) as guest was studied by spectrofluorometry. The fluorescence intensity of DH gradually decreased with increasing WP[5] concentration, and the possible interaction mechanism between WP[5] and DH was confirmed by 1H NMR, 2D NOESY, and molecular modelling. Based on significant DH fluorescence, a highly sensitive and selective method for DH determination was developed for the first time. The fluorescence intensity was measured at 312 nm, with excitation at 285 nm. The effects of pH, temperature, and reaction time on the fluorescence spectra of the WP[5]-DH complex were investigated. A linear relationship between fluorescence intensity and DH concentration in the range of 0.07-6.2 μg mL- 1 was obtained. The corresponding linear regression equation is ΔF = 25.76 C + 13.56 (where C denotes the concentration in μg mL- 1), with the limit of detection equal to 0.03 μg mL- 1 and the correlation coefficient equal to 0.9996. This method can be used for the determination of dopamine in injection and urine samples. In addition, the WP[5]-DH complex has potential applications in fluorescent sensing and pharmacokinetics studies of DH.

  7. Extraction of Cesium by a Calix[4]arene-Crown-6 Ether Bearing a Pendant amine Group

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, Ben; Ensor, Dale; Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Moyer, Bruce A


    The goal of this work was to evaluate the role of the amino group of 5-aminomethylcalix[4]arene-[bis-4-(2-ethylhexyl)benzo-crown-6] (AMBEHB) in the extraction of cesium from acidic and basic mixtures of sodium nitrate and other concentrated salts. The extraction of cesium from nitrate media was measured as a function of extractant concentration, nitrate concentration, cesium concentration, and pH over the range 1-13. The initial studies showed a moderate decrease in the extraction of cesium in acidic media, which indicated the binding of cesium by the calixarene-crown was weakened by the protonation of the amine group. The results also indicated that a 1:1:1 Cs-ligand-nitrate complex is formed in the organic phase. To further evaluate AMBEHB, the empirical data were mathematically modeled to determine the formation constants of the complexes formed in the organic phase. The resulting formation constants showed that the attachment of the amine group to the calixarene-crown molecule reduced the binding stability for the cesium ion upon contact with an acidic solution. This supports the hypothesis of charge repulsion as the basis for more efficient stripping of cesium via pH-switching.

  8. High-yielding one-pot synthesis of diaryliodonium triflates from arenes and iodine or aryl iodides.


    Bielawski, Marcin; Olofsson, Berit


    Unsymmetric and symmetric diaryliodonium triflates are synthesized from both electron-deficient and electron-rich substrates in a fast, high yielding, and operationally simple protocol employing arenes and aryl iodides or iodine.

  9. Spectrofluorimetric determination of benzoimidazolic pesticides: effect of p-sulfonatocalix[6]arene and cyclodextrins.


    Pacioni, Natalia L; Sueldo Occello, Valeria N; Lazzarotto, Márcio; Veglia, Alicia V


    The effect of the addition of a macrocyclic host (H) such as p-sulfonatocalix[6]arene (C6S), native and modified cyclodextrins (CDs), on the fluorescence of benzoimidazolic fungicides (P), like Benomyl (BY) and Carbendazim (CZ), has been studied. The fluorescence of BY in water at pH 1.000 and 25.0 degrees C was increased in the presence of C6S, alphaCD and hydroxypropyl-beta-CD (HPCD). The association constants determined by fluorescence enhancement showed weak interactions (K(A) approximately 10(1) to 10(2) M(-1)) between the fungicide with both CDs, whereas they were stronger with C6S (K(A) approximately 10(5) M(-1)). Molecular recognition of BY for C6S was mainly attributed to electrostatic interactions, and for CDs to the hydrophobic effect and hydrogen bond formation. On the other hand, the fluorescent behaviour of CZ in the presence of C6S at pH 6.994 was interpreted as the formation of two complexes with 1:1 (P:H) and 1:2 (P:H(2)) stoichiometry, the latter being less fluorescent than the free analyte. Relative fluorescence quantum yield ratios between the complexed and free BY (phi(P:H)/phi(P)) were 2.00+/-0.05, 1.40+/-0.03 and 2.8+/-0.4 for C6S, alphaCD and HPCD, respectively. The analytical parameters improved in the presence of C6S and CDs. The best limit of detection (L(D), ng mL(-1)) was 17.4+/-0.8 with HPCD. The proposed method with C6S and HPCD was successfully applied to fortified samples of tap water and orange flesh extract with good recoveries (91-106%) and R.S.D. (< or = 2%) by triplicate analysis. The method is rapid, direct and simple and needs no previous degradation or derivatization reaction.

  10. Direct C-H difluoromethylenephosphonation of arenes and heteroarenes with bromodifluoromethyl phosphonate via visible-light photocatalysis.


    Wang, Lin; Wei, Xiao-Jing; Lei, Wen-Long; Chen, Han; Wu, Li-Zhu; Liu, Qiang


    This communication reports a room temperature visible-light-driven protocol for the C-H difluoromethylenephosphonation of arenes and heteroarenes. Using commercially available diethyl bromodifluoromethyl phosphonate as a precursor of difluoromethyl radical, fac-Ir(ppy)3 as a photosensitizer and a 3 W blue LED as a light source, an array of aromatic compounds containing difluoromethylenephosphonyl groups were prepared directly from the corresponding arenes and heteroarenes in excellent to moderate yields.

  11. Carboxylate-Assisted Iridium-Catalyzed C-H Amination of Arenes with Biologically Relevant Alkyl Azides.


    Zhang, Tao; Hu, Xuejiao; Wang, Zhen; Yang, Tiantian; Sun, Hao; Li, Guigen; Lu, Hongjian


    An iridium-catalyzed C-H amination of arenes with a wide substrate scope is reported. Benzamides with electron-donating and -withdrawing groups and linear, branched, and cyclic alkyl azides are all applicable. Cesium carboxylate is crucial for both reactivity and regioselectivity of the reactions. Many biologically relevant molecules, such as amino acid, peptide, steroid, sugar, and thymidine derivatives can be introduced to arenes with high yields and 100 % chiral retention.

  12. Targeting the endoplasmic reticulum with a membrane-interactive luminescent ruthenium(ii) polypyridyl complex† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, characterization of 2 and Fig. S1–S6. See DOI: 10.1039/c3sc51725j Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Martin R.; Cecchin, Denis; Walker, Michael G.; Mulla, Raminder S.


    The characterization and bioactivity of the dinuclear ruthenium(ii) complex [(Ru(DIP)2)2(tpphz)]4+ (DIP = 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline and tpphz = tetrapyrido[3,2-a:2′,3′-c:3′′,2′′-h:2′′′,3′′′-j]phenazine) is reported. This new complex is found to be luminescent in acetonitrile, where excitation into MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge-transfer) bands in the visible area of the spectrum (λ ex = 450 nm, ε = 45 000 M–1 cm–1) result in red emission (λ em,max = 620 nm, Φ MLCT = 0.017). Aqueous in vitro binding studies indicate that this complex binds to duplex DNA with an affinity of 1.8 × 106 M–1 through a non-classical groove-binding interaction, however, unlike the parent complex [(Ru(phen)2)2(tpphz)]4+ (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline), it also displays an increase in MLCT luminescence on addition of liposomes. Confocal microscopy and TEM studies show that this lipophilic complex targets the endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotic cells, where it functions as an imaging agent for this organelle, and cytotoxicity studies in human cancer cell lines indicate a comparable potency to the anti-cancer drug cisplatin. PMID:25580209

  13. CuAAC click reactions for the design of multifunctional luminescent ruthenium complexes.


    Zabarska, Natalia; Stumper, Anne; Rau, Sven


    CuAAC (Cu(i) catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition) click chemistry has emerged as a versatile tool in the development of photoactive ruthenium complexes with multilateral potential applicability. In this contribution we discuss possible synthetic approaches towards CuAAC reactions with ruthenium(ii) polypyridine complexes and their differences with respect to possible applications. We focus on two main application possibilities of the click-coupled ruthenium assemblies. New results within the development of ruthenium based photosensitizers for the field of renewable energy supply, i.e. DSSCs (dye-sensitized solar cells) and artificial photocatalysis for the production of hydrogen, or for anticancer photodynamic therapeutic applications are reviewed.

  14. Radionuclide-binding compound, a radionuclide delivery system, a method of making a radium complexing compound, a method of extracting a radionuclide, and a method of delivering a radionuclide


    Fisher, Darrell R.; Wai, Chien M.; Chen, Xiaoyuan


    The invention pertains to compounds which specifically bind radionuclides, and to methods of making radionuclide complexing compounds. In one aspect, the invention includes a radionuclide delivery system comprising: a) a calix[n]arene-crown-[m]-ether compound, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, and wherein m is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene-crown-[m]-ether compound comprising at least two ionizable groups; and b) an antibody attached to the calix[n]arene-crown-[m]-ether compound. In another aspect, the invention includes a method of making a radium complexing compound, comprising: a) providing a calix[n]arene compound, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene compound comprising n phenolic hydroxyl groups; b) providing a crown ether precursor, the crown ether precursor comprising a pair of tosylated ends; c) reacting the pair of tosylated ends with a pair of the phenolic hydroxyl groups to convert said pair of phenolic hydroxyl groups to ether linkages, the ether linkages connecting the crown ether precursor to the calix[n]arene to form a calix[n]arene-crown-[m]-ether compound, wherein m is an integer greater than 3; d) converting remaining phenolic hydroxyl groups to esters; e) converting the esters to acids, the acids being proximate a crown-[m]-ether portion of the calix[n]arene-crown-[m]-ether compound; and f) providing a Ra.sup.2+ ion within the crown-[m]-ether portion of the calix[n]arene-crown-[m]-ether compound.

  15. Shape-Persistent, Truxene-Based, Nano-Sized Bisterpyridine Ruthenium(II) Complexes: Synthesis and Photophysical Properties.


    Wang, Jin-Liang; Chan, Yi-Tsu; Moorefield, Charles N; Pei, Jian; Modarelli, David A; Romano, Natalie C; Newkome, George R


    A new series of shape-persistent metallomacromolecules G0 and G1 as well as corresponding ligands, based on thiophene-functionalized bisterpyridine-Ru(II) with truxene moieties, as the nodes, were developed. All new compounds were fully characterized by (1) H, COSY, and (13) C NMR, as well as MALDI-TOF MS. Their photophysical properties revealed that the branched scaffold resulted in high molar absorption coefficients and broad absorption making these materials potential candidates for light-harvesting.

  16. Luminescence Quenching of the Tris(2,2’-bipyrazine) Ruthenium(II) Cation, and Its Monoprotonated Complex.

    DTIC Science & Technology


    Gonzales -Velasco, J., Rubinstein, I., Crutchley, R.J., Lever, A.B.P., Bard, A.J., Inorg. Chem., 1983, 22, 822. 6. Crutchley, R.J., Kress, N., Lever...1982, 88, 161. 12. Bock, C.R., Connor, J.A., Gutierrez , A.R., Meyer, T.J., Whitten, D.G., Sullivan, B.P., and Nagle, J.K., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1979, 101

  17. Anion Responsive TTF-Appended Calix[4]arenes. Synthesis and Study of Two Different Conformers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Hee; Cao, Qian-Yong; Kim, Sung Kuk; Sessler, Jonathan L.


    Two new cone- and 1,3-alternate-calix[4]arenes (cone-1 and 1,3-alt-1), bearing four modified TTF (tetrathiafulvalene) substituents on the upper rim, have been synthesized. The binding ability of these two sets of conformers for various anions, including F−, Cl−, Br−, I−, PF6−, ClO4−, HSO4−, CH3COO−, H2PO4−, and HP2O73−, was tested in organic media by monitoring the changes in their UV/vis and 1H NMR spectra as a function of added anion, as well as via cyclovoltammetry (CV) (all anions studied as their respective TBA salts). On the basis of the present findings, we propose that incorporation of four TTF units within an overall calix[4]arene-based recognition framework produces a preorganized receptor system that displays a modest preference for the pyrophosphate (HP2O73−) anion. PMID:21194202

  18. Supra-amphiphilic aggregates formed by p-sulfonatocalix[4]arenes and the antipsychotic drug chlorpromazine.


    Qin, Zhanbin; Guo, Dong-Sheng; Gao, Xiao-Ning; Liu, Yu


    We report here a supramolecular strategy to directly assemble the small molecular antipsychotic drug chlorpromazine (CPZ) into nanostructures, induced by p-sulfonatocalix[4]arene (SC4A) and p-sulfonatocalix[4]arene tetraheptyl ether (SC4AH), with high drug loading efficiencies of 61% and 46%, respectively. The binary host-guest assembly process was monitored using optical transmittance measurements, and the size and morphology of these two kinds of supra-amphiphilic assemblies were identified using a combination of light scattering and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, which showed solid spherical micelles. This strategy presents new opportunities for the development of high loading drug-containing carriers with easy processability for drug delivery.

  19. Cadmium-sensitive electrode based on tetracetone derivatives of p-tert-butylcalix[8]arene.


    Dernane, C; Zazoua, A; Kazane, I; Jaffrezic-Renault, N


    The performance of a cadmium-sensitive electrode based on the tetracetone derivatives of p-tert butylcalix[8]arene was investigated. The ion-sensitivity of the calix[8]arene was examined via cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry, UV/Vis spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy. The sensitive membrane containing the active ionophore was cast onto the surface of a gold electrode. The electrode exhibited a linear relationship between the charge transfer resistance (Rct) and the logarithm of the detected ion concentration. The cathodic peak at a potential of 0.56 V increased linearly as the Cd(2+) ion concentration increased. The detection limit of the device reached 10(-7) M with high sensitivity toward cadmium.

  20. C-Glycopyranosyl Arenes and Hetarenes: Synthetic Methods and Bioactivity Focused on Antidiabetic Potential.


    Bokor, Éva; Kun, Sándor; Goyard, David; Tóth, Marietta; Praly, Jean-Pierre; Vidal, Sébastien; Somsák, László


    This Review summarizes close to 500 primary publications and surveys published since 2000 about the syntheses and diverse bioactivities of C-glycopyranosyl (het)arenes. A classification of the preparative routes to these synthetic targets according to methodologies and compound categories is provided. Several of these compounds, regardless of their natural or synthetic origin, display antidiabetic properties due to enzyme inhibition (glycogen phosphorylase, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B) or by inhibiting renal sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2). The latter class of synthetic inhibitors, very recently approved as antihyperglycemic drugs, opens new perspectives in the pharmacological treatment of type 2 diabetes. Various compounds with the C-glycopyranosyl (het)arene motif were subjected to biological studies displaying among others antioxidant, antiviral, antibiotic, antiadhesive, cytotoxic, and glycoenzyme inhibitory effects.

  1. Picomolar inhibition of cholera toxin by a pentavalent ganglioside GM1os-calix[5]arene.


    Garcia-Hartjes, Jaime; Bernardi, Silvia; Weijers, Carel A G M; Wennekes, Tom; Gilbert, Michel; Sansone, Francesco; Casnati, Alessandro; Zuilhof, Han


    Cholera toxin (CT), the causative agent of cholera, displays a pentavalent binding domain that targets the oligosaccharide of ganglioside GM1 (GM1os) on the periphery of human abdominal epithelial cells. Here, we report the first GM1os-based CT inhibitor that matches the valency of the CT binding domain (CTB). This pentavalent inhibitor contains five GM1os moieties linked to a calix[5]arene scaffold. When evaluated by an inhibition assay, it achieved a picomolar inhibition potency (IC50 = 450 pM) for CTB. This represents a significant multivalency effect, with a relative inhibitory potency of 100,000 compared to a monovalent GM1os derivative, making GM1os-calix[5]arene one of the most potent known CTB inhibitors.

  2. Surfing π clouds for noncovalent interactions: arenes versus alkenes.


    Aliev, Abil E; Arendorf, Josephine R T; Pavlakos, Ilias; Moreno, Rafael B; Porter, Michael J; Rzepa, Henry S; Motherwell, William B


    A comparative study of molecular balances by NMR spectroscopy indicates that noncovalent functional-group interactions with an arene dominate over those with an alkene, and that a π-facial intramolecular hydrogen bond from a hydroxy group to an arene is favored by approximately 1.2 kJ mol(-1). The strongest interaction observed in this study was with the cyano group. Analysis of the series of groups CH2CH3, CH=CH2, C≡CH, and C≡N shows a correlation between conformational free-energy differences and the calculated charge on the C(α) atom of these substituents, which is indicative of the electrostatic nature of their π interactions. Changes in the free-energy differences of conformers show a linear dependence on the solvent hydrogen bond acceptor parameter β.

  3. Peroxide-Free Pd(II)-Catalyzed Ortho Aroylation and Ortho Halogenation of Directing Arenes.


    Santra, Sourav Kumar; Banerjee, Arghya; Mohanta, Prakash Ranjan; Patel, Bhisma K


    A Pd(II)-catalyzed peroxide-free ortho aroylation of directing arenes has been developed via cross dehydrogenative coupling (CDC) in the presence of the terminal oxidant Cu(OAc)2·H2O. Ortho aroylation of directing arenes proceeds via decarbonylation of the in situ generated phenyl glyoxal, which is obtained from 2-acetoxyacetophenone in the presence of the oxidant Cu(OAc)2·H2O. However, changing the oxidant to CuX2 (X = Cl, Br) provided exclusive di-ortho-halogenated 2-arylbenzothiazoles. During the halogenation, CuX2 served the dual role of a halogen source as well as a co-oxidant.

  4. Highly selective hydrogenation of arenes using nanostructured ruthenium catalysts modified with a carbon–nitrogen matrix

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xinjiang; Surkus, Annette-Enrica; Junge, Kathrin; Topf, Christoph; Radnik, Jörg; Kreyenschulte, Carsten; Beller, Matthias


    Selective hydrogenations of (hetero)arenes represent essential processes in the chemical industry, especially for the production of polymer intermediates and a multitude of fine chemicals. Herein, we describe a new type of well-dispersed Ru nanoparticles supported on a nitrogen-doped carbon material obtained from ruthenium chloride and dicyanamide in a facile and scalable method. These novel catalysts are stable and display both excellent activity and selectivity in the hydrogenation of aromatic ethers, phenols as well as other functionalized substrates to the corresponding alicyclic reaction products. Furthermore, reduction of the aromatic core is preferred over hydrogenolysis of the C–O bond in the case of ether substrates. The selective hydrogenation of biomass-derived arenes, such as lignin building blocks, plays a pivotal role in the exploitation of novel sustainable feedstocks for chemical production and represents a notoriously difficult transformation up to now. PMID:27113087

  5. Synthesis and Photophysical and Electrochemical Properties of Functionalized Mono-, Bis-, and Trisanthracenyl Bridged Ru(II) Bis(2,2′:6′,2″-terpyridine) Charge Transfer Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Adeloye, Adewale O.; Ajibade, Peter A.


    With the aim of developing new molecular devices having long-range electron transfer in artificial systems and as photosensitizers, a series of homoleptic ruthenium(II) bisterpyridine complexes bearing one to three anthracenyl units sandwiched between terpyridine and 2-methyl-2-butenoic acid group are synthesized and characterized. The complexes formulated as bis-4′-(9-monoanthracenyl-10-(2-methyl-2-butenoic acid) terpyridyl) ruthenium(II) bis(hexafluorophosphate) (RBT1), bis-4′-(9-dianthracenyl-10-(2-methyl-2-butenoic acid) terpyridyl) ruthenium(II) bis(hexafluorophosphate) (RBT2), and bis-4′-(9-trianthracenyl-10-(2-methyl-2-butenoic acid) terpyridyl) ruthenium(II) bis(hexafluorophosphate) (RBT3) were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-Vis, photoluminescence, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and electrochemical techniques by elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-Vis, photoluminescence, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and electrochemical techniques. The cyclic voltammograms (CVs) of (RBT1), (RBT2), and (RBT3) display reversible one-electron oxidation processes at E1/2 = 1.13 V, 0.71 V, and 0.99 V, respectively (versus Ag/AgCl). Based on a general linear correlation between increase in the length of π-conjugation bond and the molar extinction coefficients, the Ru(II) bisterpyridyl complexes show characteristic broad and intense metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) band absorption transitions between 480–600 nm, ε = 9.45 × 103 M−1 cm−1, and appreciable photoluminescence spanning the visible region. PMID:24883408

  6. Transition metal-free aroylation of NH-sulfoximines with methyl arenes.


    Zou, Ya; Xiao, Jing; Peng, Zhihong; Dong, Wanrong; An, Delie


    A novel protocol towards N-aroylated sulfoximines from NH-sulfoximines and methyl arenes was herein demonstrated. The reaction took place in the presence of elemental iodine, requiring no external organic solvents, transition metal-catalysts or ligands. The aroylated products were obtained from the oxidative transformation in moderate to excellent yields (up to 94% yield) with a broad substrate scope (35 examples) through a radical pathway.

  7. Thin-skinned Mass-wasting Responsible for Rapid, Edifice-wide Deformation at Arenal Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebmeier, S. K.; Biggs, J.; Muller, C.; Avard, G.


    Volcanic edifices are built rapidly, at rates far exceeding those of erosion. The resulting mechanical failure of the edifices of both active and quiescent volcanoes can result in hazards on a range of scales, from rockfall to sector collapse. The stability of a volcanic edifice depends on the ratio of its exogenous growth to mass loss due to erosion, deformation and mass wasting. Geodetic measurements of edifice spreading have mostly been associated with local zones of extension at island volcanoes and relatively few observations have been made at continental stratovolcanoes. We present measurements of displacement and surface property changes at Arenal, Costa Rica, a continental stratovolcano that stopped erupting in 2010 after almost 42 years of activity. High resolution TerraSAR-X data (2011-2013) have increased the area covered geodetically by ~40%, allowing us to make measurements of displacements close to Arenal's summit for the first time. InSAR and intensity change observations provide evidence of frequent rockfalls and of shallow landslides (5-11 m thick, total volume = 1.9×107 m3 DRE). Rockfall and shallow translational landsliding have a stabilizing effect on Volcán Arenal's edifice that reduces the potential for external triggering of slope failure. We map 16 shallow landslides (5-11 m depth, 4% of post-1968 deposits) and expect failure planes to be associated with layers of blocky debris and lava crust. Unstable material on Arenal's upper slopes is removed steadily, potentially reducing sensitivity to external triggers: the 2012 Nicoya Earthquake (Mw 7.6) had no measurable impact on the velocities of sliding units, but did result in an elevated area of rockfall. This demonstrates the importance of mass wasting for the stability of young volcanic edifices.

  8. Photocontrolled Supramolecular Assembling of Azobenzene-Based Biscalix[4]arenes upon Starting and Stopping Laser Trapping.


    Yuyama, Ken-Ichi; Marcelis, Lionel; Su, Pei-Mei; Chung, Wen-Sheng; Masuhara, Hiroshi


    Laser trapping in chemistry covers various studies ranging from single molecules, nanoparticles, and quantum dots to crystallization and liquid-liquid phase separation of amino acids. In this work, a supramolecular assembly of azobenzene-based biscalix[4]arene is generated in ethyl acetate using laser trapping; its nucleation and growth are elucidated. No trapping behavior was observed when a 1064 nm laser beam was focused inside of the solution; however, interesting assembling phenomena were induced when it was shined at the air/solution interface. A single disk having two layers was first prepared at the focal point of ∼1 μm and then expanded to the size of a few tens of micrometers, although no optical force was exerted outside of the focal volume. Upon switching the trapping laser off, needles were generated at the outer layer of the assembly, giving a stable sea urchin-like morphology to the generated assembly. At a 30-50% dilution of the initial solution in ethyl acetate, a mushroom-like morphology was also observed. Laser trapping-induced assembly of azobenzene-based biscalix[4]arene was quite different from the sharp-ellipsoidal aggregates obtained by the spontaneous evaporation of the solution. These trapping phenomena were specifically observed for biscalix[4]arene in the trans conformation of azo-benzene moiety but not for the cis-form, suggesting that the laser trapping of this azobenzene-based biscalix[4]arene is photocontrollable. Dynamics and mechanism of the supramolecular assembling are considered, referring to laser trapping-induced nucleation and liquid-liquid phase separation of amino acids.

  9. A protocol to generate phthaloyl peroxide in flow for the hydroxylation of arenes.


    Eliasen, Anders M; Thedford, Randal P; Claussen, Karin R; Yuan, Changxia; Siegel, Dionicio


    A flow protocol for the generation of phthaloyl peroxide has been developed. This process directly yields phthaloyl peroxide in high purity (>95%) and can be used to bypass the need to isolate and recrystallize phthaloyl peroxide, improving upon earlier batch procedures. The flow protocol for the formation of phthaloyl peroxide can be combined with arene hydroxylation reactions and provides a method for the consumption of peroxide as it is generated to minimize the accumulation of large quantities of peroxide.

  10. Biomolecule binding vs. anticancer activity: reactions of Ru(arene)[(thio)pyr-(id)one] compounds with amino acids and proteins.


    Meier, Samuel M; Hanif, Muhammad; Kandioller, Wolfgang; Keppler, Bernhard K; Hartinger, Christian G


    The interactions of the ruthenium(arene) complexes [chlorido(η(6)-p-cymene)(2-methyl-3-(oxo-κO)-4H-pyran-4-onato-κO)ruthenium(II)] 1, [chlorido(η(6)-p-cymene)(2-methyl-3-(oxo-κO)-4H-thiopyran-4-onato-κS)ruthenium(II)] 2 and [chlorido(η(6)-p-cymene){N-[(ethoxycarbonyl)methyl]-3-(oxo-κO)-1H-pyrid-2-onato-κO}ruthenium(II)] 3 with biomolecules such as l-methionine (Met) and ubiquitin (Ub) were investigated by electrospray ionization (ESI) ion trap mass spectrometry (MS). These Ru(II) compounds were shown to exhibit anticancer activity which varies depending on the (thio)pyr(id)onato ligands. Compounds 1 and 3 reacted readily with the model protein Ub to yield stable [Ub+Ru(p-cym)] adducts (p-cym=η(6)-p-cymene), whereas 2 was converted only to a minor degree. The protein adduct formation is reversible by incubation with N- and S-donor systems, the latter being more efficient. From these studies, an inverse correlation between metallodrug-protein interaction and cytotoxicity against human tumor cell lines was derived, where low protein binding ability is indicative of increased cytotoxic activity.

  11. Arene C(sp(2))-H Metalation at Ni(II) Modeled with a Reactive PONCPh Ligand.


    Jongbloed, Linda S; García-López, Diego; van Heck, Richard; Siegler, Maxime A; Carbó, Jorge J; van der Vlugt, Jarl Ivar


    Coordination of the reactive phosphinitopyridylphenyl PONCPh ligand L(H) to NiBr2 initially yields paramagnetic brown NiBr2(L(H)) (1), but addition of triethylamine results in fast and facile cyclometalation at Ni(II), giving NiBr(κ(3)-P,N,C-L) (2) as well-defined species. This is a rare example of direct cyclometalation at Ni(II) from a C-H bond in a ligand structure other than encumbering ligands (e.g., ECE pincers). Diamagnetic yellow complex 2 reacts instantaneously with HBF4 to give purple [NiBr(κ(3)-P,N-L(H))]BF4 (3). A very unusual (an)agostic Ni(CPh-H) interaction in the solid-state structure of 3 was unequivocally demonstrated using single-crystal X-ray crystallography and was interpreted by density functional theory calculations (quantum theory of atoms in molecules and electron localization function analysis). These compounds may be viewed as models for key intermediates in the Ni-catalyzed C-H functionalization of arenes.

  12. Side-on bound diazene and hydrazine complexes of ruthenium.


    Field, Leslie D; Li, Hsiu L; Dalgarno, Scott J


    The reaction of cis-[RuCl(2)(PP)(2)] (PP = depe, dmpe) with hydrazine afforded end-on bound ruthenium(II) hydrazine complexes. Treatment of the hydrazine complexes with strong base afforded the side-on bound ruthenium(0) diazene complexes cis-[Ru(eta(2)-NH=NH)(PP)(2)]. Treatment of cis-[Ru(eta(2)-NH=NH)(depe)(2)] with weak acid under chloride-free conditions afforded the side-on bound hydrazine complex cis-[Ru(eta(2)-N(2)H(4))(depe)(2)](2+). These are the first reported side-on bound diazene and hydrazine complexes of ruthenium, and they have been characterized by NMR spectroscopy ((1)H, (31)P, (15)N) and by X-ray crystallography. The interconversion between the ruthenium diazene and the ruthenium hydrazine by acid-base treatment was reversible.

  13. Oxidative C-H/C-H Coupling Reactions between Two (Hetero)arenes.


    Yang, Yudong; Lan, Jingbo; You, Jingsong


    Transition metal-mediated C-H bond activation and functionalization represent one of the most straightforward and powerful tools in modern organic synthetic chemistry. Bi(hetero)aryls are privileged π-conjugated structural cores in biologically active molecules, organic functional materials, ligands, and organic synthetic intermediates. The oxidative C-H/C-H coupling reactions between two (hetero)arenes through 2-fold C-H activation offer a valuable opportunity for rapid assembly of diverse bi(hetero)aryls and further exploitation of their applications in pharmaceutical and material sciences. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the fundamentals and applications of transition metal-mediated/catalyzed oxidative C-H/C-H coupling reactions between two (hetero)arenes. The substrate scope, limitation, reaction mechanism, regioselectivity, and chemoselectivity, as well as related control strategies of these reactions are discussed. Additionally, the applications of these established methods in the synthesis of natural products and exploitation of new organic functional materials are exemplified. In the last section, a short introduction on oxidant- or Lewis acid-mediated oxidative Ar-H/Ar-H coupling reactions is presented, considering that it is a very powerful method for the construction of biaryl units and polycylic arenes.

  14. Immobilization of α-amylase onto a calix[4]arene derivative: Evaluation of its enzymatic activity.


    Veesar, Irshad Ali; Solangi, Imam Bakhsh; Memon, Shahabuddin


    In order to enhance the cost-effectiveness practicability of enzymes in many industries such as pharmaceutical, food, medical and some other technological processes, there is great need to immobilize them onto a solid supports. In this study, a new and efficient immobilization of α-amylase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been developed by using the surface functionalization of calix[4]arene as support. A glutaraldehyde-containing amino group functionalized calix[4]arene was used to immobilize α-amylase covalently. In this procedure, imide bonds are formed between amino groups on the protein and aldehyde groups on the calix[4]arene surface. The surface modified support was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of various preparation conditions on the immobilized α-amylase process such as immobilization time, enzyme concentration, temperature and pH were investigated. The influence of pH and temperature on the activity of free and immobilized α-amylase was also studied using starch as substrate. The optimum reaction temperature and pH value for the enzymatic conversion catalyzed by the immobilized α-amylase were 25°C and 7, respectively. Compared to the free enzyme, the immobilized α-amylase retained 85% of its original activity and exhibited significant thermal stability than the free one and excellent durability.

  15. Moment tensor inversion of tremor events at Arenal Volcano (Costa Rica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davi, Rosalia; O'Brien, Gareth; Lokmer, Ivan; Bean, Christopher; Lesage, Philippe; de Barros, Louis


    Arenal is a small, andesitic stratovolcano located in north-western Costa Rica, 97 km from the capital San Josè. Arenal's explosive activity is preceded, and accompanied, by different types of seismic events such as long period events, explosions, tremor and sporadic tectonic swarms. Tremor is the most common type of event recorded at Arenal with durations of up to several hours. Both spasmodic (1-6 Hz) and harmonic (0.9-2 Hz) tremor are observed with no clear difference in the genesis of each; the former can progressively evolve into the latter and vice-versa. However, the origin of the tremor is, at present, not fully understood. In order to retrieve the source mechanism generating these types of events, a moment tensor inversion is performed. A dataset recorded on the volcano, during a seismic experiment carried out in 2005, is used for the inversion. This dataset consists of ten days of data, from which two main groups of tremor at different frequencies (group one at 0.8-1.5 Hz and group two at 1.8-2.5 Hz) have been selected. A major difficulty in any inversion of tremor is that a clear onset can rarely be determined and hence retrieving the direct arrivals from the source is impossible. Usually, these arrivals are heavily contaminated by scattered waves. On Arenal the initial part of the tremor bands can be isolated, therefore offering a good opportunity to invert tremor for the source mechanism. The Green's functions used in the inversion were calculated using 3D numerical simulations including the real topography of the volcano and the best estimation of the velocity model available for Arenal. This velocity model was retrieved from seismic refraction experiments and sounding using the SPAC method. For each day, different tremor starting bands have been selected and divided into the groups mentioned above. For each band a source location is determined by performing a grid search through a volume of 4735 possible source points located under the crater summit

  16. Understanding the self-assembly process and behavior of metal-seamed pyrogallol[4]arene nanocapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mossine, Andrew V.

    C-alkylpyrogallol[4]arenes (PgCs) are bowl-shaped compounds that are commonly used as supramolecular building blocks in the construction of larger entities such as capsules, nanotubes, and layered networks. Many of these assemblies are constructed using non-covalent means and, as such, are inherently unstable in polar media. Although metal coordination with the hydroxyl-rich PgC upper rim can be exploited to synthesize assemblies with enhanced stability, few reports of this can be found in the literature. Thus, a thorough investigation of these metal-seamed assemblies and their manipulation is of importance. Prior work in the Atwood lab has produced three examples of metal-organic nanocapsules (MONCs) based on PgCs. These include two hexameric MONCs (based on Cu2+ and Ga3+) as well as a single example of a dimeric MONC (based on Zn2+). As it was unknown whether other metal cations could lead to the formation of similar entities, PgC complexation experiments were conducted with other first series transition metal cations, notably Ni2+, Co2+ and Mn2+. All of these led to nanocapsular materials, which were identified and studied using single crystal X-ray diffraction (scXRD). Once the foundational studies were complete, syntheses were also performed under varied conditions, specifically with Ni2+ and Cu2+. This led to the characterization of both dimeric and hexameric MONCs with these two metals, as well as the characterization of many other capsular materials. The information collected from these experiments also led to an intriguing question: which specific conditions lead to the formation of dimeric vs. hexameric MONCs? To answer this question, solid-state analysis using scXRD was coupled to in situ analysis utilizing small angle neutron scattering (SANS). This work showed that the formation of the dimer is typically favored at higher temperatures while the formation of the hexamer is favored at lower temperatures for both of the metals tested. Studies that varied

  17. Synthesis of novel chiral Schiff base and amino alcohol derivatives of calix[4]arene and chiral recognition properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdemir, Serkan


    In the present study, the synthesis and liquid phase extraction properties towards some amino acid methylesters and amino alcohols of Schiff base and amino alcohol substituted calix[4]arene are reported. The Schiff base substituted calix[4]arene 5 has been synthesized via condensation reaction involving 5,17-diformyl-11,23-di- tert-butyl-25,27-di[3-(4-formylphenoxy)propoxy]-26,28 dihydroxycalix[4]arene 4 and ( R)-(-)-2-phenylglycine methyl ester in CHCl 3:MeOH. To give the amino alcohol substituted calix[4]arene 6, the synthesized chiral compound 5 was reduced by LiAlH 4. The new chiral Schiff base and amino alcohol derivatives of calix[4]arene have been characterized by a combination of FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, FAB-MS and elemental analysis. Also, the extraction behaviors of 5 and 6 towards some selected amino acid methylesters and amino alcohols have been studied by liquid-liquid extraction.

  18. CO2 capture by multivalent amino-functionalized calix[4]arenes: self-assembly, absorption, and QCM detection studies.


    Baldini, Laura; Melegari, Monica; Bagnacani, Valentina; Casnati, Alessandro; Dalcanale, Enrico; Sansone, Francesco; Ungaro, Rocco


    The reactivity of CO(2) with polyamino substrates based on calix[4]arenes and on a difunctional, noncyclic model has been studied. All the compounds react with CO(2) in chloroform to form ammonium carbamate salts. However, the number, topology, and conformational features of the amino-functionalized arms present on the multivalent scaffold have a remarkable influence on the reaction efficiency and on the product composition. Tetraaminocalix[4]arenes 1-3 rapidly and efficiently react with 2 equiv of CO(2), yielding highly stable hydrogen-bonded dimers formed by the self-assembly of two bis-ammonium bis-carbamate intramolecular salts. 1,3-Diaminocalix[4]arene 4 absorbs 1 mol of CO(2), affording less stable zwitterionic ammonium carbamates. Gemini compound 5 reacts with CO(2) in a 1:1 stoichiometry, forming hydrogen-bonded dimers of ammonium carbamate derivatives of moderate stability. For upper rim 1,3-diaminocalix[4]arene 6, in addition to the labile intramolecular salt, the presence of a self-assembled polymer was also detected. These systems were fully characterized in solution by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, whereas the corresponding gas-solid reactions were further investigated by QCM measurements. Interestingly, the high affinity and reversibility of CO(2) uptake shown by 1,3-diamino calix[4]arene 4 enabled us to attain a promising QCM device for carbon dioxide sensing.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of poly(phenylacetylene)s with Ru(II) bis-terpyridine complexes in the side-chain.


    Breul, Alexander M; Kübel, Joachim; Häupler, Bernhard; Friebe, Christian; Hager, Martin D; Winter, Andreas; Dietzek, Benjamin; Schubert, Ulrich S


    An alkyne-functionalized ruthenium(II) bis-terpyridine complex is directly copolymerized with phenylacetylene by alkyne polymerization. The polymer is characterized by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), (1) H NMR spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements, and thermal analysis. The photophysical properties of the polymer are studied by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. In addition, spectro-electrochemical measurements are carried out. Time-resolved luminescence lifetime decay curves show an enhanced lifetime of the metal complex attached to the conjugated polymer backbone compared with the Ru(tpy)2 (2+) model complex.

  20. 1,3-Alternate calix[4]arene nitronyl nitroxide tetraradical and diradical: synthesis, X-ray crystallography, paramagnetic NMR spectroscopy, EPR spectroscopy, and magnetic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rajca, Andrzej; Pink, Maren; Mukherjee, Sumit; Rajca, Suchada; Das, Kausik


    Calix[4]arenes constrained to 1,3-alternate conformation and functionalized at the upper rim with four and two nitronyl nitroxides have been synthesized, and characterized by X-ray crystallography, magnetic resonance (EPR and {sup 1}H NMR) spectroscopy, and magnetic studies. Such calix[4]arene tetraradicals and diradicals provide scaffolds for through-bond and through-space intramolecular exchange couplings.

  1. Interfacial Recognition of Acetylcholine by an Amphiphilic p-Sulfonatocalix[8]arene Derivative Incorporated into Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylcholine Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Takashi; Fujii, Fumihiko; Ooi, Yasuhiro


    Dodecyl ether derivatives 1-3 of p-sulfonatocalix[n]arene were incorporated into dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) vesicles, and their binding abilities for acetylcholine (ACh) were examined by using steady-state fluorescence/fluorescence anisotropy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). For the detection of ACh binding to the DMPC vesicles containing 5 mol % of 1-3, competitive fluorophore displacement experiments were performed, where rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) was used as a fluorescent guest. The addition of Rh6G to the DMPC vesicles containing 3 resulted in a decrease in the fluorescence intensity of Rh6G with an increase of its fluorescence anisotropy, indicating that Rh6G binds to the DMPC-3 vesicles. In the case of DMPC-1 and DMPC-2 vesicles, significant changes in the fluorescence spectra of Rh6G were not observed. When ACh was added to the DMPC-3 vesicles in the presence of Rh6G ([3]/[Rh6G]=100), the fluorescence intensity of Rh6G increased with a decrease in its fluorescence anisotropy. From the analysis of fluorescence titration data, the association constants were determined to be 7.1×105 M-1 for Rh6G-3 complex and 1.1×102 M-1 for ACh-3 complex at the DMPC-3 vesicles. To get a direct evidence for the binding of Rh6G and its displacement by ACh at the DMPC-3 vesicles, diffusion times of the Rh6G were measured by using FCS. Binding selectivity of the DMPC-3 vesicles for ACh, choline, GABA, l-aspartic acid,l-glutamic acid, l-arginine, l-lysine, l-histamine and ammonium chloride was also evaluated using FCS. PMID:27873899

  2. Sensing parts per million levels of gaseous NO2 by a optical fiber transducer based on calix[4]arenes.


    Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Wanigasekara, Eranda; Rudkevich, Dmitry M; Dasgupta, Purnendu K


    Calixarenes are interesting building blocks in supramolecular receptor design. They can be easily functionalized to give the desired guest binding and sequestration properties. We demonstrate here the use of simple alkylated calixarenes as novel NO(2) sensors. Upon reacting with gaseous NO(2), alkylated calixarenes form stable calixarene-NO(+) (nitrosonium) complexes that have a deep purple color. This specific and selective formation of the colored complex was used to develop a fiber optic based colorimetric NO(2) sensor. Several alkylated calixarenes are used and tested as sensing materials. The calixarene compound was immobilized on a fine mesh silica-gel coated thin layer chromatography plate. The sensing plate was coupled with a fiber optic based photodetector. Gas samples were sampled in a manner where they impinged on the surface of sensing plate. The light transmission through the plate was continuously monitored. For a 5 min sample, the limit of detection was 0.54 ppmv with 1,3-alternate O-hexyl calix[4]arene (1a). There were no significant response differences between different conformations of calixarenes such as 1,3-alternate or cone. This chemistry can form the basis of a colorimetric sensor that relies on extant filter tape technology. With calixarenes however, such a reaction is potentially reversible - color formed upon reaction with NO(2) can be reversed by flushing the sensing plate by purified air. While we found that the removal of the developed color can be accelerated by simultaneous heating and suction, permitting the reuse of the same sensing area multiple times, we also observed that the sensitivity gradually decreased. The nitrosonium calixarene derivative tends to transform to the nitrated form; this process is catalyzed by light. Several methylated calixarenes were synthesized and tested but a fully satisfactory solution has proven elusive.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of a Heteroleptic Ru(II) Complex of Phenanthroline Containing Oligo-Anthracenyl Carboxylic Acid Moieties

    PubMed Central

    Adeloye, Adewale O.; Ajibade, Peter A.


    In an effort to develop new ruthenium(II) complexes, this work describes the design, synthesis and characterization of a ruthenium(II) functionalized phenanthroline complex with extended π-conjugation. The ligand were L1 (4,7-bis(2,3-dimethylacrylic acid)-1,10-phenanthroline), synthesized by a direct aromatic substitution reaction, and L2 (4,7-bis(trianthracenyl-2,3-dimethylacrylic acid)-1,10-phenanthroline), which was synthesized by the dehalogenation of halogenated aromatic compounds using a zero-valent palladium cross-catalyzed reaction in the absence of magnesium-diene complexes and/or cyclooctadienyl nickel (0) catalysts to generate a new carbon-carbon bond (C-C bond) polymerized hydrocarbon units. The ruthenium complex [RuL1L2(NCS)2] showed improved photophysical properties (red-shifted metal-to-ligand charge-transfer transition absorptions and enhanced molar extinction coefficients), luminescence and interesting electrochemical properties. Cyclic and square wave voltammetry revealed five major redox processes. The number of electron(s) transferred by the ruthenium complex was determined by chronocoulometry in each case. The results show that processes I, II and III are multi-electron transfer reactions while processes IV and V involved one-electron transfer reaction. The photophysical property of the complex makes it a promising candidate in the design of chemosensors and photosensitizers, while its redox-active nature makes the complex a potential mediator of electron transfer in photochemical processes. PMID:20957086

  4. Alteration and arenization processes of granitic waste rock piles from former uranium Mines in Limousin, France.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanzari, Aisha; Boekhout, Flora; Gérard, Martine; Galoisy, Laurence; Phrommavanh, Vannapha; Descostes, Michael


    France counts approximately 200 former uranium mines, 50 of which are located in the Limousin region. Mining activities between 1945 and 2001 have generated close to 200 000 tons of waste rocks in the Limousin, with uranium levels corresponding essentially to the geological background. Waste rock piles from three former mining sites in this region, were selected according to their age, uranium content and petrological signature. These sites are part of the two-mica granitic complex of St Sylvestre massif, formed 324 million years ago. Granitic blocks that build up the waste rock piles have experienced different processes and intensities of alteration before their emplacement at the surface. These processes are responsible for the petrological heterogeneity throughout the waste rock pile at the time of construction. It is important to make a distinction within waste rocks between natural-cut-off waste rocks and economic-cut-off waste rocks. The latter represents a minority and is linked to stock prices. Natural-cut-off waste rocks contain about 20 ppm of uranium; economic-cut-off waste rocks contain about 100 to 300 ppm of uranium. The aims of this study are to 1) assess the neo-formation of U-bearing minerals hosted by these rocks, and 2) to characterize the weathering processes since the construction of the rock piles, including both mechanical and chemical processes. The structure of the waste rocks piles, from metric blocks to boulders of tens centimeters, induces an enhanced weathering rate, compared to a granitic massif. Mechanical fracturing and chemical leaching by rainwater (arenization) of the waste rocks produce a sandy-silty alteration phase. Silty-clay weathering aureoles of submetric-granitic blocks evolving into technic soil are mainly located below growing birch trees. Sampling on the rock piles was restricted to surface rocks. Samples collected consist mainly of granites, and rare lamprophyres with a high radiometric signal, thereby especially

  5. Depositional setting and early diagenesis of the dinosaur eggshell-bearing Aren Fm at Bastus, Late Campanian, south-central Pyrenees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Molina, Margarita; Kälin, Otto; Benito, M. Isabel; Lopez-Martinez, Nieves; Vicens, Enric


    The Late Cretaceous Aren Fm exposed north of Bastus in the Tremp Basin (south-central Pyrenees) preserves an excellent record of dinosaur eggs laid in a marine littoral setting. Different from other cases reported in literature, at the Bastus site the preferential nesting ground was original beach sand. The coastal deposits of Aren Fm can be grouped into four facies assemblages, representing respectively shoreface, beachface, beach ridge plain and backbarrier lagoon environments. Shoreface deposits include fine- to coarse-grained hybrid arenites and subordinate quartz-dominated conglomerates with ripple structures of wave and wave-current origin. Beachface deposits are mainly storm beach conglomerates, but parallel-laminated foreshore arenites locally occur. Backbarrier lagoon deposits comprise of washover sandy conglomerates that grade laterally into sandy lime mudstones, biomicrites and marls. Beach ridge sediment, wherein the bulk of dinosaur eggs and eggshell debris occurs, predominantly is a reddish hybrid arenite that has undergone a complex early diagenetic evolution, including marine and meteoric cementation followed by soil development. The reddish arenites overlie wave-dominated shoreface deposits and in places pass laterally into lagoonal deposits. They originally formed shore ridges, that became stabilized during progradational episodes by pedogenesis (beach ridge, sensu [Otvos, E.G., 2000. Beach ridges—definitions and significance. Geomorphology 32, 83-108.]), which also affected the dinosaur eggs. The eggshell-bearing beach ridge arenites are typically preserved at the top of parasequences forming the systems tracts of a third-order sequence. Thick packages of this facies resulted from aggradation of barrier/beach ridge deposits, whose preservation below surfaces of transgressive erosion was favoured by incipient lithification.

  6. Sulfur dioxide and particles in quiescent volcanic plumes from Poas, Arenal, and Colima volcanos, Costa Rica and Mexico.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casadevall, T.J.


    Measurements of SO2 emission rates and concentrations and of particle distribution, size, shape, and composition were made in quiescent volcanic plumes emitted into the troposphere from Poas and Arenal volcanos, Costa Rica, and Colima volcano, Mexico. SO2 emission rates were 700 +- 180 metric tons per day (t/d) for Poas, 210 +- 30 t/d for Arenal, and 320 +- 50 t/d for Colima. The concentrations of SO2 calculated from the COSPEC/lidar data were 5-380 ppb.-from Authors

  7. Praseodymium(III)-based bis-metallacalix[4]arene with host-guest behaviour.


    Xu, Gong-Feng; Gamez, Patrick; Teat, Simon J; Tang, Jinkui


    The reaction of Pr(NO(3))(3).6H(2)O with the ligand 2-hydroxy-N-(2'-hydroxyethyl)-3-methoxybenzamide (H(3)L) in MeOH-MeCN generates the nonanuclear compound [Pr(9)(H(2)L)(8)(OH)(10)(NO(3))(8)](NO(3))(H(2)O)(2)(CH(3)CN) (), whose single-crystal X-ray structure reveals the presence of metallacalix[4]arene cavities that host guest molecules. The crystal packing of the antiferromagnetic Pr(9) cluster shows an intricate network of hydrogen bonds producing a one-dimensional supramolecular chain.

  8. Silver-catalyzed arylation of (hetero)arenes by oxidative decarboxylation of aromatic carboxylic acids.


    Kan, Jian; Huang, Shijun; Lin, Jin; Zhang, Min; Su, Weiping


    A long-standing challenge in Minisci reactions is achieving the arylation of heteroarenes by oxidative decarboxylation of aromatic carboxylic acids. To address this challenge, the silver-catalyzed intermolecular Minisci reaction of aromatic carboxylic acids was developed. With an inexpensive silver salt as a catalyst, this new reaction enables a variety of aromatic carboxylic acids to undergo decarboxylative coupling with electron-deficient arenes or heteroarenes regardless of the position of the substituents on the aromatic carboxylic acid, thus eliminating the need for ortho-substituted aromatic carboxylic acids, which were a limitation of previously reported methods.

  9. One‐Pot C−H Functionalization of Arenes by Diaryliodonium Salts

    PubMed Central

    Reitti, Marcus; Villo, Piret


    Abstract A transition‐metal‐free, mild, and highly regioselective synthesis of nitroarenes from arenes has been developed. The products are obtained in a sequential one‐pot reaction by nitration of iodine(III) reagents with two carbon ligands, which are formed in situ from iodine(I). This novel concept has been extended to formation of aryl azides, and constitutes an important step towards catalytic reactions with these hypervalent iodine reagents. An efficient nitration of isolated diaryliodonium salts has also been developed, and the mechanism is proposed to proceed by a [2,2] ligand coupling pathway. PMID:27272891

  10. Benzylic Phosphates in Friedel-Crafts Reactions with Activated and Unactivated Arenes: Access to Polyarylated Alkanes.


    Pallikonda, Gangaram; Chakravartya, Manab


    Easily reachable electron-poor/rich primary and secondary benzylic phosphates are suitably used as substrates for Friedel-Crafts benzylation reactions with only 1.2 equiv activated/deactivated arenes (no additional solvent) to access structurally and electronically diverse polyarylated alkanes with excellent yields and selectivities at room temperature. Specifically, diversely substituted di/triarylmethanes are generated within 2-30 min using this approach. A wide number of electron-poor polyarylated alkanes are easily accomplished through this route by just tuning the phosphates.

  11. Engineering supramolecular organic frameworks (SOFs) of C-alkylpyrogallol[4]arene with bipyridine-based spacers.


    Patil, Rahul S; Kumari, Harshita; Barnes, Charles L; Atwood, Jerry L


    Supramolecular organic frameworks (SOFs) based on pyrogallol[4]arene and 4,4'-bipyridine-type spacer molecules have been investigated. The hydrogen bonding pattern and molecular arrangement in the crystal structures are engineered through the cocrystallization approach. The length of the spacer molecules and the C-alkyl tail length of the PgC macrocycle are tuned to influence the hydrogen bonding pattern and thus the overall architecture of the resultant SOFs. Combined solid-state thermal analysis and solution-phase (1)H NMR results indicate the amount of solvent loss and the stability of the SOFs in solution.

  12. Heterocycle synthesis by copper facilitated addition of heteroatoms to alkenes, alkynes and arenes.


    Chemler, Sherry R; Fuller, Peter H


    The de novo synthesis of small organic heterocyclic molecules has benefited from recent protocols for copper-facilitated additions of heteroatoms to alkenes, alkynes and arenes. This tutorial review summarizes a number of these recent contributions. Copper salts can facilitate bond formations due to their ability to serve as Lewis acids, oxidizing agents and transition metal catalysts. The current understanding of the mechanisms of these reactions is presented. This review should be of interest to chemists involved in the synthesis of heterocycles and those investigating transition metal facilitated reactions.

  13. The transfection efficiency of calix[4]arene-based lipids: the role of the alkyl chain length.


    Mochizuki, Shinichi; Nishina, Koichi; Fujii, Shota; Sakurai, Kazuo


    The size, surface charge, and microstructure of lipoplexes comprising cationic lipids and nucleic acids are important factors for transfection efficiency. As these properties are largely determined by the cationic lipids used, a number of studies on the relationship between cationic lipids and the transfection efficiency have been reported. Among the many cationic lipids, lipids with multivalent cationic head groups are expected to be potent transfection reagents. Here, we prepared calix[4]arene-based lipids with different alkyl chain lengths from C3 to C15 and evaluated the relationship between the alkyl chain length and the transfection efficiency. C6 lipoplexes exhibited the highest transfection efficiency among all lipoplexes. The gene expression with C9 and C12 lipoplexes was slightly lower than that with C6 lipoplexes. C3 lipoplexes hardly induced gene expression, while C15 lipoplexes exhibited no complexation with plasmid DNA. Although all lipoplexes exhibited nearly identical characteristics, they exhibited different behaviours in terms of the interactions between the lipoplexes and anionic micelles comprising phosphatidylserine, a model of endosomal vehicle. After mixing with phosphatidylserine micelles, C6 lipoplexes released the bound plasmid DNA at pH 5 but not at pH 7, indicating that they can interact with the late endosomal membrane after being incorporated into cells. No plasmid DNA was released from C9 or C12 lipoplexes at either pH values. Thus, the alkyl chain length of cationic lipids is related to their interaction with the endosomal compartment and can provide a basis for the design of novel transfection reagents.

  14. Dioxygen activation at a mononuclear Cu(I) center embedded in the calix[6]arene-tren core.


    Izzet, Guillaume; Zeitouny, Joceline; Akdas-Killig, Huriye; Frapart, Yves; Ménage, Stéphane; Douziech, Bénédicte; Jabin, Ivan; Le Mest, Yves; Reinaud, Olivia


    The reaction of a cuprous center coordinated to a calix[6]arene-based aza-cryptand with dioxygen has been studied. In this system, Cu(I) is bound to a tren unit that caps the calixarene core at the level of the small rim. As a result, although protected from the reaction medium by the macrocycle, the metal center presents a labile site accessible to small guest ligands. Indeed, in the presence of O2, it reacts in a very fast and irreversible redox process, leading, ultimately, to Cu(II) species. In the coordinating solvent MeCN, a one electron exchange occurs, yielding the corresponding [CalixtrenCu-MeCN](2+) complex with concomitant release of superoxide in the reaction medium. In a noncoordinating solvent such as CH2Cl2, the dioxygen reaction leads to oxygen insertions into the ligand itself. Both reactions are proposed to proceed through the formation of a superoxide-Cu(II) intermediate that is unstable in the Calixtren environment due to second sphere effects. The transiently formed superoxide ligand either undergoes fast substitution for a guest ligand (in MeCN) or intramolecular redox evolutions toward oxygenation of Calixtren. Interestingly, the latter process was shown to occur twice on the same ligand, thus demonstrating a possible catalytic activation of O2 at a single cuprous center. Altogether, this study illustrates the oxidizing power of a [CuO2](+) adduct and substantiates a mechanism by which copper mono-oxygenases such as DbetaH and PHM activate O2 at the Cu(M) center to produce such an intermediate capable of C-H breaking before the electron input provided by the noncoupled Cu(H) center.

  15. Array analysis of the seismic wavefield of long-period events and volcanic tremor at Arenal volcano, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almendros, Javier; Abella, Rafael; Mora, Mauricio M.; Lesage, Philippe


    We use wavefield decomposition methods (time domain cross correlation and frequency domain multiple-signal classification) to analyze seismic data recorded by a dense, small-aperture array located 2 km West of Arenal volcano, Costa Rica, and operated during 2.5 days. The recorded wavefield is dominated by harmonic tremor and includes also spasmodic tremor and long-period (LP) events. We find that the initial stages of LP events are characterized by three different wave arrivals. These arrivals propagate with similar back azimuths pointing to the volcano summit (˜80°N) and increasing apparent slowness of 0.4, 1.1, and 1.7 s/km. Spasmodic tremors cannot be regarded as coherent signals. On the contrary, harmonic tremors are highly coherent, characterized by the stability of the apparent slowness vector estimates. Apparent slowness lays in the range 1-2 s/km. Back azimuths point in the general direction of the volcano but with a large variability (40-120°N). Nevertheless, there are long-term variations and evidences of multiple simultaneous components in the harmonic tremor wavefield. These observations suggest that LP events and tremor are generated in a shallow source area near the volcano summit, although they do not share exactly the same source region or source processes. The tremor source is located in the shallowest part of the plumbing system, beneath the lava crust. This dynamic region is subject to complex fluctuations of the physical conditions. Degassing events at different locations of this region might generate variable seismic radiation patterns. The effects of topography and heterogeneous shallow structure of the volcano may amplify these variations and produce the wide directional span observed for volcanic tremor. On the other hand, the LP source seems to be more repeatable. LP events are likely triggered by fragmentation of the fluid flow in a slightly deeper portion of the volcanic conduits.

  16. Synthesis, characterization, redox property and biological activity of Ru(II) carbonyl complexes containing O,N-donor ligands and heterocyclic bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, K. Naresh; Ramesh, R.


    Stable ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes having the general composition [RuCl(CO)(PPh 3)(B)(L)] (where B=PPh 3, pyridine, piperidine or morpholine; L = anion of bidentate Schiff bases (Vanmet, Vanampy, Vanchx)) were synthesized from the reaction of [RuHCl(CO)(PPh 3) 2(B)] with bidentate Schiff base ligands derived from condensation of o-vanillin with primary amines such as methylamine, 2-aminopyridine and cyclohexylamine. The new complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-Vis and 1H NMR spectral data. The redox property of the complexes were studied by cyclic voltammetric technique and the stability of the complexes towards oxidation were related to the electron releasing or electron withdrawing ability of the substituent in the phenyl ring of o-vanillin. An octahedral geometry has been assigned for all the complexes. In all the above reactions, the Schiff bases replace one molecule of PPh 3 and hydride ion from the starting complexes, which indicate that the Ru-N bonds present in the complexes containing heterocyclic nitrogen bases are stronger than the Ru-P. The Schiff bases and their ruthenium(II) complexes have been tested in vitro to evaluate their activity against bacteria, viz., Staphylococus aureus (209p) and E. coli (ESS 2231).

  17. Synthesis and structures of O-anthrylmethyl-substituted hexahomotrioxacalix[3]arenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xue-Kai; Ikejiri, Yusuke; Ni, Xi-Long; Zeng, Xi; Redshaw, Carl; Yamato, Takehiko


    O-Alkylation of 7,15,23-tri-tert-butyl-25,26,27-trihydroxy-2,3,10,11,18,19-hexahomo-3,11,19-trioxacalix[3]arene (1H3) with 9-chloromethylanthracene 5 was carried out under different reaction conditions. Variation of the number of anthrylmethyl group introduced at the phenolic rim of hexahomotrioxacalix[3]arene 1H3 was achieved through selective O-alkylation using stoichiometric amounts of 9-chloromethylanthracene 5 in acetone to afford the mono-O-alkylated product 2H2An, the di-O-alkylated product 3HAn2 and the tri-O-alkylated product partial-cone-4An3, respectively. Interestingly, by using an acetone/benzene (1:1 v/v) mixed solvent system, the cone-4An3 was successfully synthesized. These results suggest that the solvent can also control the conformation of the O-alkylation products. The possible reaction routes of the cone-4An3 and partial-cone-4An3 are also discussed.

  18. Thin-skinned mass-wasting responsible for edifice-wide deformation at Arenal Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebmeier, Susanna; Biggs, Juliet; Muller, Cyril; Avard, Geoffroy


    The shape and stability of a volcano’s edifice depends on the relationship between eruption rate and the loss or redistribution of material due to erosion, mass-wasting or deformation. This work provides measurements of deformation and shallow mass-wasting at a stratovolcano immediately after an extended period of growth, and demonstrates that high rates of deformation can be associated with shallow edifice processes. We measure displacements and surface property changes on the upper flanks of Arenal, Costa Rica, after a ~40 year period of edifice growth. We present high-resolution satellite radar imagery of the 2011-2013 period that provides evidence of frequent rockfalls and of at least 16 slow-moving, shallow landslides (estimated to be 5-11 m thick, total volume = 2.4×107 m3 DRE). The 2012 Nicoya Earthquake (Mw 7.4) had no measurable impact on the velocities of sliding units at Arenal, but did result in an increase in the area affected by rockfall.

  19. Phosphoryl Transfer Processes Promoted by a Trifunctional Calix[4]arene Inspired by DNA Topoisomerase I.


    Salvio, Riccardo; Volpi, Stefano; Cacciapaglia, Roberta; Sansone, Francesco; Mandolini, Luigi; Casnati, Alessandro


    The cone-calix[4]arene derivative (1H3)(2+), decorated at the upper rim with two guanidinium units and a phenolic hydroxyl in an ABAH functionalization pattern, effectively promotes the cleavage of the DNA model compound bis(p-nitrophenyl) phosphate (BNPP) in 80% DMSO solution at pH values in the range 8.5-12.0. The pH dependence of the kinetics was found to be fully consistent with the results of the potentiometric titration of the triprotic acid (1H3)(2+). At pH 9.5, the rate enhancement of p-nitrophenol liberation from BNPP relative to background hydrolysis is 6.5 × 10(4)-fold at 1 mM concentration of the calix[4]arene derivative. Experimental data clearly point to the effective cooperation of the three active units and to the involvement of the phenolate moiety as a nucleophile in the phosphoryl transfer step. Subsequent liberation of a second equivalent of p-nitrophenol from the phosphorylated calixarene intermediate is conceivably promoted by the "built-in" guanidine/guanidinium catalytic dyad.

  20. Identification of radiation-induced radical structure in azocalix[4]arene: an EPR study.


    Usta, Keziban; Ozen Karakus, Ozlem; Usta, Ayhan; Deligoz, Hasalettin


    A macrocyclic azocalix[4]arene (1) based ester derivative was synthesized. The single crystals of azocalix[4]arene were produced by slow evaporation of concentrated ethyl acetate solutions. These single crystals were exposed to (60) Co gamma rays with a dose rate of 0.980 kGy h(-1) for 48 and 72 h to produce a stable free radical. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements were performed in three mutually perpendicular planes of the single crystal in the magnetic field, in addition, temperature dependence of the EPR signal was studied between 120 K and 450 K. The spectra were found to be temperature and angular dependent. Analysis based on the spectra recorded showed that a free radical was formed by fission of a C-H bond. This radical is described as (•) Ca HCb H3 The averages of the principal values of the hyperfine parameters and g-factor are: g = 2.0034, AHa  = 1.28 mT, AH1=H2  = 1.00 mT, and AH3  = 0.49 mT.

  1. Why aren't we curious about nannies?


    Scheftel, Susan


    This paper is an exploration of a topic whose specific intrapsychic significance has remained relatively unformulated in the psychoanalytic literature. Though nannies (that is, caregivers whose job it is to care for children at home in their parents' absence) have had a ubiquitous presence among professional working women and are frequently involved in the lives of patients seen in private practice, their psychological significance for both employers and charges has rarely been considered. The paper attempts to demonstrate how the nanny's literal position is at risk for engendering ambivalence in parents and children alike, since she is necessarily there when the parents are not. It is postulated that the actual, reality-based power of the nanny as placeholder for parents in their absence may be instrumental in the tendency of our patients to scotomatize this relationship. In the first part of the paper, clinical examples are used to underscore the complexity of the nanny's role, while the second half of the paper draws upon the text of the children's classic Mary Poppins, to further explore the subject.


    PubMed Central

    Milner, Phillip J.; Maimone, Thomas J.; Su, Mingjuan; Chen, Jiahao; Müller, Peter; Buchwald, Stephen L.


    A series of monoligated L•PdII(Ar)X complexes (L = dialkyl biarylphosphine) have been prepared and studied in an effort to better understand an unusual dearomative rearrangement previously documented in these systems. Experimental and theoretical evidence suggest a concerted process involving the unprecedented PdII-mediated insertion of an aryl group into an unactivated arene. PMID:23153301

  3. Fe-Catalyzed Oxidation Reactions of Olefins, Alkanes, and Alcohols: Involvement of Oxo- and Peroxo Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Kristin; Junge, Kathrin; Bitterlich, Bianca; Beller, Matthias

    In this review, recent developments of iron-catalyzed oxidations of olefins (epoxidation), alkanes, arenes, and alcohols are summarized. Special focus is given on the ligand systems and the catalytic performance of the iron complexes. In addition, the mechanistic involvement of high-valent iron-oxo species is discussed.

  4. Pyrophosphate sensing by a fluorescent Zn2+ bound triazole linked imino-thiophenyl conjugate of calix[4]arene in HEPES buffer medium: spectroscopy, microscopy, and cellular studies.


    Pathak, Rakesh K; Tabbasum, Khatija; Rai, Ankit; Panda, Dulal; Rao, Chebrolu P


    An in situ prepared Zn(2+) complex of triazole linked imino-thiophenyl conjugate of calix[4]arene, [ZnL], was demonstrated to be highly fluorescent in HEPES buffer solution. [ZnL] has been used as a chemo-sensing ensemble for the recognition of phosphates in general and pyrophosphates in particular among the eighteen different anions studied. The chemo-sensing behavior of the [ZnL] has been demonstrated through fluorescence, absorption, visual fluorescent color changes, ESI MS, and (1)H NMR titrations. Variations in the microstructural features of L, its zinc complex and the complex upon addition of PPi have been demonstrated through atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Such studies have been extended to see the permeability of the conjugate into the HeLa cells by fluorescence microscopy. In accession, a reversible "write-read-erase-read" logic gate property of L has been demonstrated through a feedback loop in the presence of Zn(2+) and PPi.

  5. Why Aren’t Lightsabers Real Yet? Get the Lowdown from a Laser Physicist


    Hunsberger, Maren; Liao, Zhi


    The release of "Star Wars: The Force Awakens" begs the obvious question: Why aren't lightsabers real yet? LLNL science communicator Maren Hunsberger gets the lowdown from laser physicist Zhi Liao in this first installment of "Inside the Lab," a new YouTube series exploring crazy-cool science questions.

  6. Why Aren't We There Yet? Taking Personal Responsibility for Creating an Inclusive Campus. An ACPA Publication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arminio, Jan, Ed.; Torres, Vasti, Ed.; Pope, Raechele L., Ed.


    Despite seeming endless debate and public attention given to the issue for several decades, those committed to creating welcoming and engaging campus environments for all students recognize that there is considerably more work to be done, and ask "Why aren't we there yet, and when will we be done?" While our campuses have evolved from being…

  7. Self-assembled arene-ruthenium-based rectangles for the selective sensing of multi-carboxylate anions.


    Vajpayee, Vaishali; Song, Young Ho; Lee, Min Hyung; Kim, Hyunuk; Wang, Ming; Stang, Peter J; Chi, Ki-Whan


    Novel arene-ruthenium [2+2] metalla-rectangles 4 and 5 have been synthesized by self-assembly using dipyridyl amide ligand 3 and arene-ruthenium acceptors (arene: benzoquinone (1), naphthacenedione (2)) and characterized by NMR spectroscopy and ESI-MS. The solid-state structure of 5 was determined by X-ray diffraction and shows encapsulated diethyl ether molecule in the rectangular cavity of 5. The luminescent 5 was further used for anion sensing with the amidic linkage serving as a hydrogen-bond donor site for anions and the ruthenium moiety serving as a signaling unit. A UV/Vis titration study demonstrated that although 5 interacts very weakly with common monoanions as well as with flexible dicarboxylate anions such as malonate and succinate, it displays significant binding affinity (K>10(3) in MeOH) for rigid multi-carboxylate anions such as oxalate, citrate, and tartrate, exhibiting a 1:1 stoichiometry. It has been suggested that 1:1 bidentate hydrogen bonding assisted by appropriate geometrical complementarity is mainly responsible for the increased affinity of 5 towards such anions. A fluorescence titration study revealed a large fluorescence enhancement of 5 upon binding to multi-carboxylate anions, which can be attributed to the blocking of the photoinduced electron-transfer process from the arene-Ru moiety to the amidic donor in 5 as a result of hydrogen bonding between the donor and the anion.

  8. Adsorption of remazol yellow FG from aqueous solution on chitosan-linked P-T-Butylcalix[4]Arene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suci Handayani, Desi; Purnawan, Candra; Pranoto; Hastuti, Sri; Hilmiyana, Diniyah


    Chitosan-liked p-t-butylcalix[4]arene can be applied as an adsorbent of dye Remazol Yellow FG because it has an active group of hydroxy (-OH) and amine (-NH2). Adsorption had done by comparing to chitosan. Adsorption was carried out in a batch system. Several variables including pH, contact time, and initial concentration of dye Remazol Yellow FG were determined. The optimum adsorption conditions of dye Remazol Yellow FG by chitosan dan chitosan-liked p-t-butylcalix[4]arene occurred at pH 4 and a contact time of 135 minutes. The adsorption kinetics of dye Remazol Yellow FG using chitosan and chitosan-liked p-t- butylcalix[4]arene followed Ho kinetics model, pseudo-second order and the rate constant of adsorption was 2.42 x 10-4 g/mg.menit and 3.63 x 10-4 g/mg.menit. The isothermal study showed that adsorption of dye Remazol Yellow FG using chitosan and chitosan-liked p-t- butylcalix[4]arene tends to follow the Langmuir isotherm, with adsorption energy was 24.92 kJ/mol and 32.21 kJ/mol.

  9. Ti(IV)-catalyzed cascade synthesis of tetrahydrofuro[3,2-d]oxazole from arene-1,4-diones.


    Li, Gang; Li, Li; Huang, Haihong; Yin, Dali


    A tetrahydrofuro[3,2-d]oxazole scaffold was synthesized efficiently and stereoselectively. The tandem ionic hydrogenation, ketalization, and intramolecular cyclization of arene-1,4-diones with a combination of TiCl4/Et3SiH give facile access to tetrahydrofuro[3,2-d]oxazole derivatives in good yields at room temperature.

  10. Ditopic CMPO-pillar[5]arenes as unique receptors for efficient separation of americium(III) and europium(III).


    Fang, Yuyu; Yuan, Xiangyang; Wu, Lei; Peng, Zhiyong; Feng, Wen; Liu, Ning; Xu, Dingguo; Li, Shoujian; Sengupta, Arijit; Mohapatra, Prasanta K; Yuan, Lihua


    A unique host-guest recognition process involving a new class of homoditopic CMPO-pillar[5]arenes and lanthanides was revealed to proceed in a stepwise manner, and correlated with the efficient separation of americium(III) and europium(III) under acidic feed conditions.

  11. Structural alteration of the metal-organic pyrogallol[4]arene nano-capsule motif by incorporation of large metal centres.


    Jin, Ping; Kumari, Harshita; Kennedy, Stuart; Barnes, Charles L; Teat, Simon J; Dalgarno, Scott J; Atwood, Jerry L


    Addition of cadmium(II) nitrate to gallium-coordinated metal-organic C-alkylpyrogallol[4]arene nano-capsules affords a variation of the near spherical hexamer motif, structural changes in which are induced by the markedly different nature of the secondary incorporated metal.

  12. Computational and Experimental Studies of Phthaloyl Peroxide-Mediated Hydroxylation of Arenes Yield a More Reactive Derivative, 4,5-Dichlorophthaloyl Peroxide.


    Camelio, Andrew M; Liang, Yong; Eliasen, Anders M; Johnson, Trevor C; Yuan, Changxia; Schuppe, Alex W; Houk, K N; Siegel, Dionicio


    The oxidation of arenes by the reagent phthaloyl peroxide provides a new method for the synthesis of phenols. A new, more reactive arene oxidizing reagent, 4,5-dichlorophthaloyl peroxide, computationally predicted and experimentally determined to possess enhanced reactivity, has expanded the scope of the reaction while maintaining a high level of tolerance for diverse functional groups. The reaction proceeds through a novel "reverse-rebound" mechanism with diradical intermediates. Mechanistic insight was achieved through isolation and characterization of minor byproducts, determination of linear free energy correlations, and computational analysis of substituent effects of arenes, each of which provided additional support for the reaction proceeding through the diradical pathway.

  13. Field reconnaissance of the effects of the earthquake of April 13, 1973, near Laguna de Arenal, Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plafker, George


    At about 3:34 a.m. on April 13, 1973, a moderate-sized, but widely-felt, earthquake caused extensive damage with loss of 23 lives in a rural area of about 150 km2 centered just south of Laguna de Arenal in northwestern Costa Rica (fig. 1). This report summarizes the results of the writer's reconnaissance investigation of the area that was affected by the earthquake of April 13, 1973. A 4-day field study of the meizoseismal area was carried out during the period from April 28 through May 1 under the auspices of the U.S. Geological Survey. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate geologic factors that contributed to the damage and loss of life. The earthquake was also of special interest because of the possibility that it was accompanied by surface faulting comparable to that which occurred at Managua, Nicaragua, during the disastrous earthquake of December 23, 1972 (Brown, Ward, and Plafker, 1973). Such earthquake-related surface faulting can provide scientifically valuable information on active tectonic processes at shallow depths within the Middle America arc. Also, identification of active faults in this area is of considerable practical importance because of the planned construction of a major hydroelectrical facility within the meizoseismal area by the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (I.C.E.). The project would involve creation of a storage reservoir within the Laguna de Arenal basin and part of the Río Arenal valley with a 75 m-high earthfill dam across Río Arenal at a point about 10 km east of the outlet of Laguna de Arenal.

  14. Novel ruthenium(II) cyclopentadienyl thiosemicarbazone compounds with antiproliferative activity on pathogenic trypanosomatid parasites.


    Fernández, Mariana; Arce, Esteban Rodríguez; Sarniguet, Cynthia; Morais, Tânia S; Tomaz, Ana Isabel; Azar, Claudio Olea; Figueroa, Roberto; Diego Maya, J; Medeiros, Andrea; Comini, Marcelo; Helena Garcia, M; Otero, Lucía; Gambino, Dinorah


    Searching for new prospective antitrypanosomal agents, three novel Ru(II)-cyclopentadienyl compounds, [Ru(η(5)-C5H5)(PPh3)L], with HL=bioactive 5-nitrofuryl containing thiosemicarbazones were synthesized and characterized in the solid state and in solution. The compounds were evaluated in vitro on the blood circulating trypomastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi (Dm28c strain), the infective form of Trypanosoma brucei brucei (strain 427) and on J774 murine macrophages and human-derived EA.hy926 endothelial cells. The compounds were active against both parasites with IC50 values in the micromolar or submicromolar range. Interestingly, they are much more active on T. cruzi than previously developed Ru(II) classical and organometallic compounds with the same bioactive ligands. The new compounds showed moderate to very good selectivity towards the parasites in respect to mammalian cells. The global results point at [RuCp(PPh3)L2] (L2=N-methyl derivative of 5-nitrofuryl containing thiosemicarbazone and Cp=cyclopentadienyl) as the most promising compound for further developments (IC50T. cruzi=0.41μM; IC50T. brucei brucei=3.5μM). Moreover, this compound shows excellent selectivity towards T. cruzi (SI>49) and good selectivity towards T. brucei brucei (SI>6). In order to get insight into the mechanism of antiparasitic action, the intracellular free radical production capacity of the new compounds was assessed by ESR. DMPO (5,5-dimethyl-1-pirroline-N-oxide) spin adducts related to the bioreduction of the complexes and to redox cycling processes were characterized. In addition, DNA competitive binding studies with ethidium bromide by fluorescence measurements showed that the compounds interact with this biomolecule.

  15. Calix[4]arene coated QCM sensors for detection of VOC emissions: Methylene chloride sensing studies.


    Temel, Farabi; Tabakci, Mustafa


    This paper describes the sensing studies of QCM sensors with coated some calixarene derivatives bearing different functional groups for some selected Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) such as acetone, acetonitrile, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, methylene chloride (MC), N,N-dimethylformamide, 1,4-dioxane, ethanol, ethyl acetate, xylene, methanol, n-hexane and toluene. The initial experiments have revealed that whole the calix[4]arene modified QCM sensors exhibited strongest sensing ability to MC emissions. Thus, the detailed studies were performed for only MC emissions after the determination of relatively more effective calix-coated QCM sensors for MC emissions in aqueous media. The results demonstrated that QCM sensor coated with calix-7 bearing both amino and imidazole groups was most useful sensor for MC emissions with 54.1ppm of detection limit. Moreover, it was understood that cyclic structures, H-bonding capabilities and also good preorganization properties of calixarene derivatives played an important role in VOC sensing processes.

  16. Conformational changes of a calix[8]arene derivative at the air-water interface.


    de Miguel, Gustavo; Pedrosa, José M; Martín-Romero, María T; Muñoz, Eulogia; Richardson, Tim H; Camacho, Luis


    The particular behavior of a p-tert-butyl calix[8]arene derivative (C8A) has been studied at the air-water interface using surface pressure-area isotherms, surface potential-area isotherms, film relaxation measurements, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM), and infrared spectroscopy for Langmuir-Blodgett films. Thus, it is observed that the properties of the film, for example, isotherms, domain formation, and FTIR spectra, recorded during the first compression cycle differ appreciably from those during the second compression and following cycles. The results obtained are interpreted on the basis of the conformational changes of the C8A molecules by surface pressure, allowing us to inquire into the inter- and intramolecular interactions (hydrogen bonds) of those molecules. Thus, the compression induces changes in the kind of hydrogen bonds from intra- and intermolecular with other C8A molecules to hydrogen bonds with water molecules.

  17. Hydrogen ion-selective poly(vinyl chloride) membrane electrode based on a calix[4]arene.


    Kuruoğlu, Demet; Canel, Esin; Memon, Shahabuddin; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Kiliç, Esma


    A hydrogen ion-selective poly(vinyl chloride) membrane electrode was constructed using 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-25,26,27,28-tetracyanomethoxycalix[4]arene as a neutral carrier. The electrode showed an apparent Nernstian response in the 2-11.5 pH range with a slope of 54.0 +/- 0.2 mV/pH at 20 +/- degrees C. This electrode showed a rapid response of the emf to changes in the pH, high ion selectivity with respect to lithium, sodium and potassium, and characteristics similar to those reported for the conventional pH glass membrane electrode. It can be used as a potentiometric indicator electrode in hydrofluoric acid solutions. The effects of iodide, thiocyanate, perchlorate and bromide on the characteristics of the electrode were also considered.

  18. Energy and geometry of cooperative hydrogen bonds in p-substituted calix[n]- and thiacalix[n]arenes: a quantum-chemical approach.


    Novikov, Andrej N; Shapiro, Yury E


    (Thia)calix[n]arenes have been widely applied as molecular platforms and host molecules in supramolecular chemistry due to their high level of preorganization and well-detectable conformational preferences. Here we report on quantum-chemical calculations allowing the conformational analysis of p-substituted calix[4]-, calix[6]-, thiacalix[4]-, and thiacalix[6]arenes. To this effect, ab initio and density functional theory (DFT) calculations with the aid of RHF/3-21G, B3LYP/6-31G, B3LYP/6-31G(d,p), and B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) have been applied. The obtained structural data and the estimated energies of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds give clear evidence of the presence of cooperative effects of the hydrogen bonding. Multiple correlations between the pairs of Hammett constants of substituents and the calculated values of hydrogen bond energies in the corresponding p-substituted (thia)calix[n]arenes have been found. These energies can be considered as descriptors of a chemical reactivity of the p-substituted derivatives of (thia)calix[n]arenes. For example, the reaction of nucleophilic substitution, involving p-substituted calix[6]arenes in the presence of weak bases and in aprotic solvents or in the gas phase, under orbital control conditions should proceed through the diastereomeric transition states. Here, the achiral p-substituted calix[6]arene derivative mainly forms as an intermediate product of the reaction with a substrate without asymmetric centers.

  19. Geometry matters: inverse cytotoxic relationship for cis/trans-Ru(ii) polypyridyl complexes from cis/trans-[PtCl2(NH3)2].


    Wachter, Erin; Zamora, Ana; Heidary, David K; Ruiz, José; Glazer, Edith C


    Two thermally activated ruthenium(ii) polypyridyl complexes, cis-Ru(bpy)2Cl2 and trans-Ru(qpy)Cl2 were investigated to determine the impact of the geometric arrangement of the exchangable ligands on the potential of the compounds to act as chemotherapeutics. In contrast to the geometry requirements for cisplatin, trans-Ru(qpy)Cl2 was 7.1-9.5× more cytotoxic than cis-Ru(bpy)2Cl2. This discovery could open up a new area of metal-based chemotherapeutic research.

  20. Palladium-catalyzed Cs2CO3-promoted arylation of unactivated C(sp(3))-H bonds by (diacetoxyiodo)arenes: shifting the reactivity of (diacetoxyiodo)arenes from acetoxylation to arylation.


    Gou, Quan; Zhang, Zhao-Fu; Liu, Zhi-Cheng; Qin, Jun


    PdCl2(CH3CN)2-catalyzed arylation of unactivated C(sp(3))-H bonds using (diacetoxyiodo)arenes as arylation reagents is reported. The reactivity of (diacetoxyiodo)arenes as arylation reagents is enabled in the presence of Cs2CO3 under the reaction conditions. This arylation method is highly efficient and occurs without the use of silver salt. The reaction tolerates a broad substrate scope that was not demonstrated by other silver salt-free C(sp(3))-H bond arylation conditions. The synthetic utility of the method is further illustrated in the synthesis of the psychotropic drug phenibut. A detailed mechanism study has been conducted to understand the reaction pathway.

  1. Dis-assembly of a benzylic CF3 group mediated by a niobium(III) imido complex.


    Gianetti, Thomas L; Bergman, Robert G; Arnold, John


    All three C-F bonds in CF3-substituted arenes are activated by a niobium imido complex, driven by the formation of strong Nb-F bonds. The mechanism of this transformation was studied by NMR spectroscopy, which revealed the involvement of Nb(III). Attempts to extend this chemistry to nonaromatic CF3 groups led to intramolecular reactivity.

  2. Molecular construction, characterization, and photophysical properties of supramolecular lanthanide-calix[4]arene covalently bonded hybrid systems.


    Yan, Bing; Wang, Qian-Ming; Ma, Dong-Jie


    Hydroxyl groups of the macrocyclic compound p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene have been converted into urethanesil (-NH(C=O)O-)-grafted bridges through a hydrogen transfer nucleophilic addition reaction. Subsequently, the modified macrocyclic derivative can coordinate to lanthanide ions (Tb, Eu) effectively and form a hybrid framework after the cohydrolysis and copolycondensation process through the triethoxysilane components. The above sol-gel-derived inorganic-organic supramolecular hybrids are analyzed under infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet absorption, and luminescence spectroscopy for interpretation of their photophysical properties. Spectroscopic data point out that the modified calix[4]arene could sensitize diverse lanthanide ions to exhibit attractive green and red luminescence. It is noted that the triplet energy level of this particular macrocyclic bridged ligand is more suitable for the emissive energy level of Tb(3+) ions than the Eu(3+) ions. The luminescent lifetimes and quantum yields of europium hybrids are discussed, and the number of water molecules coordinated to Eu(3+) is estimated.

  3. Immobilization of Chlorosulfonyl-Calix[4]arene onto the surface of silica gel through the directly estrification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghvaei-Ganjali, Saeed; Zadmard, Reza; Saber-Tehrani, Mandana


    For the first time Chlorosulfonyl-Calix[4]arene has been chemically bonded to silica gel through the directly estrification without silane coupling agent to prepare Chlorosulfonyl-Calix[4]arene-bonded silica gel. Sample characterization was performed by various techniques such as elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption-desorption, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), 29Si CP/MAS spectroscopy and acid-base titration. All data approve the successful incorporation of organic group via covalent bond. From the comparison between sulfur content determined by elemental analysis and the number of H+ determined by acid-base titration, it was shown that two ester units took place onto the new synthesized sample and two acidic sites exist on the surface.

  4. Thiacalix[4]arene functionalized gold nano-assembly for recognition of isoleucine in aqueous solution and its antioxidant study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darjee, Savan M.; Bhatt, Keyur; Kongor, Anita; Panchal, Manthan K.; Jain, Vinod K.


    Thiacalix[4]arenes comes under heteracalixarene class which has notable utility in the area of nanoscience. This stimulation has led to the synthesis of water-dispersible gold nanoparticles (AuNps) using thiacalix[4]arene tetrahydrazide (TCTH) as both reducing as well as stabilizing agent. The synthesized nanoparticles (TCTH-AuNps) were characterized by SPR, TEM and EDX. TCTH-AuNps were found to be selective and sensitive for isoleucine. The concentration of isoleucine was detected in the limit of 1 nM to 1.2 μM based on fluorescence enhancement. TCTH-AuNps were also used to measure antioxidant capacity against the standard ascorbic acid.

  5. Calix[4]arene-Functionalised Silver Nanoparticles as Hosts for Pyridinium-Loaded Gold Nanoparticles as Guests.


    Vita, Francesco; Boccia, Alice; Marrani, Andrea G; Zanoni, Robertino; Rossi, Francesca; Arduini, Arturo; Secchi, Andrea


    A series of lipophilic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) circa 5 nm in diameter and having a mixed organic layer consisting of 1-dodecanethiol and 1-(11-mercaptoundecyl) pyridinium bromide was synthesised by reacting tetraoctylammonium bromide stabilised AuNPs in toluene with different mixtures of the two thiolate ligands. A bidentate ω-alkylthiolate calix[4]arene derivative was instead used as a functional protecting layer on AgNPs of approximately 3 nm. The functionalised nanoparticles were characterised by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and by UV/Vis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Recognition of the pyridinium moieties loaded on the AuNPs by the calix[4]arene units immobilised on the AgNPs was demonstrated in solution of weakly polar solvents by UV/Vis titrations and DLS measurements. The extent of Au-AgNPs aggregation, shown through the low-energy shift of their surface plasmon bands (SPB), was strongly dependent on the loading of the pyridinium moieties present in the organic layer of the AuNPs. Extensive aggregation between dodecanethiol-capped AuNPs and the Ag calix[4]arene-functionalised NPs was also promoted by the action of a simple N-octyl pyridinium difunctional supramolecular linker. This linker can interdigitate through its long fatty tail in the organic layer of the dodecanethiol-capped AuNPs, and simultaneously interact through its pyridinium moiety with the calix[4]arene units at the surface of the modified AgNPs.

  6. Pseudo-polymorphism in the toluene solvate of p-tert-butylcalix[5]arene: Structural and gas sorption investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Dalgarno, Scott; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Tian, Jian; Atwood, Jerry L.


    Crystallisation of the host molecule p-tert-butylcalix[5]arene from toluene affords three pseudo-polymorphs, two of which can be isolated on a large scale and used to form ‘frustrated’ organic solids that are capable of gas sorption. The structures of these three polymorphs are compared, as are the gas sorption capabilities of the two phases that can be isolated in bulk form

  7. A mixed DFT-MD methodology for the in silico development of drug releasing macrocycles. Calix and thia-calix[N]arenes as carriers for Bosutinib and Sorafenib.


    Galindo-Murillo, Rodrigo; Aguilar-Suárez, Luis Enrique; Barroso-Flores, Joaquín


    Interaction energies between a family of 36 calix[n]arenes, their corresponding thia- analogues, and two commercially available second generation tyrosine kinase III inhibitors-Bosutinib and Sorafenib-were calculated through DFT methods at the B97D/6-31G(d,p) level of theory, based on Natural Population Analysis, for the in silico development of suitable drug carriers based on the aforementioned macrocycles which can increase their bioavailability and in turn their pharmaceutical efficiency. Molecular Dynamics simulations (production runs: +500 ns) using the General Amber Force Field were also carried out in order to assess the releasing process of these drugs in an explicit aqueous environment. In total, 144 host-guest complexes are examined. According to our results, five-membered -SO3H and i-Pr functionalized-calixarenes are the best candidates for Sorafenib-carriers while six-membered ones -SO3H and C2H4NH2 functionalized- are the lead candidates for Bosutinib-carriers.

  8. CMPO-calix[4]arenes with spacer containing intramolecular hydrogen bonding: effect of local rigidification on solvent extraction toward f-block elements.


    Chu, Hongzhu; He, Lutao; Jiang, Qian; Fang, Yuyu; Jia, Yiming; Yuan, Xiangyang; Zou, Shuliang; Li, Xianghui; Feng, Wen; Yang, Yuanyou; Liu, Ning; Luo, Shunzhong; Yang, Yanqiu; Yang, Liang; Yuan, Lihua


    To understand intramolecular hydrogen bonding in effecting liquid-liquid extraction behavior of CMPO-calixarenes, three CMPO-modified calix[4]arenes (CMPO-CA) 5a-5c with hydrogen-bonded spacer were designed and synthesized. The impact of spacer rotation that is hindered by introduction of intramolecular hydrogen bonding upon extraction of La(3+), Eu(3+), Yb(3+), Th(4+), and UO2(2+) has been examined. The results show that 5b and 5c containing only one hydrogen bond with a less hindered rotation spacer extract La(3+) more efficiently than 5a containing two hydrogen bonds with a more hindered rotation spacer, demonstrating the importance of local rigidification of spacer in the design of extractants in influencing the coordination environment. The large difference in extractability between La(3+) and Yb(3+) (or Eu(3+)) by 5b (or 5c), and the small difference by 5a, suggests intramolecular hydrogen bonding do exert pronounced influence upon selective extraction of light and heavy lanthanides. Log-log plot analysis indicates a 1:1, 2:1 and 1:1 stoichiometry (ligand/metal) for the extracted complex formed between 5b and La(3+), Th(4+), UO2(2+), respectively. Additionally, their corresponding acyclic analogs 7a-7c exhibit negligible extraction toward these metal ions. These results reveal the possibility of selective extraction via tuning local chelating surroundings of CMPO-CA by aid of intramolecular hydrogen bonding.

  9. Acid-Promoted Reaction of Trifluoromethylated Allyl Alcohols with Arenes. Stereoselective Synthesis of CF3-Alkenes and CF3-Indanes.


    Kazakova, Anna N; Iakovenko, Roman O; Boyarskaya, Irina A; Nenajdenko, Valentine G; Vasilyev, Aleksander V


    Reaction of 4-aryl-1,1,1-trifluorobut-3-en-2-ols [CF3-allyl alcohols, ArCH═CHCH(OH)CF3] with arenes under activation with anhydrous FeCl3 or FSO3H was studied. We found that the transformation led to trifluoromethylated alkenes [Ar(Ar')CHCH═CHCF3] or 1-trifluoromethylated indanes (CF3-indanes). The formation of these two types of reaction products strongly depends on the nucleophilicity of the starting arene and the electrophilicity of cationic intermediates generated from CF3-allyl alcohols under reaction conditions. Benzene, anisole, veratrole, and ortho-xylene lead exclusively to CF3-alkenes with an E-configuration. More π-donating polymethylated arenes (pseudocumene, mesitylene) afford only CF3-indanes with a predominantly cis-orientation of substituents at positions 1 and 3 of the indane ring. Meta- and para-xylenes show an intermediate behavior; they may form both CF3-alkenes and/or CF3-indanes. The mechanisms of the investigated transformations are discussed.

  10. Photo-induced oxidant-free oxidative C-H/N-H cross-coupling between arenes and azoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Linbin; Yi, Hong; Wang, Shengchun; Liu, Tianyi; Liu, Jiamei; Lei, Aiwen


    Direct cross-coupling between simple arenes and heterocyclic amines under mild conditions is undoubtedly important for C-N bonds construction. Selective C(sp2)-H amination is more valuable. Herein we show a selective C(sp2)-H amination of arenes (alkyl-substituted benzenes, biphenyl and anisole derivatives) accompanied by hydrogen evolution by using heterocyclic azoles as nitrogen sources. The reaction is selective for C(sp2)-H bonds, providing a mild route to N-arylazoles. The KIE (kinetic isotope effect) experiment reveals the cleavage of C-H bond is not involved in the rate-determining step. Kinetic studies indicate the first-order behaviour with respect to the arene component. It is interesting that this system works without the need for any sacrificial oxidant and is highly selective for C(sp2)-H activation, whereas C(sp3)-H bonds are unaffected. This study may have significant implications for the functionalization of methylarenes which are sensitive to oxidative conditions.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and intermolecular interactions in crystals of two p-tert-butylthiacalix[4]arene diisocyanide and diamine derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Sheng-Jie; Lv, Xue-Xin; Zhao, Mei; Ma, Jian-Ping; Guo, Dian-Shun


    The synthesis, the spectral characterization and the crystal structure of 25,27-bis(2-isocyanoethoxy)-5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-26,28-dihydroxythiacalix[4]arene and of the reaction intermediate 25,27-bis(2-aminoethoxy)-5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-26,28-dihydroxythiacalix[4]arene are here described. The target diisonitrile compound crystallizes in the triclinic system with space group P-1 while the diamine intermediate is trigonal with space group R-3. In both structures, the thiacalix[4]arene units adopt a broadly similar pinched cone conformation, where two aromatic rings bearing an ethereal group are almost parallel while two phenolic rings lie near-vertically. In the supramolecular structure of both molecules, various intermolecular interactions involving Csbnd H⋯O, Csbnd H⋯C, Csbnd H⋯π and weak Csbnd H⋯S interactions were found. Moreover, the Hirshfeld surface analysis of the target compound was made to further confirm the crystal packing driving forces.

  12. Photo-induced oxidant-free oxidative C–H/N–H cross-coupling between arenes and azoles

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Linbin; Yi, Hong; Wang, Shengchun; Liu, Tianyi; Liu, Jiamei; Lei, Aiwen


    Direct cross-coupling between simple arenes and heterocyclic amines under mild conditions is undoubtedly important for C–N bonds construction. Selective C(sp2)-H amination is more valuable. Herein we show a selective C(sp2)-H amination of arenes (alkyl-substituted benzenes, biphenyl and anisole derivatives) accompanied by hydrogen evolution by using heterocyclic azoles as nitrogen sources. The reaction is selective for C(sp2)-H bonds, providing a mild route to N-arylazoles. The KIE (kinetic isotope effect) experiment reveals the cleavage of C–H bond is not involved in the rate-determining step. Kinetic studies indicate the first-order behaviour with respect to the arene component. It is interesting that this system works without the need for any sacrificial oxidant and is highly selective for C(sp2)-H activation, whereas C(sp3)-H bonds are unaffected. This study may have significant implications for the functionalization of methylarenes which are sensitive to oxidative conditions. PMID:28145410

  13. Electropolymerization of a calix[4]arene modified by N-substituted pyrrole moieties. New sensitive layer for ionic electrochemical detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffenoir, A.; Bidan, G.


    A calix[4]arene modified by grafting N-substituted pyrrole moieties at the upper rim was synthetised. Electropolymerisation of this new calix[4]arene in a Bu4NClO4 (10-1 M) - CH3CN solution is described. The obtained film presents a rather stable electroactivity to electrochemical cycling but its growing is limited to a few monolayers. It's the first example of homopolymerisation of a calix[4]arene modified by electropolymerisable monomers. Un calix[4]arène modifié sur sa couronne supérieure par des pyrroles N-substitués a été synthétisé. Son électropolymérisation en milieu Bu4NClO4 (10-1 M) - CH3CN par balayage de potentiels est décrite. Le film obtenu présente une électroactivité assez stable au cyclage électrochimique mais sa croissance est limitée à quelques monocouches. C'est le premier exemple d'homopolymérisation d'un calix[4]arène modifié par des monomères électropolymérisables.

  14. Calix[6]arene bypasses human pancreatic cancer aggressiveness: downregulation of receptor tyrosine kinases and induction of cell death by reticulum stress and autophagy.


    Pelizzaro-Rocha, Karin Juliane; de Jesus, Marcelo Bispo; Ruela-de-Sousa, Roberta Regina; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Reis, Fabiano Souza; de Fátima, Angelo; Ferreira-Halder, Carmen Veríssima


    Pancreatic cancer ranks fourth among cancer-related causes of death in North America. Minimal progress has been made in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with late-stage tumors. Moreover, pancreatic cancer aggressiveness is closely related to high levels of pro-survival mediators, which can ultimately lead to rapid disease progression, resistance and metastasis. The main goal of this study was to define the mechanisms by which calix[6]arene, but not other calixarenes, efficiently decreases the aggressiveness of a drug resistant human pancreas carcinoma cell line (Panc-1). Calix[6]arene was more potent in reducing Panc-1 cell viability than gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil. In relation to the underlying mechanisms of cytotoxic effects, it led to cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase through downregulation of PIM1, CDK2, CDK4 and retinoblastoma proteins. Importantly, calix[6]arene abolished signal transduction of Mer and AXL tyrosine kinase receptors, both of which are usually overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. Accordingly, inhibition of PI3K and mTOR was also observed, and these proteins are positively modulated by Mer and AXL. Despite decreasing the phosphorylation of AKT at Thr308, calix[6]arene caused an increase in phosphorylation at Ser473. These findings in conjunction with increased BiP and IRE1-α provide a molecular basis explaining the capacity of calix[6]arene to trigger endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagic cell death. Our findings highlight calix[6]arene as a potential candidate for overcoming pancreatic cancer aggressiveness. Importantly, we provide evidence that calix[6]arene affects a broad array of key targets that are usually dysfunctional in pancreatic cancer, a highly desirable characteristic for chemotherapeutics.

  15. Studies on Mixed Monolayers and Langmuir-Blodgett Films of Schiff-Base Complex Cu(SBC(18))(2) and Calix


    Pang, Shufeng; Ye, Zhifeng; Li, Chun; Liang, Yingqiu


    Mixed monolayers of Schiff-base complex Cu(SBC(18))(2) with an octadecyl hydrocarbon chain and Calix[4]arene without a long alkyl chain at an air/water interface were studied in ultrapure water at different temperatures. Interface behavior and thermodynamic estimation of the mixed monolayer indicate that a strong intermolecular interaction exists between the mixed components (Cu(SBC(18))(2) and calix[4]arene) and the two-dimensional miscibility decreases with the molar fraction of Cu(SBC(18))(2). It is noticeable that the calix[4]arene monolayer can be transferred successfully onto solid substrates due to the introduction of Cu(SBC(18))(2). FTIR transmission and UV-Vis absorption spectra of mixed LB films provide further evidence of molecular interaction between the headgroups. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  16. Dye-sensitized solar cells with improved performance using cone-calix[4]arene based dyes.


    Tan, Li-Lin; Liu, Jun-Min; Li, Shao-Yong; Xiao, Li-Min; Kuang, Dai-Bin; Su, Cheng-Yong


    Three cone-calix[4]arene-based sensitizers (Calix-1-Calix-3) with multiple donor-π-acceptor (D-π-A) moieties are designed, synthesized, and applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Their photophysical and electrochemical properties are characterized by measuring UV/Vis absorption and emission spectra, cyclic voltammetry, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Calix-3 has excellent thermo- and photostability, as illustrated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and dye-aging tests, respectively. Importantly, a DSSC using the Calix-3 dye displays a conversion efficiency of 5.48 % in under standard AM 1.5 Global solar illumination conditions, much better than corresponding DSSCs that use the rod-shaped dye M-3 with a single D-π-A chain (3.56 %). The dyes offer advantages in terms of higher molar extinction coefficients, longer electron lifetimes, better stability, and stronger binding ability to TiO2 film. This is the first example of calixarene-based sensitizers for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

  17. Evaluation of Factors Affecting Cesium Extraction Performance by Calix[4]Arene Derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Rumppe, J.L.; Delmau, L.


    Novel aza-crown derivatives of dioctyloxy-calix[4]arene crown-6 were examined for their cesium extraction performance at different pH levels. These studies are of interest in addressing high-level waste tank remediation and the removal of 137Cs, a major contributor to heat and radiation generation. Preliminary studies were done to assess the performance of these calixarene compounds under varying conditions. Results showed an increase of cesium extraction with pH as well as expected trends in diluent effects and anion selectivity. Poor extraction performance of some aza-crown derivatives raised questions regarding the possibility of intramolecular hydrogen-bonding. A novel methylated derivative was used to address these questions. Additional experiments were conducted to determine the extraction effect on pH. Results indicate an increase in cesium extraction with pH, as shown in preliminary studies. Mono-aza derivatives were shown to exhibit better cesium extraction performance than their di-aza counterparts. The methylated derivative showed poorer extraction performance than the non-methylated derivative, indicating that completely removing the possibility of intramolecular hydrogen-bonding has negative effects on extraction performance. This suggests that the hydrogen-bonding facilitates anion co-extraction, which would lead to better overall extraction. Mono-aza derivatives were shown to cause unexpected changes in pH. This could possibly be attributed to protonation of the calix crown.

  18. P-Sulfocalix[6]arene as Nanocarrier for Controlled Delivery of Doxorubicin.


    Ostos, Francisco J; Lebrón, José A; Moyá, Maria L; López-López, Manuel; Sánchez, Antonio; Clavero, Amparo; García-Calderón, Clara B; Rosado, Iván V; López-Cornejo, Pilar


    Given the high toxicity of the anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin (DOX), it is relevant to search for nanocarriers that decrease the side effects of the drug and are able to transport it towards a therapeutic target Here, the encapsulation of DOX by p-sulfocalix[6]arene (calix) has been studied. The interaction of DOX with the macrocycle, as well as with DNA, has been investigated and the equilibrium constant for each binding process estimated. The results showed that the binding constant of DOX to DNA, KDNA , is three orders of magnitude higher than that to calix, Kcalix . The ability of calixarenes to encapsulate DOX molecules, as well as the capability of the DOX molecules included into the inner cavity of the macrocycle to bind with DNA have been examined. Cytotoxicity measurements were done in different cancer and normal cell lines to probe the decrease in the toxicity of the encapsulated DOX. The low toxicity of calixarenes has also been demonstrated for different cell lines.

  19. Supramolecular gels with high strength by tuning of calix[4]arene-derived networks

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Ha; Park, Jaehyeon; Park, Jin-Woo; Ahn, Hyo-Jun; Jaworski, Justyn; Jung, Jong Hwa


    Supramolecular gels comprised of low-molecular-weight gelators are generally regarded as mechanically weak and unable to support formation of free-standing structures, hence, their practical use with applied loads has been limited. Here, we reveal a technique for in situ generation of high tensile strength supramolecular hydrogels derived from low-molecular-weight gelators. By controlling the concentration of hydrochloric acid during hydrazone formation between calix-[4]arene-based gelator precursors, we tune the mechanical and ductile properties of the resulting gel. Organogels formed without hydrochloric acid exhibit impressive tensile strengths, higher than 40 MPa, which is the strongest among self-assembled gels. Hydrogels, prepared by solvent exchange of organogels in water, show 7,000- to 10,000-fold enhanced mechanical properties because of further hydrazone formation. This method of molding also allows the gels to retain shape after processing, and furthermore, we find organogels when prepared as gel electrolytes for lithium battery applications to have good ionic conductivity. PMID:25799459

  20. Azo calix[4]arene based neodymium(III)-selective PVC membrane sensor.


    Menon, Shobhana K; Modi, Nishith R; Patel, Bhargav; Patel, Manishkumar B


    We found that the PVC membrane, containing azo calix[4]arene is a suitable ionophore, exhibited a Nernstian response for neodymium (Nd(3+)) ions (with slope of 19.8±0.2 mV decade(-1) for the triply charged ion) over a wide linear range of 4.0×10(-8) to 1.0×10(-1) mol L(-1) with a detection limit 1.0×10(-8) mol L(-1), a relatively fast response time, in the whole concentration range (<10 s), and a considerable life time at least for four months in the pH range of 4.0-8.0. Furthermore, the electrode revealed high selectivity with respect to all the common alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions, including the members of the lanthanide family other than Nd(3+). Concerning its applications, it was effectively employed for the determination of neodymium ions in industrial waste water as well as in lake water.

  1. Biosensor for dopamine based on stabilized lipid films with incorporated resorcin[4]arene receptor.


    Nikolelis, Dimitrios P; Theoharis, George


    This work reports a technique for the stabilization after storage in air of a lipid film with incorporated resorcin[4]arene receptor based biosensor for dopamine. Microporous filters composed of glass fibers (nominal pore sizes, 0.7 and 1.0 microm) were used as supports for the formation and stabilization of these devices and the lipid film is formed on the filter by polymerization prior its use. Methacrylic acid was the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate was the crosslinker and 2,2'-azobis-(2-methylpropionitrile) was the initiator. The stability of the lipid films by incorporation of a receptor for the preparation of stabilized lipid film biosensor is studied throughout this work. The response towards dopamine of the present stabilized for repetitive uses lipid membrane biosensor composed of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid was compared with planar freely suspended bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs). The stabilized lipid membranes provided similar artificial ion gating events as BLMs in the form of transient signals and can function for repetitive uses after storage in air. However, the response of the stabilized lipid films was slower than that of the freely suspended BLMs. This will allow the practical use of the techniques for chemical sensing based on lipid films and commercialization of these devices, because it is now possible to prepare stabilized lipid film based biosensors and store them in the air.

  2. Styrene Purification by Guest-Induced Restructuring of Pillar[6]arene

    PubMed Central


    The separation of styrene (St) and ethylbenzene (EB) mixtures is important in the chemical industry. Here, we explore the St and EB adsorption selectivity of two pillar-shaped macrocyclic pillar[n]arenes (EtP5 and EtP6; n = 5 and 6). Both crystalline and amorphous EtP6 can capture St from a St-EB mixture with remarkably high selectivity. We show that EtP6 can be used to separate St from a 50:50 v/v St:EB mixture, yielding in a single adsorption cycle St with a purity of >99%. Single-crystal structures, powder X-ray diffraction patterns, and molecular simulations all suggest that this selectivity is due to a guest-induced structural change in EtP6 rather than a simple cavity/pore size effect. This restructuring means that the material “self-heals” upon each recrystallization, and St separation can be carried out over multiple cycles with no loss of performance. PMID:28182420

  3. Fabrication of calix[4]arene derivative monolayers to control orientation of antibody immobilization.


    Chen, Hongxia; Liu, Feng; Qi, Fangjie; Koh, Kwangnak; Wang, Keming


    Three calix[4]arene (Cal-4) derivatives which separately contain ethylester (1), carboxylic acid (2), and crownether (3) at the lower rim with a common reactive thiol at the upper rim were synthesized and constructed to self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Au films. After spectroscopic characterization of the monolayers, surface coverage and orientation of antibody immobilized on the Cal-4 derivative SAMs were studied by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique. Experimental results revealed that the antibody could be immobilized on the Cal-4 derivatives spontaneously. The orientation of absorbed antibody on the Cal-4 derivative SAMs is related to the SAM's dipole moment. The possible orientations of the antibody immobilized on the Cal-4 derivative 1 SAM are lying-on or side-on, while on the Cal-4 derivative 2 and Cal-4 derivative 3 head-on and end-on respectively. These experimental results demonstrate the surface dipole moment of Cal-4 derivative appears to be an important factor to antibody orientation. Cal-4 derivatives are useful in developing site direct protein chips.

  4. New oxo-bridged calix[2]arene[2]triazine stationary phase for high performance liquid chromatography.


    Zhao, Wenjie; Hu, Kai; Wang, Caijuan; Liang, Song; Niu, Bailin; He, Lijun; Lu, Kui; Ye, Baoxian; Zhang, Shusheng


    A new oxo-bridged calix[2]arene[2]triazine bonded stationary phase (OCATS) for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was prepared using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane as coupling reagent. The structure of new material was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. The chromatographic performance and retention mechanism of the new stationary phase were evaluated in reversed-phase mode compared with ODS using different solute probes including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mono-substituted benzenes, disubstituted benzene isomers. The new OCATS stationary phase could provide various interactions for different solutes, such as hydrophobic, hydrogen bonding, ππ and inclusion interactions. The synergistic effects resulting from aromatic rings, bridging oxygen atoms and triazine nitrogen atoms and alkyl linkers in the new material improved the separation selectivity by multiple retention mechanisms. The retention behaviors of the analytes on OCATS column were explained with the assistance of quantum chemistry calculation results using DFT-B3LYP/STO-3G* base group. The OCATS column was successfully employed for the analysis of melamine in infant formula.

  5. Direct C-H arene homocoupling over gold nanoparticles supported on metal oxides.


    Ishida, Tamao; Aikawa, Shohei; Mise, Yoshiyuki; Akebi, Ryota; Hamasaki, Akiyuki; Honma, Tetsuo; Ohashi, Hironori; Tsuji, Tetsuro; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Miyasaka, Mitsuru; Yokoyama, Takushi; Tokunaga, Makoto


    The direct CH/CH bond coupling of dimethyl phthalate was performed successfully over supported gold nanoparticle catalysts. Gold on reducible metal oxides, such as Co3 O4 , and on inert oxides that have an oxygen-releasing capacity, such as ZrO2 , showed the highest catalytic activity for the production of biphenyl tetracarboxylate using O2 as the sole oxidant. Supported Pd(OH)2 also catalyzed the reaction, but the catalytic activity was inferior to that of gold. Moreover, the gold catalysts exhibited excellent regioselectivity for the synthesis of valuable 3,3',4,4'-tetrasubstituted biphenyls by coupling with each other at the 4-position without the need for additional ligands. Gold catalysts also promoted the oxidative homocoupling of arenes including o-xylene to give symmetrical biaryls with high regioselectivity. X-ray absorption fine structure measurements revealed that the catalytically active species was Au(0) and that the lattice oxygen of Co3 O4 played an important role in the gold-catalyzed oxidative coupling. The results of the kinetic studies were consistent with an electrophilic aromatic substitution pathway. Regioselectivity is not controlled by directing groups or the electronic character of the substituents but by steric hindrance, which suggests that gold nanoparticles not only catalyze the oxidative coupling but also act as bulky ligands to control the regioselectivity.

  6. New organoruthenium complexes with bioactive thiosemicarbazones as co-ligands: potential anti-trypanosomal agents†

    PubMed Central

    Demoro, Bruno; Sarniguet, Cynthia; Sánchez-Delgado, Roberto; Rossi, Miriam; Liebowitz, Daniel; Caruso, Francesco; Olea-Azar, Claudio; Moreno, Virtudes; Medeiros, Andrea; Comini, Marcelo A.; Otero, Lucía; Gambino, Dinorah


    In the search for new therapeutic tools against neglected diseases produced by trypanosomatid parasites, and particularly against African Trypanosomiasis, whose etiological agent is Trypanosoma brucei, organoruthenium compounds with bioactive nitrofuran containing thiosemicarbazones (L) as co-ligands were obtained. Four ruthenium(ii) complexes with the formula [Ru2(p-cymene)2(L)2]X2, where X = Cl or PF6, were synthesized and the crystal structures of two of them were solved by X-ray diffraction methods. Two of the complexes show significant in vitro growth inhibition activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei and are highly selective towards trypanosomal cells with respect to mammalian cells (J774 murine macrophages). These promising results make the title organoruthenium compounds good lead candidates for further developments towards potential antitrypanosomal organometallic drugs. PMID:22138896

  7. Charge Storage Effect on In2O3 Nanowires with Ruthenium Complex Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Insung; Lee, Junghyun; Jo, Gunho; Seo, Kyoungja; Choi, Nak-Jin; Lee, Takhee; Lee, Hyoyoung


    Charge storage effect on In2O3 nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs) is controlled by a chemical gate, ruthenium(II) terpyridine (RuII-tpy) complex molecules. In2O3 nanowire FETs functionalized with a self-assembled monolayer of the molecules exhibit large hysteretic characteristics with regard to source-drain current vs gate voltage characteristics. The devices are operated with reversible switching behavior at gate voltage cycles of writing, reading, erasing, and reading, and their retention time is in excess of 1000 s. These results reveal that the reversible chemical reaction (i.e., oxidation and reduction of the molecules) of RuII-tpy complexes produces a charging/discharging process of In2O3 nanowire FETs.

  8. Ruthenium complexes as inhibitors of the aldo-keto reductases AKR1C1-1C3.


    Traven, Katja; Sinreih, Maša; Stojan, Jure; Seršen, Sara; Kljun, Jakob; Bezenšek, Jure; Stanovnik, Branko; Turel, Iztok; Rižner, Tea Lanišnik


    The human aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) from the 1C subfamily are important targets for the development of new drugs. In this study, we have investigated the possible interactions between the recombinant AKR1C enzymes AKR1C1-AKR1C3 and ruthenium(II) complexes; in particular, we were interested in the potential inhibitory actions. Five novel ruthenium complexes (1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 2c), two precursor ruthenium compounds (P1, P2), and three ligands (a, b, c) were prepared and included in this study. Two different types of novel ruthenium(II) complexes were synthesized. First, bearing the sulphur macrocycle [9]aneS3, S-bonded dimethylsulphoxide (dmso-S), and an N,N-donor ligand, with the general formula of [Ru([9]aneS3)(dmso)(N,N-ligand)](PF6)2 (1a, 1b), and second, with the general formula of [(η(6)-p-cymene)RuCl(N,N-ligand)]Cl (2a, 2b, 2c). All of these synthesized compounds were characterized by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography (compounds a, b, c, 1a, 1b) and other standard physicochemical methods. To evaluate the potential inhibitory actions of these compounds on the AKR1C enzymes, we followed enzymatically catalyzed oxidation of the substrate 1-acenaphthenol by NAD(+) in the absence and presence of various micromolar concentrations of the individual compounds. Among 10 compounds, one ruthenium complex (2b) and two precursor ruthenium compounds (P1, P2) inhibited all three AKR1C enzymes, and one ruthenium complex (2a) inhibited only AKR1C3. Ligands a, b and c revealed no inhibition of the AKR1C enzymes. All four of the active compounds showed multiple binding with the AKR1C enzymes that was characterized by an initial instantaneous inhibition followed by a slow quasi-irreversible step. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that has examined interactions between these AKR1C enzymes and ruthenium(II) complexes.

  9. Impedimetric Sensing Proprieties of ITO Electrodes Functionalized with PEDOT:PSS/Azo-Calix[4]Arene for the Detection of Al3+ Ions Under Light Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echabaane, M.; Rouis, A.; Mahjoub, M. A.; Bonnamour, I.; Ben Ouada, H.


    This study describes an investigation of the sensitivity of the azo-calix[4]arene/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly-(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) thin film deposited on the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode surface toward aluminum ions (Al3+) under light excitation. Thin films were deposited by the spin-coating technique. Adhesion of these films to the ITO surface was highlighted by performing contact angle measurements. Then, interfaces of the azo-calix[4]arene/PEDOT:PSS thin film were characterized by impedance measurements using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Obtained impedance spectra were fitted using an equivalent circuit. Finally, evolutions of the different components of this circuit were studied. These evolutions show that the sensitivity of the azo-calix[4]arene/PEDOT:PSS/ITO electrode is remarkably improved under illumination.

  10. Absorption Spectrum of a Ru(II)-Aquo Complex in Vacuo: Resolving Individual Charge-Transfer Transitions.


    Xu, Shuang; Weber, J Mathias


    Ruthenium(II) complexes are of great interest as homogeneous catalysts and as photosensitizers; however, their absorption spectra are typically very broad and offer only little insight into their electronic structure. We present the electronic spectrum of the aquo complex [(trpy)(bipy)Ru(II)-OH2](2+) measured by photodissociation spectroscopy of mass-selected ions in vacuo (bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine and trpy = 2,2':6',2″-terpyridine). In the visible and near-UV, [(trpy)(bipy)Ru(II)-OH2](2+) has several electronic bands that are not resolved in absorption spectra of this complex in solution but are partially resolved in vacuo. The experimental results are compared with results from time-dependent density functional theory calculations.

  11. p-Sulfonic Acid Calix[4]arene as an Efficient Catalyst for One-Pot Synthesis of Pharmaceutically Significant Coumarin Derivatives under Solvent-Free Condition

    PubMed Central

    Tashakkorian, Hamed; Lakouraj, Moslem Mansour; Rouhi, Mona


    One-pot and efficient protocol for preparation of some potent pharmaceutically valuable coumarin derivatives under solvent-free condition via direct coupling using biologically nontoxic organocatalyst, calix[4]arene tetrasulfonic acid (CSA), was introduced. Calix[4]arene sulfonic acid has been incorporated lately as a magnificent and recyclable organocatalyst for the synthesis of some organic compounds. Nontoxicity, solvent-free conditions, good-to-excellent yields for pharmaceutically significant structures, and especially ease of catalyst recovery make this procedure valuable and environmentally benign. PMID:26798517

  12. DFT/TDDFT investigation on the chemical reactivities, aromatic properties, and UV-Vis absorption spectra of 1-butoxy-4-methoxybenzenepillar[5]arene constitutional isomers.


    Zhang, Jian; Ren, Shuqing


    We investigate the chemical reactivities, aromatic properties, and UV-Vis absorption spectra of four constitutional isomers of 1-butoxy-4-methoxybenzenepillar[5]arene with the DFT and TDDFT methods. These characteristics in the gas and solvent phases are discussed on the basis of electronic energy, the highest occupied molecular orbital energy, electrophilicity, global hardness, chemical potential, and nucleus-independent chemical shift. The out-of-plane component of the NICS values reveals that there is a great contrast between aromatic rings of the isomer and benzene. The most intense wavelengths of BMpillar[5]arenes are all made up of delocalized-delocalized π → π* transition.

  13. A surprising substituent effect provides a superior boronic acid catalyst for mild and metal-free direct Friedel-Crafts alkylations and prenylations of neutral arenes.


    Ricardo, Carolynne L; Mo, Xiaobin; McCubbin, J Adam; Hall, Dennis G


    The development of more general and efficient catalytic processes for Friedel-Crafts alkylations is an important objective of interest toward the production of pharmaceuticals and commodity chemicals. Herein, 2,3,4,5-tetrafluorophenylboronic acid was identified as a potent air- and moisture-tolerant metal-free catalyst that significantly improves the scope of direct Friedel-Crafts alkylations of a variety of slightly activated and neutral arenes, including polyarenes, with allylic and benzylic alcohols. This method also provides a simple alternative for the direct installation of prenyl units commonly found in naturally occurring arenes. Alkylations with benzylic alcohols occur under exceptionally mild conditions.

  14. A sugar-functionalized amphiphilic pillar[5]arene: synthesis, self-assembly in water, and application in bacterial cell agglutination.


    Yu, Guocan; Ma, Yingjie; Han, Chengyou; Yao, Yong; Tang, Guping; Mao, Zhengwei; Gao, Changyou; Huang, Feihe


    A novel sugar-functionalized amphiphilic pillar[5]arene containing galactose groups as the hydrophlic part and alkyl chains as the hydrophobic part was designed and synthesized. It self-assembles in water to produce nanotubes as confirmed by TEM, SEM, and fluorescence microscopy. These nanotubes, showing low toxicity to both cancer and normal cells, can be utilized as excellent cell glues to agglutinate E. coli. The existence of galactoses on these nanotubes provides multivalent ligands that have high affinity for carbohydrate receptors on E. coli.

  15. In situ Formation and Electron-Spectroscopic Study of Bis(arene) V and Cr Compounds ona Graphite Surface

    DTIC Science & Technology


    free molecule. Electron transfer to the substrate was indicated by the decrease in the sample work function (/S), due to the formation of a dipole... layer or for the free molecule (Fig. 1). Hole doping is considered unlikely for the present systems. A calculation for the [CrBz2] anion (not shown...due to the clustering22,23 of unreacted TM atoms. IV. CONCLUSIONS In summary, thin bis(arene)TM layers on HOPG have been formed in situ in an UHV

  16. Hierarchical assembly of extended coordination networks constructed by novel metallacalix[4]arenes building blocks.


    Li, Xia; Wu, Benlai; Wang, Ruiying; Zhang, Hongyun; Niu, Caoyuan; Niu, Yunyin; Hou, Hongwei


    Five interesting metal-organic nanostructures and networks, [Ni(4)(HL)(4)(bpy)(py)(H(2)O)(5)](2) x 0.5 H(2)O (1), [Co(4)(HL)(4)(bpy)(py)(H(2)O)(5)](2) x 0.5 H(2)O (2), [Ni(4)(HL)(4)(H(2)O)(7)](n) x nH(2)O (3), [Ni(4)(HL)(4)(bpy)(2)(H(2)O)(4)](n) (4), and [Cd(4)(HL)(4)(H(2)O)](n) (5), were synthesized hydrothermally [H(3)L = 2-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-imidazole-4,5-dicarboxylate acid, py = pyridine, and bpy = 4,4'-bipyridine]. Intriguingly, all compounds consist of novel metallacalix[4]arene building blocks M(4)(HL)(4), where doubly deprotonated HL in the same bichelating fashion of mu-kN,N':kO,N'' displays a strong coordination orientation by cooperation of the 4,5-imidazoledicarboxylate and 2-pyridyl groups. Very interestingly, the symmetry of M(4)(HL)(4) and the linkage styles between metal nodes and HL in M(4)(HL)(4) are sensitive to the reaction conditions, and the resulting structural motifs vary with secondary ligands and metal nodes. In 1 and 2, two C(1)-symmetric M(4)(HL)(4) units are bpy-bridged into dimeric chiral nanomolecules with two different cavities. As deprotonated with NaOH, the combination of Ni(II) and HL forms a pseudo-S(4)- or S(4)-symmetric M(4)(HL)(4), which further assembles into 1D chiral crystals 3 or rare 3D crystals 4 of bpy-bridged 5-fold interpenetrating diamondoid architecture with metallacalix[4]arene building blocks as novel 4-connecting nodes, and the combination of Cd(II) and HL forms an 8-connected C(2)-symmetric M(4)(HL)(4) that fabricates the alpha-Po net of 5. Notably, those large M(4)(HL)(4) units are potentially highly connected building blocks in a hierarchical assembly of metal-organic networks. Magnetic studies disclose antiferromagnetic interactions in M(4)(HL)(4) of 1-4. The magnetic data for 1, 3, and 4, all containing isomeric Ni(4)(HL)(4) units, are analyzed by an equilateral quadrangle isotropic model combined with the molecular-field approximation with J = -4.00(2), -3.39(2), and -2.72(3) cm(-1), respectively, presenting

  17. Insights into the binding properties of a cuprous ion embedded in the tren cap of a calix[6]arene and supramolecular trapping of an intermediate.


    Izzet, Guillaume; Rager, Marie-Noëlle; Reinaud, Olivia


    Coordination of Cu(I) to a tren unit that is covalently linked to a calix[6]arene has been explored. The resulting complex revealed itself very stable in solution under an inert atmosphere, but extremely sensitive to O2 in solution as well as in the solid state. Therefore, its binding properties towards non-redox ligands have been studied in detail. The electron-rich metal center displays moderate affinity for nitrilo ligands compared to the calix[6]tris-pyridine ligand. Indeed, the binding enthalpy with acetonitrile is only -30 kJ mol(-1), whereas it is -72 kJ mol(-1) with the tris-pyridine system. In contrast, CO binding is relatively strong due to important pi-back donation from the metal center, as evidenced by the CO stretch, which was found to be less energetic (2075 cm(-1)) than that measured for ligands based on aromatic donors such as imidazole or pyridine. The conformational and dynamic properties of this calix-system have also been studied in detail. With an empty cavity or with the very small CO guest-ligand, the calix-core undergoes partial self-inclusion leading to dissymmetrical conformations. In contrast, nitrilo ligands act as "shoe-trees" that maintain the calix-core in a C(3v) symmetrical cone conformation. Very interestingly, the variable T study relative to the ligand exchange process highlighted a two-step dissociative pathway, where Cu-N bond cleavage/formation is differentiated from the nitrilo guest expulsion/inclusion from/into the calixarene cavity.

  18. Towards the design of novel boron- and nitrogen-substituted ammonia-borane and bifunctional arene ruthenium catalysts for hydrogen storage.


    Bandaru, Sateesh; English, Niall J; Phillips, Andrew D; MacElroy, J M D


    Electronic-structure density functional theory calculations have been performed to construct the potential energy surface for H2 release from ammonia-borane, with a novel bifunctional cationic ruthenium catalyst based on the sterically bulky β-diketiminato ligand (Schreiber et al., ACS Catal. 2012, 2, 2505). The focus is on identifying both a suitable substitution pattern for ammonia-borane optimized for chemical hydrogen storage and allowing for low-energy dehydrogenation. The interaction of ammonia-borane, and related substituted ammonia-boranes, with a bifunctional η(6)-arene ruthenium catalyst and associated variants is investigated for dehydrogenation. Interestingly, in a number of cases, hydride-proton transfer from the substituted ammonia-borane to the catalyst undergoes a barrier-less process in the gas phase, with rapid formation of hydrogenated catalyst in the gas phase. Amongst the catalysts considered, N,N-difluoro ammonia-borane and N-phenyl ammonia-borane systems resulted in negative activation energy barriers. However, these types of ammonia-boranes are inherently thermodynamically unstable and undergo barrierless decay in the gas phase. Apart from N,N-difluoro ammonia-borane, the interaction between different types of catalyst and ammonia borane was modeled in the solvent phase, revealing free-energy barriers slightly higher than those in the gas phase. Amongst the various potential candidate Ru-complexes screened, few are found to differ in terms of efficiency for the dehydrogenation (rate-limiting) step. To model dehydrogenation more accurately, a selection of explicit protic solvent molecules was considered, with the goal of lowering energy barriers for H-H recombination. It was found that primary (1°), 2°, and 3° alcohols are the most suitable to enhance reaction rate.

  19. Luminescence-Functionalized Metal-Organic Frameworks Based on a Ruthenium(II) Complex: A Signal Amplification Strategy for Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence Immunosensors.


    Xiong, Cheng-Yi; Wang, Hai-Jun; Liang, Wen-Bin; Yuan, Ya-Li; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Ya-Qin


    Novel luminescence-functionalized metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with superior electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) properties were synthesized based on zinc ions as the central ions and tris(4,4'-dicarboxylicacid-2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) dichloride ([Ru(dcbpy)3](2+)) as the ligands. For potential applications, the synthesized MOFs were used to fabricate a "signal-on" ECL immunosensor for the detection of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). As expected, enhanced ECL signals were obtained through a simple fabrication strategy because luminescence-functionalized MOFs not only effectively increased the loading of [Ru(dcbpy)3](2+), but also served as a loading platform in the ECL immunosensor. Furthermore, the proposed ECL immunosensor had a wide linear range from 5 pg mL(-1) to 25 ng mL(-1) and a relatively low detection limit of 1.67 pg mL(-1) (signal/noise=3). The results indicated that luminescence-functionalized MOFs provided a novel amplification strategy in the construction of ECL immunosensors and might have great prospects for application in bioanalysis.

  20. Photosensitization of different ruthenium(II) complex dyes on TiO 2 for photocatalytic H 2 evolution under visible-light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Tianyou; Dai, Ke; Yi, Huabing; Ke, Dingning; Cai, Ping; Zan, Ling


    Hydrogen production over dye-sensitized Pt/P25 under visible-light irradiation was investigated by using methanol or TEOA as an electron donor. Ru 2(bpy) 4L 1-PF 6 shows the best photosensitization due to its largest conjugation system, widest range of visible-light and 'antenna effect' among the used three Ru(II)-bipyridyl dyes. Ru 2(bpy) 4L 1-PF 6 loosely linked with TiO 2 also exhibit more steady and higher increases in H 2 evolution upon prolonging the irradiation time than the tightly linked N719. The dynamic equilibrium between the linkage of ground dye and divorce of oxidized dye from TiO 2 can enhance the electron-injection and hinder the backward transfer, and then improve the H 2 evolution efficiency.