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Sample records for rutin

  1. Protecting fibrinogen with rutin during UVC irradiation for viral inactivation.

    PubMed

    Marx, G; Mou, X; Freed, R; Ben-Hur, E; Yang, C; Horowitz, B

    1996-04-01

    Fibrinogen solutions were irradiated with UVC (254 nm) to inactivate contaminating viruses. In order to protect fibrinogen during UVC irradiation, 0.5 mM rutin was added prior to UVC exposure and subsequently removed during processing. Viral kill by 0.1 J/cm2 UVC resulted in the following inactivation values (log 10): non-lipid-enveloped viruses: Parvo > or = 5.5; encephalomyocarditis virus > or = 6.5; hepatitis A virus > or = 6.5: lipid-enveloped viruses: human immunodeficiency virus > or = 5.7; vesicular stomatitis virus > or = 5.7. Fibrinogen irradiated with 0.5 mM rutin did not significantly differ from unirradiated material in terms of clot time and breaking strength. In the absence of rutin, UVC irradiation of fibrinogen at similar fluence led to loss of solubility, increased clot time and the cleavage of fibrino-peptides that reacted with dinitrophenyl hydrazine as a test for ketonic carbonyl groups. High-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry data showed that rutin exposed to UVC formed numerous breakdown, oxidation and combinational products. Experiments with 3H-rutin showed that after UVC irradiation, subsequent processing by a C18 resin and alcohol precipitation removed > 99% rutin, representing < 10 ppm rutin in the final fibrinogen preparations. Residual 3H-rutin was not covalently bonded to the fibrinogen. Immunochemical studies with rabbit antisera to UVC irradiated (with rutin) fibrinogen showed the absence of neoimmungens. By all measures, rutin prevents fibrinogen degradation during virucidal UVC irradiation.

  2. Hormetic efficacy of rutin to promote longevity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Chitnis, Atith; Talekar, Aishwarya; Mulay, Prajakta; Makkar, Manyata; James, Joel; Thirumurugan, Kavitha

    2017-04-07

    Hormetins are compounds that mediate hormesis by being beneficial at low doses but detrimental at high doses. Recent studies have highlighted that many compounds that extended lifespan in model organisms did so by mediating hormesis. Rutin is a glycosylate conjugate of quercetin and rutinose and is abundant in citrus fruits and buckwheat seeds. Rutin possess ROS scavenging, anti-cancer, cardio-protective, skin-regenerative and neuro-protective properties. Drosophila melanogaster is an attractive model organism for longevity studies owing to its homology of organ and cellular-pathways with mammals. In this study, we aimed to understand the effect of rutin on extending longevity in Drosophila melanogaster. Male and female flies were administered with a range of rutin doses (100-800 µM) to analyse whether rutin mediated lifespan-extension by hormesis. Effect of rutin on physiological parameters like food intake, fecundity, climbing activity, development and resistance to various stresses was also studied. Lifespan assays showed that rutin at 200 and 400 µM significantly extended median lifespan in both male and female flies beyond which flies exhibited drastically reduced longevity. Increase in survival at 400 µM was associated with reduced food intake and fecundity. Flies exhibited improved climbing capability with both 200 and 400 µM rutin. Flies fed with 100 and 200 µM rutin exhibited enhanced survival upon exposure to oxidative stress with 400 µM rutin exhibiting no improvement in median lifespan following oxidative stress. Analysis of endogenous peroxide upon treatment with rutin (100-400 µM) with or without 5% H2O2 showed elevated levels of endogenous peroxide with 400 µM rutin whereas no increase in hydrogen peroxide level was observed with rutin at 100 and 200 µM. Finally, gene expression studies in male flies revealed that rutin treatment at 200 and/or 400 µM elevated transcript levels of dFoxO, MnSod, Cat, dTsc1, dTsc2, Thor, dAtg1, dAtg5

  3. Computational molecular characterization of the flavonoid rutin

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we make use of a model chemistry within Density Functional Theory (DFT) recently presented, which is called M05-2X, to calculate the molecular structure of the flavonoid Rutin, as well as to predict the infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV-Vis) spectra, the dipole moment and polarizability, the free energy of solvation in different solvents as an indication of solubility, the HOMO and LUMO orbitals, and the chemical reactivity parameters that arise from Conceptual DFT. The calculated values are compared with the available experimental data for this molecule as a means of validation of the used model chemistry. PMID:20569488

  4. Rutin suppresses atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Kyeong; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2013-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common allergic inflammatory skin disease caused by a combination of eczematous, scratching, pruritus and cutaneous sensitization with allergens. The aim of our study was to examine whether rutin, a predominant flavonoid having anti-inflammatory and antioxidative potential, modulates AD and ACD symptoms. We established an atopic dermatitis model in BALB/c mice by repeated local exposure of house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae) extract (DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to the ears. In addition, 2,4-dinitroflourobenzene-sensitized a local lymph node assay was used for the ACD model. Repeated alternative treatment of DFE/DNCB caused AD symptoms. Topical application of rutin reduced AD based on ear thickness and histopathological analysis, in addition to serum IgE levels. Rutin inhibited mast cell infiltration into the ear and serum histamine level. Rutin suppressed DFE/DNCB-induced expression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-31, IL-32 and interferon (INF)-γ in the tissue. In addition, rutin suppressed ACD based on ear thickness and lymphocyte proliferation, serum IgG2a levels, and expression of INF-γ, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-17 and tumour necrosis factor-α in ACD ears. This study demonstrates that rutin inhibits AD and ACD, suggesting that rutin might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic skin diseases.

  5. Spectroscopic study on binding of rutin to human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastukhov, Alexander V.; Levchenko, Lidiya A.; Sadkov, Anatoli P.

    2007-10-01

    Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy techniques were used to study the interaction of the flavonoid rutin with human serum albumin (HSA) as well as spectral properties of the protein-bound flavonoid. Both quenching of the intrinsic fluorescence of the protein (Trp214) and the ligand fluorescence, appearing upon complexation with HSA, were used to determine binding parameters. The binding constant determined from the quenching of the Trp214 fluorescence by rutin is equal to 6.87 ± 0.22 × 10 4 M -1 and that obtained from the fluorescence of HSA-bound rutin is 3.8 ± 0.4 × 10 4 M -1. Based on the Job plot analysis, the 1:1 binding stoichiometry for the HSA-rutin complex was determined. The efficient quenching of the Trp214 fluorescence by rutin, fluorescence resonance energy transfer from excited Trp214 to rutin, and competitive binding of warfarin indicate that the binding site for the flavonoid is situated within subdomain IIA of HSA. The presence of the sugar moiety in the flavonoid molecule reduces affinity of rutin for binding to HSA but does not affect the binding stoichiometry and location of the binding site compared with aglycone analogues.

  6. Reduction of rutin loss in buckwheat noodles and their physicochemical characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rutin in buckwheat flour is converted into quercetin by rutin-degrading enzymes when water is added. Thus, buckwheat was subjected to hydrothermal treatments for minimizing the rutin loss in buckwheat-based foods by water addition. When native buckwheat flour was mixed with water, the rutin conten...

  7. Biotransformation of Rutin Using Crude Enzyme from Rhodopseudomonas palustris.

    PubMed

    Guan, Chun-Jie; Ji, Yu-Jia; Hu, Jia-Lin; Hu, Chao-Nan; Yang, Fei; Yang, Guan-E

    2017-04-01

    Rhodopseudomonas palustris was selected for the ability to grow in diglycosylated flavonoids-based media, exhibited deglycosylation activity. The present study aimed to investigate the ability of a crude enzyme from Rhodopseudomonas palustris to transform rutin. Our results showed the crude enzyme was found to transform rutin to quercetin via isoquercitrin. The maximum enzyme activities were observed at pH 7.0, 25 °C, and rutin concentration of 1.0 mg mL(- 1). Under optimal conditions, 13.11 μM rutin was biotransformed into 6.86 μM isoquercitrin and 11.64 μM quercetin after 11 and 21 h, respectively. The study demonstrates an eco-friendly and potential economically viable 'green' conversion route to convert rutin to isoquercitrin and quercetin, which is of great interest, considering the therapeutic applications of isoquercitrin and quercetin. The specific biotransformation of rutin to isoquercitrin and quercetin, using the crude enzyme from Rhodopseudomonas palustris, may potentially serve as a new method for industrial production of isoquercitrin and quercetin.

  8. Rutin inhibits amylin-induced neurocytotoxicity and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Lin; Li, Ya-Nan; Zhang, He; Su, Ya-Jing; Zhou, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Zi-Ping; Wang, Shao-Wei; Xu, Peng-Xin; Wang, Yu-Jiong; Liu, Rui-Tian

    2015-10-01

    Recent evidence showed that amylin deposition is not only found in the pancreas in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, but also in other peripheral organs, such as kidneys, heart and brain. Circulating amylin oligomers that cross the blood-brain barrier and accumulate in the brain may be an important contributor to diabetic cerebral injury and neurodegeneration. Moreover, increasing epidemiological studies indicate that there is a significant association between T2DM and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amylin and β-amyloid (Aβ) may share common pathophysiology and show strikingly similar neurotoxicity profiles in the brain. To explore the potential effects of rutin on AD, we here investigated the effect of rutin on amylin aggregation by thioflavin T dyeing, evaluated the effect of rutin on amylin-induced neurocytotoxicity by the MTT assay, and assessed oxidative stress, as well as the generation of nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines in neuronal cells. Our results showed that the flavonoid antioxidant rutin inhibited amylin-induced neurocytotoxicity, decreased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), NO, glutathione disulfide (GSSG), malondialdehyde (MDA) and pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β, attenuated mitochondrial damage and increased the GSH/GSSG ratio. These protective effects of rutin may have resulted from its ability to inhibit amylin aggregation, enhance the antioxidant enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduce inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity. These in vitro results indicate that rutin is a promising natural product for protecting neuronal cells from amylin-induced neurotoxicity and oxidative stress, and rutin administration could be a feasible therapeutic strategy for preventing AD development and protecting the aging brain or slowing neurodegenerative processes.

  9. Rutin attenuates ethanol-induced neurotoxicity in hippocampal neuronal cells by increasing aldehyde dehydrogenase 2.

    PubMed

    Song, Kibbeum; Kim, Sokho; Na, Ji-Young; Park, Jong-Heum; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kwon, Jungkee

    2014-10-01

    Rutin is derived from buckwheat, apples, and black tea. It has been shown to have beneficial anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Ethanol is a central nervous system depressant and neurotoxin. Its metabolite, acetaldehyde, is critically toxic. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) metabolizes acetaldehyde into nontoxic acetate. This study examined rutin's effects on ALDH2 activity in hippocampal neuronal cells (HT22 cells). Rutin's protective effects against acetaldehyde-based ethanol neurotoxicity were confirmed. Daidzin, an ALDH2 inhibitor, was used to clarify the mechanisms of rutin's protective effects. Cell viability was significantly increased after rutin treatment. Rutin significantly reversed ethanol-increased Bax, cytochrome c expression and caspase 3 activity, and decreased Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein expression in HT22 cells. Interestingly, rutin increased ALDH2 expression, while daidzin reversed this beneficial effect. Thus, this study demonstrates rutin protects HT22 cells against ethanol-induced neurotoxicity by increasing ALDH2 activity.

  10. Role of Rutin on Nitric Oxide Synthesis in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Zaiton; Chua, Kien Hui; Megat Mohd Nordin, Nor Anita; Abdullah Mahdy, Zaleha

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), is a major antiatherogenic factor in the blood vessel. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. Decreased availability of endothelial NO promotes the progression of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Rutin is a flavonoid with multiple cardiovascular protective effects. This study aimed to investigate the effects of rutin on eNOS and NO production in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). HUVEC were divided into four groups: control; oxidative stress induction with 180 μM H2O2; treatment with 300 μM rutin; and concomitant induction with rutin and H2O2 for 24 hours. HUVEC treated with rutin produced higher amount of NO compared to control (P < 0.01). In the oxidative stress-induced HUVEC, rutin successfully induced cells' NO production (P < 0.01). Rutin promoted NO production in HUVEC by inducing eNOS gene expression (P < 0.05), eNOS protein synthesis (P < 0.01), and eNOS activity (P < 0.05). Treatment with rutin also led to increased gene and protein expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in HUVEC. Therefore, upregulation of eNOS expression by rutin may be mediated by bFGF. The results showed that rutin may improve endothelial function by augmenting NO production in human endothelial cells. PMID:25093198

  11. Flavonoid Rutin Increases Thyroid Iodide Uptake in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lima Gonçalves, Carlos Frederico; de Souza dos Santos, Maria Carolina; Ginabreda, Maria Gloria; Soares Fortunato, Rodrigo; Pires de Carvalho, Denise; Freitas Ferreira, Andrea Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid iodide uptake through the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) is not only an essential step for thyroid hormones biosynthesis, but also fundamental for the diagnosis and treatment of different thyroid diseases. However, part of patients with thyroid cancer is refractory to radioiodine therapy, due to reduced ability to uptake iodide, which greatly reduces the chances of survival. Therefore, compounds able to increase thyroid iodide uptake are of great interest. It has been shown that some flavonoids are able to increase iodide uptake and NIS expression in vitro, however, data in vivo are lacking. Flavonoids are polyhydroxyphenolic compounds, found in vegetables present in human diet, and have been shown not only to modulate NIS, but also thyroperoxidase (TPO), the key enzyme in thyroid hormones biosynthesis, besides having antiproliferative effect in thyroid cancer cell lines. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of some flavonoids on thyroid iodide uptake in Wistar rats in vivo. Among the flavonoids tested, rutin was the only one able to increase thyroid iodide uptake, so we decided to evaluate the effect of this flavonoid on some aspects of thyroid hormones synthesis and metabolism. Rutin led to a slight reduction of serum T4 and T3 without changes in serum thyrotropin (TSH), and significantly increased hypothalamic, pituitary and brown adipose tissue type 2 deiodinase and decreased liver type 1 deiodinase activities. Moreover, rutin treatment increased thyroid iodide uptake probably due to the increment of NIS expression, which might be secondary to increased response to TSH, since TSH receptor expression was increased. Thus, rutin might be useful as an adjuvant in radioiodine therapy, since this flavonoid increased thyroid iodide uptake without greatly affecting thyroid function. PMID:24023911

  12. Flavonoid rutin increases thyroid iodide uptake in rats.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Carlos Frederico Lima; Lima Gonçalves, Carlos Frederico; Santos, Maria Carolina de Souza dos; de Souza dos Santos, Maria Carolina; Ginabreda, Maria Gloria; Fortunato, Rodrigo Soares; Soares Fortunato, Rodrigo; Carvalho, Denise Pires de; Pires de Carvalho, Denise; Freitas Ferreira, Andrea Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid iodide uptake through the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) is not only an essential step for thyroid hormones biosynthesis, but also fundamental for the diagnosis and treatment of different thyroid diseases. However, part of patients with thyroid cancer is refractory to radioiodine therapy, due to reduced ability to uptake iodide, which greatly reduces the chances of survival. Therefore, compounds able to increase thyroid iodide uptake are of great interest. It has been shown that some flavonoids are able to increase iodide uptake and NIS expression in vitro, however, data in vivo are lacking. Flavonoids are polyhydroxyphenolic compounds, found in vegetables present in human diet, and have been shown not only to modulate NIS, but also thyroperoxidase (TPO), the key enzyme in thyroid hormones biosynthesis, besides having antiproliferative effect in thyroid cancer cell lines. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of some flavonoids on thyroid iodide uptake in Wistar rats in vivo. Among the flavonoids tested, rutin was the only one able to increase thyroid iodide uptake, so we decided to evaluate the effect of this flavonoid on some aspects of thyroid hormones synthesis and metabolism. Rutin led to a slight reduction of serum T4 and T3 without changes in serum thyrotropin (TSH), and significantly increased hypothalamic, pituitary and brown adipose tissue type 2 deiodinase and decreased liver type 1 deiodinase activities. Moreover, rutin treatment increased thyroid iodide uptake probably due to the increment of NIS expression, which might be secondary to increased response to TSH, since TSH receptor expression was increased. Thus, rutin might be useful as an adjuvant in radioiodine therapy, since this flavonoid increased thyroid iodide uptake without greatly affecting thyroid function.

  13. Lactobacillus acidophilus—Rutin Interplay Investigated by Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Mazzeo, Maria Fiorella; Lippolis, Rosa; Sorrentino, Alida; Liberti, Sarah; Fragnito, Federica; Siciliano, Rosa Anna

    2015-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols are bioactive molecules that beneficially affect human health, due to their anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardio-protective and chemopreventive properties. They are absorbed in a very low percentage in the small intestine and reach intact the colon, where they are metabolized by the gut microbiota. Although it is well documented a key role of microbial metabolism in the absorption of polyphenols and modulation of their biological activity, molecular mechanisms at the basis of the bacteria-polyphenols interplay are still poorly understood. In this context, differential proteomics was applied to reveal adaptive response mechanisms that enabled a potential probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain to survive in the presence of the dietary polyphenol rutin. The response to rutin mainly modulated the expression level of proteins involved in general stress response mechanisms and, in particular, induced the activation of protein quality control systems, and affected carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, protein synthesis and cell wall integrity. Moreover, rutin triggered the expression of proteins involved in oxidation-reduction processes.This study provides a first general view of the impact of dietary polyphenols on metabolic and biological processes of L. acidophilus. PMID:26544973

  14. Lactobacillus acidophilus-Rutin Interplay Investigated by Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Mazzeo, Maria Fiorella; Lippolis, Rosa; Sorrentino, Alida; Liberti, Sarah; Fragnito, Federica; Siciliano, Rosa Anna

    2015-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols are bioactive molecules that beneficially affect human health, due to their anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardio-protective and chemopreventive properties. They are absorbed in a very low percentage in the small intestine and reach intact the colon, where they are metabolized by the gut microbiota. Although it is well documented a key role of microbial metabolism in the absorption of polyphenols and modulation of their biological activity, molecular mechanisms at the basis of the bacteria-polyphenols interplay are still poorly understood. In this context, differential proteomics was applied to reveal adaptive response mechanisms that enabled a potential probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain to survive in the presence of the dietary polyphenol rutin. The response to rutin mainly modulated the expression level of proteins involved in general stress response mechanisms and, in particular, induced the activation of protein quality control systems, and affected carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, protein synthesis and cell wall integrity. Moreover, rutin triggered the expression of proteins involved in oxidation-reduction processes.This study provides a first general view of the impact of dietary polyphenols on metabolic and biological processes of L. acidophilus.

  15. Protective effect of rutin on cognitive impairment caused by phenytoin

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Shagun; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Bansal, Divya; Dubey, Nazneen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of the co-administration of phenytoin (PHT) and rutin in comparison with PHT and piracetam (PIM) on seizure control, cognitive, and motor functions in mice. Materials and Methods: Increasing current electroshock seizure (ICES) test was used to evaluate the effect of the co-administration of PHT and PIM on convulsions. Cognitive functions in mice were assessed by a spontaneous alternation in behavior on a plus maze while motor functions were screened using rolling roller apparatus and by counting the number of arms entries on a plus maze. Brain acetyl-cholinesterase (AChE) activity was also estimated. Statistical Analysis: The expression of data was done as mean ± standard error of the mean. The normally distributed data were subjected to one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The study showed that rutin when co-administered with PHT, significantly reversed PHT-induced reduction in spontaneous alternation without altering the efficacy of PHT against ICES, in both acute and chronic studies. Further, it also reversed PHT-induced increase in AChE activity. Conclusion: Rutin alleviated the PHT-induced cognitive impairment without compromising its antiepileptic efficacy. PMID:26729954

  16. Rice Seed Priming with Picomolar Rutin Enhances Rhizospheric Bacillus subtilis CIM Colonization and Plant Growth.

    PubMed

    Singh, Akanksha; Gupta, Rupali; Pandey, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    The effect of rutin, a bioflavonoid on the growth and biofilm formation of Bacillus subtilis strain CIM was investigated. In addition to swimming, swarming, and twitching potentials of B. subtilis CIM (BS), one picomolar (1 pM) of rutin was also observed to boost the biofilm forming ability of the bacterium. Bio-priming of rice seeds with BS and rutin not only augmented root and shoot lengths but also the photosynthetic pigments like chlorophyll and carotenoid. Similarly, high accumulation of phenolic and flavonoid contents was observed in the leaves. Fluorescent microscopic images revealed that BS plus rutin enhanced callose deposition in the leaves. It was also established that the least formation of reactive oxygen species in BS plus rutin treated rice plants was due to higher free radicals scavenging activity and total antioxidant potential. The results highlight chemo attractant nature of BS towards rutin, which by enhancing biofilm formation and root colonization indirectly strengthened the plants' defensive state.

  17. Rice Seed Priming with Picomolar Rutin Enhances Rhizospheric Bacillus subtilis CIM Colonization and Plant Growth

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Akanksha; Gupta, Rupali; Pandey, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    The effect of rutin, a bioflavonoid on the growth and biofilm formation of Bacillus subtilis strain CIM was investigated. In addition to swimming, swarming, and twitching potentials of B. subtilis CIM (BS), one picomolar (1 pM) of rutin was also observed to boost the biofilm forming ability of the bacterium. Bio-priming of rice seeds with BS and rutin not only augmented root and shoot lengths but also the photosynthetic pigments like chlorophyll and carotenoid. Similarly, high accumulation of phenolic and flavonoid contents was observed in the leaves. Fluorescent microscopic images revealed that BS plus rutin enhanced callose deposition in the leaves. It was also established that the least formation of reactive oxygen species in BS plus rutin treated rice plants was due to higher free radicals scavenging activity and total antioxidant potential. The results highlight chemo attractant nature of BS towards rutin, which by enhancing biofilm formation and root colonization indirectly strengthened the plants’ defensive state. PMID:26742102

  18. Rutin inhibits oleic acid induced lipid accumulation via reducing lipogenesis and oxidative stress in hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Lin, Ming-Cheng; Wang, Hsueh-Chun; Yang, Mon-Yuan; Jou, Ming-Jia; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2011-03-01

    Excessive lipid accumulation within liver has been proposed to cause obesity, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and fatty liver disease. Rutin, a common dietary flavonoid that is consumed in fruits, vegetables, and plant-derived beverages, has various biological functions, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects. However, a hypolipidemic effect of rutin on fatty liver disease has not been reported. In this study, we examined the effect of rutin on reducing lipid accumulation in hepatic cells. Hepatocytes were treated with oleic acid (OA) containing with or without rutin to observe the lipid accumulation by Nile red stain. The result showed rutin suppressed OA-induced lipid accumulation and increased adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity in hepatocytes. The expression of critical molecule involved in lipid synthesis, sterol regulatory element binding proteins-1 (SREBP-1), was attenuated in rutin-treated cells. Moreover, long-term incubation of rutin inhibited the transcriptions of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase (HMGCR), glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and acetyl-coenzyme carboxylase (ACC). Besides, we also found out the antioxidative effect of rutin by increasing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α and antioxidative enzymes. Taken together, our findings suggest rutin could attenuate lipid accumulation by decreasing lipogenesis and oxidative stress in hepatocyte.

  19. AFLP fingerprinting of tartary buckwheat accessions (Fagopyrum tataricum) displaying rutin content variation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nidhi; Sharma, Sunil K; Rana, Jai C; Chauhan, Rajinder S

    2012-09-01

    In light of the economic importance of buckwheat as well as existence of enormous accessions of Fagopyrum species in the Himalayan regions of India, the characterization of tartary buckwheat for rutin content variation vis-à-vis DNA fingerprinting was undertaken so as to identify fingerprint profiles unique to high rutin content accessions. Rutin content analysis in mature seeds of 195 accessions of Fagopyrum tataricum showed a wide range of variation (6 μg/mg to 30 μg/mg D.W.) with most of the accessions (81%) containing 10-16 μg/mg of rutin followed by 14% accessions with significantly higher rutin content (17 μg/mg to 30 μg/mg) and 5% accessions with low rutin content (≤10 μg/mg). AFLP fingerprinting of 18 accessions having high (≥17 μg/mg) and low rutin content (≤10 μg/mg) with 19 EcoRI/MseI primer combinations yielded 136 polymorphic fragments out of total 907. The hierarchical and model-based cluster analyses of AFLP data strongly suggested that the 18 populations of F. tataricum were clustered into two separate groups. The high and low rutin content accessions were clustered into two separate groups based on AFLP fingerprinting. The AFLP fingerprints associated with high rutin content accessions of F. tataricum are expected to be useful for evaluation, conservation and genetic improvement of buckwheat.

  20. Microwave accelerated transglycosylation of rutin by cyclodextrin glucanotransferase from Bacillus sp. SK13.002.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tao; Jiang, Bo; Pan, Beilei

    2011-01-01

    Rutin was subjected to intermolecular transglycosylation assisted with microwave irradiation using cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) produced from Bacillus sp. SK13.002. Compared with the conventional enzymatic method for rutin transglycosylation (without microwave irradiation), microwave-assisted reaction (MAR) was much faster and thus more efficient. While the conventional reaction took dozens of hours to reach the highest conversion rate of rutin and yield of transglycosylated rutin, MAR of rutin transglycosylation completed within only 6 min providing almost the same conversion rate of rutin and yield of products consisting of mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-glucosylated rutins. The optimum transglycosylation conditions for microwave irradiation were 40 °C and 60 W with the reaction system consisting mainly of the mixture of 0.3 g rutin (0.49 mmol) pre-dissolved in 15 mL methanol, 1.8 g maltodextrin in 15 mL of 0.2 M sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.5) and CGTase (900 U). Results from this study indicated that MAR could be a potentially useful and economical technique for a faster and more efficient transglycosylation of rutin.

  1. Microwave Accelerated Transglycosylation of Rutin by Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase from Bacillus sp. SK13.002

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Tao; Jiang, Bo; Pan, Beilei

    2011-01-01

    Rutin was subjected to intermolecular transglycosylation assisted with microwave irradiation using cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) produced from Bacillus sp. SK13.002. Compared with the conventional enzymatic method for rutin transglycosylation (without microwave irradiation), microwave-assisted reaction (MAR) was much faster and thus more efficient. While the conventional reaction took dozens of hours to reach the highest conversion rate of rutin and yield of transglycosylated rutin, MAR of rutin transglycosylation completed within only 6 min providing almost the same conversion rate of rutin and yield of products consisting of mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-glucosylated rutins. The optimum transglycosylation conditions for microwave irradiation were 40 °C and 60 W with the reaction system consisting mainly of the mixture of 0.3 g rutin (0.49 mmol) pre-dissolved in 15 mL methanol, 1.8 g maltodextrin in 15 mL of 0.2 M sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.5) and CGTase (900 U). Results from this study indicated that MAR could be a potentially useful and economical technique for a faster and more efficient transglycosylation of rutin. PMID:21747706

  2. Rutin protects endothelial dysfunction by disturbing Nox4 and ROS-sensitive NLRP3 inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Wu, Qiu-Hong; Sui, Yong; Wang, Yan; Qiu, Xin

    2017-02-01

    High glucose induced endothelial dysfunction is blamed for initiation of vascular complication in Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Rutin has been described in possessing comprehensive pharmacological activities, but the mechanism involved in endothelial protection through regulating oxidative stress and damage is still ambiguous. In the present study, rutin was evaluated in high glucose stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and high glucose diet-treated SD rats were applied to explored the molecular mechanism in rutin counteracting oxidative stress and damage. Firstly, 30 and 100μM rutin effectively increased HUVECs viability in high glucose challenge. Then we found that rutin could dose-dependently reduced high glucose mediated mRNA and protein expressions of Nox4. With Nox4 and Nox2 inhibitors, we further confirm that Nox4, but not Nox2, was responsible for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in high glucose environment. Moreover, rutin and Nox4 inhibitor significantly ameliorated ROS generation and TXNIP, NLRP3, caspase-1 and IL-1β proteins expression in vivo. Furthermore, rutin substantially recovered nitric oxide production in HUVECs under high glucose condition. However, rutin could not inhibited inflammasome protein expressions and improved nitric oxide production in Nox4-overexpressed HUVECs under high glucose challenges. Finally, we found that rutin restored phenylephrine-mediated contractions and acetylcholine induced relaxations in aortic tissue of high glucose diet treated rats. In vitro, expressions of TXNIP, NLRP3, and caspase-1 in aortic tissue of high glucose diet treated rats were decreased under rutin administration. In summary, rutin may protect endothelial dysfunction through inhibiting Nox4 responsive oxidative stress and ROS-sensitive NLRP3 signaling pathway under high glucose stress both in vivo and vitro.

  3. Effects of rutin and buckwheat seeds on energy metabolism and methane production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Stoldt, Ann-Kathrin; Derno, Michael; Das, Gürbüz; Weitzel, Joachim M; Wolffram, Siegfried; Metges, Cornelia C

    2016-03-01

    Flavonoids are secondary plant metabolites with several health promoting effects. As dairy cows often suffer from metabolic imbalance and health problems, interest is growing in health improvements by plant substances such as flavonoids. Our group has recently shown that the flavonoids quercetin and rutin (a glucorhamnoside of quercetin) are bioavailable in cows when given via a duodenal fistula or orally, respectively, affect glucose metabolism, and have beneficial effects on liver health. Furthermore, flavonoids may reduce rumen methane production in vitro through their antibacterial properties. To test the hypothesis that rutin has effects on energy metabolism, methane production, and production performance in dairy cows, we fed rutin trihydrate at a dose of 100mg/kg of body weight to a group of 7 lactating dairy cows for 2 wk in a crossover design. In a second experiment, 2 cows were fed the same ration but were supplemented with buckwheat seeds (Fagopyrum tartaricum), providing rutin at a dose comparable to the first experiment. Two other cows receiving barley supplements were used as controls in a change-over mode. Blood samples were taken weekly and respiration measurements were performed at the end of each treatment. Supplementation of pure rutin, but not of rutin contained in buckwheat seeds, increased the plasma quercetin content. Methane production and milk yield and composition were not affected by rutin treatment in either form. Plasma glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, and albumin were increased by pure rutin treatment, indicating a possible metabolic effect of rutin on energy metabolism of dairy cows. In addition, we did not show that in vivo ruminal methane production was reduced by rutin. In conclusion, we could not confirm earlier reports on in vitro methane reduction by rutin supplementation in dairy cows in established lactation.

  4. Rutin ameliorates diabetic neuropathy by lowering plasma glucose and decreasing oxidative stress via Nrf2 signaling pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ruifeng; Yang, Wenqing; Xue, Qiang; Gao, Liang; Huo, Junli; Ren, Dongqing; Chen, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-15

    Rutin exhibits antidiabetic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, which makes rutin an attractive candidate for diabetic complications. The present study was designed to investigate the potential effect of rutin on diabetic neuropathy. After induction of diabetic neuropathy, rutin (5mg/kg, 25mg/kg and 50mg/kg) were daily given to the diabetic rats for 2 weeks. At the end of rutin administration, rutin produced a significant inhibition of mechanical hyperalgesia, thermal hyperalgesia and cold allodynia, as well as partial restoration of nerve conduction velocities in diabetic rats. Furthermore, rutin significantly increased Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activities in sciatic nerves and decreased caspase-3 expression in dorsal root ganglions (DRG). In addition, rutin significantly decreased plasma glucose, attenuated oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Further studies showed that rutin significantly increased hydrogen sulfide (H2S) level, up-regulated the expression of nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in DRG. The evidences suggest the beneficial effect of rutin on diabetic neuropathy. Additionally, insulin (2 IU) and BG-12 (15mg/kg) were used to investigate the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of rutin on diabetic neuropathy. Insulin achieved lower plasma glucose and BG-12 achieved comparable Nrf2 expression than/to rutin (50mg/kg), respectively. In contrast, the beneficial effect of insulin and BG-12 was inferior to that of rutin (50mg/kg), suggesting that both lowered plasma glucose and Nrf2 signaling contribute to the beneficial effect of rutin on diabetic neuropathy. In conclusion, rutin produces significant protection in diabetic neuropathy, which makes it an attractive candidate for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy.

  5. Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of rutin by its inhibitory effect on the oxidation of amaranth by potassium periodate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuhao; Du, Lingyun; Yao, Xingjun; Niu, Xueli; Zhuang, Huisheng

    2005-01-01

    A novel kinetic spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of rutin. The method is based on the inhibitory effect of rutin on the oxidation reaction of amaranth by potassium periodate in acidic media at 100 degrees C. The linear range for the determination of rutin is 0.02 - 0.50 microg/ml, and the detection limit is 0.014 microg/ml. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of rutin in medicine of rutin tablet and traditional Chinese medicine.

  6. Rutin from different parts of Capparis spinosa growing wild in Khuzestan/Iran.

    PubMed

    Ramezani, Zahra; Aghel, Nasrin; Keyghobadi, Hossein

    2008-03-01

    A qualitative and quantitative analysis of rutin from leaves, fruits and flowers of Capparis spinosa growing wild in Khuzestan was achieved. After soxhelet extraction of fats in diethyl ether, rutin was extracted by maceration using 50% EtOH. The ethanol extracts of these parts were separated by preparative TLC on silica gel precoated plate with a mixture of butanol: acetic acid (4:1, by volume) as the developing solvent. The spots were visualized under ultraviolet light (254 nm). Rutin was qualified by comparison of its R(f) value with that of standard. UV/Vis spectrum of separated rutin was also compared with those of standards and showed characteristic wavelengths at 260 and 360 nm. Purified rutin was quantified by UV/Vis spectrophotometric determination at 360 nm. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.156-2.5 microg mL(-1) with detection limit of 0.0731 microg mL(-1). The purity of extracted rutin from leave, flower and fruit determined by high performance liquid chromatography were 90.41, 87.25 and 64.56%, respectively. The amounts of rutin in leaves, fruits and flowers were 61.09, 6.03 and 43.72 mg per 100 g of dried powder, respectively. By analyzing the spiked samples of leave, flower and fruit the recovery of the UV/Vis method was in the range of 102-107.6%.

  7. Enhancement of rutin production in Fagopyrum tataricum hairy root cultures with its endophytic fungal elicitors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianglin; Xiang, Dabing; Peng, Lianxin; Zou, Liang; Wang, Yuehua; Zhao, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) is a potentially important source of rutin, a natural bioactive flavonoid with antihyperglycemic, antioxidative, antihypertensive, and anti-inflammatory properties. This study examines the effects of endophytic fungi on rutin production in the hairy root cultures of F. tataricum. Without obvious changes in the appearance of the hairy roots, the exogenous fungal mycelia elicitors efficiently stimulated the hairy root growth and rutin biosynthesis, and the stimulation effect was mainly dependent on the mycelia elicitor species, as well as its treatment dose. Two endophytic fungal isolates Fat9 (Fusarium oxysporum) and Fat15 (Alternaria sp.) were screened as promising candidates for promoting F. tataricum hairy root growth and rutin production. With application of polysaccharide (PS) of endophyte Fat9 (200 mg/L), and PS of endophyte Fat15 (100 mg/L) to the hairy root cultures on day 25, the rutin yield was increased to 45.9 mg/L and 47.2 mg/L, respectively. That was about 3.1- to 3.2-fold in comparison with the control level of 14.6 mg/L. Moreover, the present study revealed that the accumulation of rutin resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by mycelia PS treatments. This may be an efficient strategy for enhancing rutin production in F. tataricum hairy root culture provided with its endophytic mycelia elicitors.

  8. Rutin inhibits proliferation, attenuates superoxide production and decreases adhesion and migration of human cancerous cells.

    PubMed

    Ben Sghaier, Mohamed; Pagano, Alessandra; Mousslim, Mohamed; Ammari, Youssef; Kovacic, Hervé; Luis, José

    2016-12-01

    Lung and colorectal cancer are the principal causes of death in the world. Rutin, an active flavonoid compound, is known for possessing a wide range of biological activities. In this study, we examined the effect of rutin on the viability, superoxide anion production, adhesion and migration of human lung (A549) and colon (HT29 and Caco-2) cancer cell lines. In order to control the harmlessness of the tested concentrations of rutin, the viability of cancer cell lines was assessed using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol- 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. ROS generation was measured by lucigenin chemiluminescence detecting superoxide ions. To investigate the effect of rutin on the behavior of human lung and colon cancer cell lines, we performed adhesion assays, using various purified extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Finally, in vitro cell migration assays were explored using modified Boyden chambers. The viability of cancerous cells was inhibited by rutin. It also significantly attenuated the superoxide production in HT29 cells. In addition, rutin affected adhesion and migration of A549 and HT29 cell. These findings indicate that rutin, a natural molecule, might have potential as anticancer agent against lung and colorectal carcinogenesis.

  9. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions between apigenin, rutin and paclitaxel mediated by P-glycoprotein in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K Kishore; Priyanka, Leena; Gnananath, K; Babu, P Ravindra; Sujatha, S

    2015-09-01

    The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of apigenin and rutin on the pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel after oral administration of paclitaxel with apigenin and rutin to rats. Paclitaxel (40 mg/kg) was administered orally alone and in combination with apigenin and rutin (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) for 15 consecutive days. In the single-dose pharmacokinetic study (SDS), blood samples were collected on 1st day whereas on 15th day in the multiple-dose pharmacokinetic study (MDS). The plasma concentrations of paclitaxel were increased dose-dependently in the combination of apigenin and rutin compared to that of paclitaxel control in SDS and MDS (p < 0.01). The areas under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and the plasma peak concentrations (C max) of paclitaxel with apigenin and rutin were significantly higher (p < 0.01) than that of the control. The AUCs and C max of paclitaxel were increased with apigenin and rutin in the dose-dependent manner. The half-life (t 1/2) was significantly longer than that of the control. Non-everted sacs were filled with paclitaxel 100 μM in the presence and absence of verapamil (50 μM), apigenin, and rutin (50, 100 μM) and incubated at 37 ºC for 60 min. The absorption of paclitaxel was increased in the presence of apigenin, rutin, and verapamil, a typical P-glycoprotein and Cyp3A4 inhibitor. If these results are confirmed in humans in a clinical setting, the paclitaxel dose should be adjusted when it is given concomitantly with apigenin and rutin.

  10. Effects of Watercress Containing Rutin and Rutin Alone on the Proliferation and Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Osteoblast-like MG-63 Cells.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Hanbit; Park, Heajin; Jeong, Jaehoon; Kim, Jihye; Kim, Haesung; Oh, Hyun Il; Hwang, Hye Seong; Kim, Ha Hyung

    2014-08-01

    Most known osteoporosis medicines are effective for bone resorption, and so there is an increasing demand for medicines that stimulate bone formation. Watercress (N. officinale R. Br.) is widely used as a salad green and herbal remedy. This study analyzed a watercress extract using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, and identified a rutin as one of its major constituents. Osteogenic-related assays were used to compare the effects of watercress containing rutin (WCR) and rutin alone on the proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells. The reported data are expressed as percentages relative to the control value (medium alone; assigned as 100%). WCR increased cell proliferation to 125.0±4.0% (mean±SD), as assessed using a cell viability assay, and increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase, an early differentiation marker, to 222.3±33.8%. In addition, WCR increased the expression of collagen type I, another early differentiation marker, to 149.2±2.8%, and increased the degree of mineralization, a marker of the late process of differentiation, to 122.9±3.9%. Rutin alone also increased the activity of ALP (to 154.4±12.2%), the expression of collagen type I (to 126.6±6.2%), and the degree of mineralization (to 112.3±5.0%). Daidzein, which is reported to stimulate bone formation, was used as a positive control; the effects of WCR on proliferation and differentiation were significantly greater than those of daidzein. These results indicate that WCR and rutin can both induce bone formation via the differentiation of MG-63 cells. This is the first study demonstrating the effectiveness of either WCR or rutin as an osteoblast stimulant.

  11. Rutin, quercetin, and free amino acid analysis in buckwheat (Fagopyrum) seeds from different locations.

    PubMed

    Bai, C Z; Feng, M L; Hao, X L; Zhong, Q M; Tong, L G; Wang, Z H

    2015-12-29

    In this study, five common buckwheats and nine tartary buckwheats grown at different locations were analyzed for the contents of rutin, quercetin, and amino acids by high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometry. The rutin content was higher than quercetin in buckwheat seeds. Rutin content was in the range from 0.05 (0.05 g per 100 g dry seeds) to 1.35% of buckwheat seeds. Quercetin content varied from 0.01 to 0.17% and in some common buckwheats it was even difficult to detect. Comparatively, tartary buckwheat seeds contained more rutin and quercetin than common buckwheat seeds. Meanwhile, the bran has higher rutin content than the farina in tartary buckwheat seeds, with a respective content of 0.45 to 1.19% and 0.14 to 0.67%. It was found that amino acid contents were around 1.79 to 12.65% (farina) and 5.74 to 7.89% (bran) in common buckwheats, and 1.73 to 5.63% (farina) and 2.64 to 16.78% (bran) in tartary buckwheat seeds. The highest total rutin content was found to be 1.35% in tartary buckwheat seeds from Sichuan, China. The highest total amounts of amino acid were detected to be 20.13% in tartary buckwheat seeds from Changzhi, Shanxi Province (China). Our results suggested that food products made of whole-buckwheat flour are healthier than those made of fine white flour.

  12. Sensitive voltammetric determination of rutin at an ionic liquid modified carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya; Zheng, Jianbin

    2008-10-19

    An ionic liquid modified carbon paste electrode (IL/CPE) had been fabricated by using hydrophilic ionic liquid 1-amyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([AMIM]Br) as a modifier. The IL/CPE was characterized by scanning electron microscope and voltammetry. Electrochemical behavior of rutin at the IL/CPE had been investigated in pH 3.29 Britton-Robinson (B-R) buffer solution by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). The experimental results suggested that the modified electrode exhibited an electrocatalytic activity toward the redox of rutin. The electron transfer coefficient (alpha) and the standard rate constant (k(s)) of rutin at the modified electrode were calculated. Under the selected conditions, the reduction peak current was linearly dependent on the concentration of rutin in the range of 4.0x10(-8) to 1.0x10(-5)mol L(-1) (r=0.9998), with a detection limit of 1.0x10(-8)mol L(-1)(S/N=3). The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) for six times successful determination of 8.0x10(-7)mol L(-1) rutin was 1.2%. The proposed method was applied to determine rutin in tablet and urine sample. In addition, the IL/CPE exhibited a distinct advantage of simple preparation, surface renewal, good reproducibility and good stability.

  13. Anti-thrombotic effect of rutin isolated from Dendropanax morbifera Leveille.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun-Hui; Kim, Dae-Won; Park, Se-Eun; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, Ki-Man; Kim, Kyung-Je; Kim, Myung-Kon; Kim, Sung-Jun; Kim, Seung

    2015-08-01

    Dendropanax morbifera H. Lev. is well known in Korean traditional medicine for improvement of blood circulation. In this study, rutin, a bioflavonoid having anti-thrombotic and anticoagulant activities was isolated from a traditional medicinal plant, D. morbifera H. Lev. The chemical characteristics of rutin was studied to be quercetin 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-6)-β-d-glucopyranoside using high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS), proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR). Turbidity and fibrin clotting studies revealed that rutin reduces fibrin clot in concentration dependent manner. Rutin was found to prolong activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT) and closure time (CT). Furthermore, it decreased the activity of pro-coagulant protein, thrombin. In vivo study showed that rutin exerted a significant protective effect against collagen and epinephrine (or thrombin) induced acute thromboembolism in mice. These results suggest that rutin has a potent to be an anti-thrombotic agent for cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Effect of dietary supplementation of rutin on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation and metabolism in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cui, K; Guo, X D; Tu, Y; Zhang, N F; Ma, T; Diao, Q Y

    2015-12-01

    The effect of long-term dietary supplementation with rutin on the lactation performance, ruminal fermentation and metabolism of dairy cows were investigated in this study. Twenty multiparous Chinese Holstein cows were randomly divided into four groups, and each was offered a basal diet supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3.0 or 4.5 mg rutin/kg of diet. The milk yield of the cows receiving 3.0 and 4.5 mg rutin/kg was higher than that of the control group, and the milk yield was increased by 10.06% and 3.37% (p < 0.05). On the basis of that finding, the cows supplemented with 0 or 3.0 mg rutin/kg of diet were used to investigate the effect of rutin supplementation on blood metabolites and hormone levels. Compared with the control group, the serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration of the 3.0 mg rutin/kg group is significantly decreased (p < 0.05). In another trial, four adult cows with permanent rumen fistula and duodenal cannulae were attributed in a self-control design to investigate the peak occurrence of rutin and quercetin in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract, ruminal fermentation and microbial population in dairy cows. The cows supplemented with 3.0 mg rutin/kg in the diet differed from the control period. Samples of rumen fluid, duodenal fluid and blood were collected at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 h after morning feeding. Compared to the control group, the pH, ammonia nitrogen concentration, number and protein content of rumen protozoa and blood urea nitrogen were lower, but the concentration of total volatile fatty acid (TVFA), microbial crude protein (MCP) and serum lysozyme content were higher for the cows fed the rutin diets. The addition of 3.0 mg rutin/kg to diets for a long term tended to increase the milk yield and improve the metabolism and digestibility of the dairy cows.

  15. Oxidative Stability in Oil-in-Water Emulsions with Quercetin or Rutin Under Iron Catalysis or Riboflavin Photosensitization.

    PubMed

    Yi, BoRa; Ka, HaeJung; Kwon, YongJun; Choi, HyungSeok; Kim, Sunghwa; Kim, Jisu; Kim, Mi-Ja; Lee, JaeHwan

    2017-04-01

    The effects of quercetin and rutin on the oxidative stability of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions were tested under riboflavin (RF) photosensitization in the presence or absence of FeCl2 . The degree of oxidation in O/W emulsions was determined by headspace oxygen content, conjugated dienes, and lipid hydroperoxides. Quercetin chelated more metal than did rutin in iron catalyzed O/W emulsions. Generally, 0.1 mM quercetin and rutin was oxidative while 0.5 and 1.0 mM quercetin and rutin was antioxidative in O/W emulsions under RF photosensitization. Depending on the analysis method, the antioxidants had different strengths. The antioxidative or oxidative properties of quercetin and rutin vary in O/W emulsions and depend the quercetin and rutin concentrations and oxidative forces like transition metals, RF photosensitization, or a combination thereof.

  16. Mechanism for Highly Efficient Non-Radiative Deactivation of Electronic Excitation in Rutin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarev, S. L.; Knyukshto, V. N.; Tikhomirov, S. A.; Buganov, O. V.

    2016-01-01

    Steady-state and pulsed spectroscopic methods are used to study the spectroscopic and photophysical properties of the biologically important plant pigment rutin at room temperature and 77 K in organic solvents and a buffer solution at pH 7.0. The large dipole moment μe = 13.3 D of the rutin molecule in a Franck-Condon excited state indicates that rutin is dipolar in this excited state. The nonstationary S1 → Sn induced absorption spectra are characterized by a short-wavelength band at λabs max = 460 nm and low-intensity absorption in the 500-750 range which clearly belongs to associates of rutin. No residual induced absorption which might be related to triplet-triplet T1→Tk transitions in rutin was observed over the entire spectral range for times >50 ns. S1 → S0 fluorescence with a quantum yield Φfl ~ 10-4 was also observed at room temperature. The fluorescence and fluorescence excitation spectra manifest a weak dependence on the excitation and detection wavelengths, which may be related to the presence of conformers in the solution owing to rotation of the phenol B ring around a single 1'-2 bond. Lowering the temperature of a glassy frozen solution of rutin in ethanol to 77 K raises Φfl by a factor of 750. A rate constant kic = 3.7·1011 s-1 for internal conversion from the S1 state at room temperature is calculated from the spectral-luminescence data. It is found that the main channel for exchange of electronic excitation energy in the rutin molecule at room temperature is S1(π,π*) ~~> S0-internal conversion induced by the charge-transfer state.

  17. Extraction of rutin from Tartary buckwheat milling fractions and evaluation of its thermal stability in an instant fried noodle system.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yong Jin; Lee, Suyong

    2015-06-01

    Extraction conditions of rutin from buckwheat milling fractions were established and a rutin-enriched material (REM, 31.8g/100g of rutin) was successfully obtained by the ultrasonic-assisted ethanol method (steaming, 16-150 mesh particle size, 70% ethanol, and ultrasonication at 40°C for 30min). When REM was applied to instant fried noodles (1% and 2% by weight of wheat flour) for rutin fortification, the levels of rutin in the noodles were determined to be about 250-500mg/100g which corresponded to the recommended daily dose of rutin. While frying temperatures (150-190°C) and times (1-3min) did not negatively affect the level of rutin in the instant fried noodles, the distinct loss of rutin was observed after cooking. Furthermore, REM did not significantly affect the oil uptake and mechanical property of instant fried noodles. The strong antioxidant activity of rutin in REM contributed to retarding the oxidative deterioration of the noodles during storage.

  18. Rutin Ameliorates Cyclophosphamide-induced Reproductive Toxicity in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abarikwu, S. O.; Otuechere, C. A.; Ekor, M.; Monwuba, K.; Osobu, D.

    2012-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CYC) as an anticancer alkylating agent has been known as a male reproductive toxicant. This study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of rutin (RUT) on CYC-induced reproductive toxicity. Sexually mature Wistar rats (weighing 199 ± 10 g with five animals in each group) were given CYC (15 mg/kg) and/or RUT (30 mg/kg) twice a week via gavage for 4 weeks. The sperm counts, sperm motility, sperm morphology, daily sperm production (DSP), testicular, and epididymal antioxidant systems: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), and testicular steroidogenic enzymes (3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β-HSD and spermatogenesis marker enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP) in the testes, epididymis and seminal vesicles were investigated at the end of the fourth week. By the end of the fourth week, RUT prevented lower sperm counts, sperm motility, DSP, and higher abnormal sperm numbers induced by CYC. In testes, RUT decreased SOD, LDH, and SDH and increased CAT, 3β-HSD, 17β-HSD, ALP, and ACP induced by CYC. In epididymis, RUT increased SOD, CAT, GSH, GSH-Px, GR, GST SDH, ALP and ACP and decreased MDA and LDH induced by CYC. In seminal vesicles, marker enzymes were unchanged in rats given CYC alone or in combination with RUT. It appears that RUT ameliorates CYC reproductive toxicity at the investigated dose. PMID:22778522

  19. Oral supplementation with the rutin improves cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity and vascular reactivity in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Mendes-Junior, Leônidas das Graças; Monteiro, Matheus Morais de Oliveira; Carvalho, Alynne Dos Santos; de Queiroz, Thyago Moreira; Braga, Valdir de Andrade

    2013-11-01

    The hypothesis that oral supplementation with the flavonoid rutin improves baroreflex sensitivity and vascular reactivity in hypertensive (2-kidney-1-clip (2K1C)) rats was tested. Sixty-four rats were divided in 4 groups: sham + saline; sham + rutin; 2K1C + saline, and 2K1C + rutin. Six weeks after 2K1C surgery, the animals were treated with saline or rutin (40 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) by gavage for 7 days. Baroreflex sensitivity test using phenylephrine (8 μg·kg(-1), iv) and sodium nitroprusside (25 μg·kg(-1), iv), vascular reactivity, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay were performed. Baroreflex sensitivity in hypertensive rats was impaired and compared with sham (-2.77 ± 0.15 vs. -1.53 ± 0.27 beats·min(-1)·mm Hg(-1); n = 8; p < 0.05). Oral supplementation with rutin restored baroreflex sensitivity in 2K1C rats (-2.40 ± 0.24 vs. -2.77 ± 0.15 beats·min(-1)·mm Hg(-1); n = 8; p > 0.05). Besides, hypertensive rats have greater contraction to phenylephrine (129.49% ± 4.46% vs. 99.50% ± 11.36%; n = 8; p < 0.05), which was restored by rutin (99.10% ± 1.77% vs. 99.50% ± 11.36%; n = 8; p > 0.05). Furthermore, vasorelaxation to acetylcholine was diminished in hypertensive rats (96.42% ± 2.80% vs. 119.35% ± 5.60%; n = 8; p < 0.05), which was also restored by rutin (117.55% ± 6.94% vs. 119.35% ± 5.60%; n = 8; p > 0.05). Finally, oxidative stress was greater in hypertensive rats (1.54 ± 0.12 vs. 0.53 ± 0.12 nmol MDA·mL(-1); n = 8; p < 0.05) and rutin supplementation significantly decreased oxidative stress in those animals (0.70 ± 0.13 vs. 1.54 ± 0.12 nmol MDA·mL(-1); n = 8; p < 0.05). We concluded that oral supplementation with rutin restores impaired baroreflex sensitivity and vascular reactivity in hypertensive rats by decreasing oxidative stress.

  20. Lymphatic absorption of quercetin and rutin in rat and their pharmacokinetics in systemic plasma.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-Lin; Tsai, Yung-Jen; Huang, Chih-Min; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2010-01-13

    Substances and macromolecules absorbed by the lymphatic system avoid hepatic first-pass effect and directly enter the blood circulation system. In this study, an anesthetized, mesenteric lymphatic/duodenum-cannulated rat model was used to investigate the role of lymphatic absorption with intraduodenally administered drugs. Quercetin and rutin were administered, respectively, at dosages of 30 and 300 mg/kg intraduodenally. Lymph and plasma samples were collected every 30 min. These samples were prepared by protein precipitation and then analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA) and verified by LC tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Quercetin was separated by a C18 reversed-phase column, and rutin was separated by a phenyl reverse-phase column. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using the software WinNonlin Standard Edition Version. The maximum concentration (Cmax) of quercetin recovered in lymph, 1.97+/-0.96 microg/mL, was about 5-fold higher than that in plasma, 0.41+/-0.08 microg/mL. The time to reach the highest concentration (Tmax) of quercetin in lymph was 30 min longer than that in plasma. The maximum concentration (Cmax) of rutin recovered in lymph, 0.86+/-0.13 microg/mL, was slightly lower than that in plasma, 1.35+/-0.37 microg/mL. The area under curve (AUC) of rutin recovered in lymph, 359+/-41 min microg/mL, was about 2-fold higher than the AUC of rutin in plasma, 150+/-22 min microg/mL. This phenomenon was due to the milder concentration decline of rutin in the lymphatic system. These results demonstrate the pharmacokinetic data of lymphatic and systemic absorption after intraduodenally administered quercetin and rutin. It is also the first report revealing the lymphatic absorption of rutin. Although both quercetin and rutin are absorbed and transported mainly via the blood circulation system, the AUC of these two drugs in lymph fluid appeared higher than their respective AUC in plasma.

  1. Concentration of Rutin Model Solutions from Their Mixtures with Glucose Using Ultrafiltration

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Swallow; Hossain, Md. M.; Saleh, Zaid S.

    2010-01-01

    Separation of polyphenolic phytochemical compounds from their mixtures with sugars is necessary to produce an added-value sugar-reduced extract with high biological activity from fruit juice processing industry waste streams. The separation characteristics of a binary mixture of rutin and glucose using a Pellicon-2 regenerated cellulose ultrafiltration membrane with an area of 0.1 m2 having nominal MWCO of 1,000 Da were investigated, to demonstrate the separation of phenolic compounds from sugars. The effects of the operating variables–transmembrane pressure, feed solution temperature and pH, initial feed concentration and feed flow rate–on the permeate flux and enrichment of rutin, were determined. The permeate flux increased with the increase in transmembrane pressure up to a certain limit and after that the flux remained more or less constant. The optimum transmembrane pressure was within 4–5 bar. The flux increased with the increase in feed solution temperature because of reduced feed viscosity, and better solubility. The concentration of rutin was optimum at lower temperature (30°C), with an enrichment factor of 1.3. The effect of pH on permeate flux was less obvious. Lowering the feed solution pH increased the retention of rutin and the optimum separation was obtained within pH 3–4. The permeate flux decreased with the increase in feed concentration of rutin (concentration range 0.1–0.5 g/L). The enrichment of rutin was significant in the glucose concentration range 0.35–0.5 g/L. The feed flow rate had a significant effect on the flux and separation characteristics. Higher cross-flow through the membrane reduced the fouling by providing a shear force to sweep away deposited materials from the membrane surface. At high feed flow rate, more rutin was retained by the membrane with less sugar permeating through. The optimum feed flow rate was 1.5 L/min. For the separation of rutin (in the retentate) and glucose (in the permeate), the best results

  2. Inhibition of advanced glycation end-product formation on eye lens protein by rutin.

    PubMed

    Muthenna, P; Akileshwari, C; Saraswat, Megha; Bhanuprakash Reddy, G

    2012-04-01

    Formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE) plays a key role in the several pathophysiologies associated with ageing and diabetes, such as arthritis, atherosclerosis, chronic renal insufficiency, Alzheimer's disease, nephropathy, neuropathy and cataract. This raises the possibility of inhibition of AGE formation as one of the approaches to prevent or arrest the progression of diabetic complications. Previously, we have reported that some common dietary sources such as fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices have the potential to inhibit AGE formation. Flavonoids are abundantly found in fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices, and rutin is one of the commonly found dietary flavonols. In the present study, we have demonstrated the antiglycating potential and mechanism of action of rutin using goat eye lens proteins as model proteins. Under in vitro conditions, rutin inhibited glycation as assessed by SDS-PAGE, AGE-fluorescence, boronate affinity chromatography and immunodetection of specific AGE. Further, we provided insight into the mechanism of inhibition of protein glycation that rutin not only scavenges free-radicals directly but also chelates the metal ions by forming complexes with them and thereby partly inhibiting post-Amadori formation. These findings indicate the potential of rutin to prevent and/or inhibit protein glycation and the prospects for controlling AGE-mediated diabetic pathological conditions in vivo.

  3. Properties of active gelatin films incorporated with rutin-loaded nanoemulsions.

    PubMed

    Dammak, Ilyes; de Carvalho, Rosemary Aparecida; Trindade, Carmen Sílvia Fávaro; Lourenço, Rodrigo Vinicius; do Amaral Sobral, Paulo José

    2017-05-01

    Physico-chemical, mechanical, barrier, release profiles and antioxidant properties of composite gelatin based-films incorporated with rutin-loaded oil-in-water nanoemulsion, at various concentrations (5, 10, 15, or 20% (based on the weight of the gelatin powder)) were studied. All the gelatin/rutin-loaded nanoemulsion films displayed higher tensile strength and higher elongation at break than the gelatin control film. The composite films did not show significant differences in thickness, color, brightness and transparency. The structural properties evaluated by FTIR showed that the rutin-loaded nanoemulsion achieved complete miscibility within the gelatin matrix. All the gelatin/nanoemulsion films exhibited compact and homogenous microstructure. In addition, these films showed high antioxidant activities monitored by DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power activities. The Korsmeyer-Peppas model described well the rutin release profile. Rutin release was mainly governed by Fickian diffusion with simultaneous interfering swelling and disintegration phenomena. These results indicate that nanoemulsions-in-gelatin systems can function as potential active packaging systems to enhance shelf life of food products and then to provide a high-quality products (fresh/safe).

  4. Neuroprotective effects of quercetin, rutin and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.) in dexamethasone-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Tongjaroenbuangam, Walaiporn; Ruksee, Nootchanart; Chantiratikul, Piyanete; Pakdeenarong, Noppakun; Kongbuntad, Watee; Govitrapong, Piyarat

    2011-10-01

    The administration of dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid receptor agonist, causes neuronal death in the CA3 layer of the hippocampus, which has been associated with learning and memory impairments. This study aimed to examine the ability of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.) extract and its derivatives (quercetin and rutin) to protect neuronal function and improve learning and memory deficits in mice subjected to dexamethasone treatment. Learning and memory functions in mice were examined using the Morris water maze test. The results showed that the mice treated with dexamethasone had prolonged water maze performance latencies and shorter time spent in the target quadrant while mice pretreated with quercetin, rutin or okra extract prior to dexamethasone treatment showed shorter latencies and longer time spent in target quadrant. Morphological changes in pyramidal neurons were observed in the dexamethasone treated group. The number of CA3 hippocampal neurons was significantly lower while pretreated with quercetin, rutin or okra attenuated this change. Prolonged treatment with dexamethasone altered NMDA receptor expression in the hippocampus. Pretreatment with quercetin, rutin or okra extract prevented the reduction in NMDA receptor expression. Dentate gyrus (DG) cell proliferation was examined using the 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry technique. The number of BrdU-immunopositive cells was significantly reduced in dexamethasone-treated mice compared to control mice. Pretreatment with okra extract, either quercetin or rutin was found to restore BrdU-immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus. These findings suggest that quercetin, rutin and okra extract treatments reversed cognitive deficits, including impaired dentate gyrus (DG) cell proliferation, and protected against morphological changes in the CA3 region in dexamethasone-treated mice. The precise mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of these plant extracts should be further investigated.

  5. Rutin has therapeutic effect on septic arthritis caused by Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Han, Yongmoon

    2009-02-01

    As of late, numerous reports have demonstrated the multiple biological activities of polyphenolic flavonoids. Amongst these reports, some indicate that the flavonoids play an important role in inflammation therapy. In this present study, we investigated the effect of rutin, a polyphenolic flavonoid, on septic arthritis due to Candida albicans, a major etiological agent that causes fungal arthritis. To induce septic arthritis, an emulsified mixture of C. albicans cell wall and Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CACW/CFA) was injected into BALB/c mice via hind footpad route once a day, everyday, for three days. In order to determine the effect of rutin, twenty-four hours after the final injection, mice having the swollen footpad were given the flavonoid (1 mg/dose/mouse) intraperitoneally every other day for three times. The footpad-edema was measured for a period of 17 days. Results showed that the rutin treatment reduced app. 45% of the edema at the peak day (day 11) of septic arthritis (P<0.05). In addition, 6 days after the peak, there was an app. 35% additional reduction of the edema (P<0.05). We found that this anti-arthritic activity was mediated by rutin's ability to inhibit nitric oxide production from macrophages and T-cells proliferation. Furthermore, this flavonoid also inhibited the growth of C. albicans yeast cells (P<0.01) and resulted in no hemolysis. These data indicate that rutin, which has both anti-arthritic and antifungal effects, can safely be administered into the blood circulation for treatment of septic arthritis caused by C. albicans. Ultimately, it can be suggested that the dual effects of rutin, anti-arthritic and anti-candidal may be helpful as an all-in-one treatment for septic arthritis.

  6. Rutin as a Mediator of Lipid Metabolism and Cellular Signaling Pathways Interactions in Fibroblasts Altered by UVA and UVB Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Rybałtowska-Kawałko, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Background. Rutin is a natural nutraceutical that is a promising compound for the prevention of UV-induced metabolic changes in skin cells. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of rutin on redox and endocannabinoid systems, as well as proinflammatory and proapoptotic processes, in UV-irradiated fibroblasts. Methods. Fibroblasts exposed to UVA and UVB radiation were treated with rutin. The activities and levels of oxidants/antioxidants and endocannabinoid system components, as well as lipid, DNA, and protein oxidation products, and the proinflammatory and pro/antiapoptotic proteins expression were measured. Results. Rutin reduced UV-induced proinflammatory response and ROS generation and enhanced the activity/levels of antioxidants (SOD, GSH-Px, vitamin E, GSH, and Trx). Rutin also normalized UV-induced Nrf2 expression. Its biological activity prevented changes in the levels of the lipid mediators: MDA, 4-HNE, and endocannabinoids, as well as the endocannabinoid receptors CB1/2, VR1, and GPR55 expression. Furthermore, rutin prevented the protein modifications (tyrosine derivatives formation in particular) and decreased the levels of the proapoptotic markers—caspase-3 and cytochrome c. Conclusion. Rutin prevents UV-induced inflammation and redox imbalance at protein and transcriptional level which favors lipid, protein, and DNA protection. In consequence rutin regulates endocannabinoid system and apoptotic balance. PMID:28168010

  7. Treatment with Rutin - A Therapeutic Strategy for Neutrophil-Mediated Inflammatory and Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nikfarjam, Bahareh Abd; Adineh, Mohtaram; Hajiali, Farid

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Neutrophils represent the front line of human defense against infections. Immediately after stimulation, neutrophilic enzymes are activated and produce toxic mediators such as pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). These mediators can be toxic not only to infectious agents but also to host tissues. Because flavonoids exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, they are subjects of interest for pharmacological modulation of inflammation. In the present study, the effects of rutin on stimulus-induced NO and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α productions and MPO activity in human neutrophils were investigated. Methods: Human peripheral blood neutrophils were isolated using Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient centrifugation coupled with dextran T500 sedimentation. The cell preparations containing > 98% granulocytes were determined by morphological examination through Giemsa staining. Neutrophils were cultured in complete Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) medium, pre-incubated with or without rutin (25 μM) for 45 minutes, and stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Then, the TNF-α, NO and MPO productions were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Griess Reagent, and MPO assay kits, respectively. Also, the viability of human neutrophils was assessed using tetrazolium salt 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), and neutrophils were treated with various concentrations of rutin (1 - 100 μM), after which MTT was appended and incubated at 37ºC for 4 hour. Results: Rutin at concentrations up to 100 μM did not affect neutrophil viability during the 4-hour incubation period. Rutin significantly decreased the NO and TNF-α productions in human peripheral blood neutrophils compared to PMA-control cells (P < 0.001). Also, MPO activity was significantly reduced by rutin (P < 0.001). Conclusion: In this in vitro study, rutin had an anti-inflammatory effect due to

  8. Effect of rutin from tartary buckwheat sprout on serum glucose-lowering in animal model of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Gi; Jang, Ik Soon; Yang, Kyeong Eun; Yoon, So-Jung; Baek, Sujeong; Lee, Joo Yong; Suzuki, Tatsuro; Chung, Keun-Yook; Woo, Sun-Hee; Choi, Jong-Soon

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the anti-diabetic effects of rutin from tartary buckwheat sprout in type 2 diabetes mouse model. The rutin content in tartary buckwheat sprout (TBS) is five times higher than that found in common buckwheat sprout (CBS) as evident from high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Administration of either rutin or TBS ethanolic extract to diabetes mice decreased the serum glucose level significantly. Rutin down-regulated the expression levels of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B; it is negative regulator of insulin pathway, both transcriptionally and translationally in myocyte C2C12 in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, rutin can play a critical role in down-regulation of serum glucose level in type 2 diabetes.

  9. Synthesis, Characterization, Antioxidant Status, and Toxicity Study of Vanadium-Rutin Complex in Balb/c Mice.

    PubMed

    Roy, Souvik; Majumdar, Sumana; Singh, Amit Kumar; Ghosh, Balaram; Ghosh, Nilanjan; Manna, Subhadip; Chakraborty, Tania; Mallick, Sougato

    2015-08-01

    A new trend was developed for the formation of a complex between vanadium and flavonoid derivatives in order to increase the intestinal absorption and to reduce the toxicity of vanadium compounds. The vanadium-rutin complex was characterized by several spectroscopic techniques like ultraviolet (UV)-visible, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), NMR, mass spectrometry, and microscopic evaluation by scanning electron microscopy. The mononuclear complex was formed by the interaction between vanadium and rutin with 1:2 metal to ligand stoichiometry. Antioxidant activity of the complex was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl, ferric-reducing power, and 2,2'-azin-obis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid methods. It was shown that radical scavenging activity and ferric-reducing potential of free rutin was lower as compared with vanadium-rutin complex. The study was also investigated for oral acute toxicity and 28 days repeated oral subacute toxicity study of vanadium-rutin complex in balb/c mice. The vanadium-rutin complex showed mortality at a dose of 120 mg/kg in the balb/c mice. In 28 days repeated oral toxicity study, vanadium-rutin complex was administered to both sex of balb/c mice at dose levels of 90, 45, and 20 ppm, respectively. In addition, subacute toxicity study of vanadium-rutin complex (at 90 ppm dose level) showed increase levels of white blood cell (WBC), total bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen and decrease level of total protein (TP) as compared with control group. Histopathological study of vanadium-rutin showed structural alteration in the liver, kidney, and stomach at 90 ppm dose level. No observed toxic level of vanadium-rutin complex at 20 ppm dose level could be good for further study.

  10. Utilization of tartary buckwheat bran as a source of rutin and its effect on the rheological and antioxidant properties of wheat-based products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tartary buckwheat bran, a by-product of buckwheat flour production was utilized as a source of rutin, and the extracted rutin-enriched material (REM) was used to fortify wheat-based foods of which rheological and antioxidant properties were characterized. REM contained a high content of rutin (29.6 ...

  11. Development of an antioxidant biomaterial by promoting the deglycosylation of rutin to isoquercetin and quercetin.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Zúñiga, Johana M; Soto-Valdez, Herlinda; Peralta, Elizabeth; Mendoza-Wilson, Ana María; Robles-Burgueño, M Refugio; Auras, Rafael; Gámez-Meza, Nohemí

    2016-08-01

    Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin), quercetin-3-O-glucoside (isoquercetin) and quercetin have shown antioxidant, cytoprotective, vasoprotective, antiproliferative and antiinflammatory properties. The aim of this work was to determine the conversion of rutin to isoquercetin and quercetin during the production of poly(l-lactic acid) films with potential to deliver these flavonoids toward tissues, pharmaceuticals or food matrices. Three poly(l-lactic acid) formulations with 17.7, 39.6 and 39.1mg/g of rutin were prepared by the extrusion process. Processing temperatures (130-165°C) promoted the deglycosylation of rutin to produce isoquercetin and subsequently quercetin, identified by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The effect of the process on the antioxidant activity of the films was determined by measuring the capacity to scavenge 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals. The material with the highest proportion of quercetin showed the highest antioxidant activity which could be used to produce delivering devices of the flavonoids to tissues, pharmaceuticals or food matrices.

  12. Simultaneous determination of rutin and ascorbic acid mixture in their pure forms and combined dosage form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attia, Tamer Z.

    2016-12-01

    A simple, rapid, sensitive and selective high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with ultraviolet detection has been developed for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid and rutin in pure forms and pharmaceutical dosage form. HPLC separation was performed on Phenomenex C18 analytical column with 0.1% v/v acetic acid in water and acetonitrile (75:25, v/v), as mobile phase. The separation was done at ambient temperature with flow rate of 1 mL·min- 1 in isocratic mode. HPLC measurements were carried out using ultraviolet detection wavelength at 257 nm. The average retention times were 2.72 and 7.00 min for ascorbic acid and rutin, respectively. The calibration plots were constructed over the concentration range of 5.0-30.0 for ascorbic acid and 10.0-60.0 μg·mL- 1 for rutin. The limits of detection were 1.06 and 1.89 μg·mL- 1 and limits of quantification were 3.54 and 6.31 μg·mL- 1 for ascorbic acid and rutin, respectively. The proposed HPLC-UV method was successfully applied for determination of ascorbic acid in its tablets and for simultaneous determination of the studied drugs in their laboratory prepared mixtures and in pharmaceutical formulation. Statistical comparisons of the results with the reference method show an excellent agreement and indicate no significant difference in respect to accuracy and precision.

  13. Complex of Rutin with β-Cyclodextrin as Potential Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Paczkowska, Magdalena; Mizera, Mikołaj; Piotrowska, Hanna; Szymanowska-Powałowska, Daria; Lewandowska, Kornelia; Goscianska, Joanna; Pietrzak, Robert; Bednarski, Waldemar; Majka, Zbigniew; Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to obtain and characterize an RU-β-CD complex in the context of investigating the possibility of changes in the solubility, stability, antioxidative and microbiological activity as well as permeability of complexated rutin as against its free form. The formation of the RU-β-CD complex via a co-grinding technique was confirmed by using DSC, SEM, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy, and its geometry was assessed through molecular modeling. It was found that the stability and solubility of the so-obtained complex were greater compared to the free form; however, a slight decrease was observed inits antibacterial potency. An examination of changes in the EPR spectra of thecomplex excluded any reducing effect of complexation on the antioxidative activity of rutin. Considering the prospect of preformulation studies involving RU-β-CD complexes, of significance is also the observed possibility of prolongedly releasing rutin from the complex at a constant level over along period of 20 h, and the fact that twice as much complexated rutin was able topermeate compared to its free form. PMID:25822535

  14. Protective effects of rutin against potassium bromate induced nephrotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rutin, a polyphenolic flavonoid, was investigated for its protective effects against the KBrO3 induced renal injuries in rat. Methods Group I was control (untreated), group II was given saline 0.5 ml/kg bw (0.9% NaCl), group III was administered KBrO3 (20 mg/kg bw) intragastric twice a week for four weeks. Rutin was administered to group VI (50 mg/kg bw) and Group V (70 mg/kg bw) along with KBrO3 (20 mg/kg bw) while group VI was given rutin (70 mg/kg bw) alone twice a week for four weeks. Protective effects of rutin on KBrO3-induced nephrotoxicity in rats were determined for biochemical parameter of urine, and serum, various antioxidant enzymes, DNA and histopathological damages in kidneys. Results The level of urinary red blood cells, leucocytes count, specific gravity, urea, creatinine and urobilinogen was increased (P<0.01) whereas creatinine clearance was reduced. Serum level of protein, albumin, globulin, nitrite, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was significantly increased (P<0.01) by KBrO3. Marked histopathological lesions, elevated DNA fragmentation and AgNORs count in renal tissues was determined. Activity of antioxidant enzymes; catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase, and reduced glutathione contents were decreased (P<0.01) while thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were increased (P<0.01) with KBrO3 treatment in kidneys. DNA ladder assay was intimately related with the DNA fragmentation assay. Telomerase activity was found positive in the KBrO3 treated kidneys. Treatment with rutin effectively ameliorated the alterations in the studied parameters of rat. Rutin administration alone to rats did not exhibit any significant change in any of the parameters studied. Conclusion These results suggest that rutin works as an antioxidant in vivo by scavenging reactive oxygen species and this serves to prevent oxidative renal damage in rat treated with KBrO3. PMID:23116356

  15. Comparative gastroprotective effect of post-treatment with low doses of rutin and cimetidine in rats.

    PubMed

    Olaleye, Mary Tolulope; Akinmoladun, Afolabi Clement

    2013-04-01

    The anti-ulcerogenic potentials of low doses of rutin and cimetidine in ethanol-, acetic acid-, and stress-induced ulcers in rats have been evaluated and compared in this study. In each model, male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups (I-VI). Groups II-VI were administered 1 mL/100 g ethanol orally, 0.05 mL of 20% acetic acid submucosally or kept in a cold chamber for 6 h to induce ulcer in the ethanol-, acetic acid-, and stress-induced ulceration model, respectively. Thereafter, group III was post-treated with 300 mg/kg cimetidine and groups IV-VI with 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg rutin, respectively, while the control (group I) received distilled water in Tween 20. One hour after post-treatment, all groups were killed and the gastric ulcer index was calculated. Malondialdehyde (MDA) level, vitamin C content, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were evaluated in the gastric mucosa of animals. Post-treatment with rutin significantly reduced ulcerogen-induced gastric damage in all models. This effect was significant at all dose levels compared with the ulcer-induced groups. Rutin significantly reduced the MDA levels but increased the vitamin C content and GPx activity. Ulcer index and MDA level were highest in the ethanol-induced ulcer model while vitamin C content and GPx activity were lowest in the stress-induced ulcer model. The study showed that all three models of ulceration appeared to be linked to oxidative stress and also ascribed significant anti-ulcerogenic potential to rutin especially at lower doses of 20-80 mg/kg.

  16. Cutaneous biocompatible rutin-loaded gelatin-based nanoparticles increase the SPF of the association of UVA and UVB filters.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Camila Areias de; Peres, Daniela D'Almeida; Graziola, Fabiana; Chacra, Nádia Araci Bou; Araújo, Gabriel Lima Barros de; Flórido, Ana Catarina; Mota, Joana; Rosado, Catarina; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Rodrigues, Luís Monteiro; Fernandes, Ana Sofia; Baby, André Rolim

    2016-01-01

    The encapsulation of natural ingredients, such as rutin, can offer improvements in sun protection effectiveness. This strategy can provide enhanced flavonoid content and produces an improved bioactive compound with new physical and functional characteristics. As an alternative to common synthetic-based sunscreens, rutin-entrapped gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs) were designed and associated with ethylhexyl dimethyl PABA (EHDP), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDBM) in sunscreen formulations. The purpose of this study was to develop rutin-loaded gelatin nanoparticles and characterize their physicochemical, thermal, functional and safety properties. Rutin-loaded gelatin nanoparticles increased antioxidant activity by 74% relative to free-rutin (FR) solution. Also, this new ingredient upgraded the Sun Protection Factor (SPF) by 48%, indicating its potential as a raw material for bioactive sunscreens. The safety profile indicated that GNPs and glutaraldehyde (GTA) decreased HaCaT cell viability in a concentration/time-dependent manner. However, both blank nanoparticles (B-NC) and rutin-loaded nanoparticles (R-NC) had good performance on skin compatibility tests. These results functionally characterized rutin-loaded nanoparticles as a safe SPF enhancer in sunscreens, especially in association with UV filters.

  17. A sensitive rutin assay using a simple probe manganese sulfate based on its novel resonance light scattering decrease phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhanguang; Zhu, Li; Chen, Junhui; Liu, Jinbin; Han, Yali

    2008-11-15

    A novel resonance light scattering (RLS) decrease method was developed to determine rutin with a simple probe manganese sulfate. At pH 7.5, the strong RLS intensity of manganese sulfate was remarkably decreased by the addition of rutin with the maximum peak located at 389.0 nm. Under the optimum conditions, a good linear relationship between the changes of RLS intensities of manganese sulfate with and without rutin and the concentrations of rutin was obtained over the range of 0.49-24.4 microg ml(-1) and a low detection limit (3sigma) 0.42 microg ml(-1) was achieved in the mean time. Based on this approach, a novel method for quantitative analysis of rutin is proposed in this paper. The method proposed was also applied successfully to the determination of rutin in commercial pharmaceutical preparations of compound rutin tablets and human urine samples. The assay is sensitive, rapid, inexpensive, practical and relatively free from interference generated by coexisting substances.

  18. Radiation Synthesis of Poly(Starch/Acrylic acid) pH Sensitive Hydrogel for Rutin Controlled Release.

    PubMed

    Abdel Ghaffar, A M; Radwan, Rasha R; Ali, H E

    2016-11-01

    The copolymerization of starch with acrylic acid AAc using direct gamma radiation technique was performed. The effect of AAc concentrations on the gel (%) and swelling behavior were investigated. It is found that as AAc concentrations increase both gel(%) and swelling behavior increase. The Poly(starch/acrylic acid) (1:10wt%) hydrogel were selected due to its high swelling properties. From the in-vitro release study of the rutin-loaded hydrogel it is observed that it is strong pH-dependent release behavior, thus offering a maximum release as pH increased. The dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced rat colitis model was treated with rutin-loaded Poly(starch/acrylic acid) (1:10wt%) hydrogel and free rutin solution by oral administration. Colitic control group showed a significant elevation in colon/body weight ratio, myeloperoxgidase activity, tumor necrosis factor, nitric oxide and malondialdehyde levels. However, glutathione level was reduced. It was found that the rutin-loaded hydrogel was more efficient than free rutin as evidenced by improvement of all measured parameters. These effects were confirmed histopathologically and may be attributed to its ability to control delivery of rutin to colon with minor early release of rutin before colon. The Poly(starch/acrylic acid) (1:10wt%) can represent a pivotal anti-inflammatory approach for patients with inflammatory bowel disease in order to increase efficacy and reduce toxicity.

  19. Antibacterial potential of rutin conjugated with thioglycolic acid capped cadmium telluride quantum dots (TGA-CdTe QDs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananth, Devanesan Arul; Rameshkumar, Angappan; Jeyadevi, Ramachandran; Jagadeeswari, Sivanadanam; Nagarajan, Natarajan; Renganathan, Rajalingam; Sivasudha, Thilagar

    2015-03-01

    Quantum dots not only act as nanocarrier but also act as stable and resistant natural fluorescent bio markers used in various in vitro and in vivo photolabelling and biological applications. In this study, the antimicrobial potential of TGA-CdTe QDs and commercial phenolics (rutin and caffeine) were investigated against Escherichiacoli. UV absorbance and fluorescence quenching study of TGA-CdTe QDs with rutin and caffeine complex was measured by spectroscopic technique. QDs-rutin conjugate exhibited excellent quenching property due to the -OH groups present in the rutin structure. But the same time caffeine has not conjugated with QDs because of lacking of -OH group in its structure. Photolabelling of E. coli with QDs-rutin and QDs-caffeine complex was analyzed by fluorescent microscopic method. Microbe E. coli cell membrane damage was assessed by atomic force (AFM) and confocal microscopy. Based on the results obtained, it is suggested that QDs-rutin conjugate enhance the antimicrobial activity more than the treatment with QDs, rutin and caffeine alone.

  20. Therapeutic effect of ozone and rutin on adriamycin-induced testicular toxicity in an experimental rat model.

    PubMed

    Salem, E A; Salem, N A; Hellstrom, W J

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the cytoprotective effects of rutin, ozone and their combination on adriamycin (ADR)-induced testicular toxicity, 50 male albino rats were classified into five groups of ten animals each as follows: placebo group; ADR group; ADR + rutin group; ADR + ozone group and ADR + rutin + ozone group. Sperm functions, testosterone (T), luteinising hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testicular enzymes, oxidant/antioxidant status, C-reactive protein, monocyte chemoattractant proteins-1 and leukotriene B4 were determined. After ADR injection, a decline in sperm functions was observed. FSH and LH levels were increased, T level and testicular enzymes were decreased, significant enhancement in oxidative stress with subsequent depletion in antioxidants was detected and inflammatory markers were significantly elevated. Treatment with rutin and/or ozone, however, improved the aforementioned parameters. Ozone therapy alone almost completely reversed the toxic effects of ADR and restored all parameters to normal levels.

  1. Alkali metal salts of rutin - Synthesis, spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-VIS), antioxidant and antimicrobial studies.

    PubMed

    Samsonowicz, M; Kamińska, I; Kalinowska, M; Lewandowski, W

    2015-12-05

    In this work several metal salts of rutin with lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium were synthesized. Their molecular structures were discussed on the basis of spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-VIS) studies. Optimized geometrical structure of rutin was calculated by B3LYP/6-311++G(∗∗) method and sodium salt of rutin were calculated by B3LYP/LanL2DZ method. Metal chelation change the biological properties of ligand therefore the antioxidant (FRAP and DPPH) and antimicrobial activities (toward Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) of alkali metal salts were evaluated and compared with the biological properties of rutin.

  2. Rutin, a flavonoid and principal component of saussurea involucrata, attenuates physical fatigue in a forced swimming mouse model.

    PubMed

    Su, Kang-Yi; Yu, Chao Yuan; Chen, Yue-Wen; Huang, Yi-Tsau; Chen, Chun-Ting; Wu, Hsueh-Fu; Chen, Yi-Lin Sophia

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the antifatigue effects of rutin, a flavonoid extracted from the ethyl acetate extract of S. involucrata. Mice were subjected to a weight-loaded forced swim test (WFST) on alternate days for 3 wk. Rutin was administered orally to the mice for 7 days in dosages of 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg body weight, and several biomarkers of physical fatigue were evaluated: swimming time, change in body weight, lipid peroxidation, lactic acid (LA), glycogen, and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). On Day 7, the rutin-treated mice had a 3-fold longer exhaustive swimming time than the control mice, as well as significantly reduced blood LA concentrations. The 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg body weight rutin-supplemented groups displayed 11.2%, 22.5%, and 37.7% reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, respectively, in brain and muscle tissues compared with the control exercised group. Our results indicated that the administration of rutin protected the mice against the depletion of SOD and GPx activities significantly. Following 7 days of rutin treatment, we sacrificed the mice and analyzed their soleus muscle and brain for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α coactivator (PGC-1α) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) mRNA expression. We observed that rutin treatment increased PGC-1α and SIRT1 mRNA and protein expression. The changes in these markers of mitochondrial biogenesis were associated with increased maximal endurance capacity. The application of 2D gel electrophoresis to analyze the rutin-responsive protein profiles in the WFST mouse brain further revealed the upregulation of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor-interacting protein 1, myelin basic protein, Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI) alpha, and TPI, indicating that rutin might inhibit anxiety through the upregulation of the expression of anxiety-associated proteins. Western blot analysis of MAPK expression further confirmed the antianxiety effects

  3. Comparative analysis of flavonoids and polar metabolite profiling of Tanno-original and Tanno-high rutin buckwheat.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Jae Kwang; Park, Soo-Yun; Zhao, Shicheng; Kim, Yeon Bok; Lee, Sanghyun; Park, Sang Un

    2014-03-26

    Rutin is an important indicator for evaluating the quality of buckwheat. In this study, flavonoid biosynthesis was compared between two common cultivars (an original and a high-rutin line) of buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. Transcriptional levels of the main flavonoid biosynthetic genes were analyzed by real-time PCR, and main flavonoid metabolites were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); levels of gene expression varied among organs of the two cultivars. Significantly higher transcription levels of most flavonoid biosynthetic genes, except FeFLS1, were detected in stems of the high-rutin line than in stems of the original line. FeCHI and FeFLS2 genes also showed higher expression levels in seeds of the high-rutin cultivar. In contrast, FePAL, FeC4H, Fe4CL1, FeCHS, FeF3H, FeF3'H, FeFLS2, and FeDFR were highly detected in the roots of the original line. The HPLC results indicated 1.73-, 1.62-, and 1.77-fold higher accumulation of rutin (the primary flavonoid compound) in leaves, stems, and mature seeds of the high-rutin cultivar (24.86, 1.46, and 1.36 μg/mg, respectively) compared with the original cultivar (14.40, 0.90, and 0.77 μg/mg, respectively). A total of 46 metabolites were identified from seeds by gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The metabolite profiles were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA). PCA could clearly differentiate the original and high-rutin cultivars. Our results indicate that the high-rutin cultivar could be an excellent alternative for buckwheat culture, and we provide useful information for obtaining this cultivar.

  4. Anodic electrogenerated chemiluminescence behavior of graphite-like carbon nitride and its sensing for rutin.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Changming; Huang, Ying; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Baozhan; Yuan, Hongyan; Xiao, Dan

    2013-03-05

    In this paper, the anodic electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) behavior of graphite-like carbon nitride (g-C3N4) is studied using cyclic voltammetry with triethanolamine (TEA) as a coreactant. The possible anodic ECL response mechanism of the g-C3N4/TEA system is proposed. Furthermore, it is observed that the anodic ECL signal can be quenched efficiently in the presence of rutin, on the basis of which a facile anodic ECL senor for the determination of rutin is developed. This ECL sensor is found to have a linear response in the range of 0.20-45.0 μM and a low detection limit of 0.14 μM (at signal-to-noise of 3). These results suggest that semiconductor g-C3N4 has great potential in extending the application in the ECL field as an efficient luminophore.

  5. Influence of urea, isopropanol, and propylene glycol on rutin in vitro release from cosmetic semisolid systems estimated by factorial design.

    PubMed

    Baby, Andre Rolim; Haroutiounian-Filho, Carlos Alberto; Sarruf, Fernanda Daud; Pinto, Claudineia Aparecida Sales de Oliveira; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Velasco, Maria Valeria Robles

    2009-03-01

    Rutin, one of the major flavonoids found in an assortment of plants, was reported to act as a sun protection factor booster with high anti-UVA defense, antioxidant, antiaging, and anticellulite, by improvement of the cutaneous microcirculation. This research work aimed at evaluating the rutin in vitro release from semisolid systems, in vertical diffusion cells, containing urea, isopropanol and propylene glycol, associated or not, according to the factorial design with two levels with center point. Urea (alone and in association with isopropanol and propylene glycol) and isopropanol (alone and in association with propylene glycol) influenced significant and negatively rutin liberation in diverse parameters: flux (microg/cm(2).h); apparent permeability coefficient (cm/h); rutin amount released (microg/cm(2)); and liberation enhancement factor. In accordance with the results, the presence of propylene glycol 5.0% (wt/wt) presented statistically favorable to promote rutin release from this semisolid system with flux = 105.12 +/- 8.59 microg/cm(2).h; apparent permeability coefficient = 7.01 +/- 0.572 cm/h; rutin amount released = 648.80 +/- 53.01 microg/cm(2); and liberation enhancement factor = 1.21 +/- 0.07.

  6. Isocratic RP-HPLC method for rutin determination in solid oral dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Kuntić, Vesna; Pejić, Natasa; Ivković, Branka; Vujić, Zorica; Ilić, Katarina; Mićić, Svetlana; Vukojević, Vladana

    2007-01-17

    A rapid and sensitive assay for quantitative determination of rutin in oral dosage forms based on isocratic reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was developed and validated. Using a C(18) reverse-phase analytical column, the following conditions were chosen as optimal: mobile phase methanol-water 1:1 (v/v), pH 2.8 (adjusted with phosphoric acid), flow rate=1 mL min(-1) and temperature T=40.0 degrees C. Linearity was observed in the concentration range 8-120 microg mL(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.99982 and the limit of detection (LOD)=2.6 microg mL(-1), and limit of quantification (LOQ)=8.0 microg mL(-1). Intra- and inter-day precision were within acceptable limits. Robustness test indicated that the mobile phase composition and pH influence mainly the separation. The proposed method allowed direct determination of rutin in pharmaceutical dosage forms in the presence of excipients, but is not suitable for preparations where compounds structurally/chemically related to rutin may be present.

  7. Rutin-Nickel Complex: Synthesis, Characterization, Antioxidant, DNA Binding, and DNA Cleavage Activities.

    PubMed

    Raza, Aun; Bano, Shumaila; Xu, Xiuquan; Zhang, Rong Xian; Khalid, Haider; Iqbal, Furqan Muhammad; Xia, Changkun; Tang, Jian; Ouyang, Zhen

    2016-12-17

    The rutin-nickel (II) complex (RN) was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, UV-visible spectroscopy, IR, mass spectrometry, (1)H NMR, TG-DSC, SEM, and molar conductivity. The low molar conductivity value investigates the non-electrolyte nature of the complex. The elemental analysis and other physical and spectroscopic methods reveal the 1:2 stoichiometric ratio (metal/ligand) of the complex. An antioxidant study of rutin and its metal complex against DPPH radical showed that the complex has more radical scavenging activity than free rutin. The interaction of complex RN with DNA was determined using fluorescence spectra and agarose gel electrophoresis. The results showed that RN can intercalate moderately with DNA, quench a strong intercalator ethidium bromide (EB), and compete for the intercalative binding sites. The complex showed significant cleavage of pBR 322 DNA from supercoiled form (SC) to nicked circular form (NC), and these cleavage effects were dose-dependent. Moreover, the mechanism of DNA cleavage indicated that it was a hydrolytic cleavage pathway. These results revealed the potential nuclease activity of the complex to cleave DNA.

  8. Hydrolysis of the Rutinose-Conjugates Flavonoids Rutin and Hesperidin by the Gut Microbiota and Bifidobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Amaretti, Alberto; Raimondi, Stefano; Leonardi, Alan; Quartieri, Andrea; Rossi, Maddalena

    2015-01-01

    Flavonols and flavanones are polyphenols exerting many healthy biological activities. They are often glycosylated by rutinose, which hampers absorption in the small intestine. Therefore they require the gut microbiota to release the aglycone and enable colonic absorption. The role of the gut microbiota and bifidobacteria in the release of the aglycones from two major rutinosides, hesperidin and rutin, was investigated. In bioconversion experiments, the microbiota removed rutinose from both rutin and hesperidin, even though complete hydrolysis was not obtained. To investigate whether bifidobacteria can participate to the hydrolysis of rutinosides, 33 strains were screened. Rutin was resistant to hydrolysis by all the strains. Among six tested species, mostly Bifidobacterium catenulatum and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenultum were able to hydrolyze hesperidin, by means of a cell-associated activity. This result is in agreement with the presence of a putative α-l-rhamnosidase in the genome of B. pseudocatenulatum, while most of the available genome sequences of bifidobacteria aside from this species do not bear this sequence. Even though B. pseudocatenulatum may contribute to the release of the aglycone from certain rutinose-conjugated polyphenols, such as hesperidin, it remains to be clarified whether this species may exert a role in affecting the bioavailability of the rutinoside in vivo. PMID:25875120

  9. Antihyperglycemic Activity of the Leaves from Annona cherimola Miller and Rutin on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Calzada, Fernando; Solares-Pascasio, Jesús Iván; Ordoñez-Razo, R. M.; Velazquez, Claudia; Barbosa, Elizabeth; García-Hernández, Normand; Mendez-Luna, David; Correa-Basurto, José

    2017-01-01

    Background: Annona cherimola, known as “chirimoya” has been reported in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes. Objective: The aims of the present study were to validate and assess the traditional use of A. cherimola as an antidiabetic agent. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extract from A. cherimola (300 mg/kg, EEAc), subsequent fractions (100 mg/kg), and rutin (30 mg/kg) were studied on alloxan-induced type 2 diabetic (AITD) and normoglycemic rats. In addition, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and oral sucrose tolerance test (OSTT) were performed in normoglycemic rats. Molecular docking technique was used to conduct the computational study. Results: Bioassay-guided fractionation of EEAc afforded as major antihyperglycemic compound, rutin. EEAc attenuated postprandial hyperglycemia in acute test using AITD rats (331.5 mg/dL) carrying the glycemic levels to 149.2 mg/dL. Rutin after 2 h, attenuated postprandial hyperglycemia in an acute assay using AITD rats such as EEAc, with maximum effect (150.0 mg/dL) being seen at 4 h. The antihyperglycemic activities of EEAc and rutin were comparable with acarbose (151.3 mg/dL). In the subchronic assay on AITD rats, the EEAc and rutin showed a reduction of the blood glucose levels since the 1st week of treatment, reaching levels similar to normoglycemic state (116.9 mg/kg) that stayed constant for the rest of the assay. OGTT and OSTT showed that EEAc and rutin significantly lowered blood glucose levels in normoglycemic rats at 2 h after a glucose or sucrose load such as acarbose. Computational molecular docking showed that rutin interacted with four amino acids residues in the enzyme α-glucosidase. Conclusion: The results suggest that rutin an α-glucosidase inhibitor was responsible in part of the antihyperglycemic activity of A. cherimola. Its in vivo antihyperglycemic activity is in good agreement with the traditional use of A. cherimola for the treatment of diabetes. SUMMARY The ethanol extract

  10. Rutin Attenuates Carfilzomib-Induced Cardiotoxicity Through Inhibition of NF-κB, Hypertrophic Gene Expression and Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Imam, Faisal; Al-Harbi, Naif O; Al-Harbia, Mohammed M; Korashy, Hesham M; Ansari, Mushtaq Ahmad; Sayed-Ahmed, Mohamed M; Nagi, Mahmoud N; Iqbal, Muzaffar; Khalid Anwer, Md; Kazmi, Imran; Afzal, Muhammad; Bahashwan, Saleh

    2017-01-01

    Carfilzomib is a proteasome inhibitor, commonly used in multiple myeloma, but its clinical use may be limited due to cardiotoxicity. This study was aimed to evaluate the influence of rutin in carfilzomib-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Wistar albino male rats weighing 200-250 g (approximately 10 weeks old) were taken for this study. Animals were divided into four groups of six animals each. Group 1 served as normal control (NC), received normal saline; group 2 animals received carfilzomib (dissolved in 1 % DMSO) alone; group 3 animals received rutin (20 mg/kg) + carfilzomib; and group 4 animals received rutin (40 mg/kg) + carfilzomib. Hematological changes, biochemical changes, oxidative stress, hypertrophic gene expression, apoptotic gene expression, NFκB and IκB-α protein expression and histopathological evaluation were done to confirm the finding of carfilzomib-induced cardiotoxicity. Treatment with rutin decreased the carfilzomib-induced changes in cardiac enzymes such as lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase (CK) and CK-MB. For the assessment of cardiotoxicity, we further evaluated cardiac hypertrophic gene and apoptotic gene expression such as α-MHC, β-MHC and BNP and NF-κB and p53 gene expression, respectively, using RT-PCR. Western blot analysis showed that rutin treatment prevented the activation of NF-κB by increasing the expression of IκB-α. Rutin also attenuated the effects of carfilzomib on oxidant-antioxidant including malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione. Histopathological study clearly confirmed that rutin attenuated carfilzomib-induced cardiotoxicity in rats.

  11. Preparation of quercetin and rutin-loaded ceramide liposomes and drug-releasing effect in liposome-in-hydrogel complex system.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo Nam; Lee, Min Hye; Kim, Su Ji; Yu, Eun Ryeong

    2013-06-07

    In this study, we developed a 2-step delivery system to enhance transdermal permeation of quercetin and its glycoside rutin, an antioxidant. Liposome-in-hydrogel complex systems were prepared by incorporating ceramide liposomes, which consist of biocompatible lipid membranes, into cellulose hydrogel. We evaluated the encapsulation efficiency, in vitro release behavior, and skin permeability of formulations that remained stable for over 3 weeks. Rutin had greater encapsulation efficiency and better in vitro release properties than quercetin. However, quercetin demonstrated greater skin permeability than rutin. We also found that liposome-in-hydrogel complex systems (quercetin, 67.42%; rutin 59.82%) improved skin permeability of quercetin and rutin compared to control (phosphate buffer, pH 7.4) (quercetin, 2.48%; rutin, 1.89%) or single systems of hydrogel (quercetin, 31.77%; rutin, 26.35%) or liposome (quercetin, 48.35%; rutin, 37.41%). These results indicate that liposome-in-hydrogel systems can function as potential drug delivery systems to enhance transdermal permeation of the water-insoluble antioxidants quercetin and rutin.

  12. Rutin-Mediated Priming of Plant Resistance to Three Bacterial Pathogens Initiating the Early SA Signal Pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Xu, Xiaonan; Li, Yang; Wang, Yingzi; Li, Ming; Wang, Yong; Ding, Xinhua; Chu, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom and have many diverse functions, including UV protection, auxin transport inhibition, allelopathy, flower coloring and insect resistance. Here we show that rutin, a proud member of the flavonoid family, could be functional as an activator to improve plant disease resistances. Three plant species pretreated with 2 mM rutin were found to enhance resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 in rice, tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana respectively. While they were normally propagated on the cultural medium supplemented with 2 mM rutin for those pathogenic bacteria. The enhanced resistance was associated with primed expression of several pathogenesis-related genes. We also demonstrated that the rutin-mediated priming resistance was attenuated in npr1, eds1, eds5, pad4-1, ndr1 mutants, and NahG transgenic Arabidopsis plant, while not in either snc1-11, ein2-5 or jar1 mutants. We concluded that the rutin-priming defense signal was modulated by the salicylic acid (SA)-dependent pathway from an early stage upstream of NDR1 and EDS1.

  13. Application of a Cu-chitosan/multiwalled carbon nanotube film-modified electrode for the sensitive determination of rutin.

    PubMed

    Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher; Mohammadi-Behzad, Leila; Hosseinkhani, Hossein

    2016-01-15

    A new sensitive electrochemical sensor, a glassy carbon electrode modified with chemically cross-linked copper-complexed chitosan/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (Cu-CS/MWCNT/GCE), for rutin analysis was constructed. Experimental investigations of the influence of several parameters showed that the rutin can effectively accumulate on the surface of the Cu-CS/MWCNT/GCE, which accumulation caused a pair of well-defined redox peaks in the electrochemical signal when measurements were carried out in Britton-Robinson buffer solution (pH 3, 0.04 M). The surface of the Cu-CS/MWCNT/GCE was characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffractometry analysis. In a rutin concentration range of 0.05-100 μM and under optimized conditions, a linear relationship between the oxidation peak current of rutin and its concentration was obtained with a detection limit of 0.01 μM. The Cu-CS/MWCNT/GCE showed good selectivity, stability, and reproducibility. Moreover, the sensor was used to determine the presence of rutin in fruits with satisfactory results.

  14. Development of a biosensor based on gilo peroxidase immobilized on chitosan chemically crosslinked with epichlorohydrin for determination of rutin.

    PubMed

    Zwirtes de Oliveira, Inês Rosane W; Fernandes, Suellen Cadorin; Vieira, Iolanda Cruz

    2006-05-03

    A new reagentless biosensor for the square-wave voltammetric determination of rutin in pharmaceutical formulations was developed by immobilization of gilo (Solanum gilo) crude extract in chitosan matrix. The gilo tissue acts as a source of peroxidase. The highest biosensor performance was obtained after immobilization of the peroxidase in chemically crosslinked chitosan with epichlorohydrin and glutaraldehyde that was incorporated in a carbon paste electrode. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide this enzyme catalyses the oxidation of rutin to quinone and the electrochemical reduction of the product was obtained at a fixed potential of +124 mV versus Ag/AgCl (3.0 M KCl). The performance and factors influencing the resulting biosensor were studied in detail. The bioelectrode exhibited a linear response for rutin concentrations from 3.4x10(-7) to 7.2x10(-6) M (r=0.9998) and the recovery of rutin from the samples ranged from 96.2 to 102.4%. The detection and quantification limits were 2.0x10(-8) and 6.3x10(-8) M, respectively. The relative standard deviation was less than 1.0% for solutions containing 3.4x10(-7) to 7.2x10(-6) M rutin in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.0 (n=10). The lifetime of this biosensor was 8 months (at least 500 determinations).

  15. Isolation and screening of strains producing high amounts of rutin degrading enzymes from Fagopyrum tataricum seeds.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ya-Di; Luo, Qing-Lin; Zhou, Mei-Liang; Wang, De-Zhou; Zhang, Ye-Dong; Shao, Ji-Rong; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Tang, Yu

    2013-02-01

    The rutin degrading enzyme (RDE) was isolated and purified from tartary buckwheat seeds. The RDE was purified about 11.34-fold and its final yield was 3.5%, which was very low, due to our purification strategy of giving priority to purity over yield. The RDE molecular weight was estimated to be about 60 kDa. When rutin was used as substrate, an optimal enzyme activity was seen at around pH 5.0 and 40 °C. Strains isolation strategy characterized by the use of rutin as sole carbon source in enrichment cultures was used to isolate RDE-producing strains. Then the active strains were identified by morphology characterization and 18s rDNA-ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) gene sequencing. Three isolates coded as B3, W2, Y2 were successfully isolated from fusty Fagopyrum tataricum flour cultures. Strain B3 possessed the highest unit activity among these three strains, and its total activity reached up to 171.0 Unit. The active isolate (B3) could be assigned to Penicillium farinosum. When the Penicillium farinosum strains were added to tartary buckwheat flour cultures at pH 5.0, 30 °C after 5 days fermentation, the quercetin production raised up to 1.78 mg/l, almost 5.1 times higher than the fermentation without the above active strains. Hence, a new approach was available to utilize microorganism-aided fermentation for effective quercetin extraction from Fagopyrum tataricum seeds.

  16. Quercetin and rutin as potential sunscreen agents: determination of efficacy by an in vitro method.

    PubMed

    Choquenet, Benjamin; Couteau, Céline; Paparis, Eva; Coiffard, Laurence J M

    2008-06-01

    Given that flavonoids are known for their ultraviolet (UV)B photoprotective properties in plants that contain them, we chose to study quercetin (1) and rutin (2) as agents that could potentially be used in sunscreen products. These two substances proved to behave in similar ways. When incorporated in oil-in-water emulsions, at a concentration of 10% (w/w), 1 and 2 give sun protection factor (SPF) values similar to that of homosalate, a standard substance. These two flavonoids also provided a non-negligible level of photoprotection in the UVA range. When used in association with titanium dioxide, the SPF obtained was around 30.

  17. Accumulation of Rutin and Betulinic Acid and Expression of Phenylpropanoid and Triterpenoid Biosynthetic Genes in Mulberry (Morus alba L.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shicheng; Park, Chang Ha; Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Yeon Bok; Yang, Jingli; Sung, Gyoo Byung; Park, Nam Il; Kim, Soonok; Park, Sang Un

    2015-09-30

    Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is used in traditional Chinese medicine and is the sole food source of the silkworm. Here, 21 cDNAs encoding phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes and 21 cDNAs encoding triterpene biosynthetic genes were isolated from mulberry. The expression levels of genes involved in these biosynthetic pathways and the accumulation of rutin, betulin, and betulinic acid, important secondary metabolites, were investigated in different plant organs. Most phenylpropanoid and triterpene biosynthetic genes were highly expressed in leaves and/or fruit, and most genes were downregulated during fruit ripening. The accumulation of rutin was more than fivefold higher in leaves than in other organs, and higher levels of betulin and betulinic acid were found in roots and leaves than in fruit. By comparing the contents of these compounds with gene expression levels, we speculate that MaUGT78D1 and MaLUS play important regulatory roles in the rutin and betulin biosynthetic pathways.

  18. An effective biphase system accelerates hesperidinase-catalyzed conversion of rutin to isoquercitrin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Gong, An; Yang, Cai-Feng; Bao, Qi; Shi, Xin-Yi; Han, Bei-Bei; Wu, Xiang-Yang; Wu, Fu-An

    2015-01-01

    Isoquercitrin is a rare, natural ingredient with several biological activities that is a key precursor for the synthesis of enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (EMIQ). The enzymatic production of isoquercitrin from rutin catalyzed by hesperidinase is feasible; however, the bioprocess is hindered by low substrate concentration and a long reaction time. Thus, a novel biphase system consisting of [Bmim][BF4]:glycine-sodium hydroxide (pH 9) (10:90, v/v) and glyceryl triacetate (1:1, v/v) was initially established for isoquercitrin production. The biotransformation product was identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the bonding mechanism of the enzyme and substrate was inferred using circular dichroism spectra and kinetic parameters. The highest rutin conversion of 99.5% and isoquercitrin yield of 93.9% were obtained after 3 h. The reaction route is environmentally benign and mild, and the biphase system could be reused. The substrate concentration was increased 2.6-fold, the reaction time was reduced to three tenths the original time. The three-dimensional structure of hesperidinase was changed in the biphase system, which α-helix and random content were reduced and β-sheet content was increased. Thus, the developed biphase system can effectively strengthen the hesperidinase-catalyzed synthesis of isoquercitrin with high yield. PMID:25731802

  19. CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity: protective effect of rutin on p53, CYP2E1 and the antioxidative status in rat

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rutin is a polyphenolic natural flavonoid which possesses antioxidant and anticancer activity. In the present study the hepatoprotective effect of rutin was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injuries in rats. Methods and materials 24 Sprague–Dawley male rats were equally divided into 4 groups for the assessment of hepatoprotective potential of rutin. Rats of group I (control) received only vehicles; 1 ml/kg bw of saline (0.85%) and olive oil (3 ml/kg) and had free access to food and water. Rats of group II, III and IV were treated with CCl4 (30% in olive oil, 3 ml/kg bw) via the intraperitoneal route twice a week for four weeks. The rutin at the doses of 50 and 70 mg/kg were administered intragastrically after 48 h of CCl4 treatment to group III and IV, respectively. Protective effect of rutin on serum enzyme level, lipid profile, activities of antioxidant enzymes and molecular markers were calculated in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rat. Results Rutin showed significant protection with the depletion of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT) in serum as was raised by the induction of CCl4. Concentration of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol and low density lipoproteins was increased while high-density lipoprotein was decreased with rutin in a dose dependent manner. Activity level of endogenous liver antioxidant enzymes; catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GSR) and glutathione (GSH) contents were increased while lipid peroxidation (TBARS) was decreased dose dependently with rutin. Moreover, increase in DNA fragmentation and oxo8dG damages while decrease in p53 and CYP 2E1 expression induced with CCl4 was restored with the treatment of rutin. Conclusion From these results, it is suggested that rutin possesses hepatoprotective

  20. [Determination of rutin, quercetin and kaempferol in Althaea rosea (L) Gavan for Uyghur medicine by high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Muhetaer, Tu'erhong; Resalat, Yimin; Chu, Ganghui; Yin, Xuebo; Munira, Abudukeremu

    2015-12-01

    Uyghur medicine is one important part of the national medicine system. Uyghur medicine modernization, namely the study of effective components with modern technologies, is the only way for the scientification, standardization, and industrialization of Uyghur medicine. Here we developed a selective extraction method for rutin, quercetin and kaempferol in Althaea rosea (L) Gavan. The three active species were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with HC-C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm) and the mobile phase of CH3OH-0.4% H3PO4 (50 :50, v/v). Rutin, quercetin and kaempferol were baseline separated with each other and the interference species with flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and column temperature of 30 degrees C. Under the optimal conditions, linear correlation were obtained in the mass concentration range of 12.5-150 μg/mL (r = 0.999 8) for rutin, 12.5-125 μg/mL (r = 0.999 9) for quercetin, and 12.5-125 μg/mL (r = 0.998 8) for kaempferol. The recoveries (n = 5) of rutin, quercetin and kaempferol were 100.25% ( RSD = 1.1%), 97.60% ( RSD = 0.47%) and 97.75% (RSD = 0.71%), respectively. The method can be used to determine the contents of rutin, quercetin and kaempferol in Althaea rosea (L) Gavan and provide the guidance for the analysis of the flavonoids in other Uyghur medicines.

  1. Au@AuPt nanoparticles embedded in B-doped graphene: A superior electrocatalyst for determination of rutin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xianlan; Yang, Guangming; Feng, Shaoping; Shi, Ling; Huang, Zhaolong; Pan, Haibo; Liu, Wei

    2017-04-01

    A hydrothermal approach was used to prepare B-doped graphene with B2O3 as reductant and boron source. Results reveal that the boron atoms have been successfully embedded into graphene with a high content of a total B species (2.85 at.%). Then, B-doped graphene was exfoliated further into monolayer nanosheet by impregnating Au@AuPt core-shell nanoparticles (Au@AuPt NPs) because boron atom creates a net positive charge, which facilitates Au@AuPt NPs adsorption to form Au@AuPt NPs/B-doped graphene hybrid nanocatalysts. After that, the Au@AuPt NPs/B-doped hybrid suspension was dropped on glassy carbon electrode for sensing rutin. In this way, the dispersed carboxyl units of B-doped graphene can form hydrogen bonding with the phenolic hydroxyl groups of rutin, making rutin enrich easily on modified electrode surface to enhance the electrochemical response. At the same time, its electrochemical mechanism on the modified electrode was elucidated using cyclic voltammetry. It was found that its electrochemical behavior on modified electrode surface was a surface-controlled quasi-reversible process, and the charge transfer coefficient (α) and electron transfer number (n) were 0.296 and 2, respectively. This electrochemical sensor for rutin provided a wide linear response range of 2.00 × 10-9-4.00 × 10-6 M with the detection limit (S/N = 3) of 2.84 × 10-10 M. The proposed method was applied successfully to selective determination of rutin in Tablets with acceptable recovery range (97.23-101.65%).

  2. Hesperidin and rutin, antioxidant citrus flavonoids, attenuate cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Kamel M; Abd El-Raouf, Ola M; Metwally, Salwa A; Abd El-Latif, Hekma A; El-sayed, Mostafa E

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the protective effect of hesperidin (HES) and rutin (RUT) against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in male rats. Cisplatin (5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) caused significant increases in serum sodium, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, total sodium and potassium excreted in urine, urine volume, and lipid peroxides measured as the malondialdehyde content of kidney, with significant decreases in serum total protein, creatinine clearance, reduced glutathione content of kidney, and kidney superoxide dismutase activity as compared with the control group. On the other hand, administration of HES (200 mg/kg, per oral [p.o.]) or RUT (30 mg/kg, p.o.) for 14 days with a single cisplatin dose on the tenth day ameliorated the cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity as indicated by the restoration of kidney function and oxidative stress biomarkers. Furthermore, the test drugs reduced the histopathological changes induced by cisplatin. In conclusion, HES and RUT showed protective effects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

  3. Rutin Inhibits Neuroinflammation and Provides Neuroprotection in an Experimental Rat Model of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Possibly Through Suppressing the RAGE-NF-κB Inflammatory Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Hao, Guangzhi; Dong, Yushu; Huo, Rentao; Wen, Kai; Zhang, Yinsong; Liang, Guobiao

    2016-06-01

    As is known to all, neuroinflammation plays a vital role in early brain injury pathogenesis following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). It has been shown that rutin have a property of inhibiting inflammation in many kinds of animal models. However, the effect of rutin on neuroinflammation after SAH remains uninvestigated. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of rutin on neuroinflammation and the underlying mechanism in an experimental rat model of SAH performed by endovascular perforation. Adult male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups, including sham group, SAH + vehicle group and SAH + rutin group (50 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered at 30 min after SAH. After sacrificed at 24 h after SAH, all rats were examined by following tests, including neurologic scores, blood-brain barrier permeability, brain water content and neuronal cell death in cerebral cortex. The level of inflammation in brain was estimated by means of multiple molecules, including RAGE, NF-κB, and inflammation cytokines. Our results indicated that rutin could significantly downregulate the increased level of REGE, NF-κB and inflammatory cytokines in protein level. In addition, rutin could also ameliorate a series of secondary brain injuries such as brain edema, destruction of blood-brain barrier, neurological deficits and neuronal death. This study indicated that rutin administration had a neuroprotective effect in an experimental rat model of SAH, possibly through inhibiting RAGE-NF-κB mediated inflammation signaling pathway.

  4. Rutin attenuates H2O2-induced oxidation damage and apoptosis in Leydig cells by activating PI3K/Akt signal pathways.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianhua; Wang, Heng; Liu, Bei; Shi, Wenhao; Shi, Juanzi; Zhang, Zhou; Xing, Junping

    2017-04-01

    Oxidative stress is a primary factor in the pathology of male infertility. The strong antioxidative capacity of rutin has been proven by numerous studies, but a protective role in the context of male reproduction remains to be elucidated. To explore the biological role of rutin in protecting male reproductive function and the potential underlying mechanism, H2O2-induced Leydig cells were used as a cell model of oxidation damage. Our findings showed that rutin at concentrations of 10, 20, and 40μmol/L remarkably increased cell survival rate of H2O2-induced Leydig cells to 70.1%, 86.8%, and 80.3% respectively. Next, rutin with concentrations of 10, 20, and 40μmol/L decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels but increased the levels of glutathione (GSH) and testosterone in H2O2-induced Leydig cells. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) were remarkably increased by rutin treatment with concentrations of 20 and 40μmol/L, but glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was notably decreased. Moreover, rutin with concentrations of 10, 20, and 40μmol/L increased Bcl-2 protein levels but decreased protein levels of Bax and caspase-3. Furthermore, 20μmol/L rutin significantly abrogated the decrease in levels of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and phosphorylated serine/threonine kinase (p-AKT) induced by H2O2. Pretreatment with LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, antagonized protective action of 20μmol/L rutin against H2O2-induced cell activities, intracellular oxidant, testosterone, antioxidant enzyme activities, and the apoptosis related protein expression. Taken together, these results suggest that rutin attenuates H2O2-induced oxidation damage and apoptosis in Leydig cells by activating PI3K/Akt signal pathways, providing a promising strategy to decrease oxidative stress associated with male infertility.

  5. Synergistic antioxidant action of vitamin E and rutin SNEDDS in ameliorating oxidative stress in a Parkinson’s disease model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Shrestha; Narang, Jasjeet K.; Ali, Javed; Baboota, Sanjula

    2016-09-01

    Purpose. Oxidative stress is the leading cause in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. Rutin is a naturally occurring strong antioxidant molecule with wide therapeutic applications. It suffers from the problem of low oral bioavailability which is due to its poor aqueous solubility. Methods. In order to increase the solubility self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) of rutin were prepared. The oil, surfactant and co-surfactant were selected based on solubility/miscibility studies. Optimization was done by a three-factor, four-level (34) Box-Behnken design. The independent factors were oil, surfactant and co-surfactant concentration and the dependent variables were globule size, self-emulsification time, % transmittance and cumulative percentage of drug release. The optimized SNEDDS formulation (RSE6) was evaluated for various release studies. Antioxidant activity was assessed by various in vitro tests such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and reducing power assay. Oxidative stress models which had Parkinson’s-type symptoms were used to determine the antioxidant potential of rutin SNEDDS in vivo. Permeation was assessed through confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results. An optimized SNEDDS formulation consisting of Sefsol + vitamin E-Solutol HS 15-Transcutol P at proportions of 25:35:17.5 (w/w) was prepared and characterized. The globule size and polydispersity index of the optimized formulation was found to be 16.08 ± 0.02 nm and 0.124 ± 0.01, respectively. A significant (p < 0.05) increase in the percentage of drug release was achieved in the case of the optimized formulation as compared to rutin suspension. Pharmacokinetic study showed a 2.3-fold increase in relative oral bioavailability. The optimized formulation had significant in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity. Conclusion. Rutin SNEDDS have been successfully prepared and they can serve as an effective tool in enhancing the oral bioavailability and efficacy of rutin, thus helping

  6. The n-Butanol Fraction and Rutin from Tartary Buckwheat Improve Cognition and Memory in an In Vivo Model of Amyloid-β-Induced Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Yeon; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Dong Gu; Cho, Sunghun; Yoon, Young-Ho; Cho, Eun Ju; Lee, Sanghyun

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the beneficial effects of the n-butanol fraction and rutin extracted from tartary buckwheat (TB) on learning and memory deficits in a mouse model of amyloid β (Aβ)-induced Alzheimer's disease (AD). Learning and memory were assessed using the T-maze, object recognition, and Morris water maze tests. Animals administered Aβ showed impaired cognition and memory, which were alleviated by oral administration of an n-butanol fraction and rutin extracted from TB. Similarly, Aβ-induced increases in nitric oxide formation and lipid peroxidation in the brain, liver, and kidneys were attenuated by treatment with n-butanol fraction and rutin from TB in addition to antioxidant effects observed in control (nonAβ-treated) animals. The results of the present study suggest that the n-butanol fraction and rutin extracted from TB are protective against and have possible therapeutic applications for the treatment of AD.

  7. Quantification of rutin in rat's brain by UHPLC/ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS after intranasal administration of rutin loaded chitosan nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Niyaz; Ahmad, Rizwan; Naqvi, Atta Abbas; Alam, Md Aftab; Samim, Mohd; Iqbal, Zeenat; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees

    2016-01-01

    Rutin (RT), an antioxidant drug, has been utilized to treat cerebral ischemia hence a sensitive quantification method for estimation of RT in brain homogenate is necessary to develop. This study aims to prepare RT loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles (RT-CS-NPs) develop and validate ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-synapt mass spectrometric method Synapt Mass Spectrometry (Synapt MS) (UHPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS/MS) for quantification of RT in brain homogenate from Wistar rat. The process of chromatographic separation was carried out on Waters ACQUITY UPLC™ with the components of separation in detail as; column: BEH C-18 with dimension as 2.1 mm×100 mm and particle size 1.7 µm, mobile phase: acetonitrile (85 % v/v/v): 2 mM ammonium formate (15 % v/v/v): formic acid (0.1 % v/v/v) and flow rate: 0.25 mL/min. Liquid-liquid extraction method (LLE), in mixture, i.e. ethyl acetate:acetonitrile, was considered to optimize the recovery of analyte from the brain homogenate of Wistar rat. Over a total run time of 5 minutes, the elution time for RT and internal standard (IS), i.e. Tolbutamide, observed was 2.67 and 2.82 min respectively whereas the transition observed for RT and IS was at m/z 611.1023/303.1071 and 271.1263/155.1073, respectively. Results, regarding various processes and parameters studied for RT as summarized, established a linear dynamic range over a concentration range of 1.00 ng/mL - 1000.0 ng/mL with r2; 0.9991±0.0010. Accuracy for intra and inter-assay in terms of % CV revealed a range of 0.45- 2.11 whereas lower limit of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) observed was 0.09 ng/mL and 0.142 ng/mL, respectively. The analyte stability as well as method specificity and accuracy, i.e. recovery > 86 %, supports the idea for application of current developed method in order to quantify and evaluate the RT-loaded-CS-NPs for RT determination in brain homogenate after intranasal drug delivery. PMID:28096783

  8. Development of a rapid HPLC-UV method for simultaneous quantification of protodioscin and rutin in white and green asparagus spears.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Jin; Yoo, Kil Sun; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2010-01-01

    Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) spears are rich in bioactive compounds such as protodioscin, a saponin, and rutin, a flavonoid. Protodioscin and rutin are routinely quantified separately, and an approach permitting simultaneous measurement would significantly improve speed of analysis. We have optimized an extraction procedure and modified a method of high-performance liquid chromatography by coupling to an ultraviolet detector to simultaneously analyze protodioscin and rutin in asparagus extracts. An acidic ethanol solvent was more efficient than methanol, acetonitrile, or water in coextraction of protodioscin and rutin. Protodioscin and rutin were detected at 210 nm, with retention times of 12.6 min and 7.9 min, respectively. The method was validated by high linear correlations between 3.13 and 1000.0 μg/mL for protodioscin (r(2)= 0.9999), and between 0.3 and 1087.5 μg/mL for rutin (r(2)= 0.9997). The limit(s) of detection and quantification for protodioscin were 1.6 μg/mL and 3.13 μg/mL, respectively, and for rutin 0.2 μg/mL and 0.3 μg/mL, respectively. White asparagus spears and the crown of the plants were revealed to be rich sources of protodioscin and contained 2.59 to 10.4 mg/g dry weight. Green asparagus spears, particularly the upper portion, were rich in rutin and contained between 1.51 and 7.29 mg/g dry weight.

  9. Quantification of Quercetin and Rutin from Benincasa hispida Seeds and Carissa Congesta Roots by High-performance Thin Layer Chromatography and High-performance Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Gaurav Mahesh; Une, Hemant Devidas

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In Indian Ayurvedic system, Benincasa hispida (BH) and Carissa congesta (CC) are well-known plants used for major and minor ailments. BH has been regarded as Kushmanda, whereas CC has been used in immune-related disorders of the human system. Quercetin and rutin identified from the vast plethora of plant extracts have proved to possess ethnopharmacological relevance. Materials and Methods: In present studies, we have determined quercetin and rutin in terms of percentage in BH seeds and CC roots by high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After extraction and phytochemical screening, the extracts were subjected to quantification for the presence of quercetin and rutin by HPTLC and HPLC. Results: HPTLC showed quercetin as 44.60, 27.13% and rutin as 32.00, 36.31% w/w, whereas HPLC revealed quercetin as 34.00, 35.00% and rutin as 21.99, 45.03% w/v in BH and CC extracts, respectively. Conclusion: The BH and CC extracts have elucidated peaks that were corresponding with standard peaks on undertaking chromatographic studies. SUMMARY Quercetin and rutin are isolated from BH seeds and CC roots by High Performance. Thin Layer Chromatography and High Performance Liquid Chromatography. HPTLC revealed presence of quercetin as 44.60, 27.13 % and rutin as 32.00, 36.31 % w/w. HPLC revealed presence of quercetin as 34.00, 35.00 % and rutin as 21.99, 45.03 % w/v. Abbreviation Used: HPTLC: High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography; HPLC: High Pressure Liquid Chromatography, UV: Ultraviolet, CC: Carissa congesta, BH: Benincasa hispida PMID:26941534

  10. Mesoporous NiCo2O4-decorated reduced graphene oxide as a novel platform for electrochemical determination of rutin.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shiqiang; Li, Li; Ding, Yaping; Zhang, Jiangjiang; Yang, Hua; Wang, Yingzi

    2017-03-01

    The glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with mesoporous NiCo2O4-decorated reduced graphene oxide (NiCo2O4/rGO) was first applied for the electrochemical determination of rutin. The synthesized NiCo2O4 and NiCo2O4/rGO were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. The sensor not only showed a satisfactory linear range (0.1-150μM) and detection limit (0.01μM) but also exhibited the good anti-interference abilities, low price, high stability, as well as favorable precision and accuracy. The present work is meaningful to expand functionalized graphene composites to sensor fields and promote the development of rutin sensors.

  11. Influence of rutin, FeSO4, Tween 80, aspartate and complex vitamins on synthesis of fungal exopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Kui; Zhang, Hong; Fam, Hala

    2013-02-15

    The influence of several components on exopolysaccharide (EPS) production and antioxidative activity (TEAC, Trolox-Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity) as well as their effects on the morphological development and cell viability of Phellinus sp. P0988 was determined. Rutin, FeSO(4), Tween 80 and complex vitamins were found to impose a stronger influence on EPS production and TEAC compared to their effects on the mycelia growth of Phellinus sp. P0988. The relative effects of these components on EPS activity were found to be different from that on EPS yield. Rutin and aspartate significantly affected EPS TEAC (P<0.05), while FeSO(4) and Tween 80 significantly influenced EPS production (P<0.05). These results yielded the optimum culture medium composition, with an EPS yield and TEAC of 6.2±0.2 g/L and 5.5±0.1 mM, respectively.

  12. Naringin and Rutin Alleviates Episodic Memory Deficits in Two Differentially Challenged Object Recognition Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Ramalingayya, Grandhi Venkata; Nampoothiri, Madhavan; Nayak, Pawan G.; Kishore, Anoop; Shenoy, Rekha R.; Mallikarjuna Rao, Chamallamudi; Nandakumar, Krishnadas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cognitive decline or dementia is a debilitating problem of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, including special conditions like chemobrain. Dietary flavonoids proved to be efficacious in delaying the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases. Two such flavonoids, naringin (NAR) and rutin (RUT) were reported to have neuroprotective potential with beneficial effects on spatial and emotional memories in particular. However, the efficacy of these flavonoids is poorly understood on episodic memory, which comprises an important form of autobiographical memory. Objective: This study objective is to evaluate NAR and RUT to reverse time-delay-induced long-term and scopolamine-induced short-term episodic memory deficits in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: We have evaluated both short-term and long-term episodic memory forms using novel object recognition task. Open field paradigm was used to assess locomotor activity for any confounding influence on memory assessment. Donepezil was used as positive control and was effective in both models at 1 mg/kg, i.p. Results: Animals treated with NAR and RUT at 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o. spent significantly more time exploring novel object compared to familiar one, whereas control animals spent almost equal time with both objects in choice trial. NAR and RUT dose-dependently increased recognition and discriminative indices in time-induced long-term as well as scopolamine-induced short-term episodic memory deficit models without interfering with the locomotor activity. Conclusion: We conclude that, NAR and RUT averted both short- and long-term episodic memory deficits in Wistar rats, which may be potential interventions for neurodegenerative diseases as well as chemobrain condition. SUMMARY Incidence of Alzheimer's disease is increasing globally and the current therapy is only symptomatic. Curative treatment is a major lacuna. NAR and RUT are natural flavonoids proven for their pleiotropic

  13. Sensitive electrochemical detection of rutin and isoquercitrin based on SH-β-cyclodextrin functionalized graphene-palladium nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiguang; Xue, Qiong; Guo, Yujing

    2017-03-15

    In this study, a sensitive electrochemical method based on thio-β-cyclodextrin functionalized graphene/palladium nanoparticles (SH-β-CD-Gr/PdNPs) was developed to detect rutin and isoquercitrin, respectively. The obtained SH-β-CD-Gr/PdNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results confirm that SH-β-CD and PdNPs were successfully deposited on the surface of graphene nanosheets (GNs). The peak currents of rutin and isoquercitrin on the SH-β-CD-Gr/PdNPs modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) are dramatically increased compared with that on the bare GCE and SH-β-CD-Gr/GCE. It indicated that the nanocomposite integrated the excellent electric conductivity and electrocatalytic activity of graphene and PdNPs, as well as the host-guest recognition and enrichment ability of SH-β-CD. Under optimum conditions, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to measure the peak currents of the two drugs. The linear response ranges for rutin and isoquercitrin are 1.0×10(-9)-3.0×10(-5)molL(-1) and 5.0×10(-12)-5.0×10(-6)molL(-1), with low detection limits of 3.0×10(-10)molL(-1) and 1.6×10(-12)molL(-1), respectively. The proposed method might offer a new possibility for electrochemical analysis of rutin and isoquercitrin in pharmaceuticals or human serum owing to its low cost, simplicity, high sensitivity and good stability.

  14. Effect of vitamin C, deferoxamine, quercetin and rutin against tert-butyl hydroperoxide oxidative damage in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Krukoski, Daniel Witchmichen; Comar, Samuel Ricardo; Claro, Ligia Maria; Leonart, Maria Suely Soares; do Nascimento, Aguinaldo José

    2009-06-01

    The mature human erythrocyte, when submitted to oxidative stress, can demonstrate depletion of reduced glutathione, oxidation of the hemoglobin molecule and aggregation of complexes of iron close to the membrane. These can produce abnormalities in the erythrocyte membrane and hemolysis. The aim of this work was to study the antioxidative action of vitamin C (vit. C), deferroxamine (DFO) and the flavonoids quercetin and rutin in normal human erythrocytes, submitted to in vitro oxidative stress induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide ((t)BHP). Venous blood was collected in citrate-phosphate-dextrose (CPD) solution, as anticoagulant, from healthy adult individuals after informed consent. The erythrocytes were resuspended in PBS to obtain 35% globular volume, and then submitted to the oxidative action of (t)BHP for up to 30 min, with or without previous incubation for 60 min with vit. C, DFO, quercetin and rutin. Decrease in the GSH concentration, G6-PD and GR activities, and increase in the methemoglobin and Heinz bodies (HB) formation, occurred with the increase in (t)BHP concentration. (t)BHP did not effect on the membrane proteins detected by SDS-PAGE. Quercetin, partially prevented the GSH decrease and the formation of HB, but did not prevent MetHb formation from oxidative damage by (t)BHP. Rutin, after (t)BHP induction, prevented the GSH decrease and the formation of HB. Vit. C, had no influence on the depletion of GSH, inhibited partially the metHb formation, and it protected GR, but not G6-PD from oxidative damage by (t)BHP. DFO partially inhibited the metHb formation and GSH decrease, but it did not protect GR and G6-PD from oxidative damage by (t)BHP. The results obtained suggest that vit. C, DFO and the flavonoids quercetin and rutin contribute to the decrease in the oxidative stress caused by (t)BHP.

  15. Dual effects of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) treatment on the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and rutin in germinated buckwheat.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jianxiong; Wu, Tongjiao; Li, Huiying; Wang, Wei; Liu, Haijie

    2016-06-15

    In the present study, the dual effects of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) treatment on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and rutin accumulation of germinated buckwheat were evaluated during germination. The results showed that SAEW treatment (pH 5.83, ACC of 20.3 mg/L) could promote the accumulation of GABA and rutin in germinated buckwheat. The GABA and rutin contents of SAEW-germinated buckwheat reached 143.20 and 739.9 mg/100 g respectively, which is significantly higher than those of control (P<0.05). Moreover, SAEW treatment could increase the activity of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) and thus result in the GABA and rutin accumulation of germinated buckwheat. The results suggested that SAEW treatment could promote the rutin accumulation of germinated buckwheat by influencing phenylpropanoid secondary metabolic pathway instead of the inhibition of rutin degrading enzyme (RDE) activity. In addition, SAEW treatment had no adverse impact on the sprouts growth and could reduce the microbial populations of germinated buckwheat during germination.

  16. Determination of rutin, catechin, epicatechin, and epicatechin gallate in buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum Moench by micro-high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Danila, Ana-Maria; Kotani, Akira; Hakamata, Hideki; Kusu, Fumiyo

    2007-02-21

    A simple and sensitive method has been developed for determining rutin, catechin, epicatechin, and epicatechin gallate in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) flour and seeds by micro-high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Chromatography was performed using an octadecylsilica column, acetonitrile-water-formic acid (13:87:1, v/v/v) as a mobile phase, and an applied potential at +0.5 V vs Ag/AgCl. We found that Japanese buckwheat flour contains rutin (12.7 mg/100 g), catechin (3.30 mg/100 g), epicatechin (20.5 mg/100 g), and epicatechin gallate (1.27 mg/100 g). The relative standard deviations for rutin, catechin, epicatechin, and epicatechin gallate peak heights were less than 0.86% (n = 5). The detection limit of rutin was 0.86 ng/mL. Moreover, the present method was applied to the distribution analysis of these compounds in buckwheat seed. The embryo proper and cotyledons of a mature buckwheat seed contained rutin with the highest concentration as compared to other parts. This method is useful in determining rutin, catechin, epicatechin, and epicatechin gallate in buckwheat with a small amount of sample for quality control in the food industry.

  17. The effect of Cu 2+ or Fe 3+ on the noncovalent binding of rutin with bovine serum albumin by spectroscopic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Daojin; Zhu, Mei; Xu, Chen; Chen, Jianjun; Ji, Baoming

    2011-01-01

    The interaction of rutin to bovine serum albumin (BSA) in aqueous solution was investigated by fluorescence spectra and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectra at pH 7.40. There are also some metal ions present in blood plasma, thus the research about the effect of metal ions on the interaction of drugs with proteins is crucial. Therefore, we have studied the effect of Cu 2+ or Fe 3+ on the interaction between rutin and BSA by using spectroscopic technique at pH 7.40, for the first time. The results of fluorescence titration indicated that rutin could quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA in a static quenching way. The binding sites number ( n), the binding constant ( K) and the spatial-distance ( r) of rutin with BSA without or with Cu 2+ or Fe 3+ at 310 K were calculated. The result showed that the presence of Cu 2+ or Fe 3+ increased the binding constant and changed the binding distance between the acceptor and the donor, which possibly results from the formation of metal ions-BSA complex. The effect of rutin on the conformation of BSA was also analyzed using UV under experimental conditions. Furthermore, the fluorescence displacement experiments indicated that rutin is situated within subdomain IIA of BSA.

  18. Protective mechanism of quercetin and rutin on 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane)dihydrochloride or Cu2+-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gyo-Nam; Kwon, Young-In; Jang, Hae-Dong

    2011-02-01

    Protective effects of quercetin and rutin against oxidative stress were evaluated using in vitro and intracellular antioxidant assay. Quercetin showed higher peroxyl and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in a dose-dependent manner than did rutin in oxygen-radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). At 10 and 100 μM, quercetin had higher metal-chelating activity than rutin carrying rutinose at position C-3 and was also more efficient than rutin in reducing intracellular oxidative stress caused by peroxyl radicals and Cu(2+). The protective activities of 10 and 100 μM quercetin against Cu(2+)-induced intracellular oxidation were 13.8% and 44.8%, respectively. Rutin showed no protective activity against Cu(2+)-induced oxidative stress. Quercetin showed significantly lower intracellular Cu(2+)-chelating activity than did 1,10-phenanthroline but offered greater protection from Cu(2+)-induced oxidative stress. Thus, quercetin may diffuse through the cell membrane more efficiently than rutin because quercetin does not carry rutinose, is hydrophilic, and reduces Cu(2+)-induced oxidative stress by scavenging radicals instead of chelating with metal ions.

  19. Rutin from Dendropanax morbifera Leveille protects human dopaminergic cells against rotenone induced cell injury through inhibiting JNK and p38 MAPK signaling.

    PubMed

    Park, Se-Eun; Sapkota, Kumar; Choi, Jun-Hui; Kim, Myung-Kon; Kim, Young Hoi; Kim, Ki Man; Kim, Kyung Je; Oh, Ha-Na; Kim, Sung-Jun; Kim, Seung

    2014-04-01

    Dendropanax morbifera Leveille (Araliaceae) is well known in Korean traditional medicine for a variety of diseases. Rotenone is a commonly used neurotoxin to produce in vivo and in vitro Parkinson's disease models. This study was designed to elucidate the processes underlying neuroprotection of rutin, a bioflavonoid isolated from D. morbifera Leveille in cellular models of rotenone-induced toxicity. We found that rutin significantly decreased rotenone-induced generation of reactive oxygen species levels in SH-SY5Y cells. Rutin protected the increased level of intracellular Ca(2+) and depleted level of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) induced by rotenone. Furthermore, it prevented the decreased ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 caused by rotenone treatment. Additionally, rutin protected SH-SY5Y cells from rotenone-induced caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation and apoptotic cell death. We also observed that rutin repressed rotenone-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. These results suggest that rutin may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  20. Prevention by alpha-tocopherol and rutin of glutathione and ATP depletion induced by oxidized LDL in cultured endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, A.; Salvayre, R.; Delchambre, J.; Nègre-Salvayre, A.

    1995-01-01

    1. Oxidized low density lipoproteins (LDL) are thought to play an important role in atherogenesis. Mildly oxidized LDL are cytotoxic to cultured endothelial cells. Toxic doses of oxidized LDL promote the peroxidation of cellular lipids (beginning at 6 h and being maximal after 12 h of pulse with oxidized LDL) and glutathione and ATP depletion (beginning after 15 h of pulse and evolving concurrently with the cytotoxicity). 2. Antioxidants from 3 different classes (rutin, ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol) were compared as to their ability to inhibit the cytotoxic effect of oxidized LDL to endothelial cells. 3. Effective concentrations of alpha-tocopherol inhibited cellular lipid peroxidation, glutathione and ATP depletion and the cytotoxic effect. 4. Ascorbic acid was less effective than alpha-tocopherol and rutin, and exhibited a dose-dependent biphasic effect in the presence of oxidized LDL. 5. Effective concentrations of rutin inhibited glutathione and ATP depletion as well as cytotoxicity, but did not block cellular lipid peroxidation. This suggests that the glutathione and ATP depletion is directly correlated to the cytotoxicity of oxidized LDL, whereas cellular lipid peroxidation is probably not directly the cause of cellular damage leading to cell death. 6. The association of antioxidants of 3 different classes allowed the suppression of the biphasic effect of ascorbic acid and increased the efficacy of the protective effect. The potential consequences for prevention of the pathogenic role of oxidized LDL in endothelial injury are discussed. PMID:8640336

  1. Protective effect of rutin in comparison to silymarin against induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, M. Kasi; Reddy, A. Gopala; Kumar, B. Kala; Madhuri, D.; Boobalan, G.; Reddy, M. Anudeep

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of rutin (RTN) in comparison to silymarin (SLM) against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar albino rats (n=24) of 3 months age were equally divided into four groups. Group 1 served as normal control. Hepatotoxicity was induced in the remaining three groups with administration of 500 mg/kg po APAP from day 1-3. Groups 2, 3, and 4 were subsequently administered orally with distilled water, 25 mg/kg of SLM, and 20 mg/kg of RTN, respectively, for 11 days. The mean body weights and biomarkers of hepatotoxicity were estimated on day 0, 4 (confirmation of toxicity), and 15 (at the end of treatment). Hematological parameters were evaluated on day 4 and 15. Antioxidant profile and adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) were assessed at the end of the experiment. Liver tissues were subjected to histopathology and transmission electron microscopy after the sacrifice on day 15. Results: Antioxidant profile, ATPases, and hematological and sero-biochemical parameters were significantly altered, and histopathological changes were noticed in the liver of toxic control group. These changes were reversed in groups 3 and 4 that were administered with SLM and RTN, respectively. Conclusion: The results of the present investigation enunciated that SLM has potent hepatoprotective activity though the RTN was found superior in restoring the pathological alterations in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar albino rats. PMID:28246450

  2. Study on the adsorption feature of rutin aqueous solution on macroporous adsorption resins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenbin; Zhang, Anjie; Li, Jie; Dong, Fang; Di, Duolong; Wu, Youzhi

    2010-04-15

    The adsorption feature of different kinds of polystyrene-based macroporous adsorption resins (MARs) was investigated systemically at constant temperature employing Rutin as the adsorbate. Different from traditional adsorption patterns, Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption, and the results showed interesting aspects: (1) With the increase of the volume of the initial solution, the adsorption capacity increased to the maximum, and then decreased gradually. (2) Experimental results clearly verified the opinion that the adsorption process of MARs could be divided into three stages-macropores, mesopores, and micropores-by the capillary effects occurring at the two intersections, and the adsorption feature for every stage could be described well by the fourth type of Brunauer model. (3) The model that the inductive effect transmitted to the first layer could not interpret our experimental results reasonably. Thus, the model that the inductive effect passed on to a higher layer was proposed by investigating regression of the experimental results and the conclusion that the inductive effect transmitted to the third layer was drawn.

  3. Rutin ameliorates renal fibrosis and proteinuria in 5/6-nephrectomized rats by anti-oxidation and inhibiting activation of TGFβ1-smad signaling

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yu; Lu, Jin-Shan; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Lei; Hong, Bao-Fa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Rutin, a polyphenolic flavonoid, was reported to have beneficial effect on drug induced nephropathy. The present study aimed to introduce 5/6 nephrectomized rat model to further evaluate its renal protective effect. Methods: Adult Wistar rats were induced to develop chronic renal failure through 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx). After that, animals were treated orally with saline, rutin at 15 and 45 mg/kg, and losartan (10 mg/kg) daily for 20 weeks; sham-operated animals were also involved as control. After treatment for 8 and 20 weeks, blood and urine samples were collected for biochemical examination; all the kidney remnants were collected for histological examination. The protein levels of TGF-β1, smad2 and phosphorylated-smad2 (p-smad2) in kidney were measured. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the expression of TGF-β1, fibronectin and collagen IV in kidney tissues. Results: Results suggested that rutin could reduce the proteinurea, blood urine nitrogen and blood creatinine in 5/6 Nx animals significantly, as well as oxidation stress in the kidney. By histological examination, rutin administration alleviated glomerular sclerosis scores and tubulointerstitial injuries in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.01). Immunohistochemistry also suggested rutin could reduce the expression of TGF-β1, fibronectin and collagen IV in kidney tissues. By western blot, we found the rutin could reduce the TGF-β1, p-smad2 expression in the kidney tissues of rats. Conclusions: This study suggests that the rutin can improve renal function in 5/6 Nx rats effectively. Its effect may be due to its anti-oxidation and inhibiting TGFβ1-Smad signaling. PMID:26191162

  4. Rutin and quercetin show greater efficacy than nifedipin in ameliorating hemodynamic, redox, and metabolite imbalances in sodium chloride-induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Olaleye, M T; Crown, O O; Akinmoladun, A C; Akindahunsi, A A

    2014-06-01

    Rutin and quercetin were investigated for their effects on blood pressure and antioxidant defense system of rats fed with 8% sodium chloride-supplemented diet (high salt diet) for 6 weeks. Animals fed with high salt diet demonstrated an increase in systolic, diastolic, pulse, and mean arterial blood pressures (p < 0.05) as well as lipid peroxidation but decreases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes compared with control group. Groups post-treated with rutin and quercetin for 2 weeks showed significant reversals in the values of these indices compared with the group fed with only the high salt diet but not post-treated. The high salt diet also led to significant increase in serum glucose, urea, creatinine, triglycerides, low-density-lipoprotein, and total cholesterol concentrations. Treatment with rutin and quercetin ameliorated the effects of high salt diet on these biochemical indices. The reference standard, nifedipin was less effective than rutin and quercetin. The results of this study highlight the risk of high salt consumption on cardiovascular health and the potent antioxidant and antihypertensive property of rutin and quercetin.

  5. Application of ionic liquids in vacuum microwave-assisted extraction followed by macroporous resin isolation of three flavonoids rutin, hyperoside and hesperidin from Sorbus tianschanica leaves.

    PubMed

    Gu, Huiyan; Chen, Fengli; Zhang, Qiang; Zang, Jing

    2016-03-01

    Rutin, hyperoside and hesperidin were effectively extracted from Sorbus tianschanica leaves by an ionic liquid vacuum microwave-assisted method. A series of ionic liquids with various anions and alkyl chain length of the cations were studied and the extraction was performed in [C6mim][BF4] aqueous solution. After optimization by a factorial design and response surface methodology, total extraction yield of 2.37mg/g with an error of 0.12mg/g (0.71±0.04mg/g, 1.18±0.06mg/g and 0.48±0.02 for rutin, hyperoside and hesperidin, respectively) was achieved under -0.08MPa for vacuum, 19min and 420W for microwave irradiation time and power, and 15mL/g for liquid-solid ratio. The proposed method here is more efficient and needs a shorter extraction time for rutin, hyperoside and hesperidin from S. tianschanica leaves than reference extraction techniques. In stability studies performed with standard rutin, hyperoside and hesperidin, the target analytes were stable under the optimum conditions. The proposed method had a high reproducibility and precision. In addition, separation of rutin, hyperoside and hesperidin from [C6mim][BF4] extraction solution was completed effectively by AB-8 macroporous resin adsorption and desorption process. Ionic liquid vacuum microwave-assisted extraction is a simple, rapid and efficient sample extraction technique.

  6. Analysis of the relationship between Chalcone Isomerase gene expression level and rutin production in Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidea and F. deltoidea var. angustifolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najid, Najihah Mohd; Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd; Zainal, Zamri

    2016-11-01

    Ficus deltoidea (moraceae) is a herbal plant with medicinal values. Previous studies reported that the F. deltoidea contains a high level of bioactive compounds such as flavonoids. A cDNA encodes for chalcone isomerase was identified from F. deltoidea, designated as FdCHI, which involved in the isomerization of naringenin chalcone to naringenin. Naringenin is a key branch point for the synthesis of rutin, which is believed involved in defense mechanism in the plant. Therefore, we hypothesized that there might be a direct relationship between FdCHI expression level and rutin production in leaves of F. deltoidea var. deltoidea (FDD) and F. deltoidea var. angustifolia (FDA). Our result showed that expression level of FdCHI in leaves FDD was greater than FDA. Analysis of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) revealed that rutin was only detected in FDA leaves. Based on the results between FdCHI expression and rutin production, this study concluded that there is no relationship between FdCHI expression and rutin production in leaves of FDA and FDD.

  7. Cyclodextrin polymer/Fe3O4 nanocomposites as solid phase extraction material coupled with UV-vis spectrometry for the analysis of rutin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Aiqin; Ping, Wenhui; Wang, Jue; Zhu, Xiashi

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, carboxymethyl-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin polymer modified magnetic particles Fe3O4 (CM-HP-β-CDCP-MNPs) were prepared and applied to magnetic solid phase extraction of rutin combined with UV-visible spectrometry detection. The synthesized magnetic particles were characterized by element analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectra, thermal gravimetric analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. Several variables affecting the extraction and desorption of rutin such as pH, the amount of adsorbent, the type and volume of eluent, extraction and desorption time, and temperature were investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity was 67.0 mg g-1 for rutin with the equilibrium time of 30 min at room temperature, and the adsorbent could be reused for 10 times. A calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.05-8.00 μg mL-1 with a relative standard deviation of 2.9% (n = 5, c = 4.0 μg mL-1). The limit of detection was 7.0 ng mL-1. The interaction mechanism between the adsorbent and rutin was also studied. Feasibility of this method was validated by the analysis of rutin tablets and lotus plumule.

  8. Rutin, a Flavonoid That Is a Main Component of Saussurea involucrata, Attenuates the Senescence Effect in D-Galactose Aging Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying-Chen; Lin, Hsueh-Yi; Su, Kang-Yi; Chen, Chien-Hsu; Yu, Yung-Lung; Lin, Chai-Ching; Yu, Sung-Liang; Yan, Hong-Young; Su, Kuo-Jung; Chen, Yi-Lin Sophia

    2012-01-01

    Saussurea involucrata (Kar. et Kir.), known as the snow lotus, grows in the Tian Shan and A'er Tai areas of China. It has recently been reported that the ethyl acetate extract of S. involucrata (SI-2) can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. This study investigated the protective effect of ethyl acetate extract of S. involucrata (SI-2) or rutin, a flavonoid extracted from ethyl acetate extract of S. involucrata (SI-2), on D-galactose- (D-gal-) induced brain injury in mice. Administering SI-2 or rutin (30 mg/kg/d and 30 mg/kg/d) for 6 weeks, concomitant with D-gal injection, significantly increased superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and decreased the MDA level in plasma. Furthermore, the result showed that the percentages of cleaved caspase-3 and PARP in the D-gal-treated mice were much higher than those in the control. Pretreatment using SI-2 or rutin decreased the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 via downregulation of NF-kappaB, resulting in a decrease in lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, our results also showed that oral administration of rutin to these mice significantly improved behavioral performance in a step-through passive avoidance task and these results suggest that SI-2 or rutin exerts potent antiaging effects on D-gal in mice via antioxidative mechanisms. PMID:22952557

  9. Correlation of rutin accumulation with 3-O-glucosyl transferase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activities during the ripening of tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Capanoglu, Esra; Beekwilder, Jules; Matros, Andrea; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Hall, Robert D; Mock, Hans Peter

    2012-12-01

    In tomato, the predominant flavonoid is quercetin-3-rutinoside (rutin). In this study, we aim to investigate the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and the quercetin-3-O-glucosyl transferase (3-GT) reactions in the formation of rutin during tomato fruit ripening. Tomatoes of the Moneymaker variety at different development stages (green, breaker, turning, pink, red, and deep red) were divided into flesh and peel fractions. In each sample, both the content of rutin and the enzymatic activities for PAL and 3-GT were recorded. The highest activities of PAL were recorded in the peel of turning fruit (3,000 μkat/mg fresh weight). In fruit flesh, maximal activity was observed in red fruit (917.3 μkat/mg). For both tissues, PAL activity strongly decreased at the final (deep red) fruit stage. The activity of 3-GT in peel peaked in the turning fruit stage (50.7 pkat/mg), while in flesh maximal activity (33.4 pkat/mg) was observed in green fruit, which rapidly declined at the turning stage. Higher levels of rutin were detected in the tomato peel compared to the flesh part with the highest level being found at the green stage. The relation of PAL and 3-GT activities to rutin content is also evaluated.

  10. Effect of Selected Pyrazine Derivatives on the Production of Phenolics and Rutin in Urtica dioica and Fagopyrum esculentum.

    PubMed

    Moravcová, Sárka; Fiedlerová, Vendula; Tůma, Jirí; Musil, Karel; Tůmová, Lenka

    2016-04-01

    The effect of four pyrazine derivatives on the content of phenolic compounds in Urtica dioica L. and rutin in Fagopyrum esculentum Moench was studied. Pyrazine derivatives H1 and H2 were used on U. dioica, and derivatives S1 and S2 on F. esculentum, both separately and in combination with urea. The content of phenolic compounds in the stems of U. dioica after treatment with H2 at a concentration of 10(-3) M significantly increased compared with the control and to a lower concentration of the same pyrazine derivative. In the case of S1 and S2 for F. esculentum, rutin content also increased in stems, mainly after treatment together with urea. By contrast, rutin and phenolics contents in the leaves did not change in comparison with controls after application of H1, H2, S I and S2. Treatment with H1 and H2 in two chosen concentrations resulted in a significant increase in the net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance. A slight increase in the rate of photosynthesis was observed also after application of variants of S1 and S1 with urea. Pyrazine derivatives did not show any effect on either the relative content of chlorophyll or chlorophyll fluorescence. A slight weight reduction of above ground biomass was shown only after application of Si and S2. Dark necrosis on the edges and center of the leaves was observed in all treated plants after pyrazine application. The results suggest that all the pyrazine derivatives possess herbicidal effects.

  11. Effects of combinations of curcumin, linalool, rutin, safranal, and thymoquinone on glucose/serum deprivation-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Alinejad, Bagher; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Several phytochemical agents have been known to exhibit a neuroprotective effect. Among them, curcumin, linalool, rutin, safranal, and thymoquinone were widely investigated and neuroprotective activity of each of them was shown by several studies. This work was planned to investigate whether different combinations of them could induce better neuroprotective effect against glucose/serum deprivation (GSD)-induced cytotoxicity. Materials and Methods: PC12 cells were cultivated for 8 h in GSD condition in both the absence and presence of curcumin, linalool, rutin, safranal, thymoquinone, or combinations of them. At the end of the experiment, the cell viability was determined using MTT assay. Results: The cells cultured in GSD condition showed a significant decrease in viability (28±1%) as compared with those cultured in standard condition (100±2%). In the presence of curcumin (10 µg/ml), linalool (16 µg/ml), rutin (200 µg/ml), safranal (50 µg/ml), and thymoquinone (1 µg/ml), the cell viability increased to 69±3.4% (p<0.001), 44±1.4% (p<0.01), 64±0.5% (p<0.001), 49±2% (p<0.001), and 70±3.2% (p<0.001), respectively. When different combinations of the agents were tested, the best cytoprotective activity was obtained from safranal + curcumin + thymoquinone (97±5%, p<0.01 vs. untreated cells). Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that a combination of safranal + curcumin + thymoquinone can block GSD-induced cell death and has the potential to be considered for management of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25050289

  12. Bioavailability of the flavonol quercetin in neonatal calves after oral administration of quercetin aglycone or rutin.

    PubMed

    Maciej, J; Schäff, C T; Kanitz, E; Tuchscherer, A; Bruckmaier, R M; Wolffram, S; Hammon, H M

    2015-06-01

    Polyphenols, such as flavonoids, are secondary plant metabolites with potentially health-promoting properties. In newborn calves flavonoids may improve health status, but little is known about the systemically availability of flavonoids in calves to exert biological effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the oral bioavailability of the flavonol quercetin, applied either as quercetin aglycone (QA) or as its glucorhamnoside rutin (RU), in newborn dairy calves. Twenty-one male newborn German Holstein calves were fed equal amounts of colostrum and milk replacer according to body weight. On d 2 and 29 of life, 9 mg of quercetin equivalents/kg of body weight, either fed as QA or as RU, or no quercetin (control group) were fed together with the morning meal. Blood samples were taken before and 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after feed intake. Quercetin and quercetin metabolites with an intact flavonol structure (isorhamnetin, tamarixetin, and kaempferol) were analyzed in blood plasma after treatment with glucuronidase or sulfatase by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Maximum individual plasma concentration was depicted from the concentration-time-curve on d 2 and 29, respectively. Additional blood samples were taken to measure basal plasma concentrations of total protein, albumin, urea, and lactate as well as pre- and postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, insulin, and cortisol. Plasma concentrations of quercetin and its metabolites were significantly higher on d 2 than on d 29 of life, and administration of QA resulted in higher plasma concentrations of quercetin and its metabolites than RU. The relative bioavailability of total flavonols (sum of quercetin and its metabolites isorhamnetin, tamarixetin, and kaempferol) from RU was 72.5% on d 2 and 49.6% on d 29 when compared with QA (100%). Calves fed QA reached maximum plasma concentrations of total flavonols much earlier than did RU-fed calves. Plasma

  13. Possible involvement of nitric oxide mechanism in the neuroprotective effect of rutin against immobilization stress induced anxiety like behaviour, oxidative damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Machawal, Lalit; Kumar, Anil

    2014-02-01

    Dietary supplements are widely used to manage stress and related consequences. However, the exact pathological mechanism and cellular cascades involved in the action of these supplements are not properly understood so far. Therefore, the present study has been designed to explore the neuroprotective mechanism of rutin against immobilization stress-induced anxiety-like behavioural and oxidative damage in mice. Laboratory Animal Centre A-strain (laca) mice were used in the present study. Rutin (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg), l-arginine (100 mg/kg), l-nitroarginine methyl ester (l-NAME) (5 mg/kg) and vitamin-E (50 mg/kg) were administered for 5 days before 6h immobilization stress on 6th day. Various behavioural parameters (mirror chamber test, locomotor activity) followed by biochemical parameters (lipid peroxidation, nitrite concentration, reduced glutathione and catalase) in brain and then serum corticosterone level were assessed. 6 h immobilization stress produced anxiety-like behavioural in mirror chamber test, raised corticosterone level and oxidative stress (as evidenced by rise in lipid peroxidation, nitrite concentration, depletion of reduced glutathione and catalase activity) significantly as compared to naive group. 5 days pre-treatment with rutin (40 and 80 mg/kg) causes a significant attenuation of locomotor activity, corticosterone level, oxidative stress as compared to control. Further, l-arginine (100 mg/kg) pre-treatment significantly reversed the protective effect of rutin (40 mg/kg) in 6 h immobilized animals. However, l-NAME (5 mg/kg) pre-treatment with rutin (40 mg/kg) potentiated their protective effect which was significant as compared to their effect per se. The present study suggests the involvement of nitric oxide mechanism in the neuroprotective effect of rutin against immobilization stress-induced anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative damage in mice.

  14. Sensitive amperometric determination of methimazole based on the electrocatalytic effect of rutin/multi-walled carbon nanotube film.

    PubMed

    Dorraji, Parisa S; Jalali, Fahimeh

    2015-02-01

    Electrochemical deposition was used to prepare a glassy carbon electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and the glycosidic compound, rutin (R/MWCNTs/GCE). Cyclic voltammetry of the modified electrode in aqueous solution (pH8) showed a pair of well-defined, stable and reversible redox peaks with surface confined characteristics. The catechol moiety of rutin produced the voltammetric peaks via a 2 electron, 2 proton mechanism in the range of 0.0-0.4V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The transfer coefficient (α), heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (ks), and surface concentration (Γ) for R/MWCNTs/GCE were calculated by using the cyclic voltammetric data. The modified electrode showed excellent catalytic activity toward oxidation of methimazole. Fixed-potential amperometry was used for sub-micromolar determination of methimazole at pH8. Linear dependence of anodic current to methimazole concentration was obtained in the range of 0.1-26μM of the drug with a limit of detection at 18nM. The modified electrode retained its initial response for at least 2weeks if stored in dry ambient conditions. The electrode was used for the amperometric determination of methimazole in formulations and spiked blood serum samples, successfully.

  15. Nicotiflorin, rutin and chlorogenic acid: phenylpropanoids involved differently in quantitative resistance of potato tubers to biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Kröner, Alexander; Marnet, Nathalie; Andrivon, Didier; Val, Florence

    2012-08-01

    Physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying quantitative resistance of plants to pathogens are still poorly understood, but could depend upon differences in the intensity or timing of general defense responses. This may be the case for the biosynthesis of phenolics which are known to increase after elicitation by pathogens. We thus tested the hypothesis that differences in quantitative resistance were related to differential induction of phenolics by pathogen-derived elicitors. Five potato cultivars (Solanum tuberosum, L.) spanning a range of quantitative resistance were treated with a concentrated culture filtrate (CCF) of Phytophthora infestans or purified lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from Pectobacterium atrosepticum. The kinetic of phenolics accumulation was followed and a set of typical phenolics was identified: chlorogenic acid, phenolamides and flavonols including rutin (quercetin-3-O-rutinoside) and nicotiflorin (kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside). Our results showed that CCF but not LPS induced differential accumulation of major phenolics among cultivars. Total phenolics were related with resistance to P. atrosepticum but not to P. infestans. However, nicotiflorin was inversely related with resistance to both pathogens. Rutin, but not nicotiflorin, inhibited pathogen growth in vitro at physiological concentrations. These data therefore suggest that (i) several phenolics are candidate markers for quantitative resistance in potato, (ii) some of these are pathogen specific although they are produced by a general defense pathway, (iii) resistance marker molecules do not necessarily have antimicrobial activity, and (iv) the final content of these target molecules-either constitutive or induced-is a better predictor of resistance than their inducibility by pathogen elicitors.

  16. Simultaneous Determination of Rutin, Luteolin, Quercetin, and Betulinic Acid in the Extract of Disporopsis pernyi (Hua) Diels by UPLC

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanqi; Li, Shuyi; Han, Dandan; Meng, Kehan; Wang, Miao; Zhao, Chunjie

    2015-01-01

    Disporopsis pernyi (Hua) Diels, which belongs to genus Disporopsis, has been widely used for the treatment of abnormal sweating, chronic cough, and so forth. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) analysis was developed for the determination of rutin, luteolin, quercetin, and betulinic acid in Disporopsis pernyi (Hua) Diels roots. UPLC analysis was conducted by using a Shim-pack XR-ODS column with gradient elution with the mobile phase of acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid and with a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min, detected at 210, 254, and 280 nm. The method was precise, with relative standard deviation < 2.0%. The recoveries for the four components in Disporopsis pernyi (Hua) Diels were between 98.5 and 100.9%. The average contents of rutin, luteolin, quercetin, and betulinic acid in roots were 5.63, 2.51, 3.87, and 2.41 μg/g, respectively. The method was accurate and reproducible and it can provide a quantitative basis for quality control of Disporopsis pernyi (Hua) Diels. PMID:26798553

  17. Effect of Noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) Fruit and Its Bioactive Principles Scopoletin and Rutin on Rat Vas Deferens Contractility: An Ex Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Narasingam, Megala; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MMC) and its bioactive principles, scopoletin and rutin, on dopamine- and noradrenaline-evoked contractility in isolated rat vas deferens preparations. MMC (1–40 mg/mL), scopoletin (1–200 μg/mL), and rutin hydrate (0.6–312.6 μg/mL) dose-dependently inhibited the contractility evoked by submaximal concentrations of both dopamine and noradrenaline, respectively. Haloperidol and prazosin, reference dopamine D2, and α1-adrenoceptors antagonists significantly reversed the dopamine- and noradrenaline-induced contractions, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, MMC per se at higher doses (60–100 mg/mL) showed dose-dependent contractile response in rat vas deferens which was partially inhibited by high doses of haloperidol but not by prazosin. These results demonstrated the biphasic effects of MMC on dopaminergic system; that is, antidopaminergic effect at lower concentrations (<40 mg/mL) and dopaminergic agonistic effect at higher concentrations (>60 mg/mL). However, similar contractile response at high doses of scopoletin (0.5–5 mg/mL) and rutin hydrate (0.5–5 mg/mL) per se was not observed. Therefore, it can be concluded that the bioactive principles of MMC, scopoletin, and rutin might be responsible for the antidopaminergic and antiadrenergic activities of MMC. PMID:25045753

  18. Effect of noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) fruit and its bioactive principles scopoletin and rutin on rat vas deferens contractility: an ex vivo study.

    PubMed

    Pandy, Vijayapandi; Narasingam, Megala; Kunasegaran, Thubasni; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MMC) and its bioactive principles, scopoletin and rutin, on dopamine- and noradrenaline-evoked contractility in isolated rat vas deferens preparations. MMC (1-40 mg/mL), scopoletin (1-200 μg/mL), and rutin hydrate (0.6-312.6 μg/mL) dose-dependently inhibited the contractility evoked by submaximal concentrations of both dopamine and noradrenaline, respectively. Haloperidol and prazosin, reference dopamine D2, and α 1-adrenoceptors antagonists significantly reversed the dopamine- and noradrenaline-induced contractions, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, MMC per se at higher doses (60-100 mg/mL) showed dose-dependent contractile response in rat vas deferens which was partially inhibited by high doses of haloperidol but not by prazosin. These results demonstrated the biphasic effects of MMC on dopaminergic system; that is, antidopaminergic effect at lower concentrations (<40 mg/mL) and dopaminergic agonistic effect at higher concentrations (>60 mg/mL). However, similar contractile response at high doses of scopoletin (0.5-5 mg/mL) and rutin hydrate (0.5-5 mg/mL) per se was not observed. Therefore, it can be concluded that the bioactive principles of MMC, scopoletin, and rutin might be responsible for the antidopaminergic and antiadrenergic activities of MMC.

  19. Antimicrobial activity and rutin identification of honey produced by the stingless bee Melipona compressipes manaosensis and commercial honey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Honey has been identified as a potential alternative to the widespread use of antibiotics, which are of significant concern considering the emergence of resistant bacteria. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of honey samples produced by a stingless bee species and by Apis sp. against pathogenic bacteria, as well as to identify the presence of phenolic compounds. Methods Honey samples from the stingless bee M. compressipes manaosensis were collected twice, during the dry and rainy seasons. Three commercial honey samples from Apis sp. were also included in this study. Two different assays were performed to evaluate the antibacterial potential of the honey samples: agar-well diffusion and broth macrodilution. Liquid-liquid extraction was used to assess phenolic compounds from honey. HPLC analysis was performed in order to identify rutin and apigenin on honey samples. Chromatograms were recorded at 340 and 290 nm. Results Two honey samples were identified as having the highest antimicrobial activity using the agar diffusion method. Honey produced by Melipona compressipes manaosensis inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli (0157: H7), Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei and Klebsiella sp. A sample of honey produced by Apis sp. also inhibited the growth of Salmonella paratyphi. The macrodilution technique presented greater sensitivity for the antibacterial testing, since all honey samples showed activity. Flavonoid rutin was identified in the honey sample produced by the stingless bee. Conclusions Honey samples tested in this work showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results reported herein highlight the potential of using honey to control bacterial growth. PMID:23815879

  20. Rutin can replace the use of three other antioxidants in the culture medium, maintaining the viability of sheep isolated secondary follicles.

    PubMed

    Lins, T L B G; Cavalcante, A Y P; Santos, J M S; Menezes, V G; Barros, V R P; Barberino, R S; Bezerra, M É S; Macedo, T J S; Matos, M H T

    2017-02-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of addition of rutin alone or combined with other antioxidants (transferrin, selenium and ascorbic acid) present in the culture medium on the in vitro development of ovine isolated secondary follicles. After collection of the sheep ovaries, secondary follicles (200-230 μm) were isolated and cultured for 12 days in α-Minimal Essential Medium (α-MEM) supplemented with BSA, insulin, glutamine and hypoxanthine (α-MEM: antioxidant free-medium) or in this medium also added by transferrin, selenium and ascorbic acid (AO: base medium with antioxidants). Moreover, different concentrations of rutin (0.1; 1 or 10 μg/mL) were added to the different base media (α-MEM or AO). The parameters analyzed were morphology, antrum formation, extrusion rate, follicular diameter, growth and fully-grown oocytes (oocytes ≥ 110 μm) rates. In treatments that had the best results of morphology, follicular viability, apoptosis, glutathione (GSH), reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and mitochondrial activity were also analyzed. After 12 days, the percentage of normal follicles was higher (P < 0.05) in α-MEM + 0.1 μg/mL rutin than the other treatments, except compared to AO medium (P > 0.05). There is no difference (P > 0.05) in the diameter and growth rate among treatments. Moreover, AO medium and α-MEM + 0.1 μg/mL rutin showed similar (P > 0.05) percentages of follicular viability, antrum formation, extruded follicles, fully-grown oocytes, levels of ROS and active mitochondria. However, α-MEM + 0.1 μg/mL rutin treatment showed higher (P > 0.05) GSH levels than AO medium. In conclusion, 0.1 μg/mL rutin can be used as the single antioxidant present in the base medium, replacing the addition of transferrin, selenium and ascorbic acid during in vitro culture of ovine secondary follicles, maintaining follicular viability and increasing GSH levels.

  1. Antidepressant-like effect of rutin isolated from the ethanolic extract from Schinus molle L. in mice: evidence for the involvement of the serotonergic and noradrenergic systems.

    PubMed

    Machado, Daniele G; Bettio, Luis E B; Cunha, Mauricio P; Santos, Adair R S; Pizzolatti, Moacir G; Brighente, Inês M C; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2008-06-10

    We have recently shown that the hexanic extract from leaves of Schinus molle produces antidepressant-like effects in the tail suspension test in mice. This study investigated the antidepressant-like effect of the ethanolic extract from aerial part of S. molle in the forced swimming test and tail suspension test in mice, two predictive models of depression. Moreover, we investigated the antidepressant potential of rutin, a flavonoid isolated from the ethanolic extract of this plant and the influence of the pretreatment with the inhibitors of serotonin or noradrenaline synthesis, p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester (PCPA) and alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT), respectively in the antidepressant-like effect of this flavonoid. The administration of the ethanolic extract produced a reduction in the immobility time in the tail suspension test (dose range 600-1000 mg/kg, p.o.), but not in the forced swimming test. It also produced a reduction in the ambulation in the open-field test in mice not previously habituated to the arena, but no effect in the locomotor activity in mice previously habituated to the open-field. The administration of rutin reduced the immobility time in the tail suspension test (0.3-3 mg/kg, p.o.), but not in the forced swimming test, without producing alteration in the locomotor activity. In addition, pretreatment of mice with PCPA (100 mg/kg, i.p., for 4 consecutive days) or AMPT (100 mg/kg, i.p.) prevented the anti-immobility effect of rutin (0.3 mg/kg, p.o.) in the tail suspension test. The results firstly indicated the antidepressant-like effect of the ethanolic extract of S. molle in the tail suspension test may be dependent on the presence of rutin that likely exerts its antidepressant-like effect by increasing the availability of serotonin and noradrenaline in the synaptic cleft.

  2. The high antioxidative power of quercetin (aglycone flavonoid) and its glycone (rutin) avert high cholesterol diet induced hepatotoxicity and inflammation in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Sikder, Kunal; Kesh, Swaraj Bandhu; Das, Nilanjan; Manna, Krishnendu; Dey, Sanjit

    2014-06-01

    The present study demonstrates for the first time the protective role of two common flavonoids, quercetin and its glycone rutin, against high cholesterol diet (2%) induced hepatotoxicity and inflammation. Swiss albino mice were given either a standard laboratory diet (control), high cholesterol diet (HCD) or high cholesterol diet along with quercetin or rutin (100 mg kg(-1) body weight) in their respective groups. The HCD mice exhibited a gain in body weight, significant rise in serum and hepatic level of total cholesterol, triglyceride, liver function enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and pro-inflammatory cytokines (P < 0.05). Histopathological studies showed hepatic fat accumulation and tissue disintegration. There was significant depletion of major hepatic antioxidants (P < 0.05). Immunoblot studies revealed a high expression of redox sensitive transcription factors NF-κB and TNF-α. A subsequent rise in the mRNA expression of inflammatory markers like C reactive protein and inducible nitric oxide synthase 2 were also found from the RT-PCR study. Simultaneous treatment with quercetin or rutin along with HCD significantly prevented the gains in body weight, lipid level, liver function enzymes, lipid peroxidation level and expression of inflammatory markers. The restoration of hepatic antioxidant homeostasis and hepatic morphology has also been observed. Hence, the present study illustrates the hypolipidemic, hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of two similar flavonoids.

  3. New method to enhance the extraction yield of rutin from Sophora japonica using a novel ultrasonic extraction system by determining optimum ultrasonic frequency.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jianqing; Qu, Baida; Liu, Da; Zheng, Naiqin

    2015-11-01

    A new method has been proposed for enhancing extraction yield of rutin from Sophora japonica, in which a novel ultrasonic extraction system has been developed to perform the determination of optimum ultrasonic frequency by a two-step procedure. This study has systematically investigated the influence of a continuous frequency range of 20-92 kHz on rutin yields. The effects of different operating conditions on rutin yields have also been studied in detail such as solvent concentration, solvent to solid ratio, ultrasound power, temperature and particle size. A higher extraction yield was obtained at the ultrasonic frequency of 60-62 kHz which was little affected under other extraction conditions. Comparative studies between existing methods and the present method were done to verify the effectiveness of this method. Results indicated that the new extraction method gave a higher extraction yield compared with existing ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and soxhlet extraction (SE). Thus, the potential use of this method may be promising for extraction of natural materials on an industrial scale in the future.

  4. High-performance thin-layer chromatography and three-dimensional image analysis for the determination of rutin in pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Soponar, Florin; Moţ, Augustin C; Sârbu, Costel

    2010-01-01

    A novel HPTLC method was developed for fast and simple quantitative determination of rutin in pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed method combines the advantages of HPTLC with the comfort and the convenience of digital processing of images. For the separation of rutin, silica gel with attached amino groups was used as the stationary phase and ethyl acetate-formic acid-methanol-water (10 + 0.9 + 1.1 + 1.7, v/v/v/v) as the mobile phase. The chromatographic plate was sprayed with 2-aminoethyldiphenyl borate solution for visual detection of the spots. For the construction of a three-dimensional chromatogram, Melanie 7.0 software was used together with an HP flatbed scanner that allowed capture of the images on chromatographic plates. The calibration curve was linear within the range of 0.95-4.78 microg/spot with an r value of 0.9984. The RSD for six replicates at three concentration levels was less than 3%, while the recovery was between 97.28 and 103.27%. The proposed method was found to be simple, precise, sensitive, and accurate and has been applied for the determination of rutin in two commercial drugs. The results were compared with the results of other techniques that generate bidimensional chromatograms and validated by UV-Vis spectrophotometry.

  5. Biological response of hepatomas to an extract of Fagopyrum esculentum M. (buckwheat) is not mediated by inositols or rutin.

    PubMed

    Curran, Julianne M; Stringer, Danielle M; Wright, Brenda; Taylor, Carla G; Przybylski, Roman; Zahradka, Peter

    2010-03-10

    Buckwheat contains d-chiro-inositol (D-CI) and myo-inositol (MI), possible insulin-mimetic compounds; thus, this study investigated the insulin-mimetic activities of a buckwheat concentrate (BWC), D-CI, and MI on insulin signal transduction pathways and glucose uptake with H4IIE rat hepatoma cells. BWC stimulated phosphorylation of p42/44 extracellular-related kinase (p42/44 ERK) and its downstream target, p70(S6K), on Thr(421). In contrast, D-CI, MI, rutin, or its agylcone form, quercetin, did not activate these signal transduction proteins. Phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), another target of insulin, was also up-regulated upon BWC treatment. The effects of BWC on glucose uptake were subsequently investigated using H4IIE cells. Insulin and D-CI stimulated glucose uptake, whereas BWC inhibited basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Although results from this work suggest that BWC has insulin-mimetic effects on select protein phosphorylation events in H4IIE cells, D-CI and MI were not the active components responsible for the observed effects. The inhibition of glucose uptake by BWC suggests that buckwheat may affect hepatic glucose metabolism, possibly by inhibiting glucose flux. Furthermore, the fact that D-CI and MI stimulated glucose uptake in H4IIE cells suggests that other compounds are responsible for inhibition of glucose uptake by BWC.

  6. Podophyllotoxin and Rutin Modulates Ionizing Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptotic Cell Death in Mice Bone Marrow and Spleen.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhinav; Yashavarddhan, M H; Kalita, Bhargab; Ranjan, Rajiv; Bajaj, Sania; Prakash, Hridayesh; Gupta, Manju Lata

    2017-01-01

    The present study is aimed to investigate the radioprotective efficacy of G-003M (combination of podophyllotoxin and rutin) against gamma radiation-induced oxidative stress and subsequent cell death in mice bone marrow and spleen. Prophylactic administration of G-003M (-1 h) rendered more than 85% survival in mice exposed to 9 Gy (lethal dose) with dose reduction factor of 1.26. G-003M pretreated mice demonstrated significantly reduced level of reactive oxygen species, membrane lipid peroxidation, and retained glutathione level. In the same group, we obtained increased expression of master redox regulator, nuclear factor erythroid-derived like-2 factor (Nrf-2), and its downstream targets (heme oxygenase-1, Nqo-1, glutathione S-transferase, and thioredoxin reductase-1). In addition, G-003M preadministration has also shown a significant reduction in Keap-1 level (Nrf-2 inhibitor). Radiation-induced lethality was significantly amended in combination-treated (G-003M) mice as demonstrated by reduced 8-OHdG, annexin V FITC(+) cells, and restored mitochondrial membrane potential. Expression of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL was restored in G-003M pretreated group. However, proapoptotic proteins (Puma, Bax, Bak, Caspase-3, and Caspase-7) were significantly declined in this group. Further analysis of immune cells revealed G-003M-mediated restoration of CD3 and CD19 receptor, which was found decreased to significant level following irradiation. Similarly, Gr-1, a marker of granulocytes, was also retained by G-003M administration prior to radiation. Modulatory potential of this formulation (G-003M) can be exploited as a safe and effective countermeasure against radiation-induced lymphohemopoietic injury.

  7. Rutin protects against neuronal damage in vitro and ameliorates doxorubicin-induced memory deficits in vivo in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Ramalingayya, Grandhi Venkata; Cheruku, Sri Pragnya; Nayak, Pawan G; Kishore, Anoop; Shenoy, Rekha; Rao, Chamallamudi Mallikarjuna; Krishnadas, Nandakumar

    2017-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is the most widely used broad-spectrum anticancer agent, either alone or in combination, for most cancers including breast cancer. Long-term use of chemotherapeutic agents to treat breast cancer patients results in cognitive complications with a negative impact on survivors’ quality of life. The study objective was to evaluate rutin (RUT) for its neuroprotective effect against DOX in human neuroblastoma (IMR32) cells in vitro and study its potential to ameliorate DOX-induced cognitive dysfunction in Wistar rats. Cell viability assay (3-[4,5 dimethyl thiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide), neurite growth assay, detection of apoptosis by (acridine orange/ethidium bromide) staining, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, and flowcytometric analysis were carried out to assess neuroprotective potential against DOX. An in vivo study was conducted for assessing protective effect of RUT against memory deficit associated with DOX-induced chemobrain using object recognition task (ORT). Locomotion was assessed using open field test. Serum biochemistry, acetylcholinesterase, oxidative stress markers in hippocampus, and frontal cortex were assessed. Histopathological analysis of major organ systems was also carried out. Prior exposure to RUT at 100 µM protected IMR32 cells from DOX (1 µM) neurotoxicity. DOX exposure resulted in increased cellular death, apoptosis, and intracellular ROS generation with inhibition of neurite growth in differentiated IMR32 cells, which was significantly ameliorated by RUT. Cognitive dysfunction was induced in Wistar rats by administering ten cycles of DOX (2.5 mg/kg, intra-peritoneal, once in 5 days), as we observed significant impairment of episodic memory in ORT. Coadministration with RUT (50 mg/kg, per os) significantly prevented memory deficits in vivo without any confounding influence on locomotor activity. RUT also offered protection against DOX-induced myelosuppression, cardiotoxicity, and

  8. Rutin protects against neuronal damage in vitro and ameliorates doxorubicin-induced memory deficits in vivo in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ramalingayya, Grandhi Venkata; Cheruku, Sri Pragnya; Nayak, Pawan G; Kishore, Anoop; Shenoy, Rekha; Rao, Chamallamudi Mallikarjuna; Krishnadas, Nandakumar

    2017-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is the most widely used broad-spectrum anticancer agent, either alone or in combination, for most cancers including breast cancer. Long-term use of chemotherapeutic agents to treat breast cancer patients results in cognitive complications with a negative impact on survivors' quality of life. The study objective was to evaluate rutin (RUT) for its neuroprotective effect against DOX in human neuroblastoma (IMR32) cells in vitro and study its potential to ameliorate DOX-induced cognitive dysfunction in Wistar rats. Cell viability assay (3-[4,5 dimethyl thiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide), neurite growth assay, detection of apoptosis by (acridine orange/ethidium bromide) staining, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, and flowcytometric analysis were carried out to assess neuroprotective potential against DOX. An in vivo study was conducted for assessing protective effect of RUT against memory deficit associated with DOX-induced chemobrain using object recognition task (ORT). Locomotion was assessed using open field test. Serum biochemistry, acetylcholinesterase, oxidative stress markers in hippocampus, and frontal cortex were assessed. Histopathological analysis of major organ systems was also carried out. Prior exposure to RUT at 100 µM protected IMR32 cells from DOX (1 µM) neurotoxicity. DOX exposure resulted in increased cellular death, apoptosis, and intracellular ROS generation with inhibition of neurite growth in differentiated IMR32 cells, which was significantly ameliorated by RUT. Cognitive dysfunction was induced in Wistar rats by administering ten cycles of DOX (2.5 mg/kg, intra-peritoneal, once in 5 days), as we observed significant impairment of episodic memory in ORT. Coadministration with RUT (50 mg/kg, per os) significantly prevented memory deficits in vivo without any confounding influence on locomotor activity. RUT also offered protection against DOX-induced myelosuppression, cardiotoxicity, and

  9. Podophyllotoxin and Rutin Modulates Ionizing Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptotic Cell Death in Mice Bone Marrow and Spleen

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Abhinav; Yashavarddhan, M. H.; Kalita, Bhargab; Ranjan, Rajiv; Bajaj, Sania; Prakash, Hridayesh; Gupta, Manju Lata

    2017-01-01

    The present study is aimed to investigate the radioprotective efficacy of G-003M (combination of podophyllotoxin and rutin) against gamma radiation-induced oxidative stress and subsequent cell death in mice bone marrow and spleen. Prophylactic administration of G-003M (−1 h) rendered more than 85% survival in mice exposed to 9 Gy (lethal dose) with dose reduction factor of 1.26. G-003M pretreated mice demonstrated significantly reduced level of reactive oxygen species, membrane lipid peroxidation, and retained glutathione level. In the same group, we obtained increased expression of master redox regulator, nuclear factor erythroid-derived like-2 factor (Nrf-2), and its downstream targets (heme oxygenase-1, Nqo-1, glutathione S-transferase, and thioredoxin reductase-1). In addition, G-003M preadministration has also shown a significant reduction in Keap-1 level (Nrf-2 inhibitor). Radiation-induced lethality was significantly amended in combination-treated (G-003M) mice as demonstrated by reduced 8-OHdG, annexin V FITC+ cells, and restored mitochondrial membrane potential. Expression of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL was restored in G-003M pretreated group. However, proapoptotic proteins (Puma, Bax, Bak, Caspase-3, and Caspase-7) were significantly declined in this group. Further analysis of immune cells revealed G-003M-mediated restoration of CD3 and CD19 receptor, which was found decreased to significant level following irradiation. Similarly, Gr-1, a marker of granulocytes, was also retained by G-003M administration prior to radiation. Modulatory potential of this formulation (G-003M) can be exploited as a safe and effective countermeasure against radiation-induced lymphohemopoietic injury. PMID:28289414

  10. Extracts of Morus nigra L. Leaves Standardized in Chlorogenic Acid, Rutin and Isoquercitrin: Tyrosinase Inhibition and Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Fontes, Pedro Ribeiro; Souza, Paula Monteiro; William Fagg, Christopher; Neves Silva Guerra, Eliete; de Medeiros Nóbrega, Yanna Karla; Silveira, Damaris; Fonseca-Bazzo, Yris; Simeoni, Luiz Alberto; Homem-de-Mello, Maurício; Oliveira Magalhães, Pérola

    2016-01-01

    Melanogenesis is a process responsible for melanin production, which is stored in melanocytes containing tyrosinase. Inhibition of this enzyme is a target in the cosmetics industry, since it controls undesirable skin conditions such as hyperpigmentation due to the overproduction of melanin. Species of the Morus genus are known for the beneficial uses offered in different parts of its plants, including tyrosinase inhibition. Thus, this project aimed to study the inhibitory activity of tyrosinase by extracts from Morus nigra leaves as well as the characterization of its chromatographic profile and cytotoxicity in order to become a new therapeutic option from a natural source. M. nigra leaves were collected, pulverized, equally divided into five batches and the standardized extract was obtained by passive maceration. There was no significant difference between batches for total solids content, yield and moisture content, which shows good reproducibility of the extraction process. Tyrosinase enzymatic activity was determined for each batch, providing the percentage of enzyme inhibition and IC50 values obtained by constructing dose-response curves and compared to kojic acid, a well-known tyrosinase inhibitor. High inhibition of tyrosinase activity was observed (above 90% at 15.625 μg/mL). The obtained IC50 values ranged from 5.00 μg/mL ± 0.23 to 8.49 μg/mL ± 0.59 and were compared to kojic acid (3.37 μg/mL ± 0.65). High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis revealed the presence of chlorogenic acid, rutin and, its major compound, isoquercitrin. The chromatographic method employed was validated according to ICH guidelines and the extract was standardized using these polyphenols as markers. Cytotoxicity, assessed by MTT assay, was not observed on murine melanomas, human keratinocytes and mouse fibroblasts in tyrosinase IC50 values. This study demonstrated the potential of M. nigra leaf extract as a promising whitening agent of natural source against skin

  11. Efficient Rutin and Quercetin Biosynthesis through Flavonoids-Related Gene Expression in Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn. Hairy Root Cultures with UV-B Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xuan; Yao, Jingwen; Zhao, Yangyang; Xie, Dengfeng; Jiang, Xue; Xu, Ziqin

    2016-01-01

    Transformed hairy roots had been efficiently induced from the seedlings of Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn. due to the infection of Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Hairy roots were able to display active elongation with high root branching in 1/2 MS medium without growth regulators. The stable introduction of rolB and aux1 genes of A. rhizogenes WT strain 15834 into F. tataricum plants was confirmed by PCR analysis. Besides, the absence of virD gene confirmed hairy root was bacteria-free. After six different media and different sources of concentration were tested, the culturing of TB7 hairy root line in 1/2 MS liquid medium supplemented with 30 g l-1 sucrose for 20 days resulted in a maximal biomass accumulation (13.5 g l-1 fresh weight, 1.78 g l-1 dry weight) and rutin content (0.85 mg g-1). The suspension culture of hairy roots led to a 45-fold biomass increase and a 4.11-fold rutin content increase in comparison with the suspension culture of non-transformed roots. The transformation frequency was enhanced through preculturing for 2 days followed by infection for 20 min. The UV-B stress treatment of hairy roots resulted in a striking increase of rutin and quercetin production. Furthermore, the hairy root lines of TB3, TB7, and TB28 were chosen to study the specific effects of UV-B on flavonoid accumulation and flavonoid biosynthetic gene expression by qRT-PCR. This study has demonstrated that the UV-B radiation was an effective elicitor that dramatically changed in the transcript abundance of ftpAL, FtCHI, FtCHS, FtF3H, and FtFLS-1 in F. tataricum hairy roots. PMID:26870075

  12. Metabolism of rutin and poncirin by human intestinal microbiota and cloning of their metabolizing α-L-rhamnosidase from Bifidobacterium dentium.

    PubMed

    Bang, Seo-Hyeon; Hyun, Yang-Jin; Shim, Juwon; Hong, Sung-Woon; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    To understand the metabolism of flavonoid rhamnoglycosides by human intestinal microbiota, we measured the metabolic activity of rutin and poncirin (distributed in many functional foods and herbal medicine) by 100 human stool specimens. The average α-Lrhamnosidase activities on the p-nitrophenyl-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, rutin, and poncirin subtrates were 0.10 ± 0.07, 0.25 ± 0.08, and 0.15 ± 0.09 pmol/min/mg, respectively. To investigate the enzymatic properties, α-L-rhamnosidase-producing bacteria were isolated from the specimens, and the α-L-rhamnosidase gene was cloned from a selected organism, Bifidobacterium dentium, and expressed in E. coli. The cloned α-L-rhamnosidase gene contained a 2,673 bp sequcence encoding 890 amino acid residues. The cloned gene was expressed using the pET 26b(+) vector in E. coli BL21, and the expressed enzyme was purified using Ni(2+)-NTA and Q-HP column chromatography. The specific activity of the purified α-L-rhamnosidase was 23.3 μmol/min/mg. Of the tested natural product constituents, the cloned α-L-rhamnosidase hydrolyzed rutin most potently, followed by poncirin, naringin, and ginsenoside Re. However, it was unable to hydrolyze quercitrin. This is the first report describing the cloning, expression, and characterization of α-L-rhamnosidase, a flavonoid rhamnoglycosidemetabolizing enzyme, from bifidobacteria. Based on these findings, the α-L-rhamnosidase of intestinal bacteria such as B. dentium seem to be more effective in hydrolyzing (1-->6) bonds than (1-->2) bonds of rhamnoglycosides, and may play an important role in the metabolism and pharmacological effect of rhamnoglycosides.

  13. Ionic liquid-based vacuum microwave-assisted extraction followed by macroporous resin enrichment for the separation of the three glycosides salicin, hyperin and rutin from Populus bark.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fengli; Mo, Kailin; Liu, Zhaizhi; Yang, Fengjian; Hou, Kexin; Li, Shuangyang; Zu, Yuangang; Yang, Lei

    2014-07-07

    An effective ionic liquid vacuum microwave-assisted method was developed for extraction of the thermo- and oxygen-sensitive glycosides salicin, hyperin and rutin from Populus bark due to the strong solvating effects of ionic liquids on plant cell walls. In this study, [C4mim]BF4 solution was selected as the extracting solution for extraction of the target analytes. After optimization by single factor experiments and response surface methodology, the optimum condition parameters were achieved, which included 1.0 M [C4mim]BF4, 2 h soaking time, -0.08 MPa vacuum, 20 min microwave irradiation time, 400 W microwave irradiation power and 25 mL/g liquid/solid ratio. Under the optimum conditions, higher extraction yields of salicin (35.53 mg/g), hyperin (1.32 mg/g) and rutin (2.40 mg/g) were obtained. Compared with other extraction methods, the developed method provided higher yields of the three target components after a relatively shorter extraction time (20 min). No obvious degradation of the target analytes was observed under the optimum conditions in performed stability studies and the proposed method had a high reproducibility. Meanwhile, after adsorption and desorption on macroporous D101 resin, the target analytes can be effectively separated from the [C4mim]BF4 ionic liquid extraction solution and the yields of salicin, hyperin and rutin were 89%, 82% and 84%, respectively. The recovered [C4mim]BF4 ionic liquid presented a good extraction effect on the three analytes after recycling five times.

  14. Validated reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector method for the quantitation of Rutin, a natural immunostimulant for improving survival in aquaculture practice, in toonea sinensis folium

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yuping; Yin, Huawu; Chen, Bin; Xia, Guohua; Yang, Huan; Jia, Xiaobin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rutin is a bioflavonoid of strong immunostimulating activity from the Toonea Sinensis Folium, which has shown a significant ability to increase the survival rate of white shrimp with bacterial infection. However, no method for the quantitation of this active ingredient in the herb has been reported to date. Materials and Methods: A reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (RP-HPLC-DAD) method was developed to quantify Rutin in the Toonea Sinensis Folium, with the HPLC conditions optimized, followed by validation for linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD), repeatability, and stability. Then, the established method was used to determine the content of Rutin in two samples. Results: The separation was performed on a Waters XBridge Shield RP18 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) kept at 25°C, and acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% acetate acid (18:82, v / v)-composed mobile phase was constantly driven at 1.0 mL / minute during the analysis. Twenty microliters of sample solution or standard solution were injected into the HPLC system and 254 nm was selected to monitor the separation. A strong linear relationship between the peak area and concentration of Rutin was observed within the range of 0.01044 – 0.2610 mg / mL (r2 = 1.0000). The LOD was 0.03915 μg / mL, and recovery of Rutin was from 97.6 to 99.6%. In addition, the method was also validated to be repeatable, stable, precise, and accurate. Conclusions: An efficient and reliable RP-HPLC-DAD method was established, which could be used for routine analysis of Rutin in Toonea Sinensis Folium and to assist in the quality control of this herb. PMID:22438663

  15. Optimizing the models for rapid determination of chlorogenic acid, scopoletin and rutin in plant samples by near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Zhiyi; Shan, Ruifeng; Wang, Jiajun; Cai, Wensheng; Shao, Xueguang

    2014-07-01

    Polyphenols in plant samples have been extensively studied because phenolic compounds are ubiquitous in plants and can be used as antioxidants in promoting human health. A method for rapid determination of three phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid, scopoletin and rutin) in plant samples using near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (NIRDRS) is studied in this work. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used for building the calibration models, and the effects of spectral preprocessing and variable selection on the models are investigated for optimization of the models. The results show that individual spectral preprocessing and variable selection has no or slight influence on the models, but the combination of the techniques can significantly improve the models. The combination of continuous wavelet transform (CWT) for removing the variant background, multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) for correcting the scattering effect and randomization test (RT) for selecting the informative variables was found to be the best way for building the optimal models. For validation of the models, the polyphenol contents in an independent sample set were predicted. The correlation coefficients between the predicted values and the contents determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis are as high as 0.964, 0.948 and 0.934 for chlorogenic acid, scopoletin and rutin, respectively.

  16. The increased binding affinity of curcumin with human serum albumin in the presence of rutin and baicalin: A potential for drug delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bing-Mi; Zhang, Jun; Hao, Ai-Jun; Xu, Liang; Wang, Dan; Ji, Hui; Sun, Shi-Jie; Chen, Bo-Qi; Liu, Bin

    2016-02-01

    The impacts of rutin and baicalin on the interaction of curcumin (CU) with human serum albumin (HSA) were investigated by fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies under imitated physiological conditions. The results showed that the fluorescence quenching of HSA by CU was a simultaneous static and dynamic quenching process, irrespective of the presence or absence of flavonoids. The binding constants between CU and HSA in the absence and presence of rutin and baicalin were 2.268 × 105 M- 1, 3.062 × 105 M- 1, and 3.271 × 105 M- 1, indicating that the binding affinity was increased in the case of two flavonoids. Furthermore, the binding distance determined according to Förster's theory was decreased in the presence of flavonoids. Combined with the fact that flavonoids and CU have the same binding site (site I), it can be concluded that they may simultaneously bind in different regions in site I, and formed a ternary complex of flavonoid-HSA-CU. Meanwhile, the results of fluorescence quenching, CD and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra revealed that flavonoids further strengthened the microenvironmental and conformational changes of HSA induced by CU binding. Therefore, it is possible to develop a novel complex involving CU, flavonoid and HSA for CU delivery. The work may provide some valuable information in terms of improving the poor bioavailabiliy of CU.

  17. Optimizing the models for rapid determination of chlorogenic acid, scopoletin and rutin in plant samples by near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhiyi; Shan, Ruifeng; Wang, Jiajun; Cai, Wensheng; Shao, Xueguang

    2014-07-15

    Polyphenols in plant samples have been extensively studied because phenolic compounds are ubiquitous in plants and can be used as antioxidants in promoting human health. A method for rapid determination of three phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid, scopoletin and rutin) in plant samples using near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (NIRDRS) is studied in this work. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used for building the calibration models, and the effects of spectral preprocessing and variable selection on the models are investigated for optimization of the models. The results show that individual spectral preprocessing and variable selection has no or slight influence on the models, but the combination of the techniques can significantly improve the models. The combination of continuous wavelet transform (CWT) for removing the variant background, multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) for correcting the scattering effect and randomization test (RT) for selecting the informative variables was found to be the best way for building the optimal models. For validation of the models, the polyphenol contents in an independent sample set were predicted. The correlation coefficients between the predicted values and the contents determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis are as high as 0.964, 0.948 and 0.934 for chlorogenic acid, scopoletin and rutin, respectively.

  18. Quantification and localization of hesperidin and rutin in Citrus sinensis grafted on C. limonia after Xylella fastidiosa infection by HPLC-UV and MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Soares, Márcio Santos; da Silva, Danielle Fernandes; Forim, Moacir Rossi; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Fernandes, João Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Silva, Denise Brentan; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; de Carvalho, Sérgio Alves; de Souza, Alessandra Alves; Machado, Marcos Antônio

    2015-07-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) method was developed for quantifying hesperidin and rutin levels in leaves and stems of Citrus limonia, with a good linearity over a range of 1.0-80.0 and 1.0-50.0 μg mL(-1) respectively, with r(2)>0.999 for all curves. The limits of detection (LOD) for both flavonoids were 0.6 and 0.5 μg mL(-1), respectively, with quantification (LOQ) being 2.0 and 1.0 μg mL(-1), respectively. The quantification method was applied to Citrus sinensis grafted onto C. limonia with and without CVC (citrus variegated chlorosis) symptoms after Xylella fastidiosa infection. The total content of rutin was low and practically constant in all analyses in comparison with hesperidin, which showed a significant increase in its amount in symptomatic leaves. Scanning electron microscopy studies on leaves with CVC symptoms showed vessel occlusion by biofilm, and a crystallized material was noted. Considering the difficulty in isolating these crystals for analysis, tissue sections were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) to confirm the presence of hesperidin at the site of infection. The images constructed from MS/MS data with a specific diagnostic fragment ion (m/z 483) also showed higher ion intensities for it in infected plants than in healthy ones, mainly in the vessel regions. These data suggest that hesperidin plays a role in the plant-pathogen interaction, probably as a phytoanticipin. This method was also applied to C. sinensis and C. limonia seedlings, and comparison with the graft results showed that the rootstock had an increased hesperidin content ∼3.6 fold greater in the graft stem than in the stem of C. sinensis seedlings. Increase in hesperidin content by rootstock can be related to induced internal defense mechanisms.

  19. Simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid and rutin in pharmaceutical preparations with electrochemical method based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes-chitosan composite film modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Deng, Peihong; Xu, Zhifeng; Li, Junhua

    2013-03-25

    In this paper, the simultaneous voltammetric determination of ascorbic acid (AA) and rutin (Ru) has been achieved at an acetylene black paste electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes-chitosan composite film (denoted as MWCNTs-CHIT/ABPE). Compared with bare electrode, the peak currents of AA and Ru at MWCNTs-CHIT/ABPE increased greatly and the anodic peak potential difference (ΔE(pa)) between AA and Ru are up to 342mV, which is undoubtedly attributed to the unique characteristics of AB and MWCNTs such as excellent electric conductivity, high surface area and strong adsorptive abilities, resulting in higher accumulation efficiency to AA and Ru. The influences of some experimental conditions on the oxidation of AA and Ru were tested and the calibration plot was examined. Under the optimized condition, a good linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 1μM-0.4mM for AA in the presence of 10μM Ru and 20nM-10μM for Ru in the presence of 1mM AA. The detection limits (S/N=3) of AA and Ru are 0.8μM and 10nM, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of AA and Ru in pharmaceutical samples with reliable recovery.

  20. Binding of fluphenazine with human serum albumin in the presence of rutin and quercetin: An evaluation of food-drug interaction by spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Jing, Jiao-Jiao; Liu, Bin; Wang, Xin; Wang, Xin; He, Ling-Ling; Guo, Xue-Yuan; Xu, Ming-Ling; Li, Qian-Yu; Gao, Bo; Dong, Bo-Yang

    2017-04-04

    The interactions between human serum albumin (HSA) and fluphenazine (FPZ) in the presence or absence of rutin or quercetin were studied by fluorescence, absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and molecular modeling. The results showed that the fluorescence quenching mechanism was static quenching by the formation of an HSA-FPZ complex. Entropy change (ΔS(0) ) and enthalpy change (ΔH(0) ) values were 68.42 J/(mol⋅K) and -4.637 kJ/mol, respectively, which indicated that hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds played major roles in the acting forces. The interaction process was spontaneous because the Gibbs free energy change (ΔG(0) ) values were negative. The results of competitive experiments demonstrated that FPZ was mainly located within HSA site I (sub-domain IIA). Molecular docking results were in agreement with the experimental conclusions of the thermodynamic parameters and competition experiments. Competitive binding to HSA between flavonoids and FPZ decreased the association constants and increased the binding distances of FPZ binding to HSA. The results of absorption, synchronous fluorescence, three-dimensional fluorescence, and CD spectra showed that the binding of FPZ to HSA caused conformational changes in HSA and simultaneous effects of FPZ and flavonoids induced further HSA conformational changes.

  1. Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography for the Simultaneous Quantification of Rutin and Chlorogenic Acid in Leaves of Ribes L. Species by Conventional and Chemometric Calibration Approaches.

    PubMed

    Kendir, Gülsen; Dinç, Erdal; Güvenç, Ayşegül Köroǧlu

    2015-10-01

    A new ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) using conventional and chemometric calibrations was improved for the simultaneous estimation of chlorogenic acid (CA) and rutin (RUT) in leaves of Ribes L. species (R. rubrum, R. biebersteinii, R. nigrum, R. uva-crispa, R. alpinum, R. orientale, R. multiflorum and R. anatolica). The UPLC separation for CA and RUT in samples were performed on a Waters UPLC BEH phenyl column (100 mm × 1.0 mm i.d., 1.7 μm) and mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1 M formic acid buffer, pH = 3.77 (15:85, v/v) containing 1.0 mL triethylamine in 1,000 mL mobile phase. Multi-wavelength UPLC chromatograms of CA and RUT in calibration and plant samples were obtained by the photodiode array (PDA) detection at the wavelength set from 290 to 360 nm with the interval of Δλ = 10 nm. Conventional UPLC-single and chemometric calibrations were subjected to the analysis of the related compounds. By using UPLC data, conventional and chemometric calibrations in the linear concentration range between 2.5 and 40.0 μg/mL for all compounds were applied for the simultaneous quantitative analysis of CA and RUT in plant samples of seven different Ribes species.

  2. Comparative Study of Novel Ratio Spectra and Isoabsorptive Point Based Spectrophotometric Methods: Application on a Binary Mixture of Ascorbic Acid and Rutin

    PubMed Central

    Darwish, Hany W.; Bakheit, Ahmed H.; Naguib, Ibrahim A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents novel methods for spectrophotometric determination of ascorbic acid (AA) in presence of rutin (RU) (coformulated drug) in their combined pharmaceutical formulation. The seven methods are ratio difference (RD), isoabsorptive_RD (Iso_RD), amplitude summation (A_Sum), isoabsorptive point, first derivative of the ratio spectra (1DD), mean centering (MCN), and ratio subtraction (RS). On the other hand, RU was determined directly by measuring the absorbance at 358 nm in addition to the two novel Iso_RD and A_Sum methods. The work introduced in this paper aims to compare these different methods, showing the advantages for each and making a comparison of analysis results. The calibration curve is linear over the concentration range of 4–50 μg/mL for AA and RU. The results show the high performance of proposed methods for the analysis of the binary mixture. The optimum assay conditions were established and the proposed methods were successfully applied for the assay of the two drugs in laboratory prepared mixtures and combined pharmaceutical tablets with excellent recoveries. No interference was observed from common pharmaceutical additives. PMID:26885440

  3. Optimization of Ionic Liquid Based Simultaneous Ultrasonic- and Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Rutin and Quercetin from Leaves of Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) by Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunjian; Lu, Zhicheng; He, Xin; Li, Zhao; Shi, Kunming; Yang, Lei; Fu, Yujie; Zu, Yuangang

    2014-01-01

    An ionic liquids based simultaneous ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction (ILs-UMAE) method has been proposed for the extraction of rutin (RU), quercetin (QU), from velvetleaf leaves. The influential parameters of the ILs-UMAE were optimized by the single factor and the central composite design (CCD) experiments. A 2.00 M 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C4mim]Br) was used as the experimental ionic liquid, extraction temperature 60°C, extraction time 12 min, liquid-solid ratio 32 mL/g, microwave power of 534 W, and a fixed ultrasonic power of 50 W. Compared to conventional heating reflux extraction (HRE), the RU and QU extraction yields obtained by ILs-UMAE were, respectively, 5.49 mg/g and 0.27 mg/g, which increased, respectively, 2.01-fold and 2.34-fold with the recoveries that were in the range of 97.62–102.36% for RU and 97.33–102.21% for QU with RSDs lower than 3.2% under the optimized UMAE conditions. In addition, the shorter extraction time was used in ILs-UMAE, compared with HRE. Therefore, ILs-UMAE was a rapid and an efficient method for the extraction of RU and QU from the leaves of velvetleaf. PMID:25243207

  4. [Effect of indole-3-carbinol and rutin on rats' provision by vitamins' A and E with different fat content in its diet].

    PubMed

    Beketova, N A; Kravchenko, L V; Kosheleva, O V; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M

    2013-01-01

    Effect of indole-3-carbinol (I-3-C) and rutin (R) supplementation on vitamins A and E status of growing Wistar rats, receiving for 6 or 4 week semi-synthetic diets with different levels (1, 11 and 31%) of fat (lard and sunflower oil at a ratio of 1:1) has been studied. The content of vitamin E was 6, 9 and 15 IU, vitamin A - 400 IU in 100 g of ration. Against the various fat content during the last 7 or 14 days of the experiment rats received respectively I-3-C (20 mg per 1 kg of body weight per day) or R (0.4% of the feed weight). Rat tissues were analyzed for vitamins A (retinol and retinyol palmitate) and E (alpha-tocopherol) by HPLC. Reducing fat content in diet from 11 to 1% was associated with significant (p<0.05) decrease of hepatic retinyl palmitate and alpha-tocopherol (1,6-1,7 times) with constant plasma concentration of retinol and alpha-tocopherol. Raising fat content from 11 to 31% , in contrast, led to increased levels of hepatic retinyl palmitate and alpha-tocopherol respectively by 13% (p=0.248) and 89% (p=0.006) and plasma ROL of 26% (p=0,024), while the plasma concentration of alpha- tocopherol has not changed. I-3-C and R do not affect the availability of vitamin E in rats, regardless of the fat content in the diet. With excess fat content (31%) in the diet, supplementation of I-3-C and R lowered hepatic RP by 22-52% (p<0.05) compared to rats receiving a diet with adequate fat. Adding of I-3-C to the high-fat diets resulted to a significant reduction of vitamin A concentration in blood plasma by 12% (p=0.024) and in liver by 37% (p=0.002).

  5. A Combination of Podophyllotoxin and Rutin Attenuates Radiation Induced Gastrointestinal Injury by Negatively Regulating NF-κB/p53 Signaling in Lethally Irradiated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kalita, Bhargab; Ranjan, Rajiv; Singh, Abhinav; Yashavarddhan, M. H.; Bajaj, Sania; Gupta, Manju Lata

    2016-01-01

    Development of an effective radio protector to minimise radiation-inflicted damages have largely failed owing to inherent toxicity of most of the agents examined so far. This study is centred towards delivering protection to lethally irradiated mice by pre-administration of a safe formulation G-003M (combination of podophyllotoxin and rutin) majorly through regulation of inflammatory and cell death pathways in mice. Single intramuscular dose of G-003M injected 60 min prior to 9 Gy exposure rescued 89% of whole body lethally irradiated C57BL/6J mice. Studies have revealed reduction in radiation induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) generation, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels and intestinal apoptosis in G-003M pre-treated mice intestine. Restricted nuclear translocation of redox-sensitive Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and subsequent downregulation of cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS; EC 1.14.13.39) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) levels demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effect that G-003M exerts. Support to early hematopoietic recovery was exhibited through G-003M mediated induction of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and interleukin (IL-6) levels in lethally irradiated mice. Considerable attenuation in radiation induced morphological damage to the intestinal villi, crypts and mucosal layers was observed in G-003M pre-treated mice. Additionally, our formulation did not reduce the sensitivity of tumor tissue to radiation. Altogether, these results suggest that G-003M ameliorates the deleterious effects of radiation exposure by minimising ROS and NO generation and effectively regulating inflammatory and cell death pathways. Mechanism of protection elucidated in the current study demonstrates that G-003M can be used as a safe and effective radio protective agent in radiotherapy for human application. PMID:28036347

  6. Simultaneous determination of vitexin-2"-O-glucoside, vitexin-2"-O-rhamnoside, rutin, and hyperoside in the extract of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge.) leaves by RP-HPLC with ultraviolet photodiode array detection.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shan; Qiu, Feng; Huang, Jia; He, Junqi

    2007-03-01

    RP-HPLC with UV photodiode array detection (UV-DAD) was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of vitexin-2"-O-glucoside, vitexin-2"-O-rhamnoside, rutin, and hyperoside in the extract of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge.) leaves. The analytes of interest were separated on a Diamonsil C18 column (250 x 4.6 mm id, 5 microm) with the mobile phase consisting of THF/ACN/methanol/ 0.05% phosphoric acid solution (pH 5.0) (18:1:1:80 v/vl/v). The flow rate was set at 1.0 mL/min and the eluent was detected at 340 nm for the four flavonoids. The method was linear over the studied range of 1.00-100 microg/mL for the four analytes of interest with the correlation coefficient for each analyte greater than 0.999. The LOD and LOQwere 0.03 and 0.10 microg/mL, 0.03 and 0.10 microg/mL, 0.05 and 0.15 pg/mL, 0.10 and 0.30 microg/mL for vitexin-2"-O-glucoside, vitexin-2"-0-rhamnoside, rutin, and hyperoside, respectively. The optimized method was successfully applied to the analysis of four important flavonoids in the extract of hawthorn leaves. The total amounts of the four flavonoids were 22.2, 62.3, 4.27, and 8.24 mg/g dry weight for vitexin-2"-O-glucoside, vitexin-2"-O-rhamnoside, rutin, and hyperoside in the extract of hawthorn leaves, respectively.

  7. Designing an ultra-sensitive aptasensor based on an AgNPs/thiol-GQD nanocomposite for TNT detection at femtomolar levels using the electrochemical oxidation of Rutin as a redox probe.

    PubMed

    Shahdost-Fard, Faezeh; Roushani, Mahmoud

    2017-01-15

    In this paper, for the first time a highly sensitive and low-cost electrochemical aptasensor was fabricated based on a silver nanoparticles/thiol functionalized graphene quantum dot (AgNPs/thiol-GQD) nanocomposite for the measurement of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluen (TNT) as a nitroaromatic explosive. For the first time Rutin (RU) as a biological molecule with inherent properties was used as the redox probe in the development of the TNT aptasensor was used. The system was based on a TNT-binding aptamer which is covalently attached onto the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with the nanocomposite for the formation of a sensing layer and improving the performance of the aptasensor. Using the proposed nanocomposite provides a specific platform with increased surface area which is capable of loading more Aptamer (Ap) molecules as a receptor element of TNT on the electrode surface. So, TNT molecules is in an upward position to be measured and the obtained results indicate that the aptasensor exhibits two wide linear ranges and an unprecedented LOD compared with previously reported analytical methods for TNT detection. Applicability of the developed aptasensor to easily detect TNT in real samples was evaluated. It seems that the proposed strategy can be expanded to other nanoparticles and is expected to have promising implications in the design of electrochemical sensors or biosensors for the detection of various targets.

  8. Occurrence of Rutin and Chlorogenic Acid in Elderberry Leaf, Flower, and Stem in Response to Genotype, Environment, and Season

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    American elderberry (Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis) is being increasingly consumed as a nutraceutical. In Europe, tea made from flowers of the subspecies nigra is a popular treatment for respiratory infections, but little is known about the medicinal attributes of the subspecies canadensis. Poten...

  9. Rutin Protects against Pirarubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity through TGF-β1-p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yadi; Zhang, Yang; Sun, Bo; Tong, Qing

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the potential protective effect of rutinum (RUT) against pirarubicin- (THP-) induced cardiotoxicity. THP was used to induce toxicity in rat H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. Positive control cells were pretreated with a cardioprotective agent dexrazoxane (DZR) prior to treatment with THP. Some of the cells were preincubated with RUT and a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor, SB203580, both individually and in combination, prior to THP exposure. At a dose range of 30–70 μM, RUT significantly prevented THP-induced reduction in cell viability; the best cardioprotective effect was observed at a dose of 50 μM. Administration of RUT and SB203580, both individually as well as in combination, suppressed the elevation of intracellular ROS, inhibited cell apoptosis, and reversed the THP-induced upregulation of TGF-β1, p-p38 MAPK, cleaved Caspase-9, Caspase-7, and Caspase-3. A synergistic effect was observed on coadministration of RUT and SB203580. RUT protected against THP-induced cardiotoxicity by inhibition of ROS generation and suppression of cell apoptosis. The cardioprotective effect of RUT appears to be associated with the modulation of the TGF-β1-p38 MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:28367221

  10. Chromatographic fingerprint analysis and rutin and quercetin compositions in the leaf and whole-plant samples of di- and tetraploid Gynostemma pentaphyllum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino is a traditional Chinese herb that has shown antioxidant, antiproliferative, and anti-inflammatory activities. Flavonoids are considered to be major contributors to these beneficial effects. To obtain chemical pattern of flavonoids in G. pentaphyllum of diff...

  11. Flavonoid analysis of buckwheat sprouts.

    PubMed

    Nam, Tae-Gyu; Lee, Sun Mi; Park, Ji-Hae; Kim, Dae-Ok; Baek, Nam-in; Eom, Seok Hyun

    2015-03-01

    It is known that common buckwheat sprouts contain several flavonoids, including orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, isovitexin, rutin, and quercetrin, whereas tartary buckwheat sprouts contain only rutin. In this study, we evaluated flavonoids present in buckwheat sprouts and identified a previously unreported flavonoid. Simultaneous detection by HPLC was used to separate rutin and a compound that was not separated in previous studies. We used a novel HPLC elution gradient method to successfully separate rutin and the previously unidentified compound, for which we performed structural analysis. The identification of six flavonoids by HPLC was confirmed using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. The newly identified compound, [M+H](+) =611.17, was identified by NMR as the rutin epimer quercetin-3-O-robinobioside. Unlike common buckwheat sprout, tartary buckwheat sprout contained rutin as a main flavonoid, whereas other flavonoids appeared only in trace amounts or were not detected. Quercetin-3-O-robinobioside was not detected in tartary buckwheat sprout.

  12. Major phenolic acids and total antioxidant activity in mamaki leaves, Pipturus albidus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three phenolic acids, (+) catechins, chlorogenic acid, and rutin, were identified and quantified in mamaki leaves (Pipturus albidus) using a liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer technique. Concentrations of (+) catechins, chlorogenic acid, and rutin varied from 1.1 mg to 5.0 mg per gram of mamaki...

  13. Virtual screening of natural inhibitors to the predicted HBx protein structure of Hepatitis B Virus using molecular docking for identification of potential lead molecules for liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Rajesh Kumar; Baunthiyal, Mamta; Taj, Gohar; Kumar, Anil

    2014-01-01

    The HBx protein in Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is a potential target for anti-liver cancer molecules. Therefore, it is of interest to screen known natural compounds against the HBx protein using molecular docking. However, the structure of HBx is not yet known. Therefore, the predicted structure of HBx using threading in LOMET was used for docking against plant derived natural compounds (curcumin, oleanolic acid, resveratrol, bilobetin, luteoline, ellagic acid, betulinic acid and rutin) by Molegro Virtual Docker. The screening identified rutin with binding energy of -161.65 Kcal/mol. Thus, twenty derivatives of rutin were further designed and screened against HBx. These in silico experiments identified compounds rutin01 (-163.16 Kcal/mol) and rutin08 (- 165.76 Kcal/mol) for further consideration and downstream validation. PMID:25187683

  14. Supraphysiological Levels of Quercetin Glycosides are Required to Alter Mineralization in Saos2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Leslie A.; Peters, Sandra J.; Sullivan, Philip J.; Ward, Wendy E.

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoid intake is positively correlated to bone mineral density (BMD) in women. Flavonoids such as quercetin exhibit strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity that may be beneficial for bone health. Quercetin, previously shown to positively influence osteoblasts, is metabolized into glycosides including rutin and hyperoside. We compared the effects of these glycosides on mineralization in human osteoblast (Saos2) cells. Administration of rutin (≥25 µM) and hyperoside (≥5 µM) resulted in higher mineral content, determined using the alizarin red assay. This was accompanied by higher alkaline phosphatase activity with no cell toxicity. The expression of osteopontin, sclerostin, TNFα and IL6, known stimuli for decreasing osteoblast activity, were reduced with the addition of rutin or hyperoside. In summary, rutin and hyperoside require supraphysiological levels, when administered individually, to positively influence osteoblast activity. This information may be useful in developing nutraceuticals to support bone health. PMID:27136576

  15. Quantitative determination of seven chemical constituents and chemo-type differentiation of chamomiles using high-performance thin-layer chromatography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Matricaria recutita L. (German Chamomile), Anthemis nobilis L. (Roman Chamomile) and Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat are commonly used chamomiles. High performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed for estimation of six flavonoids (rutin, luteolin-7-O-ß-glucoside, chamaemeloside...

  16. Dependence of the solubility of natural flavonoids in water on the concentration of miramistin, polyvinylpyrrolidone, and human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipkovska, N. A.; Barvinchenko, V. N.; Fedyanina, T. V.

    2014-05-01

    In organized media of the cationic surfactant miramistin and the polymers polyvinylpyrrolidone and human serum albumin, the solubility of natural flavonoids quercetin and rutin increased by one or two orders of magnitude. The increase was more significant for hydrophobic quercetin than for hydrophilic rutin. The solubility also depended on the structure and self-organization of molecules in organized media and the site of flavonoids in them. The calculated binding constants increased in the series polyvinylpyrrolidone < miramistin < human serum albumin.

  17. Comparative study of flavonoids in experimental models of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Rotelli, Alejandra Ester; Guardia, Teresita; Juárez, Américo Osvaldo; de la Rocha, Nadir Ernesto; Pelzer, Lilian Eugenia

    2003-12-01

    The anti-inflammatory activities of flavonols (quercetin, rutin and morin) and flavanones (hesperetin and hesperidin) were investigated in animal models of acute and chronic inflammation. Rutin was only effective in the chronic process, principally in adjuvant arthritis. On neurogenic inflammation induced by xylene, only the flavanones were effective; besides, these compounds were the most effective on subchronic process. The most important compound in reducing paw oedema induced by carrageenan was quercetin.

  18. Inhibitory Effect on Lipid Absorption and Variability of Chemical Constituents from Capparis sicula subsp. sicula and Capparis orientalis.

    PubMed

    Marrelli, Mariangela; Argentieri, Maria Pia; Avato, Pinarosa; Menichini, Francesco; Conforti, Filomena

    2016-06-01

    In continuation of our research program on Mediterranean dietary plants, a bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts from several accessions of Capparis sicula subsp. sicula and Capparis orientalis aerial parts was carried out. Antilipidemic activity of samples was assayed using inhibition of pancreatic lipase. To study the metabolic variability in Capparis species, HPTLC analyses were performed in order to characterize the species through the detection, isolation, and quantitative evaluation of rutin taken as significant chemical marker. The best activity was exerted by C. orientalis accession no. C10 and C. sicula subsp. sicula accession no. C6. The bioactivity evaluation of specific chemical markers, rutin and glucocapparin, led to the identification of a potent antilipidemic compound rutin. The HPTLC analysis showed large variation among the different analyzed samples with respect to rutin concentration. The chemical investigation showed a different composition between the species and between the collection zones. The variations showed by the studied accessions of caper could be attributed to exogenous factors. Capparis species contained predominantly quercetin rutinoside (rutin), accompanied by other constituents such as the glucosinolate glucocapparin. These rutin-rich extracts exhibited pronounced dose-dependent enzyme inhibitory activities toward pancreatic lipase.

  19. Functional photostability and cutaneous compatibility of bioactive UVA sun care products.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Camila Areias; Peres, Daniela D'Almeida; Rugno, Caynan Mendes; Kojima, Mayara; Pinto, Claudinéia Aparecida Sales de Oliveira; Consiglieri, Vladi Olga; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Rosado, Catarina; Mota, Joana; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Baby, André Rolim

    2015-07-01

    Sunscreens are the most-established approach for photoprotection. The strategy of providing antioxidant properties to sun care products by addition of natural and potent anti-free radical compounds has led to the development of bioactive sunscreens, able to neutralize the harmful effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. UVA filters, such as benzophenone-3 (BP) and butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDBM), can exhibit photodegradation which limits the development of broad spectrum sunscreens. Previous research verified that rutin interacts with filters incorporated in sunscreens. In this work, we focused on the development and evaluation of the efficacy of the sunscreens containing either BP or BMDBM with and without rutin. The addition of rutin to the UVA filters afforded antioxidant properties to the formulations and they were considered safe for human use. Additionally, rutin in combination with either BP or BMDBM increased the antioxidant activity about 40 times when compared with the UVA filters alone. Remarkably, the addition of rutin 0.1% (w/w) to BP 6.0% (w/w) raised the SPF from 24.3±1.53 to 33.3±2.89. In conclusion, these findings demonstrated that the addition of rutin into sunscreens can markedly improve the antioxidant properties of the formulation as well as photostabilize some of the UVA filters.

  20. Application of spectroscopic methods for identification (FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy) and determination (UV, EPR) of quercetin-3-O-rutinoside. Experimental and DFT based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paczkowska, Magdalena; Lewandowska, Kornelia; Bednarski, Waldemar; Mizera, Mikołaj; Podborska, Agnieszka; Krause, Anna; Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta

    2015-04-01

    Vibrational (FT-IR, Raman) and electronic (UV, EPR) spectral measurements were performed for an analysis of rutin (quercetin-3-O-rutinoside) obtained from Rutaofficinalis. The identification of rutin was done with the use of FT-IR and Raman spectra. Those experimental spectra were determined with the support of theoretical calculations based on a DFT method with the B3LYP hybrid functional and 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The application of UV and EPR spectra was found to be a suitable analytical approach to the evaluation of changes in rutin exposed to certain physicochemical factors. Differences in absorbance observed in direct UV spectra were used to monitor changes in the concentration of rutin in degraded samples. Spectra of electron paramagnetic resonance allowed studying the process of free-radical quenching in rutin following its exposure to light. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and frontier molecular orbitals (LUMO-HOMO) were also determined in order to predict structural changes and reactive sites in rutin.

  1. Application of spectroscopic methods for identification (FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy) and determination (UV, EPR) of quercetin-3-O-rutinoside. Experimental and DFT based approach.

    PubMed

    Paczkowska, Magdalena; Lewandowska, Kornelia; Bednarski, Waldemar; Mizera, Mikołaj; Podborska, Agnieszka; Krause, Anna; Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta

    2015-04-05

    Vibrational (FT-IR, Raman) and electronic (UV, EPR) spectral measurements were performed for an analysis of rutin (quercetin-3-O-rutinoside) obtained from Rutaofficinalis. The identification of rutin was done with the use of FT-IR and Raman spectra. Those experimental spectra were determined with the support of theoretical calculations based on a DFT method with the B3LYP hybrid functional and 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The application of UV and EPR spectra was found to be a suitable analytical approach to the evaluation of changes in rutin exposed to certain physicochemical factors. Differences in absorbance observed in direct UV spectra were used to monitor changes in the concentration of rutin in degraded samples. Spectra of electron paramagnetic resonance allowed studying the process of free-radical quenching in rutin following its exposure to light. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and frontier molecular orbitals (LUMO-HOMO) were also determined in order to predict structural changes and reactive sites in rutin.

  2. Elucidation of Flavonoids from Carissa congesta, Polyalthia longifolia, and Benincasa hispida Plant Extracts by Hyphenated Technique of Liquid Chromatography-mass Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Gaurav M.; Nalawade, Vivek V.; Mukadam, Aaditi S.; Chaskar, Pratip K.; Zine, Sandeep P.; Somani, Rakesh R.; Une, Hemant D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Carissa congesta (CC), Polyalthia longifolia (PL), and Benincasa hispida (BH) are economically important plants. Objective: Current research encompasses identification of quercetin and rutin and their analogues by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) from the selected plant species. Materials and Methods: Fresh roots, leaves, and seeds of CC, PL, and BH plants respectively were shade-dried followed by extraction and elucidation of rutin and quercetin by LC-MS. Results: Structural elucidation of CC, PL, and BH extracts revealed the presence of flavonoids such as quercetin (m/z 301) and rutin (m/z 610) as the parent ions along with presence of close analogues such as quercetin-O-hexoside, Vicenin 2, quercetin-3-O-xyloside/arabinoside, and quercetin-3-O-glucoside were identified as fragments. Conclusions: Thus, CC, PL, and BH extracts revealed the presence of flavonoids belonging to the class of flavonols such as rutin and quercetin. SUMMARY Quercetin and rutin were identified from CC roots, PL leaves and BH seeds by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy.Quercetin was characterized at (m/z 301) and rutin (m/z 610) as the parent ion peaks.Analogues such as quercetin-O-hexoside, Vicenin 2 and quercetin-3-O-glucoside were identified as fragments. PMID:27695269

  3. Effects of pH on the ability of flavonoids to act as Pickering emulsion stabilizers.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zijun; Murray, Brent S; Ross, Anne-Lise; Povey, Malcolm J W; Morgan, Michael R A; Day, Andrea J

    2012-04-01

    The flavonoids tiliroside, rutin and naringin have been investigated as stabilizers of Pickering oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions. The mean droplet size of tetradecane emulsions was considerably smaller at higher pH, especially for rutin. The solubility of flavonoids in the aqueous phase was 4-6 times higher at pH 8 compared to pH 2 for tiliroside and rutin, although all absolute solubilities remained low (<1 mM). This agreed with a slight increase in surface activity of tiliroside and rutin at the O-W interface at pH 8 compared to pH 2. However, improved emulsion stabilization at higher pH is better explained by the significant increase in ζ-potential of the flavonoid particles to more negative values at pH 8, which will improve particle dispersion and increase the charge on the droplets stabilized by them. A buckwheat tea extract, rich in rutin, was also shown to be an effective stabilizer of sunflower O/W emulsions.

  4. The Antidepressant-like Effect of Ethanol Extract of Daylily Flowers (金針花 Jīn Zhēn Huā) in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shih-Hang; Chang, Hui-Chi; Chen, Pei-Ju; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Su, Kuan-Pin; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2013-01-01

    According to the prediction of the 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) report, depression will be the highest burden disease by the year 2030. Daylily flower (金針花 Jīn Zhēn Huā ; the flower of Hemerocallis fulva) is traditionally used for soothing in Chinese dietary therapy. The major flavonoid of daylily flowers, rutin, is also characterized to be an antidepressant. In this study, we investigated the antidepressant effects of ethanol extract of daylily flowers (DFEtoH) and rutin by forced swimming test (FST) and neurotransmitter metabolism of brain regions (frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and amygdala). Results show that either short- or long-term tests, the extract and rutin significantly reduce the immobility time and increased swimming time of FST, which are compared with the vehicle (P < 0.05). The extract and rutin also increase the serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine concentration of these brain regions (P < 0.05). In long-term tests, the daylily flowers extract markedly increased serotonin concentration and reduced serotonin turnover rate in these brain regions but not frontal cortex. In conclusion, present data illustrated that DFEtoH does have antidepressant-like effects possibly via the regulation of serotonergic system. Moreover, rutin might be playing a very important role in the antidepressant-like effects of DFEtoH. PMID:24716156

  5. Low hygroscopic spray-dried powders with trans-glycosylated food additives enhance the solubility and oral bioavailability of ipriflavone.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Miki; Kadota, Kazunori; Kato, Kouki; Seto, Yoshiki; Onoue, Satomi; Sato, Hideyuki; Ueda, Hiroshi; Tozuka, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    The improvement in the solubility and dissolution rate may promote a superior absorption property towards the human body. The spray-dried powders (SDPs) of ipriflavone, which was used as a model hydrophobic flavone, with trans-glycosylated rutin (Rutin-G) showed the highest solubilizing effect of ipriflavone among three types of trans-glycosylated food additives. The SDPs of ipriflavone with Rutin-G have both a significant higher dissolution rate and solubility enhancement of ipriflavone. This spray-dried formulation of ipriflavone with Rutin-G exhibited a low hygroscopicity as a critical factor in product preservation. In addition, an improvement in the oral absorption of ipriflavone was achieved by means of preparing composite particles of ipriflavone/Rutin-G via spray drying, indicating a 4.3-fold increase in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve compared with that of untreated ipriflavone. These phenomena could be applicable to food ingredients involving hydrophobic flavones for producing healthy food with a high quality.

  6. Association between Paraoxonases Gene Expression and Oxidative Stress in Hepatotoxicity Induced by CCl4

    PubMed Central

    Hafez, Mohamed M.; Al-Shabanah, Othman A.; Al-Harbi, Naif O.; Al-Harbi, Mohamed M.; Al-Rejaie, Salim S.; Alsurayea, Saad M.; Sayed-Ahmed, Mohamed M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of rutin in carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced liver injuries in rat model. Methods. Forty male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. Group I was the control group and received dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and olive oil. Group II received rutin. Groups III was treated with CCl4. Group IV was administered rutin after 48 h of CCl4 treatment. Liver enzymes level, lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, and hydrogen peroxide were measured. The genes expression levels were monitored by real time RT-PCR and western blot techniques. Results. CCl4 group showed significant increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBAR), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and lipid profile and a significant decrease in glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), paraoxonase-3 (PON-3), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor delta (PPAR-δ), and ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABAC1) genes expression levels. Interestingly, rutin supplementation completely reversed the biochemical and gene expression levels induced by CCl4 to control values. Conclusion. CCl4 administration causes aberration of genes expression levels in oxidative stress pathway resulting in DNA damage and hepatotoxicity. Rutin causes hepatoprotective effect through enhancing the antioxidant genes. PMID:25478064

  7. A novel concept for the treatment of couperosis based on nanocrystals in combination with solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN).

    PubMed

    Pyo, Sung Min; Meinke, Martina; Klein, Anja F; Fischer, Tanja C; Müller, Rainer H

    2016-08-20

    For the post laser treatment of couperosis a new dermal formulation was developed combining three actives: vitamin K1, A1 and rutin, where both vitamins were incorporated into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and the poorly soluble antioxidant rutin formulated as nanocrystal. All three formulations were stable over 6 months either on their own or after their incorporation into a hydrogel. Vitamin A1 at 0.3% in emulsions shows local skin irritation due to very rapid release. By forming SLN, prolonged release with less irritation potential but deeper penetration was achieved in porcine ear skin. Due to the nanosized rutin, the new hydrogel showed clearly increased antioxidant activity, representing a stronger protection potential against reactive oxygen species (ROS), compared to marketed anti-redness products with rutin as raw drug powder or water-soluble derivative. In addition, rutin nanocrystals showed up to 5 times pronounced penetration compared to μm-sized raw drug powder. The orientating in-vivo case study revealed a three to six times faster recovery after laser treatment of couperosis by twice daily application of the new hydrogel, regarding scabbed-over areas and erythema. Continued use of the new gel also showed preventive properties against recurrences of veins for at least 8 month.

  8. How does tomato quality (sugar, acid, and nutritional quality) vary with ripening stage, temperature, and irradiance?

    PubMed

    Gautier, Hélène; Diakou-Verdin, Vicky; Bénard, Camille; Reich, Maryse; Buret, Michel; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Poëssel, Jean Luc; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Génard, Michel

    2008-02-27

    The objective of this study was to understand the respective impact of ripening stage, temperature, and irradiance on seasonal variations of tomato fruit quality. During ripening, concentrations in reducing sugars, carotenes, ascorbate, rutin, and caffeic acid derivates increased, whereas those in titratable acidity, chlorophylls, and chlorogenic acid content decreased. Fruit temperature and irradiance affected final fruit composition. Sugars and acids (linked to fruit gustative quality) were not considerably modified, but secondary metabolites with antioxidant properties were very sensitive to fruit environment. Increased fruit irradiance enhanced ascorbate, lycopene, beta-carotene, rutin, and caffeic acid derivate concentrations and the disappearance of oxidized ascorbate and chlorophylls. Increasing the temperature from 21 to 26 degrees C reduced total carotene content without affecting lycopene content. A further temperature increase from 27 to 32 degrees C reduced ascorbate, lycopene, and its precursor's content, but enhanced rutin, caffeic acid derivates, and glucoside contents. The regulation by light and temperature of the biosynthesis pathways of secondary metabolites is discussed.

  9. Antioxidant activity of tartary (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.) and common (Fagopyrum esculentum moench) buckwheat sprouts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Ling; Chen, Yih-Shyuan; Yang, Joan-Hwa; Chiang, Been-Huang

    2008-01-09

    This study compared the differences of two types of buckwheat sprouts, namely, common buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) and tartary buckwheat ( Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.), in general composition, functional components, and antioxidant capacity. The ethanol extracts of tartary buckwheat sprouts (TBS) had higher reducing power, free radical scavenging activity, and superoxide anion scavenging activity than those of common buckwheat sprouts (CBS). As for chelating effects on ferrous ions, CBS had higher values than TBS. Rutin was the major flavonoid found in these two types of buckwheat sprouts, and TBS was 5 fold higher in rutin than CBS. The antioxidant effects of buckwheat sprouts on human hepatoma HepG2 cells revealed that both of TBS and CBS could decrease the production of intracellular peroxide and remove the intracellular superoxide anions in HepG2 cells, but TBS reduced the cellular oxidative stress more effectively than CBS, possibly because of its higher rutin (and quercetin) content.

  10. Identification of the antimicrobial substances produced by Solanum palinacanthum (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Pereira, Aline C; Oliveira, Denilson F; Silva, Geraldo H; Figueiredo, Henrique C P; Cavalheiro, Albero J; Carvalho, Douglas A; Souza, Luciana P; Chalfoun, Sára M

    2008-09-01

    To find out natural antimicrobial agents as alternative in therapeutics and to preserve food, the methanol extract of Solanum palinacanthum aerial parts was submitted to purification steps guided by antibacterial and antifungal assays. As a consequence, the flavonoid rutin and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid were isolated by column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, and identified by mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the quinic acid derivative against Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and the fungus Aspergillus ochraceus were 250, 1000, 1000 and > 568 microg/mL, respectively. Against the same microorganisms, MIC for rutin were 1000, > 1000, > 1000 and 35 microg/mL, respectively. Rutin was very promising for A. ochraceus control, since its MIC against such fungus was close to the one observed for benzalkonium chloride, which is used as a fungicide in Brazil.

  11. Production of quercetin, kaempferol and their glycosidic derivatives from the aqueous-organic extracted residue of litchi pericarp with Aspergillus awamori.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sen; Zhu, Qinqin; Wen, Lingrong; Yang, Bao; Jiang, Guoxiang; Gao, Haiyan; Chen, Feng; Jiang, Yueming

    2014-02-15

    Our previous work exhibited Aspergillus awamori fermentation of the litchi pericarp increased significantly antioxidant activity and DNA protection effect. In this present study, the litchi pericarp and its aqueous-organic extracted residues were fermented by A. awamori in order to elucidate the enhanced beneficial effects. The study identified that rutin which present in litchi pericarp could be deglycosylated to form quercetin and quercetin-3-glucoside after the fermentation. Application the standard compounds (rutin, quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin, kaempferol-3-glucoside and kaempferol) further revealed the effective biotransformation by A. awamori fermentation. It was hypothesised that rutin was initially dehydroxylated to form kaempferol-3-rutinoside and then deglycosylated to form kaempferol-3-glucoside and kaempferol. To our best knowledge, it is the first report on dehydroxylated effect of polyphenols caused by A. awamori fermentation. Thus, A. awamori fermentation can provide an effective way to produce health benefiting value-added products from litchi pericarp in food industry.

  12. Fluorescent analysis of interaction of flavonols with hemoglobin and bovine serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentchouk, V. V.; Bondaryuk, E. V.

    2007-09-01

    We have studied the fluorescent properties of flavonols (quercetin, fisetin, morin, rutin) with the aim of studying possible interaction with hemoglobin and bovine serum albumin (BSA). We observed an increase in the intensity of intrinsic fluorescence for all the flavonols except rutin in the presence of BSA. From the changes in the fluorescence spectra, we concluded that tautomeric forms are formed on interaction with hemoglobin. We determined the interconnection between the structure of related flavonols and their fluorescent properties on interaction with proteins, and we determined the binding constants for binding with BSA and hemoglobin.

  13. Spectral and Acid-Base Properties of Hydroxyflavones in Micellar Solutions of Cationic Surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipkovska, N. A.; Barvinchenko, V. N.; Fedyanina, T. V.; Rugal', A. A.

    2014-09-01

    It has been shown that the spectral characteristics (intensity, position of the absorption band) and the acid-base properties in a series of structurally similar hydroxyflavones depend on the concentration of the cationic surfactants miramistin and decamethoxin in aqueous solutions, and the extent of their changes is more pronounced for hydrophobic quercetin than for hydrophilic rutin. For the first time, we have determined the apparent dissociation constants of quercetin and rutin in solutions of these cationic surfactants (pKa1) over a broad concentration range and we have established that they decrease in the series water-decamethoxin-miramistin.

  14. In vitro screening of radioprotective properties in the novel glucosylated flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hao; Haskins, Jeremy S; Su, Cathy; Allum, Allison; Haskins, Alexis H; Salinas, Victoria A; Sunada, Shigeaki; Inoue, Taisuke; Aizawa, Yasushi; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Kato, Takamitsu A

    2016-11-01

    Novel glucosyl flavonoids are developed by the addition of glucose to naturally occurring flavonoids. Flavonoids are known antioxidants that possess radioprotective properties. In order to investigate the radioprotective properties of novel glucosyl flavonoids, in vitro DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) analysis was carried out. In the present study, Quercetin, Naringenin, and Hesperetin groups of flavonoids included in the natural and novel glucosyl 13 flavonoids were investigated. Flavonoids were mixed with Lambda DNA, and subsequently exposed to gamma‑rays. Furthermore, DNA DSB yields were visualized by gel electrophoresis. Quercetin derivatives displayed reduced DNA DSB formation at 10 µM. At a high concentration, the majority of flavonoids displayed radioprotective properties as a reduction of DSB yields. Suppression of DSB formation was confirmed via the molecular combing assay for Quercetin, and three monoglucosyl flavonoids. Glucosylation showed positive effects for radioprotection and monoglucosyl-Rutin showed superior radioprotective properties when compared to monoglucosyl-Naringin and Hesperidin. In addition, Quercetin derivatives had greater total antioxidant capacities and DPPH radical scavenging ability than other flavonoid groups. Since Quercetin, Isoquercetin, and Rutin display poor water solubility, monoglucosyl-Rutin, maltooligosyl-Isoquercetin, and maltooligosyl-Rutin may be better radioprotective agents and easily bioavailable with increased water solubility.

  15. Purification of glucosinolates from Camelina sativa seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Camelina sativa L. Crantz defatted seed press cake contains a number of phytochemicals, including the flavonoid rutin (quercetin 3-O-rutinoside), an acylated quercetin glycoside, and three glucosinolates: glucoarabin (9-(methylsulfinyl)nonyl-glucosinolate) glucocamelinin (10-(methylsulfinyl)decyl-gl...

  16. [Absolute quantitation of quercetin and the glycosides in natural food additives by quantitative NMR].

    PubMed

    Tada, Atsuko; Takahashi, Kana; Sugimoto, Naoki; Suematsu, Takako; Arifuku, Kazunori; Saito, Takeshi; Ihara, Toshihide; Yoshida, Yuuichi; Ishizuki, Kyoko; Nishimura, Tetsuji; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Kawamura, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    We are developing a simple absolute quantitation method for organic compounds, by means of quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR), with traceability to the International System of Units (SI units). The qNMR method was applied to the absolute quantitation of rutin, isoquercitrin and quercetin in natural food additives, rutin (extract), enzymatically decomposed rutin extract and quercetin, and those compounds as commercial reagents. In this study, 1,4-bis-(trimethylsilyl)benzene-d(4) (1,4-BTMSB-d(4)) whose purity was precisely evaluated on the basis of metrology, was newly used as a qNMR reference material, to be added to the sample solution as an internal standard. The contents of quercetin and quercetin glycosides were calculated from the ratio of the signal intensities of each aromatic proton at the 2' position of the three compounds (these are observed at different chemical shifts) to the eighteen protons of the six methyl groups on 1,4-BTMSB-d(4) used as a qNMR reference material. Rapid and simple qNMR method with only one step process was carried by using 1,4-BTMSB-d(4). It was demonstrated that the purities of rutin, isoquercitrin and quercetin can be separately determined by qNMR without the need for a separation process or reference materials for all the target compounds.

  17. Fagopyrum tataricum (buckwheat) improved high-glucose-induced insulin resistance in mouse hepatocytes and diabetes in fructose-rich diet-induced mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Chen; Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Shen, Siou-Ru; Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Wu, She-Ching

    2012-01-01

    Fagopyrum tataricum (buckwheat) is used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Taiwan. This study was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and anti-insulin resistance effects of 75% ethanol extracts of buckwheat (EEB) in FL83B hepatocytes by high-glucose (33 mM) induction and in C57BL/6 mice by fructose-rich diet (FRD; 60%) induction. The active compounds of EEB (100 μg/mL; 50 mg/kg bw), quercetin (6 μg/mL; 3 mg/kg bw), and rutin (23 μg/mL; 11.5 mg/kg bw) were also employed to treat FL83B hepatocytes and animal. Results indicated that EEB, rutin, and quercetin + rutin significantly improved 2-NBDG uptake via promoting Akt phosphorylation and preventing PPARγ degradation caused by high-glucose induction for 48 h in FL83B hepatocytes. We also found that EEB could elevate hepatic antioxidant enzymes activities to attenuate insulin resistance as well as its antioxidation caused by rutin and quercetin. Finally, EEB also inhibited increases in blood glucose and insulin levels of C57BL/6 mice induced by FRD.

  18. [Studies on chemical components of Cirsium segestum].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; Chen, Lin; Liu, Zhi-peng; Deng, Qin-ying

    2007-01-01

    Six chemical components were got from the alcohol extract of Cirsium segestum, their structures were identified by UV, IR, NMR, MS and EA. They were 5,7-dihydroxyflavone, baicalin, oleanolic acid, cholesterol, methyl ursolate and rutin. The first to the fifth of which were got from Cirsium segestum for the first time.

  19. Breeding of ‘Manten-Kirari’, a non-bitter and trace-rutinosidase variety of Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.)

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Tatsuro; Morishita, Toshikazu; Mukasa, Yuji; Takigawa, Shigenobu; Yokota, Satoshi; Ishiguro, Koji; Noda, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Here, we developed a new Tartary buckwheat cultivar ‘Manten-Kirari’, whose flour contains only trace amounts of rutinosidase and lacked bitterness. The trace-rutinosidase breeding line ‘f3g-162’ (seed parent), which was obtained from a Nepalese genetic resource, was crossed with ‘Hokkai T8’ (pollen parent), the leading variety in Japan, to improve its agronomic characteristics. The obtained progeny were subjected to performance test. ‘Manten-Kirari’ had no detectable rutinosidase isozymes in an in-gel detection assay and only 1/266 of the rutinosidase activity of ‘Hokkai T8’. Dough prepared from ‘Manten-Kirari’ flour contained almost no hydrolyzed rutin, even 6 h after the addition of water, whereas the rutin in ‘Hokkai T8’ dough was completely hydrolyzed within 10 min. In a sensory evaluation of the flour from the two varieties, nearly all panelists detected strong bitterness in ‘Hokkai T8’, whereas no panelists reported bitterness in ‘Manten-Kirari’. This is the first report to describe the breeding of a Tartary buckwheat cultivar with reduced rutin hydrolysis and no bitterness in the prepared flour. Notably, the agronomic characteristics of ‘Manten-Kirari’ were similar to those of ‘Hokkai T8’, which is the leading variety in Japan. Based on these characteristics, ‘Manten-Kirari’ is a promising for preparing non-bitter, rutin-rich foods. PMID:25914589

  20. Safety and efficacy evaluation of gelatin-based nanoparticles associated with UV filters.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Camila Areias; Dario, Michelli Ferrera; Sarruf, Fernanda Daud; Mariz, Inês Fátima Afonso; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Rosado, Catarina; Baby, André Rolim

    2016-04-01

    The safety and efficacy assessment of nanomaterials is a major concern of industry and academia. These materials, due to their nanoscale size, can have chemical, physical, and biological properties that differ from those of their larger counterparts. The encapsulation of natural ingredients can provide marked improvements in sun protection efficacy. This strategy promotes solubility enhancement of flavonoids and yields an improved active ingredient with innovative physical, physicochemical and functional characteristics. Rutin, a flavonoid, has chemical and functional stability in topical vehicles exerting a synergistic effect in association with ultraviolet (UV) filters. However, the solubility of rutin is a limiting factor. Additionally, this bioactive compound does not have tendency to permeate across the stratum corneum. As an alternative to common synthetic based sunscreens, rutin-entrapped gelatin nanoparticles were designed. The present study investigated the pre-clinical safety of gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs) using an in vitro method and also assessed the clinical safety and efficacy of the association of GNPs with three commonly used chemical UV filters (ethylhexyl dimethyl PABA, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate and methoxydibenzoylmethane). The non-irritant and adequate safety profile under sun-exposed skin conditions of the nanomaterials and the emulsions qualified the products for clinical efficacy assays. The in vivo results indicated that the GNPs increased the antioxidant protection of the emulsions developed. However, the presence of rutin in the nanosized material did not enhance performance on the SPF test. In conclusion, these findings characterized the nanomaterials as an innovative platform for multifunctional bioactive sunscreens.

  1. Development of biosensor for phenolic compounds containing PPO in β-cyclodextrin modified support and iridium nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Cristiano P; Franzoi, Ana C; Fernandes, Suellen C; Dupont, Jairton; Vieira, Iolanda C

    2013-04-10

    A biosensor based on the iridium nanoparticles dispersed in ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (Ir-BMI·PF6) and a celery (Apium graveolens) extract as a source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was constructed. A modified support based on β-cyclodextrin (β-CDEP) was used for enzyme immobilization. The behavior of phenolic compounds was investigated by square-wave voltammetry and rutin was selected by presenting the greatest signal. The best performance was obtained with a composition of 70:10:10:10% (w/w/w/w) of the graphite powder:β-CDEP:Nujol:Ir-BMI·PF6 composition, a PPO concentration of 500unitsmL(-1), in 0.1M phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.0) with frequency, pulse amplitude and scan increment at 100Hz, 60mV, and 3.0mV, respectively. Under optimized conditions, the cathodic currents increased linearly for the rutin concentration range of 1.3×10(-7)-2.0×10(-6)M with a detection limit of 7.9×10(-8)M. This sensor demonstrated acceptable repeatability and reproducibility and the results for the rutin recovery ranged from 92.8 to 103.4%. A relative error of 0.7% was obtained in the rutin determination in simulated samples.

  2. Characterization of putative receptors specific for quercetin on bovine aortic smooth-muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.C.; Becker, C.G.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have reported that tobacco glycoprotein (TGP), rutin-bovine serum albumin conjugates (R-BSA), quercetin, and chlorogenic acid are mitogenic for bovine aortic smooth-muscle cells (SMC). To investigate whether there are binding sites or receptors for these polyphenol-containing molecules on SMC, the authors have synthesized /sup 125/I-labeled rutin-bovine serum albumin ((/sup 125/I)R-BSA) of high specific activity (20 Ci/mmol). SMC were isolated from a bovine thoracic aorta and maintained in Eagle's minimum essential medium with 10% calf serum in culture. These SMC at early subpassages were suspended (3-5 x 10/sup 7/ cells/ml) in phosphate-buffered saline and incubated with (/sup 125/I)R-BSA (10 pmol) in the presence or absence of 200-fold unlabeled R-BSA, TGP, BSA, rutin, quercetin or related polyphenols, and catecholamines. Binding of (/sup 125/I)R-BSA to SMC was found to be reproducible and the radioligand was displaced by R-BSA, and also by TGP, rutin, quercetin, and chlorogenic acid, but not by BSA, ellagic acid, naringin, hesperetin, dopamine, epinephrine, or isoproterenol. The binding was saturable, reversible, and pH-dependent. These results demonstrate the presence of specific binding sites for quercetinon arterial SMC.

  3. Analysis of phenolics in wine by high performance thin-layer chromatography with gradient elution and high resolution plate imaging.

    PubMed

    Agatonovic-Kustrin, Snezana; Hettiarachchi, Chandima G; Morton, David W; Razic, Slavica

    2015-01-01

    Health benefits of wine, especially with red wine, have been linked to the presence of a wide range of phenolic antioxidants. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop a simple, high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method combined with high resolution digital plate images to visually compare multiple wine samples simultaneously on a single chromatographic plate and to quantify levels of gallic acid, caffeic acid, resveratrol and rutin, as representatives of the four different classes of phenolics found in wines. We also wanted to investigate the contribution of the investigated phenolic compounds to the total polyphenolic content (TPC) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the wine samples. The average concentrations of caffeic acid, gallic acid, resveratrol, and rutin in the red wines were 2.15, 30.17, 0.59 and 2.47 mg/L respectively with their concentration below limit of quantification in the white wine samples. The highest concentration of resveratrol and rutin is found in the Cabernet and Shiraz wine samples. The amounts of gallic acid are correlated with TPC (r=0.58). Italian wines have the highest correlation between TPC and TAC (r=0.99) although they do not contain detectable amounts of resveratrol, they contain significant amount of rutin. Therefore, antioxidant properties might be associated with the presence of flavanols in these wines.

  4. Cranial vena cava syndrome secondary to cryptococcal mediastinal granuloma in a cat

    PubMed Central

    Letendre, Jo-Annie; Boysen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    The successful management of cranial vena cava syndrome with suspected secondary chylothorax due to mediastinal cryptococcal granuloma in a 4-year-old male domestic shorthair cat is described. Treatment included long-term antifungal medication, short-term corticosteroids, intermittent thoracocentesis, rutin, octreotide, and enalapril. PMID:25829555

  5. A new phenylpropanoid glycoside from Jasminum subtriplinerve Blume.

    PubMed

    Huong, Nguyen Thi Hong; Cu, Nguyen Khac Quynh; Quy, Trinh Van; Zidorn, Christian; Ganzera, Markus; Stuppner, Hermann

    2008-01-01

    From the ethyl acetate extract of the aerial parts of Jasminum subtriplinerve Blume (Oleaceae), 6'-O-menthiafoloylverbascoside (1), rutin (2), isoverbascoside (4), isooleoverbascoside (6), apiosylverbascoside (7), astragalin (9), isoquercitrin (10), and verbascoside (11) were isolated. Their structures were elucidated by extensive MS and NMR spectroscopy. Amongst 6'-O-menthiafoloylverbascoside (1) is a new phenylpropanoid glycoside.

  6. Syringa oblata Lindl. Aqueous Extract Is a Potential Biofilm Inhibitor in S. suis

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jingwen; Yang, Yanbei; Wang, Shuai; Gao, Lingfei; Chen, Jianqing; Ren, Yongzhi; Ding, Wenya; Muhammad, Ishfaq; Li, Yanhua

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is a zoonotic pathogen that causes severe disease symptoms in pigs and humans. Syringa oblata Lindl. distributed in the middle latitudes of Eurasia and North America were proved as the most development potential of Chinese Medicine. In this study, biofilm formation by S. suis decreased after growth with 1/2 MIC, 1/4 MIC, or 1/8 MIC of Syringa oblata Lindl. aqueous extract and rutin. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed the potential effect of Syringa oblata Lindl. aqueous extract and rutin against biofilm formation by S. suis. Using iTRAQ technology, comparative proteomic analyses was performed at two conditions: 1/2 MIC of Syringa oblata Lindl. aqueous extract treated and non-treated cells. The results revealed the existence of 28 proteins of varying amounts. We found that the majority of the proteins were related to cell growth and metabolism. We also found that Syringa oblata Lindl. Aqueous extract affected the synthesis enzymes. In summary, Syringa oblata Lindl. aqueous extract might be used to inhibit the biofilm formation effectively by S. suis, and the active ingredients of the Syringa oblate Lindl. aqueous extract is rutin. The content of rutin is 9.9 ± 0.089 mg/g dry weight. PMID:28194111

  7. [Investigation on relationship between flavonoid content and inhibitory ability to nitrosamine synthesis for eleven Chinese herbal medicines].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Tian, Diying; Yang, Ronghua

    2010-08-01

    The eleven Chinese herbal medicine containing flavonoids are applied as raw materials to explore the relationship between the inhibitory ratio of nitrosamine synthesis, the scavenging ratio of nitrite and the flavonoid content in the samples. The inhibitory ratio of nitrosamine synthesis and the scavenging ratio of nitrite of the 11 herbal medicines, Vit C and rutin were determined in intro compare with Vit C and the standard ample of rutin. The results indicate that each sample exhibits certain ability to inhibitiory nitrosamine synthesis. Among these samples, Honeysuckle flower is found to be of best effects, its inhibitory ratio and scavenging ratio reaches 78.5% and 60.5%, respectively. Except kudzuvine root, the other samples with higher content of flavonoid result in a higher inhibitory or scavenging ratio, and the relative coefficient reaches a value of 0.9338 and 0.9272, respectively, displaying notable positive correlation. The concentrations of IC50 (g x L(-1)) of flavonoid extracted from honeysuckle, rutin and VC were 0.013, 0.022 and 0.187, respectively. While the inhibitory ratio of synthesis of nitrosamines reached 50%, and those were 0.042, 0.024 and 0.041, respectively. While scavenging ratio of nitrite reaches 50%. The inhibitory ratio of synthesis of nitrosamine of flavonoids extracted from honeysuckle flower is higher than that of Vit C and rutin, and the scavenging ratio of nitrite is similar to that of Vit C.

  8. Silicon-induced changes in antifungal phenolic acids, flavonoids, and key phenylpropanoid pathway genes during the interaction between miniature roses and the biotrophic pathogen Podosphaera pannosa.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Radhakrishna; Fretté, Xavier; Jensen, Birgit; Shetty, Nandini Prasad; Jensen, Jens Due; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs; Newman, Mari-Anne; Christensen, Lars Porskjær

    2011-12-01

    Application of 3.6 mm silicon (Si+) to the rose (Rosa hybrida) cultivar Smart increased the concentration of antimicrobial phenolic acids and flavonoids in response to infection by rose powdery mildew (Podosphaera pannosa). Simultaneously, the expression of genes coding for key enzymes in the phenylpropanoid pathway (phenylalanine ammonia lyase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, and chalcone synthase) was up-regulated. The increase in phenolic compounds correlated with a 46% reduction in disease severity compared with inoculated leaves without Si application (Si-). Furthermore, Si application without pathogen inoculation induced gene expression and primed the accumulation of several phenolics compared with the uninoculated Si- control. Chlorogenic acid was the phenolic acid detected in the highest concentration, with an increase of more than 80% in Si+ inoculated compared with Si- uninoculated plants. Among the quantified flavonoids, rutin and quercitrin were detected in the highest concentrations, and the rutin concentration increased more than 20-fold in Si+ inoculated compared with Si- uninoculated plants. Both rutin and chlorogenic acid had antimicrobial effects on P. pannosa, evidenced by reduced conidial germination and appressorium formation of the pathogen, both after spray application and infiltration into leaves. The application of rutin and chlorogenic acid reduced powdery mildew severity by 40% to 50%, and observation of an effect after leaf infiltration indicated that these two phenolics can be transported to the epidermal surface. In conclusion, we provide evidence that Si plays an active role in disease reduction in rose by inducing the production of antifungal phenolic metabolites as a response to powdery mildew infection.

  9. Flavonoid profiles of three Bupleurum species and in vitro hepatoprotective of activity Bupleurum flavum Forsk.

    PubMed Central

    Gevrenova, Reneta; Kondeva-Burdina, Magdalena; Denkov, Nikolay; Zheleva-Dimitrova, Dimitrina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bupleurum L. (Aspiaceae) species are used as herbal remedy in Chinese traditional medicine. Objective: The aim was to investigate the flavonoids in three annual European Bupleurum species, including B. baldense, B. affine and B. flavum, and to test their antioxidant and possible hepatoprotective effects. Materials and Methods: Flavonoids from the methanol-aqueous extracts were quantified by solid-phase extraction-high-performance liquid chromatography. Bupleurum extracts (1–220 mg/ml) were tested for their antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS assays, as well as on isolated liver rat microsomes. In vitro hepatoprotective activity of B. flavum flavonoid (BFF) mixture and rutin, and narcissin, isolated from the same mixture, were evaluated on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH) toxicity models in isolated rat hepatocytes. Results: Narcissin was the dominant flavonol glycoside in B. flavum being present at 24.21 ± 0.19 mg/g, whilst the highest content of rutin (28.63 ± 1.57 mg/g) was found in B. baldense. B. flavum possessed the strongest DPPH (IC50 22.12 μg/ml) and ABTS (IC50 118.15 μg/ml) activity. At a concentration 1 mg/ml of BFF (rutin 197.58 mg/g, narcissin 75.74 mg/g), a stronger antioxidant effect in microsomes was evidenced in comparison with silymarin, rutin and narcissin. The hepatoprotective effect of BFF significantly reduced the elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase and malondialdehyde, and ameliorated glutathione, being most active in t-BuOOH-induced injury model when compared with CCl4 toxicity (P < 0.001). Conclusion: In BFF, synergism of rutin and narcissin could be responsible for stronger protection against mitochondrial induced oxidative stress. PMID:25709205

  10. Ruminal degradation of quercetin and its influence on fermentation in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Berger, L M; Blank, R; Zorn, F; Wein, S; Metges, C C; Wolffram, S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the ruminal degradation of the flavonol quercetin and to determine its potential antimicrobial effects on ruminal fermentation in cows. Ruminal degradation of quercetin (0 or 100μmol/L, respectively) as well as its influence on ruminal gas production (0, 50, or 100μmol of quercetin equivalents/L, respectively, either applied as aglycone or as its glucorhamnoside rutin) using concentrate, grass hay, and straw as substrates were investigated in vitro using the Hohenheim gas test. Additionally, the influence of quercetin on ruminal concentrations of volatile fatty acids and their molar ratio in rumen-fistulated, nonlactating cows (n=5) after intraruminal application of quercetin as aglycone or as rutin (0, 10, or 50mg of quercetin equivalents/kg of BW, respectively) was evaluated. Quercetin was rapidly and extensively degraded, whereby the disappearance of quercetin was accompanied by the simultaneous appearance of 2metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and 4-methylcatechol. In vitro total gas and methane production were not reduced by the addition of quercetin aglycone or rutin, respectively, using concentrate, grass hay, and straw as substrates. As expected, however, effects of the substrates used were detected on total gas and methane production. Highest gas production was found with concentrate, whereas values obtained with grass hay and straw were lower. Relative methane production was highest with grass hay compared with concentrate and straw (27.1 vs. 25.0 and 25.5%). After intraruminal application of the quercetin aglycone or rutin, respectively, neither total concentration nor the molar ratio of volatile fatty acids in the rumen fluid were influenced. Results of the present study show that quercetin underlies rapid ruminal degradation, whereby 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and 4-methylcatechol are the main metabolites, whereas the latter one most likely is formed by dehydroxylation from 3

  11. Profile and antioxidant activity of phenolic extracts from 10 crabapples (Malus wild species).

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Shi, Junling; Wang, Kun

    2014-01-22

    Phenolic products are highly demanded by the food and cosmetics industries and consumers due to their high antioxidant activities. To evaluate the potential of crabapples (Malus wild species) in preparing phenolic extracts, fruits of 10 crabapples grown in China were separately extracted with 80% (v/v) ethanol and ethyl acetate and the phenolic profiles, polyphenol (PC) and flavonoid contents (FC), and antioxidant activities of the extracts were analyzed. Chlorogenic acid, (-)-epicatechin, rutin, hyperin, and phlorizin appeared as the major phenolic compounds in all phenolic extracts. Ethanol extracts had PC of 302.83-1265.94 mg GAE/100g and FC of 352.45-2351.74 mg RE/100g, being 4.17 and 4.49 times those obtained in ethyl acetate extracts and much higher than those previously reported in apples. Malus wild species appeared as rich sources of phenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity, especially when high chlorogenic acid and rutin contents are emphasized.

  12. Determination of polyphenol components in herbal medicines by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with Tween 20.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Kui; He, You-Zhao; Qian, Li-Li

    2007-11-15

    A simple and convenient method of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) using polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20) to form single micelle and methanol as a buffer additive was introduced for the simultaneous determination of five polyphenols, including scopoletin, rutin, esculetin, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid. A running buffer solution of pH 9.3, 20 mmol/L sodium tetraborate containing 64 mmol/L Tween 20 and 9% (v/v) methanol was adopted in the separation. Because rutin and esculetin were difficult to be separated by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and SDS-based MEKC, Tween 20-based MEKC was adopted and the polyphenols were separated satisfactorily. The proposed method was used to determine the polyphenol components in the herbal medicine of Cortex fraxini. The separation mechanism of Tween 20-based MEKC for the polyphenols was discussed preliminarily.

  13. Efficient Enzyme-Free Biomimetic Sensors for Natural Phenol Detection.

    PubMed

    Ferreira Garcia, Luane; Ribeiro Souza, Aparecido; Sanz Lobón, Germán; Dos Santos, Wallans Torres Pio; Alecrim, Morgana Fernandes; Fontes Santiago, Mariângela; de Sotomayor, Rafael Luque Álvarez; de Souza Gil, Eric

    2016-08-13

    The development of sensors and biosensors based on copper enzymes and/or copper oxides for phenol sensing is disclosed in this work. The electrochemical properties were studied by cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry using standard solutions of potassium ferrocyanide, phosphate/acetate buffers and representative natural phenols in a wide pH range (3.0 to 9.0). Among the natural phenols herein investigated, the highest sensitivity was observed for rutin, a powerful antioxidant widespread in functional foods and ubiquitous in the plant kingdom. The calibration curve for rutin performed at optimum pH (7.0) was linear in a broad concentration range, 1 to 120 µM (r = 0.99), showing detection limits of 0.4 µM. The optimized biomimetic sensor was also applied in total phenol determination in natural samples, exhibiting higher stability and sensitivity as well as distinct selectivity for antioxidant compounds.

  14. HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS analysis of phenolic compounds during ripening in exocarp and mesocarp of tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-López, Armando; Yahia, Elhadi

    2013-12-01

    Identification of phenolic compounds was done by means of liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) using the electrospray ionization interface (ESI). Quantification of phenolic compounds was carried out by using HPLC with diode array detector (DAD) in exocarp and mesocarp of tomato fruit at 6 different ripeness stages (mature-green, breakers, turning, pink, light-red, and red). Several phenolic compounds were identified including chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and rutin and some combined phenolic acids were tentatively identified, mainly glycosides, such as caffeoyl hexose I, caffeoyl hexose II, caffeoylquinic acid isomer, dicaffeoylquinic acid, p-coumaroyl hexose I, p-coumaroyl hexose II, feruloyl hexose I, feruloyl hexose II, siringyl hexose, and caffeoyl deoxyhexose hexose. Fruit exocarp had higher quantities of total soluble phenolics (TSP) compared to mesocarp. During ripening, TSP increased in both exocarp and mesocarp, mainly in exocarp. While rutin increased, chlorogenic acid decreased in both tissues: exocarp and mesocarp.

  15. Response surface modeling and optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of three flavonoids from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum)

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Lian-Xin; Zou, Liang; Zhao, Jiang-Lin; Xiang, Da-Bing; Zhu, Peng; Zhao, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Background: Buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp., Polygonaceae) is a widely planted food crop. Flavonoids, including quercetin, rutin, and kaempferol, are the main bioactive components in tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn). From the nutriological and pharmacological perspectives, flavonoids have great value in controlling blood glucose and blood pressure levels, and they also have antioxidant properties. Objective: To optimize the conditions for extraction of quercetin, rutin, and kaempferol from F. tataricum. Materials and Methods: A combination of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and response surface methodology (RSM) was used for flavonoid extraction and yield assessment. The RSM was based on a three-level, three-variable Box-Behnken design. Results: Flavonoids were optimally extracted from F. tataricum by using 72% methanol, at 60°C, for 21 minutes. Under these conditions, the obtained extraction yield of the total flavonoids was 3.94%. Conclusion: The results indicated that the UAE method was effective for extraction of flavonoids from tartary buckwheat. PMID:23930003

  16. Inhibition of glycation and aldose reductase activity using dietary flavonoids: A lens organ culture studies.

    PubMed

    Patil, Kapil K; Gacche, Rajesh N

    2017-05-01

    On the eve of increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus and related complications, the search for novel, safe and alternatives therapeutic approaches are evolving. In the present investigation, a panel of ten dietary flavonoids such as 4'-methoxyflavanone, formononetin, hesperetin, hesperidin, naringenin, naringin, rutin, diadzin, silibinin and silymarin was evaluated as possible inhibitors of sugar induced cataractogenesis using bovine lens organ culture studies. The effect of selected flavonoids was observed on glycation induced lens opacity, AGE fluorescence, carbonyl group formation (a biomarker of glycation), protein aggregation and aldose reductase (AR) inhibition. The results obtained clearly demonstrate the efficacy of rutin and silibinin as promising leads for inhibition of glycation reaction and amelioration of sugar induced cataractogenesis. The findings of the present study may be useful for designing and development of the novel lead molecules for the management of diabetic cataract.

  17. [Intermolecular hydrogen bond between protein and flavonoid and its contribution to the stability of the flavonoids].

    PubMed

    Fang, Ru; Leng, Xiao-jing; Wu, Xia; Li, Qi; Hao, Rui-fang; Ren, Fa-zheng; Jing, Hao

    2012-01-01

    The interactions between three proteins (BSA, lysozyme and myoglobin) and three flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol and rutin) were analyzed, using three-dimensional fluorescence spectrometry in combination with UV-Vis spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The stabilities of unbound flavonoids and protein-bound flavonoids were compared. The correlation between the interaction and stability was analyzed. The results showed that the hydrophobic interaction was the main binding code in all proteins and flavonoids systems. However, the hydrogen bond has been involved merely in the BSA system. The stability of all three flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol and rutin) was improved by BSA. There was a great correlation between the hydrogen bonding and the stability of the flavonoids in the presence of BSA. It suggested that the protection of BSA on the flavonoids was due to the intermolecular hydrogen bonding between BSA and flavonoid, and the stronger hydrogen bonding resulted in more protection.

  18. Physico-chemical Properties of Supramolecular Complexes of Natural Flavonoids with Biomacromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barvinchenko, V. M.; Lipkovska, N. O.; Fedyanina, T. V.; Pogorelyi, V. K.

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone (a water-soluble biopolymer) and human serum albumin (a globular protein) form supramolecular complexes with natural flavonoids quercetin and rutin in aqueous medium. The interaction with these biomacromolecules (BMM) causes the alteration of flavonoid spectral, protolytic, and other properties; in particular, it essentially increases their solubility. Absorption and solubility measurements revealed the supramolecular compounds of 1:1 stoichiometry for all systems studied. First it was demonstrated experimentally that the interaction with BMM promotes the tautomeric transformation in quercetin molecule. The mechanism of tautomerization via flavonoid molecular structure was discussed. Adsorption of BMM and their supramolecular compounds with flavonoids onto nanosilica was studied as a function of pH, and the properties of the biomacromolecules, flavonoids, and silica surface. It was found that BMM either complexed with quercetin (rutin) or preliminary immobilized on nanosilica increases the flavonoid adsorption.

  19. The Contribution of Buckwheat Genetic Resources to Health and Dietary Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Sytar, Oksana; Brestic, Marian; Zivcak, Marek; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-01-01

    Despite several reports on the beneficial effects of buckwheat in prevention of human diseases, little attention has been devoted to the variability of biochemical and physiological traits in different buckwheat genetic resources. This review describes the biochemical evaluation of buckwheat genetic resources and the identification of elite genotypes for plant breeding and exploitation. The various types of bioactive compounds present in different varieties provide basic background information needed for the efficient production of buckwheat foods with added value. In this review, we will provide an integrated view of the biochemistry of bioactive compounds of buckwheat plants of different origin, especially of fagopyrin, proteins and amino acids, as well as of other phenolic compounds including rutin and chlorogenic acid. In addition to the genetic background, the effect of different growth conditions is discussed. The health effects of fagopyrin, phenolic acids, specific proteins and rutin are also presented. PMID:27252586

  20. Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of calyces from Physalis peruviana.

    PubMed

    Toro, Reina M; Aragón, Diana M; Ospina, Luis F; Ramos, Freddy A; Castellanos, Leonardo

    2014-11-01

    Physalis peruviana calyces are used extensively in folk medicine. The crude ethanolic extract and some fractions of calyces were evaluated in order to explore antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by the TPA-induced ear edema model. The antioxidant in vitro activity was measured by means of the superoxide and nitric oxide scavenging activity of the extracts and fractions. The butanolic fraction was found to be promising due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Therefore, a bio-assay guided approach was employed to isolate and identify rutin (1) and nicotoflorin (2) from their NMR spectroscopic and MS data. The identification of rutin in calyces of P. peruviana supports the possible use of this waste material for phytotherapeutic, nutraceutical and cosmetic preparations.

  1. Development and validation of a simple high performance thin layer chromatography method combined with direct 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay to quantify free radical scavenging activity in wine.

    PubMed

    Agatonovic-Kustrin, Snezana; Morton, David W; Yusof, Ahmad P

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this study was to: (a) develop a simple, high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method combined with direct 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay to rapidly assess and compare free radical scavenging activity or anti-oxidant activity for major classes of polyphenolics present in wines; and (b) to investigate relationship between free radical scavenging activity to the total polyphenolic content (TPC) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the wine samples. The most potent free radical scavengers that we tested for in the wine samples were found to be resveratrol (polyphenolic non-flavonoid) and rutin (flavonoid), while polyphenolic acids (caffeic acid and gallic acid) although present in all wine samples were found to be less potent free radical scavengers. Therefore, the total antioxidant capacity was mostly affected by the presence of resveratrol and rutin, while total polyphenolic content was mostly influenced by the presence of the less potent free radical scavengers gallic and caffeic acids.

  2. Characterisation of honeys according to their content of phenolic compounds using high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sergiel, Iwona; Pohl, Pawel; Biesaga, Magdalena

    2014-02-15

    A simple, fast and specific high performance liquid chromatography separation with an electro-spray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry detection in a negative single reaction ion monitoring scan mode was developed and used for the characterization of Polish honeys according to the content of phenolic acids, including caffeic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, ferulic, homogentisic, p-hydroxybenzoic and vanillic acids, and flavonoids, i.e., apigenin, genistein, hesperetin, kaempferol, luteolin, rhamnetin, rutin, tricetin and quercetin. Target compounds were isolated and pre-concentrated from the honey matrix by means of the solid phase extraction using Strata X (500mg) cartridges. Analysed honeys did not contain tricetin and genistein. Hesperetin was determined for the first time in heather and linden honeys while rutin in rape honey.

  3. Quercetin as a shuttle for labile iron.

    PubMed

    Baccan, Mayara Marinovic; Chiarelli-Neto, Orlando; Pereira, Regina Mara Silva; Espósito, Breno Pannia

    2012-02-01

    The antioxidant activity of flavonoids may involve their ability to complex body iron in non-redox-active forms. In this study, it was found that the catechol flavonoids rutin and quercetin are able to suppress redox-active labile plasma iron (LPI) in both buffered solution and in iron-overloaded sera. Both flavonoids are effective in loading the metal into the iron-transport protein transferrin. Iron derivatives of quercetin and rutin are able to permeate cell membranes, however, only free quercetin is able to gain access to the cytosol and decrease intracellular labile iron pools. These results suggest that the antioxidant activity of quercetin may be dependent on its ability to shuttle labile iron from cell compartments followed by its transfer to transferrin.

  4. Sequential rooting media and rooting capacity of Sequoiadendron giganteum in vitro. Peroxidase activity as a marker.

    PubMed

    Berthon, J Y; Boyer, N; Gaspar, T

    1987-10-01

    The rooting capacities of tips of seedling, juvenile and mature shoots of Sequoiadendron giganteum were compared on different rooting media (inductive and expressive media) after passage on an elongating medium. None of the cuttings rooted when continuously kept on medium containing the auxin NAA and vitamin D2. Peroxidase activity of all those cuttings on NAA+D2 first increased during the 7-9 first days and decreased in the days after. Rooting was obtained by transfer of the cuttings after periods longer than 7-9 days from the NAA+D2 inductive medium to a basal medium supplemented or not with rutin (expressive medium). The rooting capacity was emphasized by rutin treatment and was in correlation with the peroxidase peak reached on the NAA+D2 medium. Seedlings, characterised by the highest peroxidase activity, were most performing in rooting.

  5. Structure-Activity Relationship Studies on Derivatives of Eudesmanolides from Inula Helenium as Toxicants against Aedes Aegypti Larvae and Adults

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Quercetin 75 75 60 0 0 Parthenolide 0 0 0 0 0 Rutin 0 0 0 0 0 Enhydrin 0 0 0 0 0 Ferulic acid 0 0 0 0 0 (24R)-24,25-Epoxycycloartan-3-one 0 0 0 0 0...31.25 ppm, locustol down to 62.5 ppm, quercetin down to 31.25 ppm, alantolactone (1a) down to 31.25 ppm, and isoalantolactone (2a ; Fig. 1) down to 8 ppm

  6. Antinociceptive and antiedematogenic effect of pecan (Carya illinoensis) nut shell extract in mice: a possible beneficial use for a by-product of the nut industry.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Gabriela; Rossato, Mateus F; Hoffmeister, Carin; Müller, Liz G; Pase, Camila; Córdova, Marina M; Rosa, Fernanda; Tonello, Raquel; Hausen, Bruna S; Boligon, Aline A; Moresco, Rafael N; Athayde, Margareth L; Burguer, Marilise E; Santos, Adair R; Ferreira, Juliano

    2014-01-27

    Abstract Background: Interest in pecan (Carya illinoensis) nut shells, a by-product of the nut industry, has increased due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The goal of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and antiedematogenic activity and the mechanisms of the pecan shell aqueous extract (AE). Methods: First, we performed fingerprinting of C. illinoensis AE. The antinociceptive and antiedematogenic effects of AE intragastric (i.g.) administration in mice (male Swiss mice 20-30 g) were evaluated using the acetic acid test or after subcutaneous (s.c.) paw injection of diverse transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) agonists, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), allyl isothiocyanate, or cinnamaldehyde. We also observed AE antinociceptive and antiedematogenic effects after carrageenan s.c. paw injection and measured H2O2 production. Moreover, we observed the development of adverse effects after AE i.g. treatment. Results: The high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprinting of AE showed the presence of rutin. AE or rutin i.g. treatment produced antinociception in the acetic acid test and reduced the nociception and edema mediated by H2O2 s.c. hind paw injection or nociception induced by other TRPA1 agonists. Moreover, AE or rutin reduced the hyperalgesia, edema, and H2O2 production induced by carrageenan s.c. paw injection. No motor, gastric, or toxicological alterations were observed after AE administration. Conclusions: Collectively, the present results show that AE and its constituent rutin produced antinociceptive and antiedematogenic action in models of acute and persistent inflammatory nociception and it seems to be related to the inhibition of TRPA1 receptor activation.

  7. The caper (Capparis L.): ethnopharmacology, phytochemical and pharmacological properties.

    PubMed

    Tlili, Nizar; Elfalleh, Walid; Saadaoui, Ezzeddine; Khaldi, Abdelhamid; Triki, Saida; Nasri, Nizar

    2011-03-01

    Caper (Capparis L.), a shrub plant with a large natural distribution, is used in traditional medicines to cure various illnesses. Phytochemicals studies have shown the presence of many beneficial compounds such as spermidine, rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, stigmasterol, campesterol, tocopherols, and carotenoids. Biological studies reveal important antimicrobial, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antiviral properties. The presented review summarizes information concerning the morphology, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and biological activities of caper plants.

  8. Synergistic interactions among flavonoids and acetogenins in Graviola (Annona muricata) leaves confer protection against prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunhua; Gundala, Sushma Reddy; Mukkavilli, Rao; Vangala, Subrahmanyam; Reid, Michelle D; Aneja, Ritu

    2015-06-01

    Phytochemical complexity of plant extracts may offer health-promoting benefits including chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive effects. Isolation of 'most-active fraction' or single constituents from whole extracts may not only compromise the therapeutic efficacy but also render toxicity, thus emphasizing the importance of preserving the natural composition of whole extracts. The leaves of Annona muricata, commonly known as Graviola, are known to be rich in flavonoids, isoquinoline alkaloids and annonaceous acetogenins. Here, we demonstrate phytochemical synergy among the constituents of Graviola leaf extract (GLE) compared to its flavonoid-enriched (FEF) and acetogenin-enriched (AEF) fractions. Comparative quantitation of flavonoids revealed enrichment of rutin (~7-fold) and quercetin-3-glucoside (Q-3-G, ~3-fold) in FEF compared to GLE. In vivo pharmacokinetics and in vitro absorption kinetics of flavonoids revealed enhanced bioavailability of rutin in FEF compared to GLE. However, GLE was more effective in inhibiting in vitro prostate cancer proliferation, viability and clonogenic capacity compared to FEF. Oral administration of 100mg/kg bw GLE showed ~1.2-fold higher tumor growth-inhibitory efficacy than FEF in human prostate tumor xenografts although the concentration of rutin and Q-3-G was more in FEF. Contrarily, AEF, despite its superior in vitro and in vivo efficacy, resulted in death of the mice due to toxicity. Our data indicate that despite lower absorption and bioavailability of rutin, maximum efficacy was achieved in the case of GLE, which also comprises of other phytochemical groups including acetogenins that make up its natural complex environment. Hence, our study emphasizes on evaluating the nature of interactions among Graviola leaf phytochemcials for developing favorable dose regimen for prostate cancer management to achieve optimal therapeutic benefits.

  9. In Vitro Antioxidant versus Metal Ion Chelating Properties of Flavonoids: A Structure-Activity Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Cherrak, Sabri Ahmed; Mokhtari-Soulimane, Nassima; Berroukeche, Farid; Bensenane, Bachir; Cherbonnel, Angéline; Merzouk, Hafida; Elhabiri, Mourad

    2016-01-01

    Natural flavonoids such as quercetin, (+)catechin and rutin as well as four methoxylated derivatives of quercetin used as models were investigated to elucidate their impact on the oxidant and antioxidant status of human red blood cells (RBCs). The impact of these compounds against metal toxicity was studied as well as their antiradical activities with DPPH assay. Antihemolytic experiments were conducted on quercetin, (+)catechin and rutin with excess of Fe, Cu and Zn (400 μM), and the oxidant (malondialdehyde, carbonyl proteins) and antioxidant (reduced glutathione, catalase activity) markers were evaluated. The results showed that Fe and Zn have the highest prooxidant effect (37 and 33% of hemolysis, respectively). Quercetin, rutin and (+)catechin exhibited strong antioxidant properties toward Fe, but this effect was decreased with respect to Zn ions. However, the Cu showed a weak antioxidant effect at the highest flavonoid concentration (200 μM), while a prooxidant effect was observed at the lowest flavonoid concentration (100 μM). These results are in agreement with the physico-chemical and antiradical data which demonstrated that binding of the metal ions (for FeNTA: (+)Catechin, KLFeNTA = 1.6(1) × 106 M-1 > Rutin, KLFeNTA = 2.0(9) × 105 M-1 > Quercetin, KLFeNTA = 1.0(7) × 105 M-1 > Q35OH, KLFeNTA = 6.3(8.7) × 104 M-1 > Quercetin3’4’OH and Quercetin 3OH, KLFeNTA ~ 2 × 104 M-1) reflects the (anti)oxidant status of the RBCs. This study reveals that flavonoids have both prooxidant and antioxidant activity depending on the nature and concentration of the flavonoids and metal ions. PMID:27788249

  10. Development of a validated HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of flavonoids in Cuscuta chinensis Lam. by ultra-violet detection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cuscuta species known as dodder, have been used in traditional medicine of eastern and southern Asian countries as liver and kidney tonic. Flavonoids are considered as the main biologically active constituents in Cuscuta plants especially in C. chinensis Lam. Objective In the present study, a fast, simple and reliable method for the simultaneous determination and quantization of C. chinensis flavonols including hyperoside, rutin, isorhamnetin and kaempferol has been developed. Materials and methods The chromatographic separation was carried out on a reversed phase ACE 5 C18 with eluting at a flow rate of 1 ml/min using a gradient with O-phosphoric acid 0.25% : acetonitrile for 42 min. UV spectra were collected across the range of 200–900 nm, extracting 360 nm for the chromatograms. The method was validated according to linearity, selectivity, precision, recovery, LOD and LOQ. Results The method was selective for determination of rutin, hyperoside, isorhamnetin and kampferol. The calibration graphs of flavonols were linear with r2 > 0.999. RSDs% of intra- and inter-day precisions were found 1.3&3.4 for rutin, 1.5&2.8 for hyperoside, 1.3&3.3 for isorhamnetin and 1.7 & 2.9 for kaempferol which were satisfactory. LODs and LOQs were calculated as 1.73 & 8.19 for rutin, 0.09 & 4.19 for hyperoside, 2.09 & 6.3 for isorhamnetin and 0.18 & 0.56 for kaempferol. The recovery averages of above-mentioned flavonols were 90.3%, 97.4%, 98.7% and 90.0%, respectively. Conclusion The simplicity of the method makes it highly valuable for quality control of C. chinensis according to quantization of flavonols. PMID:23352257

  11. Synergistic interactions among flavonoids and acetogenins in Graviola (Annona muricata) leaves confer protection against prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunhua; Gundala, Sushma Reddy; Mukkavilli, Rao; Vangala, Subrahmanyam; Reid, Michelle D.; Aneja, Ritu

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemical complexity of plant extracts may offer health-promoting benefits including chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive effects. Isolation of ‘most-active fraction’ or single constituents from whole extracts may not only compromise the therapeutic efficacy but also render toxicity, thus emphasizing the importance of preserving the natural composition of whole extracts. The leaves of Annona muricata, commonly known as Graviola, are known to be rich in flavonoids, isoquinoline alkaloids and annonaceous acetogenins. Here, we demonstrate phytochemical synergy among the constituents of Graviola leaf extract (GLE) compared to its flavonoid-enriched (FEF) and acetogenin-enriched (AEF) fractions. Comparative quantitation of flavonoids revealed enrichment of rutin (~7-fold) and quercetin-3-glucoside (Q-3-G, ~3-fold) in FEF compared to GLE. In vivo pharmacokinetics and in vitro absorption kinetics of flavonoids revealed enhanced bioavailability of rutin in FEF compared to GLE. However, GLE was more effective in inhibiting in vitro prostate cancer proliferation, viability and clonogenic capacity compared to FEF. Oral administration of 100mg/kg bw GLE showed ~1.2-fold higher tumor growth-inhibitory efficacy than FEF in human prostate tumor xenografts although the concentration of rutin and Q-3-G was more in FEF. Contrarily, AEF, despite its superior in vitro and in vivo efficacy, resulted in death of the mice due to toxicity. Our data indicate that despite lower absorption and bioavailability of rutin, maximum efficacy was achieved in the case of GLE, which also comprises of other phytochemical groups including acetogenins that make up its natural complex environment. Hence, our study emphasizes on evaluating the nature of interactions among Graviola leaf phytochemcials for developing favorable dose regimen for prostate cancer management to achieve optimal therapeutic benefits. PMID:25863125

  12. In Vitro Antioxidant versus Metal Ion Chelating Properties of Flavonoids: A Structure-Activity Investigation.

    PubMed

    Cherrak, Sabri Ahmed; Mokhtari-Soulimane, Nassima; Berroukeche, Farid; Bensenane, Bachir; Cherbonnel, Angéline; Merzouk, Hafida; Elhabiri, Mourad

    2016-01-01

    Natural flavonoids such as quercetin, (+)catechin and rutin as well as four methoxylated derivatives of quercetin used as models were investigated to elucidate their impact on the oxidant and antioxidant status of human red blood cells (RBCs). The impact of these compounds against metal toxicity was studied as well as their antiradical activities with DPPH assay. Antihemolytic experiments were conducted on quercetin, (+)catechin and rutin with excess of Fe, Cu and Zn (400 μM), and the oxidant (malondialdehyde, carbonyl proteins) and antioxidant (reduced glutathione, catalase activity) markers were evaluated. The results showed that Fe and Zn have the highest prooxidant effect (37 and 33% of hemolysis, respectively). Quercetin, rutin and (+)catechin exhibited strong antioxidant properties toward Fe, but this effect was decreased with respect to Zn ions. However, the Cu showed a weak antioxidant effect at the highest flavonoid concentration (200 μM), while a prooxidant effect was observed at the lowest flavonoid concentration (100 μM). These results are in agreement with the physico-chemical and antiradical data which demonstrated that binding of the metal ions (for FeNTA: (+)Catechin, KLFeNTA = 1.6(1) × 106 M-1 > Rutin, KLFeNTA = 2.0(9) × 105 M-1 > Quercetin, KLFeNTA = 1.0(7) × 105 M-1 > Q35OH, KLFeNTA = 6.3(8.7) × 104 M-1 > Quercetin3'4'OH and Quercetin 3OH, KLFeNTA ~ 2 × 104 M-1) reflects the (anti)oxidant status of the RBCs. This study reveals that flavonoids have both prooxidant and antioxidant activity depending on the nature and concentration of the flavonoids and metal ions.

  13. High-energy and low-energy collision-induced dissociation of protonated flavonoids generated by MALDI and by electrospray ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    March, Raymond E.; Li, Hongxia; Belgacem, Omar; Papanastasiou, Dimitris

    2007-04-01

    Product ion mass spectra of a series of nine protonated flavonoids have been observed by electrospray ionization combined with quadrupole/time-of-flight (ESI QTOF), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization combined either with quadrupole ion trap (MALDI QIT) tandem mass spectrometry or time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF ReTOF). The compounds examined are 3,6-, 3,2'-, and 3,3'-dihydoxyflavone, apigenin (5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavone), luteolin (5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone), apigenin-7-O-glucoside, hesperidin (5,7,3'-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone), daidzen (7,4'-dihydroxyisoflavone), and rutin (quercitin-3-O-rutinoside) where quercitin is 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone; sodiated rutin was examined also. The center-of-mass energies in ESI QTOF and MALDI QIT are similar (1-4 eV) and their product ion mass spectra are virtually identical. In the MALDI TOF ReTOF instrument, center-of-mass energies range from 126-309 eV for sodiated rutin to protonated dihydroxyflavones, respectively. Due to the high center-of-mass energies available with the MALDI TOF ReTOF instrument, some useful structural information may be obtained; however, with increasing precursor mass/charge ratio, product ion mass spectra become simplified so as to be of limited structural value. Electronic excitation of the protonated (and sodiated) species examined here offers an explanation for the very simple product ion mass spectra observed particularly for glycosylated flavonoids.

  14. Qualitative and quantitative high performance thin layer chromatography analysis of Calendula officinalis using high resolution plate imaging and artificial neural network data modelling.

    PubMed

    Agatonovic-Kustrin, S; Loescher, Christine M

    2013-10-10

    Calendula officinalis, commonly known Marigold, has been traditionally used for its anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of an artificial neural network (ANN) to analyse thin layer chromatography (TLC) chromatograms as fingerprint patterns for quantitative estimation of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and rutin in Calendula plant extracts. By applying samples with different weight ratios of marker compounds to the system, a database of chromatograms was constructed. A hundred and one signal intensities in each of the HPTLC chromatograms were correlated to the amounts of applied chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and rutin using an ANN. The developed ANN correlation was used to quantify the amounts of 3 marker compounds in calendula plant extracts. The minimum quantifiable level (MQL) of 610, 190 and 940 ng and the limit of detection (LD) of 183, 57 and 282 ng were established for chlorogenic, caffeic acid and rutin, respectively. A novel method for quality control of herbal products, based on HPTLC separation, high resolution digital plate imaging and ANN data analysis has been developed. The proposed method can be adopted for routine evaluation of the phytochemical variability in calendula extracts.

  15. Influence of Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Gibberellic Acid on Phenylpropanoid Accumulation in Common Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang Ha; Yeo, Hyeon Ji; Park, Yun Ji; Morgan, Abubaker M A; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Park, Sang Un

    2017-02-28

    We investigated the effects of natural plant hormones, indole-3-acetic (IAA) acid and gibberellic acid (GA), on the growth parameters and production of flavonoids and other phenolic compounds in common buckwheat sprouts. A total of 17 phenolic compounds were identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. Among these, seven compounds (4-hydroxybenzoic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, epicatechin, rutin, and quercetin) were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after treating the common buckwheat sprouts with different concentrations of the hormones IAA and GA. At a concentration of 0.5 mg/L, both IAA and GA exhibited the highest levels of growth parameters (shoot length, root length, and fresh weight). The HPLC analysis showed that the treatment of sprouts with IAA at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 mg/L produced higher or comparable levels of the total phenolic compounds than the control sprout and enhanced the production of rutin. Similarly, the supplementation with 0.1 and 0.5 mg/L GA increased the content of rutin in buckwheat sprouts. Our results suggested that the treatment with optimal concentrations of IAA and GA enhanced the growth parameters and accumulation of flavonoids and other phenolic compounds in buckwheat sprouts.

  16. Deep sequencing of the transcriptome reveals distinct flavonoid metabolism features of black tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Garetn.).

    PubMed

    Yao, Huipeng; Li, Chenglei; Zhao, Haixia; Zhao, Jianlan; Chen, Hui; Bu, Tongliang; Anhu, Wang; Wu, Qi

    2017-03-01

    Black tartary buckwheat is recognized as 'black pearl' because of containg more rutin and other flavonoids as compared to yellow tartary buckwheat (traditional tartary buckwheat). Here, we show a genome-wide comparison of their transcriptomes by using an RNA-seq approach to elucidate the different molecular metabolism on the flowers from Black tartary buckwheat (HEIFENG No1) and yellow tartary buckwheat (XIQIAO No2). Over 48.4 million paired-end reads were assembled into 57,800 unigenes, of which about 57.9% (33, 472 unigenes) were annotated by BLAST searches in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. RPKM analysis showed that compared to YTB, the unigenes encoding phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL), chalcone synthase (CHS) and chalcone isomerase (CHI) for early flavonoid synthesis and the unigene encoding quercetin 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UF3GT) for synthetizing rutin were at a higher level, but the unigene encoding Flavonol synthase (FLS) charging for kaempferol and quercetin synthesis at a lower level in BTB, which may be the reason for the higher content of rutin and the lower content of quercetin, the result obtained by HPLC, as confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis of these genes. The result will not only explain the molecular mechanism of flavonoid synthesis in balck tartary buckwheat, but also provide the basis for further genomics research on this species or its allies.

  17. Metabolomic analysis and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in hairy root culture of tartary buckwheat cultivars.

    PubMed

    Thwe, Aye Aye; Kim, Jae Kwang; Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Yeon Bok; Uddin, Md Romij; Kim, Sun Ju; Suzuki, Tatsuro; Park, Nam Il; Park, Sang Un

    2013-01-01

    Buckwheat, Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn., is an important medicinal plant, which contains several phenolic compounds, including one of the highest content of rutin, a phenolic compound with anti-inflammatory properties. An experiment was conducted to investigate the level of expression of various genes in the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway to analyze in vitro production of anthocyanin and phenolic compounds from hairy root cultures derived from 2 cultivars of tartary buckwheat (Hokkai T8 and T10). A total of 47 metabolites were identified by gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) and subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) in order to fully distinguish between Hokkai T8 and T10 hairy roots. The expression levels of phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway genes, through qRT-PCR, showed higher expression for almost all the genes in T10 than T8 hairy root except for FtF3'H-2 and FtFLS-2. Rutin, quercetin, gallic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and 2 anthocyanin compounds were identified in Hokkai T8 and T10 hairy roots. The concentration of rutin and anthocyanin in Hokkai T10 hairy roots of tartary buckwheat was several-fold higher compared with that obtained from Hokkai T8 hairy root. This study provides useful information on the molecular and physiological dynamic processes that are correlated with phenylpropanoid biosynthetic gene expression and phenolic compound content in F. tataricum species.

  18. Activation of factor XII by tobacco glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Becker, C G; Dubin, T

    1977-08-01

    A glycoprotein of mol wt ca. 18,000 daltons isolated from cured tobacco leaves (TGP-L) and from cigarette smoke condensate (TGP-CSC) activated factor XII in normal human plasma in vitro as measured by (a) shortening of the partial thromboplastin time, (b) shortening of the lysis time of euglobulin clots, and (c) generation of kinin activity. These effects were not demonstrable in plasma deficient in factor XII. The capacity of TGP-L and TGP-CSC to activate factor XII was shown to depend on the presence of rutin, a substance chemically similar to quercetin and ellagic acid, which are known activators of factor XII. Rutin and rutin coupled to bovine serum albumin, but not bovine serum albumin alone, were also demonstrated to activate factor XII. The presence in cigarette smoke of material that is both allergenic and capable of activating factor XII of the intrinsic pathway of coagulatin may be important to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease associated with cigarette smoking.

  19. Activation of factor XII by tobacco glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    A glycoprotein of mol wt ca. 18,000 daltons isolated from cured tobacco leaves (TGP-L) and from cigarette smoke condensate (TGP-CSC) activated factor XII in normal human plasma in vitro as measured by (a) shortening of the partial thromboplastin time, (b) shortening of the lysis time of euglobulin clots, and (c) generation of kinin activity. These effects were not demonstrable in plasma deficient in factor XII. The capacity of TGP-L and TGP-CSC to activate factor XII was shown to depend on the presence of rutin, a substance chemically similar to quercetin and ellagic acid, which are known activators of factor XII. Rutin and rutin coupled to bovine serum albumin, but not bovine serum albumin alone, were also demonstrated to activate factor XII. The presence in cigarette smoke of material that is both allergenic and capable of activating factor XII of the intrinsic pathway of coagulatin may be important to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease associated with cigarette smoking. PMID:874423

  20. Flavonoids, Antioxidant Activity and Aroma Compounds Analysis from Different Kinds of Tartary Buckwheat Tea

    PubMed Central

    Peng, L. X.; Zou, L.; Wang, J. B.; Zhao, J. L.; Xiang, D. B.; Zhao, G.

    2015-01-01

    The rutin, quercetin concentrations, antioxidant activity, and aroma compounds in different commercial tartary buckwheat tea were analyzed in our study. Results revealed that the materials and the processing protocol affected the chemical composition and activity of tartary buckwheat tea. Rutin and quercetin concentrations, antioxidant activity were significantly different in various kinds of tartary buckwheat tea, where the whole bran tea and the whole plant tea had the lower rutin, but higher quercetin concentrations and higher antioxidant activity. The whole embryo tea had the converse results. There was strong correlation between quercetin concentration and antioxidant activity (r>0.98, P<0.05). Meanwhile, Twenty eight different aroma compounds in tartary buckwheat tea were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Those compounds were mainly composed of pyrazine, aldehydes, fatty acids and ketones. The main type of aroma compounds in different tartary buckwheat tea were similar, but their relative contents were different. The implications to the quality control of buckwheat tea were extensively discussed. PMID:26997692

  1. Structure-activity relationship of flavonoids derived from medicinal plants in preventing methylmercury-induced mitochondrial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Jeferson L.; Posser, Thais; Missau, Fabiana; Pizzolatti, Moacir G.; dos Santos, Adair R. S.; Souza, Diogo O.; Aschner, Michael; Rocha, João B. T.; Dafre, Alcir L.; Farina, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the potential protective effects of three flavonoids (myricetin, myricitrin and rutin) derived from medicinal plants against methyl mercury (MeHg)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro. Incubation of mouse brain mitochondria with MeHg induced a significant decrease in mitochondrial function, which was correlated with decreased glutathione (GSH) levels and increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation. The co-incubation of mouse brain mitochondria with myricetin or myricitrin caused a concentration-dependent decrease of MeHg-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. The flavonoid rutin was ineffective in counteracting MeHg toxicity. Among the three tested flavonoids, myricetin was the most efficient in protecting against MeHg-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, myricetin completely blocked MeHg-induced ROS formation and lipid peroxidation and partially prevented MeHg-induced GSH depletion. The ability of myricetin to attenuate MeHg-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress appears to be related to its higher scavenging capability when compared to myricitrin and rutin. Overall, the results suggest that MeHg-induced mitotoxicity is associated with oxidative stress. The ability of myricetin to prevent MeHg-induced oxidative damage in brain mitochondria renders this flavonoid a promising molecule for further in vivo studies in the search for potential antidotes to counteract MeHg-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:21127717

  2. Studies on interactions between plant secondary metabolites and glutathione transferase using fluorescence quenching method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian; Cheng, Xinsheng; Wang, Chuanqin; Xue, Zechun; Yang, Liwen; Xi, Zheng

    2007-04-01

    The interactions between plant secondary metabolites (tannic acid, rutin, cinnamic acid and catechin) and glutathione transferase (GST) were investigated by fluorescence and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. Intrinsic fluorescence of GST was measured by selectively exciting their tryptophan (Trp) residues and quenching constants were determined using the Stern-Volmer equation. The binding affinity was found to be strongest for tannic acid and ranked in the order tannic acid>rutin>cinnamic acid>catechin. The pH values in the range of 6.7-7.9, except for tannic acid, did not affect significantly the affinity of rutin, cinnamic acid and catechin with GST. Results showed that the fluorescence quenching of GST was a static_quenching. Fluorescence quenching and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy suggested that only the tannic acid changed the microenvironment of the Trp residues. Furthermore, the number of binding sites and binding constants at different pH values showed that tannic acid had strongest affinity towards GST and hydrogen bonding played an important role in the affinity between GST and the metabolites.

  3. Antioxidant markers based TLC-DPPH differentiation on four commercialized botanical sources of Shankhpushpi (A Medhya Rasayana): A preliminary assessment.

    PubMed

    Sethiya, Neeraj K; Raja, M K Mohan Maruga; Mishra, Shri Hari

    2013-01-01

    Shankhpushpi is a cognition boosting traditional ayurvedic brain supplement. Convolvulus pluricaulis (Convolvulaceae), Evolvulus alsinoides (Convolvulaceae), Clitoria ternatea (Papilionaceae), and Canscora decussata (Gentianaceae) are botanical claimants of Shankhpushpi. This investigation is to focus the identification of the compound based on biological marker differentiation of four botanical claimants of Shankhpushpi for their antioxidant evaluation on thin layer chromatography (TLC) by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. A rapid TLC-DPPH method was developed to identify and differentiate four botanical claimants of Shankhpushpi in terms of presence of β-carotene, rutin, scopoletin, chlorogenic acid, and mangiferin. C. pluricaulis shows presence of scopoletin; E. alsinoides shows presence of β-carotene, scopoletin, and chlorogenic acid; C. ternatea shows presence of β-carotene, scopoletin, and rutin; and C. decussata shows presence of β-carotene, scopoletin, and mangiferin. The order, they followed, based on their antioxidant potential is β-carotene < mangiferin < rutin < scopoletin < chlorogenic acid. Antioxidants are attributed for their beneficial role in age-related cognition decline. The proposed method provides an edge in terms of identification and quantification of antioxidant constituents in a multi-component system. This method may also provide application for identification of correct plant sources used in the name of Shankhpushpi in marketed ayurvedic formulation, food supplement, and extracts.

  4. Human Sperm Quality and Metal Toxicants: Protective Effects of some Flavonoids on Male Reproductive Function

    PubMed Central

    Jamalan, Mostafa; Ghaffari, Mohammad Ali; Hoseinzadeh, Pooneh; Hashemitabar, Mahmoud; Zeinali, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Background Metals can cause male infertility through affection of spermatogenesis and sperm quality. Strong evidences confirm that male infertility in metal-exposed humans is mediated via various mechanisms such as production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Flavonoids have antioxidant and metal chelating properties which make them suitable candidates for neutralizing adverse effects of metals on semen quality. In the current study, we have evaluated the effects of five types of flavonoids (rutin, naringin, kaempferol, quercetin, and catechin) on recovery of sperm motility and prevention of membrane oxidative damage from aluminum chloride (AlCl3), cadmium chloride (CdCl2), and lead chloride (PbCl4). Materials and Methods In this experimental study, motility and lipid peroxidation of metalexposed sperm was investigated in the presence of different concentrations of five kinds of flavonoids. Malondialdehyde (MDA) production was assessed as a lipid peroxidation marker. Results Aluminum chloride (AlCl3), cadmium chloride (CdCl2), and lead chloride (PbCl4) diminished sperm motility. Treatment of metal-exposed sperm with rutin, naringin, and kaempferol attenuated the negative effects of the metals on sperm motility. Quercetin and catechin decreased the motility of metal-exposed sperm. Conclusion Based on the MDA production results, only AlCl3 significantly induced lipid peroxidation. Treatment with rutin, naringin, and kaempferol significantly decreased MDA production. PMID:27441055

  5. Enhanced biocatalysis mechanism under microwave irradiation in isoquercitrin production revealed by circular dichroism and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gong, An; Zhu, Dan; Mei, Yi-Yuan; Xu, Xiao-Hui; Wu, Fu-An; Wang, Jun

    2016-04-01

    An efficient and rapid process for isoquercitrin production by hesperidinase-catalyzed hydrolysis of rutin was successfully developed under microwave irradiation detecting the affinity by circular dichroism (CD) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. A maximum isoquercitrin yield of 91.5±2.7% was obtained in 10min with the conditions of 10g/L hesperidinase, 2g/L rutin, 30°C and microwave power density 88.9W/L. Enzymatic reaction rate and Vm/Km in the microwave reactor were 6.34-fold higher than in a continuous flow microreactor and 1.24-fold higher than in a biphasic system. CD and SPR analysis results also showed that hesperidinase has a better selectivity and affinity (3.3-fold than in a batch reactor) to generate isoquercitrin under microwave irradiation. Microwave irradiation greatly improved the reaction efficiency and productivity, leading to a more positive economical assessment. The binding affinity indicates the presence of strong multivalent interactions between rutin and hesperidinase under microwave irradiation.

  6. Resveratrol and curcumin reduce the respiratory burst of Chlamydia-primed THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange; Serteyn, Didier; Lamy, Maurice; Deby, Carol

    2005-07-22

    The intracellular bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae is involved in the inflammation process of atherosclerosis. We previously demonstrated that C. pneumonia infected monocytes (THP-1 cells) responded to stimulation by an increased respiratory burst linked to an increased NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity. We now tested agents acting on the assembly of the NOX subunits or on protein kinase C, a trigger of NOX activity. Apocynin, resveratrol, rutin, quercetin, curcumin, and tocopherols were tested. The cells were pre-incubated with Chlamydia and the agent for 19 h, and then stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate. The NOX activity was monitored by measuring the hydrogen peroxide production. Resveratrol and curcumin (10(-4)-10(-6) M) were better inhibitors than apocynin. alpha-Tocopherol was inactive, and gamma-tocopherol inhibitor at 10(-4) M only. Quercetin was inactive, and rutin a moderate but significant inhibitor. The inhibition by resveratrol was increased by 10(-6) M rutin or quercetin. Resveratrol and curcumin thus appeared to be interesting for atherosclerosis treatment.

  7. Antioxidant markers based TLC-DPPH differentiation on four commercialized botanical sources of Shankhpushpi (A Medhya Rasayana): A preliminary assessment

    PubMed Central

    Sethiya, Neeraj K.; Raja, M. K. Mohan Maruga; Mishra, Shri Hari

    2013-01-01

    Shankhpushpi is a cognition boosting traditional ayurvedic brain supplement. Convolvulus pluricaulis (Convolvulaceae), Evolvulus alsinoides (Convolvulaceae), Clitoria ternatea (Papilionaceae), and Canscora decussata (Gentianaceae) are botanical claimants of Shankhpushpi. This investigation is to focus the identification of the compound based on biological marker differentiation of four botanical claimants of Shankhpushpi for their antioxidant evaluation on thin layer chromatography (TLC) by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. A rapid TLC-DPPH method was developed to identify and differentiate four botanical claimants of Shankhpushpi in terms of presence of β-carotene, rutin, scopoletin, chlorogenic acid, and mangiferin. C. pluricaulis shows presence of scopoletin; E. alsinoides shows presence of β-carotene, scopoletin, and chlorogenic acid; C. ternatea shows presence of β-carotene, scopoletin, and rutin; and C. decussata shows presence of β-carotene, scopoletin, and mangiferin. The order, they followed, based on their antioxidant potential is β-carotene < mangiferin < rutin < scopoletin < chlorogenic acid. Antioxidants are attributed for their beneficial role in age-related cognition decline. The proposed method provides an edge in terms of identification and quantification of antioxidant constituents in a multi-component system. This method may also provide application for identification of correct plant sources used in the name of Shankhpushpi in marketed ayurvedic formulation, food supplement, and extracts. PMID:23662279

  8. Antioxidant Activity and Antibacterial Effects on Clinical Isolated Streptococcus suis and Staphylococcus intermedius of Extracts from Several Parts of Cladogynos orientalis and Their Phytochemical Screenings.

    PubMed

    Sithisarn, Pongtip; Rojsanga, Piyanuch; Sithisarn, Patchima; Kongkiatpaiboon, Sumet

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial assays against clinically isolated Streptococcus suis and Staphylococcus intermedius of the extracts prepared by decoction and ethanolic reflux of different parts of Chettaphangki (Cladogynos orientalis Zipp. ex Span), including the leaves, roots, and stems, using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay and disc diffusion method were conducted. Quantitative analysis of total phenolic and total flavonoid contents in the extracts using spectrophotometric methods was also performed. Finally, phytochemical screening by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was conducted. Leaf ethanolic reflux extract (100 g) contained the highest total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of 7.21 ± 0.28 μg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) and 11.51 ± 2.02 μg rutin equivalent (RE), respectively. Chettaphangki extracts promoted low antioxidant activity with EC50 values in the range of 0.27-0.48 mg/mL. Extracts and fractions from the roots and stems of this plant promoted low to intermediate antibacterial activity against S. intermedius with the inhibition zones between 7 and 14 mm. The chromatographic data suggested that the leaf extracts of C. orientalis contained rutin while the root and stem extracts contained scopoletin and chettaphanin I. Rutin promoted strong antioxidant activity while chettaphanin I showed low antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus intermedius.

  9. Quality assessment and scavenging activity of Siamese neem flower extract.

    PubMed

    Chaisawangwong, Worarat; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2013-03-01

    Young leaves and flowers of Siamese neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. var. siamensis Valeton) are commonly consumed as a bitter tonic vegetable. Active antioxidant components in the flowers are rutin and quercetin flavonoids. The aqueous extracts of young flowers collected from 14 different locations in Thailand were quantitatively analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography for the contents of rutin and quercetin, and were determined for the loss on drying, heavy metals and pesticide residues, microbial contamination, solubility, chromatographic fingerprints and acute toxicity. The extracts contained rutin and quercetin in the ranges from 388 to 1178 mg% dry weight (average 772 mg%), and 1 to 10 mg% dry weight (average 5 mg%), respectively. EC50 of the scavenging activity of all extracts was found in the range of 27-133 µg mL(-1). Loss on drying of the extracts was less than 7% w/w and no sign of toxicity (LD50 > 5 g kg(-1)) was found.

  10. Effects of Flavonoids on Rumen Fermentation Activity, Methane Production, and Microbial Population

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Norhani; Oskoueian, Armin

    2013-01-01

    This research was carried out to evaluate the effects of flavone, myricetin, naringin, catechin, rutin, quercetin, and kaempferol at the concentration of 4.5% of the substrate (dry matter basis) on the rumen microbial activity in vitro. Mixture of guinea grass and concentrate (60 : 40) was used as the substrate. The results showed that all the flavonoids except naringin and quercetin significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the dry matter degradability. The gas production significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by flavone, myricetin, and kaempferol, whereas naringin, rutin, and quercetin significantly (P < 0.05) increased the gas production. The flavonoids suppressed methane production significantly (P < 0.05). The total VFA concentration significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in the presence of flavone, myricetin, and kaempferol. All flavonoids except naringin and quercetin significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the carboxymethyl cellulase, filter paperase, xylanase, and β-glucosidase activities, purine content, and the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis. Flavone, myricetin, catechin, rutin, and kaempferol significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the population of rumen microbes. Total populations of protozoa and methanogens were significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed by naringin and quercetin. The results of this research demonstrated that naringin and quercetin at the concentration of 4.5% of the substrate (dry matter basis) were potential metabolites to suppress methane production without any negative effects on rumen microbial fermentation. PMID:24175289

  11. Protective effect of natural flavonoids on rat peritoneal macrophages injury caused by asbestos fibers.

    PubMed

    Kostyuk, V A; Potapovich, A I; Speransky, S D; Maslova, G T

    1996-01-01

    Exposure of macrophages to asbestos fibers resulted in enhancement of the production of oxygen radicals, determined by a lucigenin enhanced chemiluminescence (LEC) assay, a formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), a LDH release into the incubation mixture, and a rapid lysis of the cells. Rutin (Rut) and quercetin (Qr) were effective in inhibiting LEC, TBARS formation, and reducing peritoneal macrophages injury caused by asbestos. The concentrations pre-treatment of antioxidants that were required to prevent the injury of peritoneal macrophages caused by asbestos by 50% (IC50) were 90 microM and 290 microM for Qr and Rut, respectively. Both flavonoids were found to be oxidized during exposure of peritoneal macrophages to asbestos and the oxidation was SOD sensitive. The efficacy of flavonoids as antioxidant agents as well as superoxide ion scavengers was also evaluated using appropriate model systems, and both quercetin and rutin were found to be effective in scavenging O2.-. These findings indicate that flavonoids are able to prevent the respiratory burst in rat peritoneal macrophages exposed to asbestos at the stage of activated oxygen species generation, mainly as superoxide scavengers. On the basis of this study it was concluded that natural flavonoids quercetin and rutin would be promising drug candidates for a prophylactic asbestos-induced disease.

  12. Flavonoids stimulate cholecystokinin peptide secretion from the enteroendocrine STC-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Al Shukor, Nadin; Ravallec, Rozenn; Van Camp, John; Raes, Katleen; Smagghe, Guy

    2016-09-01

    Animal experiments showed that flavonoids might have the potential for an anti-obesity effect by reducing weight and food intake. However, the exact mechanisms that could be involved in these proposed effects are still under investigation. The complex process of food intake is partially regulated by gastrointestinal hormones. Cholecystokinin (CCK) is the best known gastrointestinal hormone to induce satiety signal that plays a key role in food intake regulation. It is released from the endocrine cells (I cell) in response to the ingestion of nutrients into the small intestine. In this study, we investigated the possible effects of flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol, apigenin, rutin and baicalein) on stimulation of CCK release in vitro using enteroendocrine STC-1 cells. In comparison with the control, quercetin, kaempferol and apigenin resulted in a significant increase in CCK secretion with quercetin showing the highest activity. On the other hand, no significant effect was seen by rutin and baicalein. To our knowledge, this is the first report to study the stimulation of CCK peptide hormone secretion from STC-1 cells by quercetin and kaempferol, rutin, apigenin and baicalein. Based on the cell-based results in this work, it can be suggested that the reported activity of flavonoids against food intake and weight could be mediated by stimulation of CCK signal which in turn is responsible for food intake reduction, but future animal and human studies are needed to confirm this conclusion at organism level.

  13. Biocontrol treatments confer protection against Verticillium dahliae infection of potato by inducing antimicrobial metabolites.

    PubMed

    El Hadrami, A; Adam, L R; Daayf, F

    2011-03-01

    Verticillium wilt, caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb., is a serious potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) disease worldwide, and biocontrol represents a promising eco-friendly strategy to reduce its impact. We used extracts from Canada milk vetch (CMV) and a set of four V. dahliae-antagonistic bacterial strains to coat potato seeds at planting and examined the degree of protection provided against V. dahliae as well as accumulation of soluble phenolics as markers for induced resistance. All tested treatments were effective in reducing disease severity, and CMV showed the highest level of protection. In this treatment, flavonol-glycoside rutin was a highly abundant compound induced in potato tissues, with levels two to three times higher than those detected in noninoculated controls and V. dahliae-inoculated plants. We investigated dose-dependent effects of rutin on V. dahliae growth and sporulation in vitro and in planta. The effect of rutin on mycelial growth was inconsistent between disk assay and amended medium experiments. On the other hand, significant reduction of V. dahliae sporulation in vitro was consistently observed starting at 300 and 100 μM for isolates Vd-9 and Vd-21, respectively. We successfully detected 2-protocatechuoylphloroglucinolcarboxylic acid (2-PCPGCA) using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, indicating that V. dahliae dioxygenally oxidizes quercetin. Quercetin, as an aglycone, is freed from the sugar moiety by glucosidases and rhamnosidases produced by the fungus and is a substrate for quercetinases. The occurrence of quercetinases in V. dahliae provides a background to formulate a hypothesis about how by-product 2-PCPGCA may be interfering with potato defenses.

  14. Characterization and content of flavonoid glycosides in genetically modified tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruits.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Gwénaëlle; DuPont, M Susan; Mellon, Fred A; Davis, Adrienne L; Collins, Geoff J; Verhoeyen, Martine E; Colquhoun, Ian J

    2003-04-23

    There is a growing interest in producing food plants with increased amounts of flavonoids because of their potential health benefits. Tomatoes contain small amounts of flavonoids, most of which are located in the peel of the fruit. It has been shown that flavonoid accumulation in tomato flesh, and hence an overall increase in flavonoid levels in tomato fruit, can be achieved by means of simultaneous overexpression of the maize transcription factors LC and C1. Fruit from progeny of two modified lines (2027 and 2059) was selected for a detailed analysis and individual identification of flavonoids, at different stages of maturity. Nine major flavonoids were detected in the flesh of transgenic ripe tomatoes. LC/NMR, LC/MS, and LC/MS/MS enabled us to identify these as kaempferol-3,7-di-O-glucoside (1), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside-7-O-glucoside (2), two dihydrokaempferol-O-hexosides (3 and 4), rutin (5), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (6), kaempferol-3-O-glucoside (7), naringenin-7-O-glucoside (8) and naringenin chalcone (9), which were quantified by HPLC/DAD. All but 5, 6, and 9 were detected in tomato for the first time. The total flavonoid glycoside content of ripe transgenic tomatoes of line 2059 was about 10-fold higher than that of the controls, and kaempferol glycosides accounted for 60% of this. Kaempferol glycosides comprised around 5% of the flavonoid glycoside content of ripe control tomatoes (the rest was rutin and naringenin chalcone). The rutin concentration in both transgenic and control fruits was similar.

  15. Acute assessment of an aspalathin-enriched green rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) extract with hypoglycemic potential.

    PubMed

    Muller, C J F; Joubert, E; de Beer, D; Sanderson, M; Malherbe, C J; Fey, S J; Louw, J

    2012-12-15

    Rooibos, an endemic South African plant, known for its use as herbal tea, has potential as an antidiabetic herbal product, following recent demonstration of the glucose lowering effect of its major flavonoid, the dihydrochalcone C-glucoside aspalathin. The purpose of this study was to confirm antidiabetic activity for rooibos extract high in aspalathin content. An extract (SB1) was selected after screening for high aspalathin content and α-glucosidase inhibition activity. On-line HPLC-biochemical detection confirmed α-glucosidase inhibitory activity for aspalathin. In vitro the extract induced a dose response increase in glucose uptake (5 × 10⁻⁵ to 5 μg/ml) on C2C12 myotubules. Aspalathin was effective at 1, 10 and 100 μM, while rutin was effective at 100 μM. In the Chang cells only the extract was effective. In vivo the extract sustained a glucose lowering effect comparable to metformin over a 6h period after administration (25mg/kg body weight (BW)) to STZ-induced diabetic rats. In an oral glucose tolerance test the extract (30 mg/kg BW) was more effective than vildagliptin (10mg/kg BW), a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor. An aspalathin-rutin mixture (1:1; m/m) dosed at 1.4 mg/kg BW, but not the single compounds separately, reduced blood glucose concentrations of STZ-induced diabetic rats over a 6h monitoring period. The improved hypoglycemic activity of the aspalathin-rutin mixture and the extract illustrated synergistic interactions of polyphenols in complex mixtures.

  16. [Phagodeterrence by a crude extract of common rue (Ruta chalepensis, Rutaceae) and its partitions on Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae].

    PubMed

    Barboza, Javier; Hilje, Luko; Durón, Julio; Cartín, Víctor; Calvo, Marco

    2010-03-01

    Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) larva is maybe the main forest pest in Latin America and the Caribbean, as it bores into the main shoot of trees providing precious woods, such as mahoganies (Swietenia spp.) and cedars (Cedrela spp.). In the search for a preventative method for managing it, the crude leaf extract of common rue (Ruta chalepensis L.), as well as four partitions thereof (water, hexane, dichlorometane, and ethyl acetate), were tested for phagodeterrence. Laboratory bioassays involved increasing concentrations of the crude extract (0.1, 0.32, 1.0, 3.20 and 10.0%w/v) as well as each one of the partitions (in accordance to the yield obtained from the partitioning process), plus rutin, a flavone glycosid. A randomized complete block design, with four replicates, was used. H. grandella instar III larvae were exposed for 24 h to cedar (Cedrela odorata) leaf discs dipped into the respective treatment, after which disc consumption was measured. Strong phagodeterrence was detected at concentrations as low as 0.32 and 0.074%w/v for the crude extract and the hexane partitions, respectively; the ethyl acetate (0.24%w/v) and the water partition (for all of its concentrations), as well as the rutin (starting at 0.064%w/v), caused phagodeterrence, too. Moreover, the crude extract was submitted to a phytochemical screening by means of a number of qualitative tests, to determine possible metabolites causing phagodeterrence, the most important being alkaloids, triterpenes, coumarins and rutin. A particular phytochemical screening was carried out for the hexane partition, which was the most active.

  17. A cupin domain-containing protein with a quercetinase activity (VdQase) regulates Verticillium dahliae's pathogenicity and contributes to counteracting host defenses

    PubMed Central

    El Hadrami, Abdelbasset; Islam, Md. Rashidul; Adam, Lorne R.; Daayf, Fouad

    2015-01-01

    We previously identified rutin as part of potato root responses to its pathogen Verticillium dahliae. Rutin was directly toxic to the pathogen at doses greater than 160 μM, a threshold below which many V. dahliae pathogenicity-related genes were up-regulated. We identified and characterized a cupin domain-containing protein (VdQase) with a dioxygenase activity and a potential role in V. dahliae-potato interactions. The pathogenicity of VdQase knock-out mutants generated through Agrobacterium tumefasciens-mediated transformation was significantly reduced on susceptible potato cultivar Kennebec compared to wild type isolates. Fluorescence microscopy revealed a higher accumulation of flavonols in the stems of infected potatoes and a higher concentration of rutin in the leaves in response to the VdQase mutants as compared to wild type isolates. This, along with the HPLC characterization of high residual and non-utilized quercetin in presence of the knockout mutants, indicates the involvement of VdQase in the catabolism of quercetin and possibly other flavonols in planta. Quantification of Salicylic and Jasmonic Acids (SA, JA) in response to the mutants vs. wild type isolates revealed involvement of VdQase in the interference with signaling, suggesting a role in pathogenicity. It is hypothesized that the by-product of dioxygenation 2-protocatechuoylphloroglucinolcarboxylic acid, after dissociating into phloroglucinol and protocatechuoyl moieties, becomes a starting point for benzoic acid and SA, thereby interfering with the JA pathway and affecting the interaction outcome. These events may be key factors for V. dahliae in countering potato defenses and becoming notorious in the rhizosphere. PMID:26113857

  18. Comparison between sample disruption methods and solid-liquid extraction (SLE) to extract phenolic compounds from Ficus carica leaves.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, D Martins; Patão, R Ferreira; Coelho, A Varela; da Costa, C Teixeira

    2006-01-20

    Sea sand disruption method (SSDM) and matrix solid phase disruption (MSPD) were compared to solid-liquid extraction (SLE) for extraction of phenolic compounds from the Ficus carica leaves. Statistical treatment, ANOVA-single factor, was used to compare the extraction yields obtained by these methods, and for the majority of the extracted compounds, significantly higher yields were obtained by the solid disruption methods. Both solid disruption methods are faster and ecologically friendly, but the sea sand method was more reproducible (RSD < 5% for most compounds), and was also the least expensive method. Recoveries above 85% were obtained for chlorogenic acid, rutin, and psoralen using the sea sand extraction method.

  19. Phytochemical and biological investigation of Hymenocallis littoralis SALISB.

    PubMed

    Abou-Donia, Amina H; Toaima, Soad M; Hammoda, Hala M; Shawky, Eman; Kinoshita, Eri; Takayama, Hiromitsu

    2008-02-01

    A phytochemical investigation of the bulbs and flowers of Hymenocallis littoralis SALISB., cultivated in Egypt, was carried out, which resulted in the isolation of four alkaloids, lycorine (1), hippeastrine (2), 11-hydroxyvittatine (3), and (+)-8-O-demethylmaritidine (4), and of two flavonoids, quercetin 3'-O-glucoside (5), and rutin (6). The volatile constituents of the plant flowers were analyzed for the first time by GC/MS, which led to the identification of 26 known compounds (Table 1). Finally, the antimicrobial activity of the petroleum ether extract of the flowers of H. littoralis was investigated.

  20. Protective effect of Launaea procumbens (L.) on lungs against CCl4-induced pulmonary damages in rat

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Launaea procumbens (L.) is traditionally used in the treatment of various human ailments including pulmonary damages. The present study was arranged to evaluate the role of Launaea procumbens methanol extract (LME) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced oxidative pulmonary damages in rat. Methods 36 Sprague–Dawley male rats (170-180 g) were randomly divided into 06 groups. After a week of acclamization, group I was remained untreated while group II was given olive oil intraperitoneally (i.p.) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) orally, groups III, IV, V and VI were administered CCl4, 3 ml/kg body weight (30% in olive oil i.p.). Groups IV, V were treated with 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg of LME whereas group VI was administered with 50 mg/kg body weight of rutin (RT) after 48 h of CCl4 treatment for four weeks. Antioxidant profile in lungs were evaluated by estimating the activities of antioxidant enzymes; catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GSR), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), quinone reductase (QR) and reduced glutathione (GSH). CCl4-induced lipid peroxidation was determined by measuring the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) with conjugation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damages, argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) counts and histopathology. Results Administration of CCl4 for 6 weeks significantly (p < 0.01) reduced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and GSH concentration while increased TBARS contents and DNA damages in lung samples. Co-treatment of LME and rutin restored the activities of antioxidant enzymes and GSH contents. Changes in TBARS concentration and DNA fragmentation were significantly (p < 0.01) decreased with the treatment of LME and rutin in lung. Changes induced with CCl4 in histopathology of lungs were significantly reduced with co-treatment of LME and rutin. Conclusion Results of present study

  1. Camel milk lactoferrin reduces the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells and exerts antioxidant and DNA damage inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Habib, Hosam M; Ibrahim, Wissam H; Schneider-Stock, Regine; Hassan, Hassan M

    2013-11-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf), the main iron-binding protein of milk, has biological activities. We have evaluated the potential of camel milk lactoferrin for its ability to inhibit the proliferation of the colon cancer cell line, HCT-116, in vitro, DNA damage and its antioxidant activities for the first time. The antioxidant capacity of Lf was evaluated by different assays, including ferric-reducing/antioxidant power assay (FRAP), free radical-scavenging activity (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO) radical-scavenging assay, total antioxidant activity and DNA damage, compared with vitamin C and rutin.

  2. Salt tolerance conferred by overexpression of Arabidopsis vacuolar Na(+)/H (+) antiporter gene AtNHX1 in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum).

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Hong; Zhang, Bo; Xu, Zi-Qin

    2008-02-01

    Agriculture productivity is severely affected by soil salinity. One possible mechanism by which plants could survive salt stress is to compartmentalize sodium ions away from the cytosol. In the present work, transgenic buckwheat plants overexpressing AtNHX1, a vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene from Arabidopsis thaliana, were regenerated after transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. These plants were able to grow, flower and accumulate more rutin in the presence of 200 mmol/l sodium chloride. Moreover, the content of important nutrients in buckwheat was not affected by the high salinity of the soil. These results demonstrated the potential value of these transgenic plants for agriculture use in saline soil.

  3. Phenolic compounds and vitamin antioxidants of caper (Capparis spinosa).

    PubMed

    Tlili, Nizar; Khaldi, Abdelhamid; Triki, Saida; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2010-09-01

    Capparis spinosa shows strong resistance to the adverse Mediterranean conditions and it has nutritional and medicinal value. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contents of total phenolic compounds, rutin, tocopherols, carotenoids and vitamin C in leaves and flower buds of C. spinosa from different locations in Tunisia. Results showed the richness of caper with these compounds, especially phenolic compounds. Interestingly, it was also found the presence of both α- and γ-tocopherol in buds. Moreover, C. spinosa contained an appreciable level of vitamin C. The significant amounts of these antioxidants confirm the nutritional and medicinal value of caper.

  4. DPPH radical scavenging activity of two flavonol glycosides from Aconitum napellus sp. lusitanicum.

    PubMed

    Luis, J C; Valdés, F; Martín, R; Carmona, A J; Díaz, Jesús G

    2006-09-01

    The DPPH radical scavenging activity of two flavonol glycosides obtained from ethanolic extracts of Aconitum napellus sp. lusitanicum was studied. The results showed a high DPPH antiradical activity of compound 1 (quercetin 3-O-(6-trans-caffeoyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-glucopyranosyl-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside) when compared with compound 2 (quercetin-3-sophoroside-7-rhamnopyranoside), rutin and ascorbic acid. The relationship between the caffeoyl and rhamnopyranoside groups in the flavonol glycosides structures and the DPPH antiradical activity was also discussed.

  5. Antiprotozoal activity of the constituents of Teloxys graveolens.

    PubMed

    Calzada, Fernando; Velázquez, Claudia; Cedillo-Rivera, Roberto; Esquivel, Baldomero

    2003-08-01

    Antiprotozoal activity-guided fractionation of a methanol extract of the aerial parts of Teloxys graveolens led to the isolation of one coumarinic acid derivative, melilotoside, and five flavonoids, pinocembrine, pinostrobin, chrysin, narcissin and rutin. Among them, melilotoside exhibited the most potent activity toward Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia (IC(50) 12.5 and 16.8 micro g/mL, respectively). Narcissin showed selectivity against E. histolytlica (IC(50) 17.2 micro g/mL). The results support data for the traditional use of T. graveolens in some gastrointestinal diseases.

  6. Study of the interaction of flavonoids with 3-mercaptopropionic acid modified CdTe quantum dots mediated by cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide in aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Aucelio, Ricardo Q; Carvalho, Juliana M; Real, Juliana T; Maqueira-Espinosa, Luis; Pérez-Gramatges, Aurora; da Silva, Andrea R

    2017-02-05

    Flavonoids are polyphenols that help the maintenance of health, aiding the prevention of diseases. In this work, CdTe QDs coated with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3MPA), with an average size of 2.7nm, were used as photoluminescence probe for flavonoids in different conditions. The interaction between 14 flavonoids and QDs was evaluated in aqueous dispersions in the absence and in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). To establish a relationship between photoluminescence quenching and the concentration of flavonoids, the Stern-Volmer model was used. In the absence of CTAB, the linear ranges for quercetin, morin and rutin were from 5.0×10(-6)molL(-1) to 6.0×10(-5)molL(-1) and from 1.0×10(-5)molL(-1) to 6.0×10(-4)molL(-1) for kaempferol. The sensibility of the Stern-Volmer curves (Ks) indicated that quercetin interacts more strongly with the probe: Ks quercetin>Ks kaempferol>Ks rutin>Ks morin. The conjugation extension in the 3 rings, and the acidic hydroxyl groups (positions 3'and 4') in the B-ring enhanced the interaction with 3MPA-CdTe QDs. The other flavonoids do not interact with the probe at 10(-5)molL(-1) level. In CTAB organized dispersions, Ks 3-hydroxyflavone>Ks 7-hydroxyflavone>Ks flavona>Ks rutin in the range from 1.0×10(-6)molL(-1) to 1.2×10(-5)molL(-1) for flavones and of 1.0×10(-6)molL(-1) to 1.0×10(-5)molL(-1) for rutin. Dynamic light scattering, conductometric measurements and microenvironment polarity studies were employed to elucidate the QDs-flavonoids interaction in systems containing CTAB. The quenching can be attributed to the preferential solubility of hydrophobic flavonoid in the palisade layer of the CTAB aggregates adsorbed on the surface of the 3MPA CdTe QDs.

  7. Tobacco constituents are mitogenic for arterial smooth-muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, C.G.; Hajjar, D.P.; Hefton, J.M.

    1985-07-01

    Tobacco glycoprotein (TGP) purified from flue-cured tobacco leaves, tar-derived material (TAR), the water soluble, nondialyzable, delipidized extract of cigarette smoke condensate, rutin-bovine serum albumin conjugates, quercetin, and chlorogenic acid are mitogenic for bovine aortic smooth-muscle cells, but not adventitial fibroblasts. The mitogenicity appears to depend on polyphenol epitopes on carrier molecules. Ellagic acid, another plant polyphenol, inhibited arterial smooth-muscle proliferation. These results suggest that a number of ubiquitous, plant-derived substances may influence smooth-muscle cell proliferation in the arterial wall.

  8. Fairchild AFB, Washington Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    points from the beginning of record through June 1968, and in tens of degrees starting in July 1968. The extreme is selected and printed from available...terpIrin ure’] c. Daily mean t--iper Oi orea O’fE : Bleginning (In Joanry l.9t7,1, daily mrfxlmori id ininii ur teiopexnL’ires arc rutinely selected ...used InA thie ixstremu usta tA.ockB. (1.) ’indicates the extreme wt’ae selected flor a it ’niTth with urie )r nr OiLYS ml;tng. (2) ftIndicates the

  9. A novel β-lactam derivative, albactam from the flowers of Albizia lebbeck with platelets anti-aggregatory activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    El-Gamal, Ali Ali; Abd-El-Halim, Mohamed Farag; Kalil, Ashraf Taha; Basudan, Omer Ahmed; Al-Rehaily, Adnan Jathlan; Ahmad, Mohamed Shamim; El-Tahir, Kamal Hussin; Al-Massarani, Shaza Mohamed; Abdel-Mageed, Wael Moustafa

    2015-03-01

    A novel β-lactam derivative, albactam, was isolated from the alcoholic extract of the flowers of Albizia lebbeck. It showed a significant anti-aggregatory activity against adenosine diphosphate and arachidonic acid induced guinea-pigs' platelets aggregation in vitro. Six more known compounds were also isolated and fully characterized by measuring 1D and 2D NMR, two of them are the triterpenes β-amyrin and 11α, 12α-oxidotaraxerol, two ceramide derivatives and two flavonoids, kampferol 3-O-rutinoside and rutin.

  10. NMR-based identification of the phenolic profile of fruits of Lycium barbarum (goji berries). Isolation and structural determination of a novel N-feruloyl tyramine dimer as the most abundant antioxidant polyphenol of goji berries.

    PubMed

    Forino, Martino; Tartaglione, Luciana; Dell'Aversano, Carmela; Ciminiello, Patrizia

    2016-03-01

    Biological properties of fruits of Lycium barbarum (goji berries) have been ascribed to their high content of nutrients and phenolics. Comprehensive studies aimed at unambiguously identifying the phenolic components in goji berries are still lacking. In this paper, we report on the isolation and NMR-based identification of the major phenolics in commercially available goji berries. Together with already known phenolics, including caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, rutin, scopoletin, N-trans-feruloyl tyramine, and N-cis-feruloyl tyramine, an unreported N-feruloyl tyramine dimer was characterized as the most abundant polyphenol isolated from the berries. Usually divalent molecules show enhanced biological activities than their corresponding monomers.

  11. Rooibos flavonoids inhibit the activity of key adrenal steroidogenic enzymes, modulating steroid hormone levels in H295R cells.

    PubMed

    Schloms, Lindie; Swart, Amanda C

    2014-03-24

    Major rooibos flavonoids--dihydrochalcones, aspalathin and nothofagin, flavones--orientin and vitexin, and a flavonol, rutin, were investigated to determine their influence on the activity of adrenal steroidogenic enzymes, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD2) and cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes, P450 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1), P450 21-hydroxylase (CYP21A2) and P450 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1). All the flavonoids inhibited 3βHSD2 and CYP17A1 significantly, while the inhibition of downstream enzymes, CYP21A2 and CYP11B1, was both substrate and flavonoid specific. The dihydrochalcones inhibited the activity of CYP21A2, but not that of CYP11B1. Although rutin, orientin and vitexin inhibited deoxycortisol conversion by CYP11B1 significantly, inhibition of deoxycorticosterone was <20%. These three flavonoids were unable to inhibit CYP21A2, with negligible inhibition of deoxycortisol biosynthesis only. Rooibos inhibited substrate conversion by CYP17A1 and CYP21A2, while the inhibition of other enzyme activities was <20%. In H295R cells, rutin had the greatest inhibitory effect on steroid production upon forskolin stimulation, reducing total steroid output 2.3-fold, while no effect was detected under basal conditions. Nothofagin and vitexin had a greater inhibitory effect on overall steroid production compared to aspalathin and orientin, respectively. The latter compounds contain two hydroxyl groups on the B ring, while nothofagin and vitexin contain a single hydroxyl group. In addition, all of the flavonoids are glycosylated, albeit at different positions--dihydrochalcones at C3' and flavones at C8 on ring A, while rutin, a larger molecule, has a rutinosyl moiety at C3 on ring C. Structural differences regarding the number and position of hydroxyl and glucose moieties as well as structural flexibility could indicate different mechanisms by which these flavonoids influence the activity of adrenal steroidogenic enzymes.

  12. In vitro antioxidant studies of the ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea L.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, G P

    2007-07-01

    The ethanolic extract of the root of Tephrosia purpurea was screened for in vitro antioxidant properties using standard procedures. The ethanolic extract exhibited IC(50) values of 132.31±8.79 and 405.22±15.09 respectively in DPPH and nitric acid radical inhibition assay. These values were slightly more than those obtained for ascorbic acid and rutin used as standard. The findings justify the therapeutic application of the plant in the indigenous system of medicine, augmenting its therapeutic value.

  13. [Photometric micro-titration model of DPPH radicals scavenging activity and its application].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yun-tao; Wei, Wei; Ye, Li-qing; Li, Xiao-fen; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Hong-jiao; Yang, Lu; Yu, Jiao-jiao; Cha, Jia-wei

    2015-02-01

    In the present paper, the stoichiometric ratio (R) for the interreaction of DPPH radicals with the antoxidant was employed as a evaluation index for DPPH radicals scavenging activity of antioxidants. This evaluation index was related only with the stoichiometric relationship between DPPH radicals and the antioxidant, not the relationship with the initial DPPH amount and the volume of sample, which could offer a solution for the problem of poor comparability of EC50 under different conditions. A novel photometric micro-titration method was proposed for the determination of the stoichiometric ratio (R) for the interreaction of DPPH radicals with the antoxidant. The titration equation was established based on the absorbance difference (deltaA) of DPPH radicals in the titration process and the added amount of antoxidant. The stoichiometric ratio (R) for the reaction of DPPH radicals with the addition amount of antoxidant was determined by the titration equation obtained, while, the DPPH median elimination concentration (EC50) of antoxidant can be calculated by the stoichiometric ratio (R). The above photometric micro-titration model was verified using rutin as DPPH radicals scavenger. As experiment results, the stoichiometric ratio (R) of DPPH radicals to rutin was determined to be in the range of 1.817-1.846. The calculated value of EC50 was 1.196 x 10(-3), 2.392 x 10(-3), 4.819 x 10(-3) and 7.292 x 10(-3) mg x mL(-1) for 1.12 x 10(-7), 2.24 x 10(-7), 4.48 x 10(-7) and 6.72 x 10(-7) mol of the additon amount of DPPH radicals, respectively. The proposed method has better precision and reliability with smaller amount of sample than conventional method. While, the obtained stoichiometric ratio value (R) of rutin was employed to calculate the rutin median elimination concentration for DPPH EC50) according to the conditions as reported in the literatures, and the calculated results were consistent with that reported in the literatures.

  14. Cholesterol-Lowering Activity of Tartary Buckwheat Protein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengnan; Zhang, Rui; Li, Yuk Man; Liang, Ning; Zhao, Yimin; Zhu, Hanyue; He, Zouyan; Liu, Jianhui; Hao, Wangjun; Jiao, Rui; Ma, Ka Ying; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2017-03-08

    Previous research has shown that Tartary buckwheat flour is capable of reducing plasma cholesterol. The present study was to examine the effect of rutin and Tartary buckwheat protein on plasma total cholesterol (TC) in hypercholesterolemia hamsters. In the first animal experiment, 40 male hamsters were divided into four groups fed either the control diet or one of the three experimental diets containing 8.2 mmol rutin, 8.2 mmol quercetin, or 2.5 g kg(-1) cholestyramine, respectively. Results showed that only cholestyramine but not rutin and its aglycone quercetin decreased plasma TC, which suggested that rutin was not the active ingredient responsible for plasma TC-lowering activity of Tartary buckwheat flour. In the second animal experiment, 45 male hamsters were divided into five groups fed either the control diet or one of the four experimental diets containing 24% Tartary buckwheat protein, 24% rice protein, 24% wheat protein, or 5 g kg(-1) cholestyramine, respectively. Tartary buckwheat protein reduced plasma TC more effectively than cholestyramine (45% versus 37%), while rice and wheat proteins only reduced plasma TC by 10-13%. Tartary buckwheat protein caused 108% increase in the fecal excretion of total neutral sterols and 263% increase in the fecal excretion of total acidic sterols. real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analyses showed that Tartary buckwheat protein affected the gene expression of intestinal Niemann-Pick C1-like protein 1 (NPC1L1), acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2), and ATP binding cassette transporters 5 and 8 (ABCG5/8) in a down trend, whereas it increased the gene expression of hepatic cholesterol-7α -hydroxylase (CYP7A1). It was concluded that Tartary buckwheat protein was at least one of the active ingredients in Tartary buckwheat flour to lower plasma TC, mainly mediated by enhancing the excretion of bile acids via up-regulation of hepatic CYP7A1 and also by inhibiting the absorption of dietary

  15. Study of the interaction of flavonoids with 3-mercaptopropionic acid modified CdTe quantum dots mediated by cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide in aqueous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aucelio, Ricardo Q.; Carvalho, Juliana M.; Real, Juliana T.; Maqueira-Espinosa, Luis; Pérez-Gramatges, Aurora; da Silva, Andrea R.

    2017-02-01

    Flavonoids are polyphenols that help the maintenance of health, aiding the prevention of diseases. In this work, CdTe QDs coated with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3MPA), with an average size of 2.7 nm, were used as photoluminescence probe for flavonoids in different conditions. The interaction between 14 flavonoids and QDs was evaluated in aqueous dispersions in the absence and in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). To establish a relationship between photoluminescence quenching and the concentration of flavonoids, the Stern-Volmer model was used. In the absence of CTAB, the linear ranges for quercetin, morin and rutin were from 5.0 × 10- 6 mol L- 1 to 6.0 × 10- 5 mol L- 1 and from 1.0 × 10- 5 mol L- 1 to 6.0 × 10- 4 mol L- 1 for kaempferol. The sensibility of the Stern-Volmer curves (Ks) indicated that quercetin interacts more strongly with the probe: Ks quercetin > Ks kaempferol > Ks rutin > Ks morin. The conjugation extension in the 3 rings, and the acidic hydroxyl groups (positions 3ʹand 4ʹ) in the B-ring enhanced the interaction with 3MPA-CdTe QDs. The other flavonoids do not interact with the probe at 10- 5 mol L- 1 level. In CTAB organized dispersions, Ks 3-hydroxyflavone > Ks 7-hydroxyflavone > Ks flavona > Ks rutin in the range from 1.0 × 10- 6 mol L- 1 to 1.2 × 10- 5 mol L- 1 for flavones and of 1.0 × 10- 6 mol L- 1 to 1.0 × 10- 5 mol L- 1 for rutin. Dynamic light scattering, conductometric measurements and microenvironment polarity studies were employed to elucidate the QDs-flavonoids interaction in systems containing CTAB. The quenching can be attributed to the preferential solubility of hydrophobic flavonoid in the palisade layer of the CTAB aggregates adsorbed on the surface of the 3MPA CdTe QDs.

  16. [A new eremophilane derivative from Senecio dianthus].

    PubMed

    Han, He-Dong; Hu, Hai-Qing; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Ling

    2013-10-01

    A new eremophilane derivative, 4,5,11-trimethyl-9( 10), 7 ( 11) -eremophiladien-8-keto-12-carboxylic acid-beta-D-glucopyranoside( which named dianthuside A) 1 and four known compounds, 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-flavonone-3-0-beta-D-glucoside (2), quercetin-3-0-beta-D-glucoside(3) ,hyperin(4) and rutin(5) have been isolated from the aerial part of Senecio dianthus. Their structures were elucidated by physicochemical properties and spectroscopic data analysis. Compounds 2, 4 and 5 were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  17. [Wave front aberrations -- practical conclusions in eye with Restor 3+ difractive multifocal lens].

    PubMed

    Staicu, Corina; Moraru, Ozana; Moraru, Cristian

    2014-01-01

    Implantation of multifocal intraocular lenses has become a rutine nowadays, but achieving good visual results requires a perfect intraoperative technique and also an adequate preoperative selection of the patients. We analysed the wave front aberrations (spherical aberations, coma and astigmatism) in the eyes implanted with ReStor + 3 IOL, and we realized some clinical correlations of these aberations with the pupil diameter in scotopic and fotopic conditions, kappa angle, IOL centration, residual refraction errors postoperatively. Taking into account the causes of postoperative high order aberration will allow the surgeon to make a good selection of the patiens and to a higher degree of satisfaction of both sides.

  18. Flow Cytometric Method for the Detection of Flavonoids in Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Grootaert, Charlotte; Gonzales, Gerard Bryan; Vissenaekens, Hanne; Van de Wiele, Tom; Raes, Katleen; Smagghe, Guy; Van Camp, John

    2016-09-01

    Here, we describe an easy-to-use flow cytometric method using diphenylboric acid 2-amino ethyl ester (DPBA) stain for the detection of flavonoids in cells from human/animal origin. Flavonoid bioavailability and bioactivity depend on structure, conjugation and the cell type to which they are presented. We have studied cellular uptake of five flavonoids with different structures and conjugation forms. First, parameters including fixation method, technical and batch variability, and concentration were optimized. Second, uptake of two aglycones-quercetin and hesperetin-and their corresponding glycosides-rutin and hesperidin-in Caco-2 cells was compared. Third, the aglycone quercetin, glycoside rutin, and glucuronide baicalin were added to the Caco-2, HepG2, and CHO-K1 cell lines at 1, 10, and 20 µM concentrations and cellular uptake was measured after 1, 4, and 7 h. We conclude that quercetin was taken up by cells in a dose-dependent way, and that HepG2 cells had the highest uptake factors, followed by CHO-K1 and Caco-2 cells. Confocal microscopy showed cell type-dependent localization of quercetin in the cell membrane and cytoplasm. No uptake of flavonoid glycosides was detected. This flow cytometric method can be used for future research unravelling mechanisms behind flavonoid bioactivity in health and disease at the cellular level.

  19. Spondias tuberosa (Anacardiaceae) leaves: profiling phenolic compounds by HPLC-DAD and LC-MS/MS and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    da Silva Siqueira, Emerson Michell; Félix-Silva, Juliana; de Araújo, Lorena Maria Lima; Fernandes, Julia Morais; Cabral, Bárbara; Gomes, Jacyra Antunes Dos Santos; de Araújo Roque, Alan; Tomaz, José Carlos; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; de Freitas Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus; Giordani, Raquel Brandt; Zucolotto, Silvana Maria

    2016-10-01

    Spondias tuberosa is a medicinal plant used by several local communities in northeast Brazil to treat infections, digestive disorders and inflammatory conditions. The study aimed to identify and quantify the major phenolic in hydroethanolic extract of leaves from S. tuberosa and to evaluate its anti-inflammatory potential. The chemical profile of extract was analyzed by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity was investigated in carrageenan-induced hind paw edema and peritonitis models in mice. Identified and quantified through HPLC-DAD or HPLC-MS analyses of S. tuberosa extract were the following compounds: chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rutin and isoquercitrin. The inflammatory response to carrageenan was significantly reduced in both models by S. tuberosa extract. In hind paw edema, the edematogenic response was reduced by up to 63.6% and the myeloperoxidase activity was completely inhibited. In the peritonitis model, the total cell migration into the peritoneal cavity was reduced by up to 65%. The results obtained give evidence of the anti-inflammatory action of S. tuberosa and suggest the potential therapeutic benefit of this plant on inflammatory conditions. The chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rutin and isoquercitrin identified and quantified in S. tuberosa leaves enable us to suggest that these compounds could be used as chemical markers for quality control of derivative products from this species. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Variations in chemical fingerprints and major flavonoid contents from the leaves of thirty‐one accessions of Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin; Cao, Xianshuang; Ferchaud, Vanessa; Jiang, Hao; Tang, Feng; Chin, Kit L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The leaves of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. have been used as traditional folk medicines for treating high blood pressure and fever. There are many accessions of H. sabdariffa L. throughout the world. To assess the chemical variations of 31 different accessions of H. sabdariffa L., fingerprinting analysis and quantitation of major flavonoids were performed by high‐performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC method was validated for linearity, sensitivity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. A quadrupole‐time‐of‐flight mass spectrometry (Q‐TOF‐MS) was applied for the characterization of major compounds. A total of 9 compounds were identified, including 6 flavonoids and 3 phenolic acids. In the fingerprint analysis, similarity analysis (SA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to differentiate the 31 accessions of H. sabdariffa L. Based on the results of PCA and SA, the samples No. 15 and 19 appeared much different from the main group. The total content of five flavonoids varied greatly among different accessions, ranging from 3.35 to 23.30 mg/g. Rutin was found to be the dominant compound and the content of rutin could contribute to chemical variations among different accessions. This study was helpful to understand the chemical variations between different accessions of H. sabdariffa L., which could be used for quality control. © 2015 The Authors Biomedical Chromatography Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26394363

  1. Metabolite profiling and expression analysis of flavonoid, vitamin C and tocopherol biosynthesis genes in the antioxidant-rich sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.).

    PubMed

    Fatima, Tahira; Kesari, Vigya; Watt, Ian; Wishart, David; Todd, James F; Schroeder, William R; Paliyath, Gopinadhan; Krishna, Priti

    2015-10-01

    In this study, phenolic compounds were analyzed in developing berries of four Canadian grown sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) cultivars ('RC-4', 'E6590', 'Chuyskaya' and 'Golden Rain') and in leaves of two of these cultivars. Among phenolic acids, p-coumaric acid was the highest in berries, while gallic acid was predominant in leaves. In the flavonoid class of compounds, myricetin/rutin, kaempferol, quercetin and isorhamnetin were detected in berries and leaves. Berries of the 'RC-4' cultivar had approximately ⩾ 2-fold higher levels of myricetin and quercetin at 17.5mg and 17.2 mg/100 g FW, respectively, than the other cultivars. The flavonoid content in leaves was considerably more than in berries with rutin and quercetin levels up to 135 mg and 105 mg/100 g FW, respectively. Orthologs of 15 flavonoid biosynthesis pathway genes were identified within the transcriptome of sea buckthorn mature seeds. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of these genes in developing berries indicated relatively higher expression of genes such as CHS, F3'H, DFR and LDOX in the 'RC-4' cultivar than in the 'Chuyskaya' cultivar. Vitamin C levels in ripened berries of the Canadian cultivars were on the high end of the concentration range reported for most other sea buckthorn cultivars. Orthologs of genes involved in vitamins C and E biosynthesis were also identified, expanding the genomic resources for this nutritionally important plant.

  2. Application of microscopy technique and high-performance liquid chromatography for quality assessment of the flower bud of Tussilago farfara L. (Kuandonghua)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Da; Liang, Li; Zhang, Jing; Kang, Tingguo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Quality control is one of the bottleneck problems limiting the application and development of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In recent years, microscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques have been frequently applied in the quality control of TCM. However, studies combining conventional microscopy and HPLC techniques for the quality control of the flower bud of Tussilago farfara L. (Kuandonghua) have not been reported. Objective: This study was undertaken to evaluate the quality of the flower bud of T. farfara L. and to establish the relationships between the quantity of pollen grains and four main bioactive constituents: tussilagone, chlorogenic acid, rutin and isoquercitrin. Materials and Methods: In this study, microscopic examination was used to quantify microscopic characteristics of the flower bud of T. farfara L., and the chemical components were determined by HPLC. The data were analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences statistics software. Results: The results of the analysis showed that tussilagone, chlorogenic acid, rutin and isoquercitrin were significantly correlated with the quantity of pollen grains in the flower bud of T. farfara L. There is a positive correlation between them. From these results, it can be deduced that the flower bud of T. farfara L. with a greater quantity of pollen grains should be of better quality. Conclusion: The study showed that the established method can be helpful for evaluating the quality of the flower bud of T. farfara L. based on microscopic characteristic constants and chemical quantitation. PMID:26246737

  3. Metabolomic analysis of phenolic compounds in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) sprouts treated with methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Park, Kee-Jai; Lim, Jeong-Ho

    2011-05-25

    The effects of exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on phytochemical production in buckwheat sprouts cultivated under dark conditions (0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 d) were investigated by metabolomic analysis, using ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight (UPLC-Q-TOF) mass spectroscopy (MS) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). MeJA-treated and control groups showed no differences in growth but were clearly discriminated from each other on PLS-DA score plots. The metabolites contributing to the discrimination were assigned as chlorogenic acid, catechin, isoorientin, orientin, rutin, vitexin, and quercitrin, which have various health effects. Moreover, isoorientin, orientin, rutin, and vitexin were assigned as the main phytochemicals of sprouts cultivated under dark conditions. The accumulation of these metabolites caused the phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity of the sprouts to increase. Further, this study revealed that their accumulation resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by MeJA treatment. Therefore, these metabolites may be useful for better understanding the effects of MeJA on buckwheat sprout phytochemicals and contribute to improving the functional quality of the sprouts.

  4. Differential expression of flavonoid biosynthesis genes and accumulation of phenolic compounds in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohua; Park, Nam Il; Xu, Hui; Woo, Sun-Hee; Park, Cheol Ho; Park, Sang Un

    2010-12-08

    Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a short-season grain crop that is a source of rutin and other phenolic compounds. In this study, we isolated the cDNAs of 11 F. esculentum enzymes in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, namely, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL) 1 and 2, chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H), flavonol synthase (FLS) 1 and 2, and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that these genes were most highly expressed in the stems and roots. However, high performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated that their flavonoid products, such as rutin and catechin, accumulated in the flowers and leaves. These results suggested that flavonoids may be transported within F. esculentum. In addition, light and dark growth conditions affected the expression levels of the biosynthesis genes and accumulation of phenolic compounds in F. esculentum sprouts.

  5. Effects of germination on the nutritional properties, phenolic profiles, and antioxidant activities of buckwheat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ge; Xu, Zhicun; Gao, Yuanyuan; Huang, Xianxiao; Zou, Yanping; Yang, Tiankui

    2015-05-01

    Germination is considered to be an effective process for improving the nutritional quality and functionality of cereals. In this study, changes of nutritional ingredients, antinutritional components, chemical composition, and antioxidant activities of buckwheat seeds over 72 h of germination were investigated, and the reasons for these changes are discussed. With the prolonged germination time, the contents of crude protein, reducing sugar, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and condensed tannins increased significantly, while the levels of crude fat, phytic acid, and the activity of trypsin inhibitor decreased. Phenolic compounds, such as rutin, vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, isoorientin, chlorogenic acid, trans-3-hydroxycinnamic acid, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid increased significantly during the germination process, which may be due to the activation of phenylalanine ammonialyase. The improvement of flavonoids led to significant enhancement of the antioxidant activities of germinated buckwheat. Germinated buckwheat had better nutritional value and antioxidant activities than ungerminated buckwheat, and it represented an excellent natural source of flavonoids and phenolic compounds, especially rutin and C-glycosylflavones. Therefore, germinated buckwheat could be used as a promising functional food for health promotion.

  6. UV-B radiation increases anthocyanin levels in cotyledons and inhibits the growth of common buckwheat seedlings.

    PubMed

    Dębski, Henryk; Szwed, Magdalena; Wiczkowski, WiesŁaw; Szawara-Nowak, Dorota; Bączek, Natalia; Horbowicz, Marcin

    2016-12-01

    The impact of short-term UV-B treatment on the content of individual flavonoids and photosynthetic pigments in cotyledons and the growth of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) seedlings was investigated. Seeds of four common buckwheat cultivars were germinated in darkness over a period of 4 days and acclimatized for 2 days under a 16/8 h light/dark photoperiod at 24/18 °C day/night, and exposure to 100-120 μmol ∙ m(-2) ∙ s(-1) of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Seedlings were divided into three batches, including two batches subjected to different doses of UV-B (5 W ∙ m(-2) and 10 W ∙ m(-2), one hour per day) for 5 days, and a control group exposed to PAR only. Exposure to UV-B increased anthocyanin levels in the cotyledons of all examined cultivars, it inhibited hypocotyl elongation, but did not affect the content of photosynthetic pigments. Flavone concentrations increased in cv. Red Corolla and Kora, remained constant in cv. Panda and decreased in cv. Hruszowska. Exposure to UV-B decreased rutin levels in cv. Hruszowska, but not in the remaining cultivars. Cultivars Hruszowska, Panda and Kora appeared to be less resistant to UV-B than Red Corolla. Higher resistance to UV-B radiation in Red Corolla can probably be attributed to its higher content of anthocyanins and rutin in comparison with the remaining cultivars.

  7. Accumulation of phenylpropanoids and correlated gene expression in hairy roots of tartary buckwheat under light and dark conditions.

    PubMed

    Thwe, Aye Aye; Kim, YeJi; Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Yeon Bok; Park, Nam-Il; Kim, Haeng Hoon; Kim, Sun-Ju; Park, Sang Un

    2014-12-01

    Differential expression patterns of flavonoid biosynthetic pathway genes in the hairy roots of tartary buckwheat cultivars "Hokkai T8" and "Hokkai T10" were studied over a time course of the light-dark cycle. The Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation system was applied for inducing hairy roots. Further, a total of six phenolic compounds and two anthocyanins were analyzed in the hairy roots which were exposed to both light and dark conditions, and their amounts were estimated by HPLC. The gene expression levels peaked on day 5 of culture during the time course of both dark and light conditions. Notably, FtPAL, Ft4CL, FtC4H, FtCHI, FtF3H, FtF3'H-1, and FtFLS-1 were more highly expressed in Hokkai T10 than in Hokkai T8 under dark conditions, among which FtPAL and FtCHI were found to be significantly upregulated, except on day 20 of culture. Significantly higher levels of phenolic compound, rutin, along with two anthocyanins were detected in the hairy roots of Hokkai T10 under both conditions. Furthermore, among all the phenolic compounds detected, the amount of rutin in Hokkai T10 hairy roots was found to be ∼5-fold (59,01 mg/g dry weight) higher than that in the control (12.45 mg/g dry weight) at the respective time periods under light and dark conditions.

  8. Application of hot platinum microelectrodes for determination of flavonoids in flow injection analysis and capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Magnuszewska, Jolanta; Krogulec, Tadeusz

    2013-07-05

    The determination of quercetin and rutin by flow injection analysis (FIA) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) using electrochemical detection was described. These flavonoids were determined at normal (unheated) and hot platinum microelectrodes using cyclic voltammetry. When quercetin or rutin is reaching the platinum electrode, a change of the current in the region of the platinum oxide formation is observed. Integration of the current changes in this in this region creates analytical signals in the form of peaks. An increase of temperature to about 76°C in a small zone adjacent to the microelectrode causes an increase of the analytical signal by more than 6 times under FIA conditions. This method enables the use of hot microelectrodes as detectors in HPLC or CE. In CE the improvement of the analytical signal at hot microelectrodes is smaller than in FIA and increase only 1.3-3.4 times. Heated microelectrodes were used for analysis of the flavonoids in natural samples of the plant (extract of sea buckthorn) and a pharmaceutical preparation (Cerutin).

  9. Review of anticancer mechanisms of isoquercitin

    PubMed Central

    Orfali, Guilherme di Camillo; Duarte, Ana Carolina; Bonadio, Vivien; Martinez, Natalia Peres; de Araújo, Maria Elisa Melo Branco; Priviero, Fernanda Bruschi Marinho; Carvalho, Patricia Oliveira; Priolli, Denise Gonçalves

    2016-01-01

    This review was based on a literature search of PubMed and Scielo databases using the keywords “quercetin, rutin, isoquercitrin, isoquercitin (IQ), quercetin-3-glucoside, bioavailability, flavonols and favonoids, and cancer” and combinations of all the words. We collected relevant scientific publications from 1990 to 2015 about the absorption, bioavailability, chemoprevention activity, and treatment effects as well as the underlying anticancer mechanisms of isoquercitin. Flavonoids are a group of polyphenolic compounds widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom. The subclass of flavonols receives special attention owing to their health benefits. The main components of this class are quercetin, rutin, and IQ, which is a flavonoid and although mostly found as a glycoside, is an aglycone (lacks a glycoside side chain). This compound presents similar therapeutic profiles to quercetin but with superior bioavailability, resulting in increased efficacy compared to the aglycone form. IQ has therapeutic applications owing to its wide range of pharmacological effects including antioxidant, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, and anti-diabetic. The protective effects of IQ in cancer may be due to actions on lipid peroxidation. In addition, the antitumor effect of IQ and its underlying mechanism are related to interactions with Wnt signaling pathway, mixed-lineage protein kinase 3, mitogen-activated protein kinase, apoptotic pathways, as well proinflammatory protein signaling. This review contributed to clarifying the mechanisms of absorption, metabolism, and actions of IQ and isoquercitrin in cancer. PMID:27081641

  10. Anti-proliferative and antioxidative activities of Thai noni/Yor (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Thani, Wasina; Vallisuta, Omboon; Siripong, Pongpan; Ruangwises, Nongluck

    2010-03-01

    In this study the leaves of the Thai noni/Yor, (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) were extracted by several methods and evaluated against human cancer cell lines: KB (human epidermoid carcinoma), HeLa (human cervical carcinoma), MCF-7 (human breast carcinoma) and HepG2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma) cell lines as well as a Vero (African green monkey kidney) cell line, employing the MTT colorimetric method, comparing it to damnacanthal, rutin, and scopoletin. The dichloromethane extract of the fresh leaf showed a better inhibitory effect against KB and HeLa cells with IC50 values of 21.67 and 68.50 microg/ml, respectively. The dichloromethane extract of dried leaves revealed cytotoxicity against the KB cell line with an IC50 value of 39.00 microg/ml. Other extracts, as well as rutin and scopoletin, showed reduced anti-proliferative effects on all cancer cell lines (IC50 103 to over 600 microg/ml). Interestingly, the damnacanthal had potent cytotoxicity against all cancer cell lines and Vero cell lines. These results suggest Thai noni extracts may be safer than the pure compounds, due to their higher safety ratios, which is a good indicator for possible cancer treatment. Several non-aqueous extracts from the leaves showed antioxidant properties, giving IC50 values of 0.20-0.35 mg/ml. It can be concluded the leaves of M. citrifolia may have benefit as a food supplement for chemoprevention against epidermoid and cervical cancers.

  11. Reversed phase-HPLC for rapid determination of polyphenols in flowers of rose species.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Neeraj; Bhandari, Pamita; Singh, Bikram; Gupta, Ajai P; Kaul, Vijay K

    2008-02-01

    A rapid, simple, sensitive, robust, and improved HPLC method was developed and validated for determination of 10 polyphenols, namely gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, rutin, m-coumaric acid, quercitrin, myricetin, quercetin, apigenin, and kaempferol in fresh flowers of Rosa bourboniana and R. brunonii and in both fresh flowers and marc (left after industrial distillation of rose oil) of R. damascena. Six polyphenols, gallic acid, rutin, quercitrin, myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol, were detected and quantified in all extracts. The chromatographic separation of 10 polyphenols was achieved in less than 16 min by RP-HPLC (Phenomenex, Luna C18 (2) column, 5 microm, 250 mm x 4.6 mm) using linear gradient elution of water and acetonitrile (0.02% trifluroacetic acid) with a flow rate of 1 mL/min at lambda 280 nm. Standard calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.39-500 microg/mL. Good results were achieved with respect to repeatability (RSD <3%) and recovery (98.6-100.8%). The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, repeatability, LOD, and LOQ.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of Amazon Astrocaryum aculeatum extracts and its association to oxidative metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jobim, Micheli Lamberti; Santos, Roberto Christ Vianna; dos Santos Alves, Camilla Filippi; Oliveira, Raul Moreira; Mostardeiro, Clarice Pinheiro; Sagrillo, Michele Rorato; de Souza Filho, Olmiro Cezimbra; Garcia, Luiz Filipe Machado; Manica-Cattani, Maria Fernanda; Ribeiro, Euler Esteves; da Cruz, Ivana Beatrice Mânica

    2014-04-01

    Several compounds present in fruits as polyphenols are able to kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms. These proprieties are relevant mainly in tropical areas, as Amazonian region where infectious are highly prevalent. Therefore, this study investigated the antimicrobial activity of tucumã Amazonian fruit against 37 microorganisms. The potential role of oxidative metabolism imbalance was also studied as causal mechanism of antimicrobial activity. The results showed antibacterial effect of pulp and peel tucumã hydro-alcoholic extracts on three Gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes) and antifungal effect against Candida albicans. The antimicrobial contribution of main chemical compounds (quercetin, rutin, β-carotene and gallic, caffeic and chlorogenic acids) found in tucumã extracts was also investigated showing an inhibitory effect depending of the organism mainly by quercetin in bacteria and rutin in C. albicans. Analysis of kinetic of DNA releasing in extracellular medium by fluorescence using DNA Pico Green assay(®) and reactive oxygen species production (ROS) showed potential oxidative imbalance contribution on tucumã inhibitory effect. In B. cereus and C. albicans this effect was clear since after 24h the ROS levels were higher when compared to negative control group. In conclusion, tucumã extracts present antimicrobial activity to four microorganisms that have large problems of drug resistance, and the possible mechanism of action of this Amazon fruit is related to REDOX imbalance.

  13. Effects of Supplemental Acerola Juice on the Mineral Concentrations in Liver and Kidney Tissue Samples of Mice Fed with Cafeteria Diet.

    PubMed

    Leffa, Daniela Dimer; dos Santos, Carla Eliete Iochims; Daumann, Francine; Longaretti, Luiza Martins; Amaral, Livio; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; da Silva, Juliana; Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the impact of a supplemental acerola juice (unripe, ripe, and industrial) and its main pharmaceutically active components on the concentrations of minerals in the liver and kidney of mice fed with cafeteria diet. Swiss male mice were fed with a cafeteria (CAF) diet for 13 weeks. The CAF consisted of a variety of supermarket products with high energy content. Subsequently, animals received one of the following food supplements for 1 month: water, unripe acerola juice, ripe acerola juice, industrial acerola juice, vitamin C, or rutin. Mineral concentrations of the tissues were determined by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Our study suggests that the simultaneous intake of acerola juices, vitamin C, or rutin in association with a hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet provides change in the mineral composition of organisms in the conditions of this study, which plays an important role in the antioxidant defenses of the body. This may help to reduce the metabolism of the fat tissue or even to reduce the oxidative stress.

  14. Comparison of the major polyphenols in mature Argan fruits from two regions of Morocco.

    PubMed

    Khallouki, Farid; Voggel, Jenny; Breuer, Andrea; Klika, Karel D; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Owen, Robert W

    2017-04-15

    Previous studies have shown that Argan fruits contain a large variety of polyphenolic compounds. Recently, another class of polyphenolic compounds, namely amino phenols have been detected and identified in immature Argan fruits. The objective of this study, was to establish whether or not, these novel compounds are also present in mature Argan fruits. To this end, a comparison was made between mature fruits from two regions of Morocco. Nineteen major compounds were identified and quantitated, including amino phenols, flavonoids, and phenolic acids by chromatographic methods in mature Argan fruits from the two regions of Morocco (Essaouira and Agadir). The phenolic acids were identified as gallic acid and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid; the amino phenols as Arganimide A, and argaminolics A-C, and the flavonoids as rutin pentoside, quercetin-3-O-arabinoside, quercetin glycogallate, quercetin-3-O-rhamnogalactoside, rutin, quercetin-3-O-galactoside (hyperoside), quercetin-3-O-glucoside (quercitrin), quercetin-3-O-arabinoside, quercetin glycohydroxybenzoate, quercetin glycosinapate, quercetin glycoferulate, quercetin glycocoumarate and quercetin. n=145.

  15. Consumption of some polyphenols reduces fecal deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid, the secondary bile acids of risk factors of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Han, Yunkyung; Haraguchi, Tomoaki; Iwanaga, Sumie; Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Okazaki, Yukako; Mineo, Shigeru; Moriyama, Akiho; Inoue, Junji; Kato, Norihisa

    2009-09-23

    This study was performed to examine the effect of dietary polyphenols on fecal secondary bile acids, such as deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid, the risk factors of colon cancer, in rats fed a high-fat diet. In experiment 1, rats were fed a 30% beef tallow diet containing 0.5% polyphenols for 3 weeks. Dietary curcumin and caffeic acid significantly reduced the fecal concentration of deoxycholic acid. Dietary caffeic acid, catechin, rutin, and ellagic acid significantly reduced fecal lithocholic acid. Fecal hyodeoxycholic acid, a metabolite of lithocholic acid, was markedly lowered by dietary curcumin, caffeic acid, catechin, and rutin. In experiment 2, rats were fed a 30 or 5% beef tallow diet with or without the addition of 0.5% curcumin. In the rats without receiving curcumin, the fecal level of deoxycholic acid was significantly higher in the high-fat diet group than in the low-fat diet group. Fecal deoxycholic acid was significantly reduced by dietary curcumin in the high-fat diets but not in the low-fat diets. The results suggest novel effects of some polyphenols favorable for colon health by reducing secondary bile acids in animals fed a high-fat diet.

  16. The flavonoids of tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Slimestad, Rune; Fossen, Torgils; Verheul, Michel J

    2008-04-09

    Tomatoes ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) have been recognized as an important source of dietary flavonoids because of a high consumption worldwide. The qualitative and quantitative flavonoid compositions of assorted tomato cultivars including individual quantitative contributions of the five most significant flavonoids have been determined in this work. The dihydrochalcone phloretin 3',5'-di-C-beta-glucopyranoside and the flavonol quercetin 3-O-(2''-O-beta-apiofuranosyl-6''-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-beta-glucopyranoside) were identified for the first time in Solanaceae spp. and found to be among the main flavonoids in all cultivars. Phloretin 3',5'-di-C-glc is the first C-glycoside identified in tomatoes and also the first dihydrochalcone from this species. In addition, chalconaringenin, kaempferol 3-rutinoside, and quercetin 3-rutinoside (rutin), though previously reported to occur in tomato, were fully characterized by extensive use of 2D NMR techniques and high-resolution LCMS. The total flavonoid content of different tomato types varied from 4 to 26 mg 100 (-1) g FW with chalconaringenin as the predominant compound comprising 35 to 71% of the total flavonoid content. The individual quantities of quercetin 3-O-(2''- O-beta-apiofuranosyl-6''- O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-beta-glucopyranoside) and phloretin 3',5'-di-C-beta-glucopyranoside was similar to that of rutin in several cultivars.

  17. HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS Analysis of Flavonoids from Leaves of Different Cultivars of Sweet Osmanthus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiguang; Fu, Jianxin; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Hongbo

    2016-09-14

    Osmanthus fragrans Lour. has traditionally been a popular ornamental plant in China. In this study, ethanol extracts of the leaves of four cultivar groups of O. fragrans were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization and mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). The results suggest that variation in flavonoids among O. fragrans cultivars is quantitative, rather than qualitative. Fifteen components were detected and separated, among which, the structures of 11 flavonoids and two coumarins were identified or tentatively identified. According to principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) based on the abundance of these components (expressed as rutin equivalents), 22 selected cultivars were classified into four clusters. The seven cultivars from Cluster III ('Xiaoye Sugui', 'Boye Jingui', 'Wuyi Dangui', 'Yingye Dangui', 'Danzhuang', 'Foding Zhu', and 'Tianxiang Taige'), which are enriched in rutin and total flavonoids, and 'Sijigui' from Cluster II which contained the highest amounts of kaempferol glycosides and apigenin 7-O-glucoside, could be selected as potential pharmaceutical resources. However, the chemotaxonomy in this paper does not correlate with the distribution of the existing cultivar groups, demonstrating that the distribution of flavonoids in O. fragrans leaves does not provide an effective means of classification for O. fragrans cultivars based on flower color.

  18. Simultaneous determination of 13 bioactive compounds in Herba Artemisiae Scopariae (Yin Chen) from different harvest seasons by HPLC-DAD.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiao-jie; Li, Qing; Chen, Xiao-hui; Wang, Zhi-wei; Shi, Zheng-yuan; Bi, Kai-shun; Jia, Ying

    2008-08-05

    Herba Artemisiae Scopariae is a Chinese herbal medicine widely used for the remedy of liver diseases. A high performance liquid chromatography method coupled with diode array detection was developed to simultaneously determine 13 different bioactive compounds in Herba Artemisiae Scopariae (Yin Chen) including chlorogenic acid (1), 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin (2), caffeic acid (3), 4-hydroxyacetophenone (4), scopoletin (5), rutin (6), hyperoside (7), isoquercitrin (8), scoparone (11), 7-methoxycoumarine (12) and quercetin (13). By using four different wavelengths in the HPLC analysis, the developed method was able to determine the bioactive compounds with excellent resolution, precision and recovery. The method was applied to determine the amounts of the bioactive compounds in nine samples from different cultivated regions and harvest seasons in China, and significant variations were revealed. Chlorogenic acid was the most abundant among the analyzed compounds. The samples harvested in the spring contained higher contents of chlorogenic acid than those collected in other seasons. Other phenolic acids as caffeic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 4-hydroxyacetophenone accumulated at much higher amounts in about May to July. The samples analyzed contained a much lower level of the amount of other flavonoids and coumarins as rutin, hyperoside, isoquercitrin and scoparone.

  19. Antioxidant activity of leaf extracts from different Hibiscus sabdariffa accessions and simultaneous determination five major antioxidant compounds by LC-Q-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Cao, Xianshuang; Jiang, Hao; Qi, Yadong; Chin, Kit L; Yue, Yongde

    2014-12-17

    Hibiscus sabdariffa has gained attention for its antioxidant activity. There are many accessions of H. sabdariffa in the world. However, information on the quantification of antioxidant compounds in different accessions is rather limited. In this paper, a liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS) method for simultaneous determination of five antioxidant compounds (neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, rutin, and isoquercitrin) in H. sabdariffa leaves was developed. The method was validated for linearity, sensitivity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. The validated method has been successfully applied for determination of the five analytes in eight accessions of H. sabdariffa. The eight accessions of H. sabdariffa were evaluated for their antioxidant activities by DPPH free radical scavenging assay. The investigated accessions of H. sabdariffa were rich in rutin and exhibited strong antioxidant activity. The two accessions showing the highest antioxidant activities were from Cuba (No. 2) and Taiwan (No. 5). The results indicated that H. sabdariffa leaves could be considered as a potential antioxidant source for the food industry. The developed LC-Q-TOF-MS method is helpful for quality control of H. sabdariffa.

  20. Evaluation to the antioxidant activity of total flavonoids extract from persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lijun; Zhang, Jianbao; Lu, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Liyu; Zhang, Yali

    2011-10-01

    Persimmon leaves are commonly consumed as beverages, but are also used as a popular folk medicine in China. The purpose of this work is to assess the antioxidant activity of an extract of total flavonoids from persimmon leaves (TFPL). The effect of TFPL on total antioxidant activity, reducing power, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH()) radical scavenging, superoxide anion (()O(2)(-)) radical scavenging, hydroxyl (OH()) radical scavenging and metal chelating activities was examined. We found that TFPL possesses considerable amounts of flavonoids (192μg catechin equivalent/g of extract). The effect of this extract in total antioxidant activity, scavenging activity of superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical, reducing power and iron chelating activity was significantly better than that of rutin. However, the effect of TFPL in free radical scavenging of DPPH() was significantly not as good as than rutin. In addition, TFPL significantly decreased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), while increasing the activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in MC3T3-E1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, TFPL possess potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. These antioxidant activities could contribute, at least in part, to the traditionally claimed therapeutic benefits of persimmon leaves.

  1. Comparative study of the in vitro bioactivities of Bupleurum rigidum and B. fruticescens.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Jose M; Ogunsina, Makanjuola O; Novak, Andrea; Joshi, Amit; Kokai, Judit; Rocha, Ines Da Costa; de Santayana, Manuel Pardo

    2012-06-01

    Decoctions of the aerial parts of either Bupleurum rigidum or B. fruticescens are equally used in certain parts of Spain for the treatment of topical and musculoskeletal inflammations. In the present paper, their phytochemical profile and pharmacological value has been compared. After chromatographic and spectral analyses we could establish the presence of rutin and absence of chlorogenic acid in B. fruticescens, whilst the contrary applies to B. rigidum, providing a means to chemically differentiate extracts and dry materials from the two species. Their free radical scavenging and antiperoxidative activities were similar, with B. fruticescens being more active overall. The infusions of both Bupleurum species also showed similar anti-inflammatory activity when tested by NF-kappaB assay (40% and 42% at 60 microg x mL(-1)), as well as in a hexosaminidase exocytosis assay (30% at 50 microg x mL(-1)). Antimigratory effects on rat melanoma B16F10 showed significant activity for both infusions, with B. rigidum twice as potent as B. fruticescens, the activity of the latter not being fully explained by its content of rutin. Taking all these results together, we can conclude that, in the selected experimental models, there exist an in vitro bioequivalence of the infusions from both species, which is in agreement with the majority of ethnopharmacological reports.

  2. Metabolomics-Based Screening of Biofilm-Inhibitory Compounds against Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Burdock Leaf.

    PubMed

    Lou, Zaixiang; Tang, Yuxia; Song, Xinyi; Wang, Hongxin

    2015-09-08

    Screening of anti-biofilm compounds from the burdock leaf based on metabolomics is reported here. The crystal violet assay indicated 34% ethanol elution fraction of burdock leaf could completely inhibit biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 1 mg·mL(-1). Then, the chemical composition of burdock leaf fraction was analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) and 11 active compounds (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, ursolic acid, rutin, cynarin, luteolin, crocin, benzoic acid, and Tenacissoside I) were identified. Lastly, UPLC-MS analysis was employed to obtain the metabolic fingerprints of burdock leaf fractions before and after inhibiting the biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The metabolic fingerprints were transformed to data, analyzed with PLS-DA (partial least squares discriminant analysis) and the peaks whose area was significantly changed were found out. Thus, 81 compounds were screened as potential anti-biofilm ingredients. Among them, rutin, ursolic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and quercetin were identified and confirmed as the main anti-biofilm compounds in burdock leaf. The study provided basic anti-biofilm profile data for the compounds in burdock leaf, as well as provided a convenient method for fast screening of anti-biofilm compounds from natural plants.

  3. Influence of phenolic compounds on the growth and arginine deiminase system in a wine lactic acid bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Alberto, María R.; de Nadra, María C. Manca; Arena, Mario E.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of seven phenolic compounds, normally present in wine, on the growth and arginine deiminase system (ADI) of Lactobacillus hilgardii X1B, a wine lactic acid bacterium, was established. This system provides energy for bacterial growth and produces citrulline that reacts with ethanol forming the carcinogen ethyl carbamate (EC), found in some wines. The influence of phenolic compounds on bacterial growth was compound dependent. Growth and final pH values increased in presence of arginine. Arginine consumption decreased in presence of protocatechuic and gallic acids (31 and 17%, respectively) and increased in presence of quercetin, rutin, catechin and the caffeic and vanillic phenolic acids (between 10 and 13%, respectively). ADI enzyme activities varied in presence of phenolic compounds. Rutin, quercetin and caffeic and vanillic acids stimulated the enzyme arginine deiminase about 37–40%. Amounts of 200 mg/L gallic and protocatechuic acids inhibited the arginine deiminase enzyme between 53 and 100%, respectively. Ornithine transcarbamylase activity was not modified at all concentrations of phenolic compounds. As gallic and protocatechuic acids inhibited the arginine deiminase enzyme that produces citrulline, precursor of EC, these results are important considering the formation of toxic compounds. PMID:24031815

  4. Inhibitory effect of leaves extracts of Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum gratissimum on two key enzymes involved in obesity and hypertension in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Irondi, Emmanuel Anyachukwu; Agboola, Samson Olalekan; Oboh, Ganiyu; Boligon, Aline Augusti

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the phenolics composition and inhibitory effect of the leaves extracts of Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum gratissimum on two key enzymes (pancreatic lipase [PL] and angiotensin 1-converting enzyme [ACE]) involved in obesity and hypertension in vitro. Materials and Methods: The phenolics (flavonoids and phenolic acids) were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection. PL and ACE inhibitory effects; DPPH* and ABTS*+ scavenging activities of the extracts were tested using spectrophotometric methods. Results: O. basilicum had the following major phenolics: Rutin, quercetin, and quercitrin (flavonoids); caffeic, chlorogenic, and gallic acids (phenolic acids); while O. gratissimum had the following major phenolics: Rutin, quercitrin, and luteolin (flavonoids); ellagic and chlorogenic acids (phenolic acids). “Extracts of both plants inhibited PL and ACE; scavenged DPPH* in a dose-dependent manner”. O. gratissimum extract was more potent in inhibiting PL (IC50: 20.69 µg/mL) and ACE (IC50: 29.44 µg/mL) than O. basilicum (IC50: 52.14 µg/mL and IC50: 64.99 µg/mL, against PL and ACE, respectively). O. gratissimum also scavenged DPPH* and ABTS*+ more than O. basilicum. Conclusion: O. basilicum and O. gratissimum leaves could be used as functional foods for the management of obesity and obesity-related hypertension. However, O. gratissimum may be more effective than O. basilicum. PMID:27757270

  5. Innovative assistant extraction of flavonoids from pine (Larix olgensis Henry) needles by high-density steam flash-explosion.

    PubMed

    Song, Hongdong; Yang, Ruijin; Zhao, Wei; Katiyo, Wendy; Hua, Xiao; Zhang, Wenbin

    2014-04-30

    High-density steam flash-explosion (HDSF) was first employed to extract flavonoids from pine needles. The HDSF treatment was performed at a steam pressure of 0.5-2.0 MPa for 20-120 s. Scanning electron microscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography combined with photodiode-array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS) were used to characterize the morphological changes and analyze flavonoids of pine needles before and after HDSF treatment. Our results indicated that, after steam explosion at 1.5 MPa for 60 s, the flavonoids extracted reached 50.8 rutin equivalents mg/g dry weight, which was 2.54-fold as that of the untreated sample. HDSF pretreatment caused the formation of large micropores on the pine needles and production of particles, as well as the removal of wax layers. Compared to microwave-assisted, ultrasound-assisted, and solvent extraction, HDSF pretreatment took only 30 min to reach a maximum yield of 47.0 rutin equivalents mg/g flavonoids extract after pine needles were treated at 1.5 MPa for 80 s. In addition, after HDSF treatment, the aglycones were 3.17 times higher than that of untreated pine needles, while glycosides were lower by 57% (in HPLC-DAD individuals' sum) due to hydrolysis of flavonoids glycosides. It can be concluded that HDSF is a practical pretreatment for extraction of flavonoids and conversion in the healthy food and pharmaceutical industries.

  6. Antioxidant activity, lipophilicity and extractability of polyphenols from pig skin - development of analytical methods for skin permeation studies.

    PubMed

    Zillich, Olesya V; Schweiggert-Weisz, Ute; Hasenkopf, Katrin; Eisner, Peter; Kerscher, Martina

    2013-11-01

    Permeation of polyphenols through the stratum corneum barrier is a precondition for the protective action of polyphenols against oxidative skin damage. Prior to in vitro skin permeation experiments, we developed a method for the quantification of polyphenols in pig skin, including organic solvent extraction and HPLC analysis. Catechine hydrate, epigallocatechin gallate, trans-resveratrol, quercetin, rutin and protocatechuic acid were chosen for this study as representatives of phenolics with different lipophilicity and molecular weight. The antioxidative activities of polyphenols as well as their octanol-water partition coefficients at different pH values were determined. Extraction of polyphenols from pig skin was optimized by variation of solvent composition, homogenization intensity and time, as well as partial exclusion of oxygen during extraction. The highest recovery rates could be reached by extraction with the methanol-water mixture (90:10, v/v), containing 0.2 g/L l-ascorbic acid, after the cryo-milling for 4 min. Recoveries of 72% for total phenolics, 96% for quercetin and protocatechuic acid, 90% for rutin and 74% for trans-resveratrol, were achieved. These extraction parameters will be selected for the polyphenol extraction from pig skin for further in vitro drug permeation studies.

  7. Antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds added to a functional emulsion containing omega-3 fatty acids and plant sterol esters.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Raquel Rainho; Inchingolo, Raffaella; Alencar, Severino Matias; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Castro, Inar Alves

    2015-09-01

    The effect of eleven compounds extracted from red propolis on the oxidative stability of a functional emulsion was evaluated. Emulsions prepared with Echium oil as omega 3 (ω-3 FA) source, containing 1.63 g/100mL of α-linolenic acid (ALA), 0.73 g/100 mL of stearidonic acid (SDA) and 0.65 g/100mL of plant sterol esters (PSE) were prepared without or with phenolic compounds (vanillic acid, caffeic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, 2,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, trans-ferulic acid, trans,trans-farnesol, rutin, gallic acid or sinapic acid). tert-Butylhydroquinone and a mixture containing ascorbic acid and FeSO4 were applied as negative and positive controls of the oxidation. Hydroperoxide, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), malondialdehyde and phytosterol oxidation products (POPs) were evaluated as oxidative markers. Based on hydroperoxide and TBARS analysis, sinapic acid and rutin (200 ppm) showed the same antioxidant activity than TBHQ, representing a potential alternative as natural antioxidant to be applied in a functional emulsion containing ω-3 FA and PSE.

  8. Spray Drying of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Ait.) Hassk. Flavonoids Extract: Optimization and Physicochemical, Morphological, and Antioxidant Properties.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pingping; Deng, Qian; Ma, Guangzhi; Li, Nianghui; Yin, Yanyan; Zhu, Baojun; Chen, Meiling; Huang, Ruqiang

    2014-01-01

    The optimal condition of spray drying purified flavonoids extract from R. tomentosa berries was studied by response surface methodology. The optimized condition for microencapsulation was of maltodextrin to gum Arabic ratio 1 : 1.3, total solid content 27.4%, glycerol monostearate content 0.25%, and core to coating material ratio 3 : 7, resulting in EE 91.75%. Prepared at the optimized condition, the flavonoids extract microcapsules (FEMs) were irregularly spherical particles with low moisture content (3.27%), high solubility (92.35%), and high bulk density (0.346 g/cm(3)). DPPH radical scavenging activity of FEMs was not decreased after spray drying (P > 0.05) and higher than those in citric acid and rutin at the same concentration. Moreover, FEMs effectively retarded the oxidation of fresh lard during the 10-day storage period compared with vitamin C, nonencapsulated flavonoids extract, and rutin. Therefore, FEMs produced at the optimized condition could be used as powder ingredients with antioxidant capacities.

  9. Dihydroquercetin (taxifolin) and other flavonoids as inhibitors of free radical formation at key stages of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Vladimirov, Yu A; Proskurnina, E V; Demin, E M; Matveeva, N S; Lubitskiy, O B; Novikov, A A; Izmailov, D Yu; Osipov, A N; Tikhonov, V P; Kagan, V E

    2009-03-01

    Formation of free radicals in mitochondria plays a key role in the development of apoptosis, which includes formation of superoxide by the respiratory chain, formation of radicals by cytochrome c-cardiolipin complex in the presence of hydrogen peroxide or lipids, and chain lipid peroxidation resulting in cytochrome c release from mitochondria and initiation of the apoptotic cascade. In this work the effect of taxifolin (dihydroquercetin) and some other antioxidants on these three radical-producing reactions was studied. Peroxidase activity of the complex of cytochrome c with dioleyl cardiolipin estimated by chemiluminescence with luminol decreased by 50% with quercetin, taxifolin, rutin, Trolox, and ionol at concentrations 0.7, 0.7, 0.8, 3, and 10 microM, respectively. The lipid radical production detected by coumarin C-525-activated chemiluminescence decreased under the action of rutin and taxifolin in a dose-dependent manner, so that a 50% inhibition of chemiluminescence was observed at the antioxidant concentrations of 3.7 and 10 microM, respectively. Thus, these two radical-producing reactions responsible for apoptosis onset are inhibited by antioxidants at rather low concentrations. Experiments performed on liver slices and mash showed that taxifolin, quercetin, naringenin, and Trolox have low inhibitory effect on the lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence in the tissue only at concentrations higher than 100 microM.

  10. [Azoic color reaction of flavonoids and their analytical application].

    PubMed

    Yu, Qian; Chen, Xiao-Kang; Luo, Zong-Ming; Yang, Chi; Mai, Hua-Kun

    2004-08-01

    In NH4Cl-NH3 H2O buffer solution of pH 10.4, diazo salt of p-sulfodiazoben-zene chloride reacts with rutin, morin, genistin, quercetin, hesperidin, baicalin and daidzin to form color azo-compounds. These azo-compounds have an absorption maximum at 430 nm except for baicalin azo-compound, which has an absorption maximum at 380 nm. The sensitivity of azoic color reaction is reductive in the order of above flavonoids and the molar absorptivity is maximum for rutin and is minimal for daidzin among these azo-compounds, i. e. 3.28 x 10(4) and 8.3 x 10(2) L x mol(-1) x cm(-1) respectively. The proposed spectrophotometry has been applied to th determination of flavonoids in sophora seed and soybean cake. The RSDs of the method were found to be in the range of 0.75-4.48%, and the recoveries were in the range of 99.3%-105.0%.

  11. Chemical constituents and biological activities of Senecio aegyptius var. discoideus Boiss.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Wafaa; Al-Gendy, Amal; Al-Youssef, Hanan; El-Shazely, Assem

    2012-01-01

    A new eremophilane sesquiterpene, 1-beta-hydroxy-8-oxoeremophila-7,9-dien-12-oic acid (1), in addition to two known flavonol glycosides, rutin (2) and quercetin-3-O-glucoside-7-O-rutinoside (3), was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction obtained from the aqueous alcoholic extract of the aerial parts of Senecio aegyptius var. discoideus Boiss. (family Asteraceae). The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were established by 1D and 2D NMR analysis (1H, 13C, COSY, HMQC, HMBC), MS and UV data, and through comparison with the literature. The ethyl acetate fraction and the isolated rutin showed significant cytotoxic activity against colorectal carcinoma (HCT 116) and to less extent against brain (U 251) and breast carcinoma (MCF 7). The ethyl acetate fraction showed a significant level of activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae, while the total extract showed the best antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. DPPH radical scavenging activity of the ethyl acetate fraction was significant (96.7%) when compared to ascorbic acid. It also showed anti-inflammatory activity but no diuretic effect.

  12. ARTcrystal process for industrial nanocrystal production--optimization of the ART MICCRA pre-milling step.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Patrik; Arntjen, Anja; Müller, Rainer H; Keck, Cornelia M

    2014-04-25

    The ARTcrystal process is a new approach for the production of drug nanocrystals. It is a combination of a special pre-treatment step with subsequent high pressure homogenization (HPH) at low pressures. In the pre-treatment step the particle size is already reduced to the nanometer range by use of the newly developed ART MICCRA rotor-stator system. In this study, the running parameters for the ART MICCRA system are systematically studied, i.e. temperature, stirring speed, flow rate, foaming effects, size of starting material, valve position from 0° to 45°. The antioxidant rutin was used as model drug. Applying optimized parameters, the pre-milling yielded already a nanosuspension with a photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) diameter of about 650 nm. On lab scale production time was 5 min for 1L nanosuspension (5% rutin content), i.e. the capacity of the setup is also suitable for medium industrial scale production. Compared to other nanocrystal production methods (bead milling, HPH, etc.), similar sizes are achievable, but the process is more cost-effective, faster in time and easily scale-able, thus being an interesting novel process for nanocrystal production on lab and industrial scale.

  13. Spray Drying of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Ait.) Hassk. Flavonoids Extract: Optimization and Physicochemical, Morphological, and Antioxidant Properties

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pingping; Ma, Guangzhi; Li, Nianghui; Yin, Yanyan; Zhu, Baojun; Chen, Meiling; Huang, Ruqiang

    2014-01-01

    The optimal condition of spray drying purified flavonoids extract from R. tomentosa berries was studied by response surface methodology. The optimized condition for microencapsulation was of maltodextrin to gum Arabic ratio 1 : 1.3, total solid content 27.4%, glycerol monostearate content 0.25%, and core to coating material ratio 3 : 7, resulting in EE 91.75%. Prepared at the optimized condition, the flavonoids extract microcapsules (FEMs) were irregularly spherical particles with low moisture content (3.27%), high solubility (92.35%), and high bulk density (0.346 g/cm3). DPPH radical scavenging activity of FEMs was not decreased after spray drying (P > 0.05) and higher than those in citric acid and rutin at the same concentration. Moreover, FEMs effectively retarded the oxidation of fresh lard during the 10-day storage period compared with vitamin C, nonencapsulated flavonoids extract, and rutin. Therefore, FEMs produced at the optimized condition could be used as powder ingredients with antioxidant capacities. PMID:26904629

  14. Functional constituents of wild and cultivated Goji (L. barbarum L.) leaves: phytochemical characterization, biological profile, and computational studies.

    PubMed

    Mocan, Andrei; Zengin, Gökhan; Simirgiotis, Mario; Schafberg, Michaela; Mollica, Adriano; Vodnar, Dan C; Crişan, Gianina; Rohn, Sascha

    2017-12-01

    Goji (Lycium barbarum L.) leaves are emphasized as a functional tea or as dietary supplements. The phenolic compound profile, antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory, antimicrobial, and antimutagenic activities of leaf extracts from two selected cultivars in comparison with wild-growing plants have been evaluated. HPLC-DAD/ESI-ToF-MS analysis revealed the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids with chlorogenic acid and rutin being the dominant compounds in the cultivated plants, whereas rutin and kaempeferol-3-O-rutinoside for wild growing ones. In particular, cv. Erma contained the highest amount of chlorogenic acid and showed a strong tyrosinase-inhibitory effect. Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Penicillium funiculosum were the most sensitive strains when exposed to extracts from cultivated plants. Antimutagenic activity was evaluated by Ames' test. The tested extracts provided high protection against mutagenicity induced by 2-anthramine (2-AA) to Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 98 and TA 100 (max. inhibition (%) 88% and 74.2%, respectively). Overall, Goji leaves are a rich source of bioactive compounds with functional properties that need further risk/benefit evaluation when used in foods or health-promoting formulations.

  15. A rapid RP-HPTLC densitometry method for simultaneous determination of major flavonoids in important medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Pamita; Kumar, Neeraj; Gupta, Ajai P; Singh, Bikram; Kaul, Vijay K

    2007-08-01

    A simple, sensitive, selective, precise, and robust high-performance TLC (HPTLC) method was developed and validated for determination of flavonoids in herbal extracts Bauhinia variegata, Bacopa monnieri, Centella asiatica, Ginkgo biloba, Lonicera japonica, Rosa bourboniana, Rosa brunonii, and Rosa damascena. The HPTLC of flavonoids was performed on RP-18 F(254) TLC plates with dual run, water (5% formic acid)/methanol (70:30) and water (5% formic acid)/methanol (50:50) as mobile phases. Densitometric determination of flavonoids was performed at lambda = 280 nm in reflectance/absorbance mode. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed a good linear relationship with r(2 )= 0.998 +/- 0.0003 in the concentration range of 150-800 ng/spot for apigenin and rutin and 200-1000 ng/spot for quercetin, luteolin, and quercitrin with respect to peak area. The average recovery for apigenin, quercetin, rutin, luteolin, and quercitrin was 97-99.8% indicating the excellent reproducibility. Statistical analysis of the data showed that the method is reproducible and selective for determination of flavonoids.

  16. Transport of active flavonoids, based on cytotoxicity and lipophilicity: an evaluation using the blood-brain barrier cell and Caco-2 cell models.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuya; Bai, Lu; Li, Xiaorong; Xiong, Jie; Xu, Pinxiang; Guo, Chenyang; Xue, Ming

    2014-04-01

    This in vitro study aims to evaluate and compare transmembrane transport of eight cardio-cerebrovascular protection flavonoids including puerarin, rutin, hesperidin, quercetin, genistein, kaempferol, apigenin and isoliquiritigenin via the rat blood-brain barrier cell and Caco-2 cell monolayer models, based on the data of cytotoxicity and lipophilicity. The cytotoxicity of the flavonoids to rat brain microvessel endothelial cell was determined by the MTT assay. The apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) of the flavonoids were calculated from the unilateral transport assays in Transwell system with simultaneous determination using a high performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that the cytotoxicity and oil-water partition coefficient of the flavonoids modified by the number and position of the glycoside and hydroxyl group were the key determinant for the transmembrane transport. The Papp values of the flavonoids reduced adversely when the numbers of glycoside and hydroxyl groups of the flavonoids increased accordingly. The tested flavonoids exhibited time-dependent Papp values in these models. The efflux mechanism related with P-glycoprotein also existed with the polar flavonoids; verapamil could enhance the permeation of rutin and quercetin via inhibition of P-glycoprotein. We propose that genistein and isoliquiritigenin with the permeation priority in vitro Caco-2 and BBB cell model could be better as the drug candidates for cardio-cerebral vascular protection. These findings provided important information for establishing the transport relationship for the flavonoid compounds and evaluating the potential oral bioavailability and brain distribution of the flavonoids.

  17. Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum Koidz.) Water Extract and Its Bioactive Components Ameliorate Dermal Damage in UVB-Irradiated Skin Models

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ya-Ling; Liu, Yao-Cheng; Tsai, Pi-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Dermal photoaging is a condition of skin suffering inappropriate ultraviolet (UV) exposure and exerts inflammation, tissue alterations, redness, swelling, and uncomfortable feelings. Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum Koidz.) is a cereal food and its antioxidant and pigment constituents may provide skin protection from photoaging, but it still lacks proved experiments. In this study, protective effects of djulis extract (CFE) on UVB-irradiated skin were explored. The results showed that HaCaT cells with 150 μg/mL CFE treatment had higher survival and less production of interleukin- (IL-) 6, matrix metalloprotease- (MMP-) 1, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in UVB-irradiated conditions. Subsequently, in animal studies, mice supplemented with CFE (100 mg/kg BW) were under UVB irradiation and had thinner epidermis and lower IL-6 levels in skin layer. These data demonstrate that bioactive compounds possessing the potency of antiphotoaging exist in CFE. Following that, we found rutin and chlorogenic acid (10–100 μM) could significantly increase cell viability and decrease the production of IL-6 in UVB models. Additionally, djulis pigment-betanin has no effect of increasing cell viability in this study. Our findings suggest CFE can protect skin against UV-induced damage and this protection is mainly from contributions of rutin and chlorogenic acid. PMID:27847821

  18. Variations in chemical fingerprints and major flavonoid contents from the leaves of thirty-one accessions of Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Cao, Xianshuang; Ferchaud, Vanessa; Qi, Yadong; Jiang, Hao; Tang, Feng; Yue, Yongde; Chin, Kit L

    2016-06-01

    The leaves of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. have been used as traditional folk medicines for treating high blood pressure and fever. There are many accessions of H. sabdariffa L. throughout the world. To assess the chemical variations of 31 different accessions of H. sabdariffa L., fingerprinting analysis and quantitation of major flavonoids were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC method was validated for linearity, sensitivity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. A quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS) was applied for the characterization of major compounds. A total of 9 compounds were identified, including 6 flavonoids and 3 phenolic acids. In the fingerprint analysis, similarity analysis (SA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to differentiate the 31 accessions of H. sabdariffa L. Based on the results of PCA and SA, the samples No. 15 and 19 appeared much different from the main group. The total content of five flavonoids varied greatly among different accessions, ranging from 3.35 to 23.30 mg/g. Rutin was found to be the dominant compound and the content of rutin could contribute to chemical variations among different accessions. This study was helpful to understand the chemical variations between different accessions of H. sabdariffa L., which could be used for quality control. © 2015 The Authors Biomedical Chromatography Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Lychee pulp phenolics ameliorate hepatic lipid accumulation by reducing miR-33 and miR-122 expression in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Su, Dongxiao; Zhang, Ruifen; Hou, Fangli; Chi, Jianwei; Huang, Fei; Yan, Shijuan; Liu, Lei; Deng, Yuanyuan; Wei, Zhencheng; Zhang, Mingwei

    2017-02-22

    Dietary phenolics exhibit hypolipidemic activity by changing lipid metabolism-related microRNA (miRNA) expression. Quercetin 3-O-rutinoside-7-O-α-l-rhamnosidase (quercetin 3-rut-7-rha), rutin and (-)-epicatechin are the main phenolics in lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) pulp. A previous study reported that quercetin 3-rut-7-rha and rutin had hypolipidemic effects. To elucidate these effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms of lychee pulp phenolics (LPPs), the hepatic mRNA and protein expression of lipid metabolism-related genes and their associated miRNAs were measured after ten weeks of treatment with a high-fat diet (HFD) alone or in combination with LPPs. The administration of LPPs significantly reduced the HFD-induced increase in serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels but increased the HDL-c content. The mRNA and protein expression levels of hepatic adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (CPT1a) were upregulated, while fatty acid synthase (FAS) mRNA and the corresponding protein expression levels were downregulated by LPPs. Furthermore, the expression levels of miR-33, which directly modulates ABCA1 and CPT1a, and miR-122, which indirectly regulates FAS, were downregulated in mouse hepatocytes. The repression of miR-33 and miR-122 is a possible molecular mechanism of the hypolipidemic effects of LPPs in the liver. Our results suggest a novel hypolipidemic mechanism of LPPs.

  20. Effects of quercetin and quercetin-3-O-glycosides on oxidative damage in rat C6 glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Zielińska, Małgorzata; Gülden, Michael; Seibert, Hasso

    2003-01-01

    Flavonoids are reported to be powerful antioxidants in cell free systems. They naturally occur as glycosides rather than as aglycon. In this study the ability of the flavonoid quercetin and its glycosides, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin), quercetin-3-O-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-(6″-O-acetyl)-glucoside, to protect in vitro rat C6 glioma cells from oxidative damage induced by cumene hydroperoxide was investigated. Cumene hydroperoxide induced cell death and lipid peroxidation. The cytotoxicity of cumene hydroperoxide could be prevented by the radical scavenger dimethyl thiourea and the ferric iron chelator deferoxamine, indicating that its cytotoxic activity is related to the generation of reactive oxygen radicals in the ferrous iron dependent Fenton reaction. Quercetin, in a concentration range of 10-100 μM, but neither rutin nor the other two glycosides, were able to protect C6 cells from cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, cytoprotective concentrations of quercetin proved to be cytotoxic itself. These results call in question potential beneficial effects of dietary intake or therapeutic use of naturally occurring flavonoids.

  1. In vitro bioaccessibility, transepithelial transport and antioxidant activity of Urtica dioica L. phenolic compounds in nettle based food products.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, Gianpiero; Tedeschi, Paola; Meca, Giuseppe; Bertelli, Davide; Mañes, Jordi; Brandolini, Vincenzo; Maietti, Annalisa

    2016-10-12

    Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a well-known plant with a wide historical background use of stems, roots and leaves. Nettle leaves are an excellent source of phenolic compounds, principally 3-caffeoylquinic acid (3-CQA), caffeoylmalic acid (CMA) and rutin. The aim of this work was to evaluate the bioaccessibility (BAC), the bioavailability (BAV) and the antioxidant activity of nettle phenolic compounds present in foods and supplements. The BAC of nettle phenolics was evaluated with an in vitro dynamic digestion of real food matrices: the type of food matrix and chemical characteristic affected the kinetics of release and solubilization, with the highest BAC after duodenal digestion. A study of duodenal trans epithelial transport evidenced low bioavailability of native forms of 3-CQA, CMA and rutin. Simulation of colonic metabolism confirmed that phenolic compounds are fermented by gut microflora, confirming the need for further investigations on the impact of phenolic compounds at the large intestine level. Photochemiluminescence assay of the simulated digestion fluids demonstrated that ingestion of Urtica based foods contributes to create an antioxidant environment against superoxide anion radicals in the entire gastrointestinal tract (GIT).

  2. Distinctive Metabolism of Flavonoid between Cultivated and Semiwild Soybean Unveiled through Metabolomics Approach.

    PubMed

    Yun, Dae-Yong; Kang, Young-Gyu; Yun, Bohyun; Kim, Eun-Hee; Kim, Myoyeon; Park, Jun Seong; Lee, John Hwan; Hong, Young-Shick

    2016-07-27

    Soybeans are an important crop for agriculture and food, resulting in an increase in the range of its application. Recently, soybean leaves have been used not only for food products but also in the beauty industry. To provide useful and global metabolite information on the development of soy-based products, we investigated the metabolic evolution and cultivar-dependent metabolite variation in the leaves of cultivated (Glycine max) and semiwild (G. gracilis) soybean, through a (1)H NMR-based metabolomics approach, as they grew from V (vegetative) 1 to R (reproductive) 7 growth stages. The levels of primary metabolites, such as sucrose, amino acids, organic acids, and fatty acids, were decreased both in the G. gracilis and G. max leaves. However, the secondary metabolites, such as pinitol, rutin, and polyphenols, were increased while synthesis of glucose was elevated as the leaves grew. When metabolite variations between G. gracilis and G. max are compared, it was noteworthy that rutin and its precursor, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, were found only in G. gracilis but not in G. max. Furthermore, levels of pinitol, proline, β-alanine, and acetic acid, a metabolite related to adaptation toward environmental stress, were different between the two soybean cultivars. These results highlight their distinct metabolism for adaptation to environmental conditions and their intrinsic metabolic phenotype. This study therefore provides important information on the cultivar-dependent metabolites of soybean leaves for better understanding of plant physiology toward the development of soy-based products.

  3. Electrochemical versus spectrophotometric assessment of antioxidant activity of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) products and individual compounds.

    PubMed

    Gorjanović, Stanislava; Pastor, Ferenc T; Vasić, Radica; Novaković, Miroslav; Simonović, Mladen; Milić, Sonja; Sužnjević, Desanka

    2013-09-25

    Antioxidant (AO) activity of extracts of hop cones (Serbian domestic varieties) and commercial hop products (Saaz, Spalter, Spalter select, and Magnum pellets) was determined by parallel application of recently developed direct current (DC) polarographic and widely used DPPH assay. Correlations between 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging and total phenolics (TPC) determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay (FC) (0.99), and between H2O2 scavenging (HPS) and humulone content (H) determined by conductometric method (0.94), total resins (TR) (0.85), and hop storage index (HIS) (-0.90), were found statistically significant at p < 0.05 level while complete lack of HPS correlation with TPC and DPPH was observed. To obtain an insight into differences between results of AO assays applied, activity of individual compounds, prevalent hop phenolics, and bitter acids was determined. By far superior HPS activity of humulone was followed by catechin, quercetin, xanthohumol, lupulone, and rutin. In contrast, DPPH scavenging activity of phenolics (quercetin > catechin > rutin > xantohumol) was found substantially higher than activity of bitter acids. According to ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and scavenging of 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), higher AO activity was ascribed to phenolics, while almost neglecting humulone. Besides reliability, low cost, and an easy-to-handle procedure, an ability to recognize humulone as the major contributor of hop AO activity could allow DC polarographic assay to be applied in analysis of various hop-derived products.

  4. Phytochemical analysis and in vitro biological activity of three Hypericum species from the Canary Islands (Hypericum reflexum, Hypericum canariense and Hypericum grandifolium).

    PubMed

    Zorzetto, Christian; Sánchez-Mateo, Candelaria C; Rabanal, Rosa M; Lupidi, Giulio; Petrelli, Dezemona; Vitali, Luca A; Bramucci, Massimo; Quassinti, Luana; Caprioli, Giovanni; Papa, Fabrizio; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Sagratini, Gianni; Vittori, Sauro; Maggi, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    In the present work we carried out a phytochemical and biological investigation on three Hypericum species, i.e. Hypericum reflexum, Hypericum canariense and Hypericum grandifolium, from the Canary Islands where they are traditionally used as diuretic, wound healing, vermifuge, sedative and antidepressive agents. The polar extracts of the top flowering aerial parts, prepared by Soxhlet apparatus using a methanol-acetone (1:1) extracting mixture, were analyzed by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS for the content of eight biomarkers such as hypericin, hyperforin, chlorogenic acid, rutin, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercitrin and quercetin, whereas the hydrodistilled essential oils were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The three Hypericum species had different results in both polar and volatile constituents, H. reflexum being the only one endowed with a small amount of naphtodianthrones (hypericin and pseudohypericin), and containing high levels of chlorogenic acid, rutin and volatile mono- and sesquiterpenes. After chemical characterization, all products were in vitro biologically assayed for antiproliferative activity on human tumor cell lines by MTT assay, for antioxidant potential by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays, and for antimicrobial activity by the agar disc diffusion and microdilution methods. Results revealed interesting bioactivities and differences between polar extracts and essential oils, with the former being endowed with significant antioxidant activity and the latter with comparable inhibition effects on the tumor cells (A375, MDA-MB 231 and HCT 116) to that of cisplatin.

  5. HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS analysis and antioxidant activities of nonanthocyanin phenolics in mulberry (Morus alba L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Han, F; He, J; Duan, C

    2008-08-01

    Qualitative analysis of the nonanthocyanin phenolics from 2 mulberry cultivars, da-10 and hongguo, was performed by the HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS method. Six nonanthocyanin phenolics compounds were identified (procatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, 4-caffeolyquinic acid, taxifolin, rutin, quercetin) and 3 others (3,5-diCQA, taxifolin-hexoside, kamepferol-hexoside) were tentatively identified. Quantification of nonanthocyanin phenolic was performed by HPLC-DAD, which revealed that rutin (111.38 and 90.79 microg/g FW) was the major nonanthocyanin phenolics in the 2 mulberry cultivars. Phenolic acids in cultivar da-10 (54.68 microg/g FW) were far more than in cultivar hongguo (14.93 microg/g FW). CQA and its isomers (40.02 microg/g FW) were the major phenolic acid in cultivar da-10. The nonanthocyanin phenolics in the 2 cultivars of mulberry had higher antiradical activities in superoxide anion and DPPH radical and antioxidant activity in beta-CLAMS assay than the Trolox. These results were relevant to not only the control of color stability and organoleptic characteristics of mulberry juice and wine but also the exploitation of the functional foods made from mulberry.

  6. Antioxidant potential of n-butanol fraction from extract of Jasminum mesnyi Hance leaves.

    PubMed

    Borar, Sakshi; Punia, Priyanka; Kalia, A N

    2011-01-01

    Methanolic extract of Jasminum mesnyi Hance leaves having antidiabetic activity was subjected to fractionation to obtain antioxidant and antihyperglycemic rich fraction. Different concentrations of ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions were subjected to antioxidant assay by DPPH method, nitric oxide scavenging activity and reducing power assay. The fractions showed dose dependent free radical scavenging property in all the models. IC50 values for ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions were 153.45 +/- 6.65 and 6.22 +/- 0.25 microg/ml, respectively, as compared to L-ascorbic acid and rutin (as standards; IC50 values 6.54 +/- 0.24 and 5.43 +/- 0.21 microg/ml, respectively) in DPPH model. In nitric oxide scavenging activity, IC50 values were 141.54 +/- 9.95 microg/ml, 35.12 +/- 1.58 microg/ml, 21.06 +/- 0.95 microg/ml and 29.93 +/- 0.32 microg/ml for ethyl acetate, n-butanol fractions, L-ascorbic acid and rutin, respectively. n-Butanol fraction showed a good reducing potential and better free radical scavenging activity as compared to ethyl acetate fraction. Potent antioxidant n-butanol fraction showed better oral glucose tolerance test (antihyperglycemic) at par with metformin (standard drug), n-Butanol fraction contained secoiridoid glycosides which might be responsible for both antioxidant and antihyperglycemic activity.

  7. Edible Flowers: A Rich Source of Phytochemicals with Antioxidant and Hypoglycemic Properties.

    PubMed

    Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Pugliese, Alessandro; Bonesi, Marco; Tenuta, Maria Concetta; Menichini, Francesco; Xiao, Jianbo; Tundis, Rosa

    2016-03-30

    Edible flowers are receiving renewed interest as rich sources of bioactive compounds. Ethanol extracts of eight edible flowers were phytochemically characterized and investigated for their bioactivity. Rutin, quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol, and myricetin were selected as standards and quantified by HPLC. The fatty acid profile was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Antioxidant properties were evaluated by using different in vitro tests. The hypoglycemic effects were investigated via the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Sambucus nigra exhibited the highest radical-scavenging activity (IC50 of 1.4 μg/mL), followed by Hedysarum coronarium (IC50 of 1.6 μg/mL). Both species contained high quercetin and rutin contents. S. nigra extract exerted the highest activity in preventing lipid oxidation. Malva sylvestris extract inhibited both α-amylase and α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 7.8 and 11.3 μg/mL, respectively. These findings support the consumption of edible flowers as functional foods and their use as sources of natural antioxidants by the food industry.

  8. Free Radical Scavenging Fingerprints of Selected Aromatic and Medicinal Tunisian Plants Assessed by Means of TLC-DPPH(•) Test and Image Processing.

    PubMed

    El Euch, Salma Kammoun; Cieśla, Łukasz; Bouzouita, Nabiha

    2014-01-01

    Aqueous-methanol extracts prepared from 10 Tunisian plant species were analyzed for the presence of potent direct antioxidants. The analyzed species included: Anacyclus clavatus Desf., Erica multiflora L., Cistus salvifolius L., Centaurium erythraea Rafn., Marrubium vulgare L., Lavandula stoechas L., Artemisia campestris L., Origanum majorana L., Salvia officinalis L., and Pistacia lentiscus L. All the extracts were chromatographed on the RP18 W plates with methanol-water-acetic acid (48 + 47 + 5, v/v/v) mobile phase. Upon completion of the chromatographic development and the drying step, the plates were stained with a chloroform solution of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(•)). An image processing protocol, with use of Sorbfil TLC Videodensitometer, was applied to quantitatively measure the activity of polyphenols and to screen complex samples for the presence of free radical scavengers. The activity of the individual compounds was compared with that of rutin, used as a standard. The TLC-DPPH(•) test showed that C. salvifolius had the most potent antioxidant activity, as it possessed the highest activity coefficient (calculated as the sum of the areas under the peaks of all active compounds/area under peak of rutin). The proposed procedure may be used to differentiate potent chain-breaking antioxidants and compounds propagating radical chain reactions.

  9. Preparatory production of quercetin-3-β-D-glucopyranoside using alkali-tolerant thermostable α-L-rhamnosidase from Aspergillus terreus.

    PubMed

    Weignerová, Lenka; Marhol, Petr; Gerstorferová, Daniela; Křen, Vladimír

    2012-07-01

    Extensive screening for a robust producer of α-L-rhamnosidase activity from well-defined strains of filamentous fungi, including multifactorial optimization (inducers, cultivation conditions) was accomplished. Enzyme production of the optimal producer Aspergillus terreus (non-toxigenic) was scaled up to 50L. α-L-Rhamnosidase, which was fully characterized, proved to be thermo- and alkali-tolerant, thus enabling effective operation at 70°C and pH 8.0. These conditions allow for a very high substrate (rutin) load up to 100-300 g/L, thus enabling very high volumetric productivity of the reaction product quercetin-3-β-D-glucopyranoside (isoquercitrin). Here, a novel concept of "immobilised substrate" is used. Isoquercitrin is a highly effective and biocompatible antioxidant with strong anti-inflammatory activities. Rutin biotransformation was optimized and scaled up to ca 10 kg production and thus the robustness of the large-scale production was demonstrated. Isoquercitrin can be produced to a very high purity (98%) in multikilogram amounts, without any quercetin and directly applicable in nutraceuticals.

  10. Profiling of bioactive compounds in cultivars of Runner and Valencia peanut market-types using liquid chromatography/APCI mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chukwumah, Yvonne; Walker, Lloyd; Vogler, Bernhard; Verghese, Martha

    2012-05-01

    Peanuts are classified into four market-types (Runners, Spanish, Virginia and Valencia). Studies on their phytochemical composition have focused mainly on market-types other than Valencia. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the phytochemical composition of cultivars of Valencia and Runner market-types. Extracts of 25 peanut cultivars of Runner and Valencia market-types were analysed using HPLC-DAD-MS analysis. Results showed major differences in UV profile of the market-types. A major peak with m/z 317 identified as isorhamnetin was present only in Valencia cultivars while its glycoside (isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside) having m/z 625 was identified in both market-types. Genistein, daidzein, rutin, quercetin and trans-resveratrol were also identified and quantified. Genistein and daidzein concentrations (0.03mg/100g) were similar in both market-types. trans-Resveratrol and rutin were significantly (p<0.05) higher in Runner cultivars while quercetin was 10-fold higher (0.60±0.04mg/100g) in Valencia cultivars making them a better source of this phytochemical.

  11. Identification of TLC markers and quantification by HPLC-MS of various constituents in noni fruit powder and commercial noni-derived products.

    PubMed

    Potterat, Olivier; Felten, Roger Von; Dalsgaard, Petur W; Hamburger, Matthias

    2007-09-05

    The composition of noni (Morinda citrifolia) products has been investigated. TLC profiles of several commercial juices and capsules were compared. 3-Methyl-1,3-butanediol was identified as a typical marker in noni juices. The presence of sorbic acid (E200) was detected in one juice declared as additive free. Quantitative data have been obtained by HPLC-MS. A method for the quantification of characteristic noni constituents, such as iridoid glucosides, scopoletin, rutin, fatty acid glucosides, and anthraquinones, was developed and validated. The separation was performed on a C18 column with a gradient of acetonitrile in water containing 0.1% formic acid. Detection was carried out with ESI-MS in the negative ion mode. Significant differences were observed between the products. Asperulosidic acid, deacetylasperulosidic acid, and rutin were present in all samples analyzed, but their concentrations differed considerably between the products. Fatty acid glucosides, noniosides B and C, were present in capsules and most juices. Scopoletin was mainly found in juices. The anthraquinone alizarin, which has been reported from roots and leaves, was not detected in the samples investigated.

  12. Solubilizing properties of new surface-active agents, products of catalytic oxyethylation of cholic acid.

    PubMed

    Kołodziejczyk, Michał Krzysztof; Nachajski, Michal Jakub; Lukosek, Marek; Zgoda, Marian Mikołaj

    2013-01-01

    Solubilizing properties of aqueous solutions of a series of surface-active agents, products of oxyethylation of cholic acid, were examined in the present study. The content of oxyethylated segments determined by means of the 1H NMR method enabled the verification of the molecular mass of surfactants along with the calculation of the structural hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB), the solubility parameter delta1/2, and the required solubility level of balance HLB(R). Viscosimetric measurements enabled the calculation of the limiting viscosity number, the content-average molecular mass, the effective volume, the hydrodynamic radius of the surfactant micelle and their equilibrium adducts with rutin, diclofenac and loratadine (BCS Class II and III). By means of the spectrophotometric method (UV) the amount of the solubilized diclofenac, loratadine and rutin (rutoside) was determined in the equilibrium system (saturated solution) in the environment of aqueous solutions of cholic acid derivatives of n(TE) = 20-70. The obtained results serve as a basis for determining the solubilization mechanism of lipophilic therapeutic products and indirectly for estimating the influence of the above process on pharmaceutical as well as biological availability of a micellar adduct from model drug forms (Lindbladt lithogenolitic index).

  13. Protective Effects of Sweet Orange, Unshiu Mikan, and Mini Tomato Juice Powders on t-BHP-Induced Oxidative Stress in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jannat, Susoma; Ali, Md Yousof; Kim, Hyeung-Rak; Jung, Hyun Ah; Choi, Jae Sue

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of juice powders from sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck], unshiu mikan (Citrus unshiu Marcow), and mini tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and their major flavonoids, hesperidin, narirutin, and rutin in tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. The increased reactive oxygen species and decreased glutathione levels observed in t-BHP-treated HepG2 cells were ameliorated by pretreatment with juice powders, indicating that the hepatoprotective effects of juice powders and their major flavonoids are mediated by induction of cellular defense against oxidative stress. Moreover, pretreatment with juice powders up-regulated phase-II genes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), thereby preventing cellular damage and the resultant increase in HO-1 expression. The high-performance liquid chromatography profiles of the juice powders confirmed that hesperidin, narirutin, and rutin were the key flavonoids present. Our results suggest that these fruit juice powders and their major flavonoids provide a significant cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress, which is most likely due to the flavonoid-related bioactive compounds present, leading to the normal redox status of cells. Therefore, these fruit juice powders could be advantageous as bioactive sources for the prevention of oxidative injury in hepatoma cells. PMID:27752497

  14. Countercurrent assisted quantitative recovery of metabolites from plant-associated natural deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Garzon, Jahir; Friesen, J Brent; Zhang, Yu; McAlpine, James B; Lankin, David C; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F

    2016-07-01

    NAtural Deep Eutectic Solvents (NADES) are chemically simple but physiologically important plant constituents that exhibit unique solubilizing properties of other metabolites, including bioactive constituents. The high polarity of NADES introduces a challenge in the ability of conventional solid-support based chromatography to recover potential bioactive metabolites. This complicates the systematic explanation of the NADES' functions in botanical extracts. The present study utilizes countercurrent separation (CCS) methodology to overcome the recovery challenge. To demonstrate its feasibility, Glucose-Choline chloride-Water (GCWat, 2:5:5, mole/mole) served as a model NADES, and four widely used marker flavonoids with different polarities (rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, and daidzein) were chosen as model target analytes. In order to prepare GCWat with high consistency, a water drying study was performed. The unique capabilities of the recently introduced CherryOne system, offering volumetric phase metering, were used to monitor the CCS operations. The collected fractions were analyzed using UHPLC and NMR/quantitative NMR. CCS was able to recover the analytes from the NADES matrix with quantitative recoveries of 95.7%, 94.6%, 97.0%, and 96.7% for rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, and daidzein respectively. The CCS strategy enables recovery of target metabolites from NADES-containing crude extracts as well as from other chemical mixtures, and moreover offers a means of using NADES as environmentally friendly extraction solvents.

  15. Phenylalanine and LED lights enhance phenolic compound production in Tartary buckwheat sprouts.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jeong-Min; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Kim, Yeon-Bok; Park, Sang Un; Kim, Sun-Ju

    2015-06-15

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of different l-phenylalanine (l-Phe) concentrations and various light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on the accumulation of phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid, vitexin, rutin, quercetin, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside) in Tartary buckwheat sprouts. We found that 5mM was the optimum l-Phe concentration for the synthesis of total and individual phenolic compounds. The highest rutin (53.09 mg/g DW) and chlorogenic acid (5.62 mg/g DW) content was observed with Red+Blue and white lights. Comprehensive differences in total and individual anthocyanin content were observed between different lights; however, the total anthocyanin content (9.12 mg/g DW) was 1.5-fold higher in blue light. The expression levels of regulatory genes, such as FtDFR and FtANS, were 7.1-fold higher with l-Phe treatment. Gene expression results showed that the phenolic compounds in Tartary buckwheat sprouts increased with the use of l-Phe and LED lights.

  16. Influence of phenolic compounds on the growth and arginine deiminase system in a wine lactic acid bacterium.

    PubMed

    Alberto, María R; de Nadra, María C Manca; Arena, Mario E

    2012-01-01

    The influence of seven phenolic compounds, normally present in wine, on the growth and arginine deiminase system (ADI) of Lactobacillus hilgardii X1B, a wine lactic acid bacterium, was established. This system provides energy for bacterial growth and produces citrulline that reacts with ethanol forming the carcinogen ethyl carbamate (EC), found in some wines. The influence of phenolic compounds on bacterial growth was compound dependent. Growth and final pH values increased in presence of arginine. Arginine consumption decreased in presence of protocatechuic and gallic acids (31 and 17%, respectively) and increased in presence of quercetin, rutin, catechin and the caffeic and vanillic phenolic acids (between 10 and 13%, respectively). ADI enzyme activities varied in presence of phenolic compounds. Rutin, quercetin and caffeic and vanillic acids stimulated the enzyme arginine deiminase about 37-40%. Amounts of 200 mg/L gallic and protocatechuic acids inhibited the arginine deiminase enzyme between 53 and 100%, respectively. Ornithine transcarbamylase activity was not modified at all concentrations of phenolic compounds. As gallic and protocatechuic acids inhibited the arginine deiminase enzyme that produces citrulline, precursor of EC, these results are important considering the formation of toxic compounds.

  17. Contribution of individual phenolics to antioxidant activity and in vitro digestibility of wild rices (Zizania aquatica L.).

    PubMed

    Sumczynski, Daniela; Kotásková, Eva; Orsavová, Jana; Valášek, Pavel

    2017-03-01

    Zizania aquatica L. was analysed for total flavonoids, phenolics and HPLC profile in both free and bound phenolic fractions. The highest content of flavonoids (378-455mgRE/kg) was detected in bound fractions, while the highest polyphenols content (1061-2988mgGAE/kg) was determined in free fractions. Additionally, predominant phenolics were identified. To understand the contribution of individual phenolics to an antioxidant activity their mutual correlations were evaluated. Regarding free flavonoids, the main contributors to an antioxidant activity (r>0.7111) were epigallocatechin, epicatechin and rutin; while epicatechin, quercetin and rutin were the main contributors in bound fractions (r>0.6868). Concerning free phenolic acids, the main contributors to an antioxidant activity (r>0.7585) were ferulic, vanillic, ellagic, sinapic and syringic acids; while caffeic, sinapic, syringic, o-coumaric, p-hydroxy benzoic, vanillic, protocatechuic, gallic and cinnamic acids were the main contributors in bound fractions of wild rice (r>0.6538). Finally, in vitro organic matter and dry matter digestibility were assessed.

  18. Investigation into the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of Moringa stenopetala: identification of the active principles.

    PubMed

    Habtemariam, Solomon

    2015-03-01

    The fresh leaves of Moringa stenopetala (family, Moringaceae) are commonly eaten as cabbage while dried leaves are used as nutritional supplement and for treating a variety of disease conditions including diabetes. The present investigation into the therapeutic potential of the leaves and seeds of the plant revealed no inhibitory effect against α-glucosidase enzyme up to the concentration of 200 μg/mL but the leaves extract displayed potent DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging effect (IC50, 59.5 ± 4.1 μg/mL). An activity directed fractionation and isolation procedure resulted in the identification of the major antioxidant compound as rutin and minor active component, neochlorogenic acid. Both the crude extract (0.8-200 μg/mL) and rutin (0.8-200 μM) but not neochlorogenic acid displayed a concentration-dependent protection of human pancreatic β-cells (1.4E7 cells) from oxidant-induced cell death. The identification of these compounds along with their potential role in the nutritional and medicinal significance of the plant is discussed.

  19. Protective Effects of Sweet Orange, Unshiu Mikan, and Mini Tomato Juice Powders on t-BHP-Induced Oxidative Stress in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Jannat, Susoma; Ali, Md Yousof; Kim, Hyeung-Rak; Jung, Hyun Ah; Choi, Jae Sue

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of juice powders from sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck], unshiu mikan (Citrus unshiu Marcow), and mini tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and their major flavonoids, hesperidin, narirutin, and rutin in tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. The increased reactive oxygen species and decreased glutathione levels observed in t-BHP-treated HepG2 cells were ameliorated by pretreatment with juice powders, indicating that the hepatoprotective effects of juice powders and their major flavonoids are mediated by induction of cellular defense against oxidative stress. Moreover, pretreatment with juice powders up-regulated phase-II genes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), thereby preventing cellular damage and the resultant increase in HO-1 expression. The high-performance liquid chromatography profiles of the juice powders confirmed that hesperidin, narirutin, and rutin were the key flavonoids present. Our results suggest that these fruit juice powders and their major flavonoids provide a significant cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress, which is most likely due to the flavonoid-related bioactive compounds present, leading to the normal redox status of cells. Therefore, these fruit juice powders could be advantageous as bioactive sources for the prevention of oxidative injury in hepatoma cells.

  20. Monoamine oxidase B and free radical scavenging activities of natural flavonoids in Melastoma candidum D. Don.

    PubMed

    Lee, M H; Lin, R D; Shen, L Y; Yang, L L; Yen, K Y; Hou, W C

    2001-11-01

    Monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) activity and free radicals are elevated in certain neurological diseases. Four natural flavonoids, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, rutin, and quercetin, were isolated for the first time from the leaves of Melastoma candidum D. Don. They exhibited an inhibitory effect on MAO-B. These potent flavonoids were purified using bioassay-guided fractionation and were separated by Diaion, Sephadex LH-20, and MCI CHP20P columns. The IC(50) values of the four potent flavonoids, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, rutin, and quercetin on monoamine oxidase were 19.06, 11.64, 3.89, and 10.89 microM and enzyme kinetics analysis revealed apparent inhibition constants (K(i)) of 21.01, 2.72, 1.83, and 7.95 microM, respectively, on the substrate, benzylamine. The four potent compounds also exhibited hydroxyl radical scavenging activity as determined using a spin trapping electron spin resonance method. This suggests that the four flavonoids from M. candidum possess both MAO-B inhibitory and free radical scavenging activities. These important properties may be used for preventing some neurodegenerative diseases in the future.

  1. HPLC-Analysis of Polyphenolic Compounds in Gardenia jasminoides and Determination of Antioxidant Activity by Using Free Radical Scavenging Assays

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Riaz; Saha, Moni Rani; Subhan, Nusrat; Hossain, Hemayet; Jahan, Ismet Ara; Akter, Raushanara; Alam, Ashraful

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Gardenia jasminoides is a traditional medicinal plant rich in anti-inflammatory flavonoids and phenolic compounds and used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and pain. In this present study, antioxidant potential of Gardenia jasminoides leaves extract was evaluated by using various antioxidant assays. Methods: Various antioxidant assays such as 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity expressed as equivalent to ascorbic acid were employed. Moreover, phenolic compounds were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode-array detection. Results: The methanol extract showed significant free radical scavenging activities in DPPH radical scavenging antioxidant assays compared to the reference antioxidant ascorbic acid. Total antioxidant activity was increased in a dose dependent manner. The extract also showed strong reducing power. The total phenolic content was determined as 190.97 mg/g of gallic acid equivalent. HPLC coupled with diode-array detection was used to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in the extracts. Gallic acid, (+)-catechin, rutin hydrate and quercetin have been identified in the plant extracts. Among the phenolic compounds, catechin and rutin hydrate are present predominantly in the extract. The accuracy and precision of the presented method were corroborated by low intra- and inter-day variations in quantitative results in leaves extract. Conclusion: These results suggest that phenolic compounds and flavonoids might contribute to high antioxidant activities of Gardenia jasminoides leaves. PMID:24754012

  2. Comparative evaluation of standardized alcoholic, hydroalcoholic, and aqueous extracts of Phyllanthus maderaspatensis Linn. against galactosamine-induced hepatopathy in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Ilyas, U. K.; Katare, Deepshikha P.; Aeri, Vidhu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Phyllanthus maderaspatensis species (Euphorbiaceae) has been used in folk medicine of many countries as a remedy against several pathological conditions including jaundice and hepatitis. This study is an attempt to evaluate hepatoprotective activity of P. maderaspatensis against galactosamine-induced toxicity and also investigation of polyphenols in each extract. Materials and Methods: The extraction of P. maderaspatensis as per Ayurveda was simultaneously standardized and quantified for biochemical markers viz., polyphenols: Kaempferol, quercetin, catechin, rutin, and ellagic acid by high-performance thin layer chromatography. Hepatotoxicity was induced albino adult rats by intraperitoneal injection of galactosamine (400 mg/kg). The quantified aqueous, hydroalcoholic and alcoholic extract of P. maderaspatensis (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day) were compared for evaluation of hepatoprotective potential, which were assessed in terms of reduction in histological damage, change in serum enzymes such as aspartate amino transaminase, alanine amino transaminase and alkaline phosphatase and increase thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Results and Discussion: The hydroalcoholic extract was found to contain comparatively high amount of kaempferol, quercetin, catechin, rutin, and ellagic acid which are responsible for hepatoprotection. Antioxidant parameters such as glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activity in liver tissues were restored toward the normalization more significantly by the hydroalcoholic extract when compared with other extracts. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination. Conclusion: The hydroalcoholic extract standardized with respect to known biomarkers may be considered as a potent extract against hepatotoxicity. PMID:25829765

  3. Effect of nighttime temperature on tomato plant defensive chemistry.

    PubMed

    Bradfield, M; Stamp, N

    2004-09-01

    Given that the amplitude of diurnal temperature fluctuations has been decreasing, mainly via warmer night temperatures, we examined the effects of nighttime temperature on concentration of the catecholic phenolics chlorogenic acid and rutin in tomato plants. A two-factor design, with carbon dioxide (350 ppm and 700 ppm) and nighttime temperature (14, 15, 16, 17, and 18 degrees C, with a 26 degrees C daytime temperature) was used. Compared to the lower carbon dioxide level, for whole plants the concentration of phenolics was lower at the higher carbon dioxide level, but patterns for plant parts differed. Nighttime temperature did not affect concentration of phenolics for whole plants, but it did influence concentration of the phenolics for plant parts, although not in predictable ways. Furthermore, the pattern of concentration of chlorogenic acid was somewhat different from that of rutin. The amount of change in concentration of these allelochemicals is likely sufficient to have substantial effects on insect herbivores. We conclude that nighttime temperature affects concentration of allelochemicals in tomato plants in significant ways.

  4. Phytochemical investigation of Gynura bicolor leaves and cytotoxicity evaluation of the chemical constituents against HCT 116 cells.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Wuen Yew; Tan, Hooi Poay; Ling, Sui Kiong; Abdul Wahab, Norhanom; Sim, Kae Shin

    2016-01-01

    Gynura bicolor (Compositae) is a popular vegetable in Asia and believed to confer a wide range of benefits including anti-cancer. Our previous findings showed that the ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor possessed cytotoxicity and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death in human colon carcinoma cells (HCT 116). A combination of column chromatography had been used to purify chemical constituents from the ethyl acetate and water extract of G. bicolor leaves. Eight chemical constituents 5-p-trans-coumaroylquinic acid (I), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (II), rutin (III), kampferol-3-O-rutinoside (IV), 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (V), kampferol-3-O-glucoside (VI), guanosine (VII) and chlorogenic acid (VIII) were isolated from G. bicolor grown in Malaysia. To our best knowledge, all chemical constituents were isolated for the first time from G. bicolor leaves except rutin (III). 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (V), guanosine (VII) and chlorogenic acid (VIII) demonstrated selective cytotoxicity (selective index>3) against HCT 116 cancer cells compared to CCD-18Co human normal colon cells.

  5. Quercetin glycosides and chlorogenic acid in highbush blueberry leaf decoction prevent cataractogenesis in vivo and in vitro: Investigation of the effect on calpains, antioxidant and metal chelating properties.

    PubMed

    Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Makri, Olga E; Mermigki, Penelope G; Lamari, Fotini N; Georgakopoulos, Constantinos D

    2016-04-01

    The present study investigates whether highbush blueberry leaf polyphenols prevent cataractogenesis and the underlying mechanisms. Chlorogenic acid, quercetin, rutin, isoquercetin and hyperoside were quantified in Vaccinium corymbosum leaf decoction (BBL) using HPLC-DAD. Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously with 20 μmol selenite (Na2SeO3)/kg body weight on postnatal (PN) day 10 (Se, n = 8-10/group) only or also intraperitoneally with 100 mg dry BBL/kg body weight on PN days 11 and 12 (SeBBL group, n = 10). Control group received only normal saline (C). Cataract evaluation revealed that BBL significantly prevented lens opacification. It, also, protected lens from selenite oxidative attack and prevented calpain activation, as well as protein loss and aggregation. In vitro studies showed that quercetin attenuated porcine lens turbidity caused by [Formula: see text] or Ca(2+) and interacted efficiently with those ions according to UV-Vis titration experiments. Finally, rutin, isoquercetin and hyperoside moderately inhibited pure human μ-calpain. Conclusively, blueberry leaf extract, a rich source of bioactive polyphenols, prevents cataractogenesis by their strong antioxidant, chelating properties and through direct/indirect inhibition of lens calpains.

  6. Nitrogen and oxygen functionalized hollow carbon materials: The capacitive enhancement by simply incorporating novel redox additives into H2SO4 electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Yong Fu; Wang, Qian; Chen, Xiang Ying; Zhang, Zhong Jie

    2016-07-01

    In present work, we have developed a simple but effective template carbonization method for producing hollow carbon materials with high content of nitrogen and oxygen from thiocarbanilide. Among all samples, the NPC-1 exhibits high specific surface area (736 m2 g-1) and large pore volume (5.93 cm3 g-1) with high content of heteroatoms (∼11.25 at% nitrogen and ∼5.74 at% oxygen), which is conducive to the improvement of electrochemical performance. Specifically, the high specific capacitance and excellent cycling stability over 5000 cycles of the NPC-1-based electrode are achieved in 1 mol L-1 H2SO4 electrolyte. Additionally, pyrocatechol and rutin as novel redox additives that can easily cause redox-reactions have been incorporated into H2SO4 electrolyte to improve the capacitances. As a result, the NPC-1-R-0.15 and NPC-1-P-0.15 samples deliver high specific capacitances of 120.5 and 368.7 F g-1 at 2 A g-1, respectively, which are much higher than that of the NPC-1 sample (66.2 F g-1) without redox-additives at same current density. Furthermore, the large energy density of 18.9 and 11.9 Wh kg-1 of the NPC-1-based symmetric supercapacitors have been obtained in H2SO4+pyrocatechol and H2SO4+rutin electrolyte, respectively, and both samples also demonstrate excellent cyclic performance for 5000 cycles.

  7. New quinoline alkaloid from Ruta graveolens aerial parts and evaluation of the antifertility activity.

    PubMed

    Salib, Josline Y; El-Toumy, Sayed A; Hassan, Emad M; Shafik, Nabila H; Abdel-Latif, Sally M; Brouard, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Bioassay-guided isolation of methanol extract of Ruta graveolens L. leaves yielded a new quinoline alkaloid, (4S) 1,4-dihydro-4-methoxy-1,4-dimethyl-3-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)quinoline 2,7-diol, and nine phenolic compounds including rutin as a major compound. Structures of the isolated compounds were determined by using chromatography, UV, HR-ESI-MS and 1D/2D (1)H/(13)C NMR spectroscopy. The uterotonic activity of methanol extract fractions (ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fraction) as well as the isolated major compounds was tested in the isolated mouse uterus in vitro. The n-butanol-soluble fraction was found to demonstrate the most potent uterotonic activity in a dose-dependent manner, also the major isolated compound rutin revealed the occurrence of an uterotonic response, which was maximum at a concentration level of 0.25 mg/mL, accounting for 68.7% of that exhibited by the chosen concentration of oxytocin.

  8. Antioxidant properties and preliminary evaluation of phytochemical composition of different anatomical parts of amaranth.

    PubMed

    Kraujalis, Paulius; Venskutonis, Petras R; Kraujalienė, Vaida; Pukalskas, Audrius

    2013-09-01

    Antioxidant properties of amaranth extracts isolated sequentially by acetone and methanol/water from defatted plant leaves, flowers, stems and seeds were assessed by ABTS(+•), DPPH(•), ORAC and total phenols content (TPC) assays. In addition, antioxidant properties of solid plant material were evaluated by the direct QUENCHER method using the same assays. Leaves and flowers of amaranth as well as their extracts possessed the highest antioxidant activities. Radical scavenging capacity in ABTS(+•) assay for leaves, flowers, stems and seeds evaluated by QUENCHER method were 144.24 ± 2.41, 112.33 ± 7.45, 19.05 ± 1.13 and 21.82 ± 1.06 μmol trolox equivalents in 1 g of dry weight, respectively. On-line HPLC-DPPH(•) assay was used to determine the activity of separated compounds and it was observed that rutin was the main radical scavenger in amaranth extracts. Preliminary screening of extract composition was performed by UPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS and rutin, nicotiflorin, isoquercitrin, 4-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acids were identified by measuring their accurate mass and retention time.

  9. Characterization and evaluation of a macroporous adsorbent for possible use in the expanded bed adsorption of flavonoids from Ginkgo biloba L.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Chase, Howard A

    2009-12-11

    The suitability of the use of macroporous adsorbent Amberlite XAD7HP in expanded bed adsorption processes for the isolation of flavonoids from crude extracts of Ginkgo biloba L. has been assessed. The expansion and hydrodynamic properties of expanded beds were investigated and analyzed. The bed expansion as a function of operational fluid velocity was measured and correlated with the Richardson-Zaki equation. Theoretical predictions of the correlation parameters (the terminal settling velocity u(t) and exponent n) were improved by modifying equations in the literature. Residence time distributions (RTDs) were studied using acetone as a tracer. Three measures of liquid phase dispersion (the height equivalent of theoretical plate, Bodenstein number and axial distribution coefficient) were investigated and compared to values previously obtained with commercial EBA adsorbents developed for protein purification. A suitable bed expansion ratio was found to be 1.25 times the settled bed height, which occurred at a corresponding flow velocity of 183 cm/h. For an initial settled bed height of 42 cm, the mean residence time of liquid in the expanded bed was around 28 min. Under these flow conditions, the axial mixing coefficient D(ax) was 7.54 x 10(-6) m(2)/s and the Bodenstein number was 28; the number of theoretical plates (N) was 19 and the height equivalent of a theoretical plate (HETP) was 2.77 cm. Rutin trihydrate was used as a model flavonoid for the characterization of the adsorption properties of Amberlite XAD7HP. Adsorption was observed to reach equilibrium within 3 h with 70% of the adsorption capacity being achieved within 30 min. The estimated maximum equilibrium adsorption capacity for rutin was estimated to be 43.0 mg/(gresin) when the results were fitted to Langmuir isotherms. The adsorption performance was not seriously impaired by the physical presence of G. biloba leaf powders. Assessment of the kinetics of the adsorption of rutin revealed that the rate

  10. High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Five Compounds in the Pulp and Seed of Sea Buckthorn

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lu; Wen, E; Upur, Halmuart; Tian, Shuge

    2017-01-01

    Context: Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) as a traditional Chinese medicinal plant has various uses in Xinjiang. Objective: A reversed-phase rapid-resolution liquid-chromatography method with diode array detector was developed for simultaneous determination of protocatechuic acid, rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin in the pulp and seed of sea buckthorn, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine for promoting metabolism and treating scurvy and other diseases. Settings and design: Compounds were separated on an Agilent ZORBAX SB-C18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm; USA) with gradient elution using methanol and 0.4% phosphoric acid (v/v) at 1.0 mL/min. Detection wavelength was set at 280 nm. Materials and Methods: The fruits of wild sea buckthorn were collected from Wushi County in Aksu, Xinjiang Province. Statistical performances: The RSD of precision test of the five compounds were in the range of 0.60-2.22%, and the average recoveries ranged from 97.36% to 101.19%. Good linearity between specific chromatographic peak and component qualities were observed in the investigated ranges for all the analytes (R2 > 0.9997). Results: The proposed method was successfully applied to determine the levels of five active components in sea buckthorn samples from Aksu in Xinjiang. Conclusions: The proposed method is simple, fast, sensitive, accurate, and suitable for quantitative assessment of the pulp and seed of sea buckthorn. SUMMARY Quantitative analysis method of protocatechuic acid, rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin in the extract of sea buckthorn pulp and seed is developed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) diode array detection.This method is simple and accurate; has strong specificity, good precision, and high recovery rate; and provides a reliable basis for further development of the substances in the pulp and seed of sea buckthorn.The method is widely used for content determination of active ingredients or physiologically

  11. New Synthetic Pyrazine Carboxamide Derivatives as Potential Elicitors in Production of Secondary Metabolite in In vitro Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Tůmová, Lenka; Tůma, Jiří; Doležal, Martin; Dučaiová, Zuzana; Kubeš, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Silymarin, an active polyphenolic fraction of Silybum marianum, and high flavonoid content of Fagopyrum possess various interesting biological activities. The substituted pyrazine-2-carboxamides were previously used as effective elicitors of studied secondary metabolites. Objective: To study the effect of new synthetic pyrazine carboxamide derivatives, N-(4-chlorobenzyl)-5-tert-butylpyrazine-2-carboxamide (1) and 3-(3-((trifluoromethyl) benzyl) amino) pyrazine-2-carboxamide (2), on flavonolignan and flavonoid production in S. marianum and Fagopyrumes culentum in vitro cultures. Materials and Methods: Callus and suspension cultures were cultured on MS medium containing α-naphtaleneacetic acid or 2,4-D. Three elicitor concentrations for different exposure times were tested. Dried and powdered samples of callus and suspension cultures were extracted with methanol and analyzed by DAD-HPLC. Results: Compound 1 showed as a good elicitor of taxifolin production. The effect on silymarin complex was less visible with a maximum between 24 and 48 h after 3.292 ×10−4 mol/L concentration. The detailed analysis showed that silychristin was the most abundant. Compound 2 was effective in rutin production only in callus culture with maximum 24 h and 168 h after application of 3.3756 ×10−3 mol/L concentration and 48 and 72 h after 3.3756 ×10−4 mol/L concentration. Conclusion: From the results of the performed experiments, it can be concluded that compound 1 shows to be suitable elicitor for enhanced production of taxifolin and silychristin in S. marianum, mainly when 3.292 ×10−4 mol/L concentration was used, and compound 2 is suitable for increase rutin production in callus cultures and less appropriate for suspension cultures of F. esculentum. SUMMARY The influence of two new synthetic pyrazine-2-carboxamidesderivatives on secondary metabolite content of Silybum marianum and Fagopyrum esculentum in vitro cultures was tested.In S. marianum, the derivate N-(4

  12. Effect of Rol Genes on Polyphenols Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua and Their Effect on Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Potential of the Plant.

    PubMed

    Dilshad, Erum; Zafar, Sara; Ismail, Hammad; Waheed, Mohammad Tahir; Cusido, Rosa Maria; Palazon, Javier; Mirza, Bushra

    2016-08-01

    Flavonoids are famous for their antioxidant capacity and redox potential. They can combat with cell aging, lipid peroxidation, and cancer. In the present study, Artemisia annua hybrid (Hyb8001r) was subjected to qualitative and quantitative analysis of flavonoids through HPLC. Rol genes transgenics of A. annua were also evaluated for an increase in their flavonoid content along with an increase in antioxidant and cytotoxic potential. This was also correlated with the expression level of flavonoids biosynthetic pathway genes as determined by real-time qPCR. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase genes were found to be significantly more highly expressed in rol B (four to sixfold) and rol C transgenics (3.8-5.5-fold) than the wild-type plant. Flavonoids detected in the wild-type A. annua through HPLC include rutin (0.31 mg/g DW), quercetin (0.01 mg/g DW), isoquercetin (0.107 mg/g DW) and caffeic acid (0.03 mg/g DW). Transgenics of the rol B gene showed up to threefold increase in rutin and caffeic acid, sixfold increase in isoquercetin, and fourfold increase in quercetin. Whereas, in the case of transgenics of rol C gene, threefold increase in rutin and quercetin, 5 fold increase in isoquercetin, and 2.6-fold increase in caffeic acid was followed. Total phenolics and flavonoids content was also found to be increased in rol B (1.5-fold) and rol C (1.4-fold) transgenics as compared to the wild-type plant along with increased free radical scavenging activity. Similarly, the cytotoxic potential of rol gene transgenics against MCF7, HeLA, and HePG2 cancer cell lines was found to be significantly enhanced than the wild-type plant of A. annua. Current findings support the fact that rol genes can alter the secondary metabolism and phytochemical level of the plant. They increased the flavonoids content of A. annua by altering the expression level of flavonoids biosynthetic pathway genes. Increased flavonoid content also enhanced the antioxidant and cytotoxic

  13. Antiartherosclerotic Effects of Plant Flavonoids

    PubMed Central

    Gunasekaran, Baskaran; Shukor, Mohd Yunus

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the process of hardening and narrowing the arteries. Atherosclerosis is generally associated with cardiovascular diseases such as strokes, heart attacks, and peripheral vascular diseases. Since the usage of the synthetic drug, statins, leads to various side effects, the plants flavonoids with antiartherosclerotic activity gained much attention and were proven to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis in vitro and in vivo based on different animal models. The flavonoids compounds also exhibit lipid lowering effects and anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic properties. The future development of flavonoids-based drugs is believed to provide significant effects on atherosclerosis and its related diseases. This paper discusses the antiatherosclerotic effects of selected plant flavonoids such as quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, rutin, naringenin, catechin, fisetin, and gossypetin. PMID:24971331

  14. EFFECTS OF SINGLE, BINARY AND TERTIARY COMBINATIONS WITH Jatropha gossypifolia AND OTHER PLANT-DERIVED MOLLUSCICIDES ON REPRODUCTION AND SURVIVAL OF THE SNAIL Lymnaea acuminata

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Ram P.; Singh, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    The effect of sub-lethal doses (40% and 80% of LC50/24h) of plant derived molluscicides of singly, binary (1:1) and tertiary (1:1:1) combinations of the Rutin, Ellagic acid, Betulin and taraxerol with J. gossypifolia latex, leaf and stem bark powder extracts and their active component on the reproduction of freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata have been studied. It was observed that the J. gossypifolia latex, stem bark, individual leaf and their combinations with other plant derived active molluscicidal components caused a significant reduction in fecundity, hatchability and survival of young snails. It is believed that sub-lethal exposure of these molluscicides on snail reproduction is a complex process involving more than one factor in reducing the reproductive capacity. PMID:25229223

  15. Antioxidant Capacity, Mineral Content and Sensory Properties of Gluten-Free Rice and Buckwheat Cookies

    PubMed Central

    Pestorić, Mladenka; Mišan, Aleksandra; Nedeljković, Nataša; Jambrec, Dubravka; Jovanov, Pavle; Banjac, Vojislav; Torbica, Aleksandra; Hadnađev, Miroslav; Mandić, Anamarija

    2015-01-01

    Summary Light buckwheat flour was used to substitute rice flour at the level of 10, 20 and 30% to produce gluten-free cookies. The substitution of gluten-free cookie formulation with light buckwheat flour contributed to the significantly higher mineral content, especially magnesium, potassium, iron and copper, in comparison with the control rice cookies (p<0.05). Gluten-free cookies made with rice flour and buckwheat flour exhibited significantly higher total phenolic and rutin content, scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH•), antioxidant activity and reducing power than the control cookies (p<0.05). Comparing all evaluated sensory properties, cookies containing 20% of light buckwheat flour had the most acceptable sensory properties. The obtained results of principal component analysis showed that the cookies with 20 and 30% buckwheat flour had better antioxidant and sensory properties in comparison with other two cookie samples. PMID:27904330

  16. Variety-based research on the phenolic content in the aerial parts of organically and conventionally grown buckwheat.

    PubMed

    Žvikas, V; Pukelevičienė, V; Ivanauskas, L; Pukalskas, A; Ražukas, A; Jakštas, V

    2016-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different farming types-organic and conventional-on phenolic content in buckwheat varieties grown in Lithuania. Rutin was identified as the dominant phenolic compound in contrast to both phenolic acids (chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acids) and other flavonoids (quercetin and quercitrin). It was determined that variety had the highest impact (p<0.05) on the phenolic content of various aerial parts of buckwheat. In most cases, farming practice significantly (p<0.05) affected the accumulation of phenolics in buckwheat. Organically grown plants usually contained higher amounts of phenolics than those grown under conventional farming conditions. According to a cluster analysis, varieties Panda, Zaleika, and VB Nojai were found to accumulate the highest amounts of phenolics.

  17. Phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of Malus domestica leaves.

    PubMed

    Liaudanskas, Mindaugas; Viškelis, Pranas; Raudonis, Raimondas; Kviklys, Darius; Uselis, Norbertas; Janulis, Valdimaras

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the composition and content of phenolic compounds in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of these extracts. The total phenolic content was determined spectrophotometrically, as well as the total flavonoid content in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and the antioxidant activity of these extracts, by the ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays. The highest amount of phenolic compounds and flavonoids as well as the highest antioxidant activity was determined in the ethanol extracts obtained from the apple leaves of the cv. Aldas. The analysis by the HPLC method revealed that phloridzin was a predominant component in the ethanol extracts of the apple leaves of all cultivars investigated. The following quercetin glycosides were identified and quantified in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves: hyperoside, isoquercitrin, avicularin, rutin, and quercitrin. Quercitrin was the major compound among quercetin glycosides.

  18. Benzothiazole derivatives: novel inhibitors of methylglyoxal mediated glycation of proteins in vitro.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Sanaullah; Mirza, Salma; Rasheed, Saima; Hussain, Shafqat; Khan, Jalaluddin A J; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Perveen, Shahnaz; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript describes the protein anti-glycation activity of thirty-three (33) benzothiazoles, out of which twenty-seven were the newly synthesized benzothiazoles. Compound 1 (IC50= 187 ± 2.6 µM) was found to be the most active, while compounds 2 (IC50= 219 ± 3.6 µM), 3 (IC50= 224 ± 1.9 µM), 4 (IC50= 223 ± 3.3 µM), 5 (IC50= 238 ± 2.2 µM), 7 (IC50= 266 ± 5.4 µM), 17 (IC50= 226 ± 1.6 µM) and 18 (IC50= 274 ± 2.4 µM) were significantly active, when compared with the standard rutin (IC50= 294 ± 1.5 µM). This study identified potential inhibitors of methylglyoxal mediated glycation of proteins, which is the pathophysiology of late diabetic complications.

  19. LC-MS analysis of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of buckwheat at different stages of malting.

    PubMed

    Terpinc, Petra; Cigić, Blaž; Polak, Tomaž; Hribar, Janez; Požrl, Tomaž

    2016-11-01

    The impact of malting on the profile of the phenolic compounds and the antioxidant properties of two buckwheat varieties was investigated. The highest relative increases in phenolic compounds were observed for isoorientin, orientin, and isovitexin, which are consequently major inducible phenolic compounds during malting. Only a minor relative increase was observed for the most abundant phenolic compound, rutin. The radical-scavenging activity of buckwheat seeds was evaluated using ABTS and DPPH assays. A considerable increase in total phenolic compounds and higher antioxidant activity were observed after 64h of germination, whereas kilning resulted in decreased total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Higher antioxidant activities for extracts were found for buffered solvents than for pure methanol and water. Changes in the composition of the phenolic compounds and increased antioxidant content were confirmed by several methods, indicating that buckwheat malt can be used as a food rich in antioxidants.

  20. A Molecularly Imprinted Polymer with Incorporated Graphene Oxide for Electrochemical Determination of Quercetin

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Si; Zhang, Mengqi; Li, Yijun; He, Xiwen

    2013-01-01

    The molecularly imprinted polymer based on polypyrrole film with incorporated graphene oxide was fabricated and used for electrochemical determination of quercetin. The electrochemical behavior of quercetin on the modified electrode was studied in detail using differential pulse voltammetry. The oxidation peak current of quercetin in B-R buffer solution (pH = 3.5) at the modified electrode was regressed with the concentration in the range from 6.0 × 10−7 to 1.5 × 10−5 mol/L (r2 = 0.997) with a detection limit of 4.8 × 10−8 mol/L (S/N = 3). This electrode showed good stability and reproducibility. In the above mentioned range, rutin or morin which has similar structures and at the same concentration as quercetin did not interfere with the determination of quercetin. The applicability of the method for complex matrix analysis was also evaluated. PMID:23698263

  1. Optimization of subcritical water extraction parameters of antioxidant polyphenols from sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) seed residue.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ying; Zhang, Xiaofei; He, Li; Yan, Qiuli; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yanxiang

    2015-03-01

    Polyphenols was extracted with subcritical water from the sea buckthorn seed residue (after oil recovery), and the extraction parameters were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The independent processing variables were extraction temperature, extraction time and the ratio of water to solid. The optimal extraction parameters for the extracts with highest ABTS radical scavenging activity were 120 °C, 36 min and the water to solid ratio of 20, and the maximize antioxidant capacity value was 32.42 mmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g. Under the optimal conditions, the yield of total phenolics, total flavonoids and proanthocyanidins was 36.62 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g, 19.98 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/g and 10.76 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/g, respectively.

  2. Assessment of flavonoids contents and in vitro antioxidant activity of Launaea procumbens

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Launaea procumbens (LP) has been used as a food supplement in Pakistan. In this study methanolic crude extract (LPME) of the whole plant and its different fractions; n-hexane (LPHE); ethyl acetate (LPEE) and chloroform (LPCE) were studied for the determination of total flavonoid and phenolics contents along with multifaceted in vitro scavenging assays. Results Considerable amount of flavonoid and phenolics contents were found in all the fractions. Methanol and chloroform fraction exhibited efficient scavenging of DPPH·, ABTS·+, ·OH, superoxide, lipid peroxide and nitric oxide free radicals. Significant correlation was found between DPPH·, ABTS·+, superoxide radical, β-carotene bleaching restraint and phosphomolybdenum assay with total flavonoids and phenolics contents. High performance chromatography (HPLC) of LPME revealed the presence of vitexin, orientin, rutin, hyperoside, catechin and myricetin. Conclusion These results reveal the presence of bioactive compounds in LPME, which might be contributed towards the various in vitro scavenging. PMID:22616896

  3. Phytochemical and biological studies of Adiantum capillus-veneris L.

    PubMed Central

    Ibraheim, Zedan Z.; Ahmed, Amany S.; Gouda, Yaser G.

    2011-01-01

    Chromatographic fractionation of the alcoholic extract of the dried fronds of Adiantum capillus-veneris L. (Adiantaceae) yielded seven compounds: four triterpenoidal compounds belonging to adiantane and filicane groups were isolated from the hexane fraction and identified as isoadiantone (1); isoadiantol-B (2); 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyfilicane (3) and 3,4-dihydroxyfilicane (4) and three flavonoids were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction and identified as: quercetin (5), quercetin-3-O-glucoside (6) and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin) (7). The identification of the isolated compounds has been established through their physical, chemical and spectroscopic methods including IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HSQC, HMBC, NOESY and MS. Biological studies of the total alcoholic extract, hexane fraction and some of the isolated compounds showed an anti-inflammatory activity while the hypoglycemic study of the total alcoholic extract showed a significant activity. PMID:23960744

  4. Antibacterial Potential of Northeastern Portugal Wild Plant Extracts and Respective Phenolic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Soares, Graça; Henriques, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    The present work aims to assess the antibacterial potential of phenolic extracts, recovered from plants obtained on the North East of Portugal, and of their phenolic compounds (ellagic, caffeic, and gallic acids, quercetin, kaempferol, and rutin), against bacteria commonly found on skin infections. The disk diffusion and the susceptibility assays were used to identify the most active extracts and phenolic compounds. The effect of selected phenolic compounds on animal cells was assessed by determination of cellular metabolic activity. Gallic acid had a higher activity, against gram-positive (S. epidermidis and S. aureus) and gram-negative bacteria (K. pneumoniae) at lower concentrations, than the other compounds. The caffeic acid, also, showed good antibacterial activity against the 3 bacteria used. The gallic acid was effective against the 3 bacteria without causing harm to the animal cells. Gallic and caffeic acid showed a promising applicability as antibacterial agents for the treatment of infected wounds. PMID:24804249

  5. A new phenolic compound with antioxidant activity from the branches and leaves of Pyrus pashia.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-Jie; Zheng, Xi; Wan, Chun-Ping; Cai, Le; Li, Ying; Huang, Lin; Ding, Zhong-Tao

    2016-01-01

    The branches and leaves of Pyrus pashia are used to cure abdominal pain and diarrhoea in Chinese folk medicine. A new phenilic compound, 4-O-β-d-glucopyranosylbenzyl-benzoate ester (1), along with 21 known ones (2-22) were isolated from the branches and leaves of this plant. Compounds 2 and 3 displayed remarkable antioxidant activities against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (IC50 = 13.26 ± 0.04 μM, 13.28 ± 0.11 μM, respectively), which were at the same grade as positive control rutin. The caffeoyl group in compounds 2 and 3 was supposed to play an important role in the antioxidant activities.

  6. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical characterization of Carya illinoensis.

    PubMed

    Bottari, Nathieli Bianchin; Lopes, Leonardo Quintana Soares; Pizzuti, Kauana; Filippi Dos Santos Alves, Camilla; Corrêa, Marcos Saldanha; Bolzan, Leandro Perger; Zago, Adriana; de Almeida Vaucher, Rodrigo; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Giongo, Janice Luehring; Baldissera, Matheus Dellaméa; Santos, Roberto Christ Vianna

    2017-03-01

    Carya illinoensis is a widespread species, belonging to the Juglandaceae family, commonly known as Pecan. Popularly, the leaves have been used in the treatment of smoking as a hypoglycemic, cleansing, astringent, keratolytic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial agent. The following research aimed to identify for the first time the phytochemical compounds present in the leaves of C. illinoensis and carry out the determination of antimicrobial activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts. The antimicrobial activity was tested against 20 microorganisms by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Phenolic acids (gallic acid and ellagic acid), flavonoids (rutin), and tannins (catechins and epicatechins) were identified by HPLC-DAD and may be partially responsible for the antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and yeast. The results showed MIC values between 25 mg/mL and 0.78 mg/mL. The extracts were also able to inhibit the production of germ tubes by Candida albicans.

  7. Verification of presence of caprolactam in sprouted achenes of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and its influence on plant phenolic compound content.

    PubMed

    Kalinová, Jana P; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Moos, Martin

    2014-08-15

    The presence of caprolactam, a precursor of Nylon-6, among those synthetic polymers which are widely-spread throughout the environment, could be the reason for its being found in plants. The aim of this work was to confirm the previously described presence of caprolactam in dry and sprouted achenes, as well as in achene exudates of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). When the lyophilized sprouted and dry buckwheat achenes, along with exudates from growth experiments, with caprolactam-free medium were analysed by HPLC, no caprolactam was found. After addition of caprolactam into the growth medium, we confirmed the uptake of caprolactam in the lyophilized sprouted buckwheat achenes. The uptake of caprolactam is also a function of light conditions during the growth experiments. Caprolactam also inhibits the content of phenolic compounds; especially rutin, vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and homoorientin in buckwheat plants.

  8. Chemical composition and health effects of Tartary buckwheat.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan

    2016-07-15

    Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) contains a range of nutrients including bioactive carbohydrates and proteins, polyphenols, phytosterols, vitamins, carotenoids, and minerals. The unique composition of Tartary buckwheat contributes to their various health benefits such as anti-oxidative, anti-cancer, anti-hypertension, anti-diabetic, cholesterol-lowering, and cognition-improving. Compared with the more widely cultivated and utilised common buckwheat (F. esculentum), Tartary buckwheat tends to contain higher amounts of certain bioactive components such as rutin, therefore, showing higher efficiency in preventing/treating various disorders. This review summarises the current knowledge of the chemical composition of Tartary buckwheat, and their bio-functions as studied by both in vitro and in vivo models. Tartary buckwheat can be further developed as a sustainable crop for functional food production to improve human health.

  9. Separation of five flavonoids from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn) grains via off-line two dimensional high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shujing; Liu, Qi; Xie, Yixi; Zeng, Hualiang; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Xinyu; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2015-11-01

    An off-line two dimensional (2D) high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) strategy was successfully used for preparative separation of five flavonoids from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn) grains with different solvent systems for the first time in this paper. n-Hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water 3:5:3:5 (v/v) was selected as the first dimension solvent system to purify quercetin (4) and kaempferol (5). The second dimension solvent system, ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water 7:3:10 (v/v), was used to isolate quercetin 3-O-rutinoside-3'-O-β-glucopyranoside (1), rutin (2) and kaempferol 3-rutinoside (3). The purities of these compounds were all above 96.0% and their structures were identified through UV, MS and (1)H NMR. The results indicated that the off-line 2D HSCCC is an efficient technique to isolate flavonoids compounds from grains.

  10. Level of catechin, myricetin, quercetin and isoquercitrin in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), changes of their levels during vegetation and their effect on the growth of selected weeds.

    PubMed

    Kalinova, Jana; Vrchotova, Nadezda

    2009-04-08

    Buckwheat is well-known as a crop rich in flavonoids, however, attention has usually only been paid to the main flavonoid rutin as an important natural antioxidant or as a possible allelopathic compound. Therefore, some of the other constituents found within individual plant parts of buckwheat (isoquercitrin, quercetin, catechin, and myricetin), as well as changes of their level during the growing season, were determined by HPLC analysis. The effects of these compounds on plant growth were proved on seven plant species. In buckwheat, isoquercitrin represented the largest component of the selected compounds. The strongest inhibitive effects on the growth of those selected plants were produced by catechin. Quercetin and isoquercitrin had weak inhibitive effects. Myricetin did not show any influence on plant growth. Hence we suppose that myricetin, isoquercetin and quercetin do not have important function in allelopathy of buckwheat. Buckwheat as row material for functional foods could be a significant source of another antioxidant, isoquercitrin.

  11. Trace element water improves the antioxidant activity of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) sprouts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Ling; Chen, Yih-Shyuan; Yang, Joan-Hwa; Chiang, Been-Huang; Hsu, Cheng-Kuang

    2007-10-31

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) was grown in trace element water (TEW) (100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm) and deionized water (DIW) to evaluate whether the beneficial effects of trace elements on the antioxidant activity could be accomplished with the supplement of TEW. At 300 ppm, TEW significantly increased the Cu, Zn, Mn, and Fe contents in buckwheat sprout but not the Se content. However, the levels of rutin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin did not differ between buckwheat sprouts grown in TEW and DIW. The ethanolic extract from buckwheat sprout grown in 300 ppm of TEW showed higher ferrous ion chelating activity and inhibitory activity toward lipid peroxidation than that grown in DIW. The extract in the TEW group also enhanced intracellular superoxide dismutase activity and lowered reactive oxygen species and superoxide anion in the human Hep G2 cell. It was concluded that TEW could increase the antioxidant activities of buckwheat sprouts.

  12. Smooth muscle relaxing flavonoids and terpenoids from Conyza filaginoides.

    PubMed

    Mata, R; Rojas, A; Acevedo, L; Estrada, S; Calzada, F; Rojas, I; Bye, R; Linares, E

    1997-02-01

    Activity-guided fractionation of the smooth muscle relaxing, chloroform-methanol (1:1) extract of Conyza filaginoides (D.C.) Hieron (Asteraceae) led to the isolation of three flavonoids (quercetin 3-glucoside, rutin, and pinostrobin), one sterol (alpha-spinasterol), a sesquiterpenoid (beta-caryophyllene 4,5-alpha-oxide), and two triterpenoids (erythrodiol and 3-beta-tridecanoyloxy-28-hydroxyolean-12-ene). 3-beta-Tridecanoyloxy-28-hydroxy-olean-12-ene is a new naturally occurring terpenoid. All the isolated compounds induced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the spontaneous contractions of rat ileum. The spasmolytic activity exhibited by the extract and active principles tends to support the traditional use of C filaginoides as an antispasmodic agent.

  13. Flavonoid nanocrystals produced by ARTcrystal®-technology.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Patrik; Keck, Cornelia M

    2015-03-30

    ARTcrystal(®)-technology is a novel technique for a more efficient production of nanocrystals. It consists of a high speed stirring (HSS) step as pre-milling and subsequent high pressure homogenization (HPH) at reduced pressure and cycle numbers. In this study, three antioxidants, rutin, hesperidin and apigenin, were processed by ARTcrystal(®)-technology, the results were compared to sizes obtained for the production of nanocrystals produced by classical HPH. By using the ARTcrystal(®)-process, all three substances could be transformed into nanosuspensions with mean sizes and PdIs of 431 nm/0.27, 717 nm/0.21 and 262 nm/0.31, respectively. Depending on the properties of the raw material the ARTcrystal(®)-technology revealed similar or even better results than classical HPH. Further optimization of the setup of the HSS process might lead to an optimized process with higher efficacy than classical HPH.

  14. Flavonoid composition of Juniperus oblonga Bieb.

    PubMed

    Pisarev, D I; Novikov, O O; Novikova, M Yu; Zhilyakova, E T

    2011-04-01

    Juniperus oblonga Bieb is widely spread in the Caucasus Mountains, particularly in its eastern and southern regions. Diuretic effect of juniper berries is determined by the presence of volatile oils and polyphenol complex, particularly flavonoids. Flavonoids were extracted from raw material with 70% ethanol and then with ethyl acetate. Column chromatography of ethyl acetate fraction on polyamide yielded 5 compounds, which were identified on the basis of physicochemical constants of parent compounds and products of acid hydrolysis and alkaline degradation of aglycones and on the basis of UV-spectroscopy as apigenin, isoquercitrin, apigenin-7-glucoside, quercetin-3-rutinoside, and scutellarin-7-glucoside. Quantitative composition of flavonoid in equivalent to rutin concentration in Juniperus oblonga Bieb was 0.910±0.007% (UV-spectrophotometry data).

  15. Determination of some polyphenolic compounds from Allium species by HPLC-UV-MS.

    PubMed

    Parvu, Marcel; Toiu, Anca; Vlase, Laurian; Alina Parvu, Elena

    2010-09-01

    Five Allium species (Allium obliquum L., A. senescens L. subsp. montanum (Fries) Holub, A. schoenoprasum L. subsp. schoenoprasum, A. fistulosum L. and A. ursinum L.) were analysed in order to determine the presence of 19 polyphenolic compounds through an HPLC method coupled with UV and mass spectrometry detection. The pattern of phenol carboxylic acids indicates the presence of p-coumaric and ferulic acids in all species. Isoquercitrin was found in A. obliquum, A. schoenoprasum and A. fistulosum, rutin in A. senescens subsp. montanum and A. schoenoprasum, whereas quercitrin was found only in A. fistulosum, so they represent potential taxonomic markers that differentiate the four plants. Luteolin and apigenin were identified before and after hydrolysis only in A. obliquum. The amounts of all polyphenols were higher in hydrolysed samples, suggesting that these substances are present both as unbonded and bonded glycosides and/or esters. Our study showed large differences between the five Allium species, both qualitative and quantitative.

  16. Optimised method for the analysis of phenolic compounds from caper (Capparis spinosa L.) berries and monitoring of their changes during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Francesca, Nicola; Barbera, Marcella; Martorana, Alessandra; Saiano, Filippo; Gaglio, Raimondo; Aponte, Maria; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

    2016-04-01

    In this work, an ad hoc method to identify and quantify polyphenols from caper berries was developed on high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation source/mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). The method was applied during fermentation carried out with Lactobacillus pentosus OM13 (Trial S) and without starter (Trial C). A total of five polyphenols were identified. All samples contained high concentrations of rutin. Epicatechin was found in untreated fruits, on the contrary quercetin was detected during fermentation. Trial S was characterised by a more rapid acidification and lower levels of spoilage microorganisms than Trial C. L. pentosus dominated among the microbial community of both trials and the highest biodiversity, in terms of strains, was displayed by Trial C. Aureobasidium pullulans was the only yeast species found. The analytical method proposed allowed a high polyphenolic compound recovery from untreated and processed caper berries in short time. The starter culture reduced the bitter taste of the final product.

  17. Anti-H5N1 virus flavonoids from Capparis sinaica Veill.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Amany K; Youssef, Ahmed I; Arafa, Abdel Satar; Ahmed, Safwat A

    2013-01-01

    Methanolic extract of Capparis sinaica Veill was tested for its in vitro antiviral activity against highly pathogenic avian influenza strain H5N1 using plaque inhibition assay in Madin-Darby canine kidney. The results indicated that the extract possessed potent antiviral activity (100% inhibition at the concentration of 1 μg/ml). Based on this result, C. sinaica Veill was selected for further study by applying bioactivity-guided fractionation to isolate its antiviral principles. The fractions eluted with EtOAc and 25% MeOH in EtOAc were found to hold the antiviral activity. Further chromatographic separation of the fractions holding the antiviral activity led to the isolation of quercetin (1), isoquercetin (2) and rutin (3) for the first time from this species. The isolates showed reduction in the virus titre by 68.13%, 79.66% and 73.22% inhibition at a concentration of 1 ng/ml, respectively.

  18. Comparison of phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of European Fagopyrum esculentum cultivars.

    PubMed

    Kiprovski, Biljana; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Veberic, Robert; Stampar, Franci; Malencic, Djordje; Latkovic, Dragana

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate composition and content of phenolic compounds in seeds of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) cultivars from Western, Central and Southeastern Europe grown in the Balkan area, and to compare them with cultivars from the Balkan. Mostly detected hydroxycinnamic acids in seeds of the investigated cultivars were caffeic and chlorogenic acid derivatives. More than ten different flavanols were detected in the investigated seeds, based on which all tested buckwheat cultivars were divided into two groups: those with high propelargonidins (epiafzelechin-epicatechin) and those with high procyanidins contents. 'Novosadska' had the highest level of phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins, flavones and most of the flavonols. However, 'Bosna 1' and 'Bosna 2' were highlighted with the greatest rutin content (up to 46 times higher than in other cultivars). All buckwheat cultivars had quite high antioxidant capacity (more than 80% of neutralized radicals), yet, 'Novosadska', 'Godijevo', 'Spacinska 1' and 'Bamby' excelled.

  19. Volatile and Flavonoid Composition of the Peel of Citrus medica L. var. Corsican Fruit for Quality Assessment of Its Liqueur.

    PubMed

    Venturini, Nicolas; Barboni, Toussaint; Curk, Franck; Costa, Jean; Paolini, Julien

    2014-12-01

    The volatile and flavonoid compositions of the peel of Citrus medica L. var. Corsican fruits cultivated in Corsica were studied according to the maturity of the citron fruits measured using growing degree-days. Quantitative variation with the stage of development of the fruit was observed using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. Thirty volatile compounds were identified in the peel essential oil. Limonene and γ-terpinene were the major compounds. The volatile compositions of commercial citron liqueurs were also characterized by high amounts of monoterpene hydrocarbons with the same two major components. The main flavonoid components of citron fruits and derived liqueurs were rutin and neohesperidin. This chemical characterization can be used for quality assessment of food products from C. medica var. Corsican.

  20. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering in art and archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leona, Marco

    2005-11-01

    The identification of natural dyes found in archaeological objects and in works of art as textile dyes and lake pigments is a demanding analytical task. To address the problems raised by the very low dye content of dyed fibers and lake pigments, and by the requirement to remove only microscopic samples, surface enhanced Raman scattering techniques were investigated for application to museum objects. SERS gives excellent results with the majority of natural dyes, including: alizarin, purpurin, laccaic acid, carminic acid, kermesic acid, shikonin, juglone, lawsone, brazilin and brazilein, haematoxylin and haematein, fisetin, quercitrin, quercetin, rutin, and morin. In this study, limits of detection were determined for representative dyes and different SERS supports such as citrate reduced Ag colloid and silver nanoisland films. SERS was successfully used to identify natural madder in a microscopic fragment from a severely degraded 11th Century Byzantine textile recently excavated in Amorium, Turkey.

  1. Formation and inhibition of Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine in saccharide-lysine model systems during microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Han, Lipeng; Fu, Quanyi; Li, Yuting; Liang, Zhili; Su, Jianyu; Li, Bing

    2012-10-31

    N(ε)-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML) is the most abundant advanced glycation end product (AGE), and frequently selected as an AGEs marker in laboratory studies. In this paper, the formation and inhibition of N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine in saccharide-lysine model systems during microwave heating have been studied. The microwave heating treatment significantly promoted the formation of CML during Maillard reactions, which was related to the reaction temperature, time and type of saccharide. The order of CML formation for different saccharides was lactose > glucose > sucrose. Then, the inhibition effect on CML by five inhibitors was further examined. According to the results, ascorbic acid and tocopherol did not affect inhibition of CML, in contrast, thiamin, rutin and quercetin inhibited CML formation, and the inhibitory effects were concentration dependent.

  2. Dysfunctionality of the xylem in Olea europaea L. Plants associated with the infection process by Verticillium dahliae Kleb. Role of phenolic compounds in plant defense mechanism.

    PubMed

    Báidez, Ana G; Gómez, Pedro; Del Río, José A; Ortuño, Ana

    2007-05-02

    Xylem ultrastructural modification and the possible participation of phenolic compounds in the natural defense or resistance mechanisms of olive plants infected with Verticillium dahliae Kleb. were studied. Microscopic study showed that the mycelium propagated and passed from one element to another through the pit. The formation of tyloses and aggregates contributed to obstruction of the xylem lumen. In vivo changes in the levels of these phenolic compounds in infected olive plants and their antifungal activity against Verticillium dahliae Kleb., as revealed by in vitro study, strongly suggest that they are involved in natural defense or resistance mechanisms in this plant material, the most active being quercetin and luteolin aglycons, followed by rutin, oleuropein, luteolin-7-glucoside, tyrosol, p-coumaric acid, and catechin. .

  3. Contribution of phenolics and essential oils to the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Disporopsis pernyi (Hua) Diels.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qisi; Zhang, Ling; Yang, Dongzhi; Chunjie, Zhao

    2014-06-01

    This study describes the characterization of essential oil and phenolic compounds in Disporopsis pernyi (Hua) Diels. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and twelve volatile bioactive compounds of D. pernyi were identified. Polyphenols were identified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS) and quantified by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). A total of 4 polyphenolic compounds found in extract were identified as rutin, luteolin, quercetin, and betulinic acid. All obtained extracts and the 4 polyphenolic compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The results suggested that the phenolic compounds contributed significantly to the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the plant.

  4. Maesa indica: a nutritional wild berry rich in polyphenols with special attention to radical scavenging and inhibition of key enzymes, α-amylase and α-glucosidase.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Saravanan; Baby, John Prakash; Chandran, Rahul; Thankarajan, Sajeesh; Thangaraj, Parimelazhagan

    2016-07-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the nutritional, antioxidant properties and inhibition of the key enzyme such as α-amylase and α-glucosidase from the fruits of Maesa indica. The results revealed that M. indica fruits possess an enormous amount of protein (45.68 mg/g), carbohydrates (25.12 mg/g) and mineral elements. The acetone extract were capable of hunting radicals by providing electrons and break chain reaction, especially in ABTS(·+) (3719.23 µmol TE/g extract), OH(·) (66.50 %) and NO(·) (81.50 %) radical scavenging assays. The methanol extract showed a strong inhibition towards α-amylase and α-glucosidase (IC50 of 37.80 and 23.74 µg/mL, respectively). HPLC analysis enumerate that both extracts illustrates the presence of polyphenolic compounds namely quercetin, caffeic acid, rutin and chlorogenic acid.

  5. Photodynamic decontamination of blood for transfusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Hur, Ehud; Margolis-Nunno, H.; Gottlieb, P.; Lustigman, S.; Horowitz, Bernard

    1995-01-01

    Currently transfused cellular components of blood are not available in a sterile form and carry a small risk of transmitting viral and parasite diseases. Using phthalocyanines and red light, lipid enveloped viruses, e.g., HIV-1, can be inactivated in red blood cell concentrates (RBCC). Under conditions leading to virus sterilization the blood borne parasites Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease) and Plasmodium falciparum (malaria) could be eliminated to undetectable levels (> 4 log10 kill). RBC damage during treatment could be avoided by increasing the light fluence rate to 80 mW/cm2, and by including the free radical scavenger glutathione and the vitamin E derivative Trolox during light exposure. Similar sterilization of platelet concentrates was achieved with the psoralen derivative AMT and UVA light. Platelet damage due to PUVA treatment was avoided by including the plant flavonoid rutin during irradiation. It is concluded that elimination of the risk of transmitting pathogens during blood transfusion is feasible with photochemical treatments.

  6. [Development and analysis of revitalizing tincture].

    PubMed

    Kalveniene, Zenona; Savickas, Arūnas; Svambaris, Liudvinas; Briedis, Vitalis; Bernatonis, Domininkas

    2002-01-01

    The article deals with the production of the complex tincture of Hyperici herba 80.0 g, Cinnamomi cortex 20.0 g, Rosmarini folium 20.0 g, Lavandulae flos 20.0 g, Zingiberis rhizoma 60.0 g and the selection of an extracting liquid phase, and the choice of extraction method. The experimentally determined optimal conditions for tincture preparation were as follows: concentration of ethanol--70% (V/V), the particle size of the leaves, herb, flowers--2.0-3.0 mm, for the bark and the roots--0.3-0.5 mm, the extraction method--percolation. The quality of the tincture was evaluated by analyzing the sum of flavonoids (recalculated into equivalent amount of rutin), dry residue, the concentration of ethanol, density of the extractive preparation, and microbial contamination. Also the overall appearance was checked, the identification of flavonoids was performed by color reactions and high-pressure liquid chromatography.

  7. Characterization of interactions between polyphenolic compounds and human serum proteins by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Andréa; Escuder-Gilabert, Laura; Lopes, Norberto P; Villanueva-Camañas, Rosa María; Sagrado, Salvador; Medina-Hernández, María José

    2008-05-01

    The interaction of ten natural polyphenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid, apigenin, catechin, epicatechin, flavanone, flavone, quercetin, rutin, vicenin-2 and vitexin) with human serum albumin and mixtures of human serum albumin and α(1)-acid glycoprotein under near physiological conditions is studied by capillary electrophoresis-frontal analysis. Furthermore, the binding of these polyphenolic compounds to total plasmatic proteins is evaluated using ultrafiltration and capillary electrophoresis. In spite of the relatively small differences in the chemical structures of the compounds studied, large differences were observed in their binding behaviours to plasmatic proteins. The hydrophobicity, the presence/absence of some functional groups, steric hindrance and spatial arrangement seem to be key factors in the affinity of natural polyphenols towards plasmatic proteins.

  8. Permeability profile estimation of flavonoids and other phenolic compounds by biopartitioning micellar capillary chromatography.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Andréa; Escuder-Gilabert, Laura; Lopes, Norberto P; Gobbo-Neto, Leonardo; Villanueva-Camañas, Rosa María; Sagrado, Salvador; Medina-Hernández, María José

    2007-10-17

    This paper points out the usefulness of biopartitioning micellar chromatography (BMC) using capillary columns as a high-throughput primary screening tool providing key information about the oral absorption, skin permeability, and brain-blood distribution coefficients of 15 polyphenols (6 flavones, 2 flavonols, a flavanone, 2 flavan-3-ols, 3 phenolic acids, and a phloroglucinol) in a simple and economical way. For the compounds studied, except vicenin-2, rutin, chlorogenic acid, p-hydroxycinnamic acid, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, maximal oral absorption (>90%) can be expected, if there are not solubility problems or metabolic processes. On the other hand, the most retained compounds in BMC, that is, 5-hydroxyflavone, flavone, and flavanone, show the highest brain-blood distribution coefficients and skin permeability coefficients.

  9. The impact of in vitro digestion on bioaccessibility of polyphenols from potatoes and sweet potatoes and their influence on iron absorption by human intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Lisa; Deußer, Hannah; Evers, Danièle

    2013-11-01

    The composition of potatoes as determined by chemical extraction has been described extensively. It is thus quite well known that, among other compounds, potato is rich in polyphenols, vitamins and in some minerals. This paper underlines the important role of simulated gastro-intestinal in vitro digestion in the bioaccessibility of polyphenols (chlorogenic acid and derivatives, and rutin) from potatoes and sweet potatoes and their impact on iron uptake. Concentrations of polyphenols in the flesh of two potato cultivars (Nicola, white potato, and Vitelotte, purple potato) and sweet potato were measured by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography after boiling and after in vitro digestion. Chemical extraction underestimates polyphenol amounts that can be released during digestion and that are actually bioaccessible. Iron uptake, as evaluated by a ferritin assay, by intestinal human cells was decreased after incubation with the intestinal phase of in vitro digestion, presumably due to the presence of polyphenols.

  10. Ginkgo biloba leave extract: biological, medicinal, and toxicological effects.

    PubMed

    Chan, Po-Chuen; Xia, Qingsu; Fu, Peter P

    2007-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba leave extract is among the most widely sold herbal dietary supplements in the United States. Its purported biological effects include: scavenging free radical; lowering oxidative stress; reducing neural damages, reducing platelets aggregation; anti-inflammation; anti-tumor activities; and anti-aging. Clinically, it has been prescribed to treat CNS disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and cognitive deficits. It exerts allergy and changes in bleeding time. While its mutagenicity or carcinogenic activity has not been reported, its components, quercetin, kaempferol and rutin have been shown to be genotoxic. There are no standards or guidelines regulating the constituent components of Ginkgo biloba leave extract nor are exposure limits imposed. Safety evaluation of Ginkgo biloba leave extract is being conducted by the U.S. National Toxicology Program.

  11. Phytochemical profile and antimicrobial properties of Lotus spp. (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Girardi, Felipe A; Tonial, Fabiana; Chini, Silvia O; Sobottka, Andréa M; Scheffer-Basso, Simone M; Bertol, Charise D

    2014-09-01

    The phytochemical profile and antimicrobial activity of cultivar (cv.) extracts of Lotus uliginosus (cvs. Trojan and Serrano), L. tenuis (cv. Larrañaga) and L. corniculatus (cv. São Gabriel) were investigated. The phytochemical analysis revealed tannins, coumarins and flavonoids in all extracts, with variations among cultivars, showing genotypic variability. By High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method, the cvs. Larrañaga and São Gabriel showed the highest percentage of catechin and epicatechin, respectively, and presented rutin, which was not detected in the other ones. These genotypes showed antifungal activity but not antibacterial one. The cv. Larrañaga inhibited the mycelia growth of Alternaria sp. and Fusarium graminearum while the cv. São Gabriel was active only against Alternaria sp. The cultivars showed the greatest amounts of secondary metabolites and demonstrated significant activity against filamentous fungi. The results provide a direction for further research about pharmacological use of Lotus spp.

  12. Effects of single, binary and tertiary combinations with Jatropha gossypifolia and other plant-derived molluscicides on reproduction and survival of the snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ram P; Singh, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    The effect of sub-lethal doses (40% and 80% of LC(50)/24h) of plant derived molluscicides of singly, binary (1:1) and tertiary (1:1:1) combinations of the Rutin, Ellagic acid, Betulin and taraxerol with J. gossypifolia latex, leaf and stem bark powder extracts and their active component on the reproduction of freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata have been studied. It was observed that the J. gossypifolia latex, stem bark, individual leaf and their combinations with other plant derived active molluscicidal components caused a significant reduction in fecundity, hatchability and survival of young snails. It is believed that sub-lethal exposure of these molluscicides on snail reproduction is a complex process involving more than one factor in reducing the reproductive capacity.

  13. Analysis of phenolic compounds in six Norwegian plum cultivars (Prunus domestica L.).

    PubMed

    Slimestad, Rune; Vangdal, Eivind; Brede, Cato

    2009-12-09

    Six European plum cultivars ( Prunus domestica L.) grown in Norway have been studied with respect to phenolic composition. Neochlorogenic acid was found to be the most important phenolic acid in all cultivars. Together with other phenolic acids, this compound varied significantly in amount among the cultivars. Cyanidin 3-rutinoside was found to account for >60% of the total anthocyanin content. Minor amounts of flavonols (rutin and quercetin 3-glucoside) were detected in all cultivars. Total antioxidant capacity varied from 814 to 290 micromol of Trolox 100 g(-1) of fresh weight. Measurement of total phenolic content in terms of Prussian blue complex formation revealed a method failure of magnitude order compared to results obtained by HPLC. Comparison of the response factors of a range of phenolic compounds obtained upon analysis by the Prussian blue and Folin-Ciocalteu assays revealed that the latter method returned higher yields in terms of gallic acid (GAE).

  14. Tissue distribution comparison between healthy and fatty liver rats after oral administration of hawthorn leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jingjing; Qu, Jianguo; Zhang, Wenjie; Lu, Dongrui; Gao, Yucong; Ying, Xixiang; Kang, Tingguo

    2014-05-01

    Hawthorn leaves, a well-known traditional Chinese medicine, have been widely used for treating cardiovascular and fatty liver diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic basis treating fatty liver disease by comparing the tissue distribution of six compounds of hawthorn leaf extract (HLE) in fatty liver rats and healthy rats after oral administration at first day, half month and one month, separately. Therefore, a sensitive and specific HPLC method with internal standard was developed and validated to determine chlorogenic acid, vitexin-4''-O-glucoside, vitexin-2''-O-rhamnoside, vitexin, rutin and hyperoside in the tissues including heart, liver, spleen, kidney, stomach and intestine. The results indicated that the six compounds in HLE presented some bioactivity in treating rat fatty liver as the concentrations of the six compounds varied significantly in inter- and intragroup comparisons (healthy and/or fatty liver group).

  15. Investigation of in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of flavonoids rich extract from the berries of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa(Ait.) Hassk.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pingping; Ma, Guangzhi; Li, Nianghui; Deng, Qian; Yin, Yanyan; Huang, Ruqiang

    2015-04-15

    This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of the flavonoids rich extract from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa Hassk (R. tomentosa) berries. The in vitro antioxidant assay demonstrated that the flavonoids rich extract (62.09% rutin equivalent) extracted by ethanol and purified by AB-8 macroporous resin was strong in reducing power, superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and DPPH radical scavenging activity, as well as inhibiting lipid peroxidation. In the in vivo assays, the flavonoids rich extract significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes in serums of mice after they were administered with the extract. The results suggested that the flavonoids rich extract from R. tomentosa fruits possesses potent antioxidant properties. In addition, the chemical compositions of flavonoids rich extract were identified by UPLC-TOF-MS/MS. Six flavonoids were tentatively identified as myricetin, quercetin, dihydromyricetin, kaempferol, quercetin 7,4'-diglucoside and vitexin. Therefore, R. tomentosa berries could be used as a new source of antioxidant ingredient.

  16. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of Coreopsis tinctoria Nuff. and optimisation of isolation by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Lan, Shumin; Lin, Jingming; Zheng, Ni

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the antioxidant activity of Coreopsis tinctoria flowering tops (CTFT). Studies were conducted to obtain suitable extraction conditions for chlorogenic acid, quercetin, luteolin, apigenin and kaempferol, which were identified and quantified by HPLC. Response surface methodology was employed to optimise the ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions including extraction time, ethanol concentration and liquid-solid ratio. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was analysed using various antioxidant models, such as DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. CTFT extracted for 15.0 min with ethanol at a concentration of 60.4% and with liquidsolid ratio 27.5:1 possessed a considerable amounts of total flavonoids and polyphenols (18.9%). This extract showed higher scavenging activity of ABTS and hydroxyl radical activity than rutin, however not in the DPPH test. We may assume that CTFT possess antioxidant and free radical scavenging potentials.

  17. Improving the antioxidant activity of buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricm Gaertn) sprout with trace element water.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Cheng-Kuang; Chiang, Been-Huang; Chen, Yih-Shyuan; Yang, Joan-Hwa; Liu, Chia-Ling

    2008-05-15

    Trace element water (TEW) (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500ppm) was used to grow buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricm Gaertn) to evaluate whether the beneficial effects of trace elements on the antioxidant activity could be accomplished with the supplement of TEW. At 300ppm, TEW significantly increased the Cu, Zn and Fe contents in buckwheat sprout, but not the Se and Mn contents. The levels of rutin, quercitrin and quercetin did not differ between buckwheat sprouts grown in TEW and de-ionized water (DIW). The ethanolic extract from buckwheat sprout grown in 300ppm TEW showed higher DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferrous ion chelating activity, superoxide anion scavenging activity and inhibitory activity toward lipid peroxidation than that grown in DIW. The extract of the TEW group also enhanced intracellular superoxide dismutase activity and resulted in lower level of reactive oxygen species in human Hep G2 cells.

  18. Tunable microwave-assisted method for the solvent-free and catalyst-free peracetylation of natural products

    PubMed Central

    Costanzo, Paola; Nardi, Monica; Calandruccio, Carla; Salerno, Raffaele; Procopio, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background: The peracetylation is a simple chemical modification that can be used to enhance the bioavailability of hydrophilic products and to obtain safe and stable pro-drugs. Results: A totally green, solvent-free and catalyst-free microwave (MW)-assisted method for peracetylation of natural products such as oleuropein, alpha-hederin, quercetin and rutin is presented. By simply tuning the MW heating program, polyols with chemical diverse –OH groups or thermolabile functionalities can be peracetylated to improve the biological activity without degradation of the natural starting molecules. An evaluation of the process greenness was performed. Conclusion: The method is potentially universally applicable for green acetylation of hydrophilic biological molecules, potentially easily scalable for industrial applications, including pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industry. PMID:27829931

  19. Stability testing of alginate-chitosan films.

    PubMed

    Rabisková, Miloslava; Dvorácková, Katerina; Kofronvá, Lenka

    2012-02-01

    Pellets containing rutin prepared by the extrusion/spheronization method were coated with sodium alginate-chitosan film. Important quality parameters in the pellets before coating were determined, and after coating the dissolution profiles of the drug were evaluated in dissolution media of the pH corresponding to the conditions in the gastrointestinal tract. Samples of coated pellets were located in the boxes for stability testing under different conditions, i.e. 25 degrees C and 60% of relative humidity (RH); 30 degrees C and 65% RH and 40 degrees C and 75% RH. After 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months (or 1, 3 and 6 months), the dissolution test was repeated and compared with the original profiles using similarity factors. All similarity factor values above 50 indicate excellent stability of alginate-chitosan films.

  20. Amber ale beer enriched with goji berries - The effect on bioactive compound content and sensorial properties.

    PubMed

    Ducruet, Julien; Rébénaque, Pierrick; Diserens, Serge; Kosińska-Cagnazzo, Agnieszka; Héritier, Isabelle; Andlauer, Wilfried

    2017-07-01

    Goji berries, traditionally used in Chinese medicine, are nowadays gaining popularity in the Western world. Efforts are made to enlarge the offer of goji containing foods. In this study, goji berries were added to ale type beer at different stages of the production process in order to develop a beverage with desirable sensory characteristic and high antioxidant capacity. The obtained beers differed significantly in terms of appearance, taste and antioxidant activity. Consumers preferred beers to which goji berries were added at the beginning of the brewing process. These beers were also characterized by lower turbidity, high color intensity, caramel- and coffee-like taste, high antioxidant activity and high content of bioactives such as rutin and 2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid. To conclude, an addition of goji berries to traditional brewing process creates a perspective to enlarge the range of goji containing foods.

  1. Albert Szent-Györgyi (1893-1986): the scientist who discovered vitamin C.

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Pietrzak, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Albert Szent-Györgyi, a Hungarian biochemist, discovered vitamin C and rutin (vitamin P). The role of these vitamins in the body and their application to dermatology is vast. For the discovery of vitamin C and the description of oxidation, Albert Szent-Györgyi received a Nobel Prize in medicine in 1937. He discovered the role of adenosine triphosphate, actin-myosin, and many phases of the Krebs cycle, and also initiated studies on the influence of free radicals in the formation of tumors. Between 1918 and 1946, he worked in many European research centers and between 1947 and 1986, in the United States. His achievements were made possible due to his perseverance, which allowed him to overcome many maelstroms that plagued his scientific career.

  2. Antioxidant and anticancer activities of Chenopodium quinoa leaves extracts - in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Świeca, Michał; Sułkowski, Maciej; Dziki, Dariusz; Baraniak, Barbara; Czyż, Jarosław

    2013-07-01

    The nutraceutical potential of Chenopodium quinoa Leaves (ChL) was assessed through analyses of their phenolic content, elucidation of the effect of ChL phenolic compounds on cancer cell properties and estimation of their antioxidative activity, bioaccessibility and bioavailability in vitro. Considerable amounts of ferulic, sinapinic and gallic acids, kaempferol, isorhamnetin and rutin were observed in the chemical ChL extract and were linked with its inhibitory effect on prostate cancer cell proliferation, motility and cellular competence for gap junctional communication. Both extracts, chemical and obtained after simulated digestion, exerted an inhibitory effect on lipoxygenase activity, paralleled by their considerable chelating, antioxidative, antiradical and reducing power. These observations indicate that phenolic ChL compounds may exert a chemopreventive and anticarcinogenic effect on oxidative stress and ROS-dependent intracellular signaling via synergic effects. The relatively high potential bioaccessibility and bioavailability of the compounds probably responsible for these effects demonstrates the suitability of ChL for dietary supplementation.

  3. Spectrophotometric analysis of flavonoid-DNA binding interactions at physiological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janjua, Naveed Kausar; Siddiqa, Asima; Yaqub, Azra; Sabahat, Sana; Qureshi, Rumana; Haque, Sayed ul

    2009-12-01

    Mode of interactions of three flavonoids [morin (M), quercetin (Q), and rutin (R)] with chicken blood ds.DNA (ck.DNA) has been investigated spectrophotometrically at different temperatures including body temperature (310 K) and at two physiological pH values, i.e. 7.4 (human blood pH) and 4.7 (stomach pH). The binding constants, Kf, evaluated using Benesi-Hildebrand equation showed that the flavonoids bind effectively through intercalation at both pH values and body temperature. Quercetin, somehow, showed greater binding capabilities with DNA. The free energies of flavonoid-DNA complexes indicated the spontaneity of their binding. The order of binding constants of three flavonoids at both pH values were found to be Kf(Q) > Kf(R) > Kf(M) and at 310 K.

  4. Chemical fingerprint and quantitative analysis for quality control of polyphenols extracted from pomegranate peel by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianke; He, Xiaoye; Li, Mengying; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Liu; Kong, Xianghong

    2015-06-01

    A simple and efficient HPLC fingerprint method was developed and validated for quality control of the polyphenols extracted from pomegranate peel (PPPs). Ten batches of pomegranate collected from different orchards in Shaanxi Lintong of China were used to establish the fingerprint. For the fingerprint analysis, 15 characteristic peaks were selected to evaluate the similarities of 10 batches of the PPPs. The similarities of the PPPs samples were all more than 0.968, indicating that the samples from different areas of Lintong were consistent. Additionally, simultaneous quantification of eight monophenols (including gallic acid, punicalagin, catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, epicatechin, rutin, and ellagic acid) in the PPPs was conducted to interpret the consistency of the quality test. The results demonstrated that the HPLC fingerprint as a characteristic distinguishing method combining similarity evaluation and quantitative analysis can be successfully used to assess the quality and to identify the authenticity of the PPPs.

  5. Quantitative determination of plant phenolics in Urtica dioica extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Orčić, Dejan; Francišković, Marina; Bekvalac, Kristina; Svirčev, Emilija; Beara, Ivana; Lesjak, Marija; Mimica-Dukić, Neda

    2014-01-15

    A method for quantification of 45 plant phenolics (including benzoic acids, cinnamic acids, flavonoid aglycones, C- and O-glycosides, coumarins, and lignans) in plant extracts was developed, based on reversed phase HPLC separation of extract components, followed by tandem mass spectrometric detection. The phenolic profile of 80% MeOH extracts of the stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) herb, root, stem, leaf and inflorescence was obtained by using this method. Twenty-one of the investigated compounds were present at levels above the reliable quantification limit, with 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, rutin and isoquercitrin as the most abundant. The inflorescence extracts were by far the richest in phenolics, with the investigated compounds amounting 2.5-5.1% by weight. As opposed to this, the root extracts were poor in phenolics, with only several acids and derivatives being present in significant amounts. The results obtained by the developed method represent the most detailed U. dioica chemical profile so far.

  6. Two new ceramides from the fruit pulp of Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim) Harms.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhaowei; Liu, Jinping; Lu, Dan; Narlawar, Rajeshwar; Groundwater, Paul; Li, Pingya

    2014-01-01

    Two new ceramides, (3S,4S,5R)-3-octadecanoylamino-4-hydroxy-5-dodecane-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrofuran (1) and (3S,4S,5R)-3-[(2R)-2-hydroxyhexacosanoylamino]-4-hydroxy-5-[(4E)-dodecane-4-ene]-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrofuran (2), together with eight known compounds, eleutheroside A (3), eleutheroside B (4), eleutheroside E (5), 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-coumarin (6), 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin (7), 5α,8α-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3-ol (8), stigmasterol (9) and rutin (10), were isolated from the fruit pulp of Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim) Harms. Their structures were elucidated by means of physicochemical properties and spectroscopic methods (1D, 2D NMR and MS).

  7. Determination of phenolic compounds in Prunella L. by liquid chromatography-diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Saliha; Demir, Cevdet; Malyer, Hulusi

    2011-07-15

    Four species of Prunella L. (Prunella vulgaris L., Prunella laciniata L., Prunella grandiflora L. and Prunella orientalis Bornm.) belong to the family of Lamiaceae and representing popular Western and Chinese herbal medicine were examined for the content of phenolic compounds. Phenolic acids (rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid), flavonoids (rutin, quercetin) in different quantitative proportions depending on extracts were determined by the rapid, selective and accurate method combining solvent/acid hydrolysis extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Water, methanol, butanol, acetonitrile, ethyl acetate, hexane and their acidic solutions were used to examine the efficiency of different solvent systems for the extraction of phenolic compounds. Acid hydrolysis extraction was established as the most suitable extraction method for phenolic compounds.

  8. Development of an HPLC post-column antioxidant assay for Solidago canadensis radical scavengers.

    PubMed

    Marksa, Mindaugas; Radušienė, Jolita; Jakštas, Valdas; Ivanauskas, Liudas; Marksienė, Rūta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to modify and validate the post-column high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ABTS and DPPH methods for evaluating the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts of Solidago canadensis (Canadian goldenrod) leaves and flowers. Separation of the analytes was performed via the HPLC-PDA method on a YMC analytical column using a gradient elution program. Three compounds with antioxidant properties - chlorogenic acid, rutin and isoquercitrin - and two unidentified antioxidants were established. The research showed that the coil temperature regimes and loop length combinations influence the optimised post-column assay method for detecting the antioxidant activity of goldenrod radical scavengers. Investigations established that the temperature in the reaction coil was a substantial factor contributing to the signal strength of the analytes after reacting with the DPPH and ABTS radicals.

  9. Antioxidant Effect of Lippia alba (Miller) N. E. Brown

    PubMed Central

    Chies, Claire E.; Branco, Cátia S.; Scola, Gustavo; Agostini, Fabiana; Gower, Adriana E.; Salvador, Mirian

    2013-01-01

    Lippia alba is a shrub found in all regions of Brazil and other countries in South and Central America. L. alba exhibits variability among its different accessions, showing differences in morphology and in the composition of its essential oil. This study evaluated the phenolic profiles and the antioxidant activities of seven different accessions of L. alba. The seven accessions of L. alba studied exhibited an important phenolic content, and all accessions demonstrated antioxidant activity with different efficacies. The main flavonoids in all accessions were apigenin, luteolin, naringin and rutin. The Santa Vitória do Palmar accession exhibited higher naringin and total phenolic content. This extract was able to reduce hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in tissue homogenates of cerebellum, cerebral cortex, hippocampus and liver of Wistar rats. PMID:26784458

  10. Antioxidant Effect of Lippia alba (Miller) N. E. Brown.

    PubMed

    Chies, Claire E; Branco, Cátia S; Scola, Gustavo; Agostini, Fabiana; Gower, Adriana E; Salvador, Mirian

    2013-09-26

    Lippia alba is a shrub found in all regions of Brazil and other countries in South and Central America. L. alba exhibits variability among its different accessions, showing differences in morphology and in the composition of its essential oil. This study evaluated the phenolic profiles and the antioxidant activities of seven different accessions of L. alba. The seven accessions of L. alba studied exhibited an important phenolic content, and all accessions demonstrated antioxidant activity with different efficacies. The main flavonoids in all accessions were apigenin, luteolin, naringin and rutin. The Santa Vitória do Palmar accession exhibited higher naringin and total phenolic content. This extract was able to reduce hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in tissue homogenates of cerebellum, cerebral cortex, hippocampus and liver of Wistar rats.

  11. Antioxidant and antityrosinase activity of mulberry (Morus alba L.) twigs and root bark.

    PubMed

    Chang, Lee-Wen; Juang, Lih-Jeng; Wang, Bor-Sen; Wang, Mei-Ying; Tai, Huo-Mu; Hung, Wei-Jing; Chen, Yun-Ju; Huang, Ming-Hsing

    2011-04-01

    The antioxidant and antityrosinase activities of the ethanolic extract of mulberry twigs (EEMT) were investigated. The results showed that EEMT exhibited radical scavenging and reducing activity, as well as ferrous ion-chelating activity. In addition, EEMT also protected phospholipids against free radicals, indicating that EEMT could protect biomolecules from oxidative damage. Meanwhile, in the range of 0-60 μg/ml, the tyrosinase inhibitory activity of EEMT increased with increase in sample concentration, and was superior to that of the ethanolic extract of mulberry root bark (EEMR). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was employed to determine the phenolic components, revealing that maclurin, rutin, isoquercitrin, resveratrol, and morin were present in EEMT. Acting as an antioxidant and a tyrosinase inhibitor, these bioactive constituents could contribute to the protective effects of EEMT. Overall, the results showed that EEMT might serve as a natural antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitor.

  12. Antiradical and cytoprotective activities of several C-geranyl-substituted flavanones from Paulownia tomentosa fruit.

    PubMed

    Zima, Ales; Hosek, Jan; Treml, Jakub; Muselík, Jan; Suchý, Pavel; Prazanová, Gabriela; Lopes, Ana; Zemlicka, Milan

    2010-08-31

    Antiradical and cytoprotective activities of several flavanones isolated from Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Steud. (Scrophulariaceae) have been evaluated using different in vitro and in vivo methods. The capacity of flavanones to scavenge radicals was measured in vitro by means of DPPH and ABTS assays, the inhibition of hydroxyl radicals produced in Fenton reactions, FRAP, scavenging superoxide radicals using enzymatic and nonenzymatic assays and the inhibition of peroxynitrite-induced nitration of tyrosine. The in vivo testing involved measuring the cytoprotective effect of chosen flavanones against alloxan-induced diabetes in mice. The activity of tested compounds was expressed either as a Trolox® equivalent or was compared with rutin or morine as known antioxidant compounds. The highest activity in most tests was observed for diplacone and 3´-O-methyl-5´-hydroxydiplacone, and the structure vs. the antioxidant activity relationship of geranyl or prenyl-substituted flavonoids with different substitutions at the B and C ring was discussed.

  13. Ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Tephrosia purpurea.

    PubMed

    Palbag, Satadru; Dey, Bijay Kr; Singh, Narendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. is popularly known as 'Sarapunkha' in classical Ayurvedic texts. It is a perennial plant belonging to the family Fabaceae, and occurs throughout the Indian subcontinent. T. purpurea is traditionally used to treat splenomegaly, cirrhosis, cough and cold, abdominal swelling and as an antidote in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. Phytochemical investigations indicate the presence of semiglabrin, pongamole, lanceolatins A and B, rutin, lupeol, and β-sitosterol. Flavonoids including (+)-tephrorin A and B, (+)-tephrosone, an isoflavone, 7, 4'-dihydroxy-3', 5'-dimethoxyisoflavone and a chalcone, (+)-tephropurpurin were isolated from the whole plant. Pharmacological activities of different parts of the plant reported include anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiallergic, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antitumor and insect repellent activity. In the present review, the literature on the phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. are summarized to August, 2012.

  14. Preconcentration of flavonoids on polyurethane foam and their direct determination by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dmitrienko, Stanislava G; Apyari, Vladimir V; Kudrinskaya, Vera A; Stepanova, Alexandra V

    2012-12-15

    Sorption preconcentration of flavonoids quercetin, rutin, chrysin, morin, naringenin and naringin on polyurethane foam was investigated. Several parameters that could affect the preconcentration efficiency were evaluated. The preconcentration efficiency is more than 75% for all the flavonoids except for those that are carbohydrate substituted (preconcentration efficiency less than 11%). This can be used for the separation of these two types of flavonoids. An ability of some flavonoids to absorb light in PUF phase allows their direct determination by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Validation of calibration linearity, reproducibility, limits of detection and quantification was performed. The method developed allows to determine flavonoids with detection limits 0.01-0.2 μg mL(-1). The method was utilized for the determination of quercetin in some plant extracts.

  15. Phenolics profiles of olive fruits (Olea europaea L.) and oils from Ayvalık, Domat and Gemlik varieties at different ripening stages.

    PubMed

    Dağdelen, Ayhan; Tümen, Gülendam; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Dündar, Ekrem

    2013-01-01

    Phenolic compounds in olive fruit and oils obtained from Ayvalık, Domat and Gemlik olive varieties collected at different ripening periods were evaluated by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Gallic acid and p-cumaric acid were identified for Ayvalık and Domat at each period of ripening, respectively. In addition, gallic acid, p-cumaric acid, sinapinic and apigenin acids were detected in Gemlik olive fruit. Hydroxytyrosol, rutin, oleoropein, luteolin, tyrosol, vanilic acid and gallic acid in Ayvalık olive fruit in all ripening periods were determined. The tyrasol contents varied between 0.18 to 1.57mg/kg. Luteolin contents of olive oils ranged at the levels between 0.12 to 2.28mg/kg. In contrast, oils had the lowest syringic, p-cumaric, chlorogenic and ferulic acids. Vanillic acid contents of oils ranged between 0.08 to 2.38mg/kg.

  16. Flavonol glycosides and other phenolic compounds in buds and leaves of different varieties of black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) and changes during growing season.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengzhan; Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru

    2014-10-01

    Phenolic compounds in buds and leaves of three varieties of black currant in Finland were identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. Forty-three phenolic compounds of flavonol glycosides, proanthocyanidins and phenolic acids were found in variety "Mikael" whereas only thirty-five in "Mortti" and "Jaloste n:o 15". Glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol were the major phenolics. Rutin, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoise, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-(6″-malonyl)-glucoside and a kaempferol-malonylhexoside were the most abundant flavonol glycosides. The contents of flavonol glycosides ranged from 1 to 7 mg/g fresh weight in leaves showing typically an increasing trend from July to August, reaching the highest values in early October in "Mikael" and the end of August in "Mortti" and "Jaloste n:o 15". This is the first systematic report of the composition and content of phenolic compounds in buds and leaves of black currant.

  17. Identification of phenylpropanoids in fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toru; Okiura, Aya; Saito, Keita; Kohno, Masahiro

    2014-10-15

    In this study, the phenylpropanoid composition and antioxidant activity of identified components in fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves were examined. Known polyphenols rutin, isoschaftoside, isoquercetin, and chlorogenic acid were identified. Furthermore, caffeoylmalic acid (CMA) was the most abundant polyphenol and was identified for the first time. CMA exhibited antioxidant activity similar to that of vitamin C or catechin. Psoralen and bergapten were identified as known furanocoumarins, with psoralen being the most abundant. Moreover, psoralic acid glucoside (PAG) was identified for the first time. As a precursor of psoralen, PAG content was equivalent to the psoralen content in moles. Notably, the content of these compounds varied between the five fig varieties, and the furanocoumarin and PAG contents varied more than that of the polyphenols. Further investigations concerning the influence of CMA and PAG on human health are necessary to elucidate functionalities of fig leaves.

  18. Effect of selected spices on chemical and sensory markers in fortified rye-buckwheat cakes.

    PubMed

    Przygodzka, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Henryk; Ciesarová, Zuzana; Kukurová, Kristina; Lamparski, Grzegorz

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the effect of selected spices on chemical and sensorial markers in cakes formulated on rye and light buckwheat flour fortified with spices. Among collection of spices, rye-buckwheat cakes fortified individually with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix revealed the highest sensory characteristics and overall quality. Cakes fortified with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, rutin, and almost threefold higher available lysine contents. The reduced furosine content as well as free and total fluorescent intermediatory compounds were observed as compared to nonfortified cakes. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix. In contrast, browning index increased in compare to cakes without spices. It can be suggested that clove, allspice, vanilla, and spice mix should be used for production of safety and good quality cakes.

  19. Trifolium pratense and T. repens (Leguminosae): Edible Flower Extracts as Functional Ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Tundis, Rosa; Marrelli, Mariangela; Conforti, Filomena; Tenuta, Maria Concetta; Bonesi, Marco; Menichini, Francesco; Loizzo, Monica Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Trifolium pratense (red clover) and T. repens (white clover) edible flowers were investigated for their chemical profile and health properties. The total phenols and flavonoids contents were evaluated. Quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, rutin, and myricetin were used as markers and quantified by HPLC. The antioxidant effects were investigated by using different in vitro assays. Moreover, α-amylase, α-glucosidase and lipase inhibitory activities were evaluated. T. repens flowers extract showed a good radical scavenging activity in both DPPH and ABTS tests with IC50 values of 10.3 and 21.4 μg/mL, respectively. White clover extract demonstrated promising α-amylase and lipase inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 25.0 and 1.3 μg/mL, respectively. The obtained results support the use of Trifolium flowers as healthy food ingredients. PMID:28231209

  20. Trifolium pratense and T. repens (Leguminosae): Edible Flower Extracts as Functional Ingredients.

    PubMed

    Tundis, Rosa; Marrelli, Mariangela; Conforti, Filomena; Tenuta, Maria Concetta; Bonesi, Marco; Menichini, Francesco; Loizzo, Monica

    2015-08-21

    Trifolium pratense (red clover) and T. repens (white clover) edible flowers were investigated for their chemical profile and health properties. The total phenols and flavonoids contents were evaluated. Quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, rutin, and myricetin were used as markers and quantified by HPLC. The antioxidant effects were investigated by using different in vitro assays. Moreover, α-amylase, α-glucosidase and lipase inhibitory activities were evaluated. T. repens flowers extract showed a good radical scavenging activity in both DPPH and ABTS tests with IC50 values of 10.3 and 21.4 μg/mL, respectively. White clover extract demonstrated promising α-amylase and lipase inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 25.0 and 1.3 μg/mL, respectively. The obtained results support the use of Trifolium flowers as healthy food ingredients.

  1. Chemical composition of the stem bark and leaves of Ficus pandurata Hance.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, M A; Ahmad, A S; Nafady, A M; Mansour, A I

    2009-01-01

    A new compound, 3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (13), in addition to 16 newly reported compounds: alpha-amyrin acetate (1), beta-amyrone (2), 3beta-acetoxy-20-taraxasten-22-one (3), alpha-amyrin (4), ceryl alcohol (5), stigmasterol (6), beta-sitosterol (7), 2alpha,3alpha-dihydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-28-oate (8), ursolic acid (9), beta-sitosterol-3-O-glucosoide (10), protocatechuic acid (11), betulinic acid (12), quercetin (14), quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside (15), kampferol-3-O-beta-neohesperidoside (16) and rutin (17) were isolated from the stem bark and leaves of Ficus pandurata (Hance) cultivated in Egypt. Identification of these compounds has been established by physical, chemical and spectral data (UV, IR, MS, (1)H- and (13)C-NMR), as well as comparison with authentic samples.

  2. Volatile and Flavonoid Composition of the Peel of Citrus medica L. var. Corsican Fruit for Quality Assessment of Its Liqueur

    PubMed Central

    Venturini, Nicolas; Barboni, Toussaint; Curk, Franck; Costa, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Summary The volatile and flavonoid compositions of the peel of Citrus medica L. var. Corsican fruits cultivated in Corsica were studied according to the maturity of the citron fruits measured using growing degree-days. Quantitative variation with the stage of development of the fruit was observed using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. Thirty volatile compounds were identified in the peel essential oil. Limonene and γ-terpinene were the major compounds. The volatile compositions of commercial citron liqueurs were also characterized by high amounts of monoterpene hydrocarbons with the same two major components. The main flavonoid components of citron fruits and derived liqueurs were rutin and neohesperidin. This chemical characterization can be used for quality assessment of food products from C. medica var. Corsican. PMID:27904313

  3. Industrial processing versus home processing of tomato sauce: Effects on phenolics, flavonoids and in vitro bioaccessibility of antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Tomas, Merve; Beekwilder, Jules; Hall, Robert D; Sagdic, Osman; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-04-01

    The effect of industrial and home processing, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, individual phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of tomato into tomato sauce were investigated. Industrial processing of tomato fruit into sauce had an overall positive effect on the total antioxidant capacity (∼1.2-fold higher) compared to tomato fruit whereas home processing of tomato fruit into sauce led to a decrease in these values. Untargeted LC-QTOF-MS analysis revealed 31 compounds in tomato that changed upon processing, of which 18 could be putatively identified. Naringenin chalcone is only detectable in the fruit, while naringenin is strongly increased in the sauces. Rutin content increased by 36% in the industrial processed sauce whereas decreased by 26% in the home processed sauce when compared to fruit. According to the results of an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model, industrial processing may lead to enhanced bioaccessibility of antioxidants.

  4. Anticancer Activity of Key Lime, Citrus aurantifolia

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Nithithep; Jiraungkoorskul, Wannee

    2016-01-01

    Citrus aurantifolia (family: Rutaceae) is mainly used in daily consumption, in many cultural cuisines, and in juice production. It is widely used because of its antibacterial, anticancer, antidiabetic, antifungal, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammation, anti-lipidemia, and antioxidant properties; moreover, it can protect heart, liver, bone, and prevent urinary diseases. Its secondary metabolites are alkaloids, carotenoids, coumarins, essential oils, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and triterpenoids. The other important constituents are apigenin, hesperetin, kaempferol, limonoids, quercetin, naringenin, nobiletin, and rutin, all of these contribute to its remedial properties. The scientific searching platforms were used for publications from 1990 to present. The abstracts and titles were screened, and the full-text articles were selected. The present review is up-to-date of the phytochemical property of C. aurantifolia to provide a reference for further study. PMID:28082795

  5. Variation of the chemical profile and antioxidant behavior of Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Salvia fruticosa Miller grown in Greece.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, Vassiliki; Gardeli, Chryssavgi; Mallouchos, Athanasios; Papaioannou, Marina; Komaitis, Michael

    2008-08-27

    In this study, the essential oil and the phenolic composition along with the antioxidant activity of R. officinalis L. and S. fruticosa Miller, collected in Zakynthos island (Ionian Sea, Greece), were investigated. The essential oil composition of the plants was characterized by the presence of 1,8-cineole. Mean values of the antioxidant activities of rosemary and sage essential oils indicated slight differences. The antioxidant activity of sage oil was correlated with the oxygenated sesquiterpenes and diterpenes concentrations. Concerning the methanolic extracts, a close relationship between the phenolic content and the development stage during vegetative cycle of these plants was observed. The identified flavonoids, except rutin, seemed to increase with the advancement of developmental stages, while phenolic acids followed an opposite pattern. The antioxidant activity was correlated with the amount of total phenolic content.

  6. Anti-Inflammation Properties of Fruiting Bodies and Submerged Cultured Mycelia of Culinary-Medicinal Higher Basidiomycetes Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Chien, Rao-Chi; Lin, Lan-Min; Chang, Yuan-Hua; Lin, Yu-Chieh; Wu, Pei-Hsuan; Asatiani, Mikheil D; Wasser, Sophie-Gabrielle; Krakhmalnyi, Maxim; Agbarya, Abed; Wasser, Solomon P; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2016-01-01

    This research shows the phenolic composition and anti-inflammation properties of fruiting bodies and mycelia of 15 strains of 12 species of higher Basidiomycetes medicinal mushrooms. In this research, 15 extracts were prepared and their effects on inflammation-related mediators in RAW 264.7 cells were evaluated. In the extracts, amounts of total phenols ranged from 8.47 to 70.32 gallic acid equivalents mg/g and amounts of flavonoids ranged from 0.13 to 15.21 rutin equivalents mg/g. The production of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 was decreased at different levels by these extracts, whereas the production of interleukin-10 was increased by 6 of the extracts. Overall, Cordyceps militaris fruiting bodies, Grifola frondosa fruiting bodies, and Ophiocordyceps sinensis mycelia might be used to ameliorate inflammatory responses.

  7. Comparison of chemiluminescence methods for analysis of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pehrman, R.; Amme, M.; Cachoir, C.

    2006-01-01

    Assessment of alpha radiolysis influence on the chemistry of geologically disposed spent fuel demands analytical methods for radiolytic product determination at trace levels. Several chemiluminescence methods for the detection of radiolytic oxidants hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals are tested. Two of hydrogen peroxide methods use luminol, catalyzed by either μ-peroxidase or hemin, one uses 10-methyl-9-(p-formylphenyl)-acridinium carboxylate trifluoromethanesulfonate and one potassium periodate. All recipes are tested as batch systems in basic conditions. For hydroxyl radical detection luminophores selected are 3-hydroxyphthalic hydrazide and rutin. Both methods are tested as batch systems. The results are compared and the applicability of the methods for near-field dissolution studies is discussed.

  8. Bioefficacy of Graviola leaf extracts in scavenging free radicals and upregulating antioxidant genes.

    PubMed

    Son, Yu-Ra; Choi, Eun-Hye; Kim, Goon-Tae; Park, Tae-Sik; Shim, Soon-Mi

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine bioactive components of Graviola leaf extracts and to examine the radical scavenging capacity, gene expression and transcription factors of antioxidant enzymes. Rutin, kaempferol-rutinoside, and vitamin U were identified from the steaming and 50% EtOH extracts of Graviola leaves. Graviola leaf extracts effectively scavenged peroxy and nitrogen radicals. 50% EtOH of Graviola leaves provided a 1-2.9 times higher trolox equivalent than the steaming extract. It also had a higher VCEAC. Graviola leaf extracts reduced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner. The 50% EtOH extract of Graviola leaves upregulated SOD1 and Nrf2, but catalase and HMOX1 were not altered by the 50% EtOH extract of Graviola leaves.

  9. Chemical composition and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of peels and flesh from 10 different pear varieties (Pyrus spp.).

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Wang, Tingting; Zhou, Bin; Gao, Wenyuan; Cao, Jingguo; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to compare the contents of total phenolics, total flavonoids, and total triterpenes between peel and flesh of ten different pear cultivars. The monomeric compounds were analyzed by HPLC, their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were also measured. Peel and flesh from Yaguang, Hongpi, Qingpi and Guifei varieties contained relatively more total phenolic, total flavonoids and total triterpene, and showed stronger antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, while Lvbaoshi and Youran appeared to be weakest among them. All the chemical components found in the pear peel were approximately 6-20 times higher than those in the flesh of pear. For the monomeric compounds, arbutin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, and rutin were the dominant components contained in the ten pear cultivars both in peel and in flesh. All of the analyses suggested that the peel of pear might be an excellent polyphenol and triterpenes source.

  10. Extraction and analysis of antioxidant compounds from the residues of Asparagus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Fan, Rui; Yuan, Fang; Wang, Ning; Gao, Yanxiang; Huang, Yunxiang

    2015-05-01

    Asparagus residues were used as materials to obtain antioxidant compounds by solid-liquid extraction in this study. The effects of different extraction parameters including extraction solvents, time, temperature and liquid-solid ratio on the contents of total flavonoids, total phenolics and total antioxidant activity were investigated. Antioxidant activity of the extract from asparagus residues was evaluated by HPLC- ABTS · (+) and the bioactive components were identified by HPLC- MS/MS. The results showed that the extraction yield was significantly influenced (P < 0.05) by solvent composition, extraction time and temperature. The appropriate parameters were preferred as extraction solvent of 50 % ethanol with liquid-solid ratio of 30:1, extraction temperature of 80 °C and time of 2 h. Antioxidant activity evaluation of the extract indicated flavonoids and phenolics were dominant bioactive compounds. Five antioxidant compounds were identified as ferulic acid, kaempferol, quercetin, rutin and isorhamnetin.

  11. Research survey on iridoid and phenylethanoid glycosides among seven populations of Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne from the Alps.

    PubMed

    Mari, Angela; Ciocarlan, Alexandru; Aiello, Nicola; Scartezzini, Fabrizio; Pizza, Cosimo; D'Ambrosio, Michele

    2017-05-01

    The traditional use of extracts of Euphrasia rostkoviana to relieve ocular inflammation or infections is well documented and supported by clinical studies. Various classes of chemical compounds such as iridoids, phenylethanoids, flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids have been reported. The present work aims to assess the chemical diversity among seven populations of Euphrasia rostkoviana found in northern Italy. A meticulous separation of components led to the isolation and structural characterization of two previously unrecorded phenylethanoids methoxycrassifolioside and deoxycrassifolioside and one previously undescribed terpene glucoside (1E,6E)-8-hydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-octa-1,6-dienyl 1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. We have also identified known phenylethanoids and iridoids that are reported in this genus for the first time. Finally, a targeted quantitative analysis for the standardization of herbal preparations revealed that iridoids occur in all populations whereas the presence and the levels of rutin and phenylethanoids are highly variable.

  12. Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Malus domestica Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Viškelis, Pranas; Uselis, Norbertas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the composition and content of phenolic compounds in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of these extracts. The total phenolic content was determined spectrophotometrically, as well as the total flavonoid content in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and the antioxidant activity of these extracts, by the ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays. The highest amount of phenolic compounds and flavonoids as well as the highest antioxidant activity was determined in the ethanol extracts obtained from the apple leaves of the cv. Aldas. The analysis by the HPLC method revealed that phloridzin was a predominant component in the ethanol extracts of the apple leaves of all cultivars investigated. The following quercetin glycosides were identified and quantified in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves: hyperoside, isoquercitrin, avicularin, rutin, and quercitrin. Quercitrin was the major compound among quercetin glycosides. PMID:25302319

  13. Antioxidative and antimutagenic activities of 4-vinyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenol (canolol) isolated from canola oil.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Hideo; Kanazawa, Ayako; Wakamatu, Daisuke; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji; Akaike, Takaaki; Maeda, Hiroshi

    2004-07-14

    A potent antioxidative compound in crude canola oil, canolol, was recently identified, and reported herein are studies of its scavenging capacity against the endogenous mutagen peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). ONOO(-) is generated by the reaction between superoxide anion radical and nitric oxide, both of which are produced by inflammatory leukocytes. Among various antioxidative substances of natural or synthetic origin, canolol was one of the most potent antimutagenic compounds when Salmonella typhimurium TA102 was used in the modified Ames test. Its potency was higher than that of flavonoids (e.g., rutin) and alpha-tocopherol and was equivalent to that of ebselen. Canolol suppressed ONOO(-)-induced bactericidal action. It also reduced intracellular oxidative stress and apoptosis in human cancer SW480 cells when used at a concentration below 20 microM under H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress. In addition, canolol suppressed plasmid DNA (pUC19) strand breakage induced by ONOO(-), as revealed by agarose gel electrophoresis.

  14. Analysis of Organic Acids, Deacetyl Asperulosidic Acid and Polyphenolic Compounds as a Potential Tool for Characterization of Noni (Morinda citrifolia) Products.

    PubMed

    Bittová, Miroslava; Hladůkova, Dita; Roblová, Vendula; Krácmar, Stanislav; Kubán, Petr; Kubán, Vlastimil

    2015-11-01

    Organic acids, deacetyl asperulosidic acid (DAA) and polyphenolic compounds in various noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) products (4 juices, 4 dry fruit powders and 2 capsules with dry fruit powder) were analyzed. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with a variable wavelength detector (VWD) and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ESI-TOF MS) was applied for simultaneous analysis of organic acids (malic, lactic, citric and succinic acid) and DAA. An RP-HPLC method with diode-array detector (DAD) was developed for the analysis of polyphenolic compound content (rutin, catechin, quercitrin, kaempferol, gallic acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid). The developed methods can contribute to better characterization of available noni products that is required from the consumers. In our study, we discovered significant dissimilarities in the content of DAA, citric acid and several phenolic compounds in some samples.

  15. A molecularly imprinted polymer with incorporated graphene oxide for electrochemical determination of quercetin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Si; Zhang, Mengqi; Li, Yijun; He, Xiwen

    2013-04-25

    The molecularly imprinted polymer based on polypyrrole film with incorporated graphene oxide was fabricated and used for electrochemical determination of quercetin. The electrochemical behavior of quercetin on the modified electrode was studied in detail using differential pulse voltammetry. The oxidation peak current of quercetin in B-R buffer solution (pH = 3.5) at the modified electrode was regressed with the concentration in the range from 6.0 × 10(-7) to 1.5 × 10(-5) mol/L (r2 = 0.997) with a detection limit of 4.8 × 10(-8) mol/L (S/N = 3). This electrode showed good stability and reproducibility. In the above mentioned range, rutin or morin which has similar structures and at the same concentration as quercetin did not interfere with the determination of quercetin. The applicability of the method for complex matrix analysis was also evaluated.

  16. In vivo immunomodulatory effect of Tilia x viridis extracts on normal lymphocyte proliferation: a direct and an indirect action.

    PubMed

    Davicino, Roberto; Zettler, Gabriela; Brizi, Margarita Rodriguez; Marrassini, Carla; Ferraro, Graciela; Filip, Rosana; Anesini, Claudia

    2011-09-01

    The flowers of Tilia species have been used in Europe for many years to treat colds, bronchitis, fever, inflammations and influenza. It is well known that lymphocytes play a role in acquired immunity related to pathogens and tumor cells attachment. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an aqueous (AE) and a dichloromethane extract (DM) from Tilia x viridis which is widely used and distributed in Argentina, on normal murine lymphocyte proliferation after being administered to mice. Both extracts presented a stimulatory effect on normal murine lymphocyte proliferation. The effect exerted by DM was principally related to macrophage activation, meanwhile AE exerted an important direct effect on lymphocytes related to the rutin presence. The stimulating effect, exerted on normal lymphocytes was due to a protective effect of apoptosis and also to cell IL2 production.

  17. Ultrasensitive determination of DNA oxidation products by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and the role of antioxidants in the prevention of oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Dawbaa, Sam; Aybastıer, Önder; Demir, Cevdet

    2017-04-15

    Oxidative stress is considered as one of the significant causes of DNA damage which in turn contributes to cell death through a series of intermediate processes such as cancer formation, mutation, and aging. Natural sources such as plant and fruit products have provided us with interesting substances of antioxidant activity that could be recruited in protecting the genetic materials of the cells. This study is an effort to discover some of those antioxidants effects in their standard and natural forms by performing an ultrasensitive determination of the products of DNA oxidation using GC-MS/MS. Experiments were used to determine the direct antioxidant activity of the substances contained in the tendrils of Vitis vinifera (var. alphonse) by extracting them and achieving Folin-Ciocalteau and CHROMAC analyses to determine the total phenolic content (TPC) and the antioxidant capacity of the extract, respectively; results revealed a phenolic content of 11.39±0.30mg Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE)/g of the plant's fresh weight (FW) by Folin-Ciocalteau and 8.17±0.49mg Trolox Equivalent (TE)/g FW by CHROMAC assays. The qualitative analysis of the plant extract by HPLC-DAD technique revealed that two flavonoid glycosides namely rutin and isoquercitrin in addition to chlorogenic acid were contained in the extract. The determination of the DNA oxidation products was performed after putting DNA, rutin and isoquercitrin standard samples with different concentration, and the extract's sample under oxidative stress. Eighteen DNA oxidation products were traced using GC-MS/MS with ultra-sensitivity and the experiments proved a significant decrease in the concentration of the DNA oxidation products when the extract was used as a protectant against the oxidative stress. It is believed by conclusion that the extract of V. vinifera's (var. alphonse) tendrils has a good antioxidant activity; hence it is recommended to be used as a part of the daily healthy food list if possible.

  18. Differential effects of quercetin glycosides on GABAC receptor channel activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Lee, Byung-Hwan; Choi, Sun-Hye; Jung, Seok-Won; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Lee, Joon-Hee; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Pyo, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2015-01-01

    Quercetin, a representative flavonoid, is a compound of low molecular weight found in various colored plants and vegetables. Quercetin shows a wide range of neuropharmacological activities. In fact, quercetin naturally exists as monomer-(quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside) (Rham1), dimer-(Rutin), or trimer-glycosides [quercetin-3-(2(G)-rhamnosylrutinoside)] (Rham2) at carbon-3 in fruits and vegetables. The carbohydrate components are removed after ingestion into gastrointestinal systems. The role of the glycosides attached to quercetin in the regulation of γ-aminobutyric acid class C (GABAC) receptor channel activity has not been determined. In the present study, we examined the effects of quercetin glycosides on GABAC receptor channel activity by expressing human GABAC alone in Xenopus oocytes using a two-electrode voltage clamp technique and also compared the effects of quercetin glycosides with quercetin. We found that GABA-induced inward current (I GABA ) was inhibited by quercetin or quercetin glycosides. The inhibitory effects of quercetin and its glycosides on I GABA were concentration-dependent and reversible in the order of Rutin ≈ quercetin ≈ Rham 1 > Rham 2. The inhibitory effects of quercetin and its glycosides on I GABA were noncompetitive and membrane voltage-insensitive. These results indicate that quercetin and its glycosides regulate GABAC receptor channel activity through interaction with a different site from that of GABA, and that the number of carbohydrate attached to quercetin might play an important role in the regulation of GABAC receptor channel activity.

  19. A high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet method for Eschweilera nana leaves and their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities

    PubMed Central

    Outuki, Priscila M.; Lazzeri, Nides S.; de Francisco, Lizziane M. B.; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar A.; Ferreira, Izabel C. P.; Cardoso, Mara Lane C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eschweilera nana Miers is a tree widely distributed in Cerrado, Brazil. Objective: In this study, we aimed to describe its phytochemical properties and antioxidant and topical anti-inflammatory effects for the first time, as well validate an high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet/visible (HPLC-UV-Vis) method for the separation and quantification of the main components (hyperoside and rutin) in the hydroalcoholic extract of E. nana leaves. Materials and Methods: Structural identification of compounds in E. nana extract was performed by analysis of spectral data by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and/or ESI/EM. The HPLC-UV-Vis method was validated according International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) parameters. The 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method were used for determination of in vitro antioxidant activities and the croton oil-induced inflammation for evaluation of in vivo anti-inflammatory effects. Results: Hyperoside, rutin, α-amirin, β-amirin, β-sitosterol, and stigmasterol were identified in the hydroalcoholic extract of E. nana leaves. HPLC-UV-Vis was validated according to ICH parameters. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo assays demonstrated that the hydroalcoholic extract and methanol fraction showed significant antioxidant and topical anti-inflammatory effects, as they were able to reduce ear edema induced by croton-oil application. Conclusions: This research showed the first phytochemical study of E. nana extract and their biological activities may be associated with the presence of flavonoids in the extracts. PMID:26246741

  20. Effect of Different Agrobacterium rhizogenes Strains on Hairy Root Induction and Phenylpropanoid Biosynthesis in Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn)

    PubMed Central

    Thwe, Aye; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Li, Xiaohua; Park, Chang Ha; Kim, Sun Ju; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Park, Sang Un

    2016-01-01

    The development of an efficient protocol for successful hairy root induction by Agrobacterium rhizogenes is the key step toward an in vitro culturing method for the mass production of secondary metabolites. The selection of an effective Agrobacterium strain for the production of hairy roots is highly plant species dependent and must be determined empirically. Therefore, our goal was to investigate the transformation efficiency of different A. rhizogenes strains for the induction of transgenic hairy roots in Fagopyrum tataricum ‘Hokkai T10’ cultivar; to determine the expression levels of the polypropanoid biosynthetic pathway genes, such as ftpAL, FtC4H, Ft4CL, FrCHS, FrCH1, FrF3H, FtFLS1, FtFLS2, FtF3, H1, FtF3′H2, FtANS, and FtDFR; and to quantify the in vitro synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Among different strains, R1000 was the most promising candidate for hairy root stimulation because it induced the highest growth rate, root number, root length, transformation efficiency, and total anthocyanin and rutin content. The R1000, 15834, and A4 strains provided higher transcript levels for most metabolic pathway genes for the synthesis of rutin (22.31, 15.48, and 13.04 μg/mg DW, respectively), cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (800, 750, and 650 μg/g DW, respectively), and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside (2410, 1530, and 1170 μg/g DW, respectively). A suitable A. rhizogenes strain could play a vital role in the fast growth of the bulk amount of hairy roots and secondary metabolites. Overall, R1000 was the most promising strain for hairy root induction in buckwheat. PMID:27014239

  1. Effect of Different Agrobacterium rhizogenes Strains on Hairy Root Induction and Phenylpropanoid Biosynthesis in Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn).

    PubMed

    Thwe, Aye; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Li, Xiaohua; Park, Chang Ha; Kim, Sun Ju; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Park, Sang Un

    2016-01-01

    The development of an efficient protocol for successful hairy root induction by Agrobacterium rhizogenes is the key step toward an in vitro culturing method for the mass production of secondary metabolites. The selection of an effective Agrobacterium strain for the production of hairy roots is highly plant species dependent and must be determined empirically. Therefore, our goal was to investigate the transformation efficiency of different A. rhizogenes strains for the induction of transgenic hairy roots in Fagopyrum tataricum 'Hokkai T10' cultivar; to determine the expression levels of the polypropanoid biosynthetic pathway genes, such as ftpAL, FtC4H, Ft4CL, FrCHS, FrCH1, FrF3H, FtFLS1, FtFLS2, FtF3(,) H1, FtF3'H2, FtANS, and FtDFR; and to quantify the in vitro synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Among different strains, R1000 was the most promising candidate for hairy root stimulation because it induced the highest growth rate, root number, root length, transformation efficiency, and total anthocyanin and rutin content. The R1000, 15834, and A4 strains provided higher transcript levels for most metabolic pathway genes for the synthesis of rutin (22.31, 15.48, and 13.04 μg/mg DW, respectively), cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (800, 750, and 650 μg/g DW, respectively), and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside (2410, 1530, and 1170 μg/g DW, respectively). A suitable A. rhizogenes strain could play a vital role in the fast growth of the bulk amount of hairy roots and secondary metabolites. Overall, R1000 was the most promising strain for hairy root induction in buckwheat.

  2. Buckwheat achenes antioxidant profile modulates Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production.

    PubMed

    Chitarrini, G; Nobili, C; Pinzari, F; Antonini, A; De Rossi, P; Del Fiore, A; Procacci, S; Tolaini, V; Scala, V; Scarpari, M; Reverberi, M

    2014-10-17

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp.) is a "pseudo-cereal" of great interest in the production of healthy foods since its flour, derived from achenes, is enriched with bioactive compounds and, due to the absence of gluten, may be used in composition of celiac diets. Amongst buckwheat species, F. tataricum achenes possess a larger amount of the antioxidant flavenol rutin than the common buckwheat F. esculentum. Ongoing climate change may favor plant susceptibility to the attack by pathogenic, often mycotoxigenic, fungi with consequent increase of mycotoxins in previously unexploited feeds and foodstuffs. In particular, Aspergillus flavus, under suitable environmental conditions such as those currently occurring in Italy, may produce aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), the most carcinogenic compound of fungal origin which is classified by IARC as Category 1. In this study, the viable achenes of two buckwheat species, F. tataricum (var. Golden) and F. esculentum (var. Aelita) were inoculated with an AFB1-producing A. flavus NRRL 3357 to analyze their relative performances against fungal invasion and toxin contamination. Notably, we sought the existence of a correlation between the amount of tocols/flavonols in the achenes of buckwheat, infected and non-infected with A. flavus, and to analyze the ability of the pathogen to grow and produce toxin during achene infection. Results suggest that achenes of F. tataricum, the best producer of antioxidant compounds in this study, are less susceptible to A. flavus infection and consequently, but not proportionally, to mycotoxin contamination compared with F. esculentum. Moreover, rutin-derived quercetin appears to be more efficient in inhibiting aflatoxin biosynthesis than the parent compound.

  3. The Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Infusions of Sambucus nigra L.

    PubMed

    Viapiana, Agnieszka; Wesolowski, Marek

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of teas prepared from twenty-four commercially available berries and flowers of Sambucus nigra L. in relation to their phenolic profile, as reflected by the most representative phenolic acids (caffeic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, ferulic, gallic and syringic acids); flavonols (quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin and rutin); and total phenolic (TPC), phenolic acid (TAC) and flavonoid (TFC) contents. The infusions prepared from elderflowers contained more abundant phenolic compounds than the elderberry infusions. The TPC of these infusions ranged from 19.81 to 23.90 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight of sample (GAE/g DW) for elderberries and from 15.23 to 35.57 mg GAE/g DW for elderflowers, whereas the TFC ranged from 2.60 to 4.49 mg of rutin equivalents/g dry weight of sample (RUTE/g DW) in elderberry infusions and from 5.27 to 13.19 mg RUTE/g DW in elderflower infusions. Among the phenolic compounds quantified in this study, quercetin (2.07-9.48 mg/g DW) and myricetin (1.17-9.62 mg/g DW) had the highest concentrations in the teas prepared from berries and flowers, respectively. Moreover, the antioxidant potential of elder infusions assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays revealed that the teas prepared from flowers had higher mean DPPH and FRAP activities than the teas prepared from berries. Therefore, elder beverages could be important dietary sources of natural antioxidants that contribute to the prevention of diseases caused by oxidative stress.

  4. Evaluation of total phenolic compounds and insecticidal and antioxidant activities of tomato hairy root extract.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harpal; Dixit, Sameer; Verma, Praveen Chandra; Singh, Pradhyumna Kumar

    2014-03-26

    Tomatoes are one of the most consumed crops in the whole world because of their versatile importance in dietary food as well as many industrial applications. They are also a rich source of secondary metabolites, such as phenolics and flavonoids. In the present study, we described a method to produce these compounds from hairy roots of tomato (THRs). Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4 was used to induce hairy roots in the tomato explants. The Ri T-DNA was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the rolC gene. Biomass accumulation of hairy root lines was 1.7-3.7-fold higher compared to in vitro grown roots. Moreover, THRs efficiently produced several phenolic compounds, such as rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, colorogenic acid, and caffeic acid. Gallic acid [34.02 μg/g of dry weight (DW)] and rutin (20.26 μg/g of DW) were the major phenolic acid and flavonoid produced by THRs, respectively. The activities of reactive oxygen species enzymes (catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase) were quantified. The activity of catalase in THRs was 0.97 ± 0.03 mM H2O2 min(-1) g(-1), which was 1.22-fold (0.79 ± 0.09 mM H2O2 min(-1) g(-1)) and 1.59-fold (0.61 ± 0.06 mM H2O2 min(-1) g(-1)) higher than field grown and in vitro grown roots, respectively. At 100 μL/g concentration, the phenolic compound extract caused 53.34 and 40.00% mortality against Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura, respectively, after 6 days. Surviving larvae of H. armigera and S. litura on the phenolic compound extract after 6 days showed 85.43 and 86.90% growth retardation, respectively.

  5. Ruta graveolens L. Induces Death of Glioblastoma Cells and Neural Progenitors, but Not of Neurons, via ERK 1/2 and AKT Activation

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Maria Teresa; Volpicelli, Floriana; Gatti, Monica; Thellung, Stefano; Florio, Tullio; Melone, Mariarosa A. B.; Colucci-D’Amato, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is a highly aggressive brain tumor whose prognosis is very poor. Due to early invasion of brain parenchyma, its complete surgical removal is nearly impossible, and even after aggressive combined treatment (association of surgery and chemo- and radio-therapy) five-year survival is only about 10%. Natural products are sources of novel compounds endowed with therapeutic properties in many human diseases, including cancer. Here, we report that the water extract of Ruta graveolens L., commonly known as rue, induces death in different glioblastoma cell lines (U87MG, C6 and U138) widely used to test novel drugs in preclinical studies. Ruta graveolens’ effect was mediated by ERK1/2 and AKT activation, and the inhibition of these pathways, via PD98058 and wortmannin, reverted its antiproliferative activity. Rue extract also affects survival of neural precursor cells (A1) obtained from embryonic mouse CNS. As in the case of glioma cells, rue stimulates the activation of ERK1/2 and AKT in A1 cells, whereas their blockade by pharmacological inhibitors prevents cell death. Interestingly, upon induction of differentiation and cell cycle exit, A1 cells become resistant to rue’s noxious effects but not to those of temozolomide and cisplatin, two alkylating agents widely used in glioblastoma therapy. Finally, rutin, a major component of the Ruta graveolens water extract, failed to cause cell death, suggesting that rutin by itself is not responsible for the observed effects. In conclusion, we report that rue extracts induce glioma cell death, discriminating between proliferating/undifferentiated and non-proliferating/differentiated neurons. Thus, it can be a promising tool to isolate novel drugs and also to discover targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25785932

  6. Investigation of the Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Potential of Hypericum mysorense

    PubMed Central

    Hariharapura, Raghu C.; Srinivasan, Ramamurthy; Ashok, Godavarthi; Dongre, Santoshkumar H.; Jagani, Hitesh V.; Vijayan, Pottekkad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypericum is a well-known plant genus in herbal medicine. Hypericum mysorense (Family: Hypericaceae), a plant belonging to the same genus, is well known in folklore medicine for its varied therapeutic potential. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the different parts of the plant for antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. Materials and Methods: The methanol extracts of Hypericum mysorense prepared from various parts of the plant were tested in vitro for their free radical scavenging activity against ABTS• (diammonium salt), DPPH• (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), NO•, O2•− and •OH radicals, using standard systems of assays. The total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and total flavonoid content of the extracts were analyzed. Further, the leaf and flowering top extracts were tested for their in vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities on Wistar rats using a carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury model. Results: The leaf and flowering top extract showed potent antioxidant activity and also possessed highest total phenolic and flavonoid content. The antioxidant activity and the total phenolic and flavonoid content present in these extracts showed a good correlation. The leaf and flowering top extracts at 200 mg/kg restored aspartate amino transferase (ASAT), alanine amino transferase (ALAT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin and protein levels significantly in CCl4-intoxicated rats. The tested extracts also showed a significant (p < 0.001) reduction in 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels with an increase in SOD and CAT levels. The histopathology of liver did not show any toxicity after the treatment with the extracts. The active extracts were standardized using two marker compounds, hyperoside and rutin, which were isolated from the plant by HPLC. HPLC studies revealed that the maximum concentration of hyperoside and rutin is present in the flowering top extract. PMID

  7. Antiprotozoal Constituents from Annona cherimola Miller, a Plant Used in Mexican Traditional Medicine for the Treatment of Diarrhea and Dysentery

    PubMed Central

    Calzada, Fernando; Correa-Basurto, Jose; Barbosa, Elizabeth; Mendez-Luna, David; Yepez-Mulia, Lilian

    2017-01-01

    Background: Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae) is a medicinal plant frequently recommended in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea and dysentery. Objective: This work was undertaken to obtain information that support the traditional use of A. cherimola, on pharmacological basis using in vitro and computational experiments. Material and Methods: Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract of the leaves of A. cherimola afforded five phenolic compounds: caffeic acid, quercetin, kaempferol, nicotinflorin, and rutin. Results: The in vitro antiprotozoal assay showed that kaempferol was the most potent antiamoebic and antigiardial compound with IC50 values of 7.9 μg/mL for Entamoeba histolytica and 8.7 μg/mL for Giardia lamblia. Computational molecular docking study showed that kaempferol interacted in a region different than metronidazole in the enzyme pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR). Conclusion: Considering that PFOR is a target of metronidazole; kaempferol may be a lead compound for the development of novel antiprotozoal agent. Also, these findings give support to the use of A. cherimola in the traditional medicine from México for the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery. SUMMARY Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract of the leaves of Annona cherimola afforded five phenolic compounds: caffeic acid, quercetin, kaempferol, nicotinflorin and rutin. The in vitro antiprotozoal assay showed that kaempferol was the most potent antiamoebic and antigiardial compound with IC50 values of 7.9 μg/mL for Entamoeba histolytica and 8.7 μg/mL for Giardia lamblia. Computational molecular docking study showed that kaempferol interacted in a region different that metronidazole in the enzyme pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase. Abbreviations used: PFOR:Pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, G: lamblia: Giardia lamblia, E: histolytica: Entamoeba histolytica PMID:28216899

  8. An Antioxidant Extract of the Insectivorous Plant Drosera burmannii Vahl. Alleviates Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress and Hepatic Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ghate, Nikhil Baban; Chaudhuri, Dipankar; Das, Abhishek; Panja, Sourav; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2015-01-01

    Free iron typically leads to the formation of excess free radicals, and additional iron deposition in the liver contributes to the oxidative pathologic processes of liver disease. Many pharmacological properties of the insectivorous plant Drosera burmannii Vahl. have been reported in previous studies; however, there is no evidence of its antioxidant or hepatoprotective potential against iron overload. The antioxidant activity of 70% methanolic extract of D. burmannii (DBME) was evaluated. DBME showed excellent DPPH, hydroxyl, hypochlorous, superoxide, singlet oxygen, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. A substantial iron chelation (IC50 = 40.90 ± 0.31 μg/ml) and supercoiled DNA protection ([P]50 = 50.41 ± 0.55 μg) were observed. DBME also displayed excellent in vivo hepatoprotective activity in iron-overloaded Swiss albino mice compared to the standard desirox treatment. Administration of DBME significantly normalized serum enzyme levels and restored liver antioxidant enzymes levels. DBME lowered the raised levels of liver damage parameters, also reflected from the morphological analysis of the liver sections. DBME also reduced liver iron content by 115.90% which is also seen by Perls' staining. A phytochemical analysis of DBME confirms the presence of various phytoconstituents, including phenols, flavonoids, carbohydrates, tannins, alkaloids and ascorbic acid. Alkaloids, phenols and flavonoids were abundantly found in DBME. An HPLC analysis of DBME revealed the presence of purpurin, catechin, tannic acid, reserpine, methyl gallate and rutin. Purpurin, tannic acid, methyl gallate and rutin displayed excellent iron chelation but exhibited cytotoxicity toward normal (WI-38) cells; while DBME found to be non-toxic to the normal cells. These findings suggest that the constituents present in DBME contributed to its iron chelation activity. Additional studies are needed to determine if DBME can be used as a treatment for

  9. Topical antiedematogenic and anti-inflammatory effect of Scutia buxifolia Reissek gel and stability study.

    PubMed

    Boligon, Aline Augusti; da Rosa Moreira, Laís; Piana, Mariana; de Campos, Marli Matiko Anraku; Oliveira, Sara Marchesan

    2017-02-01

    Scutia buxifolia Reissek (Rhamnaceae), popularly known in Brazil as "coronilha", is a plant species used in folk medicine for several disorders, including inflammation. However, no studies have been done with this species to confirm its topical anti-inflammatory action. In this study we evaluate the topical antiedematogenic and anti-inflammatory effects of the gel containing crude extract (CE) and the gel containing ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of S. buxifolia on croton oil or UVB radiation-induced ear edema in mice, and perform gel stability study. Antiedematogenic and anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated through ear edema induced by irritant agent croton oil, UVB irradiation-induced skin injury model and neutrophil infiltration. The gel stability study was performed by analyzing organoleptical aspects, pH, viscosity, and quantification of quercetin and rutin by HPLC. The topical treatment with S. buxifolia gel reduced the ear edema and myeloperoxidase activity. Antiedematogenic and anti-inflammatory effects of S. buxifolia were obtained with concentrations of 0.3, 1 and 3%, with maximal inhibition in the concentration of 1% for gel containing CE (inhibitions of 100, 73±0.05 and 97±0.08% for croton oil- or UVB irradiation-induced ear edema and myeloperoxidase activity, respectively) and EtOAc fraction (inhibitions of 79±0.05, 73±0.05 and 89±0.04% for croton oil- or UVB irradiation-induced ear edema and myeloperoxidase activity, respectively). Such effects may be attributed, at least in part, to rutin and quercetin, as well as other compounds found in this species. No important changes were detected in the stability study, in all aspects analyzed in temperature below 25°C. Our results demonstrate that topically applied S. buxifolia gel presented anti-inflammatory effects, provided that it was maintained at a temperature below 25°C.

  10. Quercetin 7-O-glucoside suppresses nitrite-induced formation of dinitrosocatechins and their quinones in catechin/nitrite systems under stomach simulating conditions.

    PubMed

    Morina, Filis; Takahama, Umeo; Yamauchi, Ryo; Hirota, Sachiko; Veljovic-Jovanovic, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Foods of plant origin contain flavonoids. In the adzuki bean, (+)-catechin, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside (rutin), and quercetin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (Q7G) are the major flavonoids. During mastication of foods prepared from the adzuki bean, the flavonoids are mixed with saliva and swallowed into the stomach. Here we investigated the interactions between Q7G and (+)-catechin at pH 2, which may proceed in the stomach after the ingestion of foods prepared from the adzuki bean. Q7G reacted with nitrous acid producing nitric oxide (˙NO) and a glucoside of 2-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl)-2,4,6-trihydroxy-3(2H)-benzofuranone. (+)-Catechin reacted with nitrous acid producing ˙NO and 6,8-dinitrosocatechin. The production of the dinitrosocatechin was partly suppressed by Q7G, and the suppression resulted in the enhancement of Q7G oxidation. 6,8-Dinitrosocatechin reacted further with nitrous acid generating the o-quinone, and the quinone formation was effectively suppressed by Q7G. In the flavonoids investigated, the suppressive effect decreased in the order Q7G≈quercetin>kaempferol>quercetin 4'-O-glucoside>rutin. Essentially the same results were obtained when (-)-epicatechin was used instead of (+)-catechin. The results indicate that nitrous acid-induced formation of 6,8-dinitrosocatechins and the o-quinones can be suppressed by flavonols in the stomach, and that both a hydroxyl group at C3 and ortho-hydroxyl groups in the B-ring are required for efficient suppression.

  11. Differential Effects of Quercetin and Quercetin Glycosides on Human α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor-Mediated Ion Currents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byung-Hwan; Choi, Sun-Hye; Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Jung, Seok-Won; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Pyo, Mi-Kyung; Rhim, Hyewhon; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Kim, Ho-Kyoung; Lee, Sang-Mok; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin is a flavonoid usually found in fruits and vegetables. Aside from its antioxidative effects, quercetin, like other flavonoids, has a various neuropharmacological actions. Quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (Rham1), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (Rutin), and quercetin-3-(2(G)-rhamnosylrutinoside (Rham2) are mono-, di-, and tri-glycosylated forms of quercetin, respectively. In a previous study, we showed that quercetin can enhance α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR)-mediated ion currents. However, the role of the carbohydrates attached to quercetin in the regulation of α7 nAChR channel activity has not been determined. In the present study, we investigated the effects of quercetin glycosides on the acetylcholine induced peak inward current (IACh) in Xenopus oocytes expressing the α7 nAChR. IACh was measured with a two-electrode voltage clamp technique. In oocytes injected with α7 nAChR copy RNA, quercetin enhanced IACh, whereas quercetin glycosides inhibited IACh. Quercetin glycosides mediated an inhibition of IACh, which increased when they were pre-applied and the inhibitory effects were concentration dependent. The order of IACh inhibition by quercetin glycosides was Rutin≥Rham1>Rham2. Quercetin glycosides-mediated IACh enhancement was not affected by ACh concentration and appeared voltage-independent. Furthermore, quercetin-mediated IACh inhibition can be attenuated when quercetin is co-applied with Rham1 and Rutin, indicating that quercetin glycosides could interfere with quercetin-mediated α7 nAChR regulation and that the number of carbohydrates in the quercetin glycoside plays a key role in the interruption of quercetin action. These results show that quercetin and quercetin glycosides regulate the α7 nAChR in a differential manner. PMID:27098860

  12. Oviposition deterrent activities of Pachyrhizus erosus seed extract and other natural products on Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Basukriadi, Adi; Wilkins, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    An extract of a rotenone-containing plant yam bean, Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban, seeds was tested against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) in a greenhouse to determine its potential as an oviposition deterrent and compared with coumarin and rutin, known as diamondback moth oviposition deterrent compounds, rotenone, and an extract of Peruvian cube root, at a concentration of 0.5% (w/v). Oviposition deterrent index (ODI) was used to determine effects of extracts or compounds in inhibiting oviposition of diamondback moth. Coumarin showed a stronger deterrent effect than the yam bean seed extract with a higher ODI value. On the contrary, rotenone, rutin, and the cube root extract, containing 6.7% (w/w) of rotenone, showed no significant deterrent effects having low or negative ODI values, suggesting that the deterrent effect of the yam bean seed extract is not due to rotenone content of the yam bean seeds. The extract of yam bean seed and coumarin partially deterred the moth from laying eggs on treated leaves in a concentration-dependent manner. The effective concentration for 50% deterrency of coumarin and the yam bean seed extract were 0.11 and 0.83% (w/v), respectively. However, the yam bean seed extract showed a residual deterrent effect on the moth even at 3 d after the treatment and is probably because of its low volatile nature. A long-term deterrency of the yam bean seed extract is an advantage over coumarins. Both the yam bean seed extract and coumarin deterred diamondback moth from laying eggs in total darkness, indicating their nonvisual deterrent effect. This made the extract an effective deterrence to diamondback moth in light and in darkness. To conclude, this study revealed the potential of the crude extract of the yam bean seed to prevent diamondback moth from ovipositing on its plant host.

  13. Flavonoids from Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb: Free Radical Scavenging and DNA Oxidative Damage Protection Activities and Analysis of Bioactivity-Structure Relationship Based on Molecular and Electronic Structures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liancai; Chen, Jinqiu; Tan, Jun; Liu, Xi; Wang, Bochu

    2017-02-26

    To clarify the substantial basis of the excellent antioxidant capacity of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. Fourteen flavonoids were isolated and identified from Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb, seven of which have notable DPPH radical scavenging activities, i.e., catechin, luteolin, quercetin, quercitrin, hyperoside, rutin, luteolin-7-O-β-glucoside with IC50 values of 5.06, 7.29, 4.36, 7.12, 6.34, 6.36 and 8.12 µM, respectively. The DNA nicking assay showed that five flavonoids from Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb-taxifolin, catechin, hyperoside, quercitrin and rutin-have good protective activity against DNA oxidative damage. Further, we analyzed the bioactivity-structure relationship of these 14 flavonoids by applying quantum theory. According to their O-H bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE), C ring's spin density and stable molecular structure, the relationship between their structures and radical scavenging capacities was evaluated and clarified. We found that among flavonoid aglycones from Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb, the O-H BDE of quercetin is lowest with the values of 69.02 and the O-H BDE of apigenin is highest with the values of 79.77. It is interesting that the O-H BDE value of isovitexin (78.55) with glycoside at C-6 position is lower than that of its aglycone (79.77) and vitexin (99.20) with glycoside at C-8 position. Further analysis indicated that the glycosidation of flavonoids at C-6 in the A-ring makes a more uniform distribution of spin density and improves the stability of free radicals leading to the increase in antioxidant capacity. Flavonoids with good antioxidant capacity might contribute to the pharmacological effects of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb.

  14. Vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC) of phenolic phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Ok; Lee, Ki Won; Lee, Hyong Joo; Lee, Chang Yong

    2002-06-19

    To express the antioxidant capacity of plant foods in a more familiar and easily understood manner (equivalent to vitamin C mg/100 g), two stable radical species, ABTS(*)(-) and DPPH(*), commonly used for antioxidant activity measurements, were employed independently to evaluate their efficacies using apple polyphenolic extracts and seven polyphenolic standards including synthetic Trolox. Their antioxidant activities were expressed as vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC) in mg/100 g apple or mg/100 mL of the reference chemical compounds in 10 and 30 min using the ABTS(*)(-) and DPPH(*) scavenging assays, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of Gala apples and seven phenolic standards, determined by both ABTS(*)(-) and DPPH(*) scavenging assays, showed a dose-response of the first-order. Fresh Gala apples had a VCEAC of 205.4 +/- 5.6 mg/100 g using the ABTS assay, and the relative VCEACs of phenolic standards were as follows: gallic acid > quercetin > epicatechin > catechin > vitamin C > rutin > chlorogenic acid > Trolox. With the DPPH radical assay, the VCEAC of fresh Gala apples was 136.0 +/- 6.6 mg/100 g, and the relative VCEACs of seven phenolic standards were, in decreasing order, as follows: gallic acid > quercetin > epicatechin > catechin > or = vitamin C > Trolox > rutin > chlorogenic acid. Because the ABTS assay can be used in both organic and aqueous solvent systems, employs a specific absorbance at a wavelength remote from the visible region, and requires a short reaction time, it is a more desirable method than the DPPH assay. Therefore, it is recommended that antioxidant capacity be expressed as vitamin C mg/100 g equivalent (VCEAC) using the ABTS assay.

  15. Antioxidant Potential, DNA Protection, and HPLC-DAD Analysis of Neglected Medicinal Jurinea dolomiaea Roots

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Naseer Ali; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Naz, Kiran; Khan, Mubarak Ali

    2014-01-01

    Jurinea dolomiaea Boiss., family Compositae, is a medicinally important plant of alpine region. Its tuberous roots are used in various ailments in folk medicine. This study was undertaken to estimate total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) and to determine anti-free radical potential by diverse in vitro antioxidant assays. Crude methanol extract (JDME) was fractionated into n-hexane (JDHE), chloroform (JDCE), ethyl acetate (JDEE), n-butanol (JDBE), and aqueous (JDAE) fractions. The results indicated that JDEE and JDCE constituted the highest amount of TFC (807 ± 7.2 mg rutin equivalent/g sample) and TPC (757 ± 9.4 mg gallic acid equivalent/g sample), respectively. Significant correlation of TFC with IC50 values was recorded for •OH (R2 = 0.91), H2O2 (R2 = 0.82), and ABTS (R2 = 0.82) assay. It could be made clear that JDEE was the most potent in antioxidant activity as compared to others, with generally lower IC50 values for DPPH (41.1 ± 1.0 μg/mL), ABTS (46.7 ± 0.6 μg/mL), H2O2 (42.2 ± 0.9 μg/mL), •OH (61.1 ± 1.1 μg/mL), O2− (152 ± 1.1 μg/mL), and antilipid peroxidation (54.3 ± 1.6 μg/mL). HPLC chromatogram of JDEE revealed the presence of catechin, caffeic acid, and rutin. The results indicated the antioxidant activities of J. dolomiaea roots and merit further investigations for their use in oxidative stress related disorders. PMID:24982907

  16. Transcriptome and Biochemical Analysis of a Flower Color Polymorphism in Silene littorea (Caryophyllaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Casimiro-Soriguer, Inés; Narbona, Eduardo; Buide, M. L.; del Valle, José C.; Whittall, Justen B.

    2016-01-01

    Flower color polymorphisms are widely used as model traits from genetics to ecology, yet determining the biochemical and molecular basis can be challenging. Anthocyanin-based flower color variations can be caused by at least 12 structural and three regulatory genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway (ABP). We use mRNA-Seq to simultaneously sequence and estimate expression of these candidate genes in nine samples of Silene littorea representing three color morphs (dark pink, light pink and white) across three developmental stages in hopes of identifying the cause of flower color variation. We identified 29 putative paralogs for the 15 candidate genes in the ABP. We assembled complete coding sequences for 16 structural loci and nine of ten regulatory loci. Among these 29 putative paralogs, we identified 622 SNPs, yet only nine synonymous SNPs in Ans had allele frequencies that differentiated pigmented petals (dark pink and light pink) from white petals. These Ans allele frequency differences were further investigated with an expanded sequencing survey of 38 individuals, yet no SNPs consistently differentiated the color morphs. We also found one locus, F3h1, with strong differential expression between pigmented and white samples (>42x). This may be caused by decreased expression of Myb1a in white petal buds. Myb1a in S. littorea is a regulatory locus closely related to Subgroup 7 Mybs known to regulate F3h and other loci in the first half of the ABP in model species. We then compare the mRNA-Seq results with petal biochemistry which revealed cyanidin as the primary anthocyanin and five flavonoid intermediates. Concentrations of three of the flavonoid intermediates were significantly lower in white petals than in pigmented petals (rutin, quercetin and isovitexin). The biochemistry results for rutin, quercetin, luteolin and apigenin are consistent with the transcriptome results suggesting a blockage at F3h, possibly caused by downregulation of Myb1a. PMID:26973662

  17. Comparing anti-hyperglycemic activity and acute oral toxicity of three different trivalent chromium complexes in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Wu, Xiangyang; Zou, Yanmin; Zhao, Ting; Zhang, Min; Feng, Weiwei; Yang, Liuqing

    2012-05-01

    Three different ligands (rutin, folate and stachyose) of chromium(III) complexes were compared to examine whether they have similar effect on anti-hyperglycemic activity as well as the acute toxicity status. Anti-hyperglycemic activities of chromium rutin complex (CrRC), chromium folate complex (CrFC) and chromium stachyose complex (CrSC) were examined in alloxan-induced diabetic mice with daily oral gavage for a period of 2 weeks at the dose of 0.5-3.0 mg Cr/kg. Acute toxicities of CrRC and CrFC were tested using ICR mice at the dose of 1.0-5.0 g/kg with a single oral gavage and observed for a period of 2 weeks. Biological activities results indicated that only CrRC and CrFC could decrease blood glucose level, reduce the activities of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and increase liver glycogen level. In acute toxicity study, LD(50) values for both CrRC and CrFC were above 5.0 g/kg. The minimum lethal dose for CrFC was above 5.0 g/kg, while that for CrRC was 1.0 g/kg. Anti-diabetic activity of those chromium complexes was not similar and their acute toxicities were also different. CrFC represent an optimal chromium supplement among those chromium complexes with potential therapeutic value to control blood glucose in diabetes and non-toxicity in acute toxicity.

  18. Occurrence and Distribution of Phytochemicals in the Leaves of 17 In vitro Cultured Hypericum spp. Adapted to Outdoor Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kucharíková, Andrea; Kusari, Souvik; Sezgin, Selahaddin; Spiteller, Michael; Čellárová, Eva

    2016-01-01

    A plethora of plants belonging to the genus Hypericum have been investigated so far owing to the biological efficacies of pharmacologically important secondary metabolites produced by several Hypericum species. However, there is currently a dearth of information about the localization (accumulation) of these compounds in the plants in situ. In particular, the biosynthetic and ecological consequence of acclimatization of in vitro cultured Hypericum spp. to outdoor conditions is not fully known. Herein, we report an application of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (MALDI-HRMS) to reveal the distribution of major naphthodianthrones hypericin, pseudohypericin, protohypericin, and their proposed precursor emodin as well as emodin anthrone, along with the phloroglucinol derivative hyperforin, the flavonoids quercetin, quercitrin, rutin and hyperoside (and/or isoquercitrin), and chlorogenic acid in Hypericum leaves. Plants encompassing seventeen Hypericum species classified into eleven sections, which were first cultured in vitro and later acclimatized to outdoor conditions, were studied. We focused both on the secretory (dark and translucent glands, other types of glands, and glandular-like structures) as well as the non-secretory leaf tissues. We comparatively analyzed and interpreted the occurrence and accumulation of our target compounds in different leaf tissues of the seventeen species to get an intra-sectional as well as inter-sectional perspective. The naphthodianthrones, along with emodin, were present in all species containing the dark glands. In selected species, hypericin and pseudohypericin accumulated not only in the dark glands, but also in translucent glands and non-secretory leaf tissues. Although hyperforin was localized mainly in translucent glands, it was present sporadically in the dark glands in selected species. The flavonoids quercetin, quercitrin, and hyperoside (and/or isoquercitrin) were distributed

  19. Houttuynia cordata Extract Improves Physical Endurance Performance by Regulating Endothelial Production of Nitric Oxide.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ui-Jeong; Maeng, Hyojin; Park, Tae-Sik; Shim, Soon-Mi

    2015-09-01

    Vascular function is mediated by various regulatory molecules, including endothelial nitric oxide (NO), which regulates the vasodilation of smooth muscle cells. We investigated whether standardized Houttuynia cordata extract (SHCE) could improve physical endurance performance by regulating the endothelial production of NO. For the standardization of Houttuynia cordata (HC) extract, its bioactive components were identified and quantified using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Bioaccessibility and biological activity were measured by the in vitro digestion model system and free radical scavenging capacity, respectively. The vascular function in the endothelium was assessed by the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). A preliminary clinical trial was carried out to assess the physical endurance performance. HC extract was standardized to bioactive components, including chlorogenic acid, rutin, and quercitrin, with the concentration of 5.53, 6.09, and 16.15 mg from 1 g of dry weight, respectively. Bioaccessibility was 33.17%, 31.67%, and 11.18% for chlorogenic acid, rutin, and quercitrin, respectively. Antioxidant activities of SHCE were expressed as vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity in 55.81 and 17.23 mg/g of HC extract using ABTS and DPPH scavenging assay, respectively. In human aortic endothelial cells, insulin-mediated phosphorylation of eNOS was increased by SHCE in the presence of palmitate. However, the expression of blood pressure-regulating genes was not altered. The level of blood lactate concentration and the heart rate of subjects who drank SHCE were lower than those of subjects who drank plain water. Oxygen uptake from subjects drinking SHCE was slightly higher than that from those who drank plain water. This study demonstrated that SHCE decreased heart rate and blood lactate, increased oxygen uptake, and improved physical performance, presumably due to the increased NO production.

  20. Antioxidant effects of different extracts from Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Fachinetto, Roselei; de Souza Prestes, Alessandro; Puntel, Robson Luiz; Santos da Silva, Gloria Narjara; Heinzmann, Berta Maria; Boschetti, Ticiane Krapf; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Bürger, Marilise Escobar; Morel, Ademir Farias; Morsch, Vera Maria; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2009-05-01

    Considering the important role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases, and the growing evidence of the presence of compounds with antioxidant properties in the plant extracts, the aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant capacity of three plants used in Brazil to treat neurological disorders: Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus. The antioxidant effect of phenolic compounds commonly found in plant extracts, namely, quercetin, gallic acid, quercitrin and rutin was also examined for comparative purposes. Cerebral lipid peroxidation (assessed by TBARS) was induced by iron sulfate (10 microM), sodium nitroprusside (5 microM) or 3-nitropropionic acid (2 mM). Free radical scavenger properties and the chemical composition of plant extracts were assessed by 1'-1' Diphenyl-2' picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), respectively. M. officinalis aqueous extract caused the highest decrease in TBARS production induced by all tested pro-oxidants. In the DPPH assay, M. officinalis presented also the best antioxidant effect, but, in this case, the antioxidant potencies were similar for the aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts. Among the purified compounds, quercetin had the highest antioxidant activity followed by gallic acid, quercitrin and rutin. In this work, we have demonstrated that the plant extracts could protect against oxidative damage induced by various pro-oxidant agents that induce lipid peroxidation by different process. Thus, plant extracts could inhibit the generation of early chemical reactive species that subsequently initiate lipid peroxidation or, alternatively, they could block a common final pathway in the process of polyunsaturated fatty acids peroxidation. Our study indicates that M. officinalis could be considered an effective agent in the prevention of various neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  1. Tabebuia roseoalba: In Vivo Hypouricemic and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Its Ethanolic Extract and Constituents.

    PubMed

    Ferraz-Filha, Zilma Schimith; Michel Araújo, Marcela Carolina de Paula; Ferrari, Fernanda Cristina; Dutra, Iális Paiva Andrade Rodrigues; Saúde-Guimarães, Dênia Antunes

    2016-11-01

    Tabebuia species have several uses in folk medicine, including their use to treat inflammation and rheumatism. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the ethanolic extract of leaves from Tabebuia roseoalba and isolated compounds could be useful to decrease serum uric acid levels and restrain the gout inflammatory process. The compounds α-amyrin, β-amyrin, sitosterol, and stigmasterol were isolated from the ethanolic extract. Rutin and caffeic acid were identified in the ethanolic extract by HPLC analysis. The anti-hyperuricemic effect, liver xanthine oxidoreductase inhibition, and anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanolic extract and isolated compounds were evaluated on hyperuricemic mice and on paw edema induced by monosodium urate crystals in mice. The ethanolic extract of leaves from T. roseoalba, β-amyrin, and stigmasterol were able to reduce serum uric acid levels in hyperuricemic mice through inhibition of liver xanthine oxidase activity and significantly decreased the paw edema induced by monosodium urate crystals. The antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract and its ability to inhibit xanthine oxidase were also evaluated in vitro. The ethanolic extract of leaves from T. roseoalba showed significant antioxidant activity in the three evaluated assays. Results were analyzed using GraphPad Prism 5.01. One-way ANOVA followed by Student's Newman-Keul's test was used to determine the significant differences between groups. The results show that the ethanolic extract of leaves from T. roseoalba, β-amyrin, and stigmasterol can be promising agents for the treatment for gouty arthritis, hyperuricemia, and inflammation. Stigmasterol, β-amyrin, and rutin contribute to the observed effects of the ethanolic extract of leaves from T. roseoalba.

  2. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities of 10 common edible flowers from China.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Lina; Yang, Jiajia; Jiang, Yirong; Lu, Baiyi; Hu, Yinzhou; Zhou, Fei; Mao, Shuqin; Shen, Canxi

    2014-04-01

    The free and bound phenolic compounds in 10 common Chinese edible flowers were investigated using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Their antioxidant capacities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical-scavenging activity, oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA). Free factions were more prominent in phenolic content and antioxidant capacity than bound fractions. Paeonia suffruticosa and Flos lonicerae showed the highest total phenolic content (TPC) 235.5 mg chlorogenic acid equivalents/g of dry weight and total flavonoid content 89.38 mg rutin equivalents/g of dry weight. The major phenolic compounds identified were gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, and rutin. P. suffruticosa had the highest antioxidant capacity in the DPPH, ABTS, and ORAC assays, which were 1028, 2065, 990 μmol Trolox equivalents/g of dry weight, respectively, whereas Rosa chinensis had the highest FRAP value (2645 μmol Fe(2+) equivalents /g of dry weight). The P. suffruticosa soluble phenolics had the highest CAA, with the median effective dose (EC50 ) 26.7 and 153 μmol quercetin equivalents/100 g of dry weight in the phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and no PBS wash protocol, respectively. TPC was strongly correlated with antioxidant capacity (R = 0.8443 to 0.9978, P < 0.01), which indicated that phenolics were the major contributors to the antioxidant activity of the selected edible flowers.

  3. An Antioxidant Extract of the Insectivorous Plant Drosera burmannii Vahl. Alleviates Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress and Hepatic Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Das, Abhishek; Panja, Sourav; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2015-01-01

    Free iron typically leads to the formation of excess free radicals, and additional iron deposition in the liver contributes to the oxidative pathologic processes of liver disease. Many pharmacological properties of the insectivorous plant Drosera burmannii Vahl. have been reported in previous studies; however, there is no evidence of its antioxidant or hepatoprotective potential against iron overload. The antioxidant activity of 70% methanolic extract of D. burmannii (DBME) was evaluated. DBME showed excellent DPPH, hydroxyl, hypochlorous, superoxide, singlet oxygen, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. A substantial iron chelation (IC50 = 40.90 ± 0.31 μg/ml) and supercoiled DNA protection ([P]50 = 50.41 ± 0.55 μg) were observed. DBME also displayed excellent in vivo hepatoprotective activity in iron-overloaded Swiss albino mice compared to the standard desirox treatment. Administration of DBME significantly normalized serum enzyme levels and restored liver antioxidant enzymes levels. DBME lowered the raised levels of liver damage parameters, also reflected from the morphological analysis of the liver sections. DBME also reduced liver iron content by 115.90% which is also seen by Perls’ staining. A phytochemical analysis of DBME confirms the presence of various phytoconstituents, including phenols, flavonoids, carbohydrates, tannins, alkaloids and ascorbic acid. Alkaloids, phenols and flavonoids were abundantly found in DBME. An HPLC analysis of DBME revealed the presence of purpurin, catechin, tannic acid, reserpine, methyl gallate and rutin. Purpurin, tannic acid, methyl gallate and rutin displayed excellent iron chelation but exhibited cytotoxicity toward normal (WI-38) cells; while DBME found to be non-toxic to the normal cells. These findings suggest that the constituents present in DBME contributed to its iron chelation activity. Additional studies are needed to determine if DBME can be used as a treatment for

  4. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of leaf, stem and root from different varieties of Labisa pumila Benth.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Ehsan; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ahmad, Sahida

    2011-05-27

    A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. pumila exhibited significantly higher total saponin content than var. alata and lanceolata, with values of 56.4, 43.6 and 42.3 mg diosgenin equivalent/g dry weight, respectively. HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids in all three varieties revealed the presence of gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and myricetin in all plant parts. Higher levels of flavonoids (rutin, quercitin, kaempferol) were observed in var. pumila compared with alata and lanceolata, whereas higher accumulation of phenolics (gallic acid, pyrogallol) was recorded in var. alata, followed by pumila and lanceolata. Antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root extracts of all varieties determined against both Gram positive (Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis B145, Bacillus cereus B43, Staphylococcus aureus S1431) and Gram negative (Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia K36, Escherichia coli E256, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PI96) pathogens showed that crude methanolic extracts are active against these bacteria at low concentrations, albeit with lower antibacterial activity compared to kanamycin used as the control. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of all plant parts against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor using the agar diffusion disc exhibited moderate to appreciable antifungal activities compared to streptomycin used as positive control.

  5. Antioxidant and Anti-tyrosinase Activities of Phenolic Extracts from Rape Bee Pollen and Inhibitory Melanogenesis by cAMP/MITF/TYR Pathway in B16 Mouse Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Liping; Guo, Yan; Zhang, Yanxin; Zhuang, Yongliang

    2017-01-01

    Rape bee pollen possesses many nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its abundant nutrimental and bioactive components. In this study, free (FPE) and bound (BPE) phenolic extracts of rape bee pollen were obtained, phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined, and composition of phenolic acids was analyzed. In vitro antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase (TYR) activities of FPE and BPE were compared, and inhibitory melanogenesis of FPE was further evaluated. Results showed FPE and BPE contain total phenolic contents of 11.76 and 0.81 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight (DW) and total flavonoid contents of 19.24 and 3.65 mg rutin equivalents/g DW, respectively. Phenolic profiling showed FPE and BPE fractions contained 12 and 9 phenolic acids, respectively. FPE contained the highest rutin content of 774.87 μg/g. FPE and BPE showed the high antioxidant properties in vitro and high inhibitory activities for mushroom TYR. Higher activities of FPE than those of BPE can be attributed to difference in their phenolic compositions. Inhibitory melanogenesis activities of FPE against B16 were further evaluated. Results showed suppressed intracellular TYR activity, reduced melanin content, and promoted glutathione synthesis (p < 0.05) in FPE-treated cells. FPE reduced mRNA expression of TYR, TYR-related protein (TRP)-1 and TRP-2, and significantly suppressed cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels through down-regulation of melanocortin 1 receptor gene expression (p < 0.05). FPE reduced mRNA expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), significantly inhibiting intracellular melanin synthesis (p < 0.05). Hence, FPE regulates melanogenesis of B16 cells involved in cAMP/MITF/TYR pathway. These results revealed that FPE can be used as pharmaceutical agents and cosmetics to protect cells from abnormal melanogenesis. PMID:28337140

  6. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Berry Fruits in Mice Model of Inflammation is Based on Oxidative Stress Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Nardi, Geisson Marcos; Farias Januario, Adriana Graziele; Freire, Cassio Geremia; Megiolaro, Fernanda; Schneider, Kétlin; Perazzoli, Marlene Raimunda Andreola; Do Nascimento, Scheley Raap; Gon, Ana Cristina; Mariano, Luísa Nathália Bolda; Wagner, Glauber; Niero, Rivaldo; Locatelli, Claudriana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many fruits have been used as nutraceuticals because the presence of bioactive molecules that play biological activities. Objective: The present study was designed to compare the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of methanolic extracts of Lycium barbarum (GOJI), Vaccinium macrocarpon (CRAN) and Vaccinium myrtillus (BLUE). Materials and Methods: Mices were treated with extracts (50 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.), twice a day through 10 days. Phytochemical analysis was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Antioxidant activity was determine by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, reducing power, lipid peroxidation thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) activity. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by paw edema followed by determination of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and TBARS. Results: High amount of phenolic compounds, including rutin, were identified in all berries extracts. However, quercetin was observed only in BLUE and CRAN. GOJI presents higher scavenging activity of DPPH radical and reducing power than BLUE and CRAN. The extracts improved antioxidant status in liver; BLUE showed the largest reduction (75.3%) in TBARS when compared to CRAN (70.7%) and GOJI (65.3%). Nonetheless, CAT activity was lower in BLUE group. However, hepatic concentrations of GSH were higher in animals treated with GOJI rather than CRAN and BLUE. Despite all fruits caused a remarkable reduction in paw edema and TBARS, only BLUE and CRAN were able to reduce MPO. Conclusion: These results suggest that quercetin, rutin, or other phenolic compound found in these berry fruits extracts could produce an anti-inflammatory response based on modulation of oxidative stress in paw edema model. SUMMARY Within fruits broadly consumed because of its nutraceuticals properties include, Lycium barbarum (Goji berry), Vaccinium myrtillus (Blueberry or Bilberry) and Vaccinium macrocarpon (Cranberry)The objectives of this

  7. Reversed-phase high-performance Liquid Chromatography-ultraviolet Photodiode Array Detector Validated Simultaneous Quantification of six Bioactive Phenolic Acids in Roscoea purpurea Tubers and their In vitro Cytotoxic Potential against Various Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Sharad; Misra, Ankita; Kumar, Dharmesh; Srivastava, Amit; Sood, Anil; Rawat, AKS

    2015-01-01

    Background: Roscoea purpurea or Roscoea procera Wall. (Zingiberaceae) is traditionally used for nutrition and in the treatment of various ailments. Objective: Simultaneous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (RP-HPLC) photodiode array detector identification of phenolic acids (PA's) was carried out in whole extract of tuber and their cytotoxic potential was estimated along with radical scavenging action. Bioactivity guided fractionation was also done to check the response potential against the same assay. Materials and Methods: Identification and method validation was performed on RP-HPLC column and in vitro assays were used for bioactivity. Results: Protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, ferulic acid, rutin, apigenin, and kaempferol were quantified as 0.774%, 0.064%, 0.265%, 1.125%, 0.128%, and 0.528%, respectively. Validated method for simultaneous determination of PA's was found to be accurate, reproducible, and linearity was observed between peak area response and concentration. Recovery of identified PA's was within the acceptable limit of 97.40–104.05%. Significant pharmacological response was observed in whole extract against in vitro cytotoxic assay, that is, Sulforhodamine B assay, however, fractionation results in decreased action potential. Similar pattern of results were observed in the antioxidant assay, as total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were highest in whole extract and decreases with fractionation. Radical scavenging activity was prominent in chloroform fraction, exhibiting IC50 at 0.25 mg/mL. Conclusion: Study, thus, reveals that R. purpurea exhibit significant efficacy in cytotoxic activity with the potentiality of scavenging free radicals due the presence of PA's as reported through RP-HPLC. SUMMARY Proto-catechuic acid, syringic acid, ferulic acid, rutin, apigenin and kaempferol were quantified as 0.774, 0.064, 0.265, 1.125, 0.128 and 0.528 %Preliminary cytotoxic activity revealed that whole

  8. Bioactive components of caper (Capparis spinosa L.) from Sicily and antioxidant effects in a red meat simulated gastric digestion.

    PubMed

    Tesoriere, L; Butera, D; Gentile, C; Livrea, M A

    2007-10-17

    An increasing body of evidence on the association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and healthy status is being accumulated. Floral buds of Capparis spinosa L. are commonly used in the Mediterranean cuisine as flavoring for meat and other foods. The present study evaluated bioactive components and antioxidant activity of Sicilian capers stabilized in salt. Whereas alpha-tocopherol was absent, low levels of gamma-tocopherol and vitamin C were measured. With reference to one serving size (8.6 g of capers), rutin was 13.76 mg, isothiocyanates, recently acknowledged as anticarcinogen phytochemicals, were 42.14 micromol, total phenols were 4.19 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE), and the total antioxidant potential measured using the [2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] diammonium salt (ABTS) cation radical decolorization assay was 25.8 micromol of Trolox equivalents. The antioxidative activity of a caper hydrophilic extract was assessed in a number of assays. The extract at 3.5 and 7.0 microM GAE exhibited a dose-dependent peroxyl radical scavenging activity in a methyl linoleate methanol solution oxidized by azo initiator, and reduced hypervalent iron myoglobin species formed from met-Mb an H 2O 2, at 180 microM GAE. The hydrophilic extract, at 70-280 microM GAE, caused a dose-dependent inhibition of lipid autoxidation in heated red meat, incubated with simulated gastric fluid for 180 min. In the same model rutin tested at a concentration corresponding to its content in the extract was ineffective, and alpha-tocopherol at 25 microM was poorly effective. The hydrophilic extract (70 microM GAE) prevented the consumption of the co-incubated alpha-tocopherol, whereas lipid oxidation was inhibited for the experimental time, suggesting cooperative interactions between extract components and the vitamin. The findings encourage the use of caper with foods that contribute oxidizable lipids in view of the association between dietary oxidized lipids

  9. A fast method using a new hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced sorbent in combination with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography for quantification of significant bioactive metabolites in wines.

    PubMed

    Silva, Catarina L; Pereira, Jorge; Wouter, Van G; Giró, Carme; Câmara, José S

    2011-10-30

    This manuscript describes the development and validation of an ultra-fast, efficient, and high throughput analytical method based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) equipped with a photodiode array (PDA) detection system, for the simultaneous analysis of fifteen bioactive metabolites: gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, (-)-catechin, gentisic acid, (-)-epicatechin, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, m-coumaric acid, rutin, trans-resveratrol, myricetin, quercetin, cinnamic acid and kaempferol, in wines. A 50-mm column packed with 1.7-μm particles operating at elevated pressure (UHPLC strategy) was selected to attain ultra-fast analysis and highly efficient separations. In order to reduce the complexity of wine extract and improve the recovery efficiency, a reverse-phase solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure using as sorbent a new macroporous copolymer made from a balanced ratio of two monomers, the lipophilic divinylbenzene and the hydrophilic N-vinylpyrrolidone (Oasis™ HLB), was performed prior to UHPLC-PDA analysis. The calibration curves of bioactive metabolites showed good linearity within the established range. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.006 μg mL(-1) to 0.58 μg mL(-1), and from 0.019 μg mL(-1) to 1.94 μg mL(-1), for gallic and gentisic acids, respectively. The average recoveries ± SD for the three levels of concentration tested (n=9) in red and white wines were, respectively, 89 ± 3% and 90 ± 2%. The repeatability expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) was below 10% for all the metabolites assayed. The validated method was then applied to red and white wines from different geographical origins (Azores, Canary and Madeira Islands). The most abundant component in the analysed red wines was (-)-epicatechin followed by (-)-catechin and rutin, whereas in white wines syringic and p-coumaric acids were found the major phenolic metabolites. The method was completely validated

  10. Effect of maturity stages and drying methods on the retention of selected nutrients and phytochemicals in bitter melon (Momordica charantia) leaf.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Hettiarachchy, Navam S; Horax, Ronny; Chen, Pengyin; Over, Kenneth F

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the nutrient and phytochemical composition of bitter melon leaves under varying maturity levels and drying techniques. Fresh, oven-dried, and freeze-dried leaves were evaluated over 3 maturity stages. In fresh leaves at various stages, crude fat, crude protein, and soluble dietary fiber contents ranged from 4.2% to 13.6%, 6.4% to 23.1%, and 0.04% to 3.50% on dry-weight basis, respectively. The contents of K, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Zn ranged from 1850.8 to 2811.8, 837.4 to 4978.2, 317.3 to 512.4, 8.4 to 16.7, and 4.1 to 5.9 mg/100 g dry-weight basis, respectively. Vitamin C, beta-carotene, and lutein contents ranged from 397.4 to 1275.1, 154.2 to 422.8, and 737.6 to 1304.6 microg/g dry-weight basis. The major flavonoids and phenolic acids were rutin, gentistic acid, and o-coumaric acid, which ranged from 7.57 to 12.75, 2.53 to 10.11, and 4.24 to 9.75 mg/g dry-weight basis, respectively. In oven-dried samples, 40.2% to 52.3% of vitamin C, 35.4% to 55.4% of beta-carotene, 25.6% to 71.6% of lutein, 26.4% to 84.0% of rutin, trace to 11.4% of gentistic acid, and 7.4% to 46.6% of o-coumaric acid were retained, while the retainment ratios of these components in freeze-dried samples were 84.7% to 99.0%, 76.4% to 99.3%, 90.4% to 96.1%, 39.8% to 99.3%, 24.1% to 68.4%, and 75.8% to 87.0%, respectively. The data showed that freeze-drying better preserves the nutrient and phytochemical quality of bitter melon leaves in comparison to oven-drying. Bitter melon leaf is a rich source of selected nutrients and phytochemicals.

  11. Plant polyphenols differentially modulate inflammatory responses of human keratinocytes by interfering with activation of transcription factors NF{kappa}B and AhR and EGFR-ERK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Potapovich, Alla I.; Lulli, Daniela; Fidanza, Paolo; Kostyuk, Vladimir A.; De Luca, Chiara; Pastore, Saveria; Korkina, Liudmila G.

    2011-09-01

    Molecular mechanisms underlying modulation of inflammatory responses in primary human keratinocytes by plant polyphenols (PPs), namely the glycosylated phenylpropanoid verbascoside, the stilbenoid resveratrol and its glycoside polydatin, and the flavonoid quercetin and its glycoside rutin were evaluated. As non-lethal stimuli, the prototypic ligand for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha), the combination of tumor necrosis factor (TNFalpha) and interferon (IFNgamma) (T/I), UVA + UVB irradiation, and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used. We demonstrated differential modulation of inflammatory responses in keratinocytes at signal transduction, gene transcription, and protein synthesis levels as a function of PP chemical structure, the pro-inflammatory trigger used, and PP interaction with intracellular detoxifying systems. The PPs remarkably inhibited constitutive, LPS- and T/I-induced but not TGFalpha-induced ERK phosphorylation. They also suppressed NFkappaB activation by LPS and T/I. Verbascoside and quercetin invariably impaired EGFR phosphorylation and UV-associated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated signaling, while rutin, polydatin and resveratrol did not affect EGFR phosphorylation and further activated AhR machinery in UV-exposed keratinocytes. In general, PPs down-regulated gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines/enzymes, except significant up-regulation of IL-8 observed under stimulation with TGFalpha. Both spontaneous and T/I-induced release of IL-8 and IP-10 was suppressed, although 50 {mu}M resveratrol and polydatin up-regulated IL-8. At this concentration, resveratrol activated both gene expression and de novo synthesis of IL-8 and AhR-mediated mechanisms were involved. We conclude that PPs differentially modulate the inflammatory response of human keratinocytes through distinct signal transduction pathways, including AhR and EGFR. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights

  12. Selected secondary metabolites in Echium vulgare L. populations from nonmetalliferous and metalliferous areas.

    PubMed

    Dresler, Sławomir; Rutkowska, Ewelina; Bednarek, Wiesław; Stanisławski, Grzegorz; Kubrak, Tomasz; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Wójcik, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of severe environmental conditions prevailing on metalliferous waste heaps and heavy metal-contaminated growth substrates on accumulation of selected secondary metabolites, antioxidant capacity, and heavy metal concentration in two metallicolous (MC, MZ) and one nonmetallicolous (NM) populations of Echium vulgare L. The shoots and the roots of the three studied populations were collected from their natural habitats. Additionally, the plants were cultivated on different growth substrates, i.e. a contaminated substrate obtained from the areas of growth of the MZ and MC populations and an uncontaminated one from the NM population site. Several compounds, i.e. allantoin, rutin, rosmarinic acid, chlorogenic acid, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid were identified in the shoots. Moreover, rosmarinic acid, allantoin, and shikonin were measured in the roots. The adverse environmental conditions contributed to a ca. 10- and 4-fold increase in the concentration of allantoin in the roots and shoots, respectively, as well as a ca. 4-fold and ca. 3-fold increase in the level of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and shikonin, respectively, in comparison with the plants from the uncontaminated site. Similarly, a great impact of the contaminated substrate on the compounds was demonstrated in the soil experiment. Regardless of the populations, even ca. 20-fold higher levels of allantoin and shikonin were observed in plants grown on the MC and MZ substrates. In contrast, the chlorogenic acid concentration was lower in plants collected from the metalliferous areas and in all populations cultivated on the contaminated substrates in comparison with plants from the uncontaminated soil. Unambiguous results were obtained in the case of rutin, i.e. decreased accumulation in both metallicolous populations from the natural environment and increased accumulation in plants grown on the contaminated substrates. The high concentrations of heavy metals in the

  13. Effect of Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. Leaves on Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Avijeet; Nahata, Alok; Singhai, Abhay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the nephroprotective and nephrocurative effects of Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. leaves against gentamicin-induced acute renal injury in albino rats. The maximum free radical scavenging activity of the ethanolic extract was the basis for the selection of this extract for the in vivo study. Gentamicin (40 mg/kg, s.c.) was administered to induce toxicity in the toxic group and the ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg p.o.) was administered in all treated groups. Blood urea and serum creatinine levels were monitored to assess the effects. The antioxidant potential was also evaluated by the estimation of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Gentamicin intoxication caused significant increases in blood urea and serum creatinine levels as compared to the normal control. In the preventive regimen, the extract (200 mg/kg, p.o.) showed significant reductions in the elevated blood urea and serum creatinine. Histopathological changes were in accordance with the biochemical findings. Also in the curative regimen, the blood urea and serum creatinine levels revealed significant curative effects. In our in vivo antioxidant activity, the GSH level was significantly (P< 0.05) increased in the extract-treated groups, whereas MDA was reduced significantly (P< 0.05). Further thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) led us to ascertain the presence of rutin and quercetin in the extract. We were able to isolate and characterize an isolate from the ethanolic extract and characterize it on the basis of chromatographic, melting point, FTIR, NMR, and mass spectroscopic studies. The findings suggest that the ethanol extract of Tephrosia purpurea leaves possesses marked nephroprotective and curative activities without any toxicity. The proposed mechanisms for the claimed activity are antioxidant activity and the inhibition of an overproduction of NO and Cox-2 expression. These activities may be

  14. The protective effect of Hypericum connatum on stress-induced escape deficit in rat is related to its flavonoid content.

    PubMed

    Scheggi, Simona; Marandino, Aurelio; Del Monte, Donato; De Martino, Laura; Pelliccia, Teresa; Del Rosario Fusco, Maria; Petenatti, Elisa M; Gambarana, Carla; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-09-01

    Context Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae), used in moderate depression treatment, is active in experimental tests for antidepressant activity. For H. connatum Lam., a South American species lacking hyperforin, antidepressant effects have not been demonstrated. Objective This study evaluates the antidepressant-like effect of H. connatum in rats and identifies the components involved in this activity. Materials and methods First, the effects of acute and 14-d oral administrations of an extract derived from H. connatum aerial parts were studied using the Escape Deficit (ED) test. Next, methanol-extracted flavonoid-enriched fractions B and C and fraction-purified flavonoids (quercetin, rutin and isoquercitrin) were evaluated in the ED test after acute administration. To rule out possible confounding effects of the flavonoids, we examined nociceptive threshold using the tail-flick test and anxious behaviour using the elevated plus maze (EPM) test. Results Hypericum connatum increased reactivity of unavoidable stress-exposed rats after acute (0.5 and 1 g/kg: ED = 18.6/30 and 19.8/30, respectively) and repeated administration (0.5 g/kg twice daily: ED = 17.8/30). Protective effects were observed for fractions B and C (250 mg/kg: ED = 18.1/30 and 18.8/30, respectively), quercetin (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg: ED = 15.3/30, 18.3/30 and 21.6/30, respectively), rutin (5 and 10 mg/kg: ED = 15.4/30 and 13.0/30, respectively) and isoquercitrin (2.5 mg/kg: ED = 19.2/30). The flavonoids did not modify nociceptive threshold or performance in the EPM test. Discussion and conclusion Hypericum connatum showed protective activity in the ED test, a correlate of potential antidepressant-like effects that appeared to be related to the flavonoid components of this species.

  15. Anti-arthritic Effects of Total Flavonoids from Juniperus sabina on Complete Freund's Adjuvant Induced Arthritis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jun; Liu, Tao; Xu, Fang; You, Shuping; Xu, Fang; Li, Chenyang; Gu, Zhengyi

    2016-01-01

    Context: Twigs and leaves of Juniperus sabina L. have been traditionally used as the medicinal herb in China for the treatment of many ailments including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Aims: To confirm the therapeutic effect of total flavonoids from J. sabina (JSTF) on RA-induced by Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) in rats. Settings and Design: Wistar rats (200 ± 20 g) were immunized by intradermal injection of 0.1 mL of CFA into the right hind metatarsal footpad. JSTF was administered orally at the dose of 125,250 and 500 mg/kg on 14 days after the induction of adjuvant arthritis. Tripterygium glycoside (20 mg/kg) was used as a positive control. Paw swelling, arthritic score, body weight loss, serum cytokines, inflammatory mediators, and histological change were measured. Results: We found that JSTF could ameliorate paw swelling of CFA rats, and significantly inhibit arthritic score (P < 0.05). The overproduction of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1beta were remarkably suppressed in the serum of JSTF (125,500 mg/kg) treated rats (P < 0.05). Histopathological studies also showed a marked decrease of synovial inflammatory infiltration and synovial lining hyperplasia in the joints of JSTF-treated animals. Six flavonoids were isolated and from JSTF by various chromatographic methods and identified as follows: Catechin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, isoscutellarein 7-O-β-D-xylopyranoside, isoscutellarein 7-O-β-D-xylopyranose-(1 → 3)-α-L-rhamnoside, and rutin. Conclusions: These results suggest the potential therapeutically effect of JSTF as an anti-arthritis agent toward CFA-induced arthritis in rats, and verified therapeutic applications of J. sabina on RA in folk medicine. SUMMARY Twigs and leaves of Juniperus sabina L. have been traditionally used as the medicinal herb in China for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritisJSTF could ameliorate paw swelling of CFA rats, and significantly inhibit arthritic scoreHistopathological studies showed a marked decrease

  16. Phenolic-containing organic extracts of mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves inhibit HepG2 hepatoma cells through G2/M phase arrest, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of topoisomerase IIα activity.

    PubMed

    Naowaratwattana, Wanlaya; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai; De Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2010-10-01

    The entire plant of Morus alba L. (Family Moraceae), or mulberry, possesses medical benefits, including anticancer properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of mulberry leaf extracts on the human hepatoma HepG2 cell line, which is related to hepatocellular carcinoma. Mulberry leaf extracts were prepared using four solvents, each with different polarities: 100% methanol (MeOH), 50% aqueous MeOH, 1-butanol (BuOH), and hot water (W). The phenolic profile, total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity, and effect on human hepatoma HepG2 cells of the leaf extracts were analyzed by examining cytotoxicity, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, expression of topoisomerase IIα, and proteins involved in cell cycle progression. High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that 100% MeOH, 50% MeOH, and BuOH extracts contained rutin, isoquercetin, and various derivatives of kaempferol and quercetin glycosides as their major constituents; the W extract contained primarily chlorogenic acid and caffeoylquinic acid derivatives. Total phenolic content based on rutin equivalents was 17.1%, 9.6%, 8.3%, and 6.5% of dry 100% MeOH, 50% MeOH, BuOH, and W extracts, respectively. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities were 70.0%, 45.8%, 41.0%, and 33.6%, and 50% inhibitory concentration values were 33.1, 79.4, 35.6, and 204.2 μg/mL for HepG2 cell proliferation inhibition for 100% MeOH, 50% MeOH, BuOH, and W extracts, respectively. MeOH extracts caused cell cycle G2/M arrest and induced the caspase cascade and apoptosis, but the W extract had very little effect on cell cycle progression. MeOH extracts reduced the level of topoisomerase IIα but increased the level of p27(Kip1), with no significant effect on p21(Cip1/waf1). Therefore, we concluded that phenolic-containing organic extracts of mulberry leaves inhibit the growth of HepG2 hepatoma cells through coordinated actions of inducing cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase (with

  17. Effect of Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. Leaves on Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Jain, Avijeet; Nahata, Alok; Singhai, Abhay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the nephroprotective and nephrocurative effects of Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. leaves against gentamicin-induced acute renal injury in albino rats. The maximum free radical scavenging activity of the ethanolic extract was the basis for the selection of this extract for the in vivo study. Gentamicin (40 mg/kg, s.c.) was administered to induce toxicity in the toxic group and the ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg p.o.) was administered in all treated groups. Blood urea and serum creatinine levels were monitored to assess the effects. The antioxidant potential was also evaluated by the estimation of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Gentamicin intoxication caused significant increases in blood urea and serum creatinine levels as compared to the normal control. In the preventive regimen, the extract (200 mg/kg, p.o.) showed significant reductions in the elevated blood urea and serum creatinine. Histopathological changes were in accordance with the biochemical findings. Also in the curative regimen, the blood urea and serum creatinine levels revealed significant curative effects. In our in vivo antioxidant activity, the GSH level was significantly (P< 0.05) increased in the extract-treated groups, whereas MDA was reduced significantly (P< 0.05). Further thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) led us to ascertain the presence of rutin and quercetin in the extract. We were able to isolate and characterize an isolate from the ethanolic extract and characterize it on the basis of chromatographic, melting point, FTIR, NMR, and mass spectroscopic studies. The findings suggest that the ethanol extract of Tephrosia purpurea leaves possesses marked nephroprotective and curative activities without any toxicity. The proposed mechanisms for the claimed activity are antioxidant activity and the inhibition of an overproduction of NO and Cox-2 expression. These activities may be

  18. Evaluation of ozonation technique for pesticide residue removal and its effect on ascorbic acid, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and polyphenols in apple (Malus domesticus) fruits.

    PubMed

    Swami, Saurabh; Muzammil, Raunaq; Saha, Supradip; Shabeer, Ahammed; Oulkar, Dasharath; Banerjee, Kaushik; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2016-05-01

    Ozonated water dip technique was evaluated for the detoxification of six pesticides, i.e., chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, azoxystrobin, hexaconazole, methyl parathion, and chlorothalonil from apple fruits. Results revealed that ozonation was better than washing alone. Ozonation for 15 min decreased residues of the test pesticides in the range of from 26.91 to 73.58%, while ozonation for 30 min could remove the pesticide residues by 39.39-95.14 % compared to 19.05-72.80 % by washing. Cypermethrin was the least removed pesticide by washing as well as by ozonation. Chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, and azoxystrobin were removed up to 71.45-95.14 % in a 30-min ozonation period. In case of methyl parathion removal, no extra advantage could be obtained by ozonation. The HPLC analysis indicated that ozonation also affected adversely the ascorbic acid and cyanidin-3-glucoside content of apples. However, 11 polyphenols studied showed a mixed trend. Gallic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, catechin, epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin, and kaempferol were found to decrease while syringic acid, rutin, and resveratrol were found to increase in 30-min ozonation.

  19. Correlation between changes in polyphenol composition of peels and incidence of CO₂ skin burning of 'Cameo' apples as influenced by controlled atmosphere storage.

    PubMed

    Harb, Jamil; Kittemann, Dominikus; Neuwald, Daniel Alexandre; Hoffmann, Thomas; Schwab, Wilfried

    2013-04-17

    'Cameo' apples stored under high CO₂ levels suffer from "skin burning". Accordingly, this study is aimed to correlate the incidence of skin burning with different polyphenols. After harvest, apples were sorted into bad- and good-colored fruit and further stored under either high (3%) or low (0.7%) CO₂ level. At frequent intervals, fruit were assessed for incidence of skin burning and relative concentrations of various polyphenols. Results clearly show that bad-colored apples stored under high CO₂ level had the highest incidence percentage. Concerning the polyphenol profile, good-colored and healthy apples had significantly higher concentrations of certain polyphenols, including cyanidin-3-galactoside and rutin. However, bad-colored and injured apples had significantly higher concentrations of another set of polyphenols, including phloridzin, epicatechin, and (epi)catechin→(epi)catechin isomers. Taking into account that quercetins and cyanidins account for more than 80% of antioxidants, it is logical to assume that these polyphenols might give protection to good-colored apples against skin burning.

  20. A UPLC-MS/MS approach for simultaneous determination of eight flavonoids in rat plasma, and its application to pharmacokinetic studies of Fu-Zhu-Jiang-Tang tablet in rats.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yi; Chen, Xi; Jiang, Yanhui; Cai, Baochang

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish and validate a UPLC-MS/MS approach to determine eight flavonoids in biological samples and apply the method to pharmacokinetic study of Fu-Zhu-Jiang-Tang tablet. A Waters BEH C18 UPLC column was employed with methanol/0.1% formic acid-water as mobile phases. The mass analysis was carried out in a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer using multiple reaction monitoring with negative scan mode. A one-step protein precipitation by methanol was used to extract the analytes from blood. Eight major flavonoids were selected as markers. Our results showed that calibration curves for 3'-hydroxypuerarin, mirificin, puerarin, 3'-methoxypuerarin, daidzin, rutin, astragalin and daidzein displayed good linear regression (r(2)  > 0.9986). The intra-day and inter-day precisions (RSD) of the eight flavonoids at high, medium and low levels were <8.03% and the bias of the accuracies ranged from -5.20 to 6.75%.The extraction recoveries of the eight flavonoids were from 91.4 to 100.5% and the matrix effects ranged from 89.8 to 103.8%. The validated approach was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in Sprague-Dawley rats after oral administration of FZJT tablet. Double peaks were emerged in curves of mean plasma concentration for 3'-methoxypuerarin, which was reported for the first time.

  1. A sensitive LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of six flavonoids in rat plasma: application to a pharmacokinetic study of total flavonoids from mulberry leaves.

    PubMed

    He, Jun; Feng, Ying; Ouyang, Hui-Zi; Yu, Bin; Chang, Yan-Xu; Pan, Gui-Xiang; Dong, Gai-Ying; Wang, Tao; Gao, Xiu-Mei

    2013-10-01

    A simple and sensitive LC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the determination of rutin, isoquercitrin, astragalin, quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin in rat plasma using naringin as the internal standard (IS). The plasma samples were pretreated and extracted by liquid-liquid extraction. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on a C18 column with a 10 min gradient elution using acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.3 mL min(-1). A tandem mass spectrometric detection was conducted using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) via an electrospray ionization (ESI) source and operating in the negative ionization mode. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of each analyte was lower than 1 ng mL(-1). Intra-day and inter-day precisions were less than 11.9%. The relative errors of accuracy were in the range of -9.2% to 6.1%. The mean recoveries of flavonoids and IS were higher than 53.8%. The proposed method was further applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics of all analytes after a single oral administration of total flavonoids from mulberry leaves to rats.

  2. Antimicrobial, Anthelmintic Activities and Characterisation of Functional Phenolic Acids of Achyranthes aspera Linn.: A Medicinal Plant Used for the Treatment of Wounds and Ringworm in East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ndhlala, Ashwell R.; Ghebrehiwot, Habteab M.; Ncube, Bhekumthetho; Aremu, Adeyemi O.; Gruz, Jiří; Šubrtová, Michaela; Doležal, Karel; du Plooy, Christian P.; Abdelgadir, Hafiz A.; Van Staden, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Achyranthes aspera Linn. (Amaranthaceae) commonly known as Prickly Chaff flower (English) is traditionally used for treating a number of ailments. Different parts of the plant are used in treating wounds and ringworm in East Africa and elsewhere for a number of ailments. In this study, leaf extracts of A. aspera collected from two different geographical locations (Ciaat, Eritrea and Ukulinga, South Africa) were evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic activities and the plant characterized for functional phenolic acids as well as protein binding capacity. The pathogens used in the tests were, two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae), two Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), a filamentus yeast-like fungus (Candida albicans) and a free-living nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans). The water and acetone extracts of the samples collected from Ciaat exhibited good antibacterial, antifungal and anthelmintic activity (MIC < 1 mg/ml) except the water extract against E. coli which showed moderate activity. In contrast, the extracts collected from Ukulinga exhibited moderate to weak activities except for the acetone (aq.) extracts which had good activity against some of the tested organisms. UHPLC-MS/MS revealed variation in the levels of some functional phenolic compounds, with rutin, chlorogenic acid and genistein not being detected in the extracts from Ukulinga. The variation was also observed in the protein binding capacity, which could offer a predictive wound healing model. All extracts from plant samples collected at Ciaat expressed significant dominant potency compared to similar extracts from Ukulinga. PMID:26635604

  3. Isolation, characterization and antioxidative activity of C-phycocyanin from Limnothrix sp. strain 37-2-1.

    PubMed

    Gantar, Miroslav; Simović, Dragan; Djilas, Sonja; Gonzalez, Walter W; Miksovska, Jaroslava

    2012-05-31

    C-phycocyanin (C-PC) is a blue colored accessory photosynthetic pigment found in cyanobacteria. Some of the medicinal properties of Spirulina have been attributed to this pigment, which includes anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activity. We have screened cyanobacteria isolated from freshwater habitats in Florida for their high content of C-PC. Of 125 strains tested, one filamentous strain identified as Limnothrix sp. was selected for further research. This strain produced 18% C-PC of total dry biomass. Here we describe a simple method for obtaining C-PC of high purity without the use of ion exchange chromatography. The procedure is based on pigment precipitation from the cell lysate with an appropriate concentration of ammonium sulfate, then purification with activated carbon and chitosan, followed by a sample concentration using tangential flow filtration. We have shown that when the lower concentration of ammonium sulfate was used, C-PC with higher purity index was recovered. Characterization of C-PC from Limnothrix showed that it had an absorbance maximum at 620nm and fluorescence at 639nm. The molecular mass of intact C-PC was estimated to be ~50kDa with α and β subunits forming dimmers. When C-PC content per unit biomass was compared to that of marketed Spirulina powder, we found that Limnothrix was superior. C-phycocyanin from Limnothrix had an antioxidative activity on DPPH free radicals similar to that found in a natural antioxidant - rutin.

  4. Antioxidant Activities and Phytochemicals of Leaf Extracts from 10 Native Rhododendron Species in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chi-Yang; Lin, Lei-Chen; Ho, Shang-Tse; Tung, Yu-Tang; Tseng, Yen-Hsueh

    2014-01-01

    Rhododendron, one of the most famous ornamental plants in the world, is traditionally a medicinal plant. However, the potential bioactivities of native Rhododendron in Taiwan have not been completely studied. In this study, the results revealed that Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum exhibited the best antioxidant activities among 10 native Rhododendron species in Taiwan. Furthermore, based on a bioactivity-guided isolation principle, nine specific phytochemicals were isolated and identified as (2R,3S)-catechin (1), (2R,3R)-epicatechin (1′), (2R,3R)-dihydromyricetin 3-O-β-l-arabinopyranoside (2), (2S,3S)-taxifolin 3-O-β-l-arabinopyranoside (2′), (2R,3R)-taxifolin 3-O-β-l-arabinopyranoside (3), myricetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3′), rutin (4), hyperoside (5), and quercitrin (6). Of these compounds, 2 and 3 were found to be major bioactive compounds, and their concentrations in the n-butanol (BuOH) fraction were determined to be 52.0 and 67.3 mg per gram, respectively. These results demonstrated that methanolic extracts of Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum leaves have excellent antioxidant activities and great potential as a source for natural health products. PMID:24987425

  5. Assessment of the distribution of phenolic compounds and contribution to the antioxidant activity in Tunisian fig leaves, fruits, skins and pulps using mass spectrometry-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Sonda; del Mar Contreras, María; Belguith-Hadrich, Olfa; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    The phenolic composition of leaves, fruits, skins and pulps from two F. carica cultivars, 'Temri' and 'Soltani', was studied in order to understand its contribution to the antioxidant activity. A total of 116 compounds were characterized based on the results obtained by reversed-phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array and mass spectrometry detection. In general, the leaves of both cultivars and the skin of 'Soltani' presented richer qualitative profiles compared to the other plant parts. Using the negative ionization mode, qualitative profiles of the same part of the studied figs were similar. In this regard, rutin was the main compound in fruits, skins and leaves, but with different relative amounts. Alternatively, an isomer of prenylhydroxygenistein was the major compound in the pulps. In the positive ionization mode, 9 anthocyanins were characterized in 'Soltani' skin, only two of them being also present in the green cultivar 'Temri'. The main anthocyanins were cyanidin 3-rutinoside and cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside, depending on the cultivar and fruit part. In this ionization mode, 15 furanocoumarins were also detected in the leaves of both the studied cultivars with methoxypsoralen and psoralen being the most relatively abundant. In addition, our findings showed a good correlation between the antioxidant activity, total phenol content, and abundance of some phenolic subfamilies such as hydroxybenzoic acids, flavonols, flavones, hydroxycoumarins and furanocoumarins with r > 0.97.

  6. Effects of Polysaccharide Elicitors from Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum Fat9 on the Growth, Flavonoid Accumulation and Antioxidant Property of Fagopyrum tataricum Sprout Cultures.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Lingyun; Niu, Bei; Tang, Lin; Chen, Fang; Zhao, Gang; Zhao, Jianglin

    2016-11-25

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of four different fungal polysaccharides, named water-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (WPS), sodium hydroxide-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (SPS), hydrochloric-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (APS), and exo-polysaccharide (EPS) obtained from the endophytic Fusarium oxysporum Fat9 on the sprout growth, flavonoid accumulation, and antioxidant capacity of tartary buckwheat. Without visible changes in the appearance of the sprouts, the exogenous polysaccharide elicitors strongly stimulated sprout growth and flavonoid production, and the stimulation effect was closely related with the polysaccharide (PS) species and its treatment dosage. With application of 200 mg/L of EPS, 200 mg/L of APS, 150 mg/L of WPS, or 100 mg/L of SPS, the total rutin and quercetin yields of buckwheat sprouts were significantly increased to 41.70 mg/(100 sprouts), 41.52 mg/(100 sprouts), 35.88 mg/(100 sprouts), and 32.95 mg/(100 sprouts), respectively. This was about 1.11 to 1.40-fold compared to the control culture of 31.40 mg/(100 sprouts). Moreover, the antioxidant capacity of tartary buckwheat sprouts was also enhanced after treatment with the four PS elicitors. Furthermore, the present study revealed the polysaccharide elicitation that caused the accumulation of functional flavonoid by stimulating the phenylpropanoid pathway. The application of beneficial fungal polysaccharide elicitors may be an effective approach to improve the nutritional and functional characteristics of tartary buckwheat sprouts.

  7. Effects of yeast polysaccharide on growth and flavonoid accumulation in Fagopyrum tataricum sprout cultures.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gang; Zhao, Jianglin; Peng, Lianxin; Zou, Liang; Wang, Jingbo; Zhong, Lingyun; Xiang, Dabing

    2012-09-25

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of yeast polysaccharide (YPS) on growth and flavonoid accumulation in sprout cultures of Fagopyrum tataricum (tartary buckwheat). Without obvious change in the appearance of the sprouts, the exogenous YPS notably stimulated the production of functional metabolites in F. tataricum sprouts, and the stimulation effect was concentration-dependent. With 400 mg/L of YPS applied to the sprout cultures on day 6, the total rutin and quercentin content was effectively increased to 42.8 mg/gdw, or about 1.4-fold in comparison with the control of 31.2 mg/gdw. Feeding with 800 mg/L of YPS on day 9, the sprouts biomass was increased by about 8% compared to the control culture (0.99 gdw/100 sprouts versus 0.92 gdw/100 sprouts). Moreover, the present study revealed that the accumulation of these bioactive metabolites resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by YPS treatment. It could be an effective strategy for improving the functional quality of the F. tataricum sprouts provided with YPS.

  8. In Vitro Ion Chelating, Antioxidative Mechanism of Extracts from Fruits and Barks of Tetrapleura tetraptera and Their Protective Effects against Fenton Mediated Toxicity of Metal Ions on Liver Homogenates

    PubMed Central

    Moukette, Bruno Moukette; Pieme, Anatole Constant; Biapa, Prosper Cabral Nya; Njimou, Jacques Romain; Stoller, Marco; Bravi, Marco; Yonkeu Ngogang, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant activity and protective potential of T. tetraptera extracts against ion toxicity. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was investigated spectrophotometrically against several radicals (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•), hydroxyl radical (HO•), and nitric oxide (NO•)), followed by the ferric reducing power, total phenols, flavonoid, and flavonol contents. The effects of the extracts on catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase activities were also determined using the standard methods as well as the polyphenol profile using HPLC. The results showed that the hydroethanolic extract of T. tetraptera (CFH) has the lowest IC50 value with the DPPH, ABTS, OH, and NO radicals. The same extract also exhibited the significantly higher level of total phenols (37.24 ± 2.00 CAE/g dried extract); flavonoids (11.36 ± 1.88 QE/g dried extract); and flavonols contents (3.95 ± 0.39 QE/g dried extract). The HPLC profile of T. tetraptera revealed that eugenol (958.81 ± 00 mg/g DW), quercetin (353.78 ± 00 mg/g DW), and rutin (210.54 ± 00 mg/g DW) were higher in the fruit than the bark extracts. In conclusion, extracts from T. tetraptera may act as a protector against oxidative mediated ion toxicity. PMID:26356679

  9. Impact of blanching on polyphenol stability and antioxidant capacity of innovative coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) pastes.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Andrea; Kammerer, Dietmar R; Carle, Reinhold

    2013-09-01

    Fresh coriander leaves were steam- and water-blanched at 100 °C and at 90 and 100 °C, respectively, for 1-10 min, and subsequently comminuted to form a paste. Pasty products obtained from coriander fruits were processed after water-blanching applying the same time-temperature regimes. Among the 11 phenolics characterised in leaves by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometric detection, several caffeic acid derivatives, 5-feruloylquinic and 5-p-coumaroylquinic acids were tentatively identified for the first time. In fruits, 10 phenolics were detected, whereas rutin, a dicaffeic acid derivative and two feruloylquinic and caffeoylquinic acid isomers were newly detected. Upon steam-blanching for 1 min, phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities remained virtually unchanged. In contrast, water-blanching and extended steam-blanching even yielded increased levels compared to the unheated control, whereas short-time water-blanching resulted in higher values than prolonged heat treatment. Thus, short-time water-blanching is recommended as the initial unit in the processing of coriander leaves and fruits into novel pasty products.

  10. Inhibitory effects of herbal extracts on breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and structure-inhibitory potency relationship of isoflavonoids.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Hirofumi; Satoh, Hiroki; Hori, Satoko; Ohtani, Hisakazu; Sawada, Yasufumi

    2010-01-01

    The inhibition of intestinal breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), which restricts the absorption of xenobiotics, may increase the systemic availability of its substrates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of herbal extracts and their constituents on BCRP-mediated transport. The inhibitory effects of 9 herbal extracts and 23 isoflavonoids, including soybean-derived isoflavones, on BCRP-mediated methotrexate (MTX) transport were evaluated using BCRP-expressing membrane vesicles. The structure-inhibitory potency relationship was investigated by multiple factor analysis. Extracts of soybean, Gymnema sylvestre, black cohosh and passion flower and rutin strongly inhibited BCRP-mediated transport of MTX at 1 mg/ml, while inhibition by chlorella, milk thistle and Siberian ginseng extracts was weak. Among the 23 isoflavonoids examined, all of which inhibited BCRP-mediated transport, coumestrol showed the most potent inhibition (IC(50)=63 nM). The inhibitory potencies of 6 isoflavonoid glucosides were 10- to 100-fold lower than those of the corresponding aglycones. The addition of a 5-hydroxyl or 6-methoxyl moiety tended to potentiate the inhibition. The inhibitory potency of daidzein was decreased 100-fold by 7-glucuronidation, but was virtually unaffected by 4'-sulfation. Thus, some herbal and dietary supplements and isoflavonoids may increase the systemic availability of BCRP substrates when concomitantly given orally.

  11. Preparative isolation and purification of seven main antioxidants from Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. (Du-zhong) leaves using HSCCC guided by DPPH-HPLC experiment.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xingping; Huang, Qiong; Zhou, Boting; Gong, Zhicheng; Liu, Zhaoqian; Shi, Shuyun

    2013-08-15

    Seven antioxidants were purified from Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. leaves using HSCCC guided by DPPH-HPLC experiment. HSCCC was successfully used to separate target antioxidants by three runs with different solvent systems after D101 column chromatography fractionation. Ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (1:2:3, v/v/v) was selected as the optimum solvent system to purify geniposidic acid. Ethyl acetate-ethanol-water (4:1:5, v/v/v) was used to isolate caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid. While three flavonoids, quercetin-3-O-sambubioside, rutin and isoquercitrin were purified by petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:5:1:5, v/v/v/v). The structures were identified by MS and NMR. Antioxidant activities were assessed, and compounds 2-7 showed strong antioxidant activities. This is the first report about separation of antioxidants from E. ulmoides leaves by HSCCC. The results indicated that the combinative methods using DPPH-HPLC and HSCCC could be widely applied for screening and isolation of antioxidants from complex extracts.

  12. Antioxidant Activity and phytochemical composition of the leaves of Solanum guaraniticum A. St.-Hil.

    PubMed

    Zadra, Marina; Piana, Mariana; Brum, Thiele Faccim de; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Freitas, Robson Borba de; Machado, Michel Mansur; Stefanello, Sílvio Terra; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes; Athayde, Margareth Linde

    2012-10-24

    Solanum guaraniticum is a shrub belonging to the Solanaceae family popularly known in Brazil as jurubeba or false-jurubeba. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of crude extract and chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions from its leaves, verifying the ability to remove reactive species and identify and quantify phenolic compounds. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest amount of total polyphenols (546.57 ± 2.35 mg gallic acid equivalent/g) and the lowest IC(50) (9.11 ± 0.75 µg/mL) by the DPPH method. Furthermore, the chloroform fraction presented the highest content of flavonoids (75.73 ± 0.34 mg rutin equivalents/g), tannins (56.03 ± 0.68 mg catechin equivalents/g) and alkaloids (10.79 ± 0.06 mg/g). This fraction was effective in the scavenging of reactive species by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay, in addition to completely reducing protein carbonyl content and reducing lipid peroxidation at basal levels even at low concentrations. Chlorogenic, caffeic and rosmarinic acids were identified and quantified by HPLC/DAD. These results show that S. guaraniticum is rich in phenolic compounds and has potential as an antioxidant.

  13. Structural characterization of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of the phenolic-rich fraction from defatted adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) seed meal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifeng; Chen, Chao; Su, Anxiang; Zhang, Yiyi; Yuan, Jian; Ju, Xingrong

    2016-04-01

    The current study aims to investigate the antioxidant activities of various extracts from defatted adlay seed meal (DASM) based on the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PSC) assay and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay. Of all the fractions, the n-butanol fraction exhibited the highest antioxidant activity, followed by crude acetone extract and aqueous fractions. Of the three sub-fractions obtained by Sephadex LH-20 chromatography, sub-fraction 3 possessed the highest antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. There was a strong positive correlation between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity. Based on HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS analysis, the most abundant phenolic acid in sub-fraction 3 of DASM was ferulic acid at 67.28 mg/g, whereas the predominant flavonoid was rutin at 41.11 mg/g. Of the major individual compounds in sub-fraction 3, p-coumaric acid exhibited the highest ORAC values, and quercetin exhibited the highest PSC values and CAA values.

  14. Antioxidant and anti-quorum sensing activities of green pod of Acacia nilotica L.

    PubMed

    Singh, Brahma N; Singh, B R; Singh, R L; Prakash, D; Sarma, B K; Singh, H B

    2009-04-01

    The antioxidant and anti-quorum sensing activities of eight extracts were studied in green pods of Acacia nilotica. The specific phenolic compositions and their quantifications were performed by HPLC and MS/MS, which showed that the HEF (pH 4) was higher in gallic acid, ellagic acid, epicatechin, rutin, and GTs. In order to find antioxidant potential of various extracts, their activities were studied for TPC, AOA, FRSA, RP, inhibition of LPO, FIC activity, HO* and O(2)(-) scavenging activities. Among them HEF (pH 4) has shown potent antioxidant activity. HEF (pH 4) was also found effective in protecting plasmid DNA and HAS protein oxidation induced by HO*. Pre-treatment of HEF (pH 4) at 75 and 150 mg/kg body weight for 6 days caused a significant increase in the levels of CAT and SOD and decrease in the level of MDA content in liver, lungs, kidneys and blood when compared to CCl(4)-intoxicated rats. Eventually, the extracts were also screened for anti-QS activity. Of these extracts two showed QS inhibition: HEF (pH 4) and HCE. The results obtained strongly indicate that green pod of A. nilotica are important source of natural antioxidants.

  15. Establishment of Hairy Root Cultures by Agrobacterium Rhizogenes Mediated Transformation of Isatis Tinctoria L. for the Efficient Production of Flavonoids and Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Meng; Wei, Zuo-Fu; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Ma, Wei; Fu, Yu-Jie

    2015-01-01

    In this work, Isatis tinctoria hairy root cultures (ITHRCs) were established as an alternative source for flavonoids (FL) production. I. tinctoria hairy root line V was found to be the most efficient line and was further confirmed by the PCR amplification of rolB, rolC and aux1 genes. Culture parameters of ITHRCs were optimized by Box-Behnken design (BBD), and eight bioactive FL constituents (rutin, neohesperidin, buddleoside, liquiritigenin, quercetin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol and isoliquiritigenin) were quali-quantitatively determined by LC-MS/MS. Under optimal conditions, the total FL accumulation of ITHRCs (24 day-old) achieved was 438.10 μg/g dry weight (DW), which exhibited significant superiority as against that of 2 year-old field grown roots (341.73 μg/g DW). Additionally, in vitro antioxidant assays demonstrated that ITHRCs extracts exhibited better antioxidant activities with lower IC50 values (0.41 and 0.39, mg/mL) as compared to those of field grown roots (0.56 and 0.48, mg/mL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing FL production and antioxidant activities from ITHRCs. PMID:25785699

  16. Inhibitory effect of Piper betle Linn. leaf extract on protein glycation--quantification and characterization of the antiglycation components.

    PubMed

    Bhattacherjee, Abhishek; Chakraborti, Abhay Sankar

    2013-12-01

    Piper betle Linn. is a Pan-Asiatic plant having several beneficial properties. Protein glycation and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formation are associated with different pathophysiological conditions, including diabetes mellitus. Our study aims to find the effect of methanolic extract of P. betle leaves on in vitro protein glycation in bovine serum albumin (BSA)-glucose model. The extract inhibits glucose-induced glycation, thiol group modification and carbonyl formation in BSA in dose-dependent manner. It inhibits different stages of protein glycation, as demonstrated by using glycation models: hemoglobin-delta-gluconolactone (for early stage, Amadori product formation), BSA-methylglyoxal (for middle stage, formation of oxidative cleavage products) and BSA-glucose (for last stage, formation of AGEs) systems. Several phenolic compounds are isolated from the extract. Considering their relative amounts present in the extract, rutin appears to be the most active antiglycating agent. The extract of P. betle leaf may thus have beneficial effect in preventing protein glycation and associated complications in pathological conditions.

  17. The Water Fraction of Calendula officinalis Hydroethanol Extract Stimulates In Vitro and In Vivo Proliferation of Dermal Fibroblasts in Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Dinda, Manikarna; Mazumdar, Swagata; Das, Saurabh; Ganguly, Durba; Dasgupta, Uma B; Dutta, Ananya; Jana, Kuladip; Karmakar, Parimal

    2016-10-01

    The active fraction and/or compounds of Calendula officinalis responsible for wound healing are not known yet. In this work we studied the molecular target of C. officinalis hydroethanol extract (CEE) and its active fraction (water fraction of hydroethanol extract, WCEE) on primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDF). In vivo, CEE or WCEE were topically applied on excisional wounds of BALB/c mice and the rate of wound contraction and immunohistological studies were carried out. We found that CEE and only its WCEE significantly stimulated the proliferation as well as the migration of HDF cells. Also they up-regulate the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in vitro. In vivo, CEE or WCEE treated mice groups showed faster wound healing and increased expression of CTGF and α-SMA compared to placebo control group. The increased expression of both the proteins during granulation phase of wound repair demonstrated the potential role of C. officinalis in wound healing. In addition, HPLC-ESI MS analysis of the active water fraction revealed the presence of two major compounds, rutin and quercetin-3-O-glucoside. Thus, our results showed that C. officinalis potentiated wound healing by stimulating the expression of CTGF and α-SMA and further we identified active compounds. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Nanocrystals of medium soluble actives--novel concept for improved dermal delivery and production strategy.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Xuezhen; Lademann, Jürgen; Keck, Cornelia M; Müller, Rainer H

    2014-08-15

    After use in oral pharmaceutical products, nanocrystals are meanwhile applied to improve the dermal penetration of cosmetic actives (e.g. rutin, hesperidin) and of drugs. By now, nanocrystals are only dermally applied made from poorly soluble actives. The novel concept is to formulate nanocrystals also from medium soluble actives, and to apply a dermal formulation containing additionally nanocrystals. The nanocrystals should act as fast dissolving depot, increase saturation solubility and especially accumulate in the hair follicles, to further increase skin penetration. Caffeine was used as model compound with relevance to market products, and a particular process was developed for the production of caffeine nanocrystals to overcome the supersaturation related effect of crystal growth and fiber formation - typical with medium soluble compounds. It is based on low energy milling (pearl milling) in combination with low dielectric constant dispersion media (water-ethanol or ethanol-propylene glycol mixtures) and optimal stabilizers. Most successful was Carbopol(®) 981 (e.g. 20% caffeine in ethanol-propylene glycol 3:7 with 2% Carbopol, w/w). Nanocrystals with varied sizes can now be produced in a controlled process e.g. 660 nm (optimal for hair follicle accumulation) to 250 nm (optimal for fast dissolution). The short term test proved stability over 2 months of the present formulation being sufficient to perform in vivo testing of the novel concept.

  19. Troxerutin Attenuates Enhancement of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis by Inhibiting NOD Activation-Mediated Inflammation in High-Fat Diet-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zifeng; Wang, Xin; Zheng, Guihong; Shan, Qun; Lu, Jun; Fan, Shaohua; Sun, Chunhui; Wu, Dongmei; Zhang, Cheng; Su, Weitong; Sui, Junwen; Zheng, Yuanlin

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that troxerutin, a trihydroxyethylated derivative of natural bioflavonoid rutin, exhibits beneficial effects on diabetes-related symptoms. Here we investigated the effects of troxerutin on the enhancement of hepatic gluconeogenesis in high-fat diet (HFD)-treated mice and the mechanisms underlying these effects. Mice were divided into four groups: Control group, HFD group, HFD + Troxerutin group, and Troxerutin group. Troxerutin was treated by daily oral administration at doses of 150 mg/kg/day for 20 weeks. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) was used to inhibit endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress). Our results showed that troxerutin effectively improved obesity and related metabolic parameters, and liver injuries in HFD-treated mouse. Furthermore, troxerutin significantly attenuated enhancement of hepatic gluconeogenesis in HFD-fed mouse. Moreover, troxerutin notably suppressed nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 transcriptional activation and release of inflammatory cytokines in HFD-treated mouse livers. Mechanismly, troxerutin dramatically decreased Nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD) expression, as well as interaction between NOD1/2 with interacting protein-2 (RIP2), by abating oxidative stress-induced ER stress in HFD-treated mouse livers, which was confirmed by TUDCA treatment. These improvement effects of troxerutin on hepatic glucose disorders might be mediated by its anti-obesity effect. In conclusion, troxerutin markedly diminished HFD-induced enhancement of hepatic gluconeogenesis via its inhibitory effects on ER stress-mediated NOD activation and consequent inflammation, which might be mediated by its anti-obesity effect. PMID:28029143

  20. Wine lees modulate lipid metabolism and induce fatty acid remodelling in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Caro, M; Sansone, A; Amezaga, J; Navarro, V; Ferreri, C; Tueros, I

    2017-03-21

    This study investigates the ability of a polyphenolic extract obtained from a wine lees by-product to modulate zebrafish lipid metabolism. Lees from a Spanish winery were collected and the polyphenolic extract was chemically characterised in terms of antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and the individual main phenolic compounds. The effects of the extract on lipid metabolism were evaluated using a zebrafish animal model. Lees are rich in polyphenols (42.33 mg gallic acid equivalent per g dry matter) with high antioxidant capacity (56.04 mg Trolox equivalent per g dry matter), rutin and quercetin being their main identified polyphenols. The biological effects of lees extract included (i) a reduction in zebrafish embryos' fat reserve (40%), (ii) changes in the expression of lipid metabolism key genes, (iii) remodelling of the fatty acid content in phospholipid and triglyceride fractions of zebrafish embryos and (iv) reduction in the trans fatty acid content. On the whole, wine lees polyphenolic extract was effective at modulating zebrafish lipid metabolism evidencing remodelling effects and antioxidant properties that can be further developed for food innovation.

  1. Bioactivities of Achillea phrygia and Bupleurum croceum based on the composition of phenolic compounds: In vitro and in silico approaches.

    PubMed

    Zengin, Gokhan; Bulut, Gizem; Mollica, Adriano; Haznedaroglu, Mehmet Zeki; Dogan, Ahmet; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman

    2017-03-22

    This study presents the effects of the Achillea phrygia Boiss. et Bal. and Bupleurum croceum Fenzl. extracts obtained by different solvents (ethyl acetate, methanol and water) on selected enzyme inhibitory effects and antioxidant ability with screening bioactive compounds. Total and individual bioactive compounds were detected by spectrophotometric and HPLC-DAD techniques. Antioxidant abilities were evaluated by different methods including free radical scavenging (ABTS and DPPH), reducing power (CUPRAC and FRAP), phosphomolybdenum and metal chelating. Enzyme inhibitory effects were tested against cholinesterases, tyrosinase, amylase, glucosidase and lipase. Total phenolic contents were ranged from 20.52 mgGAE/g extract (B. croceum methanol extract) to 41.13 mgGAE/g extract (A. phrygia methanol extract). Generally, methanol and water extracts showed the strongest antioxidant abilities, while the ethyl acetate extracts had the most promising enzyme inhibitory effects. HPLC analysis revealed the abundance of some phenolics including rutin, quercetin, sinapic acid and chlorogenic acid, respectively. These components were also assessed using molecular modelling with the aim to study their docking properties on a set of six enzymes used in this study. Overall, these species could be suggested as valuable sources of natural-bioactive agents for developing new functional, pharmacological and health-promoting ingredients.

  2. The Effect of Buckwheat Hull Extract on Lipid Oxidation in Frozen-Stored Meat Products.

    PubMed

    Hęś, Marzanna; Szwengiel, Artur; Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Le Thanh-Blicharz, Joanna; Kmiecik, Dominik; Górecka, Danuta

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of antioxidants on lipid stability of frozen-stored meat products. Buckwheat hull extract was used to enrich fried meatballs made from ground pork. During 180-d storage of meat products, lipid oxidation (peroxide and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS] value) was periodically monitored. The results were compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The addition of antioxidants decreased lipid oxidation in stored meatballs. The highest ability to control peroxide and TBARS values was demonstrated for buckwheat hull extract. Moreover, buckwheat hull extract showed a higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity as well as higher Fe(II) ion chelating ability, as compared with BHT. The total content of phenolic compounds are highly correlated to the individual polyphenols in extract of buckwheat hull, among which the following were assayed: 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid, isovanillic acid and p-coumaric acid, and flavonoids: isoorientin, quercetin, quercetin 3-d-glucoside, rutin, and vitexin. These results indicate that plant extracts can be used to prolong shelf life of products by protecting them against lipid oxidation and deterioration of their nutritional quality.

  3. Assessment of Olea europaea L. fruit extracts: Phytochemical characterization and anticancer pathway investigation.

    PubMed

    Maalej, Amina; Bouallagui, Zouhaier; Hadrich, Fatma; Isoda, Hiroko; Sayadi, Sami

    2017-03-27

    Olea europaea L. has been widely used as an advantageous rich source of bioactive compounds of high economic value leading to its use in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and agriculture industries. Ethanolic extracts of olive fruits from three different cultivars (OFE) were studied for their phytochemical contents and were investigated for antioxidant activities and anticancer potential. Major polyphenols detected in these extracts were tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, rutin, quercetin and glucoside forms of luteolin and apigenin. All these compounds have shown to significantly contribute to the antioxidant activity of OFE, which was evaluated by DPPH and ABTS assays. Proliferation of hepatic and colon cancer cells, HepG2 and Caco-2, were shown to be sensitive to OFE with IC50 less than 1.6mg/ml for all tested extracts. Moreover, flow cytometry analysis showed that OFE induced cell cycle arrest in the S-phase within both HepG2 and Caco-2 cells. This has triggered a cell death mechanism as shown by DNA fragmentation, expression of p53 and phosphorylation level of Akt and Erk proteins. Interestingly, these extracts could be further used as a potential source of natural compounds with both antioxidant and anticancer effects.

  4. The in-capillary DPPH-capillary electrophoresis-the diode array detector combined with reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode for screening and quantifying major antioxidants in Cuscuta chinensis Lam.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiao; Tian, Ji; Li, Jin; Azietaku, John Teye; Zhang, Bo-Li; Gao, Xiu-Mei; Chang, Yan-Xu

    2016-07-01

    An in-capillary 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-CE-the DAD (in-capillary DPPH-CE-DAD) combined with reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode has been developed to screen and quantify the active antioxidant components of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. The operation parameters were optimized with regard to the pH and concentration of buffer solution, SDS, β-CDs, organic modifier, as well as separation voltage and temperature. Six antioxidants including chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, rutin, hyperin, isoquercitrin, and astragalin were screened and the total antioxidant activity of the complex matrix was successfully evaluated based on the decreased peak area of DPPH by the established DPPH-CE-DAD method. Sensitivity was enhanced under reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode and 10- to 31-fold of magnitude improvement in detection sensitivity for each analyte was attained. The results demonstrated that the newly established in-capillary DPPH-CE-DAD method combined with reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode could integrate sample concentration, the oxidizing reaction, separation, and detection into one capillary to fully automate the system. It was considered a suitable technique for the separation, screening, and determination of trace antioxidants in natural products.